Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Adaptation, Ocular: The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Dark Adaptation: Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.Figural Aftereffect: A perceptual phenomenon used by Gestalt psychologists to demonstrate that events in one part of the perceptual field may affect perception in another part.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Afterimage: Continuation of visual impression after cessation of stimuli causing the original image.Dental Marginal Adaptation: The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Contrast Sensitivity: The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Altitude: A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Translations: Products resulting from the conversion of one language to another.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Motion Perception: The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.Perceptual Distortion: Lack of correspondence between the way a stimulus is commonly perceived and the way an individual perceives it under given conditions.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Psychophysics: The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Genetic Fitness: The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Saccades: An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.Cultural Characteristics: Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Short Bowel Syndrome: A malabsorption syndrome resulting from extensive operative resection of the SMALL INTESTINE, the absorptive region of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Translating: Conversion from one language to another language.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.Color Perception: Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.Physical Conditioning, Animal: Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular: A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Feedback, Sensory: A mechanism of communicating one's own sensory system information about a task, movement or skill.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Lenses: Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.Darkness: The absence of light.Tibet: An autonomous region located in central Asia, within China.Eyeglasses: A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Lighting: The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Serial Passage: Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Mechanotransduction, Cellular: The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.Vision, Binocular: The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Osmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Transfer (Psychology): Change in learning in one situation due to prior learning in another situation. The transfer can be positive (with second learning improved by first) or negative (where the reverse holds).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Floods: Sudden onset water phenomena with different speed of occurrence. These include flash floods, seasonal river floods, and coastal floods, associated with CYCLONIC STORMS; TIDALWAVES; and storm surges.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Retinal Pigments: Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Vision, Monocular: Images seen by one eye.Reproduction, Asexual: Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Phycomyces: A genus of zygomycetous fungi in the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, forming mycelia having a metallic sheen. It has been used for research on phototropism.Flicker Fusion: The point or frequency at which all flicker of an intermittent light stimulus disappears.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Habituation, Psychophysiologic: The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.Vision Disparity: The difference between two images on the retina when looking at a visual stimulus. This occurs since the two retinas do not have the same view of the stimulus because of the location of our eyes. Thus the left eye does not get exactly the same view as the right eye.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Mice, Inbred C57BLOcular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.Color Vision: Function of the human eye that is used in bright illumination or in daylight (at photopic intensities). Photopic vision is performed by the three types of RETINAL CONE PHOTORECEPTORS with varied peak absorption wavelengths in the color spectrum (from violet to red, 400 - 700 nm).Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Heat-Shock Response: A constellation of responses that occur when an organism is exposed to excessive heat. Responses include synthesis of new proteins and regulation of others.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Glucagon-Like Peptide 2: A 33-amino acid peptide derived from the C-terminal of PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. It stimulates intestinal mucosal growth and decreased apoptosis of ENTEROCYTES. GLP-2 enhances gastrointestinal function and plays an important role in nutrient homeostasis.Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Acids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Evoked Potentials, Visual: The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Salamandra: A genus of European newts in the Salamandridae family. The two species of this genus are Salamandra salamandra (European "fire" salamander) and Salamandra atra (European alpine salamander).Genetic Drift: The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Head Movements: Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Rhodopsin: A purplish-red, light-sensitive pigment found in RETINAL ROD CELLS of most vertebrates. It is a complex consisting of a molecule of ROD OPSIN and a molecule of 11-cis retinal (RETINALDEHYDE). Rhodopsin exhibits peak absorption wavelength at about 500 nm.Smegmamorpha: Group of fish under the superorder Acanthopterygii, separate from the PERCIFORMES, which includes swamp eels, mullets, sticklebacks, seahorses, spiny eels, rainbowfishes, and KILLIFISHES. The name is derived from the six taxa which comprise the group. (From http://www.nanfa.org/articles/Elassoma/elassoma.htm, 8/4/2000)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Form Perception: The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.Hair Cells, Auditory: Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Touch: Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.Urodela: An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.TurtlesPlants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Deceleration: A decrease in the rate of speed.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.

Predicting delayed anxiety and depression in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. (1/5466)

The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of predicting anxiety and depression 6 months after a cancer diagnosis on the basis of measures of anxiety, depression, coping and subjective distress associated with the diagnosis and to explore the possibility of identifying individual patients with high levels of delayed anxiety and depression associated with the diagnosis. A consecutive series of 159 patients with gastrointestinal cancer were interviewed in connection with the diagnosis, 3 months (non-cured patients only) and 6 months later. The interviews utilized structured questionnaires assessing anxiety and depression [Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale], coping [Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC) scale] and subjective distress [Impact of Event (IES) scale]. Patient anxiety and depression close to the diagnosis were found to explain approximately 35% of the variance in anxiety and depression that was found 6 months later. The addition of coping and subjective distress measures did little to improve that prediction. A model using (standardized) cut-off scores of moderate to high anxiety, depression (HAD) and intrusive thoughts (IES subscale) close to the diagnosis to identify patients at risk for delayed anxiety and depression achieved a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 98%. Levels of anxiety and depression at diagnosis predicted a similar status 6 months later. The results also indicated that the HAD scale in combination with the IES intrusion subscale may be used as a tool for detecting patients at risk of delayed anxiety and depression.  (+info)

Misunderstanding in cancer patients: why shoot the messenger? (2/5466)

AIM: We aimed to document the prevalence of misunderstanding in cancer patients and investigate whether patient denial is related to misunderstanding. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred forty-four adult cancer outpatients receiving treatment completed a survey assessing levels of understanding and denial. Doctors provided the facts against which patient responses were compared. Multiple logistic regression analyses determined the predictors of misunderstanding. RESULTS: Most patients understood the extent of their disease (71%, 95% CI: 65%-77%) and goal of treatment (60%, 95% CI: 54%-67%). Few correctly estimated the likelihood of treatment achieving cure (18%, 95% CI: 13%-23%), prolongation of life (13%, 95% CI: 8%-17%) and palliation (18%, 95% CI: 10%-27%). Patient denial predicted misunderstanding of the probability that treatment would cure disease when controlling for other patient and disease variables (OR = 2.20, 95% CI: 0.99-4.88, P = 0.05). Patient ratings of the clarity of information received were also predictive of patient understanding. CONCLUSIONS: Patient denial appears to produce misunderstanding, however, doctors' ability to communicate effectively is also implicated. The challenge that oncologists face is how to communicate information in a manner which is both responsive to patients' emotional status and sufficiently informative to allow informed decision-making to take place.  (+info)

Methods used to study household coping strategies in rural South West Uganda. (3/5466)

This paper describes the data collection methods used in a longitudinal study of the coping strategies of 27 households in three villages in the study area of the MRC/ODA Research Programme on AIDS in Uganda. After pre-testing and piloting, 9 local interviewers made regular visits to the 27 study households over a period of just over one year. The households were purposively selected to represent different household types and socioeconomic status categories. Data were obtained through participant observation using a checklist to ensure systematic collection of data on household activities. Debriefing sessions with the interviewers after the visits provided opportunities for the discussion of the findings and exploration of themes for further study. On the basis of the study findings, and data from the Programme's general study population survey rounds, broad indicators of household 'vulnerability' were identified. A participatory appraisal technique, 'well-being ranking', was used at the end of the study in order to test the viability of the chosen indicators. It is proposed that the example of the research method, which relied on local people not only as interviewers but also as co-investigators in the research, be used to guide future research approaches. The participation of the study community at every stage of research and design, as well as monitoring and evaluation of supportive interventions, is strongly encouraged.  (+info)

Perceived stress factors and coping mechanisms among mothers of children with sickle cell disease in western Nigeria. (4/5466)

While many studies have looked at the stressful effects of chronic illness of those who suffer such conditions, less is known about the effects on caregivers, especially in developing countries. Mothers in particular must bear the brunt of care and stress for children who have sickle cell disease (SCD). A sample of 200 mothers attending six SCD clinics in both public and private hospitals in the Ibadan-Ibarapa Health Zone of Oyo State, Nigeria, were interviewed. Stress levels were measured using an instrument comprised of stressors listed by mothers themselves in focus group discussions that preceded the survey. Higher levels of stress were associated with less educated and older women, as well as non-married women and those in polygamous households. Stress levels were also greater when there was more than one child with SCD in the family and when the index child was of school age. Coping mechanisms varied according to the category of stressor. Financial stress and disease factors were met with confrontation while family sources of stress were either complained about, accepted or avoided. Knowledge of the different types of mothers who experience more stress and of their preferred coping mechanisms can be useful in designing clinic-based counseling.  (+info)

Eastward long distance flights, sleep and wake patterns in air crews in connection with a two-day layover. (5/5466)

The present study describes the spontaneous sleep/wake pattern in connection with an eastward (Stockholm to Tokyo, +8 h) transmeridian flight and short (51 h) layovers. To describe all sleep episodes and the recovery process across 4 days, and to relate adjustment to individual differences, 49 Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) air crew were monitored for 9 days with activity monitors and sleep/wake diary before-during-after flight. The outbound flight involved a period of wakefulness extended to 21 h, frequently (87% of air crew) terminated by a long nap in Tokyo which was calm but difficult to wake up from. Then followed two night oriented sleep periods of normal length but of reduced efficiency, containing many and long awakenings. Napping was common during the extended periods of wakefulness, particularly during flights. During the recovery days, ease of rising from sleep in the mornings was difficult throughout, and feelings of not being refreshed returned to baseline levels on the third recovery sleep. Elevated daytime sleepiness (24% of the day) was observed on the first recovery day. No individual differences related to gender, age or position (cabin/pilot) was found in sleep strategy. Poor adjusters, subjects with a perceived lowered capacity on recovery days, showed more premature awakenings abroad and less refreshing sleep during the last 12 months, suggesting a decreased ability to cope with air crew scheduling. Comparisons with a westbound flight showed the eastbound flight layover sleep to be more problematic and containing more napping.  (+info)

Quality of life associated with varying degrees of chronic lower limb ischaemia: comparison with a healthy sample. (6/5466)

OBJECTIVES: To assess quality of life in patients with varying degrees of ischaemia in comparison with controls, and to determine whether the degree of lower limb ischaemia and sense of coherence were associated with quality of life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 168 patients, including 93 claudicants and 75 patients with critical ischaemia and 102 controls were studied. Quality of life was assessed using the Nottingham Health Profile in addition to the Sense of Coherence scale. MAIN RESULTS: Patients with lower limb ischaemia scored significantly reduced quality of life in all aspects compared to controls. Pain, physical mobility and emotional reactions were the significant independent factors when using logistic regression analysis. The grade of disease and low sense of coherence were significantly associated with low quality of life. Increasing lower limb ischaemia significantly conferred worse pain, sleeping disturbances and immobility. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the quality of life was impaired among patients with lower limb ischaemia, in all investigated respects. The degree to which quality of life was affected seems to represent an interplay between the grade of ischaemia and the patient's sense of coherence. This suggests the need for a multidimensional assessment prior to intervention.  (+info)

Attitudes toward colon cancer gene testing: factors predicting test uptake. (7/5466)

OBJECTIVES: Genetic discoveries in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) have made possible genetic testing to determine susceptibility to this form of colorectal cancer (CRC). This study measured the uptake of genetic testing for HNPCC among first-degree relatives of CRC patients and conducted a preliminary analysis of the predictors of test uptake. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compared 77 test acceptors and 181 decliners on demographic, medical history, and psychological characteristics, controlling for distance from the testing center. The psychological factors studied were risk perception for CRC, frequency of cancer thoughts, and perceived ability to cope with unfavorable genetic information. RESULTS: In the final regression model, after accounting for all variables, the significant predictors of test uptake were increased risk perception, greater perceived confidence in ability to cope with unfavorable genetic information, more frequent cancer thoughts, and having had at least one colonoscopy. The association between risk perception and uptake was dependent on frequency of cancer thoughts. Among those who thought about getting CRC more often, the probability of testing increased as perceived risk increased to approximately 50% likelihood of getting CRC and then leveled off. In contrast, among those who never or rarely thought about getting CRC, risk perception was unrelated to testing decision. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are consistent with the associations reported between psychological factors and other cancer screening behaviors.  (+info)

Intention to learn results of genetic testing for hereditary colon cancer. (8/5466)

INTRODUCTION: This report investigates the correlates of intention to find out genetic test results in colorectal cancer patients undergoing genetic counseling and testing for hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer. Specifically, we investigated whether intention to learn genetic test results was associated with sociodemographic factors, medical history, psychosocial factors, attitudes, beliefs, and decisional considerations related to genetic testing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among 342 colorectal cancer patients who went through an informed consent process and gave blood for genetic testing and who were eligible for a psychosocial questionnaire study, 269 cases completed a baseline interview. Patients were contacted in person during a routine clinic visit or by letter and follow-up telephone call and were interviewed either in person or by telephone. RESULTS: In univariate analysis, intention to learn test results was positively associated with income, quality of life, a belief that being tested will help family members prevent cancer, being worried about carrying an altered gene, and a belief that one has the ability to cope with test results. It was negatively associated with a belief that genetic counseling is too much trouble relative to the benefits. Intention also was positively associated with scales measuring the pros of learning test results and the pros of informing relatives about test results; it was negatively associated with the cons of learning test results. In multivariable analysis, the belief that testing would help family members prevent cancer, being worried about carrying an altered gene, and the pros of learning test results remained statistically associated with intention when other variables were included in the model. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed that the positive aspects of genetic testing were more strongly associated with intention than were the negative aspects. They also showed that persons who stated an intention to learn their genetic test results were more likely than persons who did not to affirm both the benefits and the importance of such testing. These results are consistent with the literature on psychosocial aspects of genetic testing for breast cancer.  (+info)

Results: Trainee clinical psychologists reported high levels of stress, but as a group did not experience extensive problems of psychological adaptation in terms of anxiety, depression, selfesteem problems, marital problems, family problems, external stressors, interpersonal conflict, work adjustment or substance abuse. However, a significant subgroup reported self-esteem problems, work adjustment problems, depression and anxiety. Gender, age, year of training and training course were related to psychological adaptation. Appraisal processes, coping and social support predicted a significant amount of variation in psychological adaptation. Appraisals of threat, avoidance coping, emotional support from clinical supervisors, emotional support from courses and emotional support from a confidante at home all predicted the variance in psychological adaptation over time ...
Many children with chronic health conditions (CHC) are at increased risk for poor adaptation such as psychosocial problems, behavioral disturbances, and decreased quality of life (QOL). Their parents face economic, social and emotional challenges. In addition, management of the CHC and the involvement of the child in that management can severely challenge both child and parent. Effective coping has been shown to moderate the negative impact of CHC. This study is a pilot study to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of adapting a Coping Skills Training (CST) intervention developed for children with diabetes. The CST intervention will be adapted for an integrated sample of school-aged children 8 to 12 years of age with four health conditions (Rheumatologic Conditions, Epilepsy,Spina Bifida, and Asthma). The study will be a randomized clinical trial with a wait-list control group. Each arm will consist of 25 families. CST is a 6-session group intervention based on cognitive behavioral ...
In step 2, they assessed the contribution to work engagement of avoidance coping strategies: avoidance and ventilating emotions. Table 6 gives the results.. Table 6 shows that approach coping strategies predicted 15% of the variance in the work engagement of the technicians (F = 6.25, p , 0.01). The regression coefficients of two coping strategies, namely problem-focused coping (β = 0.21, p , 0.01) and positive reinterpretation and growth (β = 0.17, p , 0.01), were statistically significant. When the researchers entered avoidance coping strategies as independent variables (in step 2), it resulted in a statistically significant increase in predicting the variance in work engagement (Δ F = 4.90, p , 0.01, Δ R2 = 0.04). The regression coefficients of two coping strategies, namely problem-focused coping (β = 0.23, p , 0.01) and ventilating emotions (β = -0.23, p , 0.01), were statistically significant.. Finally, approach coping strategies predicted 15% of the variance in the work engagement of ...
Fitzsimmons et al (1999) also discovered that patients perception of quality of life was mediated by the process of coping. Telch and Telch (1986) reported that people in a control group that did not include coping skills training did not adjust as well to their illness as people in a support group that included coping skills training.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Illness perceptions, coping, benefit finding, and adjustment in individuals with Hepatitis C. AU - Langston, Simon. AU - Edwards, Mark S.. AU - Lyvers, Michael. PY - 2018/2/1. Y1 - 2018/2/1. N2 - Objective: To investigate the ability of illness perceptions, adaptive, and maladaptive coping strategies, and benefit finding to predict physical and psychosocial adjustment among individuals diagnosed with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), within an expanded self-regulatory model of illness (SRM). Method: A total of 126 participants with HCV completed an online questionnaire assessing illness perceptions, coping, benefit finding, and four adjustment outcomes, depression, physical functioning, life satisfaction and positive affect. Results: Illness perceptions made significant contributions to the variance in adjustment outcomes across the four psychosocial and physical adjustment areas. At an individual level, personal control, identification with HCV symptoms, perceptions related to ...
According to Pop EP, "the human brain consists of a large collection of functionally specialized computational devices that evolved to solve the adaptive problems regularly encountered by our hunter-gatherer ancestors" (from the Web site of the Center for Evolutionary Psychology at U.C.S.B.). Just as evolution by natural and sexual selection has endowed all humans with morphological adaptations such as hearts and kidneys, Pop EP says, so it has endowed all humans with a set of psychological adaptations, or "mental organs." These include psychological mechanisms, or "functionally specialized computational devices," for language, face recognition, spatial perception, tool use, mate attraction and retention, parental care and a wide variety of social relations, among other things. Collectively, these psychological adaptations constitute a "universal human nature." Individual and cultural differences are, by this account, the result of our common nature responding to variable local circumstances, ...
To determine whether coping strategies modify the risk of depression among allogeneic recipients experiencing post-transplant-related symptomatology, 105 participants (mean age = 52 years, 42% female) completed questionnaires 90 days post-transplant. A total of 28 percent reported depressive symptoms. Univariate correlations indicated that depression was associated with greater transplant-related symptomatology and avoidance, acceptance/resignation, and emotional discharge coping. Depression was negatively associated with problem-solving coping. Moderator analyses indicated that transplant-related symptomatology was significantly associated with depression among patients who frequently used maladaptive coping and rarely used adaptive coping. These data suggest that transplant-related symptomatology, combined with maladaptive coping, place patients at risk of depression.
BACKGROUND: This study aims to examine the effectiveness of a self-management multimodal comprehensive coping strategy program (CCSP) on quality of life (QOL) among breast cancer patients 1 year after treatment.. METHODS: Patients (n = 110) with stage II, III, or IV breast cancer scheduled to receive high dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were randomized to either CCSP treatment or control group. The CCSP intervention was taught 2 week before hospital admission with reinforcement at specified times during treatment and 3 months after discharge. The CCSP components included educational information, cognitive restructuring, coping skills enhancement, and relaxation with guided imagery. Instruments administered at baseline included the following: Quality of Life Index-Cancer Version (QOLI-CV), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and Coping Strategies Questionnaire. At 1-year follow-up, patients (n = 73) completed and returned the ...
Purpose: How individuals cope with aspects of cystic fibrosis (CF) has the potential to influence their self management and the course of their disease. To evaluate how individuals cope with CF, a disease specific coping scale was developed and validated. A second objective of the work was to examine the relationship between coping styles and treatment adherence.. Methods: The development of the coping scale constituted a longitudinal design. A cross-sectional questionnaire design was used to examine the coping-adherence relationship. The development and validation of the coping scale comprised three phases: (1) Initially, 60 patients were interviewed to identify CF concerns. From this information a list of 23 concerns were recorded; (2) Eighty-three patients were interviewed to identify CF coping responses. For each concern, they were asked what they did or thought to ease the worry. A list of 24 coping strategies were recorded that formed a comprehensive set of items as to how people with CF ...
Caregivers of children with newly diagnosed brain tumors admitted to Childrens of Alabama were enrolled during the childs initial hospitalization for surgical treatment from April 2016 to August 2017. The single-item, National Comprehensive Cancer Network visual analog Distress Thermometer (DT) was administered. Clinical and demographic variables were collected from the medical record. Approximately 1 month after patients were discharged from the hospital, caregivers participated in a semistructured interview that included questions about parent and family coping strategies. Broad questions about stress management since diagnosis were followed by specific questions about individual coping strategies. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded for common themes. Themes were broadly characterized as adaptive versus maladaptive coping. Analysis was then performed to determine if DT scores or clinical or demographic factors were associated with the presence of maladaptive coping using a ...
Cel: Celem przeprowadzonego badania było sprawdzenie, czy istnieje związek między wczesnymi nieadaptacyjnymi schematami wyróżnionymi przez Younga i współpracowników a depresją u osób uzależnionych od alkoholu. Podjęto też próbę odpowiedzi na pytanie o związki schematów z wybranymi zmiennymi dotyczącymi uzależnienia od alkoholu, a także występowaniem tendencji suicydalnych u alkoholików. Materiał i metody: W badaniu wzięło udział 77 osób uzależnionych od alkoholu - 19 kobiet oraz 58 mężczyzn. Zastosowano Kwestionariusz Schematów Younga (Young Schema Questionnaire, YSQ-S3), Skalę Depresji Becka (Becks Depression Inventory, BDI), Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST). Wyniki: Na podstawie otrzymanych wyników można stwierdzić, iż 16 z 18 schematów jest powiązanych dodatnio i istotnie statystycznie z poziomem depresji u osób uzależnionych od alkoholu. Najsilniejsze związki odnotowano w przypadku schematu deprywacji emocjonalnej, izolacji/wyobcowania i ...
The Scientific World Journal is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. The journals Editorial Board is divided into 81 subject areas that are covered within the journals scope.
Background: Individuals with chronic heart failure (CHF) need to cope with both the physical limitations and the psychological impacts of the disease. Since some coping strategies are beneficial and others are linked to increased mortality and worse health-related quality of life (HRQoL), it is important to have a reliable and valid instrument to detect different coping styles. Brief coping orientation to problems experienced (COPE), a self-reporting questionnaire, has been previously used in the context of CHF. There is, however, currently a lack of consensus about the theoretical or empirical foundations for grouping the multiple coping strategies assessed by Brief COPE into higher order categories of coping. The main purpose of this study was to examine the structure of Brief COPE, founded on the higher order grouping of its subscales in order to establish an assessment model supported by theoretical considerations. Furthermore, the associations between these higher order categories of coping ...
Author Sarah Wilson discusses what happened when she was plagued with anxiety and how she deals with living with it in a positive way.
Find Coping Skills Therapists, Psychologists and Coping Skills Counseling in Ballantyne East, Charlotte, get help for Coping Skills in Ballantyne East, Charlotte.
Find Coping Skills Therapists, Psychologists and Coping Skills Counseling in Kanata, Ontario, get help for Coping Skills in Kanata.
NEW YORK, Nov. 11, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- ProfNet Experts Available on Coping with Political Defeat, Alzheimers, Healthcare Automation and More. Also in...
Learn more about Tips on Coping With Anemia Related to Chemotherapy at TriStar Centennial Chemotherapy has many side effects. One in particular, anemia, ...
It has often been assumed that the amount of pain a person experiences is directly proportional to the amount of tissue damage. How people cope or deal with their pain experience has been shown to be an important factor in determining the level of pain and disability. The most widely used instrument is the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ). The CSQ is designed to assess a participants normal means of coping with painful situations. Despite the popularity of the CSQ as a research and clinical instrument, a shorter version would be beneficial for a number of reasons. The current study assessed the properties of a shorter version of the CSQ that was developed in the lab. The study included 22 chronic pain patients who were asked to complete a number of measures that assessed pain, activity interference, coping, functional status, and mood. The results of the study suggest that the internal reliability of the short-form of the CSQ is not comparable to the original version. However, correlation ...
This study aimed to gain an insight into the general coping strategies used by sport psychology consultants (SPCs) based in the UK, and an in-depth understanding of their development and impact. To achieve these aims a mixed-method approach was adopted by means of two linked studies. In study one, BASES accredited and/or BPS chartered SPCs (n = 29) completed the modified COPE inventory (Crocker & Graham, 1995) to gain a better understanding of the general coping strategies used by practitioners. In study two, follow-up interviews (n = 6) with participants sampled from study one were conducted to explore how the reported strategies were developed, the perceived impact of coping/not coping with stressors, and how future SPCs may be better prepared for the stressful nature of consultancy. Findings suggested that the participants had a statistically significant preference to using problem-focused coping strategies. Further, the interviews suggested that coping strategies were primarily developed ...
Here is a useful compendium of information that expands the options available in the treatment of pain in chronically and terminally ill patients. Noninvasive Approaches to Pain Management in the Terminally Ill presents a multidimensional perspective on pain which includes the psychological, psychosocial, and behavioral aspects of pain as well as physical factors. Full of practical and useful information, this important book teaches nurses, physicians, physical therapists, psychologists, and hospice workers how to help their patients cope with pain more effectively. A variety of methods of pain assessment and control are discussed, increasing the range of practical techniques available to caregivers working to improve patient comfort. The therapeutic modalities explained, including relaxation, hypnosis, coping skills training, massage, and mobilization, can be used as adjuncts to more traditional medical and pharmacological interventions. Treatment modalities are discussed in detail, enabling their
Objective. Ethnic groups may experience or report pain differently ; thus, we compared ethnic differences on pain coping strategies and control beliefs, and the relationships of these variables to health status, among women with rheumatoid arthritis RA. Methods. Using a sample of 100 women 48 African-American, 52 Caucasian, we related pain...
When trying to help kids cope with difficult emotions (e.g., mad, sad, scared), its good to have them practice using coping skills. But many kids either dont know any good coping skills, or only know a couple. Depending on the situation, some coping skills arent an option, or they simply wont work. To help kids be best able to cope with difficult emotions, its helpful for them to have a lot of coping skills they can choose from. Here, I go through 15 that are likely to be helpful.
View Notes - HCA 250 Week 6-CheckPoint - Coping Styles and Psychological Preparation from HCA 250 at Aachen University of Applied Sciences. Coping Styles and Psychological Preparation Coping Styles
So, okay, given the problem I wrote about in my last post, we can start to see drinking (in an abusive way) in a new light: namely, that we work really hard to justify our actions and keep them in balance with our self-evaluation/self-understanding. If you feel good about yourself, you justify your actions accordingly. If you feel bad about yourself, you likewise justify your actions. Because self-justification is so deep seeded, because it is needed for survival and one of the psychological adaptations that keeps us moving quickly through a dangerous world, it is extremely difficult to push back against the immediate calculations that keep us balanced with the narratives of ourselves that we call memories. We have to break those narratives and break some modes of self-justification, to stop drinking (we being problem drinkers to some extent ...
This article describes a method developed to assess coping with schizophrenia by inpatients and outpatients. The approach is based on a transactional theory of coping. Symptoms related to the disease, subjective appraisals given by the 40 patients, and coping behavior are assessed using a list of disease-related strains, rating scales, and a semi-structured interview. Results of this study indicate that the patients appraisals of the effects of their efforts to cope may not be realistic, leading to a low degree of satisfaction. Coping, described as problem-centered versus nonproblem-centered and as behavioral, cognitive, or emotional, seemed to be related to the patients clinical status. Nonproblem-centered strategies predominated in the highly strained groups, along with a tendency to more emotional and less cognitive coping.
The purpose of this study was to examine organisational stressors, coping, and perceptions of coping effectiveness with an elite coach. The participant completed a daily diary over a 28-day period. Each diary entry consisted of an open-ended stressor, a coping response section, and a Likert-type scale measure of coping effectiveness. Inductive and deductive content analysis procedures were used to analyse the diaries, in addition to frequency data which were obtained for both stressors and coping strategies. Findings indicated administration, overload, competition environment, the athletes, and team atmosphere were the salient organisational stressors. Coping strategies used to alleviate such stressors were communication, preparation, planning, social support, and self-talk. These strategies were generally effective, but coping effectiveness declined over the 28-days.. ...
Causing a Bad Bipolar Day - What Did I Do Wrong Yesterday? - If you have a bad bipolar day, you might wonder what you did wrong yesterday to cause it. I know I feel this way. I know I look for causes. And I know it f... ...
I am a mom of a bipolar son who was diagnosed when he was 12 years old and is now 31. He and I have a very strong bond and whenever he triggers an episode he refuses any kind of help as he lives in fear of previous episodes where he has been arrested, tazered by the police, and hospitalized. He lives with his girlfriend who is 13 years older than him and suffers with an anxiety disorder. They both take their medications regularly but my son has absolutely no coping abilities and he triggers many episodes because he doesnt get proper sleep or have a good structured life. They both are on ODSP for their conditions and both do not know how to budget money! Every episode he has (which seems to be ongoing now) he is extremely mean to me and I happen to be a very sensitive caring mom that will never give up on him but as I am getting older now (59) i do not have the same coping ability and I live in constant tears as I am heart broken!! What to do??? Any advice would be most appreciated ...
This laboratory study was designed to address a number of interrelated issues regarding cardiovascular reactivity to psychological stress. One objective was to extend the previous research comparing cardiovascular responses during active versus passive coping, by comparing responses to two task conditions designed to be similar in all ways except the opportunity to make a response influencing the tasks outcome. A second objective was to compare responses to two different passive film tasks, which differed in outcome uncertainty and the degree of vicarious active coping achieved through identification with the role portrayed by the actors. A third objective was to evaluate whether individuals are predisposed to exhibit a particular hemodynamic pattern underlying their blood pressure adjustments, independently of the task demands imposed. Ninety healthy young adult male subjects were tested in pairs on a series of tasks that included a competitive reaction-time task, an active as well as a ...
If anxiety is a regular presence in your life, it may be time to develop coping strategies. Start with these steps for dealing with an anxiety attack.
The emotional and psychological health can have a powerful influence on your overall wellness. Perception Reframing can help with anxiety, stress and more...
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Remember also that gene expression in behavior is not mathematically precise. In other words, you could have responded many different ways to different environments (within definite biologically determined boundaries). The clone would not be you; he or she might unpredictably behave differently from you. Lets say both you and therefore (presumably) your clone have a rebellious streak under certain circumstances, and have an orderly streak under others. You were reared, lets say, in a permissive environment, and your coping response was to call on your orderly streak, leading you to blossom into the upright example you doubtless are at present. But supposing you were to raise your clone in a (even only infinitesimally) more restrictive, less permissive environment. (Such as an enviroment in which your every move, feeling, and thought were anxiously monitored and commented upon by a weirdo parent.) In that case, the clones prevalent coping response may be to call upon his/your rebellious ...
Better Health is a network of healthcare professional blogs, offering commentary on news, research, health policy, healthcare reform, true stories, disease management and expert interviews.
Where did the idea come from that you were going to disguise Elliots surroundings in this way? Sam Esmail: It came from a two-prong approach. We knew exactly what the fate of Elliot was at the end of the last season, and we started breaking this seasons storyline. Were always trying to stay as authentic to Elliot as possible, what hes going through. Knowing Elliot, from the very first episode, he definitely has interesting coping mechanisms. Even from the pilot, he has this ability to reprogram his life: E Corp was turned into Evil Corp. When we thought about him being in prison, what would be that coping mechanism, this came to mind. The other approach was his relationship to us - to his "friend" - and how we left him at the end of the first season. He basically didnt trust us anymore, he felt we were keeping things from him. So we wanted to develop that relationship as well. That was the one approach of, "This is what Elliot would do in this situation, to cope with being in prison," and ...
Hello, My mom has had a very troubled past. She was sexually abused as a young child and for most of her life, she was in an abusive marriage, and she has
Two weeks later Anna saw Cammiss again after she had several arguments with her mother, who was threatening to put her in care. After investigating, Cammiss established that Annas father would care for her if necessary. Anna then disclosed that her brothers girlfriend had also phoned social services to report the mother ...
Lea Michele is opening up about the shocking death of her Glee costar and real-life boyfriend, Cory Monteith, in the December issue of Elle.
Objectives : The purpose of this study was to determine correlation between coping strategies to disease and quality of life in chrome viral B hepatitis patients ; to investigate difference of coping strategies to disease and quality in life between chronic viral B hepatitis patients and normal persons ; and to identify major variables related to quality in life of chronic viral B hepatitis patients. Methods: The authors used Weisman coping strategy scale for measuring coping ability and efficacies, and the questionnaire for measuring quality of life including physical, psychological, social and economical aspects and satisfaction of sexual life was made by authors based on related literatures. Data were collected through questionnaire survey over a period from Sep 15, 1994 to Nov 11, 1994. Subjects served for this study consisted of 94 chronic viral B hepatitis patients visited to department of internal medicine at one general hospital and 100 normal persons visited to one general hospital for ...
So I was wondering what interesting things you guys have done or are planning to do following wins and the rare occasions when we lose? I dont have any real traditions after wins other than your basic celebratory drinking and such.
Benefit Finding in Cardiac Patients: Relationships with Emotional Well-Being and Resources after Controlling for Physical Functional Impairment - Volume 19 - Pilar Sanjuán, Cristina García-Zamora, M. Ángeles Ruiz, Beatriz Rueda, Henar Arranz, Almudena Castro
Diabetes Art Day is a fun event started by my friend Lee Ann to encourage individuals and families with diabetes to engage in creative visual expression to communicate their experience with diabetes, connect with others, raise awareness, and promote insight and positive coping skills. One thing that I have learned over the past few years…
When persistent anxiety interferes with your daily tasks, activities, or enjoyment of life, its best to seek professional help (see "Getting Help"). At this point, your coping behaviors may be hurting you, too. Perhaps you cant leave home because youre afraid youll have a panic attack in public. Maybe youre driven to perform certain rituals - washing hands, for example, or repeatedly touching, checking on or counting things - to relieve distress. Perhaps youre isolating yourself because any social occasion makes you unbearably nervous, or abusing alcohol or drugs to help calm anxiety ...
If suicidal behavior is more pronounced. Many chemicals are often used in the morning and once in a baby or infant while feeding. No yes possible cause and action certain drugs, including antihistamines and corticosteroids is appropriate. Ineffective sexuality patterns by [date]. Adult an adult might. Action you will probably arrange for tests, including a disorder in which the client in securing latex-free supplies for appropriate coping behaviors. There are several important physiologic functions. G. , bladder distention at least daily. Both the parentpound within the skin. T emergency. Just above the brainstem have you selected the correct diagnosis. The rate and cardiac function. Wewers, m, and rutowski, p: Maternity blues and depression. Five examples of one woman. Grainy textures, ) preference for soft textures over rough. Cooling that is relatively refractory. This can be seen attached to hair shafts. In children for children or it may also help. 38. John wiley & sons, new york, 1989. ...
Welcome to week 3 of our survey. Ive slightly revised the schedule due to some additional questions that were posted over the weekend. This week well do general coping strategies. Next week well do special skills and fun stuff. When I get back from my great big adventure some time in May, well do acceptance…
The research describes a number of coping mechanisms used by older people in order to get by. These include buying second hand clothes, economy or reduced price food and only heating one room at home. Pearson says an inability to socialise or eat healthily due to a lack of money can have knock on effects for peoples mental and physical health but it is difficult to prove poverty is directly responsible for such problems.. However, Bernard says research has shown a definite link between poverty and social exclusion. Its crucial that older people are given enough to enable them to have a life beyond just surviving in order to avoid this, she adds.. The study also found some older people keen to leave any savings they had untouched in order to pay for possible care home fees in the future, despite having to live frugally to do so. Pearson says she has come across this desire to save in order to not be a "burden" on relatives.. "People dont want to have less than a couple of thousand of savings ...
Im stuck on the article! I get everything except for the noradrenaline bit in the Stressed out section, it says more noradrenaline is synthesized with repeated stress as a coping mechanism but shouldnt it be the other way around because the neurons are getting habituated? Also what exactly does noradrenaline do in the coping of stress? Thanks in advance for any help ...
September 2010 I went to upper school where my mental health issues came into play. During year 9 my behaviour was terrible. My grades dropped and I wasnt the same person. On top of my self harm and trouble making I started to restrict my food intake but cutting down on snacks. Fizzy drinks, portion size and I also exercised multiple times a day. I was loosing weight and focusing on the number on the scale I couldnt help it. It distracted me from feeling anything else. I wanted to keep going, so I did. Starting my GCSEs my behaviour wasnt as out of control and I started to focus. Self harm and restricting had become my main coping mechanism. Although my behaviour had calmed down my mood shifted like crazy everyday. Soon one of my subject teachers became unnerved and confronted me. She had seen me being distracted and not myself she asked me what was going on, if I was ok? At the time I didnt know how to answer those questions, because truth be told. I had no idea. Even if I did how could I ...
Throughout the world, governments are restructuring social and welfare provision to give a stronger role to opportunity, aspiration and individual responsibility, and to competition, markets, and consumer choice. This approach centers on a logic of individual rational action: people are the best judges of what serves their own interests and government should give them as much freedom of choice as possible.
In a psychological construction model, basic psychological processes like affect (positive or negative feeling combined with ... Lazarus, R. (1991). Emotion and adaptation. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Frijda, Nico H. (1986). The emotions. New ... Russell, J.A. (2003). "Core affect and the psychological construction of emotion". Psychological Review. 110: 145-172. doi: ... American Psychological Association. pp. 517-543. doi:10.1037/10436-022. ISBN 155798736X. Graham, Steven M.; Huang, Julie Y.; ...
1.1 Psychological color balance. *2 Illuminant estimation and adaptation. *3 Chromatic colors ... Illuminant estimation and adaptation[edit]. A seascape photograph at Clifton Beach, South Arm, Tasmania, Australia. The white ... Psychological color balance[edit]. Humans relate to flesh tones more critically than other colors. Trees, grass and sky can all ... General illuminant adaptation[edit]. The best color matrix for adapting to a change in illuminant is not necessarily a diagonal ...
Psychological Adaptation[edit]. An individual's comfort level in a given environment may change and adapt over time due to ... Psychological adaptation is subtly different in the static and adaptive models. Laboratory tests of the static model can ... There are basically three categories of thermal adaptation, namely: behavioral, physiological, and psychological. ... Physiological Adaptation[edit]. Further information: Thermoregulation. The body has several thermal adjustment mechanisms to ...
... which may be viewed as an argument for an environmental versus genetic psychological adaptation. While certain mental disorders ... Thus depression may be a social adaptation especially useful in motivating a variety of social partners, all at once, to help ... Keller, Matthew C.; Neese, Randolph M. (May 2005). "Is low mood an adaptation? Evidence for subtypes with symptoms that match ... Andrews, P.W.; Thompson, J.A. (2009). "The bright side of being blue: depression as an adaptation for analyzing complex ...
Handbook of Psychological and Instruments; Samasthi Publications, Baroda, 1974 (co-author) 51. Stewart Maturity Scale: Indian ... Adaptation; Manasayan, New Delhi, 1976 52. Sales Styles Diagnosis Exercises; Learning Systems, New Delhi, 1976 53. Behaviour ...
doi:10.1016/0003-3472(89)90075-4. Shackelford, T (2002). "Psychological adaptation to human sperm competition". Evolution and ... Shackelford, Todd K.; Pound, Nicholas; Goetz, Aaron T. (2005). "Psychological and Physiological Adaptations to Sperm ... The human penis has been argued to have several evolutionary adaptations. The purpose of these adaptations is to maximise ... "Psychological adaptation to human sperm competition" (PDF). Evolution and Human Behavior. 23: 123-138. doi:10.1016/S1090-5138( ...
Shackelford, T.K; Goetz, Aaron T. (2007). "Adaptation to sperm competition in humans". Current Directions in Psychological ... "Psychological and physiological adaptations to sperm competition in humans" (PDF). Review of General Psychology. 9: 228-248. ... Dozens of adaptations have been documented in males that help them succeed in sperm competition. Mate-guarding is a defensive ... The adaptation of sperm traits, such as length, viability and velocity might be constrained by the influence of cytoplasmic DNA ...
Shackelford, T. K.; Goetz, A. T. (2007). "Adaptation to Sperm Competition in Humans". Current Directions in Psychological ... 2) Irreversible adaptation to sperm competition. It has been suggested that the ancestor of the boreoeutherian mammals was a ...
Shackelford, T. K.; Goetz, A. T. (2007). "Adaptation to Sperm Competition in Humans". Current Directions in Psychological ... John A. Byers (1997). American Pronghorn: Social Adaptations and the Ghosts of Predators Past. University of Chicago Press. ... ISBN 978-3-642-35049-8. John A. Byers (1997). American Pronghorn: Social Adaptations and the Ghosts of Predators Past. ... R. Yagil (1985). The desert camel: comparative physiological adaptation. Karger. ISBN 978-3-8055-4065-0. Retrieved 5 September ...
Hobfoll S.E. (2002). "Social and psychological resources and adaptation". Review of General Psychology. 6 (4): 307-324. doi: ... Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. pp. 51-87. Cropanzano R.; Rupp D.E.; Byrne Z.S. (2003). "The relationship ... Zapf D. (2002). "Emotion work and psychological well-being. A review of the literature and some conceptual considerations". ... or psychological (e.g., self-esteem or sense of autonomy). The COR's theory suggest that people must invest resources in order ...
Evolution suggests this is an adaptation due to the physical changes inside the male body, although more research must be ... This is due to the psychological processes that shape the formation and maintenance of human romantic relationships are ... This demonstrates the persistence of the odour as an evolutionary or adaptation process, which could ensure the offspring ... There is now also considerable evidence from psychological studies that women's preferences for various male traits change ...
Frederick and Lowenstein classify three types of processes in hedonic adaptation: shifting adaptation levels, desensitization, ... Psychological Science. 7 (3): 186-189. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.613.4004. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.1996.tb00355.x. Archived from the ... Behavioral/psychological approach[edit]. The "Hedonic Treadmill" is a term coined by Brickman and Campbell in their article " ... The hedonic treadmill, also known as hedonic adaptation, is the observed tendency of humans to quickly return to a relatively ...
Davis, R.C.; Van Liere, D.W. (1949). "Adaptation of the muscular tension response to gunfire". Journal of Experimental ... Davis, R.C. (1958). "The domain of homeostasis". Psychological Review: 8-13. Davis, R.C. (1932). "Electrical skin resistance ... Davis, R.C. (1942). "Methods of measuring muscle tension". Psychological Bulletin: 329-346. Davis, R.C. (1948). "An integrator ... Davis, R.C. (1931). "A cathode-ray oscilloscope apparatus for the psychological laboratory". Journal of General Psychology: 107 ...
Bialystok, Ellen (2017). "The Bilingual Adaptation: How Minds Accommodate Experience" (PDF). American Psychological Association ... Translating the user interface is usually part of the software localization process, which also includes adaptations such as ... Psychological Science. 23 (6): 661-668. doi:10.1177/0956797611432178. PMID 22517192. Albert Costa1, Alice Foucart, Sayuri ... Psychological Science. 26: 0956797614557866. doi:10.1177/0956797614557866. ISSN 0956-7976. PMID 25475825. Paap, Kenneth R.; ...
Kohn, A; Movshon, J.A (2003). "Neuronal adaptation to visual motion in area MT of the macaque". Neuron. 39 (4): 681-691. doi: ... Psychological Bulletin. 135 (1): 23-49. doi:10.1037/a0013974. Larsson, J; Smith, A.T (2012). "fMRI repetition suppression: ... doi:10.1016/s0001-6918(01)00019-1. Sobotka, S; Ringo, J.L (1994). "Stimulus specific adaptation in excited but not in inhibited ... Grill-Spector, K; Malach, R (2001). "fMR-adaptation: a tool for studying the functional properties of human cortical neurons". ...
Psychological impact of cancer and its treatment IV. Adaptation to radical mastectomy. Cancer, 8(4), 656-672. Bard, M., & ... There, he analyzed the psychological effects of cancer and cancer surgery. During this time, Bard shifted the psychological ... In 1982, he was awarded the New York State Psychological Association 's Kurt Lewin Award. In 1985, he was appointed to a ... In 1982, Bard was named chairman of the American Psychological Association's task force on victims of crime and violence. ...
The cost of alleviating psychological distress with monetary compensation versus psychological therapy Health Economics, Policy ... Even when happiness can be affected by external sources happiness has high hedonic adaptation, specify some events such as an ... These include psychological mechanisms, and the types and characteristics of leisure activities that result in the greatest ... Newman, D. B.; Tay, L.; Diener, E. (2014). "Leisure and subjective well-being: A model of psychological mechanisms as mediating ...
... when considering how and why psychological development occurs. Biological, psychological and social descriptions and ... Hansson, R. O., & Stroebe, M. S. (2007). Bereavement in late life: Coping, adaptation, and developmental influences. American ... Retirement, or the point in which a person stops employment entirely, is often a time of psychological distress or a time of ... Psychological Bulletin, 139(1), 53-80. doi: 10.1037/a0028601 Seeman, T. E., Lusignolo, T. M., Albert, M., & Berkman, L. (2001 ...
A psychological color specification system. Journal of the Optical Society of America. 46, 416-421 (1956). Cottaris, N.P. & De ... Changes in brightness, saturation and hue with chromatic adaptation. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 46, 405-415 ( ... recognition as a William James Fellow of the American Psychological Society (1991), and the Prentice Medal of the American ...
Cognitive inhibition Binet, A. (1900). Attention et adaptation [Attention and adaptation]. L'annee psychologique, 6, 248-404. ... The Psychological Review, Series of Monograph Supplements, Vol. II., No. 2 (Whole No. 6). New York: The MacMillan Company.' ...
McKibbin, W. F., Shackelford, T. K., Goetz, A. T., & Starratt, V. G. (2008). Why do men rape? An evolutionary psychological ... Palmer, C. T. (1991). Human rape: Adaptation or by‐product?. Journal of sex research, 28(3), 365-386. ... Koukounas, E., & Letch, N. M. (2001). Psychological correlates of perception of sexual intent in women. The Journal of social ... Strasburger, V. C. (1995). Adolescents and the media: medical and psychological impact. Sage Publications, Inc. Ward, L. M., & ...
Psychological Bulletin, 118, 3-34. See See Vulnerability-Stress-Adaptation Model for a detailed description. Karney, B. R., ... Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 171-174. Frye, N. E. & Karney, B. R. (2006). The proximal and distal context ... Karney received the American Psychological Association (APA) dissertation award for his work on how marriages changes: ... Psychological and Cognitive Injuries, Their Consequences, and Services to Assist Recovery - 2008 Invisible Wounds of War: ...
President of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI; Division 9 of the American Psychological ... and Adaptation. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publishing Co. McGrath, J. E. & Tschan, F. (2004). Temporal Matters in Social ... 4-21). McGrath, J. E. (1966). A social psychological approach to the study of negotiation. Chap. 6 in Bowers, R. V. (Ed.) ... McGrath, J. E. (Ed.), (1970). Social and Psychological Factors in Stress. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. McGrath, J. E. ( ...
... adaptation is a process, a person experiences in order to achieve good fitness in person-environment congruence ... Assessment includes psychiatric, psychological and social functioning, risks posed to the individual and others, problems ... In the late 1980s Hans Eysenck, in an issue of Psychological Inquiry, raised controversies on then assessment methods and it ... Psychosocial support is the provision of psychological and social resources to a person by a supporter intended for the benefit ...
Psychological Review, 72 407-418. Helson, H. (1964). Adaptation-Level theory: An experimental and systematic approach to ... The psychological range is the difference between the two extreme values of the stimuli that form the psychological context for ... Both his 1963 Psychological Monographs and 1965 Psychological Review publications introduced the field of psychology to Range ... Psychological Monographs, 77 (2, Whole No. 565). Parducci, A. (1965). Category judgment: A range-frequency model. Psychological ...
"Organismically-inspired robotics: homeostatic adaptation and teleology beyond the closed sensorimotor loop" (PDF).. ... Furthermore, these computational models frame hypotheses that can be directly tested by biological or psychological experiments ... it nevertheless failed to predict a number of important features such as adaptation and shunting. Scientists now believe that ...
Lamond, J. E., Joseph, R. D., & Proverbs, D. G. (2015). An exploration of factors affecting the long term psychological impact ... Flood Resilient Construction and Adaptation of Buildings David Proverbs and Jessica Lamond Subject:. Adaptation, Recovery, ... Adaptation Avalanches Case Studies Climate Change Coastal Storm Surge Convective Storms Cultural Perspectives Development ... Cost of adaptation is also a consideration (Thurston et al., 2008). Future developments that reduce cost or that offer other ...
Psychological adaptations fall under the scope of evolved psychological mechanisms (EPMs), however, EPMs refer to a less ... One psychological adaptation found solely in women is pregnancy sickness. This is an adaptation resulting from natural ... A hybrid resolution to psychological adaptations and learned behaviours refers to an adaptation as the species capacity for a ... Evaluating evidence of psychological adaptation: How do we know one when we see one? Psychological Science, 15, 643-649. doi: ...
Psychological first aid: guide for field workers  World Health Organization; War Trauma Foundation; World Vision International ... Facilitation manual: psychological first aid during Ebola virus disease outbreaks  World Health Organization (‎World Health ... Psychological first aid: facilitators manual for orienting field workers  World Health Organization; War Trauma Foundation; ...
Всесвітня організація охорони здоровя, Європейське регіональне бюро ВООЗ (‎Всесвітня організація охорони здоровя, Європейське регіональне бюро ВООЗ, 2016)‎ ...
... climate and the importance of identifying high levels of controlled motivation to help athletes better adapt to psychological ... They also need to decrease dysfunctional anxiety and anger to enhance the athletes adaptation to psychological stress ... Coach-Created Motivational Climate and Athletes Adaptation to Psychological Stress: Temporal Motivation-Emotion Interplay. ... Adaptation to Psychological Stress: Temporal Motivation-Emotion Interplay. Front. Psychol. 10:617. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg. ...
Interactions between clinical and psychological factors during the adaptation period following liver transplantation. [Italian] ... You are here: Home / Test Division / Reference Database / 1990 to 1999 / 1999 / Interactions between clinical and psychological ... Adaptation. Adjustment. Age. ANOVA. Anxiety. Anxiety Scale. Client characteristics. Depression. Depression Scale. General Well- ...
Effects of adaptation level, context and face validity on responses to self-report psychological inventories. Psychological ... Adaptation. Addiction. Addiction Research Center Inventory. ARCI. California Personality Inventory. CPI. Desirability. Face. ... Effects of adaptation level, context and face validity on responses to self-report psychological inventories https://www.upress ... Effects of adaptation level, context and face validity on responses to self-report... ...
The psychological adaptation of psychologists in clinical training : the role of cognition, coping and social support.. PhD ... The psychological adaptation of psychologists in clinical training : the role of cognition, coping and social support ... Objectives: The current study sought to profile the psychological adaptation of psychologists in clinical training and examine ... Gender, age, year of training and training course were related to psychological adaptation. Appraisal processes, coping and ...
The Relationship between Parent`s and Offspring`s Personality and Offspring`s Psychological Adaptation. Lee, Suk-Hi; Kim, Tae- ... The Relationship between Parent`s and Offspring`s Personality and Offspring`s Psychological Adaptation ... s psychological adaptation. Methods: We examined temperament and character of 65 parents and their offspring (measured using ... s Psychological Adaptation - Parent;Offspring;Personality;Adaptation; ...
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Adaptation, Psychological The Resource Adaptation, Psychological Label Adaptation, Psychological. Focus * Adaptation, ... Context of Adaptation, Psychological Subject of. * Change your thoughts, change your life : living the wisdom of the Tao ... Data Citation of the Concept Adaptation, Psychological. Copy and paste the following RDF/HTML data fragment to cite this ... Adaptation, Psychological,/a,,/span, - ,span property=offers typeOf=Offer,,span property=offeredBy typeof=Library ll: ...
Adaptation, Psychological. Local Identifier. http://hopecollege.library.link/resource/fIAT4OTuo2M/ Network Identifier. http:// ... The aging body : physiological changes and psychological consequences, Susan Krauss Whitbourne Library Toggle Dropdown *Hope ... Coping with negative life events : clinical and social psychological perspectives, edited by C.R. Snyder and Carol E. Ford ... Psychosocial adaptation in pregnancy : assessment of seven dimensions of maternal development, Regina P. Lederman ...
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Psychological adaptation to medical illness. Supervisor. Professor Lois Surgenor. Level. PhD. Personality disorders and ... Psychological consequences of psychiatric disorders. Supervisors. Dr Caroline Bell, Professor Richard Porter. Level. PhD. ...
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Ben Hardy and Jessie Buckley to star in BBC One adaptation of Wilkie Collins psychological thriller The Woman In White. ...
Results of search for su:{Adaptation, Psychological.} Refine your search. *Availability * Limit to currently available items. ... Pregnancy : a psychological and social study / edited by S. Wolkind and E. Zajicek.. by Wolkind, Stephen , Zajicek, Eva ... Psychological stress and coping in hospitalized chronically ill elderly / Mary H. Kalfoss.. by Kalfoss, Mary H , Nordiska ... Psychological first aid : guide for field workers. by World Health Organization , War Trauma Foundation , World Vision ...
Pregnancy : a psychological and social study / edited by S. Wolkind and E. Zajicek.. by Wolkind, Stephen , Zajicek, Eva ... Psychological stress and coping in hospitalized chronically ill elderly / Mary H. Kalfoss.. by Kalfoss, Mary H , Nordiska ... Psychological first aid : guide for field workers. by World Health Organization , War Trauma Foundation , World Vision ... Book; Format: print Publisher: Genève : Organisation mondiale de la Santé, 2012Title translated: Psychological first aid : ...
Psychological Adaptation[edit]. An individuals comfort level in a given environment may change and adapt over time due to ... Psychological adaptation is subtly different in the static and adaptive models. Laboratory tests of the static model can ... There are basically three categories of thermal adaptation, namely: behavioral, physiological, and psychological. ... Physiological Adaptation[edit]. Further information: Thermoregulation. The body has several thermal adjustment mechanisms to ...
"Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire™ (SACQ™)". Western Psychological Services. 1987. Retrieved April 22, 2014.. .mw- ... "Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire". Retrieved April 22, 2014.. *^ Baker, Robert W.; Siryk, Bohdan. "SACQ Sample ... Western Psychological Services. Retrieved April 22, 2014.. *^ Krotseng, Marsha V. (February 1992). "Predicting persistence from ... The Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire (abbreviated SACQ) is a 67-item self-report inventory designed by Robert W. ...
Psychological-adaptation; Quality-standards; Medical-monitoring; Stress; Author Keywords: Adherence; Aging workforce; ... Adaptation; Health-surveys; Questionnaires; Job-analysis; Mathematical-models; Statistical-analysis; Pharmaceuticals; Diet; ...
Social-psychological adaptation in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus on the current stage of medical practice ... Characteristics of Social-Psychological Adaptation and Self-Regulation in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus. Nadezhda A. Tsv ... It is concluded that the level of socio-psychological adaptation and the level of self-regulation of behavior of patients with ... Characteristics of social-psychological adaptation in women with diabetes mellitus]. Sotsialnaya politika i sotsiologiya, 3(81 ...
PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION. A. Assessment. 1. Evaluate the patient and familys support systems and coping patterns with ...
Psychological Adaptation Models in Illness and Recovery:. Further modern research asks that we look at individuals and their ... In the Psychological Adaptation model, this exemplifies the Mature mechanism of Altruism: selflessly helping others. The ... This model of Mature human psychological adaptation, however, emphasizes that the brain function at its healthy best. Heavy, ... whether viewed in the Psychological Adaptation or the Twelve Step models-suggests that brain recovery process are at work. We ...
Psychological-adaptation; Psychological-disorders; Psychological-reactions; Psychological-responses; Psychological-stress; ...
  • Both emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation mediated the relationships that work-related pressure (full mediation) and job autonomy (partial mediation) had with self-reported symptoms of psychological morbidities. (bmj.com)
  • The abstract of a 2012 meta-analysis by Credé and Niehorster (k = 237, N = 44,668) reads: "The review, based on studies using the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire, is organized around three primary themes: (1) the structure of students' adjustment to college, (2) the relationship of adjustment to college constructs with possible antecedents and correlates, and (3) the relationship of adjustment to college constructs with college grades and college retention. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of this article is to review studies addressing psychological and psychiatric adjustment of people at risk for HD. (bmj.com)
  • Over the last decade, more and more focus has been placed upon the psychological adjustment of patients who have undergone bone marrow transplants (BMT). (knowcancer.com)
  • Participants showed a greater tendency to individuate own-race faces in perception, showing both greater release from adaptation to unique identities and increased sensitivity in the adaptation response to physical difference among faces. (pnas.org)
  • Data on the process and details of the adaptations were analyzed using qualitative methods and meta-analysis was used to assess treatment effectiveness. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • Current research uses these methods to evaluate integrated neurocognitive models of anxiety with particular reference to i) developing translational experimental models of anxiety for the evaluation of novel pharmacological and psychological treatments (e.g. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Here, we used a functional MRI adaptation paradigm to assess how face-selective brain regions respond to variation in physical similarity among racial ingroup (White) and outgroup (Black) faces. (pnas.org)
  • Using a functional MRI adaptation paradigm, we measured White participants' habituation to blocks of White and Black faces that parametrically varied in their groupwise similarity. (pnas.org)
  • Gender, age, year of training and training course were related to psychological adaptation. (open.ac.uk)
  • It was noted that adaptation to old age was flying differently in women and men, which may be due to gender differences in lifestyle, the strongest identification of some men with occupational roles, and of women with homework and family obligations. (psyjournals.ru)
  • Sensitivity is also subject to systematic variation, either of the permanent kind encountered in aging or in pathology of the sensory tissues, or of a temporary kind observed, for example, in the relatively rapid decline of visual sensitivity under exposure to light (light adaptation) and the subsequent gradual recovery of sensitivity in the dark (dark adaptation). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Psychological Consultation and Collaborationoutlines the major theoretical approaches to consultation and collaboration and offers concrete ideas about the processes as well as techniques and strategies for use in collaboration and consultation. (ecampus.com)
  • All other selected psychological variables reached no significance, ie, did not contribute additionally to the explanation of variance of the basic model containing sex and headache type. (dovepress.com)
  • Eleven (36%) reported poor adaptation to genetic information, and compared with those with good adaptation, they were more likely to have worse posttraumatic stress symptoms (p = 0.0004) and depression (p = 0.01). (cdc.gov)
  • Risk and prevalence for depressive, anxiety, and posttraumatic symptoms and disorders in cancer and STS patients are reviewed, and the contribution of neuroticism, dispositional optimism, and monitoring/blunting to psychological adaptation in cancer patients is explored. (sarcomahelp.org)
  • Palliative care includes the control of pain and other symptoms and addresses the psychological, social, or spiritual problems of children (and their families) living with life-threatening or terminal conditions. (aappublications.org)
  • Burnout dimensions mediated these relationships, indicating that interventions need to focus on enhancing working conditions and addressing burnout among NHS consultants before more severe symptoms of psychological morbidity are reported. (bmj.com)
  • The aim of this study was to review systematically the literature on adaptations of PTs for depressive disorders for ethnic minorities in Western countries and for any population in non-Western countries to describe the process, extent and nature of the adaptations and the effectiveness of the adapted treatments. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • This alphabetical list of Mental Disorders , also called Psychological Disorders , Psychiatric Disorders, and Mental Illnesses has been gathered from a wide variety of sources including the DSM-IV, DSM 5, ICD-10 Chapter V, and online resources including the Wikipedia page on mental disorders . (mental-health-matters.com)
  • Control experiments demonstrate that the sensitivity of action recognition processes to contingent actions cannot be explained by lower-level visual features or amodal semantic adaptation. (pnas.org)