Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Adaptation, Ocular: The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Dark Adaptation: Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.Figural Aftereffect: A perceptual phenomenon used by Gestalt psychologists to demonstrate that events in one part of the perceptual field may affect perception in another part.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Afterimage: Continuation of visual impression after cessation of stimuli causing the original image.Dental Marginal Adaptation: The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Contrast Sensitivity: The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Altitude: A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Translations: Products resulting from the conversion of one language to another.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Motion Perception: The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.Perceptual Distortion: Lack of correspondence between the way a stimulus is commonly perceived and the way an individual perceives it under given conditions.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Psychophysics: The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Genetic Fitness: The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Saccades: An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.Cultural Characteristics: Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Short Bowel Syndrome: A malabsorption syndrome resulting from extensive operative resection of the SMALL INTESTINE, the absorptive region of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Translating: Conversion from one language to another language.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.Color Perception: Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.Physical Conditioning, Animal: Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular: A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Feedback, Sensory: A mechanism of communicating one's own sensory system information about a task, movement or skill.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Lenses: Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.Darkness: The absence of light.Tibet: An autonomous region located in central Asia, within China.Eyeglasses: A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Lighting: The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Serial Passage: Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Mechanotransduction, Cellular: The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.Vision, Binocular: The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Osmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Transfer (Psychology): Change in learning in one situation due to prior learning in another situation. The transfer can be positive (with second learning improved by first) or negative (where the reverse holds).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Floods: Sudden onset water phenomena with different speed of occurrence. These include flash floods, seasonal river floods, and coastal floods, associated with CYCLONIC STORMS; TIDALWAVES; and storm surges.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Retinal Pigments: Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Vision, Monocular: Images seen by one eye.Reproduction, Asexual: Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Phycomyces: A genus of zygomycetous fungi in the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, forming mycelia having a metallic sheen. It has been used for research on phototropism.Flicker Fusion: The point or frequency at which all flicker of an intermittent light stimulus disappears.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Habituation, Psychophysiologic: The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.Vision Disparity: The difference between two images on the retina when looking at a visual stimulus. This occurs since the two retinas do not have the same view of the stimulus because of the location of our eyes. Thus the left eye does not get exactly the same view as the right eye.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Mice, Inbred C57BLOcular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.Color Vision: Function of the human eye that is used in bright illumination or in daylight (at photopic intensities). Photopic vision is performed by the three types of RETINAL CONE PHOTORECEPTORS with varied peak absorption wavelengths in the color spectrum (from violet to red, 400 - 700 nm).Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Heat-Shock Response: A constellation of responses that occur when an organism is exposed to excessive heat. Responses include synthesis of new proteins and regulation of others.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Glucagon-Like Peptide 2: A 33-amino acid peptide derived from the C-terminal of PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. It stimulates intestinal mucosal growth and decreased apoptosis of ENTEROCYTES. GLP-2 enhances gastrointestinal function and plays an important role in nutrient homeostasis.Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Acids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Evoked Potentials, Visual: The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Salamandra: A genus of European newts in the Salamandridae family. The two species of this genus are Salamandra salamandra (European "fire" salamander) and Salamandra atra (European alpine salamander).Genetic Drift: The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Head Movements: Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Rhodopsin: A purplish-red, light-sensitive pigment found in RETINAL ROD CELLS of most vertebrates. It is a complex consisting of a molecule of ROD OPSIN and a molecule of 11-cis retinal (RETINALDEHYDE). Rhodopsin exhibits peak absorption wavelength at about 500 nm.Smegmamorpha: Group of fish under the superorder Acanthopterygii, separate from the PERCIFORMES, which includes swamp eels, mullets, sticklebacks, seahorses, spiny eels, rainbowfishes, and KILLIFISHES. The name is derived from the six taxa which comprise the group. (From http://www.nanfa.org/articles/Elassoma/elassoma.htm, 8/4/2000)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Form Perception: The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.Hair Cells, Auditory: Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Touch: Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.Urodela: An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.TurtlesPlants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Deceleration: A decrease in the rate of speed.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.

On the neural correlates of visual perception. (1/12330)

Neurological findings suggest that the human striate cortex (V1) is an indispensable component of a neural substratum subserving static achromatic form perception in its own right and not simply as a central distributor of retinally derived information to extrastriate visual areas. This view is further supported by physiological evidence in primates that the finest-grained conjoined representation of spatial detail and retinotopic localization that underlies phenomenal visual experience for local brightness discriminations is selectively represented at cortical levels by the activity of certain neurons in V1. However, at first glance, support for these ideas would appear to be undermined by incontrovertible neurological evidence (visual hemineglect and the simultanagnosias) and recent psychophysical results on 'crowding' that confirm that activation of neurons in V1 may, at times, be insufficient to generate a percept. Moreover, a recent proposal suggests that neural correlates of visual awareness must project directly to those in executive space, thus automatically excluding V1 from a related perceptual space because V1 lacks such direct projections. Both sets of concerns are, however, resolved within the context of adaptive resonance theories. Recursive loops, linking the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) through successive cortical visual areas to the temporal lobe by means of a series of ascending and descending pathways, provide a neuronal substratum at each level within a modular framework for mutually consistent descriptions of sensory data. At steady state, such networks obviate the necessity that neural correlates of visual experience project directly to those in executive space because a neural phenomenal perceptual space subserving form vision is continuously updated by information from an object recognition space equivalent to that destined to reach executive space. Within this framework, activity in V1 may engender percepts that accompany figure-ground segregations only when dynamic incongruities are resolved both within and between ascending and descending streams. Synchronous neuronal activity on a short timescale within and across cortical areas, proposed and sometimes observed as perceptual correlates, may also serve as a marker that a steady state has been achieved, which, in turn, may be a requirement for the longer time constants that accompany the emergence and stability of perceptual states compared to the faster dynamics of adapting networks and the still faster dynamics of individual action potentials. Finally, the same consensus of neuronal activity across ascending and descending pathways linking multiple cortical areas that in anatomic sequence subserve phenomenal visual experiences and object recognition may underlie the normal unity of conscious experience.  (+info)

Trans-synaptically induced bursts in regular spiking non-pyramidal cells in deep layers of the cat motor cortex. (2/12330)

In deep layers of the cat motor cortex, we have investigated the properties of neurons displaying trans-synaptically induced bursts. In in vivo experiments, extracellularly recorded burst neurons were separated into two subtypes based on their dependence on stimulation sites, the medullary pyramid or the ventrolateral (VL) thalamic nucleus, from which bursts of 10-20 spikes were triggered. The spike amplitude attenuation and frequency adaptation during a burst were more prominent in pyramid-dependent burst neurons than in VL-dependent burst neurons. Intracellular recordings in in vivo experiments revealed that pyramid-dependent bursts emerged from a long-lasting depolarization, while each spike during a VL-dependent burst was narrow in half-width and was followed by a fast AHP, similar to fast spiking neurons. In in vitro slice experiments, intracellular recordings were obtained from neurons that displayed a burst of attenuated spikes emerging from a long-lasting depolarization, and were also obtained from fast spiking neurons. They were morphologically recovered to be multipolar cells with sparsely spiny dendrites and local axonal networks, suggesting that they are inhibitory interneurons. The multipolar neurons displaying bursts of attenuated spikes may mediate the recurrent inhibition of pyramidal tract cells.  (+info)

Lysine deficiency alters diet selection without depressing food intake in rats. (3/12330)

Under states of protein deficiency, the dietary limiting amino acid, rather than protein content, can act as the dietary stimulus to control diet selection. If fact, threonine-deficient rats will alter their diet selection patterns solely on the basis of very small changes (0.009 g/100 g) in the dietary threonine concentration. In these studies, we assessed whether lysine-deficient rats will also alter their diet selection patterns on the basis of small changes in dietary Lys concentration. In all experiments, growing rats were adapted to diets in which the protein fraction (purified amino acids or wheat gluten) was limiting in Lys. They were then given a choice between the adaptation diet (AD) diet and a slightly more deficient diet. Rats that were adapted to a Lys-deficient diet (0.25 g Lys/100 g) selected their AD over diets containing as little as 0.01% less Lys (P < 0.01) within 5 d. To determine how deficient rats must be before they alter their selection patterns, rats were adapted to diets containing various levels of Lys, i.e., 2 levels below the requirement for growth and 2 levels above the requirement for growth, but below the requirement for maximal nitrogen retention. Only rats adapted to diets containing Lys below their requirement for growth selected their AD over a diet containing 0.05% less Lys (P < 0.005). Finally, to determine whether rats will alter their selection to whole protein-based diets, rats were adapted to 25% wheat gluten diets supplemented with 0.03-0.21% Lys. Rats selected the AD over a diet containing as little as 0.09% less supplemental Lys by d 4 of the trial (P < 0.05). We conclude that rats are sensitive to changes as small as 0.01% in dietary Lys concentration, but that sensitivity requires prior adaptation to Lys-deficient diets.  (+info)

Changes in protein tyrosine phosphorylation in the rat brain after cerebral ischemia in a model of ischemic tolerance. (4/12330)

A brief period of sublethal cerebral ischemia, followed by several days of recovery, renders the brain resistant to a subsequent lethal ischemic insult, a phenomenon termed ischemic preconditioning or tolerance. Ischemic tolerance was established in the rat two-vessel occlusion model of ischemia, induced by occlusion of both carotid arteries in combination with hypotension. Ischemic preconditioning (3 minutes) provided maximal neuroprotection when induced 2 days prior to a lethal ischemic insult of 9-minute duration. Neuroprotection persisted for at least 8 weeks. Since neurotransmission has been implicated in ischemic cell death, the effect of ischemic preconditioning on tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins and on the levels of glutamate receptor subunits in hippocampus and neocortex was studied. Regional levels of tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins in general and the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR2 in particular are markedly enhanced after ischemia in nonconditioned brains, in both the synaptosomal fraction and the whole-tissue homogenate of rat neocortex and hippocampus, but recover to control levels only in the preconditioned brain. Ischemic preconditioning selectively induces a decrease in the levels of the NR2A and NR2B subunits and a modest decrease in the levels of NR1 subunit proteins in the synaptosomal fraction of the neocortex but not hippocampus after the second lethal ischemia. It was concluded that ischemic preconditioning prevents a persistent change in cell signaling as evidenced by the tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins after the second lethal ischemic insult, which may abrogate the activation of detrimental cellular processes leading to cell death.  (+info)

Fibrocartilage in tendons and ligaments--an adaptation to compressive load. (5/12330)

Where tendons and ligaments are subject to compression, they are frequently fibrocartilaginous. This occurs at 2 principal sites: where tendons (and sometimes ligaments) wrap around bony or fibrous pulleys, and in the region where they attach to bone, i.e. at their entheses. Wrap-around tendons are most characteristic of the limbs and are commonly wider at their point of bony contact so that the pressure is reduced. The most fibrocartilaginous tendons are heavily loaded and permanently bent around their pulleys. There is often pronounced interweaving of collagen fibres that prevents the tendons from splaying apart under compression. The fibrocartilage can be located within fascicles, or in endo- or epitenon (where it may protect blood vessels from compression or allow fascicles to slide). Fibrocartilage cells are commonly packed with intermediate filaments which could be involved in transducing mechanical load. The ECM often contains aggrecan which allows the tendon to imbibe water and withstand compression. Type II collagen may also be present, particularly in tendons that are heavily loaded. Fibrocartilage is a dynamic tissue that disappears when the tendons are rerouted surgically and can be maintained in vitro when discs of tendon are compressed. Finite element analyses provide a good correlation between its distribution and levels of compressive stress, but at some locations fibrocartilage is a sign of pathology. Enthesis fibrocartilage is most typical of tendons or ligaments that attach to the epiphyses of long bones where it may also be accompanied by sesamoid and periosteal fibrocartilages. It is characteristic of sites where the angle of attachment changes throughout the range of joint movement and it reduces wear and tear by dissipating stress concentration at the bony interface. There is a good correlation between the distribution of fibrocartilage within an enthesis and the levels of compressive stress. The complex interlocking between calcified fibrocartilage and bone contributes to the mechanical strength of the enthesis and cartilage-like molecules (e.g. aggrecan and type II collagen) in the ECM contribute to its ability to withstand compression. Pathological changes are common and are known as enthesopathies.  (+info)

Small conductance potassium channels cause an activity-dependent spike frequency adaptation and make the transfer function of neurons logarithmic. (6/12330)

We made a computational model of a single neuron to study the effect of the small conductance (SK) Ca2+-dependent K+ channel on spike frequency adaptation. The model neuron comprised a Na+ conductance, a Ca2+ conductance, and two Ca2+-independent K+ conductances, as well as a small and a large (BK) Ca2+-activated K+ conductance, a Ca2+ pump, and mechanisms for Ca2+ buffering and diffusion. Sustained current injection that simulated synaptic input resulted in a train of action potentials (APs) which in the absence of the SK conductance showed very little adaptation with time. The transfer function of the neuron was nearly linear, i.e., both asymptotic spike rate as well as the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were approximately linear functions of the input current. Adding an SK conductance with a steep nonlinear dependence on [Ca2+]i (. Pflugers Arch. 422:223-232; Kohler, Hirschberg, Bond, Kinzie, Marrion, Maylie, and Adelman. 1996. Science. 273:1709-1714) caused a marked time-dependent spike frequency adaptation and changed the transfer function of the neuron from linear to logarithmic. Moreover, the input range the neuron responded to with regular spiking increased by a factor of 2.2. These results can be explained by a shunt of the cell resistance caused by the activation of the SK conductance. It might turn out that the logarithmic relationships between the stimuli of some modalities (e.g., sound or light) and the perception of the stimulus intensity (Fechner's law) have a cellular basis in the involvement of SK conductances in the processing of these stimuli.  (+info)

Chemotactic responses of Escherichia coli to small jumps of photoreleased L-aspartate. (7/12330)

Computer-assisted motion analysis coupled to flash photolysis of caged chemoeffectors provides a means for time-resolved analysis of bacterial chemotaxis. Escherichia coli taxis toward the amino acid attractant L-aspartate is mediated by the Tar receptor. The physiology of this response, as well as Tar structure and biochemistry, has been studied extensively. The beta-2, 6-dinitrobenzyl ester of L-aspartic acid and the 1-(2-nitrophenyl)ethyl ether of 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-tris-sulfonic acid were synthesized. These compounds liberated L-aspartate and the fluorophore 8-hydroxypyrene 1,3,6-tris-sulfonic acid (pyranine) upon irradiation with near-UV light. Photorelease of the fluorophore was used to define the amplitude and temporal stability of the aspartate jumps employed in chemotaxis experiments. The dependence of chemotactic adaptation times on aspartate concentration, determined in mixing experiments, was best fit by two Tar aspartate-binding sites. Signal processing (excitation) times, amplitudes, and adaptive recovery of responses elicited by aspartate jumps producing less than 20% change in receptor occupancy were characterized in photorelease assays. Aspartate concentration jumps in the nanomolar range elicited measurable responses. The response threshold and sensitivity of swimming bacteria matched those of bacteria tethered to glass by a single flagellum. Stimuli of similar magnitude, delivered either by rapid mixing or photorelease, evoked responses of similar strength, as assessed by recovery time measurements. These times remained proportional to change in receptor occupancy close to threshold, irrespective of prior occupancy. Motor excitation responses decayed exponentially with time. Rates of excitation responses near threshold ranged from 2 to 7 s-1. These values are consistent with control of excitation signaling by decay of phosphorylated pools of the response regulator protein, CheY. Excitation response rates increased slightly with stimulus size up to values limited by the instrumentation; the most rapid was measured to be 16 +/- 3 (SE) s-1. This increase may reflect simultaneous activation of CheY dephosphorylation, together with inhibition of its phosphorylation.  (+info)

Impact of vascular adaptation to chronic aortic regurgitation on left ventricular performance. (8/12330)

BACKGROUND: This investigation was designed to test the hypothesis that vascular adaptation occurs in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation to maintain left ventricular (LV) performance. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-five patients with chronic aortic regurgitation (mean age 50+/-14 years) were studied using a micromanometer LV catheter to obtain LV pressures and radionuclide ventriculography to obtain LV volumes during multiple loading conditions and right atrial pacing. These 45 patients were subgrouped according to their LV contractility (Ees) and ejection fraction values. Group I consisted of 24 patients with a normal Ees. Group IIa consisted of 10 patients with impaired Ees values (Ees <1.00 mm Hg/mL) but normal LV ejection fractions; Group IIb consisted of 11 patients with impaired contractility and reduced LV ejection fractions. The left ventricular-arterial coupling ratio, Ees/Ea, where Ea was calculated by dividing the LV end-systolic pressure by LV stroke volume, averaged 1.60+/-0.91 in Group I. It decreased to 0.91+/-0.27 in Group IIa (P<0.05 versus Group I), and it decreased further in Group IIb to 0.43+/-0.24 (P<0.001 versus Groups I and IIa). The LV ejection fractions were inversely related to the Ea values in both the normal and impaired contractility groups (r=-0.48, P<0.05 and r=-0.56, P<0.01, respectively), although the slopes of these relationships differed (P<0.05). The average LV work was maximal in Group IIa when the left ventricular-arterial coupling ratio was near 1.0 because of a significant decrease in total arterial elastance (P<0.01 versus Group I). In contrast, the decrease in the left ventricular-arterial coupling ratio in Group IIb was caused by an increase in total arterial elastance, effectively double loading the LV, contributing to a decrease in LV pump efficiency (P<0.01 versus Group IIa and P<0.001 versus Group I). CONCLUSIONS: Vascular adaptation may be heterogeneous in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation. In some, total arterial elastance decreases to maximize LV work and maintain LV performance, whereas in others, it increases, thereby double loading the LV, contributing to afterload excess and a deterioration in LV performance that is most prominent in those with impaired contractility.  (+info)

*Acclimatization

Physiological Zoology. 61 (4): 322-329. JSTOR 30161249. Angilletta, M.J. (2009). Thermal Adaptation: A Theoretical and ... Acclimatization occurs in a short period of time (hours to weeks), and within the organism's lifetime (compared to adaptation, ...

*Altitude training

... which elicits a variety of physiological changes in the body that occur at high altitude. The physiological adaptation that is ... This training idea involves living at higher altitudes in order to experience the physiological adaptations that occur, such as ... It is uncertain how long this adaptation takes because various studies have found different conclusions based on the amount of ... Am Physiological Soc. 103 (5): 1523-1535. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01320.2006. PMID 17690191. Egan, E. (2013). Notes from ...

*Enantiostasis

C. P. Mangum & D. W. Towle (1977). "Physiological adaptation to unstable environments". American Scientist. 65: 67-75. Bibcode: ... Charlotte P. Mangum (1997). "Adaptation of the oxygen transport system to hypoxia in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus". ... Rippon, John W. (2015-01-07). "Biochemical Adaptation by Peter W. Hochachka and George N. Somero (review)". Perspectives in ... "the maintenance of metabolic and physiological functions in response to variations in the environment". Enantiostasis is not a ...

*Penis

R. Yagil (1985). The desert camel: comparative physiological adaptation. Karger. ISBN 978-3-8055-4065-0. Retrieved 5 September ... John A. Byers (1997). American Pronghorn: Social Adaptations and the Ghosts of Predators Past. University of Chicago Press. ... ISBN 978-3-642-35049-8. John A. Byers (1997). American Pronghorn: Social Adaptations and the Ghosts of Predators Past. ... Shackelford, T. K.; Goetz, A. T. (2007). "Adaptation to Sperm Competition in Humans". Current Directions in Psychological ...

*Animal locomotion

... there may also be physiological adaptations. Active flight has independently evolved at least four times, in the insects, ... Other structural adaptations of flying animals include reduced and redistributed body weight, fusiform shape and powerful ... Several oceanic squid, such as the Pacific flying squid, leap out of the water to escape predators, an adaptation similar to ... A. G. Vidal-Gadea; M. D. Rinehart; J. H. Belanger (2008). "Skeletal adaptations for forwards and sideways walking in three ...

*Protist

Levandowsky, M. Physiological Adaptations of Protists. In: Cell physiology sourcebook : essentials of membrane biophysics. ...

*Allostasis

... , homeostasis, and the costs of physiological adaptation. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. ISBN ... Allostasis is adaptation but in regard to a more dynamic balance. In dehydration, sweat occurs as only a small part of the ... McEwen, Bruce S. (1998b). "Stress, Adaptation, and Disease: Allostasis and Allostatic Load". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 840: 33-44. ... Allostasis is the process of achieving stability, or homeostasis, through physiological or behavioral change. This can be ...

*Mangrove

... plants require a number of physiological adaptations to overcome the problems of anoxia, high salinity and frequent ... "Morphological and Physiological Adaptations: Florida mangrove website". Nhmi.org. Archived from the original on 2012-02-04. ...

*Gestational hypertension

Rockwell LC, Vargas E, Moore L (2003). "Human physiological adaptation to pregnancy: inter- and intraspecific perspectives". Am ... "Reproduction and the Placenta." Human Evolution: An Introduction to Man's Adaptations. New York: Aldine De Gruyter, 1998. 317- ...

*Physiology

Protistan physiology Levandowsky, M. Physiological Adaptations of Protists. In: Cell physiology sourcebook: essentials of ... The Physiological Society was founded in London in 1876 as a dining club. The American Physiological Society (APS) is a ... "American Physiological Society > Founders". www.the-aps.org. The American Physiological Society. Tucker, GS (December 1981). " ... The Physiological Society physiologyINFO.org public information site sponsored by The American Physiological Society Human ...

*Overtraining

Smith, Lucille (November 1999). "Cytokine hypothesis of overtraining: a physiological adaptation to excessive stress?". ... Hemmings, Smith, Graydon, & Dyson, Brian, Marcus, Jan,& Rosemary (28 October 1999). "Effects of massage on physiological ... "Effects of massage on physiological restoration, perceived recovery, and repeated sports performance". British Journal of ...

*Human penis

Shackelford, Todd K.; Pound, Nicholas; Goetz, Aaron T. (2005). "Psychological and Physiological Adaptations to Sperm ... The human penis has been argued to have several evolutionary adaptations. The purpose of these adaptations is to maximise ... These adaptations have occurred in order to release and retain sperm to the highest point of the vaginal tract. As a result, ... Semen displacement is an adaptation of the shape of the penis to draw foreign semen away from the cervix. This means that in ...

*Xerophyte

Plants with such morphological and physiological adaptations are xeromorphic. Plants absorb water from the soil, which then ... This adaptation is exhibited by some Agave and Eriogonum species, which can be found growing near Death Valley. Some xerophytes ... "Plant Adaptations". University of New Mexico. Archived from the original on January 4, 2015. Retrieved December 2, 2014. D. J. ... Plants that live under arctic conditions also have a need for xerophytic adaptations, since water is unavailable for uptake ...

*Cucujus clavipes

These beetles have had evolved physiological adaptations to persist . Many studies of insects and some invertebrates have ... Elucidating the biochemical overwintering adaptations of larval Cucujus clavipes puniceus, a nonmodel organism, via high ... these beetles must go through several physiological mechanisms to survive; they are recognised for their ability to change ...

*Thick-billed murre

Croll, DA; Gaston, AJ; Burger, AE; Konnoff, D (1992). "Foraging behavior and physiological adaptation for diving in Thick- ... "Foraging behavior and physiological adaptation for diving in Thick-billed Murres". Ecology. 73 (1): 344-356. doi:10.2307/ ...

*Sperm competition

"Psychological and physiological adaptations to sperm competition in humans" (PDF). Review of General Psychology. 9: 228-248. ... Dozens of adaptations have been documented in males that help them succeed in sperm competition. Mate-guarding is a defensive ... The adaptation of sperm traits, such as length, viability and velocity might be constrained by the influence of cytoplasmic DNA ... Offensive adaptation behavior differs from defensive behavior because it involves an attempt to ruin the chances of another ...

*Crucian carp

Carassius species exhibit some remarkable physiological adaptations to their environment. For example, in entirely anoxic ...

*Bird flight

Many physiological adaptations have evolved that make flight more efficient. Birds that settle on isolated oceanic islands that ... Both adaptations may make them better at avoiding avian predators. The shape of the wing is important in determining the flight ... The most obvious adaptation to flight is the wing, but because flight is so energetically demanding birds have evolved several ... with few adaptations to flapping, but very advanced aerodynamic asymmetrical feathers. It explains that primitive pouncers ( ...

*Short-beaked echidna

Numerous physiological adaptations aid the lifestyle of the short-beaked echidna. Because the animal burrows, it must tolerate ... "Adaptations of the short-beaked echidna Tachyglossus aculateus for sperm production, particularly in an arid environment." ...

*Mottled skate

Sharks and Their Relatives: Physiological Adaptations, Behavior, Ecology, Conservation, and Management. CRC Press. pp. 115-158 ...

*Ectotherm

In addition to behavioral adaptations, physiological adaptations help ectotherms regulate temperature. Diving reptiles conserve ... In contrast, in places where temperature varies so widely as to limit the physiological activities of other kinds of ectotherms ... Physiological Entomology. 36 (2): 120-127. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3032.2010.00770.x. Schowalter, T. D.; Ring, D. R. (2017-01-01). " ... have wider physiological options at their disposal, and they can move to preferred temperatures, avoid ambient temperature ...

*Argyroxiphium grayanum

"Adaptive Radiation of the Hawaiian Silversword Alliance: Ecological and Physiological Adaptations". University of Hawaii Botany ...

*Dactyloidae

Munoz, Martha (November 16, 2012). "Physiological Adaptation On Ecological Timescales - New Research by Alex Gunderson and ... The adaptation that as observed occurred in just 20 generations. This study showed that anoles have the ability to evolve in a ...

*Italian crested newt

There are still other adaptations that enable the newts to survive. T. carnifex have made physiological adaptations that enable ... Physiological adaptations of aquatic newts (NOTOPHTHALMUS VIRIDESCENS) to a terrestrial environment. Physiological Zoology. 50( ... These adaptations have evolved due to both the environment and the physiological conditions the newt finds itself in. This can ... However, after adaptation to a terrestrial phase, they could lose 30% before a loss of motor control was recorded. This is an ...

*Gynaephora groenlandica

Behavioral and physiological adaptations to cold in a freeze-tolerant arctic insect. In: R.E. Lee and D.L. Denlinger (eds) ... This can be attributed to the narrow thermal adaptation of this species and suggests that it cannot increase its levels of ... Firstly, females tend to be flightless and thus do not require this adaptation. Secondly, an auditory system would compete for ... doi:10.1007/s00300-002-0382-y. Hodkinson, Ian D. (2005). "Adaptations of invertebrates to terrestrial Arctic environments" (PDF ...

*John R. Lukacs

He has worked extensively on health and human adaptation in the prehistory of South Asia. Much of this work focuses on ... Lukacs, J. R. and S. R. Walimbe (1998). Physiological stress in prehistoric India: new data on localized hypoplasia of primary ... Biological Anthropology: the State of the Science]. (1998). Physiological Stress in Prehistoric India: New Data on Localized ... 2001). Enamel hypoplasia in the deciduous teeth of early Miocene catarrhines: evidence of perinatal physiological stress. [ ...

*Freshwater fish

To survive fresh water, the fish need a range of physiological adaptations. 41.24% of all known species of fish are found in ... Species migrating between marine and fresh waters need adaptations for both environments; when in salt water they need to keep ...
Detail záznamu - Long-term adaptation to high doses of morphine causes desensitization of micro-OR- and delta-OR-stimulated G-protein response in forebrain cortex but does not decrease the amount of G-protein alpha subunits - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
Description of criteria for the grade 12:. The student demonstrates comprehensive knowledge in relation to physiological adaptations to strength training with special focus on the mechanisms underlying muscle hypertrophy and neural adaptations.. The student demonstrates in the assignment the capability to analyze and discuss possible interacting factors and relate physiological adaptations to functional changes.. The student has written a well-structured and clearly presented assignment including critical evaluation of and citation of relevant scientific literature. ...
Physiological Adaptations for Breeding in Birds Physiological Adaptations for Breeding in Birds is the most current and comprehensive account of research on avian reproduction. It develops two unique themes: the consideration of female avian r...
Physiological adaptations involved in alkane assimilation at a low temperature by Rhodococcus sp. strain Q15.: We examined physiological adaptations which allow
Neuronal adaptation is the intrinsic capacity of the brain to change, by various mechanisms, its dynamical responses as a function of the context. Such a phenomena, widely observed in vivo and in...
Biochemical Adaptation (Heftet) av forfatter Peter W. Hochachka. Naturvitenskap. Pris kr 629. Se flere bøker fra Peter W. Hochachka.
The Mechanical Adaptations of Bones by John D. Currey available in Trade Paperback on Powells.com, also read synopsis and reviews. This book relates the mechanical and structural properties of bone to its function in man and other...
Influence of host resistance on viral adaptation: hepatitis C virus as a case study Anne Plauzolles,1 Michaela Lucas,2,3 Silvana Gaudieri41Centre for Forensic Science, 2School of Medicine and Pharmacology, Harry Perkins Institute, 3School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 4School of Anatomy, Physiology and Human Biology, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, AustraliaAbstract: Genetic and cellular studies have shown that the hosts innate and adaptive immune responses are an important correlate of viral infection outcome. The features of the hosts immune response (host resistance) reflect the coevolution between hosts and pathogens that has occurred over millennia, and that has also resulted in a number of strategies developed by viruses to improve fitness and survival within the host (viral adaptation). In this review, we discuss viral adaptation to host immune pressure via protein-protein interactions and sequence-specific mutations. Specifically, we will present the
Build your digital library for education and life! We are your premier source to collect knowledge and interests, connect across digital platforms, and collaborate with peers across the globe. Upload, shelve, and share to start building your personalized collection of resources, which you can share publicly or keep private! ...
In response to training, the body makes adaptations or adjustments to the level of stress imposed on it. These adaptations allow it to function more comfortably at existing levels of stress and respond more effi ciently to new levels of stress. The time taken before improvements are noticed varies from one individual to another and depends upon the biological systems affected. Although progressive improvements will be seen throughout a training program, it usually takes about 12 weeks to realise the entire benefi ts. Training will cause adaptations to a number of capacities, including resting heart rate, stroke volume,cardiac output, oxygen uptake, lung capacity, hemoglobin levels, muscle sizeand muscle recruitment ...
This study describes the anatomy of sterile leaves of Elaphoglossum discolor (Kuhn) C. Chr., E. flaccidum (Fée) T. Moore and E. laminarioides (Bory ex Fée) T. Moore, the most representative species of the genus in the Ecological Park of Gunma in Pará State. It reports the main diagnostic characters and provides new systematic data for the group. In addition, it locates the production and accumulation sites of bioactive compounds to determine possible adaptive strategies of these species in the Amazon rainforest environment. Diagnostic structural features include stoma typology, central veins and margin forms, type of mesophyll, and the presence of schlerenchymatous sheaths in the cortex, among others. Among the bioactive compounds related to defense adaptation are phenolic compounds, which occur in all three species, and alkaloids and mucilage, which are exclusive to E. laminarioides. Of the three species studied, E. laminarioides has features that make it the best suited to the
Using continuous reaction norms to characterize adaptive responses to temperature, the researchers reexamined a recent study that linked rapid adaptation to specific genetic changes. The study, by Holder and Bull, showed that phage populations quickly evolved higher growth rates at higher temperatures. But, Knies et al. explain, these growth rates were correlated with just one temperature point the optimal temperature for the ancestral populations (used at the beginning of the experiment). Knies et al. reexamined phage thermal adaptation by measuring growth rate over a wider range of temperatures, then used a recently developed statistical method to identify the biological determinants of the shifts in the reaction norm shapes, quantify their relative contributions, and identify the genetic basis of the adaptations ...
The study of biochemical adaption provides fascinating insights into how organisms work and how they evolve to sustain physiological function under a vast array of environmental conditions.
The study of biochemical adaption provides fascinating insights into how organisms work and how they evolve to sustain physiological function under a vast array of environmental conditions.
Behavioral adaptation is the process by which an organism or a species changes its pattern of action to better suit its environment. It is contrasted with structural adaptation, which is the...
We asked whether spatial coding in the visual system is matched to the native blur specific to an individuals HOAs by investigating long-term adaptation to the blur produced by the optics of the eye. Adaptive Optics allow us to cancel the natural aberrations of all subjects, exposing observers to identical aberration patterns and ensuring that any difference across subjects would arise from their own neural processing and their prior neural adaptation. Retinal blur was manipulated by projecting degraded images with known HOAs where realistic blur of different amounts and forms was computer simulated (we used convolved images with the optical point spread function to represent the retinal image quality) using real aberrations from a population. Our results provide strong evidence that spatial vision is calibrated for the specific blur levels present in each individuals retinal image as, for the majority of observers, the level of blur perceived as best-focused was closely predicted by the ...
Objective. To investigate the effect of maternal undernutrition (MUN) during pregnancy on fetal and placental weight, amniotic fluid (AF) volume, AF osmolality and ion concentrations at gestational ages E16 and E20. We also quantified protein expre
Physiological adaptations associated with regular anaerobic training that require near maximal force production. These adaptations include increased muscular strength and speed of action; improved muscle buffering capacity and greater tolerance of changes of tissue fluid pH during intense activity; and increased activity of enzymes involved in the ATP-PCr energy system and glycolysis. Anaerobic training at speed also improves efficiency of movement. ...
1750 words Humans are adapted to numerous ecosystems on earth. This is only possible due to how our physiological systems interact with the environment in a homeodynamic way. This allowed us to spread across the globe, far away from our ancestral home of Africa, and thusly certain adaptations evolved in those populations---which was driven by our intelligent…
thought of as a process in which the nervous system learns to anticipate the environmental forces to eliminate kinematic error. Here we show that motor adaptation can more generally be modeled as a process in which the motor system greedily minimizes a cost function that is the weighted sum of kinematic error and effort. The learning dynamics predicted by this minimization process are a linear, auto-regressive equation with only one state, which has been identified previously as providing a good fit to data from force-field-type experiments. Thus we provide a new theoretical result that shows how these previously identified learning dynamics can be viewed as arising from an optimization of error and effort. We also show that the coefficients of the learning dynamics must fall within a specific range for the optimization model to be valid and verify with experimental data from walking in a force field that they indeed fall in this range. Finally, we attempted to falsify the model by performing ...
An adaptation in biology is a trait with a current functional role in the life history of an organism that is maintained and evolved by means of natural selection. An adaptation refers to both the current state of being adapted and to the dynamic evolutionary process that leads to the adaptation. Adaptations contribute to the fitness and survival of individuals. Organisms face a succession of environmental challenges as they grow and develop and are equipped with an adaptive plasticity as the phenotype of traits develop in response to the imposed conditions. The developmental norm of reaction for any given trait is essential to the correction of adaptation as it affords a kind of biological insurance or resilience to varying environments. ...
After exposure to a consistent temporal delay between auditory and visual stimuli, perceived auditory-visual simultaneity is adjusted to compensate for the adapted lag. Recent proposals that this phenomenon arises as a consequence of changes in perceptual processing latency [21,22] predict a uniform recalibration, in which the perception of all auditory-visual temporal relationships is equally affected. Contrary to this prediction, however, in the present study we have shown that changes in perceived timing induced by asynchrony adaptation vary systematically as a function of the difference between adapted and tested SOAs. This finding is difficult to reconcile with any explanation based on sensory processing changes within either (or both) modalities. Instead, it suggests that asynchrony adaptation acts upon representations of the temporal relationship between auditory and visual inputs itself.. How does the brain represent the relative timing of different sensory inputs? Here we propose that, ...
During the first week of training in the heat, the athlete will experience changes that lower the heart rate, core temperature, and skin temperature, while resting and performing exercise at less than maximal output ...
Downloadable (with restrictions)! We provide a simple evolutionary explanation for the emergence of hedonic adaptation. The models key assumption is that, apart from guiding long-term behavior, some sensations fulfill warning and defense roles (e.g., pain). Contrary to the alternative evolutionary explanations for hedonic adaptation (Robson, 2002; Rayo and Becker, 2007), our theory can explain why some sensations are adaptive, while others (with warning/defense roles) are not adaptive at all. Finally, we show that differential adaptation has important welfare and policy implications.
It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptations, initiated by exercise, can be amplified or reduced by nutrition. Various methods have been discussed to optimize training adaptations and some of these methods have been subject to extensive study. To date, most methods have focused on skeletal muscle, but it is important to note that training effects also include adaptations in other tissues (e.g., brain, vasculature), improvements in the absorptive capacity of the intestine, increases in tolerance to dehydration, and other effects that have received less attention in the literature. The purpose of this review is to define the concept of periodized nutrition (also referred to as nutritional training) and summarize the wide variety of methods available to athletes. The reader is referred to several other recent review articles that have discussed aspects of periodized nutrition in much more detail with primarily a focus on adaptations in the muscle. The purpose of this review is not to discuss ...
Traditionally the study of human adaptation has focused on understanding changes in human behavior induced by changes in the external environment. This paradigm has led to technology solutions that are focused on improving human adaptation by improving the salience of information that the technology provides. However, recent research has shown that human adaptation is strongly impacted by internal human states such as arousal, social context, and goals. The inclusion of internal human states to broaden our understanding of adaptive behavior presents significant theoretical and technical challenges since internal states: occur on multiple time scales (hours, weeks, days), are impacted by a wide variety of physiological feedback mechanisms such as fight or flight, are embedded in highly dynamic parts of the human body such as the brain, and rely critically on not only their current state but also on previous states making them closed loop. Truly mutually adaptive systems will need to take account ...
L Institut fédéral de recherches WSL étudie la forêt, le paysage, la biodiversité, les dangers naturels ainsi que la neige et de la glace. Il fait partie du Domaine des EPF.
Researchers have fresh insight into an evolutionarily ancient way that cells cope when oxygen levels decline, according to a new study in the October 7th issue of Cell Metabolism. In studies of cells taken from the lining ...
Pierre, In all of my years as a biology teacher, I have never heard of the term genetic memory. What in the world is it? As long as we are on the subject, exactly what is a non-valid evolutionary history?? ,From a purely evolutionary standpoint, genetic adaptation is a shprt term phenomenon. Genetic variability can not anticipate future selective pressures. Rather, natural selection for any phenotype provides advantages to the cell or organism only in the present environment. If that environment changes, any particular pre-existing adaptation may or may not remain advantageous. Jay Mone ...
In the first experiment, cells growing in medium supplemented with the two combinations containing a trace element in common died at 2.5 % serum, while for the remaining combinations cell death occurred at a later stage, 0.625 % serum. Cell death was attributed to problems with the procedure of adaptation used in the first experiment, which were identified and corrected in the second experiment. The problems found and the procedure modifications implemented included the use of higher initial cell concentrations to allow the survival of an increased number of cells during the process; avoiding procedures that can be harsh to the cells, such as centrifugation and the use of enzymes (i.e. trypsin) due to a higher sensitivity of cells during adaptation; and allowing enough time in each step of the process for a complete cell adaptation.. After these modifications, in the second experiment, it was possible to observe that cells required a long time to adapt to each level of serum concentration, ...
Whether its a shimmy or strength training, much of the early progress we see with practice is due to neural adaptation rather than actual changes in the strength or size of our muscles. For an Egyptian knee shimmy, the quadriceps and hamstrings are the primary muscle groups we are talking about. Each of these large groups in made up of several smaller muscles and each of these has bundles of muscle fibers that work together. Each of these bundles is controlled by one nerve and that work group of muscle fibers and its nerve is called a motor unit. Check out the picture at the top of this post for an illustration of a motor unit.. When the neural adaptation process starts, the brain and motor units improve the speed and efficiency of their communication. We experience this as our body "cooperating" with us. On a larger scale, the motor units learn to work together in a more synchronized way. Just like a rowing crew that has all its members in perfect timing to achieve maximum speed, your muscles ...
An adaptive control system and method for controlling the path feed rate to achieve a target spindle load during machine tool operations. The adaptive control system can provide load monitoring capabi
A direct hybrid adaptive control framework for nonlinear uncertain hybrid dynamical systems is developed. The proposed hybrid adaptive control framework is Lyapunov-based and guarantees partial asymptotic stability with respect to part of the closed-loop system states associated with the hybrid plan.... Full description. ...
We consider a stochastic evolutionary model for a phenotype developing amongst n related species with unknown phylogeny. The unknown tree ismodelled by a Yule process conditioned on n contemporary nodes. The trait value is assumed to evolve along lineages as an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. As a result, the trait values of the n species form a sample with dependent observations. We establish three limit theorems for the samplemean corresponding to three domains for the adaptation rate. In the case of fast adaptation, we show that for large n the normalized sample mean isapproximately normally distributed. Using these limit theorems, we develop novel confidence interval formulae for the optimal trait value.. ...
All Day Under Eye Lift by Sudden Change gives under eye are a lift when you need it. Bags and Puffiness disappear… by Sudden Change from the Health Shop at WWSM
All BYC rules apply. Lets play nice. I am getting ready to celebrate another birthday. And it is getting harder for me to garden. There are ways to...
The concept here is to regularly submit your body to training in the heat prior to an expected hot race. Research shows this can be an effective strategy. Training in heat increases blood plasma volume over time and promotes other positive physiological adaptations to exercising in the heat. It is not a "quick fix." Training in the heat the week before a race wont help. Adaptation occur over a 3-4 week time period. Sessions need not be longer than 100 minutes. Acclimation must be maintained otherwise the positive effects begin to diminish ...
Description. James Simmie (Department of Planning, Oxford Brookes University) develops an evolutionary economics approach to adaptation and change in urban economies. Abstract: In this lecture, James Simmie develops one of the evolutionary economics approaches to understanding adaptation and change in the economic trajectories of urban economies. Neo-classical equilibrist versions of resilience and adaptation are rejected in favour of an evolutionary perspective. He argues in particular for an explanation based on why and how local economies adapt through time both to continual mutations and to periodic gales of creative destruction. Simmie focuses on the extent to which the "panarchy" conceptual framework can suggest testable hypotheses concerning urban and regional resilience. He explores some ...
This report comprises a summary of the contributions made at a conference in 2016. The conference was conveyed to discuss two main questions: (1) how can law and regulation keep up with advances in science and technology, and (2) how can regulated parties cope with flexibility and adaptation in regulatory frameworks. The conference featured more particularly thinking about Planned Adaptive Regulation (PAR). Regulation of risk in sectors marked by rapid advances in science and technology needs to rely on projections of risks, benefits, safety, efficacy, and acceptable quality, with updates and revisions as new knowledge becomes available. In fields of new technologies, it is essential to address potential emerging risks without discouraging healthy risk taking and stifling innovative activities. Planned Adaptive regulation may be needed to keep up with changing science and technology.. Keywords: IRGC ; planned adaptive regulation ; risk governance. Note: This paper should be cited as: IRGC ...
Chapter 6 Metabolic Adaptations to Exercise. Acute Adaptations. The changes in human physiology that occur during exercise, or in the recovery from exercise. Slideshow 4506437 by anka
Although siDrp1 cells that entered mitosis were able to sustain the mitotic arrest longer than siLuc cells, we noticed that many siDrp1 cells failed to enter mitosis and appeared unhealthy. Indeed, Drp1 depletion has been reported to cause cell cycle defects and a G2 delay (Qian et al, 2012; Westrate et al, 2014). To avoid complications from these interphase phenotypes caused by siDrp1, we inhibited Drp1 in U2OS cells at the time of mitotic entry with the chemical inhibitor of Drp1 Mdivi‐1 (Cassidy‐Stone et al, 2008) and analyzed the kinetics of mitotic adaptation with FACS. An increasing percentage of cells underwent mitotic adaptation with increasing time in taxol, as evidenced by the appearance of MPM2‐negative population (Fig 7C; indicated by red arrows). Chemical inhibition of Drp1 with Mdivi‐1 largely blocked mitotic adaptation in these cells (Fig 7C and D). Addition of cycloheximide to mitotic cells treated with Mdivi‐1 accelerated mitotic adaptation (Fig 7C and D). The fact ...
So what to make of these results? Should aerobic exercise be included as part of any hypertrophy protocol? Lets dig a little deeper and see what can be ascertained from a practical standpoint…. The first thing to evaluate in any scientific study is its theoretical rationale; in other words, does the data make sense? In this case, we need to consider why hypertrophic adaptations take place in muscle tissue. The principle of specificity dictates that adaptations are specific to the stimulus applied. With respect to hypertrophy, muscles grow larger in an effort to respond to strength-related challenges. When an overload stimulus is repeatedly imposed on a muscle (such as during resistance training), it will synthesize proteins in order to meet this challenge in the future. By its very nature, aerobic exercise does not challenge the muscle in a strength-related manner, so there would be little reason for the muscle to respond by hypertrophying. In fact, hypertrophy is detrimental to lengthy ...
Over several decades, many investigators have relied upon tumor cell line and xenograft model systems for testing novel therapeutics. However, these systems carry significant limitations based on adaptation to growth in tissue culture including upregulation of survival genes, alterations in multidrug resistance genes, and often greater similarities to other cultured cells than to the primary tumors they were originally intended to represent (4). In addition, only 5 HPV-positive head and neck squamous cancer cell lines have been described to date (12-16), significantly limiting our ability to investigate differences between HPV-positive and HPV-negative head and neck cancers. The tumorgrafts and cell strains described in the current study represent a promising system under development by which to investigate molecular alterations underlying the growth behavior of head and neck cancers, to serve as a preclinical model system for testing novel therapeutics either alone or in combination with ...
Ability to see at night or in low lighting depends on adaptation in which the pupil of the eye dilates, visual purple increases, and the intensity threshold of the retina is lowered. A decrease in the oxygen content of the … Continue reading →. ...
Transforming raw materials into industrial inputs involves process technologies and machineries which have over the years been imported at exorbitant costs. In addressing this, and in consonance with Councils mandate to advise on adaptation of machinery and processes for raw materials utilization, a number of technologies have been developed specifically for processing raw materials as industrial inputs ...
سال انتشار: ۱۳۸۵ محل انتشار: سیزدهمین کنفرانس مهندسی پزشکی ایران تعداد صفحات: ۸ نویسنده(ها): A Vahdati - F Ghalichi - چکیده: : It is currently believed that the
Question - Period reduced to three days, heavy bleeding two days, no birth control. Why sudden change?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Anemia, Ask an OBGYN, Gynecologic Oncology
Author Summary The environment humans inhabit has changed many times in the last 100,000 years. Migration and dynamic local environments can lead to genetic adaptations favoring beneficial traits. Many genes responsible for these adaptations can alter disease susceptibility. Genes can also affect disease susceptibility by varying randomly across different populations. We have studied genetic variants that are known to modify disease susceptibility in the context of worldwide migration. We found that variants associated with 11 diseases have been affected to an extent that is not explained by random variation. We also found that the genetic risk of type 2 diabetes has steadily decreased along the worldwide human migration trajectory from Africa to America.
The present data demonstrate that primary HCs and CTBs isolated from full-term placentae are permissive to productive ZIKV infection by a contemporary strain currently circulating in the Americas. We also found that HCs respond to infection by triggering antiviral defense programs in the absence of overt cell death. In this limited study of five donors, we observed individual variability in kinetics and magnitude of virus replication, inflammation, and antiviral gene expression, likely reflecting differences in individual genetics (Querec et al., 2009, Thio, 2008). Though unlikely given the low number of cell passages PR 2015 has undergone, it is possible that minor cell culture adaptations or quasi-species may also be playing a role in donor-to-donor variability. These observations suggest that donors may have the capacity to restrict ZIKV at different stages of the viral replication cycle. This may also relate to observed differences in intrauterine transmission efficiency, where more ...
Several results of this study can be generalized. Qualitatively, phenotypes that are accessible only from mutations of large effect will be present in populations subjected to sudden environmental change, but will be absent in populations subjected to slower change. In our simulation, the large initial drop in fitness associated with the sudden change in environment pushes lineages very far from their ancestral adaptive peak and disperses them to different distant points on an adaptive landscape. Since there has been a sudden and large change in environment, the lineages suffer large drops in fitness. In our model, this corresponds to the structures melting. In this case, almost any change that produces an increase in stability will be beneficial, regardless of how dissimilar the structure is from the parental type, since all melted structures will have large and inevitable fitness costs with small differences between them, and fitness gains early in adaptation will be driven largely by gains in ...
This set of tutorial materials covers the topic of velocity dependent forces. Students examine qualitatively and quantitatively the motion of objects being acted upon by a velocity dependent force, exemplified by the motion of objects experiencing…
Customer-focused services such as calibration, repairs or regional product adaptations are provided by Kistler Tech Centers in Germany, the US, China...
The older adults accepted significantly blurrier images than younger adults. Even when they were originally shown focused photos, their responses were neutral to slightly blurred photos. But this was a systematic bias: it occurred at every level of blurriness/sharpness of the original photos during the adaptation phase. While younger adults accepted blurry images after adapting to blurry images, older adults accepted even blurrier ones. Once the researchers adjusted for this systematic bias, the results for younger and older adults were the same.. So overall, it seems, even as the visual system deteriorates with age, we are able to adapt to these changes remarkably well. From the perspective of the individual, while everything fades a little bit, the differences between the items we perceive remain constant.. Were you able to detect any changes in the "in focus" photo from the movie at the beginning of this post? Let us know in the comments.. ...
A cells reaction to any change in the endogenous or exogenous conditions often involves a complex response that eventually either leads to cell adaptation and survival or to the initiation and execution of (programmed) cell death. The molecular deci
Under normal conditions cells are in a homeostatic or steady state. When stimulus arrived to the cell, first the cell will adapt but if this stimulus crosses the boundary of adaptation it will cause cell injury. So cells respond to the stimulus by the following two ways: ...
mediated process in concert with post-emergence selection. In the primitive species, larval offspring of these adapted adults will have to evaluate the state of the environment to determine if they should seek a mobile host to find a more hospitable environment, or if the should seek one to which they are adapted. If a larva chooses a mobile host, its embryo may posses different metabolic requirements or a generally different metabolism, which may result in the death of the embryoembryo after prolonged exposure. The nymphnymph must remain capable of aborting its development at the minimum possible stage and emerging from the host, developing a new adaptive strategy from the information gathered from the host, and surviving to reproduce and create eggs adapted to the new environment. This minimum stage is limbless, displaying only the buds of limbs, and uses the segmented tail for propulsion. If the larva chooses a host to which it is adapted, there will be much less danger to the embryo from the ...
Drops sets are unquestionably among the most popular intensity techniques ... and they for sure feel effective, but are they? The latest study says "NO!"...
Presents experimental results for two adaptive nonlinear controllers applied to a variable reluctance motor (VRM). The first controller requires both rotor
What s a survival tool ? The answer is simple: anything that provides a function you need is a survival tool in the right circumstances. Human ingenuity and adaptation can never be underestimated, but being ready to perform certain functions, with
报告地点:禧强楼三楼报告厅报告时间:2017年09月28日10:30-11:30主办单位:福建农林大学植物免疫研究中心、作物科学学院报告题目:Molecularcommandersoncellularhighwaysandtheirrolesinplantdevelopmentandenvironmentaladaption报告人:孔照胜研究员中国科学院微生物研究所植物基因组学国家重点实验室简介:中科院
1H13: The Structure of a Cold-Adapted Family 8 Xylanase at 1.3 A Resolution: Structural Adaptations to Cold and Investigation of the Active Site
Utilizing environmental information to predict future positive and negative outcomes is a behavioral adaptation that is essential for survival. While this proce...
1H12: The Structure of a Cold-Adapted Family 8 Xylanase at 1.3 A Resolution: Structural Adaptations to Cold and Investigation of the Active Site
Cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases can disrupt the supply of O2 to tissues. Inadequate O2 supply can threaten cell survival and trigger organ failure. All ma...
The paper presents a brief review on how some concepts on the organism general adaptational reactions developed, including their role in increasing the unspecific resistance in the organism. Demonstrated is periodicity of the patterns of anti-stressor type reactions (training, calm and elevated activation) and stress in a wide range of stimulation values. ...
The increase in performance generally is related to the achievement of adaptive changes in the organism. Adaptive changes can be achieved by repeated...
This is a very good question. Certainly life would have remained at a very primitive level without the ability of genetic material to mutate. The balance is primarily mantained by the accuracy of polymerases that copy DNA and by the efficiency of error correcting mechanisms. The environment also plays a role in creating errors in non-replicating DNA that can be copied later, though this is pretty much a non-changing parameter ...
Kia ora! Hola! Bonjour! سلام! こんにちは! नमस्ते Namastē! مرحبا! 您好!Hallå! Hallo! Selamat Datang! ☮ Welcome to DarkintheBoy! ⭐(★´♡‿♡`+)⭐. ...
CAMBRIDGE MA Forty five years ago 834 young people (819 men and 15 women) received their bachelor of science degrees from MIT As one of them I have wondered ever since how we would do in life how
This is the main magazine section of the PerAda or Pervasive Adaptation Research Network. This site provides articles relevant to the research and discussion of Pervasive Adaptation.
If you say the answer is B, no problem. I accept, but I thought the answer is A adaptive radiation. The reason being that; I have grown up to know and understand adaptation as a term which describe how an organism posses certian features or behave in certian way to fit into their enviroment perfectly ...
If we are takling about scientificly evolving into a different form in this world, it may be possible but it will most likely be done by us rather than through adaptation (we arent patient enough for it). If we are talking about ascending to heavan/astral planes/etc./etc., we might want to find ...
The recent film adaptation of Jill Ciments Heroic Measures doesnt match the original. We quiz her on the transfer from page to screen.
This page deals with Hiromu Arakawas original manga and its direct anime adaptation (titled Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood). For the loose 2003 anime …
The predicted climate change causes deep concerns on the effects of increasing temperatures and changing precipitation patterns on species viability and, in turn, on biodiversity. Models of Population Viability Analysis (PVA) provide a powerful tool to assess the risk of species extinction. However, most PVA models do not take into account the potential effects of behavioural adaptations. Organisms might adapt to new environmental situations and thereby mitigate negative effects of climate change. To demonstrate such mitigation effects, we use an existing PVA model describing a population of the tawny eagle (Aquila rapax) in the southern Kalahari. This model does not include behavioural adaptations. We develop a new model by assuming that the birds enlarge their average territory size to compensate for lower amounts of precipitation. Here, we found the predicted increase in risk of extinction due to climate change to be much lower than in the original model. However, this "buffering" of climate ...
Here, lignocellulosic bioethanol from renewable feedstocks using Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a promising alternative to fossil fuels owing to environmental challenges. S. cerevisiae is frequently challenged by bacterial contamination and a combination of lignocellulosic inhibitors formed during the pre-treatment, in terms of growth, ethanol yield and productivity. We investigated the phenotypic robustness of a brewing yeast strain TMB3500 and its ability to adapt to low pH thereby preventing bacterial contamination along with lignocellulosic inhibitors by short-term adaptation and adaptive lab evolution (ALE). The short-term adaptation strategy was used to investigate the inherent ability of strain TMB3500 to activate a robust phenotype involving pre-culturing yeast cells in defined medium with lignocellulosic inhibitors at pH 5.0 until late exponential phase prior to inoculating them in defined media with the same inhibitor cocktail at pH 3.7. Adapted cells were able to grow aerobically, ...
Lignocellulosic bioethanol from renewable feedstocks using Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a promising alternative to fossil fuels owing to environmental challenges. S. cerevisiae is frequently challenged by bacterial contamination and a combination of lignocellulosic inhibitors formed during the pre-treatment, in terms of growth, ethanol yield and productivity. We investigated the phenotypic robustness of a brewing yeast strain TMB3500 and its ability to adapt to low pH thereby preventing bacterial contamination along with lignocellulosic inhibitors by short-term adaptation and adaptive lab evolution (ALE). The short-term adaptation strategy was used to investigate the inherent ability of strain TMB3500 to activate a robust phenotype involving pre-culturing yeast cells in defined medium with lignocellulosic inhibitors at pH 5.0 until late exponential phase prior to inoculating them in defined media with the same inhibitor cocktail at pH 3.7. Adapted cells were able to grow aerobically, ferment
Nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) is the most widely used nanomaterial for environmental remediation. The impacts of nZVI on terrestrial organisms have been recently reported, and in particular, plant growth was promoted by nZVI treatment in various concentrations. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the detailed physiological and biochemical responses of plants toward nZVI treatment for agricultural application. Here, the effects of nZVI on photosynthesis and related biochemical adaptation of soil-grown Arabidopsis thaliana were examined. After treatment with 500 mg nZVI/kg soil, the plant biomass increased by 38% through enhanced photosynthesis, which was confirmed by the gas-exchange system, carbon isotope ratio and chlorophyll content analysis. Besides, the iron uptake of the plant increased in roots and leaves. The magnetic property measurements and transmission electron microscopy showed that the transformed particles were accumulated in parts of the plant tissues. The accumulation of
Accuracy of saccadic eye movements is maintained thanks to adaptation mechanisms. The adaptive lengthening and shortening of reactive and voluntary saccades rely on partially separate neural substrates. Although in daily-life we mostly perform sequences of saccades, the effect of saccadic adaptation has been mainly evaluated on single saccades. Here, sequences of two saccades were recorded before and after adaptation of rightward saccades. In 4 separate sessions, reactive and voluntary saccades were adaptively shortened or lengthened. We found that the second saccade of the sequence always remained accurate and compensated for the adaptive changes of the first rightward saccade size. This finding suggests that adaptation loci are upstream of the site where the efference copy involved in sequence planning originates.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cognitive behavioral stress management effects on psychosocial and physiological adaptation in women undergoing treatment for breast cancer. AU - Antoni, Michael H. AU - Lechner, Suzanne C. AU - Diaz, Alain. AU - Vargas, Sara. AU - Holley, Heather. AU - Phillips, Kristin. AU - McGregor, Bonnie. AU - Carver, Charles S. AU - Blomberg, Bonnie B. PY - 2009/7/1. Y1 - 2009/7/1. N2 - Background: A diagnosis of breast cancer and treatment are psychologically stressful events, particularly over the first year after diagnosis. Women undergo many demanding and anxiety-arousing treatments such as surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Psychosocial interventions that promote psychosocial adaptation to these challenges may modulate physiological processes (neuroendocrine and immune) that are relevant for health outcomes in breast cancer patients. Methods: Women with Stages 1-3 breast cancer recruited 4-8 weeks after surgery were randomized to either a 10-week group-based cognitive behavioral ...
Electrocardiographic changes in athletes are common and usually reflect benign structural and electrical remodelling of the heart as a physiological adaptation to regular and sustained physical training (athletes heart). The ability to identify an abnormality on the 12-lead ECG, suggestive of underlying cardiac disease associated with sudden cardiac death (SCD), is based on a sound working knowledge of the normal ECG characteristics within the athletic population. This document will assist physicians in identifying normal ECG patterns commonly found in athletes. The ECG findings presented as normal in athletes were established by an international consensus panel of experts in sports cardiology and sports medicine.. ...
Taken together, the evidence strongly supports the notion that the inverted retina and its major consequence (the positioning of the photoreceptors in the outer section of the retina where they are in intimate contact with the choriocapillaris) is a specific adaptation designed to deliver abundant quantities of oxygen to the photoreceptor cells commensurate with their high energy demands--especially in metabolically active groups such as the birds and mammals. Rather than being a case of maladaptation, the inverted retina is probably an essential element in the overall design of the vertebrate visual system.. This conclusion is reinforced by the difficulty of envisaging alternative means of delivering the required amounts of oxygen to the photoreceptor cell layer if the retina had the typical non-inverted design of the sort that might appeal to a tidy-minded engineer. Blood absorbs light strongly, as witnessed by the fact that in the area centralis or macular region--which is the high-visual ...
Vertebrate ectotherms such as reptiles provide ideal organisms for the study of adaptation to environmental thermal change. Comparative genomic and exomic studies can recover markers that diverge between warm and cold adapted lineages, but the genes that are functionally related to thermal adaptation may be difficult to identify. We here used a bioinformatics genome-mining approach to predict and identify functions for suitable candidate markers for thermal adaptation in the chicken. We first established a framework of candidate functions for such markers, and then compiled the literature on genes known to adapt to the thermal environment in different lineages of vertebrates. We then identified them in the genomes of human, chicken, and the lizard Anolis carolinensis, and established a functional genetic interaction network in the chicken. Surprisingly, markers initially identified from diverse lineages of vertebrates such as human and fish were all in close functional relationship with each other and
Saccadic adaptation allows for the gradual compensation of systematic position errors and is traditionally thought to maintain saccadic accuracy despite peripheral changes such as muscle weakness or growth. In the lab it is commonly induced by shifting the target during the saccade. Here we asked whether adaptation can be similarly driven by a mismatch between the requirements of a post-saccadic perceptual task and the saccade landing position. Observers were asked to saccade towards a peripheral letter array. At one particular location in the array they had to perform a letter-discrimination task. In pre- and post-adaptation trials, the central letter in the array had to be discriminated. In adaptation trials, the letter at a fixed eccentric location in the array had to be discriminated, such that saccades had to be shortened or prolonged. In contrast to previous research, only the position of the discrimination-letter within the array changed, while the position of the array itself remained ...
Author Summary Adaptation in eukaryotes is often assumed to be limited by the waiting time for adaptive mutations. This is because effective population sizes are relatively small, typically on the order of only a few million reproducing individuals or less. It should therefore take hundreds or even thousands of generations until a particular new mutation emerges. However, several striking examples of rapid adaptation appear inconsistent with this view. Here we investigate a showpiece case for rapid adaptation, the evolution of pesticide resistance in the classical genetic organism Drosophila melanogaster. Our analysis reveals distinct population genetic signatures of this adaptation that can only be explained if the number of reproducing flies is, in fact, more than 100-fold larger than commonly believed. We argue that the old estimates, based on standing levels of neutral genetic variation, are misleading in the case of rapid adaptation because levels of standing variation are strongly affected by
Sociobiology is not just any statement that biology, genetics, and evolutionary theory have something to do with human behavior. Sociobiology is a specific theory about the nature of genetic and evolutionary input into human behavior. It rests upon the view that natural selection is a virtually omnipotent architect, constructing organisms part by part as best solutions to problems of life in local environments. It fragments organisms into traits, explains their existence as a set of best solutions, and argues that each trait is a product of natural selection operating for the form or behavior in question. Applied to humans, it must view specific behaviors (not just general potentials) as adaptations built by natural selection and rooted in genetic determinants, for natural selection is a theory of genetic change. Thus, we are presented with unproved and unprovable speculations about the adaptive and genetic basis of specific human behaviors: why some (or all) people are aggressive, xenophobic, ...
UK - Adaptation measures to help us cope with climate change have the potential to generate further threats for both local and global ecosystems, according to a new study from the University of East Anglia.
Advances in bioinformatics and high-throughput genetic analysis increasingly allow us to predict the genetic basis of adaptive traits. These predictions can be tested and confirmed, but the molecular-level changes-i.e. the molecular adaptation-that link genetic differences to organism fitness remain generally unknown. In recent years, a series of studies have started to unpick the mechanisms of adaptation at the molecular level. In particular, this work has examined how changes in protein function, activity, and regulation cause improved organismal fitness. Key to addressing molecular adaptations is identifying systems and designing experiments that integrate changes in the genome, protein chemistry (molecular phenotype), and fitness. Knowledge of the molecular changes underpinning adaptations allow new insight into the constraints on, and repeatability of adaptations, and of the basis of non-additive interactions between adaptive mutations. Here we critically discuss a series of studies that ...
Background: Bacteria employ a variety of adaptation strategies during the course of chronic infections. Understanding bacterial adaptation can facilitate the identification of novel drug targets for better treatment of infectious diseases. Transcriptome profiling is a comprehensive and high-throughput approach for characterization of bacterial clinical isolates from infections. However, exploitation of the complex, noisy and high-dimensional transcriptomic dataset is difficult and often hindered by low statistical power. Results: In this study, we have applied two kinds of unsupervised analysis methods, principle component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA), to extract and characterize the most informative features from transcriptomic dataset generated from cystic fibrosis (CF) Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. ICA was shown to be able to efficiently extract biological meaningful features from the transcriptomic dataset and improve clustering patterns of CF isolates. ...
Review for Sudden Change, Sudden Change Under Eye Firming Serum, Eye Treatments. Read more Sudden Change product reviews at Total Beauty.
Enthesophytes are bony projections that arise from the sites of ligament, tendon or joint capsule attachment to a bone. They are seen rarely in radiographic findings in young adults, as these bony adaptations are assumed to develop slowly over time. However, in recent years, the presence of an enlarged external occipital protuberance (EEOP) has been observed frequently in radiographs of relatively young patients at the clinic of the lead author. Accordingly, the aim of this project was to assess the prevalence of an EEOP in a young adult population. Analysis involved a retrospective analysis of 218 lateral cervical radiographic studies of 18-30-year-old participants. Group A (n = 108; males = 45, females = 63) consisted of asymptomatic university students, while Group B (n = 110; males = 50, females = 60) were an age-matched mildly symptomatic, non-student population. The external occipital protuberance (EOP) size was defined as the distance from the most superior point of the EOP (origin) to a point on
In Chrysopidae, apart from the morphofunctional type of larvae that exhibit the trash-carrying behavior, there are the so-called "naked larvae," along with a few cases of morphologically and ethologically intermediate stages (11). Trash-carrying extant larvae tend to possess morphological characters that increase the potential for ensnaring debris, as well as forming a defined space for the trash packet components (4). There is evidence suggesting that these adaptations evolved several times within Chrysopidae (12). Such adaptations are present in the fossil, as a gibbous (humped) body, adapted for moving while carrying great loads. However, two of these adaptations are strikingly peculiar. H. diogenesi has: (i) pairs of dorsal setigerous tubercles, but these are extremely elongated, tubule-shaped; and (ii) setation on the tubular tubercles, but representing a special system for ensnaring the trash packet components. In extant trash-carrying larvae, the lateral tubercles are often much more ...
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity is a unique peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles dealing with the cellular and molecular mechanisms of oxidative stress in the nervous system and related organ systems in relation to aging, immune function, vascular biology, metabolism, cellular survival and cellular longevity. Oxidative stress impacts almost all acute and chronic progressive disorders and on a cellular basis is intimately linked to aging, cardiovascular disease, cancer, immune function, metabolism and neurodegeneration. The journal fills a significant void in todays scientific literature and serves as an international forum for the scientific community worldwide to translate pioneering
Sensory Adaptations and Response to stimuli. Varieties of Stimuli and their Receptors. Sense Organs. Sense organs carry messages about the environment to the central nervous system. Sense Organs. The eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin are examples of sense organs. Slideshow 2108787 by zareh
Second, the data show a consistent decrease in threshold when adapting and test patterns have different forms. This effect is statistically significant (two-way ANOVA, 5.83 , F(1,16) , 8.83, P , 0.05) in three of the eight conditions. We interpret this result in light of the adaptation aftereffect reported by Clifford and Weston (2005). Adaptation to a concentric pattern induces subsequent random patterns to appear radial, and vice versa. Thus, in trials containing for example a radial pattern and a random one after adaptation to a concentric pattern, subjects are biased and perceive a radial pattern in both intervals. This tendency is visible in the analysis of errors made in these experiments: when subjects chose the wrong interval, they did not indicate seeing a radial or concentric pattern with equal probability (50%), as would be expected in the absence of aftereffect, but overwhelmingly (78% on average) indicated the pattern opposite to the adaptation pattern. Moreover, we compared the ...
The focus of our group is on the plasticity of skeletal muscle during cycles of damage and regeneration as well as during loss and gain of muscle mass under conditions of hospitalisation-induced bedrest and resistance training, particularly in elderly individuals. At the cellular level, we are interested in the response of the various muscle cell populations contributing to the adaptation response, which we study in vivo and in vitro. Pharmacological intervention in the form of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication or blocking Angiotensin II receptor signalling are currently being investigated in human studies.. Group members: ...
Dr. Boehlert specializes in applied economics and policy analysis, with a focus on water resources and climate change. He has extensive experience analyzing the effects of changes in water availability and allocation, climate change impacts and adaptation responses, the economic impacts of environmental regulations, and the costs of damages to natural resources. He is collaborating on the Joint Programs analysis of water and energy resources with a focus on development in Africa.. ...
Response options to mitigate these threats or to adapt to changing environs are needed to ensure a sustainable biosphere for all forms of life. To that end, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change provides a forum to encourage the conceptualization, critical examination and debate on environmental change response options. Moreover, the aim of this journal is to provide a forum to review, analyze and stimulate the development, testing and implementation of mitigation and adaptation strategies at regional, national and global scales. One of the primary goals of the journal is to contribute to real-time policy development as environmental treaties and agreements are discussed and promulgated. Examples of mitigation and adaptation strategies, policies and technical topics considered by this journal include emerging environmental technologies, restoration and reclamation ecology, non- renewable energy conservation, renewable and alternative energy supply and use, sustainable ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chromatin remodeling regulates catalase expression during cancer cells adaptation to chronic oxidative stress. AU - Glorieux,Christophe. AU - Sandoval,Juan Marcelo. AU - Fattaccioli,Antoine. AU - Dejeans,Nicolas. AU - Garbe,James C.. AU - Dieu,Marc. AU - Verrax,Julien. AU - Renard,Patricia. AU - Huang,Peng. AU - Calderon,Pedro Buc. PY - 2016/10/1. Y1 - 2016/10/1. N2 - Regulation of ROS metabolism plays a major role in cellular adaptation to oxidative stress in cancer cells, but the molecular mechanism that regulates catalase, a key antioxidant enzyme responsible for conversion of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen, remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the transcriptional regulatory mechanism controlling catalase expression in three human mammary cell lines: the normal mammary epithelial 250MK primary cells, the breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells and an experimental model of MCF-7 cells resistant against oxidative stress resulting from chronic exposure to H2O2 ...
Background & Purpose: While previous studies have implicated localized cortical regions in the recovery of locomotor function in stroke survivors, very little is known about the mechanisms that underlie the recovery of locomotor adaptation in stroke survivors. Locomotor adaptation in stroke survivors is hampered due to the deterioration in bilateral coordination during gait. In an ongoing study, bilateral incoordination in gait was targeted with a split-belt paradigm and cortical neurovascular changes during the adaptation task were recorded with Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS).. Subjects & Methods: In this study, chronic stroke survivors walked on a split-belt treadmill while wearing an fNIRS device. In a series of trials participants walked in baseline, split-belt, and catch conditions. A continuous wave fNIRS system, the ETG-4000 Optical System (Hitachi Medical Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) utilizing two different wavelengths (~695 and ~830 nm) sampling at 10 Hz, was used to ...
A well-balanced microbial consortium is crucial for efficient biogas production. In turn, one of a major factor that influence on the structure of anaerobic digestion consortium is a source of microorganisms which are used as an inoculum. This study evaluated the influence of inoculum sources (with various origin) on adaptation of a biogas community and the efficiency of the biomethanization of maize silage.As initial inocula for anaerobic digestion of maize silage the samples from: (i) an agricultural biogas plant (ABP) which utilizes maize silage as a main substrate, (ii) cattle slurry (CS), which contain elevated levels of lignocelluloses materials, and (iii) raw sewage sludge (RSS) with low content of plant origin materials were used. The adaptation of methanogenic consortia was monitored during a series of passages, and the functionality of the adapted consortia was verified through start-up operation of anaerobic digestion in two-stage reactors. During the first stages of the adaptation phase,
Saccadic eye movements are driven by motor commands that are continuously modified so that errors created by eye muscle fatigue, injury, or-in humans-wearing spectacles can be corrected. It is possible to rapidly adapt saccades in the laboratory by introducing a discrepancy between the intended and actual saccadic target. Neurophysiological and lesion studies in the non-human primate as well as neuroimaging and patient studies in humans have demonstrated that the oculomotor vermis (lobules VI and VII of the posterior cerebellum) is critical for saccadic adaptation. We studied the effect of transiently disrupting the function of posterior cerebellum with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on the ability of healthy human subjects to adapt saccadic eye movements. rTMS significantly impaired the adaptation of the amplitude of saccades, without modulating saccadic amplitude or variability in baseline conditions. Moreover, increasing the intensity of rTMS produced a larger impairment in the
Left: The EDNRB gene may play a role in Ethiopians adaptation to life at high altitudes. Right: EDNRB coordinates a network of genes involved in heart function.. Ethiopians have lived at high altitudes for thousands of years, providing a natural experiment for studying human adaptations to low oxygen, a condition known as hypoxia. One factor that may enable Ethiopians to tolerate high altitudes and hypoxia is the endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB) gene. Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine now find that mice with lower-than-normal levels of EDNRB protein are remarkably tolerant to hypoxia. The study, published this week by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, provides a mechanism for the genes role in adaptation to life at high altitudes and suggests that EDNRB could be targeted to treat sea level diseases that stem from lack of oxygen.. "This is the first demonstration that a gene involved in high altitude adaptation is critical in protecting ...
In the visual system, prolonged exposure to a high contrast stimulus leads to a decrease in neuronal responsiveness, referred to as contrast adaptation. Contrast adaptation has been extensively studied in carnivores and primates, but has so far received little attention in mice. This thesis explores contrast adaptation and its mechanisms in mouse primary visual cortex (V1). Using extracellular tetrode recordings in mouse V1, I found contrast adaptation to be orientation unspecific. While this finding differs from reports in carnivores and primates, it is consistent with the notion that responsiveness of individual neurons is influenced by the activity history of the local network. Adaptation was also found to be cell-type specific, as putative parvalbumin (PV) expressing interneurons underwent less adaptation than other cell types. There is debate whether adaptation arises within the cortex or is inherited from the earlier stages in the visual pathway (e.g. visual thalamus or retina). In order ...
The motion aftereffect (MAE) is an illusory motion in the opposite direction after the sudden halt of a prolonged moving visual stimulus. The human experience of the motion aftereffect has been extensively researched utilising many different experimental approaches. The ability of the avian species to perceive this motion illusion has not been so well researched and such a phenomenon has never been investigated in domestic chickens. The aim of the experiment reported in this thesis was to test whether domestic chickens can perceive a motion aftereffect. Xiao and Gunturkun (2008) carried out a study to investigate whether pigeons could perceive the motion aftereffect. After initially failing to obtain evidence for the effect they modified their procedure and found results that were better but still not strongly suggestive of a robust motion aftereffect. Their methodology was further refined for this thesis to see if evidence for the motion aftereffect could be found in chickens. The chickens ...

Physiological adaptations legal definition of Physiological adaptationsPhysiological adaptations legal definition of Physiological adaptations

What is Physiological adaptations? Meaning of Physiological adaptations as a legal term. What does Physiological adaptations ... Definition of Physiological adaptations in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... redirected from Physiological adaptations). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. Adaptation. The act or ... Physiological adaptations legal definition of Physiological adaptations https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ ...
more infohttps://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Physiological+adaptations

Mechanism of Action of ABC Importers: Conservation, Divergence, and Physiological Adaptations.  - PubMed - NCBIMechanism of Action of ABC Importers: Conservation, Divergence, and Physiological Adaptations. - PubMed - NCBI

Mechanism of Action of ABC Importers: Conservation, Divergence, and Physiological Adaptations.. Lewinson O1, Livnat-Levanon N2. ... which correlates with their physiological roles. Here, we summarize recent advances in ABC importers structure-function ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28104364

Physiological adaptations in Candida albicans by Ruvini U Pathirana"Physiological adaptations in Candida albicans" by Ruvini U Pathirana

Here we propose the presence of UQ9 is a physiological adaptation for stress tolerance in this pathogenic yeast. ... Physiological adaptations in Candida albicans. Ruvini U Pathirana, University of Nebraska - Lincoln. ... Pathirana, Ruvini U, "Physiological adaptations in Candida albicans" (2016). ETD collection for University of Nebraska - ... Here we propose the presence of UQ9 is a physiological adaptation for stress tolerance in this pathogenic yeast. ...
more infohttps://digitalcommons.unl.edu/dissertations/AAI10245264/

Camel milk. Properties and Products: 1 Introduction: 1.3 Physiological adaptation to the desert environmentCamel milk. Properties and Products: 1 Introduction: 1.3 Physiological adaptation to the desert environment

1.3 Physiological adaptation to the desert environment. The habitat of the camel is characterised by large variations in ... In the following, some of the particular mechanisms of the adaptation of the camel are briefly described. For more ...
more infohttp://www.nzdl.org/gsdlmod?e=d-00000-00---off-0hdl--00-0----0-10-0---0---0direct-10---4-------0-1l--11-en-50---20-about---00-0-1-00-0--4----0-0-11-10-0utfZz-8-00&cl=CL3.46&d=HASH01972c77cb5aab281652d977.3.3&hl=0&gc=0>=0

SSE #139 Physiological Adaptations to Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval TrainingSSE #139 Physiological Adaptations to Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training

PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS TO LOW-VOLUME HIIT. Similar to traditional endurance or strength training, physiological adaptations ... Gibala M.J., J.B. Gillen J.B., and M.E. Percival (2014). Physiological and health-related adaptations to low-volume interval ... Gibala, M.J., J.P. Little, M.J. MacDonald, and J.A. Hawley (2012). Physiological adaptations to low volume, high-intensity ... SSE #139 Physiological Adaptations to Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training. Martin J. Gibala ...
more infohttps://www.gssiweb.org/en-ca/Article/sse-139-physiological-adaptations-to-low-volume-high-intensity-interval-training

Can supplementation with vitamin C and E alter physiological adaptations to strength training?Can supplementation with vitamin C and E alter physiological adaptations to strength training?

... Paulsen, Gøran; Cumming, ... Can supplementation with vitamin C and E alter physiological adaptations to strength training? BMC Sports Science, Medicine and ... the hypothesis that high dosages of vitamin C (1000 mg/day) and E (235 mg/day) have negative effects on adaptation ... adaptation processes. Since this issue concerns many people and few randomized controlled trials have been ...
more infohttps://brage.bibsys.no/xmlui/handle/11250/219647

Physiological adaptations to reproduction. II. Mitochondrial adjustments in livers of lactating mice | Journal of Experimental...Physiological adaptations to reproduction. II. Mitochondrial adjustments in livers of lactating mice | Journal of Experimental...

Cellular adaptation to physiological processes such as reproduction necessitates the control of mitochondrial respiration to be ... 2013). Physiological adaptations to reproduction. I. Experimentally increasing litter size enhances aspects of antioxidant ... Physiological adaptations to reproduction. II. Mitochondrial adjustments in livers of lactating mice ... Physiological adaptations to reproduction. II. Mitochondrial adjustments in livers of lactating mice ...
more infohttp://jeb.biologists.org/content/216/15/2889

Proteomic and molecular investigation on the physiological adaptation of Comamonas sp. strain CNB-1 growing on 4...Proteomic and molecular investigation on the physiological adaptation of Comamonas sp. strain CNB-1 growing on 4...

In this study, physiological adaptation to 4CNB by CNB-1 was investigated with proteomic and molecular tools. Comparative ... Proteomic and molecular investigation on the physiological adaptation of Comamonas sp. strain CNB-1 growing on 4- ... 4CNB and/or succinate revealed that adaptation to 4CNB by CNB-1 included specific degradative pathway and general physiological ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/18509595

Antarctic king crabs: ecological adaptations versus physiological constraints?  - ePICAntarctic king crabs: ecological adaptations versus physiological constraints? - ePIC

... ecological adaptations versus physiological constraints? , IV. European Crustacean Conference, Lodz, Poland.-26.07. . ...
more infohttp://epic.awi.de/8185/

José Pablo Vázquez-Medina, Redox Biology: from physiological adaptation to mechanisms of disease | Department of BiologyJosé Pablo Vázquez-Medina, "Redox Biology: from physiological adaptation to mechanisms of disease" | Department of Biology

... species in cellular signaling during health and disease underscores the prominence of redox biology in driving physiological ... Elephant seals are a prime example of extreme physiological adaptation as they can hold their breath for extended periods while ... José Pablo Vázquez-Medina, Redox Biology: from physiological adaptation to mechanisms of disease ... I have also been studying the role of redox signaling in mediating physiological responses in animals adapted to extreme ...
more infohttps://biology.stanford.edu/events/jos-pablo-v-zquez-medina-redox-biology-physiological-adaptation-mechanisms-disease

Physiological Adaptation to Nutrient Starvation: A Key Role for ERK7 in Regulation of Insulin Secretion and Metabolic...Physiological Adaptation to Nutrient Starvation: A Key Role for ERK7 in Regulation of Insulin Secretion and Metabolic...

Physiological Adaptation to Nutrient Starvation: A Key Role for ERK7 in Regulation of Insulin Secretion and Metabolic ... Physiological Adaptation to Nutrient Starvation: A Key Role for ERK7 in Regulation of Insulin Secretion and Metabolic ...
more infohttps://helda.helsinki.fi/handle/10138/226023

Mitigation of Bone Loss and Augment of Anabolic Adaptation by Physiological Dynamic Fluid Flow StimulationMitigation of Bone Loss and Augment of Anabolic Adaptation by Physiological Dynamic Fluid Flow Stimulation

... ... The global hypothesis was that DHS mediates ImP-induced regulation of BFF and promotes osteogenic adaptation, which in turn ... While bone fluid flow (BFF) regulates bone adaptation, intramedullary pressure (ImP) can initiate BFF and influence osteogenic ... to evaluate the effects of optimized DHS on skeletal tissue adaptation under functional disuse condition, 3) to evaluate the ...
more infohttps://dspace.sunyconnect.suny.edu/handle/1951/60264

Physiological Adaptations for Breeding in Birds - Breeding Biology - Books - Books - Ornithology ExchangePhysiological Adaptations for Breeding in Birds - Breeding Biology - Books - Books - Ornithology Exchange

Physiological Adaptations for Breeding in Birds Physiological Adaptations for Breeding in Birds is the most current and ... Physiological Adaptations for Breeding in Birds. Author: Williams, Tony D.. Published: 2012-07-16 Publisher's Description: ... Physiological Adaptations for Breeding in Birds is the most current and comprehensive account of research on avian reproduction ... He argues that there is only a rudimentary, and in some cases nonexistent, understanding of the physiological mechanisms that ...
more infohttp://ornithologyexchange.org/resources/books/index.html/_/avian-biology/breeding-biology/physiological-adaptations-for-breeding-in-birds-r46

Adaptation, Physiological | The Chopra LibraryAdaptation, Physiological | The Chopra Library

Later morphological and physiological studies, together with observations from fish populations in the wild, revealed that fish ... Proteasomal adaptation to environmental stress links resistance to proteotoxicity with longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans. ... Metabolic adaptations to methionine restriction that benefit health and lifespan in rodents. ... However, the links between adaptations to conditions associated with protein misfolding and resistance to the time-dependent ...
more infohttp://isharonline.org/tags/adaptation-physiological

Physiological Adaptation in Women Concurrently Training for - Technische Informationsbibliothek (TIB)Physiological Adaptation in Women Concurrently Training for - Technische Informationsbibliothek (TIB)

Physiological Adaptation in Women Concurrently Training for Strength and Endurance. Gravelle, B. L. / Blessing, D. L. , 2000 ... ORIGINAL RESEARCH - Physiological Adaptation in Women Concurrently Training for Strength and Endurance Gravelle, Brent L. / ... ORIGINAL RESEARCH - Physiological Adaptation in Women Concurrently Training for Strength and Endurance ... Physiological Profiles of Elite Freestyle Wrestlers. Callan, S. D. / Brunner, D. M. / Devolve, K. L. / Mulligan, S. E. / Hesson ...
more infohttps://www.tib.eu/en/search/id/BLSE%3ARN075496655/Physiological-Adaptation-in-Women-Concurrently/

Physiological Adaptation NCLEX® Practice Questions | NRSNGPhysiological Adaptation NCLEX® Practice Questions | NRSNG

Wanting to Practice Physiological Adaptation Questions for the NCLEX® Exam? We have the largest Database of NCLEX® Practice ... Physiological Adaptation Question. Feedback. Difficulty. The nurse on a neuro floor is caring for a patient with a spinal cord ... NCLEX® Physiological Adaptation Practice Questions. From The Largest Bank of Nursing NCLEX® Practice Questions In The World, To ...
more infohttps://www.nrsng.com/nclex-category/physiological-adaptation/

Human Simulator Evaluation of Physiological Adaptation to Extreme ExerciseHuman Simulator Evaluation of Physiological Adaptation to Extreme Exercise

Physiological Adaptation: Background. Physiological adaptation is the internal adjustment that that the body undergoes in ... Much of the physiological adaptation literature is both prospective and theoretical. The adaptation in various extreme ... The reference data that was used to set up the HPS to study physiological adaptation to exercise in this experiment came from a ... Human Simulator Evaluation of Physiological Adaptation to Extreme Exercise. GUJHS. 2004 April; Vol. 1, No. 3. Jaclyn Artuso 04 ...
more infohttps://blogs.commons.georgetown.edu/journal-of-health-sciences/issues-2/previous-volumes/vol-1-issue-3-april-1-2004/human-simulator-evaluation-of-physiological-adaptation-to-extreme-exercise/

Physiological and Neural Adaptations to Eccentric Exercise: Mechanisms and Considerations for TrainingPhysiological and Neural Adaptations to Eccentric Exercise: Mechanisms and Considerations for Training

... is an effective stimulus for inducing physiological and neural adaptations to training. Eccentric exercise-induced adaptations ... Physiological and Neural Adaptations to Eccentric Exercise: Mechanisms and Considerations for Training. Nosratollah Hedayatpour ... In this brief review, neuromuscular adaptations to different forms of exercise are reviewed, the positive training effects of ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/193741/abs/

Physiological and Neural Adaptations to Eccentric Exercise: Mechanisms and Considerations for TrainingPhysiological and Neural Adaptations to Eccentric Exercise: Mechanisms and Considerations for Training

... Nosratollah Hedayatpour ... D. G. Sale, "Neural adaptation to resistance training," Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. S135-S145 ... G. Kamen and C. A. Knight, "Training-related adaptations in motor unit discharge rate in young and older adults," Journals of ... V. G. Coffey and J. A. Hawley, "The molecular bases of training adaptation," Sports Medicine, vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 737-763, 2007 ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/193741/ref/

Physiological Mechanisms and Adaptation Strategies in Plants Under Changing Environment: Volume 1Physiological Mechanisms and Adaptation Strategies in Plants Under Changing Environment: Volume 1

... (BOK) Del ... BØKER Physiological Mechanisms and Adaptation Strategies in Plants Under Changing Environment: Volume 1 ... Physiological Mechanisms and Adaptation Strategies in Plants Under Changing Environment, Volume 1 discuss drought and ... Written by a diverse group of internationally renowned scholars, Physiological Mechanisms and Adaptation Strategies in Plants ...
more infohttps://www.platekompaniet.no/bok/physiological-mechanisms-and-adaptation-strategies-in-plants-under-changing-environment-volume-1/

Creatine depletion elicits structural, biochemical, and physiological adaptations in rat costal diaphragm. - Semantic ScholarCreatine depletion elicits structural, biochemical, and physiological adaptations in rat costal diaphragm. - Semantic Scholar

We conclude that these structural, biochemical, and physiological adaptations elicited by Cr depletion can all be explained by ... To elucidate adaptations elicited by creatine (Cr) depletion in the costal diaphragm (Dia), 16 12-wk-old male Fisher 344 rats ... Creatine depletion elicits structural, biochemical, and physiological adaptations in rat costal diaphragm.. @article{ ... and physiological adaptations in rat costal diaphragm.}, author={Seymour S. Levine and B A Tikunov and D. Yvette Henson and ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Creatine-depletion-elicits-structural%2C-biochemical%2C-Levine-Tikunov/a3449ba10bd14bdd21dccb46ba6a0cdc0f6b8790

Frontiers | Physiological Tendon Thickness Adaptation in Adolescent Elite Athletes: A Longitudinal Study | PhysiologyFrontiers | Physiological Tendon Thickness Adaptation in Adolescent Elite Athletes: A Longitudinal Study | Physiology

The aim of this study was to determine physiological AT and PT thickness adaptation in adolescent elite athletes compared to ... The aim of this study was to determine physiological AT and PT thickness adaptation in adolescent elite athletes compared to ... However, it is unclear, if changes are of pathological or physiological origin due to training. ... pSport-specific adaptation regarding tendon thickness in adolescent elite athletes can be detected in PTs among male athletes ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2017.00795/full

Our ancestral physiological phenotype: An adaptation for hypoxia tolerance and for endurance performance? | PNASOur ancestral physiological phenotype: An adaptation for hypoxia tolerance and for endurance performance? | PNAS

Our ancestral physiological phenotype: An adaptation for hypoxia tolerance and for endurance performance?. Peter W. Hochachka, ... Our ancestral physiological phenotype: An adaptation for hypoxia tolerance and for endurance performance? ... Our ancestral physiological phenotype: An adaptation for hypoxia tolerance and for endurance performance? ... Our ancestral physiological phenotype: An adaptation for hypoxia tolerance and for endurance performance? ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/95/4/1915.full

Physiological adaptations involved in alkane assimilation at a...Physiological adaptations involved in alkane assimilation at a...

strain Q15.: We examined physiological adaptations which allow ... Physiological adaptations involved in alkane assimilation at a ... Physiological adaptations involved in alkane assimilation at a low temperature by Rhodococcus sp. strain Q15.. Authors * Whyte ... We examined physiological adaptations which allow the psychrotroph Rhodococcus sp. strain Q15 to assimilate alkanes at a low ...
more infohttps://www.mysciencework.com/publication/show/physiological-adaptations-involved-alkane-assimilation-low-temperature-rhodococcus-sp-strain-q15-2855f6cf

Physiological Mechanisms and Adaptation Strategies in Plants Under Changing Environment | Ebook | Ellibs EbookstorePhysiological Mechanisms and Adaptation Strategies in Plants Under Changing Environment | Ebook | Ellibs Ebookstore

Physiological Mechanisms and Adaptation Strategies in Plants Under Changing Environment - Author: Ahmad, Parvaiz - Price: 198, ... Physiological Mechanisms and Adaptation Strategies in Plants Under Changing Environment. 198,25€ ... Physiological Mechanisms and Adaptation Strategies in Plants Under Changing Environment. Ahmad, Parvaiz ... 1. Mechanisms and Adaptation of Plants to Environmental Stress: A Case of Woody Species. Azza Chelli-Chaabouni. 2. Drought ...
more infohttps://www.ellibs.com/book/9781461485919/physiological-mechanisms-and-adaptation-strategies-in-plants-under-changing-environment
  • Comparative proteomes of strains CNB-1 and CNB-2 grown on 4CNB and/or succinate revealed that adaptation to 4CNB by CNB-1 included specific degradative pathway and general physiological responses: (1) Seven gene products (CnbA, CnbCa, CnbCb, CnbD, CnbE, CnbF, and CnbZ) for 4CNB degradation were identified in 4CNB-grown cells, and they were constitutively synthesized in CNB-1. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Abstract: The increasingly recognized role played by reactive oxygen species in cellular signaling during health and disease underscores the prominence of redox biology in driving physiological responses. (stanford.edu)
  • Although most of the research in this area has focused on elucidating the impacts of dysregulated oxidant generation on human disease, I have also been studying the role of redox signaling in mediating physiological responses in animals adapted to extreme conditions. (stanford.edu)
  • As in the evolution of the diving response in pinnipeds, we found "conservative" and "adaptable" physiological characters involved in human responses to hypoxia. (pnas.org)
  • While long appreciated by endurance athletes as an integral component of training programs designed to maximize performance, short-term studies lasting up to several weeks in healthy persons of average fitness have established that HIIT per se is a potent stimulus to induce physiological adaptations that resemble changes typically associated with traditional endurance training, despite a lower total exercise volume and reduced training time commitment. (gssiweb.org)
  • While less widely appreciated, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a potent stimulus to induce physiological adaptations that resemble, and indeed may be superior to, changes typically associated with traditional endurance training (Kubukeli et al. (gssiweb.org)
  • Recently, short-term studies lasting up to several weeks in healthy persons of average fitness have established that HIIT per se is a potent stimulus to induce physiological adaptations that resemble changes typically associated with traditional endurance training, despite a lower total exercise volume and reduced training time commitment (Burgomaster et al. (gssiweb.org)
  • However, stretch combined with overload, as in eccentric contractions, is an effective stimulus for inducing physiological and neural adaptations to training. (hindawi.com)
  • Most notably, we also found evidence for adaptable characters forming the foundations for a fairly unique physiological phenotype-a low capacity version favored under hypobaric hypoxia and a high capacity one favored for endurance performance. (pnas.org)
  • Hence, I have established cell culture systems (myoblasts, flow-adapted endothelial cells) to study how seal cells respond to different stressors and physiological adjustments associated with fasting and breath-holding. (stanford.edu)
  • At this point, the body will either begin to adapt in a way that is pathogenic to the individual or its once helpful adaptations will fail to compensate which again causes harm to the person. (georgetown.edu)
  • Physiological RV enlargement is commonly observed in both black and white athletes. (acc.org)
  • However, a higher prevalence of underlying ECG abnormalities (potentially suggestive of arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy) among black athletes increases the potential for inappropriate disqualification of black athletes based on physiological RV enlargement. (acc.org)
  • The adaptation to wood-boring and wood-feeding activities in beetle larvae was reached independently by phyletic lines not closely related, as a convergent evolution due to feeding behaviour. (blogspot.com)
  • As a consequence, individuals adjust their cellular structure and function in response to this physiological constraint. (biologists.org)
  • While all-out HIIT protocols are very effective, other low-volume HIIT models that consist of relatively intense, but submaximal, constant-load efforts (e.g., 10 x 60 s at a fixed work intensity that elicits ~90% of maximal heart rate, interspersed by 60 s of recovery) have been shown to induce rapid physiological and performance adaptations similar to Wingate-based training. (gssiweb.org)
  • Can supplementation with vitamin C and E alter physiological adaptations to strength training? (bibsys.no)
  • 2010). This brief review highlights recent work that sheds new light on the potency of low-volume HIIT to induce rapid physiological remodeling and enhance the capacity for performance during tasks that rely mainly on aerobic energy metabolism. (gssiweb.org)
  • Morphological plasticity, incrustation of the cell wall with melanins and presence of other protective substances like carotenoids and mycosporines represent passive physiological adaptations which enable black fungi to be highly resistant against environmental stresses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The progressive adaptation of well-known devices to new, but similar, uses is merely a display of an expected technical proficiency, which involves only the exercise of common reasoning abilities upon materials furnished by special knowledge ensuing from continual practice. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Beetles which develop boring tunnels inside and feed on seasoned wood present morphological and physiological adaptations related to the specific activities of their larvae in such a peculiar substrate. (blogspot.com)
  • In the law of patents-grants by the government to inventors for the exclusive right to manufacture, use, or market inventions for a term of years-adaptation denotes a category of patentable inventions, which entails the application of an existing product or process to a new use, accompanied by the exercise of inventive faculties. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the law of copyrights the exclusive right of the author of a literary project to reproduce, publish, and sell his or her work, which is granted by statute, adaptation refers to the creation of a derivative work, which is protected by federal Copyright laws. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An adaptation is copyrighted if it meets the requirement of originality, in the sense that the author has created it by his or her own proficiency, labor, and judgment without directly copying or subtly imitating the preexisting material. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The effect of seawater adaptation on the phosphatidyl-choline metabolism in the eel is also considered, along with evaporative water loss in anuran amphibians. (elsevier.com)
  • The global hypothesis was that DHS mediates ImP-induced regulation of BFF and promotes osteogenic adaptation, which in turn mitigates bone deterioration under disuse condition. (suny.edu)