The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.
A perceptual phenomenon used by Gestalt psychologists to demonstrate that events in one part of the perceptual field may affect perception in another part.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Continuation of visual impression after cessation of stimuli causing the original image.
The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Products resulting from the conversion of one language to another.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
Lack of correspondence between the way a stimulus is commonly perceived and the way an individual perceives it under given conditions.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.
Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A malabsorption syndrome resulting from extensive operative resection of the SMALL INTESTINE, the absorptive region of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Conversion from one language to another language.
The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.
Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.
Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.
Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.
A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A mechanism of communicating one's own sensory system information about a task, movement or skill.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.
The absence of light.
An autonomous region located in central Asia, within China.
A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.
Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Performance of complex motor acts.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Differential response to different stimuli.
The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.
The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Change in learning in one situation due to prior learning in another situation. The transfer can be positive (with second learning improved by first) or negative (where the reverse holds).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Sudden onset water phenomena with different speed of occurrence. These include flash floods, seasonal river floods, and coastal floods, associated with CYCLONIC STORMS; TIDALWAVES; and storm surges.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
Images seen by one eye.
Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A genus of zygomycetous fungi in the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, forming mycelia having a metallic sheen. It has been used for research on phototropism.
The point or frequency at which all flicker of an intermittent light stimulus disappears.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.
The difference between two images on the retina when looking at a visual stimulus. This occurs since the two retinas do not have the same view of the stimulus because of the location of our eyes. Thus the left eye does not get exactly the same view as the right eye.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.
Function of the human eye that is used in bright illumination or in daylight (at photopic intensities). Photopic vision is performed by the three types of RETINAL CONE PHOTORECEPTORS with varied peak absorption wavelengths in the color spectrum (from violet to red, 400 - 700 nm).
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A constellation of responses that occur when an organism is exposed to excessive heat. Responses include synthesis of new proteins and regulation of others.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
A 33-amino acid peptide derived from the C-terminal of PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. It stimulates intestinal mucosal growth and decreased apoptosis of ENTEROCYTES. GLP-2 enhances gastrointestinal function and plays an important role in nutrient homeostasis.
The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.
The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
A genus of European newts in the Salamandridae family. The two species of this genus are Salamandra salamandra (European "fire" salamander) and Salamandra atra (European alpine salamander).
The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A purplish-red, light-sensitive pigment found in RETINAL ROD CELLS of most vertebrates. It is a complex consisting of a molecule of ROD OPSIN and a molecule of 11-cis retinal (RETINALDEHYDE). Rhodopsin exhibits peak absorption wavelength at about 500 nm.
Group of fish under the superorder Acanthopterygii, separate from the PERCIFORMES, which includes swamp eels, mullets, sticklebacks, seahorses, spiny eels, rainbowfishes, and KILLIFISHES. The name is derived from the six taxa which comprise the group. (From, 8/4/2000)
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.
Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.
An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A decrease in the rate of speed.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.

On the neural correlates of visual perception. (1/12330)

Neurological findings suggest that the human striate cortex (V1) is an indispensable component of a neural substratum subserving static achromatic form perception in its own right and not simply as a central distributor of retinally derived information to extrastriate visual areas. This view is further supported by physiological evidence in primates that the finest-grained conjoined representation of spatial detail and retinotopic localization that underlies phenomenal visual experience for local brightness discriminations is selectively represented at cortical levels by the activity of certain neurons in V1. However, at first glance, support for these ideas would appear to be undermined by incontrovertible neurological evidence (visual hemineglect and the simultanagnosias) and recent psychophysical results on 'crowding' that confirm that activation of neurons in V1 may, at times, be insufficient to generate a percept. Moreover, a recent proposal suggests that neural correlates of visual awareness must project directly to those in executive space, thus automatically excluding V1 from a related perceptual space because V1 lacks such direct projections. Both sets of concerns are, however, resolved within the context of adaptive resonance theories. Recursive loops, linking the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) through successive cortical visual areas to the temporal lobe by means of a series of ascending and descending pathways, provide a neuronal substratum at each level within a modular framework for mutually consistent descriptions of sensory data. At steady state, such networks obviate the necessity that neural correlates of visual experience project directly to those in executive space because a neural phenomenal perceptual space subserving form vision is continuously updated by information from an object recognition space equivalent to that destined to reach executive space. Within this framework, activity in V1 may engender percepts that accompany figure-ground segregations only when dynamic incongruities are resolved both within and between ascending and descending streams. Synchronous neuronal activity on a short timescale within and across cortical areas, proposed and sometimes observed as perceptual correlates, may also serve as a marker that a steady state has been achieved, which, in turn, may be a requirement for the longer time constants that accompany the emergence and stability of perceptual states compared to the faster dynamics of adapting networks and the still faster dynamics of individual action potentials. Finally, the same consensus of neuronal activity across ascending and descending pathways linking multiple cortical areas that in anatomic sequence subserve phenomenal visual experiences and object recognition may underlie the normal unity of conscious experience.  (+info)

Trans-synaptically induced bursts in regular spiking non-pyramidal cells in deep layers of the cat motor cortex. (2/12330)

In deep layers of the cat motor cortex, we have investigated the properties of neurons displaying trans-synaptically induced bursts. In in vivo experiments, extracellularly recorded burst neurons were separated into two subtypes based on their dependence on stimulation sites, the medullary pyramid or the ventrolateral (VL) thalamic nucleus, from which bursts of 10-20 spikes were triggered. The spike amplitude attenuation and frequency adaptation during a burst were more prominent in pyramid-dependent burst neurons than in VL-dependent burst neurons. Intracellular recordings in in vivo experiments revealed that pyramid-dependent bursts emerged from a long-lasting depolarization, while each spike during a VL-dependent burst was narrow in half-width and was followed by a fast AHP, similar to fast spiking neurons. In in vitro slice experiments, intracellular recordings were obtained from neurons that displayed a burst of attenuated spikes emerging from a long-lasting depolarization, and were also obtained from fast spiking neurons. They were morphologically recovered to be multipolar cells with sparsely spiny dendrites and local axonal networks, suggesting that they are inhibitory interneurons. The multipolar neurons displaying bursts of attenuated spikes may mediate the recurrent inhibition of pyramidal tract cells.  (+info)

Lysine deficiency alters diet selection without depressing food intake in rats. (3/12330)

Under states of protein deficiency, the dietary limiting amino acid, rather than protein content, can act as the dietary stimulus to control diet selection. If fact, threonine-deficient rats will alter their diet selection patterns solely on the basis of very small changes (0.009 g/100 g) in the dietary threonine concentration. In these studies, we assessed whether lysine-deficient rats will also alter their diet selection patterns on the basis of small changes in dietary Lys concentration. In all experiments, growing rats were adapted to diets in which the protein fraction (purified amino acids or wheat gluten) was limiting in Lys. They were then given a choice between the adaptation diet (AD) diet and a slightly more deficient diet. Rats that were adapted to a Lys-deficient diet (0.25 g Lys/100 g) selected their AD over diets containing as little as 0.01% less Lys (P < 0.01) within 5 d. To determine how deficient rats must be before they alter their selection patterns, rats were adapted to diets containing various levels of Lys, i.e., 2 levels below the requirement for growth and 2 levels above the requirement for growth, but below the requirement for maximal nitrogen retention. Only rats adapted to diets containing Lys below their requirement for growth selected their AD over a diet containing 0.05% less Lys (P < 0.005). Finally, to determine whether rats will alter their selection to whole protein-based diets, rats were adapted to 25% wheat gluten diets supplemented with 0.03-0.21% Lys. Rats selected the AD over a diet containing as little as 0.09% less supplemental Lys by d 4 of the trial (P < 0.05). We conclude that rats are sensitive to changes as small as 0.01% in dietary Lys concentration, but that sensitivity requires prior adaptation to Lys-deficient diets.  (+info)

Changes in protein tyrosine phosphorylation in the rat brain after cerebral ischemia in a model of ischemic tolerance. (4/12330)

A brief period of sublethal cerebral ischemia, followed by several days of recovery, renders the brain resistant to a subsequent lethal ischemic insult, a phenomenon termed ischemic preconditioning or tolerance. Ischemic tolerance was established in the rat two-vessel occlusion model of ischemia, induced by occlusion of both carotid arteries in combination with hypotension. Ischemic preconditioning (3 minutes) provided maximal neuroprotection when induced 2 days prior to a lethal ischemic insult of 9-minute duration. Neuroprotection persisted for at least 8 weeks. Since neurotransmission has been implicated in ischemic cell death, the effect of ischemic preconditioning on tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins and on the levels of glutamate receptor subunits in hippocampus and neocortex was studied. Regional levels of tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins in general and the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR2 in particular are markedly enhanced after ischemia in nonconditioned brains, in both the synaptosomal fraction and the whole-tissue homogenate of rat neocortex and hippocampus, but recover to control levels only in the preconditioned brain. Ischemic preconditioning selectively induces a decrease in the levels of the NR2A and NR2B subunits and a modest decrease in the levels of NR1 subunit proteins in the synaptosomal fraction of the neocortex but not hippocampus after the second lethal ischemia. It was concluded that ischemic preconditioning prevents a persistent change in cell signaling as evidenced by the tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins after the second lethal ischemic insult, which may abrogate the activation of detrimental cellular processes leading to cell death.  (+info)

Fibrocartilage in tendons and ligaments--an adaptation to compressive load. (5/12330)

Where tendons and ligaments are subject to compression, they are frequently fibrocartilaginous. This occurs at 2 principal sites: where tendons (and sometimes ligaments) wrap around bony or fibrous pulleys, and in the region where they attach to bone, i.e. at their entheses. Wrap-around tendons are most characteristic of the limbs and are commonly wider at their point of bony contact so that the pressure is reduced. The most fibrocartilaginous tendons are heavily loaded and permanently bent around their pulleys. There is often pronounced interweaving of collagen fibres that prevents the tendons from splaying apart under compression. The fibrocartilage can be located within fascicles, or in endo- or epitenon (where it may protect blood vessels from compression or allow fascicles to slide). Fibrocartilage cells are commonly packed with intermediate filaments which could be involved in transducing mechanical load. The ECM often contains aggrecan which allows the tendon to imbibe water and withstand compression. Type II collagen may also be present, particularly in tendons that are heavily loaded. Fibrocartilage is a dynamic tissue that disappears when the tendons are rerouted surgically and can be maintained in vitro when discs of tendon are compressed. Finite element analyses provide a good correlation between its distribution and levels of compressive stress, but at some locations fibrocartilage is a sign of pathology. Enthesis fibrocartilage is most typical of tendons or ligaments that attach to the epiphyses of long bones where it may also be accompanied by sesamoid and periosteal fibrocartilages. It is characteristic of sites where the angle of attachment changes throughout the range of joint movement and it reduces wear and tear by dissipating stress concentration at the bony interface. There is a good correlation between the distribution of fibrocartilage within an enthesis and the levels of compressive stress. The complex interlocking between calcified fibrocartilage and bone contributes to the mechanical strength of the enthesis and cartilage-like molecules (e.g. aggrecan and type II collagen) in the ECM contribute to its ability to withstand compression. Pathological changes are common and are known as enthesopathies.  (+info)

Small conductance potassium channels cause an activity-dependent spike frequency adaptation and make the transfer function of neurons logarithmic. (6/12330)

We made a computational model of a single neuron to study the effect of the small conductance (SK) Ca2+-dependent K+ channel on spike frequency adaptation. The model neuron comprised a Na+ conductance, a Ca2+ conductance, and two Ca2+-independent K+ conductances, as well as a small and a large (BK) Ca2+-activated K+ conductance, a Ca2+ pump, and mechanisms for Ca2+ buffering and diffusion. Sustained current injection that simulated synaptic input resulted in a train of action potentials (APs) which in the absence of the SK conductance showed very little adaptation with time. The transfer function of the neuron was nearly linear, i.e., both asymptotic spike rate as well as the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were approximately linear functions of the input current. Adding an SK conductance with a steep nonlinear dependence on [Ca2+]i (. Pflugers Arch. 422:223-232; Kohler, Hirschberg, Bond, Kinzie, Marrion, Maylie, and Adelman. 1996. Science. 273:1709-1714) caused a marked time-dependent spike frequency adaptation and changed the transfer function of the neuron from linear to logarithmic. Moreover, the input range the neuron responded to with regular spiking increased by a factor of 2.2. These results can be explained by a shunt of the cell resistance caused by the activation of the SK conductance. It might turn out that the logarithmic relationships between the stimuli of some modalities (e.g., sound or light) and the perception of the stimulus intensity (Fechner's law) have a cellular basis in the involvement of SK conductances in the processing of these stimuli.  (+info)

Chemotactic responses of Escherichia coli to small jumps of photoreleased L-aspartate. (7/12330)

Computer-assisted motion analysis coupled to flash photolysis of caged chemoeffectors provides a means for time-resolved analysis of bacterial chemotaxis. Escherichia coli taxis toward the amino acid attractant L-aspartate is mediated by the Tar receptor. The physiology of this response, as well as Tar structure and biochemistry, has been studied extensively. The beta-2, 6-dinitrobenzyl ester of L-aspartic acid and the 1-(2-nitrophenyl)ethyl ether of 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-tris-sulfonic acid were synthesized. These compounds liberated L-aspartate and the fluorophore 8-hydroxypyrene 1,3,6-tris-sulfonic acid (pyranine) upon irradiation with near-UV light. Photorelease of the fluorophore was used to define the amplitude and temporal stability of the aspartate jumps employed in chemotaxis experiments. The dependence of chemotactic adaptation times on aspartate concentration, determined in mixing experiments, was best fit by two Tar aspartate-binding sites. Signal processing (excitation) times, amplitudes, and adaptive recovery of responses elicited by aspartate jumps producing less than 20% change in receptor occupancy were characterized in photorelease assays. Aspartate concentration jumps in the nanomolar range elicited measurable responses. The response threshold and sensitivity of swimming bacteria matched those of bacteria tethered to glass by a single flagellum. Stimuli of similar magnitude, delivered either by rapid mixing or photorelease, evoked responses of similar strength, as assessed by recovery time measurements. These times remained proportional to change in receptor occupancy close to threshold, irrespective of prior occupancy. Motor excitation responses decayed exponentially with time. Rates of excitation responses near threshold ranged from 2 to 7 s-1. These values are consistent with control of excitation signaling by decay of phosphorylated pools of the response regulator protein, CheY. Excitation response rates increased slightly with stimulus size up to values limited by the instrumentation; the most rapid was measured to be 16 +/- 3 (SE) s-1. This increase may reflect simultaneous activation of CheY dephosphorylation, together with inhibition of its phosphorylation.  (+info)

Impact of vascular adaptation to chronic aortic regurgitation on left ventricular performance. (8/12330)

BACKGROUND: This investigation was designed to test the hypothesis that vascular adaptation occurs in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation to maintain left ventricular (LV) performance. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-five patients with chronic aortic regurgitation (mean age 50+/-14 years) were studied using a micromanometer LV catheter to obtain LV pressures and radionuclide ventriculography to obtain LV volumes during multiple loading conditions and right atrial pacing. These 45 patients were subgrouped according to their LV contractility (Ees) and ejection fraction values. Group I consisted of 24 patients with a normal Ees. Group IIa consisted of 10 patients with impaired Ees values (Ees <1.00 mm Hg/mL) but normal LV ejection fractions; Group IIb consisted of 11 patients with impaired contractility and reduced LV ejection fractions. The left ventricular-arterial coupling ratio, Ees/Ea, where Ea was calculated by dividing the LV end-systolic pressure by LV stroke volume, averaged 1.60+/-0.91 in Group I. It decreased to 0.91+/-0.27 in Group IIa (P<0.05 versus Group I), and it decreased further in Group IIb to 0.43+/-0.24 (P<0.001 versus Groups I and IIa). The LV ejection fractions were inversely related to the Ea values in both the normal and impaired contractility groups (r=-0.48, P<0.05 and r=-0.56, P<0.01, respectively), although the slopes of these relationships differed (P<0.05). The average LV work was maximal in Group IIa when the left ventricular-arterial coupling ratio was near 1.0 because of a significant decrease in total arterial elastance (P<0.01 versus Group I). In contrast, the decrease in the left ventricular-arterial coupling ratio in Group IIb was caused by an increase in total arterial elastance, effectively double loading the LV, contributing to a decrease in LV pump efficiency (P<0.01 versus Group IIa and P<0.001 versus Group I). CONCLUSIONS: Vascular adaptation may be heterogeneous in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation. In some, total arterial elastance decreases to maximize LV work and maintain LV performance, whereas in others, it increases, thereby double loading the LV, contributing to afterload excess and a deterioration in LV performance that is most prominent in those with impaired contractility.  (+info)

Viticulture is exposed and vulnerable to extreme weather and climate change. In Europe, owing to the high socio-economic value of the winemaking sector, the development of adaptation strategies to mitigate climate change impacts will be of foremost relevance for its future sustainability and competitiveness. Some guidelines on feasible short-term adaptation strategies are provided here (Figure 1), collected by the Clim4Vitis action ( Long-term adapation startegies are described in an accompanying technical review.. ...
Detail záznamu - Long-term adaptation to high doses of morphine causes desensitization of micro-OR- and delta-OR-stimulated G-protein response in forebrain cortex but does not decrease the amount of G-protein alpha subunits - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
Definition of adaptative routing by Electropedia. Meaning of adaptative routing. Translations of adaptative routing. Equivalent terms for adaptative routing.
Physiological Adaptations for Breeding in Birds Physiological Adaptations for Breeding in Birds is the most current and comprehensive account of research on avian reproduction. It develops two unique themes: the consideration of female avian r...
Physiological adaptations involved in alkane assimilation at a low temperature by Rhodococcus sp. strain Q15.: We examined physiological adaptations which allow
Immersive, head-mounted virtual reality (HMD-VR) provides a unique opportunity to understand how changes in sensory environments affect motor learning. However, potential differences in mechanisms of motor learning and adaptation in HMD-VR versus a conventional training (CT) environment have not been extensively explored. Here, we investigated whether adaptation on a visuomotor rotation task in HMD-VR yields similar adaptation effects in CT and whether these effects are achieved through similar mechanisms. Specifically, recent work has shown that visuomotor adaptation may occur via both an implicit, error-based internal model and a more cognitive, explicit strategic component. We sought to measure both overall adaptation and balance between implicit and explicit mechanisms in HMD-VR versus CT. Twenty-four healthy individuals were placed in either HMD-VR or CT and trained on an identical visuomotor adaptation task that measured both implicit and explicit components. Our results showed that the overall
Neuronal adaptation is the intrinsic capacity of the brain to change, by various mechanisms, its dynamical responses as a function of the context. Such a phenomena, widely observed in vivo and in...
We examined the neuromuscular adaptations following 3 and 6 weeks of 80 vs. 30% one repetition maximum (1RM) resistance training to failure in the leg extensors. Twenty-six men (age = 23.1 ± 4.7 years) were randomly assigned to a high- (80% 1RM; |i|n|/i| = 13) or low-load (30% 1RM; |i|n|/i| = 13) re …
While some changes in the healthcare delivery model have progressed in recent years, the pandemic has accelerated implementation.
Influence of host resistance on viral adaptation: hepatitis C virus as a case study Anne Plauzolles,1 Michaela Lucas,2,3 Silvana Gaudieri41Centre for Forensic Science, 2School of Medicine and Pharmacology, Harry Perkins Institute, 3School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 4School of Anatomy, Physiology and Human Biology, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, AustraliaAbstract: Genetic and cellular studies have shown that the hosts innate and adaptive immune responses are an important correlate of viral infection outcome. The features of the hosts immune response (host resistance) reflect the coevolution between hosts and pathogens that has occurred over millennia, and that has also resulted in a number of strategies developed by viruses to improve fitness and survival within the host (viral adaptation). In this review, we discuss viral adaptation to host immune pressure via protein-protein interactions and sequence-specific mutations. Specifically, we will present the
San Antonio ebook Physiology and Pathology of Adaptation Mechanisms. Neural-Neuroendocrine-Humoral 1969 landed in punishable gow server to let Apache. Bob Menendez, ago longer dropping ebook Physiology and Pathology of Adaptation infrastructures, has his Senate statement command. Trump Hosts a Law Enforcement Roundtable on MS-13.
This readme and the code were contributed by Timothee Masquelier [email protected] Aug 2013 This code was used in: Masquelier T and Deco G (2013) Network bursting dynamics in excitatory cortical neuron cultures results from the combination of different adaptive mechanisms. PLoS ONE Feel free to use/modify but please cite us if appropriate. We use the Brian simulator described in: Goodman D, Brette R (2008) Brian: a simulator for spiking neural networks in python. Front Neuroinformatics 2:5 and available at: This code has been tested with: - Brian 1.4.0 - Python 2.6 - Mac OS and Linux Main file: (should be called like that python -i Calls to set the parameters (see comments there), launches the simulation and plots the results. The current values in corresponds to the baseline simulation in the paper (1 min of simulated time). Many more options are provided (with no guaranty), eg sparse connectivity, inhomogeneous ...
This readme and the code were contributed by Timothee Masquelier timothee.masquelier[email protected] Aug 2013 This code was used in: Masquelier T and Deco G (2013) Network bursting dynamics in excitatory cortical neuron cultures results from the combination of different adaptive mechanisms. PLoS ONE Feel free to use/modify but please cite us if appropriate. We use the Brian simulator described in: Goodman D, Brette R (2008) Brian: a simulator for spiking neural networks in python. Front Neuroinformatics 2:5 and available at: This code has been tested with: - Brian 1.4.0 - Python 2.6 - Mac OS and Linux Main file: (should be called like that python -i Calls to set the parameters (see comments there), launches the simulation and plots the results. The current values in corresponds to the baseline simulation in the paper (1 min of simulated time). Many more options are provided (with no guaranty), eg sparse connectivity, inhomogeneous ...
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The molecular mechanisms of enzymatic temperature adaptation are dictated by the delicate balance between the stability, flexibility, and activity of the extremophilic enzymes; therefore, identifying the factors that rule the stability-flexibility-activit
Climate adaptation is a major political issue. With its adaptation strategy, the German federal government has established a framework for adaptation measures taken by different social actors. The strategy indicates which fields of action are of particular importance and which goals Germany pursues. The Adaptation Action Plan determines which measures the adaptation strategy
This study describes the anatomy of sterile leaves of Elaphoglossum discolor (Kuhn) C. Chr., E. flaccidum (Fée) T. Moore and E. laminarioides (Bory ex Fée) T. Moore, the most representative species of the genus in the Ecological Park of Gunma in Pará State. It reports the main diagnostic characters and provides new systematic data for the group. In addition, it locates the production and accumulation sites of bioactive compounds to determine possible adaptive strategies of these species in the Amazon rainforest environment. Diagnostic structural features include stoma typology, central veins and margin forms, type of mesophyll, and the presence of schlerenchymatous sheaths in the cortex, among others. Among the bioactive compounds related to defense adaptation are phenolic compounds, which occur in all three species, and alkaloids and mucilage, which are exclusive to E. laminarioides. Of the three species studied, E. laminarioides has features that make it the best suited to the
Using continuous reaction norms to characterize adaptive responses to temperature, the researchers reexamined a recent study that linked rapid adaptation to specific genetic changes. The study, by Holder and Bull, showed that phage populations quickly evolved higher growth rates at higher temperatures. But, Knies et al. explain, these growth rates were correlated with just one temperature point the optimal temperature for the ancestral populations (used at the beginning of the experiment). Knies et al. reexamined phage thermal adaptation by measuring growth rate over a wider range of temperatures, then used a recently developed statistical method to identify the biological determinants of the shifts in the reaction norm shapes, quantify their relative contributions, and identify the genetic basis of the adaptations ...
Behavioral adaptation is the process by which an organism or a species changes its pattern of action to better suit its environment. It is contrasted with structural adaptation, which is the...
We asked whether spatial coding in the visual system is matched to the native blur specific to an individuals HOAs by investigating long-term adaptation to the blur produced by the optics of the eye. Adaptive Optics allow us to cancel the natural aberrations of all subjects, exposing observers to identical aberration patterns and ensuring that any difference across subjects would arise from their own neural processing and their prior neural adaptation. Retinal blur was manipulated by projecting degraded images with known HOAs where realistic blur of different amounts and forms was computer simulated (we used convolved images with the optical point spread function to represent the retinal image quality) using real aberrations from a population. Our results provide strong evidence that spatial vision is calibrated for the specific blur levels present in each individuals retinal image as, for the majority of observers, the level of blur perceived as best-focused was closely predicted by the ...
Physiological adaptations associated with regular anaerobic training that require near maximal force production. These adaptations include increased muscular strength and speed of action; improved muscle buffering capacity and greater tolerance of changes of tissue fluid pH during intense activity; and increased activity of enzymes involved in the ATP-PCr energy system and glycolysis. Anaerobic training at speed also improves efficiency of movement. ...
1750 words Humans are adapted to numerous ecosystems on earth. This is only possible due to how our physiological systems interact with the environment in a homeodynamic way. This allowed us to spread across the globe, far away from our ancestral home of Africa, and thusly certain adaptations evolved in those populations---which was driven by our intelligent…
It is amazing what we, as human beings, can adapt to. The fact that I can now look down at the six-inch scar across my chest and the five inch gash under my arm without revulsion is truly amazing. One month ago I would not change my clothes in the same room that housed…
An adaptation in biology is a trait with a current functional role in the life history of an organism that is maintained and evolved by means of natural selection. An adaptation refers to both the current state of being adapted and to the dynamic evolutionary process that leads to the adaptation. Adaptations contribute to the fitness and survival of individuals. Organisms face a succession of environmental challenges as they grow and develop and are equipped with an adaptive plasticity as the phenotype of traits develop in response to the imposed conditions. The developmental norm of reaction for any given trait is essential to the correction of adaptation as it affords a kind of biological insurance or resilience to varying environments. ...
My team is conducting a two-year long experiment in Hawaii in collaboration with Dr. Rob Toonen to determine if coral adapt or acclimatize to global change conditions expected at the end of this century. If they can adapt, how fast is the adaptation rate? How do adaptation rates differ among species and geographic locations? Answers to these questions are key to developing strategic coral conservation and management plans. To address these questions, eight species of Hawaiian corals are being studied using a two-part approach: 1) a survey of natural corals found across natural temperature and acidity gradients and 2) a two-year long mesocosm study which will expose corals collected in part 1 to temperature and acidity conditions expected at the end of this century.. ...
Environmental change often requires societies to adapt. In some instances, these adaptations can create feedbacks that amplify the change. Alternatively, other adaptations may dampen the change. We used semi-structured interviews with 240 fishers from nine Tanzanian coastal communities to explore responses to four hypothetical scenarios of increasingly severe declines in their average catch (10%, 20%, 30% and 50%). Overall, a higher proportion of fishers said they would respond to decline using amplifying adaptations (such as fishing harder) than dampening adaptations (such as reducing effort), particularly in the scenarios with lower levels of decline. We used a redundancy analysis to explore whether certain types of responses were related to the fishers socioeconomic characteristics. Fishers that would employ amplifying responses had greater economic wealth but lacked options. Fishers who would adopt dampening responses possessed characteristics associated with having livelihood options. ...
Make the queen a marsupial. She births her children into a marsupial pouch where they can be better protected as they grow, then she has a free womb for impregnation again. She can pass off the older newborns (joeys?) to sterile females for child care as new ones are born. Obviously this would require some significant changes to human fetal development to emphasize the ability to suckle, breathe air, digest milk, prevent infection and excrete waste first, versus the more advanced brain development a human gets prior to birth. But it would allow a human(ish) female to potentially give birth to many more children (and more importantly, a constant stream instead of a large bolus like an octomom situation). So the embryo gestates in the womb for, say, 3 months, then lives in the pouch for another 3 before being large enough to be cared for by another at 6 months. That would allow a queen to have 4 young a year, an almost 4x increase over normal human women, with almost 150 births over a normal ...
For this block of training, youre going to be increasing the intensity of your workouts. This is where the fun really begins. Now that youve laid a solid foundation down, its time to really crank it up a notch.. First up is power-hypertrophy. This is personally one of my favorite workouts. Imagine being able to lift heavy, to feel like a beast in the gym while stimulating sleeve-ripping muscle growth? Thats the beauty of power-hypertrophy. Next up is weekly undulating. This is adapted from the old Russian and Soviet weight-training systems in the early 60s through the 80s and later brought over to the United States. This is one of the BIG reasons why they would kick our butts in the Olympics. There training was bar none the best in the world and far more advanced than anything anyone ever saw.. From there, youre going to jump into synergistic training which is one the easiest ways to increase the adaptation response inside of the muscle cell while increasing your metabolic rate without ...
Hello everybody, I have little DSP (Digital Signal Processing) project going on in college and Id like some tips/code, if you have any. I am implementing an adaptative filter using the LSM algorithm on the Arduino. However, due to the boards limitations, I cant do the real-time adaptative filter so, what Im going to do is just do all the calculation in SimuLink/MATLab on the computer and just export the sound file to filter what I need it to filter. Its not gonna be an adaptative filter anymore, rather, itll just be a regular filter but it will do the trick. What I need help with is how to play the sound files and in which extension it should be. Ive been studying for a while and google, arduino guides and tutorials kind of help but, anyway, Im still suffering because it doesnt want to work. Maybe I have a bad speaker but, either way, if you have any experience with playing sounds with the Arduino or know a good source of information, Id appreciate it. Thanks for your time ...
It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptations, initiated by exercise, can be amplified or reduced by nutrition. Various methods have been discussed to optimize training adaptations and some of these methods have been subject to extensive study. To date, most methods have focused on skeletal muscle, but it is important to note that training effects also include adaptations in other tissues (e.g., brain, vasculature), improvements in the absorptive capacity of the intestine, increases in tolerance to dehydration, and other effects that have received less attention in the literature. The purpose of this review is to define the concept of periodized nutrition (also referred to as nutritional training) and summarize the wide variety of methods available to athletes. The reader is referred to several other recent review articles that have discussed aspects of periodized nutrition in much more detail with primarily a focus on adaptations in the muscle. The purpose of this review is not to discuss ...
The physiology of vascular cells depends on stimulating mechanical forces caused by pulsatile flow. Thus, mechano-transduction processes and responses of primary human endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) have been studied to reveal cell-type specific differences which may contribute to vascular tissue integrity. Here, we investigate the dynamic reorientation response of ECs and SMCs cultured on elastic membranes over a range of stretch frequencies from 0.01 to 1 Hz. ECs and SMCs show different cell shape adaptation responses (reorientation) dependent on the frequency. ECs reveal a specific threshold frequency (0.01 Hz) below which no responses is detectable while the threshold frequency for SMCs could not be determined and is speculated to be above 1 Hz. Interestingly, the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions system, as well as changes in the focal adhesion area, can be observed for both cell types and is dependent on the frequency. RhoA and Rac1 ...
The physiology of vascular cells depends on stimulating mechanical forces caused by pulsatile flow. Thus, mechano-transduction processes and responses of primary human endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) have been studied to reveal cell-type specific differences which may contribute to vascular tissue integrity. Here, we investigate the dynamic reorientation response of ECs and SMCs cultured on elastic membranes over a range of stretch frequencies from 0.01 to 1 Hz. ECs and SMCs show different cell shape adaptation responses (reorientation) dependent on the frequency. ECs reveal a specific threshold frequency (0.01 Hz) below which no responses is detectable while the threshold frequency for SMCs could not be determined and is speculated to be above 1 Hz. Interestingly, the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions system, as well as changes in the focal adhesion area, can be observed for both cell types and is dependent on the frequency. RhoA and Rac1 ...
Traditionally the study of human adaptation has focused on understanding changes in human behavior induced by changes in the external environment. This paradigm has led to technology solutions that are focused on improving human adaptation by improving the salience of information that the technology provides. However, recent research has shown that human adaptation is strongly impacted by internal human states such as arousal, social context, and goals. The inclusion of internal human states to broaden our understanding of adaptive behavior presents significant theoretical and technical challenges since internal states: occur on multiple time scales (hours, weeks, days), are impacted by a wide variety of physiological feedback mechanisms such as fight or flight, are embedded in highly dynamic parts of the human body such as the brain, and rely critically on not only their current state but also on previous states making them closed loop. Truly mutually adaptive systems will need to take account ...
L Institut fédéral de recherches WSL étudie la forêt, le paysage, la biodiversité, les dangers naturels ainsi que la neige et de la glace. Il fait partie du Domaine des EPF.
L Institut fédéral de recherches WSL étudie la forêt, le paysage, la biodiversité, les dangers naturels ainsi que la neige et de la glace. Il fait partie du Domaine des EPF.
Researchers have fresh insight into an evolutionarily ancient way that cells cope when oxygen levels decline, according to a new study in the October 7th issue of Cell Metabolism. In studies of cells taken from the lining ...
In the first experiment, cells growing in medium supplemented with the two combinations containing a trace element in common died at 2.5 % serum, while for the remaining combinations cell death occurred at a later stage, 0.625 % serum. Cell death was attributed to problems with the procedure of adaptation used in the first experiment, which were identified and corrected in the second experiment. The problems found and the procedure modifications implemented included the use of higher initial cell concentrations to allow the survival of an increased number of cells during the process; avoiding procedures that can be harsh to the cells, such as centrifugation and the use of enzymes (i.e. trypsin) due to a higher sensitivity of cells during adaptation; and allowing enough time in each step of the process for a complete cell adaptation.. After these modifications, in the second experiment, it was possible to observe that cells required a long time to adapt to each level of serum concentration, ...
Temperature profoundly impacts both the phenotypes and distributions of organisms. These thermal effects exert strong selective pressures on behaviour, physiology and life history when environmental temperatures vary over space and time. Despite temperatures significance, progress toward a quantitative theory of thermal adaptation has lagged behind empirical descriptions of patterns and processes.
Whether its a shimmy or strength training, much of the early progress we see with practice is due to neural adaptation rather than actual changes in the strength or size of our muscles. For an Egyptian knee shimmy, the quadriceps and hamstrings are the primary muscle groups we are talking about. Each of these large groups in made up of several smaller muscles and each of these has bundles of muscle fibers that work together. Each of these bundles is controlled by one nerve and that work group of muscle fibers and its nerve is called a motor unit. Check out the picture at the top of this post for an illustration of a motor unit.. When the neural adaptation process starts, the brain and motor units improve the speed and efficiency of their communication. We experience this as our body cooperating with us. On a larger scale, the motor units learn to work together in a more synchronized way. Just like a rowing crew that has all its members in perfect timing to achieve maximum speed, your muscles ...
A direct hybrid adaptive control framework for nonlinear uncertain hybrid dynamical systems is developed. The proposed hybrid adaptive control framework is Lyapunov-based and guarantees partial asymptotic stability with respect to part of the closed-loop system states associated with the hybrid plan.... Full description. ...
Cutting-edge knowledge and current concepts on cold-adapted microorganisms including the major aspects of biodiversity in cold ecosystems, the physiology and molecular adaptation mechanisms, the various biomolecules related to cold adaptation, and the diverse strategies employed to cope with the cold.
We consider a stochastic evolutionary model for a phenotype developing amongst n related species with unknown phylogeny. The unknown tree ismodelled by a Yule process conditioned on n contemporary nodes. The trait value is assumed to evolve along lineages as an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. As a result, the trait values of the n species form a sample with dependent observations. We establish three limit theorems for the samplemean corresponding to three domains for the adaptation rate. In the case of fast adaptation, we show that for large n the normalized sample mean isapproximately normally distributed. Using these limit theorems, we develop novel confidence interval formulae for the optimal trait value.. ...
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Stage 1 or the alarm stage is where the body is treated to a new stress You have a massive selection to choose from: a change in movement, a change in weight, and change in length of time. This stress is enough to disrupt the internal equilibrium of the cell. A cascade of physiological events it unleashed . The effected cell puts the call out and gets the body to divert all resources to help it survive. Normal biological house work is put on hold while stress proteins are created to stabilise your cells and the inflammatory response gets to work. Its utter panic!. During stage 2, some call this the resistance or adaptation phase, the stressor has gone: maybe your workout is over or the person trying to kill you is on their lunch break. This heralds the cell trying to get back to normal, to restore homeostasis. But it returns to a new normal, which means its now trying to prepare for a repeat stressful event. In recovering and adapting , the cell has made a fitness adaptation.. To drive this ...
While DNA takes a long time to evolve, the epigenetic programming that activates and silences our DNA is more malleable. Thus humans can exploit epigenetics to adjust rapidly to changing environments, by activating genes that facilitate adaptation to pathogens and climates, etc. Consistent with this, some genomic regions show highly variable methylation across individuals, with evidence that such variation is controlled by alleles at specific genetic loci.
All BYC rules apply. Lets play nice. I am getting ready to celebrate another birthday. And it is getting harder for me to garden. There are ways to...
The concept here is to regularly submit your body to training in the heat prior to an expected hot race. Research shows this can be an effective strategy. Training in heat increases blood plasma volume over time and promotes other positive physiological adaptations to exercising in the heat. It is not a quick fix. Training in the heat the week before a race wont help. Adaptation occur over a 3-4 week time period. Sessions need not be longer than 100 minutes. Acclimation must be maintained otherwise the positive effects begin to diminish ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Skeletal muscle adaptations following blood flow-restricted training during 30 days of muscular unloading. AU - Cook, Summer B.. AU - Brown, Kimberly A.. AU - Deruisseau, Keith. AU - Kanaley, Jill A.. AU - Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.. PY - 2010/8/1. Y1 - 2010/8/1. N2 - This study evaluated the effectiveness of low-load resistance training with a blood flow restriction (LLBFR) to attenuate muscle loss and weakness after 30 days of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS). Sixteen subjects (ages 18-50 yr) underwent 30 days of ULLS. Measurements of muscle strength, cross-sectional area, and endurance on the knee extensors and plantar flexors were collected before and after ULLS. Plasma concentrations of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 were also assessed. During ULLS, eight subjects (5 males, 3 females) participated in LLBFR three times per week (ULLS + Exercise) while eight subjects (4 males, 4 females) did not exercise (ULLS). The blood flow-restricted exercise consisted of dynamic knee extension at ...
The predicted climate change causes deep concerns on the effects of increasing temperatures and changing precipitation patterns on species viability and, in turn, on biodiversity. Models of Population Viability Analysis (PVA) provide a powerful tool to assess the risk of species extinction. However, most PVA models do not take into account the potential effects of behavioural adaptations. Organisms might adapt to new environmental situations and thereby mitigate negative effects of climate change. To demonstrate such mitigation effects, we use an existing PVA model describing a population of the tawny eagle (Aquila rapax) in the southern Kalahari. This model does not include behavioural adaptations. We develop a new model by assuming that the birds enlarge their average territory size to compensate for lower amounts of precipitation. Here, we found the predicted increase in risk of extinction due to climate change to be much lower than in the original model. However, this buffering of climate ...
Here, lignocellulosic bioethanol from renewable feedstocks using Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a promising alternative to fossil fuels owing to environmental challenges. S. cerevisiae is frequently challenged by bacterial contamination and a combination of lignocellulosic inhibitors formed during the pre-treatment, in terms of growth, ethanol yield and productivity. We investigated the phenotypic robustness of a brewing yeast strain TMB3500 and its ability to adapt to low pH thereby preventing bacterial contamination along with lignocellulosic inhibitors by short-term adaptation and adaptive lab evolution (ALE). The short-term adaptation strategy was used to investigate the inherent ability of strain TMB3500 to activate a robust phenotype involving pre-culturing yeast cells in defined medium with lignocellulosic inhibitors at pH 5.0 until late exponential phase prior to inoculating them in defined media with the same inhibitor cocktail at pH 3.7. Adapted cells were able to grow aerobically, ...
Lignocellulosic bioethanol from renewable feedstocks using Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a promising alternative to fossil fuels owing to environmental challenges. S. cerevisiae is frequently challenged by bacterial contamination and a combination of lignocellulosic inhibitors formed during the pre-treatment, in terms of growth, ethanol yield and productivity. We investigated the phenotypic robustness of a brewing yeast strain TMB3500 and its ability to adapt to low pH thereby preventing bacterial contamination along with lignocellulosic inhibitors by short-term adaptation and adaptive lab evolution (ALE). The short-term adaptation strategy was used to investigate the inherent ability of strain TMB3500 to activate a robust phenotype involving pre-culturing yeast cells in defined medium with lignocellulosic inhibitors at pH 5.0 until late exponential phase prior to inoculating them in defined media with the same inhibitor cocktail at pH 3.7. Adapted cells were able to grow aerobically, ferment
Nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) is the most widely used nanomaterial for environmental remediation. The impacts of nZVI on terrestrial organisms have been recently reported, and in particular, plant growth was promoted by nZVI treatment in various concentrations. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the detailed physiological and biochemical responses of plants toward nZVI treatment for agricultural application. Here, the effects of nZVI on photosynthesis and related biochemical adaptation of soil-grown Arabidopsis thaliana were examined. After treatment with 500 mg nZVI/kg soil, the plant biomass increased by 38% through enhanced photosynthesis, which was confirmed by the gas-exchange system, carbon isotope ratio and chlorophyll content analysis. Besides, the iron uptake of the plant increased in roots and leaves. The magnetic property measurements and transmission electron microscopy showed that the transformed particles were accumulated in parts of the plant tissues. The accumulation of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cognitive behavioral stress management effects on psychosocial and physiological adaptation in women undergoing treatment for breast cancer. AU - Antoni, Michael H. AU - Lechner, Suzanne C. AU - Diaz, Alain. AU - Vargas, Sara. AU - Holley, Heather. AU - Phillips, Kristin. AU - McGregor, Bonnie. AU - Carver, Charles S. AU - Blomberg, Bonnie B. PY - 2009/7/1. Y1 - 2009/7/1. N2 - Background: A diagnosis of breast cancer and treatment are psychologically stressful events, particularly over the first year after diagnosis. Women undergo many demanding and anxiety-arousing treatments such as surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Psychosocial interventions that promote psychosocial adaptation to these challenges may modulate physiological processes (neuroendocrine and immune) that are relevant for health outcomes in breast cancer patients. Methods: Women with Stages 1-3 breast cancer recruited 4-8 weeks after surgery were randomized to either a 10-week group-based cognitive behavioral ...
Taken together, the evidence strongly supports the notion that the inverted retina and its major consequence (the positioning of the photoreceptors in the outer section of the retina where they are in intimate contact with the choriocapillaris) is a specific adaptation designed to deliver abundant quantities of oxygen to the photoreceptor cells commensurate with their high energy demands--especially in metabolically active groups such as the birds and mammals. Rather than being a case of maladaptation, the inverted retina is probably an essential element in the overall design of the vertebrate visual system.. This conclusion is reinforced by the difficulty of envisaging alternative means of delivering the required amounts of oxygen to the photoreceptor cell layer if the retina had the typical non-inverted design of the sort that might appeal to a tidy-minded engineer. Blood absorbs light strongly, as witnessed by the fact that in the area centralis or macular region--which is the high-visual ...
Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Increasing data suggest that there are sex differences in ventricular and vascular adaptations to aerobic (endurance) exercise, which may be attributed to different physical and physiological features in men and women. }, author={J. Gilbert and C. Banek and A. Bauer and A. Gingery and H. Dreyer}, journal={American journal of physiology. Exercise-Induced Signals for Vascular Endothelial Adaptations: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease Nathan T. Jenkins & Jeffrey S. Martin & M. Harold Laughlin & Jaume Padilla Published online: 15 May 2012 # Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012 Abstract This article reviews recent advances in … Placental and vascular adaptations to exercise training before and during pregnancy in the rat Jeff Gilbert, Christopher T Banek, Ashley J. Bauer, Anne Gingery, Hans C. Dreyer Biomedical Sciences T1 - Sex-specific ventricular and vascular adaptations to exercise. Exercise probably acts at various levels in the cardiovascular system. Start ...
Discussion regarding What kinds of adaptations are available to help someone resume driving a spinal cord injury? with Anne Bryden, OT and other experts
Several ant species restrict their activity to brightly lit periods during the day where visual information is reliable. Ants, despite their tiny size, relatively small brains and few neurons, are highly competent visual navigators. A significant number of ants, however, are active in dimly lit environments, including animals that forage in the dark confines of the leaf-litter, in closed canopy rain forests, or at night. In dim-light habitats, the visual signal-to-noise ratio is typically low, which makes detecting reliable visual navigational information a challenge. Here, we will present the optical and physiological adaptations that ants have evolved for being efficient visual navigators in dim-light. Ants are also unusual in having castes that have different locomotory needs: exclusively pedestrian workers and exclusively flying males. This gives us an opportunity to pinpoint both optical and neural adaptations required for life at night and life on the wing ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neural oscillations reflect latent learning states underlying dual-context sensorimotor adaptation. AU - Fine, Justin. AU - Moore, Dalton. AU - Santello, Marco. PY - 2017/12. Y1 - 2017/12. N2 - Recent studies have suggested that individuals can form multiple motor memories when simultaneously adapting to multiple, but oppositely-oriented perturbations. These findings predict that individuals detect the change in learning context, allowing the selective initialization and update of motor memories. However, previous electrophysiological studies of sensorimotor adaptation have not identified a neural mechanism supporting the detection of a context switch and adaptation to separate contexts. Here, we tested the hypothesis that such a mechanism is identifiable through neural oscillations measured through EEG. Human participants learned to manipulate an object in two opposite contexts (mass distribution). This task was designed based on previous work showing that people can adapt to ...
Saccadic adaptation allows for the gradual compensation of systematic position errors and is traditionally thought to maintain saccadic accuracy despite peripheral changes such as muscle weakness or growth. In the lab it is commonly induced by shifting the target during the saccade. Here we asked whether adaptation can be similarly driven by a mismatch between the requirements of a post-saccadic perceptual task and the saccade landing position. Observers were asked to saccade towards a peripheral letter array. At one particular location in the array they had to perform a letter-discrimination task. In pre- and post-adaptation trials, the central letter in the array had to be discriminated. In adaptation trials, the letter at a fixed eccentric location in the array had to be discriminated, such that saccades had to be shortened or prolonged. In contrast to previous research, only the position of the discrimination-letter within the array changed, while the position of the array itself remained ...
Author Summary Adaptation in eukaryotes is often assumed to be limited by the waiting time for adaptive mutations. This is because effective population sizes are relatively small, typically on the order of only a few million reproducing individuals or less. It should therefore take hundreds or even thousands of generations until a particular new mutation emerges. However, several striking examples of rapid adaptation appear inconsistent with this view. Here we investigate a showpiece case for rapid adaptation, the evolution of pesticide resistance in the classical genetic organism Drosophila melanogaster. Our analysis reveals distinct population genetic signatures of this adaptation that can only be explained if the number of reproducing flies is, in fact, more than 100-fold larger than commonly believed. We argue that the old estimates, based on standing levels of neutral genetic variation, are misleading in the case of rapid adaptation because levels of standing variation are strongly affected by
Microbes commonly display great genetic plasticity, which has allowed them to colonize all ecological niches on Earth. Bacillus subtilis is a soil-dwelling organism that can be isolated from a wide variety of environments. An interesting characteristic of this bacterium is its ability to form biofilms that display complex heterogeneity: individual, clonal cells develop diverse phenotypes in response to different environmental conditions within the biofilm. Here, we scrutinized the impact that the number and variety of the Rap-Phr family of regulators and cell-cell communication modules of B. subtilis has on genetic adaptation and evolution. We examine how the Rap family of phosphatase regulators impacts sporulation in diverse niches using a library of single and double rap-phr mutants in competition under 4 distinct growth conditions. Using specific DNA barcodes and whole-genome sequencing, population dynamics were followed, revealing the impact of individual Rap phosphatases and arising ...
Skeletal muscle adaptation to fatty acid depends on coordinated actions of the PPARs and PGC1 alpha: implications for metabolic disease.
UK - Adaptation measures to help us cope with climate change have the potential to generate further threats for both local and global ecosystems, according to a new study from the University of East Anglia.
J. Z. YOUNG; Cellular Basis for Long-Term Neuronal Adaptation. Biochem Soc Trans 1 October 1978; 6 (5): 839-841. doi: Download citation file:. ...
Advances in bioinformatics and high-throughput genetic analysis increasingly allow us to predict the genetic basis of adaptive traits. These predictions can be tested and confirmed, but the molecular-level changes-i.e. the molecular adaptation-that link genetic differences to organism fitness remain generally unknown. In recent years, a series of studies have started to unpick the mechanisms of adaptation at the molecular level. In particular, this work has examined how changes in protein function, activity, and regulation cause improved organismal fitness. Key to addressing molecular adaptations is identifying systems and designing experiments that integrate changes in the genome, protein chemistry (molecular phenotype), and fitness. Knowledge of the molecular changes underpinning adaptations allow new insight into the constraints on, and repeatability of adaptations, and of the basis of non-additive interactions between adaptive mutations. Here we critically discuss a series of studies that ...
Are you struggling in your caregiving role? Uncertain how to manage certain situations? Perhaps you have tried different strategies that dont work and/or only increase stress and frustration. Stress reduction techniques, coupled with adapted communication and environmental changes can make a big difference! Learn adaptive strategies from LiveWells occupational therapists and get to the root causes of the distressing emotional reactions or atypical actions of the person with dementia you care for/about.. ...
Regular exercise reduces cardiovascular and metabolic disease partly through improved aerobic fitness. The determinants of exercise-induced gains in aerobic fitness in humans are not known. We have demonstrated that over 500 genes are activated in response to endurance-exercise training, including modulation of muscle extracellular matrix (ECM) genes. Real-time quantitative PCR, which is essential for the characterization of lower abundance genes, was used to examine 15 ECM genes potentially relevant for endurance-exercise adaptation. Twenty-four sedentary male subjects undertook six weeks of high-intensity aerobic cycle training with muscle biopsies being obtained both before and 24 h after training. Subjects were ranked based on improvement in aerobic fitness, and two cohorts were formed (n = 8 per group): the high-responder group (HRG; peak rate of oxygen consumption increased by +0.71 ± 0.1 L min-1; p | 0.0001) while the low-responder group (LRG; peak rate of oxygen consumption did not change, +0
Background: Bacteria employ a variety of adaptation strategies during the course of chronic infections. Understanding bacterial adaptation can facilitate the identification of novel drug targets for better treatment of infectious diseases. Transcriptome profiling is a comprehensive and high-throughput approach for characterization of bacterial clinical isolates from infections. However, exploitation of the complex, noisy and high-dimensional transcriptomic dataset is difficult and often hindered by low statistical power. Results: In this study, we have applied two kinds of unsupervised analysis methods, principle component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA), to extract and characterize the most informative features from transcriptomic dataset generated from cystic fibrosis (CF) Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. ICA was shown to be able to efficiently extract biological meaningful features from the transcriptomic dataset and improve clustering patterns of CF isolates. ...
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The media workshop on adaptation to climate change in the Indian Himalayas was organised by Centre for Environment Education & Third Pole as part of the Indian Himalayas Climate Adaptation programme and national mission for sustaining the Himalayas eco-system, to improve creative thinking and effective communication on adaptation to climate change in a local context.. ...
other researchers have recently discovered that the areas of the brain responsible for processing vision or touch can recruit, or take over, areas in which hearing is normally processed, but which receive little or no stimulation in deafness. This is called cross-modal cortical reorganization and reflects a fundamental property of the brain to compensate in response to its environment. According to Dr. Sharma, We find that this kind of compensatory adaptation may significantly decrease the brains available resources for processing sound and can affect a deaf patients ability to effectively perceive speech with their cochlear implants. Cochlear implants are implanted devices that bypass damaged portions of the ear and directly stimulate the auditory nerve. Signals generated by the implant are sent by way of the auditory nerve to the brain, which recognizes the signals as sound, according to the National Institutes of Health, which funds Dr Sharmas research. Next, Sharma and colleagues will ...
Dive into the research topics of Phenotypic plasticity, genetic assimilation, and genetic compensation in hypoxia adaptation of high-altitude vertebrates. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Naturally occurring stimuli can vary over several orders of magnitude and may exceed the dynamic range of sensory neurons. As a result, sensory systems adapt their sensitivity by changing their responsiveness or gain. While many peripheral adaptation processes are rapid, slow adaptation processes have been observed in response to sensory deprivation or elevated stimulation. This adaptation process alters neural gain in order to adjust the basic operating point of sensory processing. In the auditory system, abnormally high neural gain may result in higher spontaneous and/or stimulus-evoked neural firing rates, and this may have the unintended consequence as presenting as tinnitus and/or sound intolerance, respectively. Therefore, a better understanding of neural gain, in health and disease, may lead to more effective treatments for these aberrant auditory perceptions. This review provides a concise summary of: (i) evidence for changes in neural gain in the auditory system of animals, (ii) ...
Enthesophytes are bony projections that arise from the sites of ligament, tendon or joint capsule attachment to a bone. They are seen rarely in radiographic findings in young adults, as these bony adaptations are assumed to develop slowly over time. However, in recent years, the presence of an enlarged external occipital protuberance (EEOP) has been observed frequently in radiographs of relatively young patients at the clinic of the lead author. Accordingly, the aim of this project was to assess the prevalence of an EEOP in a young adult population. Analysis involved a retrospective analysis of 218 lateral cervical radiographic studies of 18-30-year-old participants. Group A (n = 108; males = 45, females = 63) consisted of asymptomatic university students, while Group B (n = 110; males = 50, females = 60) were an age-matched mildly symptomatic, non-student population. The external occipital protuberance (EOP) size was defined as the distance from the most superior point of the EOP (origin) to a point on
Background/Purpose Central to the usage of murine types of disease may be the capability to derive reproducible data. deepen after SBR. Bottom line Maintenance of mice in pathogen-free circumstances and restricting gene appearance analysis to specific pets exhibiting morphologic version enhances awareness and specificity of data produced from this model. These refinements will minimize experimental lead and variability to improved knowledge of the complicated procedure for intestinal adaptation. model continues to be invaluable in regards to to translation of the complex, multifactorial adaptation response into identification of key molecular targets for subsequent, more mechanistic experiments employing cell culture 4,5. During this time period, several modifications in operative technique, perioperative animal care, and refinements in basic science methodology have evolved. As a direct consequence of improved skills in multiple molecular methods and assays, we have noted significant ...
Free Online Library: CRUSTACEAN BIOENERGETICS: MITOCHONDRIAL ADAPTIVE MOLECULAR RESPONSES TO FACE ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES.(Report) by Journal of Shellfish Research; Zoology and wildlife conservation Biological sciences Crustacea Genetic aspects Crustaceans
Summer Biomechanics, Bioengineering and Biotransport Conference, June 29 - July 3, National Harbor, Maryland, (2016). The effects of gender and core stability on temporal-spatial gait parameters during short-term adaptation to 20% increase in backpack load carriage Link ...
7. Answer C. While low serum albumin is common with liver disease, it does not weaken the existing structures of the body. Weakness of the esophageal wall is not the problem. Since the esophageal vessels lie close to the surface, under the mucous membranes, the esophageal wall does not support them at the inner surface. The liver is located to the right of the esophagus. When it enlarges, it is more likely to compromise expansion of the right lung than to affect the esophagus. The fibrosed liver obstructs flow through portal vessels, which normally receive all blood circulating from the gastrointestinal tract. The increased pressure in portal vessels shunts some of the blood into the lower pressure veins around the lower esophagus. Since these veins are not designed to handle the high-pressure portal blood flow, they develop varicosities, which often rupture and bleed. Enlargement of the liver does not displace the esophagus ...
In Chrysopidae, apart from the morphofunctional type of larvae that exhibit the trash-carrying behavior, there are the so-called naked larvae, along with a few cases of morphologically and ethologically intermediate stages (11). Trash-carrying extant larvae tend to possess morphological characters that increase the potential for ensnaring debris, as well as forming a defined space for the trash packet components (4). There is evidence suggesting that these adaptations evolved several times within Chrysopidae (12). Such adaptations are present in the fossil, as a gibbous (humped) body, adapted for moving while carrying great loads. However, two of these adaptations are strikingly peculiar. H. diogenesi has: (i) pairs of dorsal setigerous tubercles, but these are extremely elongated, tubule-shaped; and (ii) setation on the tubular tubercles, but representing a special system for ensnaring the trash packet components. In extant trash-carrying larvae, the lateral tubercles are often much more ...
High-resistance strength training (HRST) is one of the most widely practiced forms of physical activity, which is used to enhance athletic performance, augment musculo-skeletal health and alter body aesthetics. Chronic exposure to this type of activity produces marked increases in muscular strength, which are attributed to a range of neurological and morphological adaptations. This review assesses the evidence for these adaptations, their interplay and contribution to enhanced strength and the methodologies employed. The primary morphological adaptations involve an increase in the cross-sectional area of the whole muscle and individual muscle fibres, which is due to an increase in myofibrillar size and number. Satellite cells are activated in the very early stages of training; their proliferation and later fusion with existing fibres appears to be intimately involved in the hypertrophy response. Other possible morphological adaptations include hyperplasia, changes in fibre type, muscle ...
Second, the data show a consistent decrease in threshold when adapting and test patterns have different forms. This effect is statistically significant (two-way ANOVA, 5.83 , F(1,16) , 8.83, P , 0.05) in three of the eight conditions. We interpret this result in light of the adaptation aftereffect reported by Clifford and Weston (2005). Adaptation to a concentric pattern induces subsequent random patterns to appear radial, and vice versa. Thus, in trials containing for example a radial pattern and a random one after adaptation to a concentric pattern, subjects are biased and perceive a radial pattern in both intervals. This tendency is visible in the analysis of errors made in these experiments: when subjects chose the wrong interval, they did not indicate seeing a radial or concentric pattern with equal probability (50%), as would be expected in the absence of aftereffect, but overwhelmingly (78% on average) indicated the pattern opposite to the adaptation pattern. Moreover, we compared the ...
Dr. Boehlert specializes in applied economics and policy analysis, with a focus on water resources and climate change. He has extensive experience analyzing the effects of changes in water availability and allocation, climate change impacts and adaptation responses, the economic impacts of environmental regulations, and the costs of damages to natural resources. He is collaborating on the Joint Programs analysis of water and energy resources with a focus on development in Africa.. ...
Stroke survivors experience severe muscle wasting during the chronic phase of recovery, with implications for strength, function and general health. Although resistive exercise training effectively combats this problem, it is unknown whether sub-optimal protein intake limits the observed gains in skeletal muscle growth. Skeletal muscle adaptations may occur when resistive training (RT) is combined with... Read More → ...
The current proposal seeks renewal of the Yale Child Health Research Career Development Program (YCHRCDP) in the Department of Pediatrics at Yale University Sch...
246. Ruiz-Ramos, M., Ferrise, R., Rodriguez, A., Lorite, I. J., Bindi, M., Carter, T. R., Fronzek, S., Palosuo, T., Pirttioja, N., Baranowski, P., Buis, S., Cammarano, D., Chen, Y., Dumont, B., Ewert, F., Gaiser, T., Hlavinka, P., Hoffmann, H., Höhn, J. G., Jurecka, F., Kersebaum, K. C., Krzyszczak, J., Lana, M., Mechiche-Alami, A., Minet, J., Montesino, M., Nendel, C., Porter, J. R., Ruget, F., Semenov, M. A., Steinmetz, Zacharias, Stratonovitch, P., Supit, I., Tao, F., Trnka, M., de Wit, A., Rötter, R. P. 2017. Adaptation response surfaces for managing wheat under perturbed climate and CO2 in a Mediterranean environment. Agricultural Systems. Download ...
Adaptation is a mechanism by which cortical neurons adjust their responses according to recently viewed stimuli. Visual information is processed in a circuit formed by feedforward (FF) and feedback (FB) synaptic connections of neurons in different cortical layers. Here, the functional role of FF-FB streams and their synaptic dynamics in adaptation to natural stimuli is assessed in psychophysics and neural model. We propose a cortical model which predicts psychophysically observed motion adaptation aftereffects (MAE) after exposure to geometrically distorted natural image sequences. The model comprises direction selective neurons in V1 and MT connected by recurrent FF and FB dynamic synapses. Psychophysically plausible model MAEs were obtained from synaptic changes within neurons tuned to salient direction signals of the broadband natural input. It is conceived that, motion disambiguation by FF-FB interactions is critical to encode this salient information. Moreover, only FF-FB dynamic synapses operating
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endocrine control of body composition in infancy, childhood, and puberty. AU - Veldhuis, Johannes D. AU - Roemmich, James N.. AU - Richmond, Erick J.. AU - Rogol, Alan D.. AU - Lovejoy, Jennifer C.. AU - Sheffield-Moore, Melinda. AU - Mauras, Nelly. AU - Bowers, Cyril Y.. PY - 2005/2. Y1 - 2005/2. N2 - Body composition exhibits marked variations across the early human lifetime. The precise physiological mechanisms that drive such developmental adaptations are difficult to establish. This clinical challenge reflects an array of potentially confounding factors, such as marked intersubject differences in tissue compartments; the incremental nature of longitudinal intrasubject variations in body composition; technical limitations in quantitating the unobserved mass of mineral, fat, water, and muscle ad seriatim; and the multifold contributions of genetic, dietary, environmental, hormonal, nutritional, and behavioral signals to physical and sexual maturation. From an endocrine ...
Researchers have fresh insight into an evolutionarily ancient way that cells cope when oxygen levels decline, according to a new study in the October 7th issue of Cell Metabolism, a Cell Press publication. In studies of cells taken from the lining of human pulmonary arteries, they show that a microRNA a tiny bit of RNA that regulates the activity of particular genes and thus the availability of certain proteins allows cells to shift their metabolic gears, in a process known as the Pasteur effect.. While the discovery is a fundamental one, the researchers say it could point to new ways to tackle diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disease.. The Pasteur effect is really best defined as the way by which cells adapt to low oxygen concentrations, said Joseph Loscalzo of Brigham and Womens Hospital and Harvard Medical School. Cells do that by switching from mitochondrial metabolism to glycolysis.. Normally, cells produce high-energy molecules such as ATP through components known as ...
One of the significant findings of the study was that the most highly enriched functional grouping across all three stresses was for genes encoding transcription factors (Figure 1). This was also evident for the subset of genes that are upregulated by all the stresses, with 5 out of 30 being transcription factors. These include genes encoding the ubiquitously expressed AP-1 family members Jun and Fos, as well as Myc, Egr-1 and Maff (Figure 1). Some of these have previously been reported to be p38 pathway targets [4]. For example, p38 may regulate jun transcription via MEF2 and ATF2, two direct substrates of p38, whereas fos and egr-1 can be regulated by other p38 substrates, such as ternary complex factors (TCFs) [1, 2, 4]. The enrichment for transcription-factor genes indicates that cells require an extensive program of new gene expression for long-term adaptation to stress.. For the future it will be important to determine how the p38-mediated gene-expression profiles differ between cell types ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Early collateral and microvascular adaptations to intestinal artery occlusion in rat. AU - Unthank, Joseph L.. AU - Nixon, J. Craig. AU - Burkhart, Harold M.. AU - Fath, Steven W.. AU - Dalsing, Michael C.. PY - 1996/9/1. Y1 - 1996/9/1. N2 - The technique to repeatedly observe exactly the same vessels in the rat intestine was used to investigate vascular compensation during the 1st wk after abrupt arterial ligation. A collateral-dependent tissue region was created by ligation of three to four sequential intestinal arteries. At the center of the collateral-dependent region, arterial pressure decreased from 96 ± 3.7 to 29 ± 2.5 mmHg, and intestinal blood flow fell ∼80% during maximal dilation initially postligation. One week later, pressure and blood flow at the center had increased 31 and 250%, respectively. Relative to preligation values, the only compensatory adaptation was an enlargement (31 ± 11%) of the collateral arteries located between normal tissue and the center; no ...
Adaptation is not simply the price of admission for those audiences, but part of the attraction. That is, an adaptation is not only an invitation to experience a work anew in a different textual and/or medial framework; it is also an experience unto itself. Imagine the various Venn Diagrams that govern an audience-really, the audiences-experiencing a film adaptation like The Player. There are viewers who know that the film is an adaptation when they walk in, and there are viewers who only know that when the film tells them so (in an opening credit that says the SCREENPLAY BY MICHAEL TOLKIN is BASED ON HIS NOVEL) (see Figure 2). There are viewers who miss that credit and dont know that the film is an adaptation at all. There are viewers who have read the book and there are viewers who have read the book twice. There are viewers who have read half the book, and there are viewers who havent read the book at all. And there are viewers who resolve to read the book while watching the film, who ...
Psychiatry is medicines sentinel guard. If it can resist over-medicalization so can the rest of medicine. Saving normal is a mirror for all physicians.
Neural adaptation may be one reason investors pile into stocks with obvious problems. Or why an incumbent underestimates the threat of something new. Another form of data blindness results from a series of false positive alerts, like fire alarms, that discourage people from taking decisive action. This is one reason perfectly good cyber security alerts often go unheeded. Unfortunately, overwhelming data volumes force many projects to spend most of their resources processing and charting data, with little left to focus on decisions. Data blindness can result from many factors, some neurological, others cultural. Collectively, these factors impede our ability to act logically.. Here are three ways to recognize and overcome it: 1. Focus on the decision, not the technology. Businesses spent more than $31 billion globally on big data technology in 2013, and that number is growing quickly. One study, from ABI Research, found that just 27% of organizations described their big data initiatives as ...
Motor adaptation is an important factor in the recovery of function following motor deficits associated with neural damage due to stroke, injury or aging. Such...
Get an in-depth review and ask questions about 072 The Four Types Of Cellular Adaptations. See what people are saying about 072 The Four Types Of Cellular Adaptations.
The proposed project, Adopting and Demonstrating the Adaptation of Prevention Techniques (ADAPT), has two main goals: first, to assist the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to better understand the processes needed for adapting evidence-based behavioral interventions to fit new conditions or target populations; second, to utilize the CDCs draft adaptation guidance to adapt Jeff Kellys Popular Opinion Leader (POL) for use with adult, seropositive Hispanic men who have sex with other men (MSM). The target population will directly participate in all phases of the intervention adaptation process.. ADAPT, known as ADAPT-POL in El Paso, will include formative research and outcome monitoring. Throughout both periods, the ADAPT-POL staff will conduct process monitoring and evaluation to assess the delivery of the intervention, and to help the CDC understand how the draft adaptation guidance procedures work in a real world setting. Representatives of the target population will ...
The proposed project, Adopting and Demonstrating the Adaptation of Prevention Techniques (ADAPT), has two main goals: first, to assist the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to better understand the processes needed for adapting evidence-based behavioral interventions to fit new conditions or target populations; second, to utilize the CDCs draft adaptation guidance to adapt Jeff Kellys Popular Opinion Leader (POL) for use with adult, seropositive Hispanic men who have sex with other men (MSM). The target population will directly participate in all phases of the intervention adaptation process.. ADAPT, known as ADAPT-POL in El Paso, will include formative research and outcome monitoring. Throughout both periods, the ADAPT-POL staff will conduct process monitoring and evaluation to assess the delivery of the intervention, and to help the CDC understand how the draft adaptation guidance procedures work in a real world setting. Representatives of the target population will ...
Physiological Adaptation[edit]. Further information: Thermoregulation. The body has several thermal adjustment mechanisms to ... There are basically three categories of thermal adaptation, namely: behavioral, physiological, and psychological. ... Psychological Adaptation[edit]. An individual's comfort level in a given environment may change and adapt over time due to ... Cabanac, Michel (1971). "Physiological role of pleasure". Science. 173 (4002): 1103-7. Bibcode:1971Sci...173.1103C. doi:10.1126 ...
R. Yagil (1985). The desert camel: comparative physiological adaptation. Karger. ISBN 978-3-8055-4065-0. Retrieved 5 September ... John A. Byers (1997). American Pronghorn: Social Adaptations and the Ghosts of Predators Past. University of Chicago Press. ... ISBN 978-3-642-35049-8. John A. Byers (1997). American Pronghorn: Social Adaptations and the Ghosts of Predators Past. ... Shackelford, T. K.; Goetz, A. T. (2007). "Adaptation to Sperm Competition in Humans". Current Directions in Psychological ...
Physiological Zoology. 61 (4): 322-329. JSTOR 30161249. Angilletta, M.J. (2009). Thermal Adaptation: A Theoretical and ... Acclimatization occurs in a short period of time (hours to weeks), and within the organism's lifetime (compared to adaptation, ...
Steegmann, A. Theodore; Cerny, Frank J.; Holliday, Trenton W. (2002). "Neandertal cold adaptation: Physiological and energetic ... Some climatic adaptations, such as high-altitude adaptation in humans, are thought to have been acquired by archaic admixture. ... "Physiological and Genetic Adaptations to Diving in Sea Nomads". Cell. 173 (3): 569-580.e15. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2018.03.054. ... usually thought to be an adaptation to cold climate.[111] The same adaptation is found in some modern people living in the ...
Levandowsky, M. Physiological Adaptations of Protists. In: Cell physiology sourcebook: essentials of membrane biophysics. ... The Physiological Society was founded in London in 1876 as a dining club.[24] The American Physiological Society (APS) is a ... "American Physiological Society , Founders". The American Physiological Society. Archived from the original on 2017 ... Initially, women were largely excluded from official involvement in any physiological society. The American Physiological ...
Reddy GVP; Cruz ZT; Bamba J; R Muniappan (2005). "Host adaptation of the fruit piercing moth, Eudocima fullonia". Physiological ...
Khan, Kiren A. (12 May 2013). "The time course of blur adaptation in emmetropes and myopes". Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics ... Bates' main physiological proposition-that the eyeball changes shape to maintain focus-has consistently been contradicted by ... This phenomenon is known as blur adaptation. Some studies have suggested that a learned ability to interpret blurred images may ... Cuffin, Matthew (2020). "Blur adaptation: clinical and refractive considerations". Clinical and Experimental Optometry. 103: ...
Physiological modifications[edit]. Fossorial front leg of Mole Cricket, showing auditory and fossorial adaptations ... a b c d e Shimer H.W., 1903, Adaptations to aquatic. Arboreal, fossorial, and cursorial habits in mammals.III. Fossorial ... The physical adaptation of fossoriality is widely accepted as being widespread among many prehistoric phyla and taxa, such as ... This adaptation allows for better detection of low-frequency signals.[7] The most likely explanation of the actual transmission ...
Biochemical adaptation: mechanisms and process in physiological evolution. New York: Oxford University Press. 466 p. Somero, G. ... He is the co-author, with George Somero, of Biochemical Adaptation: Mechanism and Process in Physiological Evolution. Highly ... Along with George N. Somero, he pioneered the study of biochemical adaptation to the environment and remained a world leader in ... His work included studies of enzyme adaptation to temperature and pressure, the mechanisms underlying tolerance to low oxygen ...
An adaptation for water conservation. Wigglesworth, V.B. 1953. The Principles of Insect Physiology. 5th edition, E.P. Dutton & ... Physiological Systems in Insects. 2nd edition, Academic Press. p. 416. ...
Weber RE, Vinogradov SN (April 2001). "Nonvertebrate Hemoglobins: Functions and Molecular Adaptations". Physiological Reviews. ...
C. P. Mangum & D. W. Towle (1977). "Physiological adaptation to unstable environments". American Scientist. 65 (1): 67-75. ... ISBN 978-953-51-0864-1. Charlotte P. Mangum (1997). "Adaptation of the oxygen transport system to hypoxia in the blue crab, ... Rippon, John W. (2015-01-07). "Biochemical Adaptation by Peter W. Hochachka and George N. Somero (review)". Perspectives in ... "the maintenance of metabolic and physiological functions in response to variations in the environment". Enantiostasis is not a ...
... physiological adaptations of the painted turtle". The Journal of Physiology. 543 (3): 731-737. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2002.024729 ... Adaptations of its blood chemistry, brain, heart, and particularly its shell allow the turtle to survive extreme lactic acid ...
Zotin, A. I. (1990). Thermodynamic Bases of Biological Processes: Physiological Reactions and Adaptations. Walter de Gruyter. ... Kleiber M (October 1947). "Body size and metabolic rate". Physiological Reviews. 27 (4): 511-41. doi:10.1152/physrev.1947.27. ...
... there may also be physiological adaptations. Active flight has independently evolved at least four times, in the insects, ... Other structural adaptations of flying animals include reduced and redistributed body weight, fusiform shape and powerful ... Several oceanic squid, such as the Pacific flying squid, leap out of the water to escape predators, an adaptation similar to ... A. G. Vidal-Gadea; M. D. Rinehart; J. H. Belanger (2008). "Skeletal adaptations for forwards and sideways walking in three ...
Physiological and Morphological Adaptation and Evolution. Retrieved 2013-04-02. Contributions to the physical anthropology of ...
Williams TD (2017-10-19). "Parental Care". Physiological Adaptations for Breeding in Birds. Princeton University Press. doi: ... Reproductive success is determined not only by behavior (choices), but also physiological variables that cannot be controlled. ... Physiological Entomology. 40 (1): 65-71. doi:10.1111/phen.12089. PMC 4335655. PMID 25709143. Bravo IS, Anjos CS, Costa AM ( ...
Levandowsky, M. Physiological Adaptations of Protists. In: Cell physiology sourcebook : essentials of membrane biophysics. ...
Hochachka, P.W.; Somero, G. N (2002). "Biochemical Adaptation. Mechanism and Process in Physiological Evolution". Oxford: ... Csonka LN (1989). "Physiological and genetic responses of bacteria to osmotic stress". Microbiology and Molecular Biology ...
"Physiological adaptations to low-volume, high-intensity interval training in health and disease". The Journal of Physiology. ... A 2007 study examined HIIT's physiological effects on fat oxidation in moderately active women.[27] The participants in the ... Zuniga JM, Berg K, Noble J, Harder J, Chaffin ME, Hanumanthu VS (May 2011). "Physiological responses during interval training ... A Meta-analysis of Physiological and Clinical Parameters". Heart Lung Circ (Meta-Analysis). 25 (15): 01269-X. doi:10.1016/j.hlc ...
Kibbler, H.; Bahnisch, L.M. (1999). "Physiological adaptations of Hymenachne amplexicaulis to flooding". Australian Journal of ... Gonzalez-Jimenez, E. and Escobar, A. (1977). Flood adaptation and productivity of savanna grasses. Proceedings of Plant ...
... plants require a number of physiological adaptations to overcome the problems of low environmental oxygen levels, high ... ISBN 978-0-203-49188-1. "Morphological and Physiological Adaptations: Florida mangrove website". Archived from the ... Flowers, T. J.; Colmer, T. D. (2015). "Plant salt tolerance: adaptations in halophytes". Annals of Botany. 115 (3): 327-331. ... and as such may be considered a flagship system for ecosystem-based adaptation to the impacts of climate change. One village in ...
CAM is an adaptation for increased efficiency in the use of water, and so is typically found in plants growing in arid ... Guralnick, L. J.; Ting, I. P. (1987). "Physiological Changes in Portulacaria afra (L.) Jacq. during a Summer Drought and ... Adaptations of Desert Organisms. pp. 125-140. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-59212-6_6. ISBN 978-3-642-63900-5. Raven, P & Evert, R & ... Since CAM is an adaptation to arid conditions, plants using CAM often display other xerophytic characters, such as thick, ...
McEwen, BS (Jul 2007). "Physiology and neurobiology of stress and adaptation: central role of the brain". Physiological Reviews ...
Selye considered these conditions to be "diseases of adaptation", or the effects of chronic stress caused by heightened ... a wide range of physiological systems can be damaged.[citation needed] Stress can cause such things as atrophy of muscles, push ... Retrieved 8 November 2016.. McEwen, Bruce S. (July 2007). "Physiology and neurobiology of stress and adaptation: central role ... of the brain". Physiological Reviews. 87 (3): 873-904. doi:10.1152/physrev.00041.2006. PMID 17615391. Tsigos, Constantine; ...
He is also credited as the inventor of the red adaptation goggles. Der Gesichtssinn; Grundzüge der physiologischen Optik (with ... Anleitung zu den physiologischen übungen für studierende der medizin, 1938 - Instructions on physiological exercises for ... was a German physiologist known for his work in physiological optics. He studied physiology at the University of Freiburg, ... Erich Schütz), 1924 - The sense of sight; Principles of physiological optics. Die natürlichen grundlagen der kunst des ...
"Physiological adaptations to interval training and the role of exercise intensity". Journal of Physiology. 595 (9): 2915-2930. ... "Physiological and Health-related Adaptations to Low-Volume Interval training: Influences of Nutrition and sex". Sports Medicine ... Short-term sprint interval versus traditional endurance training: similar initial adaptations in human skeletal muscle and ... Studies have also shown interval training can induce endurance-like adaptations, corresponding to increased capacity for whole ...
... and the costs of physiological adaptation. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521811415. OCLC 53331074. McEwen ... McEwen, Bruce S. (1998). "Stress, Adaptation, and Disease: Allostasis and Allostatic Load". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 840 (1): 33- ... in that it is anticipatory to systemic physiological regulation. This is different from homeostasis, which occurs in response ...
These beetles have evolved physiological adaptations to persist. Many studies of insects and some invertebrates have indicated ... Having a cold habitat, these beetles must go through several physiological mechanisms to survive; they are recognised for their ... Elucidating the biochemical overwintering adaptations of larval Cucujus clavipes puniceus, a nonmodel organism, via high ... Physiological Entomology 36:261-270 Bugguide page for the red flat bark beetle: ...
Meeks JC (2009). "Physiological Adaptations in Nitrogen-fixing Nostoc-PlantSymbiotic Associations". In Pawlowski K (ed.). ...
Some physiological carnivores consume plant matter and some physiological herbivores consume meat. From a behavioral aspect, ... Feldhamer, George A.; Drickamer, Lee C.; Vessey, Stephen H.; Merritt, Joseph H.; Krajewski, Carey (2007). Mammalogy: Adaptation ... Aestivation: Molecular and Physiological Aspects. Springer-Verlag. pp. 95-113. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-02421-4. ISBN 978-3-642- ... There are many physiological mechanisms that control starting and stopping a meal. The control of food intake is a ...
For a bacterium to bind, take up, and recombine exogenous DNA into its chromosome, it must enter a special physiological state ... On the basis of these findings, they suggested that transformation is an adaptation for repairing oxidative DNA damages. S. ...
A hypoxicator is a medical device intended to provide a stimulus for the adaptation of an individual's cardiovascular system by ... but are part of normal physiology and are opposite to patho-physiological effects of severe sleep apnea hypoxia. There are a ... Manukhina EB, Downey HF, Mallet RT (April 2006). "Role of nitric oxide in cardiovascular adaptation to intermittent hypoxia". ... The underlying mechanisms of adaptation to mild, non-damaging, short-term (minutes) hypoxic stress (also called - intermittent ...
A natural physiological reaction to these threshold shifts is vasoconstriction, which will reduce the amount of blood reaching ... Charron, S., & Botte, M. C. (1988). Frequency-selectivity in loudness adaptation and auditory fatigue. [Article]. Journal of ... However, it is evident that the issue is at least partly physiological in nature. In cases of sensory overload not related to ...
The underlying reason includes evolutionary adaptation of large mammals to humans as well as greater pest pressure on human ... Marine organisms which possess calcium carbonate shells or exoskeletons experience physiological pressure as the carbonate ...
Gramineae (Poaceae): the grasses have extreme adaptations for wind pollination. Only two genera have changed to insect ... Lotz, CN and JE Schondube (2006). "Sugar preferences in nectar- and fruit-eating birds: behavioral patterns and physiological ...
The common adaptation among the different designs is that they have extra-wide balloon wheels or tires, to increase stability ... "Kinetic and physiological analysis of the GameWheels system". JRRD. 39 (6): 627-34. ISSN 0748-7711 ... Other important adaptations can include powered doors, lowered fixtures such as sinks and water fountains, and accessible ... Important adaptations include external access, providing sufficient space for a wheelchair user to move around the home, ...
Studies on fungal evolutionary genomics have shown pleiotropic traits that simultaneously affect adaptation and reproductive ... effects between comb mass and physiological structures related to reproductive abilities. Both males and females with larger ... Unfortunately, the process of antagonistic pleiotropy may result in an altered evolutionary path with delayed adaptation, in ... adaptation and reproductive isolation are instantly facilitated, and in turn, pleiotropically causes adaptive speciation. The ...
Davis, Jon R.; DeNardo, Dale F. (2007-04-15). "The urinary bladder as a physiological reservoir that moderates dehydration in a ... Such adaptations are the result of environments such as remote islands and deserts where water is very scarce.[98]:143 Other ... Hicks, James (2002). "The Physiological and Evolutionary Significance of Cardiovascular Shunting Patterns in Reptiles". News in ... can have optimal physiological temperatures in the mammalian range, between 35° and 40 °C (95° and 104 °F).[73] While the ...
Traditionally, tetrapods are divided into four classes based on gross anatomical and physiological traits.[17] Snakes and other ... Butler, Ann B.; Hodos, William (2 September 2005). Comparative Vertebrate Neuroanatomy: Evolution and Adaptation. John Wiley & ... Although the kinetic inertial system is occasionally found in fish, it requires special adaptations (such as very narrow jaws) ... Tetrapods have numerous anatomical and physiological features that are distinct from their aquatic ancestors. These include the ...
For example, a patient with chronic pain may decrease the physiological result of stress and draw attention away from the pain ... Kolk, Herman; Heeschen, Claus (May 1990). "Adaptation symptoms and impairment symptoms in Broca's aphasia". Aphasiology. 4 (3 ... Live music also reduces the physiological responses in parents. Studies have shown that by combining live music, such as harp ... to a technique used in natural and alternative medicine that involves using mental imagery to help with the physiological and ...
Pre-adaptations and evolution after the initial introduction also play a role in the success of the introduced species. If the ... "Pseudo-nitzschia physiological ecology, phylogeny, toxicity, monitoring and impacts on ecosystem health". Harmful Algae. 14: ... Adaptation then proceeds to respond to the selective pressures of the new environment. These responses would most likely be due ... Intraspecific phenotypic plasticity, pre-adaptation and post-introduction evolution are all major factors in adaptive evolution ...
1) The predictive adaptation hypothesis:[39] this hypothesis is in direct contrast with the diathesis stress model, which ... the physiological role of the HPA axis and corticosteroids in stress response is so fundamental that analogous systems can be ... The predictive adaptation hypothesis (1), the three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience (2) and the maternal mediation ... Predictive adaptation asserts that early life experience induces epigenetic change; these changes predict or "set the stage" ...
"Biocultural dimensions of archaeological study: a regional perspective". In: Biocultural adaptation in prehistoric America, pp ... and because of physiological changes associated with pregnancy, such as suppression of the immune system and a possible ...
Valentine DL (2007). "Adaptations to energy stress dictate the ecology and evolution of the Archaea". Nature Reviews ... Extremophile archaea are members of four main physiological groups. These are the halophiles, thermophiles, alkaliphiles, and ... could also explain their adaptation to extreme environments (such as high temperature or acidity) as the result of a search for ... "Recent advances in structural research on ether lipids from archaea including comparative and physiological aspects". Biosci. ...
a b c d e f g h Sawyer, T. L., & Deering, S. (2013). Adaptation of the US Army's after-action review for simulation debriefing ... The physiological modeling allows learners to monitor and manage both patients without instructor intervention."[40] ... simulations and animations include a visually animated representation of blood flow within a body or other physiological ...
Influence of species, physico-chemical properties of insulin and physiological factors". Danish Medical Bulletin. 38 (4): 337- ... "TATA Box Insertion Provides a Selection Mechanism Underpinning Adaptations to Fe Deficiency". Plant Physiology. 173 (1): 715- ...
"Lactose malabsorption" refers to the physiological concomitant of lactase deficiency (i.e., the body does not have sufficient ... Regular consumption of dairy foods containing lactose can promote a colonic bacteria adaptation, enhancing a favorable ... probably as an adaptation to the domestication of dairy animals around 10,000 years ago.[10][11] Today the prevalence of ... but it is also consistent with a physiological response to decrease lactase production when it is not needed in cultures in ...
Physiological mechanisms[edit]. The muscle has "tension producing tissue comprising small contractile units referred to as ... But a single bout of such eccentric exercise leads to adaptation which will make the muscle less vulnerable to injury on ... n.d.). "When active muscles lengthen: Properties and consequences of eccentric contractions". News in Physiological Sciences. ... "The physiological cost of negative work". The Journal of Physiology. 117 (3): 380-390. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1952.sp004755. PMC ...
Valentine DL (2007). "Adaptations to energy stress dictate the ecology and evolution of the Archaea". Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 5 (4 ... "The genome of M. acetivorans reveals extensive metabolic and physiological diversity". Genome Res. 12 (4): 532-42. PMC 187521 ... "Adaptations of the archaeal cell membrane to heat stress". Front. Biosci. 5: D813-20. PMID 10966867. doi:10.2741/albers ... "Recent advances in structural research on ether lipids from archaea including comparative and physiological aspects". Biosci. ...
... may cause psychiatric and physiological symptoms.[6][9]. The behavioral effects of anxiety may include withdrawal from ... "The bright side of being blue: Depression as an adaptation for analyzing complex problems". Psychological Review. 116 (3): 620 ...
Karasov, William H.; Martinez del Rio, Carlos (2008). Physiological Ecology: How Animals Process Energy, Nutrients, and Toxins ... Without specialized adaptations for specific flowers, their ability to reach pollen and nectar is often limited. What's more, ... but has extensive behavioral adaptations that enable it to nest in the open at high altitudes despite low ambient temperatures ...
Hermann Joseph Muller (1890-1967): American geneticist and educator, best known for his work on the physiological and genetic ... but I part company with the New Atheists because I believe that religion is an adaptation that generally works quite well to ...
"Phineas Gage: Psychosocial Adaptation".. F. "Phineas Gage and Frontal Lobotomies".. *^ a b Smith, William T (1886). "Lesions of ... and even to subvert our physiological doctrines"[2] Phineas Gage influenced 19th-century discussion about the mind and brain, ... before they could or would believe-many eminent surgeons regarding such an occurrence as a physiological impossibility, the ...
... physiological) birth including the first moments after birth. Techniques include allowing labour to begin on its own, movement ...
Xie, Z; Klionsky, DJ (October 2007). "Autophagosome formation: core machinery and adaptations". Nature Cell Biology. 9 (10): ... and that the process was not limited to injury states that functioned under physiological conditions for "reutilization of ...
Adaptation to a new climate, as with a new temperature or altitude or environment.. acetyl-CoA. A molecule that participates in ... A nutrient required for normal physiological function which cannot be synthesized by a particular organism, either at all or in ... adaptation. adaptive radiation. The process by which organisms diversify rapidly from an ancestral species into a multitude of ... A biological discipline that studies the adaptation of an organism's physiology to environmental conditions.. ecosystem. A ...
Levandowsky, M. Physiological Adaptations of Protists. In: Cell physiology sourcebook: essentials of membrane biophysics. ...
See also: Insulin § Physiological effects. Lowering of the concentration of insulin and substances related to insulin, such as ... or adaptation to[51] age-related mitochondrial abnormalities; and preserved muscle stem cell function.[55] Muscle tissue grows ... Faced with some evidence for what was unknown at the time but today is called metabolic adaptation, Benedict wanted to find the ... this malnutrition resulted in many positive metabolic adaptations (e.g. decreased body fat, blood pressure, improved lipid ...
Adaptation of Sucrose Metabolism in the Escherichia coli Wild-Type Strain EC3132† Knut Jahreis, Lars Bentler, Jürgen Bockmann, ... KtrAB and KtrCD: Two K+ Uptake Systems in Bacillus subtilis and Their Role in Adaptation to Hypertonicity Gudrun Holtmann, ... Global Role for ClpP-Containing Proteases in Stationary-Phase Adaptation of Escherichia coli Dieter Weichart, Nadine Querfurth ... A Two-Component Regulator of Universal Stress Protein Expression and Adaptation to Oxygen Starvation in Mycobacterium smegmatis ...
Our ancestral physiological phenotype: An adaptation for hypoxia tolerance and for endurance performance?. Peter W. Hochachka, ... Our ancestral physiological phenotype: An adaptation for hypoxia tolerance and for endurance performance? ... Our ancestral physiological phenotype: An adaptation for hypoxia tolerance and for endurance performance? ... Our ancestral physiological phenotype: An adaptation for hypoxia tolerance and for endurance performance? ...
Physiological and Biochemical Aspects of Adaptation and Ecology - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780080249391, ... Animals and Environmental Fitness: Physiological and Biochemical Aspects of Adaptation and Ecology 1st Edition. Abstracts. ... Short-Term Adaptation. Long-Term Adaptation. References. Chapter 52. Effects of Temperature on the Catalytic Properties of ... Animals and Environmental Fitness: Physiological and Biochemical Aspects of Adaptation and Ecology, Volume 2 contains the ...
Mechanism of Action of ABC Importers: Conservation, Divergence, and Physiological Adaptations.. Lewinson O1, Livnat-Levanon N2. ... which correlates with their physiological roles. Here, we summarize recent advances in ABC importers structure-function ...
... is an effective stimulus for inducing physiological and neural adaptations to training. Eccentric exercise-induced adaptations ... Physiological and Neural Adaptations to Eccentric Exercise: Mechanisms and Considerations for Training. Nosratollah Hedayatpour ... In this brief review, neuromuscular adaptations to different forms of exercise are reviewed, the positive training effects of ...
... Nosratollah Hedayatpour ... D. G. Sale, "Neural adaptation to resistance training," Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. S135-S145 ... G. Kamen and C. A. Knight, "Training-related adaptations in motor unit discharge rate in young and older adults," Journals of ... V. G. Coffey and J. A. Hawley, "The molecular bases of training adaptation," Sports Medicine, vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 737-763, 2007 ...
The aim of this study was to determine physiological AT and PT thickness adaptation in adolescent elite athletes compared to ... The aim of this study was to determine physiological AT and PT thickness adaptation in adolescent elite athletes compared to ... However, it is unclear, if changes are of pathological or physiological origin due to training. ... pSport-specific adaptation regarding tendon thickness in adolescent elite athletes can be detected in PTs among male athletes ...
Cummings, J.W. Physiological and biochemical adaptations to training inRana pipiens . J Comp Physiol B 134, 345-350 (1979). ... Physiological and biochemical adaptations to training inRana pipiens *John W. Cummings1. ... Molé, P.A., Oscai, L.B., Holloszy, J.O.: Adaptation of muscle to exercise: increase in levels of palmityl CoA synthetase, ... Maxwell, L.C., Barclay, J.K., Mohrman, D.E., Faulkner, J.A.: Physiological characteristics of skeletal muscles of dogs and cats ...
Studies on thermal adaptation focus on symbionts because they are accessible both in vitro and in hospite. However, there is ... Here we show acclimatization and/or adaptation potential of menthol-bleached aposymbiotic coral Platygyra verweyi in terms of ... verweyi demonstrate potential physiological and enzymatic response to a long-term and regular thermal stress, independent of ... little known about the physiological and biochemical response of adult corals (without Symbiodiniaceae) to thermal stress. ...
... (BOK) Del ... BØKER Physiological Mechanisms and Adaptation Strategies in Plants Under Changing Environment: Volume 1 ... Physiological Mechanisms and Adaptation Strategies in Plants Under Changing Environment, Volume 1 discuss drought and ... Written by a diverse group of internationally renowned scholars, Physiological Mechanisms and Adaptation Strategies in Plants ...
What is Physiological adaptations? Meaning of Physiological adaptations as a legal term. What does Physiological adaptations ... Definition of Physiological adaptations in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... redirected from Physiological adaptations). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. Adaptation. The act or ... Physiological adaptations legal definition of Physiological adaptations ...
... Adv Microb Physiol. 2003;47:1-64. doi: 10.1016/s0065-2911( ...
1.3 Physiological adaptation to the desert environment. The habitat of the camel is characterised by large variations in ... In the following, some of the particular mechanisms of the adaptation of the camel are briefly described. For more ...
Introgression of Physiological Traits for a Comprehensive Improvement of Drought Adaptation in Crop Plants ... Corrigendum: Introgression of Physiological Traits for a Comprehensive Improvement of Drought Adaptation in Crop Plants. ... Introgression of Physiological Traits for a Comprehensive Improvement of Drought Adaptation in Crop Plants ... Introgression of Physiological Traits for a Comprehensive Improvement of Drought Adaptation in Crop Plants. Front. Chem. 6:382 ...
Here we propose the presence of UQ9 is a physiological adaptation for stress tolerance in this pathogenic yeast. ... Physiological adaptations in Candida albicans. Ruvini U Pathirana, University of Nebraska - Lincoln. ... Pathirana, Ruvini U, "Physiological adaptations in Candida albicans" (2016). ETD collection for University of Nebraska - ... Here we propose the presence of UQ9 is a physiological adaptation for stress tolerance in this pathogenic yeast. ...
Physiological models to understand exercise fatigue and the adaptations that predict or enhance athletic performance.. Noakes ... By reviewing features of these models, this review provides a broad overview of the physiological, metabolic and biomechanical ... A more complete understanding of fatigue during exercise, and the relevance of the adaptations that develop with training, ...
Cellular adaptation to physiological processes such as reproduction necessitates the control of mitochondrial respiration to be ... 2013). Physiological adaptations to reproduction. I. Experimentally increasing litter size enhances aspects of antioxidant ... Physiological adaptations to reproduction. II. Mitochondrial adjustments in livers of lactating mice ... Physiological adaptations to reproduction. II. Mitochondrial adjustments in livers of lactating mice ...
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In this study, physiological adaptation to 4CNB by CNB-1 was investigated with proteomic and molecular tools. Comparative ... Proteomic and molecular investigation on the physiological adaptation of Comamonas sp. strain CNB-1 growing on 4- ... 4CNB and/or succinate revealed that adaptation to 4CNB by CNB-1 included specific degradative pathway and general physiological ...
Physiological Mechanisms and Adaptation Strategies in Plants Under Changing Environment - Author: Ahmad, Parvaiz - Price: 198, ... Physiological Mechanisms and Adaptation Strategies in Plants Under Changing Environment. 198,25€ ... Physiological Mechanisms and Adaptation Strategies in Plants Under Changing Environment. Ahmad, Parvaiz ... 1. Mechanisms and Adaptation of Plants to Environmental Stress: A Case of Woody Species. Azza Chelli-Chaabouni. 2. Drought ...
Disruption of hypothalamic leptin signaling in mice leads to early-onset obesity, but physiological adaptations in mature ... Disruption of hypothalamic leptin signaling in mice leads to early-onset obesity, but physiological adaptations in mature ... These data suggest that remaining leptin signals in LeprNkx2.1KO mice mediate physiological adaptations that prevent the ...
... Paulsen, Gøran; Cumming, ... Can supplementation with vitamin C and E alter physiological adaptations to strength training? BMC Sports Science, Medicine and ... the hypothesis that high dosages of vitamin C (1000 mg/day) and E (235 mg/day) have negative effects on adaptation ... adaptation processes. Since this issue concerns many people and few randomized controlled trials have been ...
PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS TO LOW-VOLUME HIIT. Similar to traditional endurance or strength training, physiological adaptations ... Gibala M.J., J.B. Gillen J.B., and M.E. Percival (2014). Physiological and health-related adaptations to low-volume interval ... Gibala, M.J., J.P. Little, M.J. MacDonald, and J.A. Hawley (2012). Physiological adaptations to low volume, high-intensity ... SSE #139 Physiological Adaptations to Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training. Martin J. Gibala ...
Physiological Right Ventricular Adaptation in Elite Athletes of African and Afro-Caribbean Origin. May 10, 2013 Share via: ... YOU ARE HERE: Home , Latest in Cardiology , Physiological Right Ventricular Adaptation in Elite Athletes of African and Afro- ... Regular, intensive exercise results in physiological biventricular cardiac adaptation. Ethnicity is an established determinant ... Physiological RV enlargement is commonly observed in both black and white athletes. The impact of ethnicity is minimal, which ...
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2008 Physiological seawater adaptation in juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) autumn migrants. Freshwater Biology, 53 (4). ... Here, we examine the physiological status of these fish with regard to those features that adapt them to sea water during the ... autumn migration, gill Na+K+ ATPase, juvenile salmon, seawater adaptation, thyroid hormones. ...
Abstract 205: Mlip is a New Integrator of Physiological Stress Required For Proper Cardiac Adaptation. Marie-Elodie Cattin, ... Abstract 205: Mlip is a New Integrator of Physiological Stress Required For Proper Cardiac Adaptation ... Abstract 205: Mlip is a New Integrator of Physiological Stress Required For Proper Cardiac Adaptation ... Abstract 205: Mlip is a New Integrator of Physiological Stress Required For Proper Cardiac Adaptation ...
Physiological Adaptation of a Nitrate-Storing Beggiatoa sp. to Diel Cycling in a Phototrophic Hypersaline Mat. Susanne Hinck, ... Physiological Adaptation of a Nitrate-Storing Beggiatoa sp. to Diel Cycling in a Phototrophic Hypersaline Mat ... Physiological Adaptation of a Nitrate-Storing Beggiatoa sp. to Diel Cycling in a Phototrophic Hypersaline Mat ... Physiological Adaptation of a Nitrate-Storing Beggiatoa sp. to Diel Cycling in a Phototrophic Hypersaline Mat ...
Physiological, Molecular and Genomic Foundation: NHBS - Ashwani Pareek, Sudhir K Sopory, Hans J Bohnert, Govindjee, Springer- ... Abiotic Stress Adaptation in Plants serves as a complete package on the basics and applications for abiotic stress response ... Abiotic Stress Adaptation in Plants presents a holistic view of the general principles of stress perception, signal ... The book focuses on the physiological, molecular, and genomic components of the problems and emphasizes various aspects of ...
CRT-407 Physiological Adaptation of the Left Ventricle during Healthy Pregnancy assessed by Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking ... CRT-407 Physiological Adaptation of the Left Ventricle during Healthy Pregnancy assessed by Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking ... CRT-407 Physiological Adaptation of the Left Ventricle during Healthy Pregnancy assessed by Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking ... Pregnant women experience adaptation of the cardiovascular system to hemodynamic changes. The aim of this study was to assess ...
  • As a little background to help with this answer, there are 3 main different types of adaptation: anatomical: adaptations of the anatomy of the. (
  • Looking for online definition of physiological adaptations in the medical dictionary? (
  • There are well known mechanistic similarities in human physiology between adaptations for endurance performance and hypoxia tolerance. (
  • This idea is interesting to us because biomedical researchers have long known that there are quite a few mechanistic similarities in human physiology between adaptations for endurance performance and for hypoxia tolerance ( 2 - 5 ). (
  • Animals and Environmental Fitness: Physiological and Biochemical Aspects of Adaptation and Ecology, Volume 2 contains the proceedings of the First Conference of the European Society for Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry held in Liège, Belgium, on August 27-31, 1979. (
  • The papers explore the physiology and biochemistry of animal adaptation and ecology and cover topics ranging from amino acid transport and metabolism during osmotic shock to the role of organic compounds in osmoregulation in plants and animals. (
  • He argues that there is only a rudimentary, and in some cases nonexistent, understanding of the physiological mechanisms that underpin individual variation in the major reproductive life-history traits, and that research efforts should refocus on these key unresolved problems by incorporating detailed physiological studies into existing long-term population studies, generating a new synthesis of physiology, ecology, and evolutionary biology. (
  • Because much is known about structure-function relationships of mammalian hemoglobins and their physiological role in oxygen transport, the study of hemoglobin variation in high-altitude mammals holds much promise for understanding the nature of adaptation to hypoxia from the level of blood biochemistry to the level of whole-organism physiology. (
  • The International Union of Physiological Sciences , abbreviated IUPS, is the global umbrella organization for physiology . (
  • [2] IUPS organizes an international congress every 4 years and, in association with the American Physiological Society publishes the review journal Physiology . (
  • Is hibernation a behavioural or physiological adaptation? (
  • In National 4 Biology learn how behavioural, structural and physiological adaptations improve the chance that animals will survive and reproduce. (
  • Our ancestral physiological phenotype: An adaptation for hypoxia tolerance and for endurance performance? (
  • Most notably, we also found evidence for adaptable characters forming the foundations for a fairly unique physiological phenotype-a low capacity version favored under hypobaric hypoxia and a high capacity one favored for endurance performance. (
  • These data suggest that remaining leptin signals in LeprNkx2.1KO mice mediate physiological adaptations that prevent the escalation of the adiposity phenotype in adult mice. (
  • Antarctic king crabs: ecological adaptations versus physiological constraints? (
  • a. a physiological adaptation b. a biochemical adaptation c. a ecological adaptation d. a structural adaptation. (
  • How physiological systems for hypoxia tolerance or endurance performance might have evolved within our phylogeny has remained unknown and uninvestigated in part because, until recently, there were few if any guidelines for tracing the evolutionary pathways of complex physiological systems in humans or in animals. (
  • Here we propose the presence of UQ9 is a physiological adaptation for stress tolerance in this pathogenic yeast. (
  • Elucidating the mechanisms that drive seals' tolerance to hypoxemia/ischemia and insulin resistance could not only increase our knowledge of the fascinating adaptations evolved by these animals but have translatable value for the current understanding and treatment of cardiovascular and respiratory pathologies in humans. (
  • Adaptations to the tidal environment include a broad salinity tolerance, degradation of macroalgae-derived substrates (mannitol, mannose, proline), and resistance to several antibiotics and heavy metals. (
  • In addition, major tolerance mechanisms that employ ion transporters, proteins, osmoprotectants, antioxidants, and other factors involved in signaling cascades and transcriptional control are activated to offset stress-induced biochemical and physiological alterations. (
  • The physiological and biochemical responses to heat stress are active research areas, and the molecular approaches are being adopted for developing HT tolerance in plants. (
  • This article reviews the recent findings on responses, adaptation, and tolerance to HT at the cellular, organellar, and whole plant levels and describes various approaches being taken to enhance thermotolerance in plants. (
  • We discuss novel systemic (heat acclimation) and cellular (acquired thermal tolerance) adaptations that improve performance in hot and temperate environments and protect organs from heat stroke as well as other dissimilar stresses. (
  • Nielsen, H. D., Brownlee, C., Coelho, S. M. and Brown, M. T. (2003), Inter-population differences in inherited copper tolerance involve photosynthetic adaptation and exclusion mechanisms in Fucus serratus . (
  • Metabolic pathways associated with right ventricular adaptation to pulmonary hypertension: 3D analysis of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. (
  • Tony Williams investigates the physiological, metabolic, energetic, and hormonal mechanisms that underpin individual variation in the key female-specific reproductive traits and the trade-offs between these traits that determine variation in fitness. (
  • It is thus to be expected that wildfires have shaped physiological plant traits. (
  • Behavioral adaptation to the changing consensus that humanity is manifesting the consciousness state of the global reality through a self-directed thought follows energy paradigm, as well as, adapting to the energetic conditions that realization imposes on the entire species, is an example of Adaptive Traits coming online. (
  • Organisms seem to accumulate certain physiological, behavioral, and structural traits gradually, and these traits aid them in their ability to survive and reproduce under existing environmental conditions. (
  • Eccentric exercise-induced adaptations include muscle hypertrophy, increased cortical activity, and changes in motor unit behavior, all of which contribute to improved muscle function. (
  • In this brief review, neuromuscular adaptations to different forms of exercise are reviewed, the positive training effects of eccentric exercise are presented, and the implications for training are considered. (
  • In the law of patents-grants by the government to inventors for the exclusive right to manufacture, use, or market inventions for a term of years-adaptation denotes a category of patentable inventions, which entails the application of an existing product or process to a new use, accompanied by the exercise of inventive faculties. (
  • The progressive adaptation of well-known devices to new, but similar, uses is merely a display of an expected technical proficiency, which involves only the exercise of common reasoning abilities upon materials furnished by special knowledge ensuing from continual practice. (
  • Physiological models to understand exercise fatigue and the adaptations that predict or enhance athletic performance. (
  • By reviewing features of these models, this review provides a broad overview of the physiological, metabolic and biomechanical factors that may limit exercise performance under different exercise conditions. (
  • A more complete understanding of fatigue during exercise, and the relevance of the adaptations that develop with training, requires that the potential relevance of each model to fatigue under different conditions of exercise must be considered. (
  • While long appreciated by endurance athletes as an integral component of training programs designed to maximize performance, short-term studies lasting up to several weeks in healthy persons of average fitness have established that HIIT per se is a potent stimulus to induce physiological adaptations that resemble changes typically associated with traditional endurance training, despite a lower total exercise volume and reduced training time commitment. (
  • Recently, short-term studies lasting up to several weeks in healthy persons of average fitness have established that HIIT per se is a potent stimulus to induce physiological adaptations that resemble changes typically associated with traditional endurance training, despite a lower total exercise volume and reduced training time commitment (Burgomaster et al. (
  • Regular, intensive exercise results in physiological biventricular cardiac adaptation. (
  • Exercise responses chronic physiological part of the body as result of a chronic adaptation. (
  • exercise responses chronic physiological adaptations. (
  • The principle of adaptation refers to the process of the body getting accustomed to a particular exercise or training program what is the principle of adaptation? (
  • This article emphasizes significant recent advances regarding heat stress and its impact on exercise performance, adaptations, fluid electrolyte imbalances, and pathophysiology. (
  • During exercise‐heat stress, the physiological burden of supporting high skin blood flow and high sweating rates can impose considerable cardiovascular strain and initiate a cascade of pathophysiological events leading to heat stroke. (
  • The Exercise Metabolism and Adaptation Research Group (EMARG) measure how scheduling of exercise, nutrition, ageing, injury and drug use affect the rate and the extent of muscle adaptation. (
  • We are investigating the cellular and molecular adaptations of human and mammalian skeletal muscle to acute and chronic exercise. (
  • Adaptations in skeletal muscle lipid metabolism that underlie the beneficial effect of exercise training on insulin resistance (adolescents and adults with obesity and metabolic syndrome) and anabolic resistance (sarcopenia, sedentary elderly). (
  • Creatine depletion elicits structural, biochemical, and physiological adaptations in rat costal diaphragm. (
  • article{Levine1996CreatineDE, title={Creatine depletion elicits structural, biochemical, and physiological adaptations in rat costal diaphragm. (
  • re: what are some examples of structural, physiological and behavioral adaptations? (
  • what is structural, physiological & behavioral adaptations? (
  • Examples of plants in the chaparral biome with these structural adaptation include: manzanita, coyote brush and sage brush. (
  • What Is Structural Adaptation? (
  • Structural, physiological and behavioral Adaptations are necessitated by the deep impacts that are being made by current evolutionary forces sweeping onto the planet, reaching critical mass. (
  • any structural, physiological, or behavioral trait that aids an organism's survival and ability to reproduce in its existing environment. (
  • Abstract: The increasingly recognized role played by reactive oxygen species in cellular signaling during health and disease underscores the prominence of redox biology in driving physiological responses. (
  • adaptation processes. (
  • An example of a physiological adaptation is one that changes how an individual processes stimuli or resources in the environment. (
  • Physiological adaptations of plants are processes which allow them to compete. (
  • Daily cycles of sleep/wake, hormones, and physiological processes are often misaligned with behavioral patterns during shift work, leading to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular/metabolic/gastrointestinal disorders, some types of cancer, and mental disorders including depression and anxiety. (
  • As in the evolution of the diving response in pinnipeds, we found "conservative" and "adaptable" physiological characters involved in human responses to hypoxia. (
  • In this review I 1st discuss basic biochemical principles of hemoglobin function and the nature of physiological adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia in mammals. (
  • Storz, JF 2007, ' Hemoglobin function and physiological adaptation to hypoxia in high-altitude mammals ', Journal of Mammalogy , vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 24-31. (
  • Especially in aquatic habitats, hypoxia can be an important evolutionary driving force resulting in both convergent and divergent physiological strategies for hypoxic survival. (
  • Examining adaptations to anoxic/hypoxic survival in hypoxia-tolerant animals may offer fresh ideas for the treatment of hypoxia-related diseases. (
  • Presented eco-physiological mechanisms and evaluation of the effectiveness of the method of adaptation to intermittent normobaric hypoxia on these changes in oxygen metabolism in tissues of patients with coronary heart disease and hypertension. (
  • Current understanding of how corals respond to thermal stress has shown that at least some species and/or populations have the capacity to acclimatize and/or adapt to warmer conditions by shifting to acquire algal species with a higher thermal tolerability, or by adjusting the physiological performance or genetic structures of coral hosts (for details see the review 8 and references therein). (
  • Plasmid localization of the PUL strengthens the importance of mobile genetic elements for evolutionary adaptations within the Roseobacter group. (
  • Polygenic adaptation and convergent evolution on growth and cardiac genetic pathways in African and Asian rainforest hunter-gatherers. (
  • Physiological adaptations (by the example of the exotrophy process in fish) the problem of adaptation, of physiological adaptations is the process of ex- physiological adaptation synonyms, physiological adaptation pronunciation, random variation results from slight genetic differences. (
  • Xerophytes: categories and physiological adaptation of salsola kali-tenuifolia may be quoted as an important example of this adaptation probably helps to 23/02/2010в в· there has long been interest in understanding the genetic basis of human adaptation. (
  • This new consciousness platform requires specific physiological Adaptations to the genetic changes that are occurring in the human race, in order to acclimate to the new set of conditions and energies that we are being further exposed to, as they are related to the human evolutionary process. (
  • I then discuss a case study involving a complex hemoglobin polymorphism in North American deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) that illustrates how integrative studies of protein function and fitness-related physiological performance can be used to obtain evolutionary insights into genetic mechanisms of adaptation. (
  • Proteomic analysis by 2-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis was used to determine the reversibility of molecular adaptations of hibernating myocytes. (
  • Studies in humans are scant and the scope of the present study is thus to investigate the role of cAMP signaling by beta2-adrenergic stimulation for muscle adaptations in humans. (
  • This volume illuminates how plants that are bombarded by diverse and changing environmental stimuli, undergo appropriate physiological alterations that enable their survival. (
  • Physiological adaptations can often be a response to a specific environmental stimuli. (
  • Plant survival under HT stress depends on the ability to perceive the HT stimulus, generate and transmit the signal, and initiate appropriate physiological and biochemical changes. (
  • Behavioral Adaptations - Actions of an organism that enable them to survive in their environment (e.g. (
  • physiological adaptations are systems present in an organism that allow it to perform certain biochemical reactions for example, the. (
  • Physiological - The internal functions of the animal from biochemical, to cellular, tissue, organ and whole organism level. (
  • Acute physiological responses are a vital part of our ability to respond to the changes and demands being placed on our bodies various systems. (
  • Why are acute physiological responses important? (
  • The mechanisms that underpin coral adaptation to rising temperatures are more complicated than in the other aquatic organisms because of the holobiont nature of corals, wherein in addition to their symbiosis with Symbiodiniaceae, they are also associated with a multitude of other microbes 7 . (
  • As a consequence, individuals adjust their cellular structure and function in response to this physiological constraint. (
  • We examine the cellular mechanisms of adaptation by investigating how individual muscle and bone cells change their behaviour following changes in activity and environment. (
  • Measurements at the molecular and cellular level (e.g. qPCR, western blotting, proteomics) are interpreted and complemented by measurement of whole body physiological adaptations (maximal oxygen uptake, muscle function, etc). (
  • Candidates should familiarize themselves with the client needs of safe and effective care environment, health promotion and maintenance, psychosocial integrity, and physiological integrity. (
  • Physiological adaptations are adaptations in which an internal response is provoked by an external stimuli. (
  • However, stretch combined with overload, as in eccentric contractions, is an effective stimulus for inducing physiological and neural adaptations to training. (
  • While less widely appreciated, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a potent stimulus to induce physiological adaptations that resemble, and indeed may be superior to, changes typically associated with traditional endurance training (Kubukeli et al. (
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  • Physiological adaptation to a nonpulsatile biventricular assist system. (
  • The grasping hands of primates, the sensitive antennae of insects, and the flowers and fruits of plants are all forms of adaptation that promote survival, reproduction, or both. (
  • The effect of seawater adaptation on the phosphatidyl-choline metabolism in the eel is also considered, along with evaporative water loss in anuran amphibians. (
  • Physiological Mechanisms and Adaptation Strategies in Plants Under Changing Environment, Volume 1 discuss drought and temperature stresses and their mitigation through different means. (
  • Written by a diverse group of internationally renowned scholars, Physiological Mechanisms and Adaptation Strategies in Plants Under Changing Environment, Volume 1 is a concise yet comprehensive resource that will be beneficial for the researchers, students, environmentalists and soil scientists of this field. (
  • Abiotic Stress Adaptation in Plants presents a holistic view of the general principles of stress perception, signal transduction and regulation of gene expression. (
  • Further, chapters in Abiotic Stress Adaptation in Plants analyze not only model systems but extrapolate interpretations obtained from models to crops. (
  • evolutionary adaptation can either alter genetically these same parameters … For example, it was at first assumed that the anatomical features of desert plants would reduce transpiration (water loss), but it has since been proved that some desert plants have a very high transpiration rate. (
  • Abiotic stress adaptation in plants requires fine-tuning of diverse pathways such as water uptake/loss, photosynthesis, ion uptake/sequestration, antioxidant balance, and osmolyte biosynthesis ( Hirayama and Shinozaki, 2010 ). (
  • histone chaperones can potentially contribute to stress adaptation in plants. (
  • We will look at the maternal physiological and metabolic adaptions that occur during pregnancy and what these play in supporting pregnancy and altering nutrient requirements. (
  • An example of a behavioral adaptation in the ocean is the use of loud, low-frequency calls by fin whales to communicate with other whales over great distances. (
  • Hence, I have established cell culture systems (myoblasts, flow-adapted endothelial cells) to study how seal cells respond to different stressors and physiological adjustments associated with fasting and breath-holding. (
  • These data support the notion that Mlip deficient hearts have impaired cardiac adaptation due to deregulated mTOR activity resulting in maladaptive remodeling, and the development of dilated cardiomyopathy. (
  • Collectively, these results demonstrate that Mlip is required for normal integration of physiological stress (postnatal cardiac growth, isoproterenol-induced hypertrophy) through the regulation of the AMPK/Akt/mTOR pathway to maintain cardiac homeostasis in the adult heart. (
  • Adaptation and constraint in the evolution of the mammalian backbone. (
  • Utilizing overexpression and knockdown approaches, we found a positive correlation between OsNAPL6 expression levels and adaptation to multiple abiotic stresses. (
  • In studying extreme environments, one can observe the limits of physiological adaptation. (
  • The adaptation in various extreme environments is difficult to measure, both because of the environment itself and in finding participants. (
  • The BBC says that animals must physiologically adapt to catch prey in their new environments Examples of physiological adaptations in animals. (
  • Although most of the research in this area has focused on elucidating the impacts of dysregulated oxidant generation on human disease, I have also been studying the role of redox signaling in mediating physiological responses in animals adapted to extreme conditions. (
  • 2.2.2020 1:00 PM. Temperature profoundly influences physiological responses in animals, primarily due to the effects on biochemical reaction rates. (
  • Here we show acclimatization and/or adaptation potential of menthol-bleached aposymbiotic coral Platygyra verweyi in terms of respiration breakdown temperature (RBT) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) enzyme activity in samples collected from two reef sites with contrasting temperature regimes: a site near a nuclear power plant outlet (NPP-OL, with long-term temperature perturbation) and Wanlitong (WLT) in southern Taiwan. (
  • for example, a great example of adaptations in action is the xerophytic plant. (
  • for example capillarisation of the working a great example of adaptations in action is the xerophytic plant. (
  • However, in contrast to other factors affecting chromatin dynamics, the role of plant histone chaperones in abiotic stress response and adaptation remains elusive. (
  • Because histone chaperones possess the capacity to modulate gene expression and DNA repair, they may potentially play a pivotal role in plant adaptation to various stresses, which remains to be studied in detail. (
  • Since there are large variations from person to person in terms of physiological and psychological satisfaction, it is hard to find an optimal temperature for everyone in a given space. (
  • This model of Mature human psychological adaptation, however, emphasizes that the brain function at its healthy best. (
  • It used to be thought that hibernation was a relatively recent evolutionary adaptation, derived as a specialisation for life in cold climates. (
  • Adaptation, Physiological" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • While all-out HIIT protocols are very effective, other low-volume HIIT models that consist of relatively intense, but submaximal, constant-load efforts (e.g., 10 x 60 s at a fixed work intensity that elicits ~90% of maximal heart rate, interspersed by 60 s of recovery) have been shown to induce rapid physiological and performance adaptations similar to Wingate-based training. (
  • Curran T.‐I., Cronin O., Coffey F. T., Keohane D. M., McCarthy Y., Dahly D. L., Molloy M. G. and Falvey E. C. (2018) 'Physiological adaptations in ultra‐endurance athletes during a 5‐day multisport Adventure Race: An assessment of serological and inflammatory cytokine profiles', Translational Sports Medicine, In Press. (
  • shells of certain animal embryos such as reptiles and birds are examples of adaptation to a terrestrial environment. (
  • This is only possible due to how our physiological systems interact with the environment in a homeodynamic way. (
  • This type of adaptation may be driven by either a change to the environment or the behavior of another species. (
  • Adaptation is a term used to describe the ways in which organisms change over time in response to the changing demands of their environment. (
  • Sleep strategy, chronotype, and genotype contribute to the adaptation of the circadian system to an environment that switches frequently and/or irregularly between different schedules of the light-dark cycle and social/workplace time. (
  • Transposition of some of these elements occurs in vivo , suggesting that by dynamically regulating some adaptation and/or virulence genes, they improve the ability of S. agalactiae to reach different niches within its host and ensure the 'success' of the infectious process. (
  • Regionalization of the axial skeleton predates functional adaptation in the forerunners of mammals. (
  • As we transition from one Root Race to another, these species factors, such as the physiological functions of the human body, are rapidly responding to the massive alterations that are occurring in the earth body. (