The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
Infection caused by the protozoan parasite TOXOPLASMA in which there is extensive connective tissue proliferation, the retina surrounding the lesions remains normal, and the ocular media remain clear. Chorioretinitis may be associated with all forms of toxoplasmosis, but is usually a late sequel of congenital toxoplasmosis. The severe ocular lesions in infants may lead to blindness.
Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.
The functional superiority and preferential use of one eye over the other. The term is usually applied to superiority in sighting (VISUAL PERCEPTION) or motor task but not difference in VISUAL ACUITY or dysfunction of one of the eyes. Ocular dominance can be modified by visual input and NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS.
Albinism affecting the eye in which pigment of the hair and skin is normal or only slightly diluted. The classic type is X-linked (Nettleship-Falls), but an autosomal recessive form also exists. Ocular abnormalities may include reduced pigmentation of the iris, nystagmus, photophobia, strabismus, and decreased visual acuity.
Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.
Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.
Tumors or cancer of the EYE.
Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
Tuberculous infection of the eye, primarily the iris, ciliary body, and choroid.
The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.
Mild to severe infections of the eye and its adjacent structures (adnexa) by adult or larval protozoan or metazoan parasites.
Infection, moderate to severe, caused by bacteria, fungi, or viruses, which occurs either on the external surface of the eye or intraocularly with probable inflammation, visual impairment, or blindness.
Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.
Inflammation of part or all of the uvea, the middle (vascular) tunic of the eye, and commonly involving the other tunics (sclera and cornea, and the retina). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
A perceptual phenomenon used by Gestalt psychologists to demonstrate that events in one part of the perceptual field may affect perception in another part.
Abnormally low intraocular pressure often related to chronic inflammation (uveitis).
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.
Diseases of the cornea.
The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.
The front third of the eyeball that includes the structures between the front surface of the cornea and the front of the VITREOUS BODY.
The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.
The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Application of pharmaceutically active agents on the tissues of the EYE.
The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)
Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
Continuation of visual impression after cessation of stimuli causing the original image.
Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
Filarial infection of the eyes transmitted from person to person by bites of Onchocerca volvulus-infected black flies. The microfilariae of Onchocerca are thus deposited beneath the skin. They migrate through various tissues including the eye. Those persons infected have impaired vision and up to 20% are blind. The incidence of eye lesions has been reported to be as high as 30% in Central America and parts of Africa.
A chronic blistering disease with predilection for mucous membranes and less frequently the skin, and with a tendency to scarring. It is sometimes called ocular pemphigoid because of conjunctival mucous membrane involvement.
Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.
The turning inward of the lines of sight toward each other.
Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.
Inflammation of the choroid in which the sensory retina becomes edematous and opaque. The inflammatory cells and exudate may burst through the sensory retina to cloud the vitreous body.
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.
The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
Inflammation of the cornea.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
Images seen by one eye.
Infections of the eye caused by minute intracellular agents. These infections may lead to severe inflammation in various parts of the eye - conjunctiva, iris, eyelids, etc. Several viruses have been identified as the causative agents. Among these are Herpesvirus, Adenovirus, Poxvirus, and Myxovirus.
Inflammation of the eyelids.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.
Refers to any inflammation of the sclera including episcleritis, a benign condition affecting only the episclera, which is generally short-lived and easily treated. Classic scleritis, on the other hand, affects deeper tissue and is characterized by higher rates of visual acuity loss and even mortality, particularly in necrotizing form. Its characteristic symptom is severe and general head pain. Scleritis has also been associated with systemic collagen disease. Etiology is unknown but is thought to involve a local immune response. Treatment is difficult and includes administration of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids. Inflammation of the sclera may also be secondary to inflammation of adjacent tissues, such as the conjunctiva.
The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.
A beta-adrenergic antagonist similar in action to PROPRANOLOL. The levo-isomer is the more active. Timolol has been proposed as an antihypertensive, antiarrhythmic, antiangina, and antiglaucoma agent. It is also used in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS and tremor.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A superficial, epithelial Herpesvirus hominis infection of the cornea, characterized by the presence of small vesicles which may break down and coalesce to form dendritic ulcers (KERATITIS, DENDRITIC). (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.
Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)
Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).
The aperture in the iris through which light passes.
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins F that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGF.
Congenital anomaly in which some of the structures of the eye are absent due to incomplete fusion of the fetal intraocular fissure during gestation.
The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.
An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.
The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Tumors or cancer of the CONJUNCTIVA.
A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.
Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The pigmented vascular coat of the eyeball, consisting of the CHOROID; CILIARY BODY; and IRIS, which are continuous with each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
A form of herpetic keratitis characterized by the formation of small vesicles which break down and coalesce to form recurring dendritic ulcers, characteristically irregular, linear, branching, and ending in knoblike extremities. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
Inflammation of the iris characterized by circumcorneal injection, aqueous flare, keratotic precipitates, and constricted and sluggish pupil along with discoloration of the iris.
Inflammation of the anterior uvea comprising the iris, angle structures, and the ciliary body. Manifestations of this disorder include ciliary injection, exudation into the anterior chamber, iris changes, and adhesions between the iris and lens (posterior synechiae). Intraocular pressure may be increased or reduced.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.
Infection by a variety of fungi, usually through four possible mechanisms: superficial infection producing conjunctivitis, keratitis, or lacrimal obstruction; extension of infection from neighboring structures - skin, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx; direct introduction during surgery or accidental penetrating trauma; or via the blood or lymphatic routes in patients with underlying mycoses.
The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Congenital or developmental anomaly in which the eyeballs are abnormally small.
Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the eye.
Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.
The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.
Involuntary movements of the eye that are divided into two types, jerk and pendular. Jerk nystagmus has a slow phase in one direction followed by a corrective fast phase in the opposite direction, and is usually caused by central or peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Pendular nystagmus features oscillations that are of equal velocity in both directions and this condition is often associated with visual loss early in life. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p272)
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.
Products resulting from the conversion of one language to another.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Conjunctivitis due to hypersensitivity to various allergens.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.
Lack of correspondence between the way a stimulus is commonly perceived and the way an individual perceives it under given conditions.
Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.
A chronic infection of the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.
Inflammation of the choroid.
Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A visual symptom in which a single object is perceived by the visual cortex as two objects rather than one. Disorders associated with this condition include REFRACTIVE ERRORS; STRABISMUS; OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES; TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES; and diseases of the BRAIN STEM and OCCIPITAL LOBE.
The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
Inflammation of the RETINA. It is rarely limited to the retina, but is commonly associated with diseases of the choroid (CHORIORETINITIS) and of the OPTIC DISK (neuroretinitis).
Central retinal artery and its branches. It arises from the ophthalmic artery, pierces the optic nerve and runs through its center, enters the eye through the porus opticus and branches to supply the retina.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
An annular transitional zone, approximately 1 mm wide, between the cornea and the bulbar conjunctiva and sclera. It is highly vascular and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea. It is ophthalmologically significant in that it appears on the outer surface of the eyeball as a slight furrow, marking the line between the clear cornea and the sclera. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.
The distance between the anterior and posterior poles of the eye, measured either by ULTRASONOGRAPHY or by partial coherence interferometry.
A ready-made or custom-made prosthesis of glass or plastic shaped and colored to resemble the anterior portion of a normal eye and used for cosmetic reasons. It is attached to the anterior portion of an orbital implant (ORBITAL IMPLANTS) which is placed in the socket of an enucleated or eviscerated eye. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The absence of light.
Inflammation in which both the anterior and posterior segments of the uvea are involved and a specific focus is not apparent. It is often severe and extensive and a serious threat to vision. Causes include systemic diseases such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, and syphilis, as well as malignancies. The intermediate segment of the eye is not involved.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.
Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.
The condition of where images are correctly brought to a focus on the retina.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.
The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Ocular disorders attendant upon non-ocular disease or injury.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Personal devices for protection of the eyes from impact, flying objects, glare, liquids, or injurious radiation.
Loss of epithelial tissue from the surface of the cornea due to progressive erosion and necrosis of the tissue; usually caused by bacterial, fungal, or viral infection.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.
A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.
A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.
Measurement of light given off by fluorescein in order to assess the integrity of various ocular barriers. The method is used to investigate the blood-aqueous barrier, blood-retinal barrier, aqueous flow measurements, corneal endothelial permeability, and tear flow dynamics.
Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Tumors of the choroid; most common intraocular tumors are malignant melanomas of the choroid. These usually occur after puberty and increase in incidence with advancing age. Most malignant melanomas of the uveal tract develop from benign melanomas (nevi).
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.
Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.

Why and how is soft copy reading possible in clinical practice? (1/1010)

The properties of the human visual system (HVS) relevant to the diagnostic process are described after a brief introduction on the general problems and advantages of using soft copy for primary radiology interpretations. At various spatial and temporal frequencies the contrast sensitivity defines the spatial resolution of the eye-brain system and the sensitivity to flicker. The adaptation to the displayed radiological scene and the ambient illumination determine the dynamic range for the operation of the HVS. Although image display devices are determined mainly by state-of-the-art technology, analysis of the HVS may suggest technical characteristics for electronic displays that will help to optimize the display to the operation of the HVS. These include display size, spatial resolution, contrast resolution, luminance range, and noise, from which further consequences for the technical components of a monitor follow. It is emphasized that routine monitor quality control must be available in clinical practice. These image quality measures must be simple enough to be applied as part of the daily routine. These test instructions might also serve as elements of technical acceptance and constancy tests.  (+info)

Orientation-tuned spatial filters for texture-defined form. (2/1010)

Detection threshold for an orientation-texture-defined (OTD) test grating was elevated after adapting to an OTD grating of high orientation contrast. Threshold elevation was greatest for a test grating parallel to the adapting grating, and fell to zero for a test grating perpendicular to the adapting grating. We conclude that the human visual system contains an orientation-tuned neural mechanism sensitive to OTD form, and propose a model for this mechanism. We further propose that orientation discrimination for OTD bars and gratings is determined by the relative activity of these filters for OTD form.  (+info)

Local velocity representation: evidence from motion adaptation. (3/1010)

Adaptation to a moving visual pattern induces shifts in the perceived motion of subsequently viewed moving patterns. Explanations of such effects are typically based on adaptation-induced sensitivity changes in spatio-temporal frequency tuned mechanisms (STFMs). An alternative hypothesis is that adaptation occurs in mechanisms that independently encode direction and speed (DSMs). Yet a third possibility is that adaptation occurs in mechanisms that encode 2D pattern velocity (VMs). We performed a series of psychophysical experiments to examine predictions made by each of the three hypotheses. The results indicate that: (1) adaptation-induced shifts are relatively independent of spatial pattern of both adapting and test stimuli; (2) the shift in perceived direction of motion of a plaid stimulus after adaptation to a grating indicates a shift in the motion of the plaid pattern, and not a shift in the motion of the plaid components; and (3) the 2D pattern of shift in perceived velocity radiates away from the adaptation velocity, and is inseparable in speed and direction of motion. Taken together, these results are most consistent with the VM adaptation hypothesis.  (+info)

The effect of spatial frequency adaptation on the latency of spatial contrast detection. (4/1010)

The effect of spatial frequency adaptation on detection response time was studied using 2-D Gabor functions as stimuli. On the basis of pilot studies, it was expected that reaction time to a given spatial frequency at a low contrast would increase following adaptation to that spatial frequency at a high contrast. Subjects were tested using 2-D Gabor functions that ranged in frequency from 25 to 24 cpd. Subjects' reaction times to the Gabor functions were measured prior to adaptation and after adaptation to a particular spatial frequency. The adapting spatial frequency was either 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, or 16 cpd. The test stimuli were 0.3, 0.5, or 0.7 log units above the unadapted threshold contrast. The subjects adapted to the high contrast test grating for 3 min (80% contrast) and reaction times were again measured in an adapt-test-readapt paradigm. The results showed the greatest increase in reaction time after adaptation when adapting and test spatial frequencies within an octave of the adapting spatial frequency also showed an increase in reaction time but to a lesser extent. Reaction times to gratings with spatial frequencies more distant from the adapting spatial frequency were not significantly affected by the adaptation. The results obtained resemble the tuning curves found for threshold data. Reaction times for stimuli at 0.5 and 0.7 log units above the unadapted threshold were affected less by adaptation than those at 0.3 log units above the unadapted threshold. These results were evaluated in terms of a shifting contrast gain mechanism which may account for both the spatial frequency specific effects of adaptation and the differences found for the different contrast test levels.  (+info)

S-cone signals to temporal OFF-channels: asymmetrical connections to postreceptoral chromatic mechanisms. (5/1010)

Psychophysical tests of S-cone contributions to temporal ON- and OFF-channels were conducted. Detection thresholds for S-cone modulation were measured with two kinds of test stimuli presented on a CRT: a rapid-on sawtooth test and a rapid-off sawtooth test, assumed to be detected differentially by temporal ON- and OFF-channels, respectively. S-cone related ON- and OFF-temporal responses were separated by adapting for 5 min to 1 Hz monochromatic (420, 440, 450, 540, or 650 nm in separate sessions) sawtooth flicker presented in Maxwellian view. Circular test stimuli, with a sawtooth temporal profile and a Gaussian spatial taper, were presented for 1 s in one of four quadrants 1.0 degree from a central fixation point. A four-alternative forced-choice method combined with a double-staircase procedure was used to determine ON- and OFF-thresholds in the same session. Following adaptation, the threshold elevation was greater if the polarity of the test stimulus was the same as the polarity of the sawtooth adaptation flicker, consistent with separate ON- and OFF-responses from S-cones. This asymmetrical pattern was obtained, however, only when the adaptation stimuli appeared blue with a little redness. When the adaptation flicker had a clear reddish hue component, the threshold elevation did not depend on the polarity of the sawtooth test stimuli. These results are consistent with a model in which OFF-signals originating from S cones are maintained by a postreceptoral mechanism signaling redness, but not by a postreceptoral chromatic mechanism signaling blueness.  (+info)

Dopamine mediates circadian rhythms of rod-cone dominance in the Japanese quail retina. (6/1010)

A circadian clock modulates the functional organization of the Japanese quail retina. Under conditions of constant darkness, rods dominate electroretinogram (ERG) b-wave responses at night, and cones dominate them during the day, yielding a circadian rhythm in retinal sensitivity and rod-cone dominance. The activity of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, also exhibits a circadian rhythm in the retina with approximately threefold higher levels during the day than at night. The rhythm of tyrosine hydroxylase activity is opposite in phase to the circadian activity of tryptophan hydroxylase, the first enzyme in the melatonin biosynthetic pathway. We tested whether dopamine may be related to the physiological rhythms of the retina by examining the actions of pharmacological agents that effect dopamine receptors. We found that blocking dopamine D2 receptors in the retina during the day mimics the nighttime state by increasing the amplitude of the b-wave and shifting the retina to rod dominance. Conversely, activating D2 receptors at night mimics the daytime state by decreasing the amplitude of the b-wave and shifting the retina to cone dominance. A selective antagonist for D1 dopamine receptors has no effect on retinal sensitivity or rod-cone dominance. Reducing retinal dopamine partially abolishes rhythms in sensitivity and yields a rod-dominated retina regardless of the time of day. These results suggest that dopamine, under the control of a circadian oscillator, has a key role in modulating sensitivity and rod-cone dominance in the Japanese quail retina.  (+info)

Analysis of red/green color discrimination in subjects with a single X-linked photopigment gene. (7/1010)

Many subjects despite having only a single X-linked pigment gene (single-L/M-gene subjects) are able to make chromatic discriminations by Rayleigh matching, especially when large fields are used. We used a combination of psychophysics (Rayleigh match), electroretinograms (ERG), and molecular genetic techniques to rule out several possible explanations of this phenomenon. Use of rods for chromatic discrimination was unlikely since strong adapting fields were employed and the large-field match results were not consistent with rod participation. A putative mid- to long-wavelength photopigment that escapes detection by current molecular genetic analysis was ruled out by finding only a single L/M photopigment in flicker ERGs from 16 single-L/M-gene subjects. Large-field match results were not consistent with participation of S cones. Amino acid sequence polymorphisms in the S-pigment gene that might have shifted the S cone spectrum towards longer wavelengths were not found on sequencing. The mechanism of chromatic discrimination in the presence of a single photopigment therefore remains unknown. Further possible explanations such as variations in cone pigment density and retinal inhomogeneities are discussed.  (+info)

Time course of motion adaptation: motion-onset visual evoked potentials and subjective estimates. (8/1010)

The aim of this study was to quantitatively describe the dynamics of adaptation to visual motion with electrophysiological and psychophysical methods in man. We recorded visual evoked potentials (VEPs) to motion onset of random dot patterns from occipital and occipito-temporal electrodes during a succession of adaptation-recovery sequences. In these sequences the test stimulus was used to set the adaptation level: seven trials with 70% motion duty cycle (adaptation) followed by seven trials of 7% motion duty cycle (recovery). In a similar paradigm we determined the length of the perceptual motion after-effect to obtain a psychophysical measure of the time course of motion adaptation. Our results show a highly significant reduction of the N2 amplitude in the maximally compared to the minimally adapted condition (P < 0.001). Electrophysiological and psychophysical results both indicate that adaptation to visual motion is faster than recovery: The data were fit with an exponential model yielding adaptation and recovery time constants, respectively, of 2.5 and 10.2 s for the N2 amplitude (occipito temporal derivation) and of 7.7 and 16.7 s for the perceptual motion after-effect. Implications for the design of motion stimuli are discussed, e.g. a motion stimulus moving 10% of the time may lead to about 30% motion adaptation.  (+info)

PURPOSE: Glucose concentrations are elevated in retinal cells in undiagnosed and in undertreated diabetes. Studies of diabetic patients suggest that retinal function adapts, to some extent, to this increased supply of glucose. The aim of the present study was to examine such adaptation in a model of type 2 diabetes and assess how the retina responds to the subsequent institution of glycemic control. METHODS: Electroretinography (ERG) was conducted on untreated Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and congenic controls from 8-22 weeks of age and on ZDFs treated with daily insulin from 16-22 weeks of age. Retinal sections from various ages were prepared and compared histologically and by immunocytochemistry. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS/CONCLUSIONS: Acute hyperglycemia did not have an effect on control rats while chronic hyperglycemia in the ZDF was associated with scotopic ERG amplitudes which were up to 20% higher than those of age-matched controls. This change followed the onset of hyperglycemia with a delay ...
Purpose: : This paper reports on investigation of dark adaptation as a new clinical trial endpoint for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The ultimate goal is to facilitate clinical trials for development of early-stage interventions by validating dark adaptation as a surrogate marker for future vision loss in AMD. Methods: : It has previously been shown that dark adaptation speed is a sensitive biomarker for AMD from its earliest stages, and that the amount of dark adaptation impairment closely correlates with disease severity. We have developed a dark adaptometer specifically tailored for use as a clinical trial endpoint measure. Like other dark adaptometers, our AdaptRx provides for photobleaching of the retina with subsequent measurement of sensitivity recovery. However, it also allows precise control of the primary variables affecting dark adaptation kinetics: intensity of the bleaching light and location of the stimulus for recovery measurements. Furthermore, we have developed a ...
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Drops sets are unquestionably among the most popular intensity techniques ... and they for sure feel effective, but are they? The latest study says NO!...
This study investigated the effects of visual adaptation to over-, under- or neither over- nor under-weight images of women on perceived own size, in 18 to 25 year olds. Healthy ...
The paper presents a brief review on how some concepts on the organism general adaptational reactions developed, including their role in increasing the unspecific resistance in the organism. Demonstrated is periodicity of the patterns of anti-stressor type reactions (training, calm and elevated activation) and stress in a wide range of stimulation values. ...
If we are takling about scientificly evolving into a different form in this world, it may be possible but it will most likely be done by us rather than through adaptation (we arent patient enough for it). If we are talking about ascending to heavan/astral planes/etc./etc., we might want to find ...
The assumption of perfect color constancy for our stimuli is known to be incorrect from the steady-state conditions. The achromatic point falls at a location determined in part by the set of reflectances and in part by the illuminant chromaticity (see Brainard, Brunt, & Speigle, 1997 for discussion of this equivalent illuminant model, and Figure 4). Under a more relaxed assumption that constancy is instantaneous but incomplete, we can again make predictions about performance in the global condition of our experiment. The illuminant change should cause an immediate shift in the location of the achromatic point, causing it to switch abruptly between the two illuminant-biased achromatic points measured in the steady-state conditions under prolonged exposure to a single illuminant. If response bias, or another process of normalization to the central tendency of the set of stimuli, played a part in this process, we would have to assume that it acted to track the difference between a set of ...
Saccadic adaptation allows for the gradual compensation of systematic position errors and is traditionally thought to maintain saccadic accuracy despite peripheral changes such as muscle weakness or growth. In the lab it is commonly induced by shifting the target during the saccade. Here we asked whether adaptation can be similarly driven by a mismatch between the requirements of a post-saccadic perceptual task and the saccade landing position. Observers were asked to saccade towards a peripheral letter array. At one particular location in the array they had to perform a letter-discrimination task. In pre- and post-adaptation trials, the central letter in the array had to be discriminated. In adaptation trials, the letter at a fixed eccentric location in the array had to be discriminated, such that saccades had to be shortened or prolonged. In contrast to previous research, only the position of the discrimination-letter within the array changed, while the position of the array itself remained ...
Enhanced beta-cell function with normal islet gene expression following adaptation of b-cell mass to substrate oversupply. Am J Physiol Endoc Metab. 2001; 280:E788-E796 ...
Average OP amplitudes and implicit times in CTRL and diabetic DR or DM subjects in response to ISCEV dim (−2.0 log cd s/m2), Test Flash 1 (−1.4 log cd s/m2), Test Flash 2 (−0.8 log cd s/m2), and ISCEV bright (0.39 log cd s/m2). (A) OP1 amplitudes were significantly reduced compared with CTRL (two-way rmANOVA F(6, 94) = 7.39, P , 0.001) for the DR group with Test Flash 2. With ISCEV bright flashes, OP1 amplitudes showed reductions for DM and DR versus CTRL, and for DM versus DR. (B) OP1 implicit times were significantly delayed compared with CTRL (rmANOVA F[6, 86] = 2.73, P , 0.02) for the DR group with ISCEV dim and for DM and DR versus CTRL for Test Flash 1. (C) OP2 amplitudes were reduced compared with CTRL (rmANOVA F[6, 94] = 3.42, P = 0.006) for DR group with Test Flash 2, and with ISCEV bright for the DM and DR groups versus CTRL and DR versus DM. (D) OP2 implicit times were delayed compared with CTRL and DM (rmANOVA, F[6, 85] = 3.82, P , 0.003) for DR with ISCEV dim, for DM and DR ...
Males with this condition have a cheap cymbalta sensitivity near 504 nm under dark-adapted conditions because of chaep rod cheap cymbalta and a peak sensitivity near 440 nm under light-adapted conditions because of normal blue cone function, Johns CJ Ocular involvement in chronic sarcoidosis.
San Antonio ebook Physiology and Pathology of Adaptation Mechanisms. Neural-Neuroendocrine-Humoral 1969 landed in punishable gow server to let Apache. Bob Menendez, ago longer dropping ebook Physiology and Pathology of Adaptation infrastructures, has his Senate statement command. Trump Hosts a Law Enforcement Roundtable on MS-13.
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Overall, the essays in this collection deal with diverse topics and theoretical concerns of adaptation studies today. They throw light on both often researched and neglected or undervalued works. (Poetics Today, 1 May 2015). Well-written, suggestively arranged in a series of six sections, A Companion to Literature, Film and Adaptation provides an invaluable resource for anyone interested in debates about the past, present and future of adaptation studies, and why the discipline represents an important advance in the field of interdisciplinary learning … Cartmells collection covers just about every area imaginable within adaptation studies, whether historical, theoretical or otherwise … [It] is a far cry from those collections that simply compare source with target texts; it encompasses comic-books, songs, silent cinema as well as more canonical texts and their cinematic variants. There is something for everyone in this volume. (Post Script, 2014). Summing Up: Recommended. Upper-division ...
Gold - Impulsive Bull Move Post Yellen Dovishness (1hr chart) After a brief flash crash to start the week touching a month low of 1206, Gold recovered soli
(Family Features) Its a common scenario: no time for breakfast, so youre snacking on something sweet in the break room at 9 a.m. Two hours later you hit the
This page deals with Hiromu Arakawas original manga and its direct anime adaptation (titled Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood). For the loose 2003 anime …
Abstract: : Purpose: Previous studies have demonstrated a significant improvement in visual resolution during sustained periods of retinal blur. This appears to result from perceptual adaptation designed to restore the perceived contrast of the degraded retinal image. However, it is unclear whether this perceptual adaptation is present in all individuals, or only in certain subgroups, such as those who have been chronically exposed to sustained periods of blur due to uncorrected ametropia. Accordingly, the present study examined blur adaptation in both emmetropic and myopic individuals. Methods: Two experiments will be described. Firstly, the effects of sustained retinal blur on both high and low contrast visual resolution was compared in emmetropes (N=12) and myopes (N=16). Subjects were required to view through +2.50D spherical lenses worn over their distance refractive correction for a continuous 2-hour period. Secondly, 20 subjects having moderate degrees of myopia (mean refractive error = ...
Silvia Scaravaggi: How did you develop your projects togheter? Where is the balance in your collaboration?. Evelina & Dmitry: There is no division of creativity between us: we equally harness each curve of the process and encourage others (namely scientists and sound artists) to also take part. We have far too many inquiries to be able to unfold them alone.. Silvia Scaravaggi: Talking about your works for example Camera Lucida experience already presented in Italy during Netmage 2005 n early all require a certain period of retinal adaptation to the darkness. Without the darkness, the light would be invisible, as would the delicate horizon of converging energy systems from which the light emanates. So which are your favourite environments? Which kind of places satisfy you more to set your works?. Evelina & Dmitry: Because our works transpire in the very outer reaches of perceptual resolution, a highly controlled setting is necessary for each installation one that can easily subtract itself from ...
We conducted an experiment to explore color-contingent self-motion aftereffects. Observers were asked to report whether the color-contingent self-motion aftereffect occurred when they observed static spiral test patterns on a red or a green background after they adapted to a red (green) screen with moving their bodies forward (backward). Results showed neither consistent contingency between red/green screen and expansion/contraction nor color-contingent self-motion aftereffect. Further studies are needed to test the possibility of the crossmodal contingent motion aftereffect between visual and vestibular senses ...
DNA microarrays are devices that are able, in principle, to detect and quantify the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences in complex biological mixtures. The measurement consists in detecting fluorescence signals from several spots on the microarray surface onto which different probe sequences are grafted. One of the problems of ... read more the data analysis is that the signal contains a noisy background component due to nonspecific binding. We present a physical model for background estimation in Affymetrix Genechips. It combines two different approaches. The first is based on the sequence composition, specifically its sequence-dependent hybridization affinity. The second is based on the strong correlation of intensities from locations which are the physical neighbors of a specific spot on the chip. Both effects are incorporated in a background estimator which contains 24 free parameters, fixed by minimization on a training data set. In all data analyzed the sequence-specific ...
The |i|Journal of Electronic Imaging|/i| (JEI), copublished bimonthly with the Society for Imaging Science and Technology, publishes peer-reviewed papers that cover research and applications in all areas of electronic imaging science and technology.
A method for compressing test patterns to be applied to scan chains in a circuit under test. The method includes generating symbolic expressions that are associated with scan cells within the scan chains. The symbolic expressions are created by assigning variables to bits on external input channels supplied to the circuit under test. Using symbolic simulation, the variables are applied to a decompressor to obtain the symbolic expressions. A test cube is created using a deterministic pattern that assigns values to the scan cells to test faults within the integrated circuit. A set of equations is formulated by equating the assigned values in the test cube to the symbolic expressions associated with the corresponding scan cell. The equations are solved to obtain the compressed test pattern.
And I think I like him better with the fitted cap on. He aint even gotta try to put the mac on. He just gotta give me that look, when he give me that look. Then the panties comin off, off, un. ...
An Introduction To The Concept Of Unit Test Patterns; Author: Marc Clifton; Updated: 4 Mar 2004; Section: Design and Architecture; Chapter: Development Lifecycle; Updated: 4 Mar 2004
An Introduction To The Concept Of Unit Test Patterns; Author: Marc Clifton; Updated: 4 Mar 2004; Section: Design and Architecture; Chapter: Development Lifecycle; Updated: 4 Mar 2004
A 17-year-old high school cross-country runner has been training aerobically for six months in preparation for the upcoming season. Which of the following adaptations will occur in the muscles during that tie ...
Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating lowered oxygen tension. Hypoxia, defined as a decline in O2 levels below normoxic levels of 20.8 - 20.95%, results in metabolic adaptation at both the cellular and organismal level ...
What s a survival tool ? The answer is simple: anything that provides a function you need is a survival tool in the right circumstances. Human ingenuity and adaptation can never be underestimated, but being ready to perform certain functions, with
While the amplitude of OP2 grows and its timing streest as the strength of the stimulus increases conce rta the background light is kept constant (see figure 43. t. Since Nancy scored at the 58th percentile and Dick at the 64th, Dick obviously did much better in the test. t.
Adaptation Adaptation is a term used to describe the ways in which organisms change over time in response to the changing demands of their environment.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Visual body-size adaptation and estimation of tactile distance. AU - Zopf, Regine. AU - Kosourikhina, Veronika. AU - Brooks, Kevin R.. AU - Polito, Vince. AU - Stephen, Ian D.. PY - 2021/6/12. Y1 - 2021/6/12. N2 - Estimating the size of bodies is crucial for interactions with physical and social environments. Body-size perception is malleable and can be altered using visual adaptation paradigms. However, it is unclear whether such visual adaptation effects also transfer to other modalities and influence, for example, the perception of tactile distances. In this study, we employed a visual adaptation paradigm. Participants were exposed to images of expanded or contracted versions of self- or other-identity bodies. Before and after this adaptation, they were asked to manipulate the width of body stimuli to appear as normal as possible. We replicated an effect of visual adaptation such that the body-size selected as most normal was larger after exposure to expanded and thinner ...
How do our eyes adjust to daily light levels that vary by almost 11 orders of magnitude? Research shows that, in both vertebrates and invertebrates, signaling proteins are translocated in a light-dependent manner between the photoreceptor cellular compartments where visual transduction takes place, and the rest of the photoreceptor cell. Protein translocation is likely to contribute to photoreceptor light adaptation by adjusting the sensitivity and speed of photoresponse to ever-changing conditions of ambient illumination.. ...
The role of nitric oxide (NO) as a novel neurochemical mechanism controlling light adaptation of the outer retina is discussed by considering mainly published results. The emphasis is on the retinae of fishes and amphibia, but some data from the mammalian (rabbit) retinae have also been included for completeness. In the fish retina, application of NO donors in the dark caused light-adaptive photomechanical movements of cones. The normal effect of light adaptation in inducing cone contractions was suppressed by pretreatment of retinae with an NO scavenger. NO donors modulated horizontal cell activity by uncoupling the cells lateral gap junctional interconnections and enhancing negative feedback to cones, again consistent with a light-adaptive role of NO. Direct evidence for light adaptation-induced release of NO has been obtained in fish (carp) and rabbit retinae. The results strongly suggest that control of retinal light adaptation is, under multiple neurochemical control, with NO and dopamine having
Looking for online definition of after-effects in the Medical Dictionary? after-effects explanation free. What is after-effects? Meaning of after-effects medical term. What does after-effects mean?
Table 4: SI units and non SI units and conversion factors. A convenient measure of retinal illuminance is based on the unit of the troland. One troland (Td) of retinal illuminance is produced by an extended source of 1 cd/m2 seen through a pupil of 1 mm2. Thus retinal illuminance E in trolands is given by Equation 9.. Equation 9: E = LA. where L is the luminance in cd/m2 and A is pupil area in mm2. Thus the unit for troland is cd/m2.mm2. If scotopic units are used, luminance is defined as scotopic cd/m2, and the troland is called a scotopic troland.. Inverse Square Law. The illuminance (E) of a surface due to a point source of light is proportional to the luminous intensity (I) of the source in the direction of that surface and inversely proportional to the square of the distance (d) between the surface and the source. The angle θ is the angle of incidence.. Equation 10: E = I/d2. cos θ. Remember, the rule of thumb for all laws dealing with light measurement is that radiation is derived from a ...
The CIE Supplementary System of Photometry, which evaluates lights in terms of comparative brightness relationship at any level, is described. The system introduces the concept of equivalent luminance to describe brightness of a light or an object at any level including mesopic levels. The system develops a photometric model to calculate brightness-related equivalent luminance by using three components of existing photometric and colorimetric quantities (photopic luminance, L, scotopic luminance, L, and chromatic contribution to brightness, c, i.e. brightness-to-luminance ratio (B/L)) with some weighting factors in their combinations that depend on the adaptation level. The use of the system and an example of calculation are also described. Results of testing the system with experimental brightness matching data are given in an appendix.. The publication is written in English, with a short summary in French and German. It consists of 21 pages with 5 figures and 1 table and is readily ...
Several ant species restrict their activity to brightly lit periods during the day where visual information is reliable. Ants, despite their tiny size, relatively small brains and few neurons, are highly competent visual navigators. A significant number of ants, however, are active in dimly lit environments, including animals that forage in the dark confines of the leaf-litter, in closed canopy rain forests, or at night. In dim-light habitats, the visual signal-to-noise ratio is typically low, which makes detecting reliable visual navigational information a challenge. Here, we will present the optical and physiological adaptations that ants have evolved for being efficient visual navigators in dim-light. Ants are also unusual in having castes that have different locomotory needs: exclusively pedestrian workers and exclusively flying males. This gives us an opportunity to pinpoint both optical and neural adaptations required for life at night and life on the wing ...
We have investigated background and bleaching adaptation in vertebrate rods by intracellular recording in the retina of Bufo marinus. Backgrounds and bleaching produce adaptation in photoreceptors and lead to a shift and a compression of the response operating range. Threshold elevation due to backgrounds follows the Rose-DeVries rule at low intensities and the Weber-Fechner rule at high intensities. Threshold elevation due to bleaching is linear almost up to 17% bleached pigment and exponential thereafter. An equivalence can be established between bleaching and backgrounds with respect to threshold elevation, on the one hand, and with respect to response compression, on the other. These equivalences are the same within experimental error. The equivalence, moreover, appears to extend to the complete response curve. These results have implications for psychophysics as well as for photoreceptor transduction.. ...
Thirty years ago, Mollon, Stockman, & Polden (1987) reported that after the onset of intense yellow 581-nm backgrounds, S-cone threshold rose unexpectedly for several seconds before recovering to the light-adapted steady-state value-an effect they called: transient-tritanopia of the second kind (TT2). Given that 581-nm lights have little direct effect on S-cones, TT2 must arise indirectly from the backgrounds effects on the L- and M-cones. We attribute the phenomenon to the action of an unknown L- and M-cone photobleaching product, X, which acts at their outputs like an equivalent background light that then inhibits S-cones at a cone-opponent, second-site. The time-course of TT2 is similar in form to the lifetime of X in a two-stage, first-order biochemical reaction A→X→C with successive best-fitting time-constants of 3.09 ± 0.35 and 7.73 ± 0.70 s. Alternatively, with an additional slowly recovering exponential restoring-force with a best-fitting time-constant 23.94 ± 1.42 s, the two-stage
Adaptation is not simply the price of admission for those audiences, but part of the attraction. That is, an adaptation is not only an invitation to experience a work anew in a different textual and/or medial framework; it is also an experience unto itself. Imagine the various Venn Diagrams that govern an audience-really, the audiences-experiencing a film adaptation like The Player. There are viewers who know that the film is an adaptation when they walk in, and there are viewers who only know that when the film tells them so (in an opening credit that says the SCREENPLAY BY MICHAEL TOLKIN is BASED ON HIS NOVEL) (see Figure 2). There are viewers who miss that credit and dont know that the film is an adaptation at all. There are viewers who have read the book and there are viewers who have read the book twice. There are viewers who have read half the book, and there are viewers who havent read the book at all. And there are viewers who resolve to read the book while watching the film, who ...
The proposed project, Adopting and Demonstrating the Adaptation of Prevention Techniques (ADAPT), has two main goals: first, to assist the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to better understand the processes needed for adapting evidence-based behavioral interventions to fit new conditions or target populations; second, to utilize the CDCs draft adaptation guidance to adapt Jeff Kellys Popular Opinion Leader (POL) for use with adult, seropositive Hispanic men who have sex with other men (MSM). The target population will directly participate in all phases of the intervention adaptation process.. ADAPT, known as ADAPT-POL in El Paso, will include formative research and outcome monitoring. Throughout both periods, the ADAPT-POL staff will conduct process monitoring and evaluation to assess the delivery of the intervention, and to help the CDC understand how the draft adaptation guidance procedures work in a real world setting. Representatives of the target population will ...
The proposed project, Adopting and Demonstrating the Adaptation of Prevention Techniques (ADAPT), has two main goals: first, to assist the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to better understand the processes needed for adapting evidence-based behavioral interventions to fit new conditions or target populations; second, to utilize the CDCs draft adaptation guidance to adapt Jeff Kellys Popular Opinion Leader (POL) for use with adult, seropositive Hispanic men who have sex with other men (MSM). The target population will directly participate in all phases of the intervention adaptation process.. ADAPT, known as ADAPT-POL in El Paso, will include formative research and outcome monitoring. Throughout both periods, the ADAPT-POL staff will conduct process monitoring and evaluation to assess the delivery of the intervention, and to help the CDC understand how the draft adaptation guidance procedures work in a real world setting. Representatives of the target population will ...
Human access to the increasing amount of information and data plays an essential role for the professional level and also for everyday life. While information visualization has developed new and remarkable ways for visualizing data and enabling the exploration process, adaptive systems focus on users behavior to tailor information for supporting the information acquisition process. Recent research on adaptive visualization shows promising ways of synthesizing these two complementary approaches and make use of the surpluses of both disciplines. The emerged methods and systems aim to increase the performance, acceptance, and user experience of graphical data representations for a broad range of users. Although the evaluation results of the recently proposed systems are promising, some important aspects of information visualization are not considered in the adaptation process. The visual adaptation is commonly limited to change either visual parameters or replace visualizations entirely. Further, ...
Macular health and visual performance Light adaptation under low-light conditions Protection from oxidative stress Protection from harmful wavelengths of light from laptops, TVs, and more DescriptionWith 20 mg of lutein in Vision Essentials, you can be assured the most important areas of your eye health are getting the
Objectives: To examine gait regulation during the approach to stepping onto a curb for older adults who did or did not report gait-related falls over a 12-month follow-up. Methods: A total of 98 participants aged 60 years and older were analyzed. Primary outcomes were step length adaptations (lengthening or shortening) during a curb approach and the occurrence of a gait-related fall during a 12-month follow-up. Results: Linear mixed-effects modeling indicated stronger adaptations toward the end of the approach. Participants who reported experiencing a gait-related fall showed a stronger relationship between the adjustment required and adjustment produced, indicating different gait adaptations during the step leading onto the curb. Discussion: The link between prospective gait-related falls and gait adaptations indicated that older adults with reduced capabilities require stronger adaptations to complete tasks reminiscent of everyday life. This finding may provide insight into the mechanisms of ...
Positionally propane jurors reimplementation gyromagnetic familiarly. Unspoken urge expresses hostilities epitome unadapted remissions dresses limber. Six c...
Environmental change often requires societies to adapt. In some instances, these adaptations can create feedbacks that amplify the change. Alternatively, other adaptations may dampen the change. We used semi-structured interviews with 240 fishers from nine Tanzanian coastal communities to explore responses to four hypothetical scenarios of increasingly severe declines in their average catch (10%, 20%, 30% and 50%). Overall, a higher proportion of fishers said they would respond to decline using amplifying adaptations (such as fishing harder) than dampening adaptations (such as reducing effort), particularly in the scenarios with lower levels of decline. We used a redundancy analysis to explore whether certain types of responses were related to the fishers socioeconomic characteristics. Fishers that would employ amplifying responses had greater economic wealth but lacked options. Fishers who would adopt dampening responses possessed characteristics associated with having livelihood options. ...
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Factory built wheels are repeatable. As a lot of the build is done by machine. Handbuilts are not, as most of the process is manual. So a bad handbuilt will be a lot worse than a bad factory build. BUT by the same token, a good factory build (of the same wheel) will most likely not be as good as the best of handbuilts, as the machine is set up to be economic, quick and allow for all variabilty in rim/spoke/hub tolerances of stiffness/size/material and blah. Whereas the handbuilder is not so restricted by time as the machine, and can individually build the wheel based on what parts they actually get, rather than a nominal/worst limit part. There is *some* adaptation on *some* wheel building machines, but not all, and its *unlikely* to be as good or as comprehensive as those made by hand ...
Proton M.D. Syed Zainal Abidin Syed Mohamed Tahir told press today that Proton would be reducing the prices of its cars across the board by 2% to 5%.
Under normal conditions cells are in a homeostatic or steady state. When stimulus arrived to the cell, first the cell will adapt but if this stimulus crosses the boundary of adaptation it will cause cell injury. So cells respond to the stimulus by the following two ways: ...
View Notes - EX1 Terms from BIO 1320 at Texas State. Chapter 1 Key Terms Adaptation: a t rait that increases the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce compared to individuals without the
The 2013 Adaptation Academy is well on its way with an exciting group of participants, asking challenging questions and working through complex issues. Last ...
I apologize for the light level of posting (particularly since so many of you seem to be held in spellbinding suspense, according to my parents), but alot has gone into to making this the most heart-pounding, exhilirating finale ever! Plus I had two exames and a paper this week. Anyways, the doctors decided NOT to…
Raes, G., Lahoutte, T., Caveliers, V., Devoogdt, N., Bormans, G., Debyser, J., Michiels, A., Nuyts, J., Raes, G., Van Laere, K., Baekelandt, V., Himmelreich, U., Maes, F. & Weyn, B.. 1/01/14 → 31/12/17. Project: Fundamental ...
Approved by Dr. Becky Maes - Dextrose is a sugar and like all sugars should be consumed moderately. There are no special dangers associated with dextrose outside of the risks associated with all sugars.
CAMBRIDGE MA Forty five years ago 834 young people (819 men and 15 women) received their bachelor of science degrees from MIT As one of them I have wondered ever since how we would do in life how
Because not everyone wants to see film adaptations - 4 Feb 2014 by Ben Hewis in Features. Tags: original theatre, new writing, film adaptations
The recent film adaptation of Jill Ciments Heroic Measures doesnt match the original. We quiz her on the transfer from page to screen.
"Snake eyes: New insights into visual adaptations". ScienceDaily. 16 August 2016. Simões, Bruno F.; et al. (October 2016). " ... "Visual Pigments, Ocular Filters and the Evolution of Snake Vision". Molecular Biology and Evolution. Oxford University Press. ...
Due to better adaptation, comfort and esthetics custom-made ocular prosthesis is more accepted. In addition to creating the ... painting the iris and then fitting the ocular prostheses. Prefabricated ocular prostheses with different colored iris are also ... An ocularist is someone who specializes in the fabrication and fitting of ocular prostheses for people who have lost an eye or ... and delivery of ocular prosthetics. The American Society of Ocularists teaches the fitting, fabrication, insertion, and ...
"Subterranean mammals show convergent regression in ocular genes and enhancers, along with adaptation to tunneling". eLife. 6. ... The fusiform bodyshape (a tube tapered at both ends) adopted by many aquatic animals is an adaptation to enable them to travel ... Dobler, S., Dalla, S., Wagschal, V., & Agrawal, A. A. (2012). Community-wide convergent evolution in insect adaptation to toxic ... The prior existence of suitable structures has been called pre-adaptation or exaptation. Kirk, John Thomas Osmond (2007). ...
Melatonin has been shown to accelerate the adaptation of the circadian system to a nighttime work schedule.[26] Melatonin may ... Bright light treatment is not recommended for patients with light sensitivity or ocular disease. ... "Dark goggles and bright light improve circadian rhythm adaptation to night-shift work". Sleep. 17 (6): 535-43. doi:10.1093/ ... or blue-blocking goggles during the morning commute home from work can improve circadian adaptation. For workers who want to ...
Khotinskiy, D.A. (2017). "Vestibulo-ocular stage of human adaptation to inversion or reversion of the field of view as method ... Hubert Dolezal recommended to use upside down goggles for "nausea adaptation" for space travel. They can also be used to train ... Upside down goggles can be used to demonstrate human adaptation to inverted vision, and as a method of preventing motion ... ISBN 978-1-932846-02-7. Logvinenko, A.D. (1974). "Adaptation to inverting vision". Questions of Psychology. 12: 101. Stratton, ...
This is what is referred to as VOR adaptation. Ethanol consumption can disrupt the VOR, reducing dynamic visual acuity. This ... The vestibulo-ocular reflex is one of the fastest reflexes in the human body.[citation needed] During head-free pursuit of ... The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is a reflex acting to stabilize gaze during head movement, with eye movement due to ... The vestibulo-ocular reflex is driven by signals arising from the vestibular system of the inner ear. The semicircular canals ...
... an adaptation (also termed gain adaptation) widely seen as a simple form of motor learning, possibly driven by an effort to ... like ocular tremor, ocular drift and smooth pursuit). Velocity-based algorithms are a common approach for saccade detection in ... This effect was first observed in humans with ocular muscle palsy. In these cases, it was noticed that the patients would make ... On the other hand, opsoclonus or ocular flutter are composed purely of fast-phase saccadic eye movements. Without the use of ...
... suggesting that this adaptation was selected for in response to increased endurance running. Vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VORs): ... This adaptation, which allows humans to absorb great shock and force applied to the skeleton, is not seen in australopithecine ... These adaptations, described below, are all evidence for selection for endurance running. Many researchers compare the skeletal ... This was an important adaptation for running because it allowed Homo to see more clearly during the rough pitching motion that ...
Adaptation (eye) Ohba N, Ohba A (December 2006). "Nyctalopia and hemeralopia: the current usage trend in the literature". Br J ... Hemeralopia is known to occur in several ocular conditions. Cone dystrophy and achromatopsia, affecting the cones in the retina ... It can be described as insufficient adaptation to bright light. It is also called "heliophobia" and "day blindness". In ... Rarely, it may have ocular complications such as hemeralopia, pigmentary chorioretinitis, optic atrophy or retinal/iris ...
Ocular autohemorrhaging has also been documented in other lizards, which suggests blood-squirting could have evolved from a ... so the species incapable of squirting blood apparently have lost the adaptation for reasons yet unstudied. To avoid being ... While previous thought held that compounds were added to the blood from glands in the ocular sinus cavity, current research has ... Sherbrooke, W. C. (2000). "Sceloporus jarrovii (Yarrow's spiny lizard) Ocular Sinus Bleeding". Herpetological Review. 31: 243. ...
Spastic ataxia-corneal dystrophy syndrome Spider lamb syndrome Splenic flexure syndrome Split hand syndrome Spondylo-ocular ... scapula syndrome Sneddon's syndrome Solipsism syndrome somatostatinoma syndrome Sopite syndrome Sotos syndrome Space adaptation ... Noonan syndrome Norman-Roberts syndrome Northern epilepsy syndrome Nutcracker syndrome Occipital horn syndrome Ocular ischemic ... Potter sequence Prader-Willi syndrome Pre-excitation syndrome Precordial catch syndrome Premenstrual syndrome Presumed ocular ...
In the TV adaptation, Conrad Coates portrays Morgan. He is quite different from the book Morgan: Coates is an African American ... referring to ocular, Odin having only one eye) in Norse mythology, as is the name of the CEO, Donar Vadderung (surname a ... In the TV adaptation, the character (renamed Justin Morningway) is played by Daniel Kash and is introduced as Harry's uncle ( ... In the television adaptation, Ancient Mai has mostly been portrayed by Elizabeth Thai for the majority of the character's ...
... ocular MeSH G11.697.716.154 - adaptation, ocular MeSH G11.697.716.154.371 - dark adaptation MeSH G11.697.716.182 - blinking ... MeSH G11.697.716.260 - eye movements MeSH G11.697.716.260.217 - convergence, ocular MeSH G11.697.716.260.253 - fixation, ocular ... ocular MeSH G11.697.677.330 - evoked potentials, visual MeSH G11.697.677.340 - eye color MeSH G11.697.677.360 - figural ... ocular MeSH G11.697.677.911 - vision MeSH G11.697.677.911.500 - phosphenes MeSH G11.697.677.911.700 - vision, binocular MeSH ...
... visual adaptation, motion perception, and ocular function and accommodation (eye). The first version of the LEA test was ...
... including delayed ocular adaptation to darkness and impaired color vision, a disulfiram-like alcohol intolerance (19%), ...
Ocular motility study (95.16) P32 and other tracer studies of eye (95.2) Objective functional tests of eye (95.21) ... Dark adaptation study (95.09) Eye examination, not otherwise specified (95.1) Examinations of form and structure of eye (95.11 ...
... ocular anesthesia, laser injuries, geographical ophthalmology, and ocular injuries caused by terrorist blasts. Includes color ... Includes researched information and illustrations on human adaptation to these harsh environments and the physical, cognitive, ... Ophthalmic Care of the Combat Casualty (2003) - Offers a comprehensive reference for treatment of ocular injuries; contains ... photos, more than 600 detailed illustrations, and a step-by-step guide for treatment of ocular injuries, including ...
Dai M, Cohen B, Smouha E, Cho C (2014). "Readaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex relieves the mal de debarquement syndrome ... Space adaptation syndrome (Space flight "zero-g" and return) RESERVED, INSERM US14-- ALL RIGHTS. "Orphanet: Mal de débarquement ... The protocol involves a physical manipulation of the patient intended to readapt the vestibulo-ocular reflex. While the program ... At least one clinical trial on readaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex undertaken by Dr Mingjia Dai from Mount Sinai ...
Afterimage Eye movements Fixational eye movements Human eye Neural adaptation Visual perception 1. Sheahan, N. F., Coakley, D ... 2001). "Ocular microtremor: a tool for measuring depth of anaesthesia?" Br J Anaesth 86(4): 519-22. 4. Adler, F. H. M., ... 1993). "Ocular microtremor measurement system: design and performance." Med Biol Eng Comput 31(3): 205-12. 2. Coakley, D. and J ... Ocular microtremor (OMT) is a constant, physiological, high frequency (peak 80 Hz), low amplitude (estimated circa 150-2500 nm ...
Adaptation,+Ocular at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Light and Dark Adaptation by Michael ... Insufficiency of adaptation most commonly presents as insufficient adaptation to dark environment, called night blindness or ... However, an RI higher than 6.5 indicates impaired dark adaptation. Numerous clinical studies have shown that dark adaptation ... In visual physiology, adaptation is the ability of the retina of the eye to adjust to various levels of light. Natural night ...
2010). Prism exposure promotes the resetting of the ocular-motor system in the brain and results in improved higher order ... Prism adaptation is a sensory-motor adaptation that occurs after the visual field has been artificially shifted laterally or ... prism adaptation has been suggested to improve spatial deficits in patients with unilateral neglect. During prism adaptation, ... was included to compare with the prism adaptation treatment. It was found that only prism adaptation yields significant long- ...
The main medical use emerging in this field is for research on eye development and ocular diseases. New research studies on ... "Cephalopod sense organs, nerves and the brain: Adaptations for high performance and life style." Marine and Freshwater Behavior ... meaning there would be similar expression of ocular disease in both organisms' eyes. An advantage of cephalopod eye ... ocular gene expression are being performed using cephalopod eyes due to the evidence of their convergent evolution with the ...
These fish are blind; no ocular tissue is found in their eye sockets except for a little black spot in each of the eyes. An ... Neuromasts (sensory papillae or pit organs) are interesting adaptations that this species of fish have developed to deal with ...
The raptor's adaptations for optimum visual resolution (an American kestrel can see a 2-mm insect from the top of an 18-m tree ... Hart, NS; Partridge, J.C.; Bennett, A.T.D.; Cuthill, Innes C. (2000). "Visual pigments, cone oil droplets and ocular media in ... Adaptations to night vision include the large size of the eye, its tubular shape, large numbers of closely packed retinal rods ... The cost of this adaptation is that they have myopia in the lower part of their visual field. Birds with relatively large eyes ...
Buhler, Stephen M. (2002). Shakespeare in the Cinema: Ocular Proof. Cultural Studies in Cinema/Video. Albany: SUNY Press. ISBN ... Screen Adaptations. A&C Black. ISBN 9781408144015. "Thailand bans Macbeth film Shakespeare Must Die". The Guardian. 4 April ... Som & Fúria (TV, Brazil, 2009) is a Brazilian adaptation of Slings and Arrows. The "Themes of Shakespeare" series contains ...
1999). "Mutations in the gene encoding 11-cis retinol dehydrogenase cause delayed dark adaptation and fundus albipunctatus". ... with steroids and retinoids and expression of its mRNA in extra-ocular human tissue". Biochem. J. 338 (Pt 1): 23-7. doi:10.1042 ...
Therefore, postnatal maturation of the retinal structures has led to strong light adaptations for infants. Vision problems in ... Part 6: Growth curves of ocular axial length and its components (author's transl)". Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi. 83 (9): 1679- ...
The vestibulo-ocular reflex retains continuous visual focus during motion which is also the vestibular systems job during ... VRT works by causing the brain to use already existing neural mechanisms for adaptation, neuroplasticity, and compensation. ... aimed at assisting the eye to fixate during head rotation without the input from the lost canal vestibulo-ocular reflex). An ...
Ocular drifts were first found to be caused by an instability of the ocular motor system.[citation needed] However, more recent ... This method is used in research settings; more practical adaptations of this technology have been developed for use in clinical ... First, ocular drifts can be caused by the uncontrollable random movements driven by neuronal or muscular noise. Second, ocular ... Ocular drifts occur incessantly during intersaccadic fixation. Although the frequency of ocular drifts is usually lower than ...
"The London climate change adaptation strategy - Draft report" (PDF). Greater London Authority. August 2008. Archived from the ... ocular movements, or speech, impaired movement, impaired motor planning, or shaking.[30][32] ...
Adaptations of coins and banknotes so that the value can be determined by touch. For example: *In some currencies, such as the ... is a category of vision loss or visual impairment that is caused by factors unrelated to refractive errors or coexisting ocular ... They use a combination of vision and other senses to learn, although they may require adaptations in lighting or the size of ... inflammatory ocular hypertension syndrome (IOHS); 2) severe uveitic angle closure; 3) corticosteroid-induced; and 4) a ...
Physical adaptations. Common ostriches have developed a comprehensive set of behavioural adaptations for thermoregulation, such ... Martin, G. R.; Ashash, U.; Katzir, Gadi (2001). "Ostrich ocular optics". Brain, Behavior and Evolution. 58 (2): 115-120. doi: ... Breathing adaptations. The common ostrich has no sweat glands, and under heat stress they rely on panting to reduce their body ... The outer toe has no nail.[14] The reduced number of toes is an adaptation that appears to aid in running, useful for getting ...
8 Ocular measurements *8.1 1.Optic nerve sheath diameter.. *8.2 2. Ophthalmodynamometry or the measurement of the retinal ... Space adaptation syndrome. *Traumatic brain injury. *Cushing's triad. References[edit]. This article has an unclear citation ... Ocular measurements[edit]. Eye provides another possible window into the pressure changes in the intracranial compartment ... It cannot be applied in cases of ocular trauma or conditions that selectively affect the optic nerve, and gives erroneously ...
The adaptation of mosquitoes to the changing climate of North Africa around 5,000 years ago made them seek out environments ... Mahendradas P, Ranganna SK, Shetty R, Balu R, Narayana KM, Babu RB, Shetty BK (February 2008). "Ocular manifestations ... Ng LC, Hapuarachchi HC (October 2010). "Tracing the path of Chikungunya virus--evolution and adaptation". Infection, Genetics ...
Further information: Anti-predator adaptation. Due to their lack of speed and their inability to bite or sting, millipedes' ... These patches are also called ocular fields or ocellaria. Many species of millipedes, including the entire order Polydesmida ...
See also: Adaptation (eye) and Visual acuity. The retina translates an optical image into neural impulses starting with the ... "Treatment of Leber Congenital Amaurosis Due to RPE65Mutations by Ocular Subretinal Injection of Adeno-Associated Virus Gene ... Vision is an important adaptation in higher vertebrates. A third view of the "inverted" vertebrate eye is that it combines two ... "Effect of dark and light adaptation on the retina and pecten of chicken". Experimental Eye Research. 13 (1): 92-97. doi ...
Ocular pain, dry-eye syndrome I, II Recruiting Sylentis NCT01776658 SYL040012 ADRB2 Naked siRNA Ocular hypertension, open-angle ... This would allow faster adaptation to resistance. Such approaches would require low cost sources of dsRNAs that do not ...
Ocular immune system. *Optical coherence tomography. *Eye care professional. *Eye disease. *Refractive error ...
A detailed assessment of ocular exposure to UVB was carried out in a study on Chesapeake Bay Watermen, where increases in ... Epidemiological studies suggest an association between ocular cortical cataracts and UVB exposure, using crude approximations ... average annual ocular exposure were associated with increasing risk of cortical opacity.[62] In this highly exposed group of ...
... while some were tested to estimate how space flight affected the gain of the otolith-ocular reflex and measure the otolith ... gravitational effects also pose poorly understood occupational health problems for space crews ranging from space adaptation ...
Still at the same period, an ocular cataract was found, problem which he had to live with for the rest of his life. The spirits ... as well as adaptations for soap operas versions. By the end of 1990, the medium had already psychographed more than four ...
Physical adaptations[edit]. Common ostriches have developed a comprehensive set of behavioral adaptations for thermoregulation ... Martin, G. R.; Ashash, U.; Katzir, Gadi (2001). "Ostrich ocular optics". Brain, Behavior and Evolution. 58 (2): 115-120. doi: ... Breathing adaptations[edit]. The common ostrich has no sweat glands, and under heat stress they rely on panting to reduce their ... Internal adaptations[edit]. The use of countercurrent heat exchange with blood flow allows for regulated conservation/ ...
Ocular involvement (mild bilateral conjunctivitis) occurs in about 50% of men with urogenital reactive arthritis syndrome and ... with reactive arthritis can expect to live normal life spans and maintain a near-normal lifestyle with modest adaptations to ...
... thereby assisting in adaptation to various levels of lightness/darkness. A greater intensity of light causes the pupil to ... Caloric reflex test/Vestibulo-ocular reflex/Oculocephalic reflex. *Pharyngeal (gag) reflex. Stretch reflexes. *upper limb: ...
"Parasympathetic Ocular Control - Functional Subdivisions and Circuitry of the Avian Nucleus of Edinger-Westphal."Science Direct ... "The emerging roles of melanopsin in behavioral adaptation to light". Trends Mol Med. 16 (10): 435-46. doi:10.1016/j.molmed. ... nerve impulses in the ocular system of the central nervous system. In the presence of light, the retinal molecule changes ...
... related to the process of adaptation is called adaptive. Most commonly, dark individuals become fitter to survive and ... Ocular melanosis. *Melanosis. References[edit]. *^ Morales, E. (1995). The Guinea Pig : Healing, Food, and Ritual in the Andes ... is an adaptation related to the prehistoric movement of humans away from equatorial regions, as there is less exposure to ... or a high-altitude adaptation, since black fur absorbs more heat.[23] ...
Ocular albinism. Melanosome. transfer. *Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. *Chédiak-Higashi syndrome. *Griscelli syndrome *Elejalde ...
"Description of local adaptation of national guidelines and of active feedback for rationalising preoperative screening in ...
Butler, Ann B.; Hodos, William (2 September 2005). Comparative Vertebrate Neuroanatomy: Evolution and Adaptation. John Wiley & ... 2007) Protective ocular mechanisms in woodpeckers Eye 21, 83-89.. External linksEdit. Wikimedia Commons has media related to ...
Ocular tissueEdit. Bullous keratopathy that is characterized by corneal stromal edema related to cell loss and endothelial ... Bone cavities can be filled by polymerizing materials when injected and adaptation to the shape of the cavity can be provided. ... Complete re-epithelialization on the ocular surface with no symptom is achieved in 3 weeks. Results show that fibrin glue ...
Ogawa, Y.; Shimmura, S.; Dogru, M.; Tsubota, K. (2010). "Immune processes and pathogenic fibrosis in ocular chronic graft- ...
Thus consciousness, like bicamerality, emerged as a neurological adaptation to social complexity in a changing world.[citation ... Ocular dominance In hands Left-handedness Cross-dominance Right-handedness Handedness in boxing Southpaw stance Orthodox stance ... This adaptation to the village communities of 100 individuals or more formed the core of religion. Unlike today's ...
During dark adaptation, resting potential decreases slightly and reaches a minimum ("dark trough") after several minutes. When ...
For instance, some ocular antihypertensives cause systemic effects,[7] although they are administered locally as eye drops, ...
Environmental adaptations can control posture in strollers, car seats and swings (using U-shaped neck pillow or blankets to ... Boricean, ID (2011). "Understanding ocular torticollis in children". Oftalmologia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990). 55 (1): 10-26. ... environmental adaptations, and caregiver education. In therapy, parents or guardians should expect their child to be provided ...
Vestigial traits can still be considered adaptations. This is because an adaptation is often defined as a trait that has been ... Hobson, David W. (1991). Dermal and Ocular Toxicology: Fundamentals and Methods. CRC Press. p. 485. ISBN 0-8493-8811-2.. ... Adaptations, therefore, need not be adaptive, as long as they were at some point.[17] ...
Ocular straylight. References[edit]. *^ a b Cline D; Hofstetter HW; Griffin JR. Dictionary of Visual Science. 4th ed. ... stabilized images due to neural adaptation. This stabilization is often interrupted by floaters, especially when they tend to ... They also carry a high risk of damage to surrounding ocular tissue. Accordingly, vitreolysis is not widely practised, being ...
... unique adaptations, desirable properties (esp. in agricultural species), or differences between populations. In a less formal ... ocular prosthetics, facial prosthetics, somato prosthetics, and dental implants. ...
追従眼球運動適応時の大脳皮質MST野のニューロン活動について [in Japanese] Neural Activity During Adaptation of Ocular Following in Monkeys Cortical Area ... Computational studies on acquisition and adaptation of ocular following responses based on cerebellar synaptic plasticity ... Short-latency ocular following responses of monkey. I. Dependence on temporospatial properties of visual input MILES FA ... Ocular following response (OFR) is a slow tracking eye movement at ultra-short latency. It is
Cross-axis adaptation improves 3D vestibulo-ocular reflex alignment during chronic stimulation via a head-mounted multichannel ... Cross-axis adaptation improves 3D vestibulo-ocular reflex alignment during chronic stimulation via a head-mounted multichannel ... Cross-axis adaptation improves 3D vestibulo-ocular reflex alignment during chronic stimulation via a head-mounted multichannel ... Cross-axis adaptation improves 3D vestibulo-ocular reflex alignment during chronic stimulation via a head-mounted multichannel ...
Short-term adaptation of the cervico-ocular reflex. Publication. Publication. Experimental Brain Research , Volume 156 - Issue ... The cervico-ocular reflex (COR) works in conjunction with the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and the optokinetic reflex (OKR) in ... Short-term adaptation of the cervico-ocular reflex. Experimental Brain Research, 156(1), 124-128. doi:10.1007/s00221-004-1878-1 ... This means that the cervico-ocular reflex can be modified after only 10 min of concurrent visual and cervical stimulation. ...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa adaptation to the ocular surface: transcriptional changes and virulence determinants ... Pseudomonas aeruginosa adaptation to the ocular surface: transcriptional changes and virulence determinants ... Pseudomonas aeruginosa adaptation to the ocular surface: transcriptional changes and virulence determinants. Invest. Ophthalmol ... Conclusions: Use of an unbiased global genetic approach to study P. aeruginosa interaction with ocular surface components in ...
Home ❯ Projects ❯ The effect of visual contrast on human vestibulo-ocular reflex adaptation ...
Cerebellar LTD facilitates but is not essential for long-term adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. Publication. ... Cerebellar LTD facilitates but is not essential for long-term adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. In European Journal of ...
... and predicts candidate sequences with a potential role in ocular disorders. ... Subterranean mammals show convergent regression in ocular genes and enhancers, along with adaptation to tunneling. ... A) Ocular genes that are more tissue-specific exhibit stronger acceleration in subterranean mole species. The y-axis ...
Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Adaptation and Motion Sickness Symptoms in Response to Virtual Reality Exposure. ... explore VOR and VVOR adaptation amplitude and rate during exposure to various virtual conditions, and (3) relate VOR adaptation ... Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR) is likely a primary source of such conflict and can adapt to reduce associated symptoms with ... Adaptation to the 50% condition took longer and was more nausea-inducing than the 200% or control conditions. Additionally, ...
Ocular stability and set-point adaptation. D. S. Zee, P. Jareonsettasin, R. J. Leigh ...
"Vestibulo-ocular Reflex Adaptation." Vestibular Rehabilitation, 4e Herdman SJ, Clendaniel RA. Herdman S.J., Clendaniel R.A. Eds ... Schubert M.C. Schubert, Michael C.Vestibulo-ocular Reflex Adaptation. In: Herdman SJ, Clendaniel RA. Herdman S.J., Clendaniel R ... Role of Vision and Head Motion in Adaptation-Overview. ++. Two sensory stimuli are required for significant adaptation of the ... Traditionally, adaptation paradigms designed to enhance the gain of the VOR have been done with short-term (less than 1 hour) ...
Spiroplasmas: evolution, adaptation and diversity. Front Biosci. 2002;7:d619-40.PubMed ... His primary research interests include pediatric and adult ocular tumors, radiation therapy, ocular inflammation and infection ... Touitou V, Fenollar F, Cassoux N, Merle-Beral H, LeHoang P, Amoura Z, et al. Ocular Whipples disease: therapeutic strategy and ... Ocular lesions induced in C57 mice by the suckling mouse cataract agent (SMCA). Invest Ophthalmol. 1966;5:413-20.PubMed ...
... viral adaptation and the development and use of antiviral drugs and vaccines to achieve improved outcomes in infection control ... The role of herpesviruses in ocular infections Asim V Farooq, Arpeet Shah, Deepak Shukla ... Virus Adaptation and Treatment ceased publishing in October 2019 All articles that have been published in Virus Adaptation and ... Back to Archived Journals » Virus Adaptation and Treatment » Volume 2. ...
... J Neurosci. 2008 Oct 8;28(41):10278-86. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2451- ... Adaptation, Physiological * Aging / physiology * Animals * Critical Period, Psychological* * Dominance, Ocular / physiology* * ... We propose that adult ocular dominance plasticity arises from compensatory mechanisms that counterbalance the loss of afferent ... Here, we investigate differences between adult and juvenile ocular dominance plasticity using Fourier optical imaging of ...
Adaptation, Ocular / physiology * Animals * Color * Cues * Eye / anatomy & histology * Eye / cytology * Fishes / physiology* ...
Saccade and vestibular ocular motor adaptation Authors: Schubert, Michael C. , Zee, David S. ... ipsiversive lateropulsion and ocular tilt reaction (the static symptoms) and impairment of …vestibulo-ocular reflexes from the ... The linear vestibulo-ocular reflex, locomotion and falls in neurological disorders Authors: Liao, Ke , Walker, Mark F. , Joshi ... However, the means to test reliably the linear or translational vestibulo-ocular reflex (tVOR), …which depends on the otolithic ...
We assessed the ocular status and visual adaptation among children studying at a school for visually disabled children in ... Ocular status and functional adaptation of visually challenged children of a special school in Oman ... Ocular status and functional adaptation of visually challenged children of a special schoo ... We assessed the visual and ocular status of the participants. They were interviewed to elicit the past history of eye problems ...
To evaluate vestibular compensation via measurement of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) following vestibular schwannoma ... To evaluate vestibular compensation via measurement of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) following vestibular schwannoma ... Saccade and vestibular ocular motor adaptation. Restor Neurol Neurosci (2010) 28:9-18. doi:10.3233/RNN-2010-0523 ... High-velocity angular vestibulo-ocular reflex adaptation to position error signals. J Neurol Phys Ther (2010) 34:82-6. doi: ...
Refractive adaptation phase. The primary purpose of this phase was to ensure that full refractive adaptation was complete ... The development of ocular dominance columns in normal and visually deprived monkeys. J Comp Neurol 1980;191:1-51. ... Refractive adaptation phase: a time period during which an improvement in vision of the amblyopic eye may occur in response to ... During refractive adaptation, visual acuity in seven children improved to an extent that they were no longer eligible to enter ...
1975) Adaptation of the human vestibulo-ocular reflex to magnifying lenses. Brain Res 92:331-335. ... 1984) Neuronal events correlated with long-term adaptation of the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex in the primate flocculus. ... 1973) Changes of human vestibulo-ocular response induced by vision-reversal during head rotation. J Physiol (Lond) 234:102-103P ... 1978) A neural correlate in rabbits cerebellum to adaptive modification of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. Brain Res 150:611-616. ...
Adaptation, Ocular. The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of ... the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., ...
1. The act or state of adjustment or adaptation; especially change in the shape of the ocular lens for various focal distances ... ocular accom. (D) of contact lens wearer. ocular accom. (D) of hyperopes. ... ocular accom. (D) of contact lens wearer. ocular accom. (D) of myopes. ... The vertex distance was 14 mm and ocular accommodation was calculated using the formula A = K − B. The ocular accommodation ...
Adaptation, Ocular. The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of ... the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., ...
Dune trailer: Timothée Chalamet and Zendaya star in first look at Denis Villeneuves adaptation. Yahoo Movies UK ... Wearing anti-Covid-19 face coverings could lead to mask eye, ocular experts warn. The Telegraph ... Dune trailer: Timothée Chalamet and Zendaya star in first look at Denis Villeneuves adaptation. Yahoo Movies UK ... Wearing anti-Covid-19 face coverings could lead to mask eye, ocular experts warn. The Telegraph ...
Adaptation, Ocular / physiology*. Adult. Dark Adaptation / physiology. Electroretinography. Humans. Infant. Light. Photic ... The median slope of the linear portion of the background adaptation function was about 0.9 for infants and adults. These ...
Adaptation, Ocular / physiology. Adolescent. Adult. Color Vision / physiology*. Female. Fluorescence*. Follow-Up Studies. ...
Amblyopia and Sensory Adaptations.- Introduction to Strabismus and the Ocular Motor Exam.- Sensory Examination.- Esotropia.- ... Pediatric Eye Exam.- Anatomy and Physiology of the Extraocular Muscles.- Laws of Ocular Motility and Introduction to Strabismus ... Exotropia.- Oblique Overaction and A- and V-Patterns.- Vertical Strabismus.- Strabismus Syndromes.- Neuro Based Ocular Motility ...
Angular vestibulo-ocular reflex responses in Otop1 mice. I. Otolith sensor input is essential for gravity context-specific ... An invertible mathematical model of cortical bones adaptation to mechanical loading.. Sci Rep. 2019 Apr 10;9(1):5890. ... Angular vestibulo-ocular reflex responses in Otop1 mice. II. Otolith sensor input improves compensation after unilateral ...
Corneal or conjunctival abnormality precluding contact lens adaptation. *Severe dry eye syndrome or other ocular disease ...
Concentrations greater than 3. 20-3. Counselling talking about this adaptation. Protamine is only reported to cause death in ... Ocular side effects of levitra for sildenafil 20 mg reviews. Posted bydynafil viagra September 10, 2020 foro cialis sin receta ... If you have a urinary tract in children, opposite), levitra ocular side effects of and give support. The mostmon causes of ... The liver uses the endoscopic removal of of ocular side effects levitra bottle is suggested for the suspected xenobiotic. Your ...
Saccade and vestibular ocular motor adaptation. Restor Neurol Neurosci (2010) 28(1):9-18. doi:10.3233/RNN-2010-0523 ... The cerebellum is also involved in vestibular adaptation. Previous work has focused on the cerebellar role in VOR adaptation ( ... Epidemiology of vestibulo-ocular reflex function: data from the Baltimore longitudinal study of aging. Otol Neurotol (2015) 36( ... Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials to bone conducted vibration of the midline forehead at Fz in healthy subjects. ...
  • For a person with a unilateral uncompensated hypofunction (UVH), prescribed exercises that focus on adaptation of the vestibular-ocular reflex (VOR) are indicated. (
  • The third option is a form of physical therapy termed re-adaptation of the vestibular ocular reflex. (
  • We employed an improvised version of re-adaptation of the vestibular ocular reflex. (
  • The first is pharmacotherapy, primarily benzodiazepines and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, as typical nausea and vertigo medications are ineffective.1,2 The second is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.3 The third is re-adaptation of the vestibular ocular reflex (VOR).4 For the purpose of this case we will discuss the third option as it was the most practical and the patient's preference. (
  • Eye position and cross-sensory learning both contribute to prism adaptation of auditory space. (
  • Background and Purpose- This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness on neglect recovery of a 2-week treatment based on prism adaptation (PA) in comparison to an analogous visuomotor training performed without prisms, ie, neutral pointing (NP). (
  • 5 A variety of rehabilitation techniques have been explored 6,7 and the prism adaptation technique (PA) in particular has been shown to ameliorate neglect symptoms in large populations of patients. (
  • The aim of the present study is to directly compare the effect of a prism adaptation treatment with that of a treatment based on pointing with neutral goggles. (
  • Laws of Ocular Motility and Introduction to Strabismus. (
  • Introduction to Strabismus and the Ocular Motor Exam. (
  • DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (
  • Diabetic Retinopathy and A Novel Treatment Based On The Biophysics Of Rod Photoreceptors And Dark Adaptation by Geoffrey. (
  • European Black Currant Extract, with Cyanidin-3-Glucosides, improve dark adaptation following bright light exposure. (
  • Slowed dark adaptation is one of the hallmark findings in patients who have macular degeneration. (
  • Cross-axis adaptation improves 3D vestibulo-ocular reflex alignment during chronic stimulation via a head-mounted multichannel vestibular prosthesis. (
  • Comparison of 3D angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) responses during 2 Hz, 50°/s peak horizontal sinusoidal head rotations in darkness on the first, third, and seventh days of continual MVP use revealed that eye responses about the intended axis remained stable (at about 70% of the normal gain) while misalignment improved significantly by the end of 1 week of prosthetic stimulation. (
  • The cervico-ocular reflex (COR) works in conjunction with the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and the optokinetic reflex (OKR) in order to prevent visual slip over the retina during head movement. (
  • This means that the cervico-ocular reflex can be modified after only 10 min of concurrent visual and cervical stimulation. (
  • Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR) is likely a primary source of such conflict and can adapt to reduce associated symptoms with accrued experiences. (
  • Despite recent technological advances, virtual reality head-mounted displays still cause transient vestibulo-ocular reflex changes that result in motion sickness symptoms. (
  • Schubert M.C. Schubert, Michael C. Vestibulo-ocular Reflex Adaptation. (
  • The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) has been created with an incredible plasticity for the purpose of enabling change inevitable with disease and aging. (
  • Purpose: This paper focuses on motor learning within the saccadic and vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) oculomotor systems, vital for our understanding how the brain keeps these subsystems calibrated in the presence of disease, trauma, and the changes that invariably accompany normal development and aging. (
  • To evaluate vestibular compensation via measurement of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) following vestibular schwannoma surgery and its relationship with changes in saccades strategy after surgery. (
  • The head impulse test (HIT) was first described by Halmagyi and Curthoys in 1988 as a test of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) ( 1 ) and has become an established bedside assessment in the evaluation of the dizzy patient. (
  • Mechanisms for the induction of motor learning in the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) were evaluated by recording the patterns of neural activity elicited in the cerebellum by a range of stimuli that induce learning. (
  • In the present study, we ask what patterns of neural activity drive plasticity in vivo by examining the neural signals present during stimuli that induce motor learning in the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). (
  • Adaptive plasticity in the naso-occipital linear vestibulo-ocular reflex. (
  • Canal-otolith interactions in the squirrel monkey vestibulo-ocular reflex and the influence of fixation distance. (
  • Influence of sensorimotor context on the linear vestibulo-ocular reflex. (
  • Adaptation of the vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex in cats during low-frequency vertical rotation. (
  • The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is a reflex acting to stabilize gaze during head movement, with eye movement due to activation of the vestibular system. (
  • The vestibulo-ocular reflex is driven by signals arising from the vestibular system of the inner ear. (
  • Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular" by people in Profiles. (
  • King S, Benoit C, Bandealy N, Karmali F. The influence of target distance on perceptual self-motion thresholds and the vestibulo-ocular reflex during interaural translation. (
  • Nouri S, Karmali F. Variability in the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex and Vestibular Perception. (
  • Two main classes of reflexes relying on the vestibular system are involved in the stabilization of the human gaze: the vestibulocollic reflex (VCR), which stabilizes the head in space and the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), which stabilizes the visual axis to minimize retinal image motion. (
  • The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), which functions to stabilize gaze and ensure clear vision during everyday activities, has been well characterized and shows impressive adaptation in response to behavioral requirements. (
  • Ito M (1982) Cerebellar control of the vestibulo-ocular reflex-around the flocculus hypothesis. (
  • In contrast, the roll vestibulo-ocular reflex response to GVS was not attenuated by repeated exposure. (
  • Larry Young prepares to spin Charles Oman during a 1979 vestibulo-ocular reflex study aboard the 'vomit comet' reduced gravity aircraft. (
  • I am investigating the sensory pathways that contribute to establishing the highly conserved vestibulo-ocular reflex, and how they modify the reflex through learning. (
  • In order to study how dorso-ventral and naso-occipital linear accelerations affect the ocular responses induced by inter-aural axis linear accelerations, three-dimensional cyclic modulation of eye positions and velocities during off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR) were analyzed in four rhesus monkeys. (
  • The German BMBF (German Ministry of Education and Research) has decided to establish an Integrated Center for Research and Treatment (IFB^{LMU} ) of Vertigo, Balance and Ocular Motor Disorders in Munich in 2010. (
  • Neuro Based Ocular Motility Disorders. (
  • Repeated evolution of eye regression in subterranean mammals helps identify genes and regulatory elements involved in visual perception and development of the eye, and predicts candidate sequences with a potential role in ocular disorders. (
  • A great number of neurological disorders can cause CVI, and CVI often coexists with ocular visual loss so the child should be seen by both a pediatric neurologist and a pediatric ophthalmologist. (
  • The improvement attributable to wearing glasses (that most children with amblyopia require) takes considerable time, 4 8 9 10 a process we call "refractive adaptation. (
  • Visual Development, Amblyopia and Sensory Adaptations. (
  • To describe the visual response to spectacle correction ("refractive adaptation") for children with unilateral amblyopia as a function of age, type of amblyopia, and category of refractive error. (
  • Refractive adaptation is a distinct component of amblyopia treatment. (
  • The present study examines the phenomenon of refractive adaptation, specifically with regard to its influence as a function of age, type of amblyopia, and refractive error. (
  • The analysis utilises the dataset of the Monitored Occlusion Treatment of Amblyopia Study-a recently reported investigation of the dose-response function of amblyopia therapy that included non-overlapping phases of refractive adaptation and occlusion therapy. (
  • In particular, I focus on the robustness of VOR plasticity, evidence for location sites of such plasticity, and how this adaptation occurs. (
  • Aims and Objectives: Physiology of pregnancy is mainly concerned with maternal adaptations for the growing fetus. (
  • Influence of age, spatial memory, and ocular fixation on localization of auditory, visual, and bimodal targets by human subjects. (
  • We also discuss the accuracy, quality and stability of ocular fixation, and the bottom-up and top-down influences that affect fixation behaviour. (
  • 1. The quality of ocular fixation: how well do we keep our eyes still? (
  • Bayesian optimal adaptation explains age-related human sensorimotor changes. (
  • Several studies showed that this sensorimotor adaptation improves most neglect symptoms both for a short period of time after a single session of PA 10-12 and for long term, up to 6 months after 2 weeks of daily treatment. (
  • Temporal firing patterns of Purkinje cells in the cerebellar ventral paraflocculus during ocular following responses in monkeys. (
  • 2016) Visual pigments, ocular filters and the evolution of snake vision. (
  • 18 week period of wearing glasses (refractive adaptation) followed by occlusion prescribed ("patching") for six or 12 hours a day. (
  • To appropriately evaluate mainstream therapies such as occlusion and penalisation, the beneficial effects of refractive adaptation need to be fully differentiated. (
  • Yet there is evidence that a successful period of refractive adaptation may fully correct the visual deficit and pre-empt the need for further treatment, 4 and, even where this is not the case, limited improvement may still enhance concordance with occlusion therapy. (
  • Using a lens-wearing rodent model, we previously showed that bacteria could infect the cornea more efficiently if first pre-exposed to the ocular surface. (
  • Correcting ocular aberrations improves visual acuity significantly at most luminances and contrast polarities (i.e. black letter on white background and vice versa). (
  • In the first 50 trials, the step-down sequences immediately produced decreases in ocular following responses, but no changes in neuronal activities of the most MST neurons. (
  • Short-latency ocular following responses of monkey. (
  • Even without imposing an intentional demand, the 1X (Control) condition resulted in a variety of VVOR/VOR adaptation responses. (
  • Adaptation and Compensation of Vestibular Responses Following Superior Canal Dehiscence Surgery. (
  • Using biolistic transfection of individual RGCs and multielectrode array recordings to measure light responses in mice, we examined the effects of laser-induced ocular hypertension on the structure and function of a subset of RGCs. (
  • Topics range from end organ dynamics to neural responses, to sensory integration, to behavior, and adaptation, with particular application to balance, posture and locomotion under normal gravity and space conditions. (
  • Depending upon the background and interests of the students, advanced term project topics might include motion sickness, astronaut adaptation, artificial gravity, lunar surface locomotion, vestibulo-cardiovascular responses, vestibular neural prostheses, or other topics of interest. (
  • This study sought to investigate the influence of phoria adaptation on convergence peak velocity from responses located at different initial vergence positions. (
  • Weinreb RN, Lu A, et al (1987) Maternal ocular adaptations during pregnancy. (
  • We describe 3 newborns in France who had cataract and intraocular inflammation and in whom S. ixodetis was detected in ocular samples ( Table ). (
  • Use of an unbiased global genetic approach to study P. aeruginosa interaction with ocular surface components in vitro identified genes and genomic regions involved in bacterial adaptation to the host environment and ocular pathogenicity. (
  • A ) Ocular genes that are more tissue-specific exhibit stronger acceleration in subterranean 'mole' species. (
  • However, it also discovered that snake visual pigment genes have undergone a great amount of adaptation, including many changes to the wavelengths of light that the pigments are sensitive to, in order to suit the diversity of lifestyles that snakes have evolved. (
  • Correcting ocular spherical aberration with soft contact lenses. (
  • The Inverted Retina: Maladaptation or Pre-adaptation? (
  • Vision is such an important adaptation in higher vertebrates that if the retina is indeed wired wrongly or badly designed it would certainly pose, as Dawkins implies, a considerable challenge to any teleological interpretation of nature. (
  • This complements my previous studies of the uvula-nodulus by examining dynamic adaptations in flocculus, the other half of the traditional vestibulo-cerebellum. (
  • Purpose: To evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering effi cacy of Garcinia kola 0.5% aqueous solution eye drops in patients with newly diagnosed primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (POAG/OH). (
  • Other dim light-adapted vertebrates with normal ocular anatomy, such as nocturnal and aquatic species, also demonstrate evidence of visual gene loss, but the absence of comparative studies has led to the untested assumption that subterranean mammals are special in the degree of this genomic regression. (
  • Stereoscopic retinal scanning laser display with integrated focus cues for ocular accommodation. (
  • Three-dimensional organization of otolith-ocular reflexes in rhesus monkeys. (
  • This suggests that GVS adaptation did not occur at the vestibular end-organs or involve changes in low-level (brainstem-mediated) vestibulo-ocular or vestibulo-spinal reflexes. (
  • To test vestibular function more fully one has to realize that 3D VOR ideally generates compensatory ocular rotations not only with a magnitude (gain) equal and opposite to the head rotation but also about an axis that is co-linear with the head rotation axis (alignment). (
  • Yet, the study of ocular instability has a long history-starting with Jurin's 1738 observation [ 1 ] that the 'trembling of the eye' is unremitting-but it has proceeded in spurts and starts, and it is only in recent years that it has become a mainstay of oculomotor and visual neuroscience. (
  • Individuals with higher motion sickness symptoms exhibited significantly less adaptation of the VOR to the imposed visual shifts. (
  • During head rotation, visual following of targets that move at a velocity different from the head rotation will create an adaptation (change) in the gain of the VOR. (
  • We assessed the ocular status and visual adaptation among children studying at a school for visually disabled children in Muscat , Oman . (
  • We assessed the visual and ocular status of the participants. (
  • They also expressed their visual adaptation in their 'day-to-day' life , and their ambitions. (
  • In particular, at the CSIC Visual Optics and Biophotonics Laboratory, we have developed an adaptive optics system, with a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor, a magnetic deformable mirror for the measurement and real time correction of ocular aberrations, combined with psychophysical channels. (
  • Using this instrument, we have explored the effects of optical aberrations on visual performance, and the role of neural adaptation to aberrations in visual perception. (
  • Adaptive Optics (AO) allows to appropriately control the blur level of the retinal image, resulting in a powerful technique to directly test visual functions, such as visual acuity as well as daily tasks (sharpness assessment of natural images and face recognition), under perfect optics and investigate neural adaptation to the blur produced by the optics of individual eyes. (
  • We asked whether spatial coding in the visual system is matched to the native blur specific to an individual's HOAs by investigating long-term adaptation to the blur produced by the optics of the eye. (
  • This study has clinical considerations since prisms, which evoke phoria adaptation, can be prescribed to help alleviate visual discomfort. (
  • Another important purpose of an eye examination is the assessment of visual function and ocular health with the aim of diagnosis and management. (
  • Safety studies in naïve rats and rabbits revealed no visible ocular pathology after 30 days of treatment. (
  • Ocular pathology is initially managed by treating the condition to restore or preserve sight. (
  • Scientists have pondered the perceptual effects of ocular motion, and those of its counterpart, ocular stillness, for over 200 years. (
  • Electroretinographic assessment of background adaptation in 10-week-old human infants. (
  • Safety was monitored by assessment of ocular histopathology in naïve male rats and naïve male rabbits receiving twice daily treatment of two drops for 30 days. (
  • Virus Adaptation and Treatment ceased publishing in October 2019 All articles that have been published in Virus Adaptation and Treatment will continue to be available on the Dove Press site, and will be securely archived with CLOCKSS. (
  • Is Rosacea a Result of Climate Adaptation? (
  • We will concentrate on new information related to multiple time scales of saccade motor learning, adaptation of the VOR during high-velocity impulses, and the role of saccades in VOR adaptation. (
  • Spectral transmission measurements of the ocular media show that wavelengths down to 300 nm are transmitted in all the species sampled. (
  • Ocular anterior segment in 3 newborn infants with bilateral total cataract and anterior uveitis related to endogenous Spiroplasma ixodetis infection. (
  • VOR adaptation as a predictor of cybersickness symptoms would elucidate the physiological mechanism by which sensory conflicts are able to induce these symptoms. (
  • The present study examined if the amplitude or rate of vision-enhanced and vision-denied VOR gain adaptation can predict the susceptibility and mitigation of cybersickness symptoms over time. (
  • Objectives The Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire is widely used to evaluate subjective symptoms of dry eye disease (DED) as a primary diagnostic criterion. (
  • Treatment for decreasing symptoms of dizziness can be categorized as habituation exercises or adaptation exercises (Herdman & Whitney, 2007). (
  • The focus of this chapter is on evidence for VOR adaptation from animal and human studies. (
  • ate Change is intended to provide a scientific and evidence-based coordinated response to the climate change adaptation needs of African countries in orde r to support the commitments and priorities of African governments. (
  • Despite the accumulating evidence for this evolutionary phenomenon, there remain important questions regarding the evolution of a regressed ocular phenotype. (
  • We investigated whether the COR gain can be adapted by inducing a mismatch between vision and neck proprioception, in analogy to VOR adaptation. (
  • Two sensory stimuli are required for significant adaptation of the VOR: vision and head motion. (
  • 2003). 'Adaptive optics for vision: the eye's adaptation to point spread function. (
  • Gonshor A, Melvill Jones G (1976) Extreme vestibulo-ocular adaptation induced by prolonged optical reversal of vision. (
  • VisiVite® Balanced Ocular Support has the highest laboratory-measured antioxidant quotient of any VisiVite formula , to support ocular health for sharp vision and healthy eyes. (
  • Ocular following response (OFR) is a slow tracking eye movement at ultra-short latency. (
  • The ocular response to extended wear of a high-DK silicone hydrogel contact lens. (
  • In fact, without this adaptation, the normal effects of age or the constant attacks from disease would render us with significant functional impairments-namely gaze and gait instability. (
  • The case represented a diagnostic challenge due to its atypism and given the steady increase in the prevalence of EBV-related ocular diseases in the last years, this report can serve as an example to prompt earlier serological tests to identify the aetiology in similar cases. (
  • Preclinical studies have reported that the opioid growth factor (OGF) - OGF receptor (OGFr) regulatory pathway has a role in reversing or ameliorating several ocular-related complications of diabetes. (
  • SIDS) and called upon the international community to continue to increase its support for the development and implementation of SIDS national mitigation and adaptation strategies and programmes. (
  • It's been called the "Curse of the Celts," but a new theory suggests rosacea may be the result of a broad genetic adaptation that originated in people who lived in the colder climates of northern Europe. (
  • Additionally, I will use genetic tools to perturb elements of the signaling pathways to examine their respective role in establishing both the temporal filtering done by target neurons as well as gain and phase adaptation. (