Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Adaptation, Ocular: The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Ocular Hypertension: A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Toxoplasmosis, Ocular: Infection caused by the protozoan parasite TOXOPLASMA in which there is extensive connective tissue proliferation, the retina surrounding the lesions remains normal, and the ocular media remain clear. Chorioretinitis may be associated with all forms of toxoplasmosis, but is usually a late sequel of congenital toxoplasmosis. The severe ocular lesions in infants may lead to blindness.Dark Adaptation: Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.Dominance, Ocular: The functional superiority and preferential use of one eye over the other. The term is usually applied to superiority in sighting (VISUAL PERCEPTION) or motor task but not difference in VISUAL ACUITY or dysfunction of one of the eyes. Ocular dominance can be modified by visual input and NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS.Albinism, Ocular: Albinism affecting the eye in which pigment of the hair and skin is normal or only slightly diluted. The classic type is X-linked (Nettleship-Falls), but an autosomal recessive form also exists. Ocular abnormalities may include reduced pigmentation of the iris, nystagmus, photophobia, strabismus, and decreased visual acuity.Refraction, Ocular: Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.Tonometry, Ocular: Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Ocular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.Eye Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the EYE.Ocular Motility Disorders: Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Tuberculosis, Ocular: Tuberculous infection of the eye, primarily the iris, ciliary body, and choroid.Tears: The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Ophthalmic Solutions: Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.Eye Infections, Parasitic: Mild to severe infections of the eye and its adjacent structures (adnexa) by adult or larval protozoan or metazoan parasites.Conjunctival DiseasesEye Infections: Infection, moderate to severe, caused by bacteria, fungi, or viruses, which occurs either on the external surface of the eye or intraocularly with probable inflammation, visual impairment, or blindness.Dry Eye Syndromes: Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.Uveitis: Inflammation of part or all of the uvea, the middle (vascular) tunic of the eye, and commonly involving the other tunics (sclera and cornea, and the retina). (Dorland, 27th ed)Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Figural Aftereffect: A perceptual phenomenon used by Gestalt psychologists to demonstrate that events in one part of the perceptual field may affect perception in another part.ConjunctivitisOcular Hypotension: Abnormally low intraocular pressure often related to chronic inflammation (uveitis).Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Vitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.Corneal Diseases: Diseases of the cornea.Aqueous Humor: The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Iris: The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Eye Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Ciliary Body: A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.Anterior Eye Segment: The front third of the eyeball that includes the structures between the front surface of the cornea and the front of the VITREOUS BODY.Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Accommodation, Ocular: The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Sclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Administration, Ophthalmic: Application of pharmaceutically active agents on the tissues of the EYE.Anterior Chamber: The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)Eye Infections, Bacterial: Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Afterimage: Continuation of visual impression after cessation of stimuli causing the original image.Refractive Errors: Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Onchocerciasis, Ocular: Filarial infection of the eyes transmitted from person to person by bites of Onchocerca volvulus-infected black flies. The microfilariae of Onchocerca are thus deposited beneath the skin. They migrate through various tissues including the eye. Those persons infected have impaired vision and up to 20% are blind. The incidence of eye lesions has been reported to be as high as 30% in Central America and parts of Africa.Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane: A chronic blistering disease with predilection for mucous membranes and less frequently the skin, and with a tendency to scarring. It is sometimes called ocular pemphigoid because of conjunctival mucous membrane involvement.Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.Convergence, Ocular: The turning inward of the lines of sight toward each other.Eyelids: Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.Chorioretinitis: Inflammation of the choroid in which the sensory retina becomes edematous and opaque. The inflammatory cells and exudate may burst through the sensory retina to cloud the vitreous body.Myopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.Dental Marginal Adaptation: The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.Retinal DiseasesAdministration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Keratitis: Inflammation of the cornea.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Glaucoma, Open-Angle: Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Vision, Monocular: Images seen by one eye.Eye Infections, Viral: Infections of the eye caused by minute intracellular agents. These infections may lead to severe inflammation in various parts of the eye - conjunctiva, iris, eyelids, etc. Several viruses have been identified as the causative agents. Among these are Herpesvirus, Adenovirus, Poxvirus, and Myxovirus.Blepharitis: Inflammation of the eyelids.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Vision, Binocular: The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Contrast Sensitivity: The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.Scleritis: Refers to any inflammation of the sclera including episcleritis, a benign condition affecting only the episclera, which is generally short-lived and easily treated. Classic scleritis, on the other hand, affects deeper tissue and is characterized by higher rates of visual acuity loss and even mortality, particularly in necrotizing form. Its characteristic symptom is severe and general head pain. Scleritis has also been associated with systemic collagen disease. Etiology is unknown but is thought to involve a local immune response. Treatment is difficult and includes administration of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids. Inflammation of the sclera may also be secondary to inflammation of adjacent tissues, such as the conjunctiva.Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Timolol: A beta-adrenergic antagonist similar in action to PROPRANOLOL. The levo-isomer is the more active. Timolol has been proposed as an antihypertensive, antiarrhythmic, antiangina, and antiglaucoma agent. It is also used in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS and tremor.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Keratitis, Herpetic: A superficial, epithelial Herpesvirus hominis infection of the cornea, characterized by the presence of small vesicles which may break down and coalesce to form dendritic ulcers (KERATITIS, DENDRITIC). (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.Strabismus: Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)Vision Disorders: Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).Pupil: The aperture in the iris through which light passes.Eye ProteinsVisual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Prostaglandins F, Synthetic: Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins F that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGF.Coloboma: Congenital anomaly in which some of the structures of the eye are absent due to incomplete fusion of the fetal intraocular fissure during gestation.Sensory Deprivation: The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.Saccades: An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.Motion Perception: The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Conjunctival Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the CONJUNCTIVA.Eyeglasses: A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular: A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)Uvea: The pigmented vascular coat of the eyeball, consisting of the CHOROID; CILIARY BODY; and IRIS, which are continuous with each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Eye Burns: Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Lacrimal Apparatus: The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Keratitis, Dendritic: A form of herpetic keratitis characterized by the formation of small vesicles which break down and coalesce to form recurring dendritic ulcers, characteristically irregular, linear, branching, and ending in knoblike extremities. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Iritis: Inflammation of the iris characterized by circumcorneal injection, aqueous flare, keratotic precipitates, and constricted and sluggish pupil along with discoloration of the iris.Uveitis, Anterior: Inflammation of the anterior uvea comprising the iris, angle structures, and the ciliary body. Manifestations of this disorder include ciliary injection, exudation into the anterior chamber, iris changes, and adhesions between the iris and lens (posterior synechiae). Intraocular pressure may be increased or reduced.Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Psychophysics: The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Eyelid DiseasesKeratoconjunctivitis: Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.Eye Infections, Fungal: Infection by a variety of fungi, usually through four possible mechanisms: superficial infection producing conjunctivitis, keratitis, or lacrimal obstruction; extension of infection from neighboring structures - skin, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx; direct introduction during surgery or accidental penetrating trauma; or via the blood or lymphatic routes in patients with underlying mycoses.Retinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Microphthalmos: Congenital or developmental anomaly in which the eyeballs are abnormally small.Corneal Opacity: Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Altitude: A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Eye Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the eye.Ophthalmic Artery: Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.Blindness: The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.Preservatives, Pharmaceutical: Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.Nystagmus, Pathologic: Involuntary movements of the eye that are divided into two types, jerk and pendular. Jerk nystagmus has a slow phase in one direction followed by a corrective fast phase in the opposite direction, and is usually caused by central or peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Pendular nystagmus features oscillations that are of equal velocity in both directions and this condition is often associated with visual loss early in life. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p272)Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Orbit: Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.Translations: Products resulting from the conversion of one language to another.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Conjunctivitis, Allergic: Conjunctivitis due to hypersensitivity to various allergens.Burns, ChemicalAnalysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Eye Enucleation: The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.Perceptual Distortion: Lack of correspondence between the way a stimulus is commonly perceived and the way an individual perceives it under given conditions.Conjunctivitis, Viral: Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.Trachoma: A chronic infection of the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.Mice, Inbred C57BLDiagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.Choroiditis: Inflammation of the choroid.Contact Lenses: Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Diplopia: A visual symptom in which a single object is perceived by the visual cortex as two objects rather than one. Disorders associated with this condition include REFRACTIVE ERRORS; STRABISMUS; OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES; TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES; and diseases of the BRAIN STEM and OCCIPITAL LOBE.Biometry: The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Lenses: Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Retinitis: Inflammation of the RETINA. It is rarely limited to the retina, but is commonly associated with diseases of the choroid (CHORIORETINITIS) and of the OPTIC DISK (neuroretinitis).Retinal Artery: Central retinal artery and its branches. It arises from the ophthalmic artery, pierces the optic nerve and runs through its center, enters the eye through the porus opticus and branches to supply the retina.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Hyperopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Limbus Corneae: An annular transitional zone, approximately 1 mm wide, between the cornea and the bulbar conjunctiva and sclera. It is highly vascular and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea. It is ophthalmologically significant in that it appears on the outer surface of the eyeball as a slight furrow, marking the line between the clear cornea and the sclera. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Genetic Fitness: The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.Axial Length, Eye: The distance between the anterior and posterior poles of the eye, measured either by ULTRASONOGRAPHY or by partial coherence interferometry.Eye, Artificial: A ready-made or custom-made prosthesis of glass or plastic shaped and colored to resemble the anterior portion of a normal eye and used for cosmetic reasons. It is attached to the anterior portion of an orbital implant (ORBITAL IMPLANTS) which is placed in the socket of an enucleated or eviscerated eye. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Darkness: The absence of light.Panuveitis: Inflammation in which both the anterior and posterior segments of the uvea are involved and a specific focus is not apparent. It is often severe and extensive and a serious threat to vision. Causes include systemic diseases such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, and syphilis, as well as malignancies. The intermediate segment of the eye is not involved.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Pigment Epithelium of Eye: The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.Fluorescein Angiography: Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.Emmetropia: The condition of where images are correctly brought to a focus on the retina.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Color Perception: Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.Optic Disk: The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Eye Manifestations: Ocular disorders attendant upon non-ocular disease or injury.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Eye Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of the eyes from impact, flying objects, glare, liquids, or injurious radiation.Corneal Ulcer: Loss of epithelial tissue from the surface of the cornea due to progressive erosion and necrosis of the tissue; usually caused by bacterial, fungal, or viral infection.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Benzalkonium Compounds: A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Vision Tests: A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.Fluorophotometry: Measurement of light given off by fluorescein in order to assess the integrity of various ocular barriers. The method is used to investigate the blood-aqueous barrier, blood-retinal barrier, aqueous flow measurements, corneal endothelial permeability, and tear flow dynamics.Cultural Characteristics: Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Choroid Neoplasms: Tumors of the choroid; most common intraocular tumors are malignant melanomas of the choroid. These usually occur after puberty and increase in incidence with advancing age. Most malignant melanomas of the uveal tract develop from benign melanomas (nevi).Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Head Movements: Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.Ophthalmoscopy: Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.

Why and how is soft copy reading possible in clinical practice? (1/1010)

The properties of the human visual system (HVS) relevant to the diagnostic process are described after a brief introduction on the general problems and advantages of using soft copy for primary radiology interpretations. At various spatial and temporal frequencies the contrast sensitivity defines the spatial resolution of the eye-brain system and the sensitivity to flicker. The adaptation to the displayed radiological scene and the ambient illumination determine the dynamic range for the operation of the HVS. Although image display devices are determined mainly by state-of-the-art technology, analysis of the HVS may suggest technical characteristics for electronic displays that will help to optimize the display to the operation of the HVS. These include display size, spatial resolution, contrast resolution, luminance range, and noise, from which further consequences for the technical components of a monitor follow. It is emphasized that routine monitor quality control must be available in clinical practice. These image quality measures must be simple enough to be applied as part of the daily routine. These test instructions might also serve as elements of technical acceptance and constancy tests.  (+info)

Orientation-tuned spatial filters for texture-defined form. (2/1010)

Detection threshold for an orientation-texture-defined (OTD) test grating was elevated after adapting to an OTD grating of high orientation contrast. Threshold elevation was greatest for a test grating parallel to the adapting grating, and fell to zero for a test grating perpendicular to the adapting grating. We conclude that the human visual system contains an orientation-tuned neural mechanism sensitive to OTD form, and propose a model for this mechanism. We further propose that orientation discrimination for OTD bars and gratings is determined by the relative activity of these filters for OTD form.  (+info)

Local velocity representation: evidence from motion adaptation. (3/1010)

Adaptation to a moving visual pattern induces shifts in the perceived motion of subsequently viewed moving patterns. Explanations of such effects are typically based on adaptation-induced sensitivity changes in spatio-temporal frequency tuned mechanisms (STFMs). An alternative hypothesis is that adaptation occurs in mechanisms that independently encode direction and speed (DSMs). Yet a third possibility is that adaptation occurs in mechanisms that encode 2D pattern velocity (VMs). We performed a series of psychophysical experiments to examine predictions made by each of the three hypotheses. The results indicate that: (1) adaptation-induced shifts are relatively independent of spatial pattern of both adapting and test stimuli; (2) the shift in perceived direction of motion of a plaid stimulus after adaptation to a grating indicates a shift in the motion of the plaid pattern, and not a shift in the motion of the plaid components; and (3) the 2D pattern of shift in perceived velocity radiates away from the adaptation velocity, and is inseparable in speed and direction of motion. Taken together, these results are most consistent with the VM adaptation hypothesis.  (+info)

The effect of spatial frequency adaptation on the latency of spatial contrast detection. (4/1010)

The effect of spatial frequency adaptation on detection response time was studied using 2-D Gabor functions as stimuli. On the basis of pilot studies, it was expected that reaction time to a given spatial frequency at a low contrast would increase following adaptation to that spatial frequency at a high contrast. Subjects were tested using 2-D Gabor functions that ranged in frequency from 25 to 24 cpd. Subjects' reaction times to the Gabor functions were measured prior to adaptation and after adaptation to a particular spatial frequency. The adapting spatial frequency was either 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, or 16 cpd. The test stimuli were 0.3, 0.5, or 0.7 log units above the unadapted threshold contrast. The subjects adapted to the high contrast test grating for 3 min (80% contrast) and reaction times were again measured in an adapt-test-readapt paradigm. The results showed the greatest increase in reaction time after adaptation when adapting and test spatial frequencies within an octave of the adapting spatial frequency also showed an increase in reaction time but to a lesser extent. Reaction times to gratings with spatial frequencies more distant from the adapting spatial frequency were not significantly affected by the adaptation. The results obtained resemble the tuning curves found for threshold data. Reaction times for stimuli at 0.5 and 0.7 log units above the unadapted threshold were affected less by adaptation than those at 0.3 log units above the unadapted threshold. These results were evaluated in terms of a shifting contrast gain mechanism which may account for both the spatial frequency specific effects of adaptation and the differences found for the different contrast test levels.  (+info)

S-cone signals to temporal OFF-channels: asymmetrical connections to postreceptoral chromatic mechanisms. (5/1010)

Psychophysical tests of S-cone contributions to temporal ON- and OFF-channels were conducted. Detection thresholds for S-cone modulation were measured with two kinds of test stimuli presented on a CRT: a rapid-on sawtooth test and a rapid-off sawtooth test, assumed to be detected differentially by temporal ON- and OFF-channels, respectively. S-cone related ON- and OFF-temporal responses were separated by adapting for 5 min to 1 Hz monochromatic (420, 440, 450, 540, or 650 nm in separate sessions) sawtooth flicker presented in Maxwellian view. Circular test stimuli, with a sawtooth temporal profile and a Gaussian spatial taper, were presented for 1 s in one of four quadrants 1.0 degree from a central fixation point. A four-alternative forced-choice method combined with a double-staircase procedure was used to determine ON- and OFF-thresholds in the same session. Following adaptation, the threshold elevation was greater if the polarity of the test stimulus was the same as the polarity of the sawtooth adaptation flicker, consistent with separate ON- and OFF-responses from S-cones. This asymmetrical pattern was obtained, however, only when the adaptation stimuli appeared blue with a little redness. When the adaptation flicker had a clear reddish hue component, the threshold elevation did not depend on the polarity of the sawtooth test stimuli. These results are consistent with a model in which OFF-signals originating from S cones are maintained by a postreceptoral mechanism signaling redness, but not by a postreceptoral chromatic mechanism signaling blueness.  (+info)

Dopamine mediates circadian rhythms of rod-cone dominance in the Japanese quail retina. (6/1010)

A circadian clock modulates the functional organization of the Japanese quail retina. Under conditions of constant darkness, rods dominate electroretinogram (ERG) b-wave responses at night, and cones dominate them during the day, yielding a circadian rhythm in retinal sensitivity and rod-cone dominance. The activity of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, also exhibits a circadian rhythm in the retina with approximately threefold higher levels during the day than at night. The rhythm of tyrosine hydroxylase activity is opposite in phase to the circadian activity of tryptophan hydroxylase, the first enzyme in the melatonin biosynthetic pathway. We tested whether dopamine may be related to the physiological rhythms of the retina by examining the actions of pharmacological agents that effect dopamine receptors. We found that blocking dopamine D2 receptors in the retina during the day mimics the nighttime state by increasing the amplitude of the b-wave and shifting the retina to rod dominance. Conversely, activating D2 receptors at night mimics the daytime state by decreasing the amplitude of the b-wave and shifting the retina to cone dominance. A selective antagonist for D1 dopamine receptors has no effect on retinal sensitivity or rod-cone dominance. Reducing retinal dopamine partially abolishes rhythms in sensitivity and yields a rod-dominated retina regardless of the time of day. These results suggest that dopamine, under the control of a circadian oscillator, has a key role in modulating sensitivity and rod-cone dominance in the Japanese quail retina.  (+info)

Analysis of red/green color discrimination in subjects with a single X-linked photopigment gene. (7/1010)

Many subjects despite having only a single X-linked pigment gene (single-L/M-gene subjects) are able to make chromatic discriminations by Rayleigh matching, especially when large fields are used. We used a combination of psychophysics (Rayleigh match), electroretinograms (ERG), and molecular genetic techniques to rule out several possible explanations of this phenomenon. Use of rods for chromatic discrimination was unlikely since strong adapting fields were employed and the large-field match results were not consistent with rod participation. A putative mid- to long-wavelength photopigment that escapes detection by current molecular genetic analysis was ruled out by finding only a single L/M photopigment in flicker ERGs from 16 single-L/M-gene subjects. Large-field match results were not consistent with participation of S cones. Amino acid sequence polymorphisms in the S-pigment gene that might have shifted the S cone spectrum towards longer wavelengths were not found on sequencing. The mechanism of chromatic discrimination in the presence of a single photopigment therefore remains unknown. Further possible explanations such as variations in cone pigment density and retinal inhomogeneities are discussed.  (+info)

Time course of motion adaptation: motion-onset visual evoked potentials and subjective estimates. (8/1010)

The aim of this study was to quantitatively describe the dynamics of adaptation to visual motion with electrophysiological and psychophysical methods in man. We recorded visual evoked potentials (VEPs) to motion onset of random dot patterns from occipital and occipito-temporal electrodes during a succession of adaptation-recovery sequences. In these sequences the test stimulus was used to set the adaptation level: seven trials with 70% motion duty cycle (adaptation) followed by seven trials of 7% motion duty cycle (recovery). In a similar paradigm we determined the length of the perceptual motion after-effect to obtain a psychophysical measure of the time course of motion adaptation. Our results show a highly significant reduction of the N2 amplitude in the maximally compared to the minimally adapted condition (P < 0.001). Electrophysiological and psychophysical results both indicate that adaptation to visual motion is faster than recovery: The data were fit with an exponential model yielding adaptation and recovery time constants, respectively, of 2.5 and 10.2 s for the N2 amplitude (occipito temporal derivation) and of 7.7 and 16.7 s for the perceptual motion after-effect. Implications for the design of motion stimuli are discussed, e.g. a motion stimulus moving 10% of the time may lead to about 30% motion adaptation.  (+info)

PURPOSE: Glucose concentrations are elevated in retinal cells in undiagnosed and in undertreated diabetes. Studies of diabetic patients suggest that retinal function adapts, to some extent, to this increased supply of glucose. The aim of the present study was to examine such adaptation in a model of type 2 diabetes and assess how the retina responds to the subsequent institution of glycemic control. METHODS: Electroretinography (ERG) was conducted on untreated Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and congenic controls from 8-22 weeks of age and on ZDFs treated with daily insulin from 16-22 weeks of age. Retinal sections from various ages were prepared and compared histologically and by immunocytochemistry. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS/CONCLUSIONS: Acute hyperglycemia did not have an effect on control rats while chronic hyperglycemia in the ZDF was associated with scotopic ERG amplitudes which were up to 20% higher than those of age-matched controls. This change followed the onset of hyperglycemia with a delay ...
Purpose: : This paper reports on investigation of dark adaptation as a new clinical trial endpoint for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The ultimate goal is to facilitate clinical trials for development of early-stage interventions by validating dark adaptation as a surrogate marker for future vision loss in AMD. Methods: : It has previously been shown that dark adaptation speed is a sensitive biomarker for AMD from its earliest stages, and that the amount of dark adaptation impairment closely correlates with disease severity. We have developed a dark adaptometer specifically tailored for use as a clinical trial endpoint measure. Like other dark adaptometers, our AdaptRx provides for photobleaching of the retina with subsequent measurement of sensitivity recovery. However, it also allows precise control of the primary variables affecting dark adaptation kinetics: intensity of the bleaching light and location of the stimulus for recovery measurements. Furthermore, we have developed a ...
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Drops sets are unquestionably among the most popular intensity techniques ... and they for sure feel effective, but are they? The latest study says "NO!"...
This study investigated the effects of visual adaptation to over-, under- or neither over- nor under-weight images of women on perceived own size, in 18 to 25 year olds. Healthy ...
The paper presents a brief review on how some concepts on the organism general adaptational reactions developed, including their role in increasing the unspecific resistance in the organism. Demonstrated is periodicity of the patterns of anti-stressor type reactions (training, calm and elevated activation) and stress in a wide range of stimulation values. ...
If we are takling about scientificly evolving into a different form in this world, it may be possible but it will most likely be done by us rather than through adaptation (we arent patient enough for it). If we are talking about ascending to heavan/astral planes/etc./etc., we might want to find ...
Saccadic adaptation allows for the gradual compensation of systematic position errors and is traditionally thought to maintain saccadic accuracy despite peripheral changes such as muscle weakness or growth. In the lab it is commonly induced by shifting the target during the saccade. Here we asked whether adaptation can be similarly driven by a mismatch between the requirements of a post-saccadic perceptual task and the saccade landing position. Observers were asked to saccade towards a peripheral letter array. At one particular location in the array they had to perform a letter-discrimination task. In pre- and post-adaptation trials, the central letter in the array had to be discriminated. In adaptation trials, the letter at a fixed eccentric location in the array had to be discriminated, such that saccades had to be shortened or prolonged. In contrast to previous research, only the position of the discrimination-letter within the array changed, while the position of the array itself remained ...
Average OP amplitudes and implicit times in CTRL and diabetic DR or DM subjects in response to ISCEV dim (−2.0 log cd s/m2), Test Flash 1 (−1.4 log cd s/m2), Test Flash 2 (−0.8 log cd s/m2), and ISCEV bright (0.39 log cd s/m2). (A) OP1 amplitudes were significantly reduced compared with CTRL (two-way rmANOVA F(6, 94) = 7.39, P , 0.001) for the DR group with Test Flash 2. With ISCEV bright flashes, OP1 amplitudes showed reductions for DM and DR versus CTRL, and for DM versus DR. (B) OP1 implicit times were significantly delayed compared with CTRL (rmANOVA F[6, 86] = 2.73, P , 0.02) for the DR group with ISCEV dim and for DM and DR versus CTRL for Test Flash 1. (C) OP2 amplitudes were reduced compared with CTRL (rmANOVA F[6, 94] = 3.42, P = 0.006) for DR group with Test Flash 2, and with ISCEV bright for the DM and DR groups versus CTRL and DR versus DM. (D) OP2 implicit times were delayed compared with CTRL and DM (rmANOVA, F[6, 85] = 3.82, P , 0.003) for DR with ISCEV dim, for DM and DR ...
Males with this condition have a cheap cymbalta sensitivity near 504 nm under dark-adapted conditions because of chaep rod cheap cymbalta and a peak sensitivity near 440 nm under light-adapted conditions because of normal blue cone function, Johns CJ Ocular involvement in chronic sarcoidosis.
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Overall, the essays in this collection deal with diverse topics and theoretical concerns of adaptation studies today. They throw light on both often researched and neglected or undervalued works." (Poetics Today, 1 May 2015). "Well-written, suggestively arranged in a series of six sections, A Companion to Literature, Film and Adaptation provides an invaluable resource for anyone interested in debates about the past, present and future of adaptation studies, and why the discipline represents an important advance in the field of interdisciplinary learning … Cartmells collection covers just about every area imaginable within adaptation studies, whether historical, theoretical or otherwise … [It] is a far cry from those collections that simply compare source with target texts; it encompasses comic-books, songs, silent cinema as well as more canonical texts and their cinematic variants. There is something for everyone in this volume." (Post Script, 2014). "Summing Up: Recommended. Upper-division ...
Gold - Impulsive Bull Move Post Yellen Dovishness (1hr chart) After a brief flash crash to start the week touching a month low of 1206, Gold recovered soli
(Family Features) Its a common scenario: no time for breakfast, so youre snacking on something sweet in the break room at 9 a.m. Two hours later you hit the
This page deals with Hiromu Arakawas original manga and its direct anime adaptation (titled Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood). For the loose 2003 anime …
Abstract: : Purpose: Previous studies have demonstrated a significant improvement in visual resolution during sustained periods of retinal blur. This appears to result from perceptual adaptation designed to restore the perceived contrast of the degraded retinal image. However, it is unclear whether this perceptual adaptation is present in all individuals, or only in certain subgroups, such as those who have been chronically exposed to sustained periods of blur due to uncorrected ametropia. Accordingly, the present study examined blur adaptation in both emmetropic and myopic individuals. Methods: Two experiments will be described. Firstly, the effects of sustained retinal blur on both high and low contrast visual resolution was compared in emmetropes (N=12) and myopes (N=16). Subjects were required to view through +2.50D spherical lenses worn over their distance refractive correction for a continuous 2-hour period. Secondly, 20 subjects having moderate degrees of myopia (mean refractive error = ...
Silvia Scaravaggi: How did you develop your projects togheter? Where is the balance in your collaboration?. Evelina & Dmitry: There is no division of creativity between us: we equally harness each curve of the process and encourage others (namely scientists and sound artists) to also take part. We have far too many inquiries to be able to unfold them alone.. Silvia Scaravaggi: Talking about your works for example Camera Lucida experience already presented in Italy during Netmage 2005 n early all require a certain period of retinal adaptation to the darkness. Without the darkness, the light would be invisible, as would the delicate horizon of converging energy systems from which the light emanates. So which are your favourite environments? Which kind of places satisfy you more to set your works?. Evelina & Dmitry: Because our works transpire in the very outer reaches of perceptual resolution, a highly controlled setting is necessary for each installation one that can easily subtract itself from ...
The |i|Journal of Electronic Imaging|/i| (JEI), copublished bimonthly with the Society for Imaging Science and Technology, publishes peer-reviewed papers that cover research and applications in all areas of electronic imaging science and technology.
A method for compressing test patterns to be applied to scan chains in a circuit under test. The method includes generating symbolic expressions that are associated with scan cells within the scan chains. The symbolic expressions are created by assigning variables to bits on external input channels supplied to the circuit under test. Using symbolic simulation, the variables are applied to a decompressor to obtain the symbolic expressions. A test cube is created using a deterministic pattern that assigns values to the scan cells to test faults within the integrated circuit. A set of equations is formulated by equating the assigned values in the test cube to the symbolic expressions associated with the corresponding scan cell. The equations are solved to obtain the compressed test pattern.
And I think I like him better with the fitted cap on. He aint even gotta try to put the mac on. He just gotta give me that look, when he give me that look. Then the panties comin off, off, un. ...
An Introduction To The Concept Of Unit Test Patterns; Author: Marc Clifton; Updated: 4 Mar 2004; Section: Design and Architecture; Chapter: Development Lifecycle; Updated: 4 Mar 2004
An Introduction To The Concept Of Unit Test Patterns; Author: Marc Clifton; Updated: 4 Mar 2004; Section: Design and Architecture; Chapter: Development Lifecycle; Updated: 4 Mar 2004
A 17-year-old high school cross-country runner has been training aerobically for six months in preparation for the upcoming season. Which of the following adaptations will occur in the muscles during that tie ...
What s a survival tool ? The answer is simple: anything that provides a function you need is a survival tool in the right circumstances. Human ingenuity and adaptation can never be underestimated, but being ready to perform certain functions, with
While the amplitude of OP2 grows and its timing streest as the strength of the stimulus increases conce rta the background light is kept constant (see figure 43. t. Since Nancy scored at the 58th percentile and Dick at the 64th, Dick obviously did much better in the test. t.
Adaptation Adaptation is a term used to describe the ways in which organisms change over time in response to the changing demands of their environment.
The observed shift in the contrast gain function is consistent with previous measures of spatial vision loss with age. For instance, Sloane, Owsley, and Jackson (1988) measured contrast sensitivity for young and old observers with spatial frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 8 c/deg and luminance levels ranging from mesopic to photopic. At a low temporal frequency, the slope of the sensitivity function (inverse of the threshold function) spanning the range of luminance was steeper for older than younger observers at spatial frequencies below 4 c/deg. This means that older observers required more contrast at low luminance levels to detect a sine-wave grating than their younger counterparts. This pattern of contrast sensitivity loss is consistent with a reduction in the contrast gain slope of the underlying mechanism at low spatial frequencies. In addition, suprathreshold measures of spatial vision performance also support a reduction in contrast gain within one (or both) of the pathways. Losses in ...
How do our eyes adjust to daily light levels that vary by almost 11 orders of magnitude? Research shows that, in both vertebrates and invertebrates, signaling proteins are translocated in a light-dependent manner between the photoreceptor cellular compartments where visual transduction takes place, and the rest of the photoreceptor cell. Protein translocation is likely to contribute to photoreceptor light adaptation by adjusting the sensitivity and speed of photoresponse to ever-changing conditions of ambient illumination.. ...
Looking for online definition of after-effects in the Medical Dictionary? after-effects explanation free. What is after-effects? Meaning of after-effects medical term. What does after-effects mean?
Table 4: SI units and non SI units and conversion factors. A convenient measure of retinal illuminance is based on the unit of the troland. One troland (Td) of retinal illuminance is produced by an extended source of 1 cd/m2 seen through a pupil of 1 mm2. Thus retinal illuminance E in trolands is given by Equation 9.. Equation 9: E = LA. where L is the luminance in cd/m2 and A is pupil area in mm2. Thus the unit for troland is cd/m2.mm2. If scotopic units are used, luminance is defined as scotopic cd/m2, and the troland is called a scotopic troland.. Inverse Square Law. The illuminance (E) of a surface due to a point source of light is proportional to the luminous intensity (I) of the source in the direction of that surface and inversely proportional to the square of the distance (d) between the surface and the source. The angle θ is the angle of incidence.. Equation 10: E = I/d2. cos θ. Remember, the rule of thumb for all laws dealing with light measurement is that radiation is derived from a ...
The CIE Supplementary System of Photometry, which evaluates lights in terms of comparative brightness relationship at any level, is described. The system introduces the concept of equivalent luminance to describe brightness of a light or an object at any level including mesopic levels. The system develops a photometric model to calculate brightness-related equivalent luminance by using three components of existing photometric and colorimetric quantities (photopic luminance, L, scotopic luminance, L, and chromatic contribution to brightness, c, i.e. brightness-to-luminance ratio (B/L)) with some weighting factors in their combinations that depend on the adaptation level. The use of the system and an example of calculation are also described. Results of testing the system with experimental brightness matching data are given in an appendix.. The publication is written in English, with a short summary in French and German. It consists of 21 pages with 5 figures and 1 table and is readily ...
We have investigated background and bleaching adaptation in vertebrate rods by intracellular recording in the retina of Bufo marinus. Backgrounds and bleaching produce adaptation in photoreceptors and lead to a shift and a compression of the response operating range. Threshold elevation due to backgrounds follows the Rose-DeVries rule at low intensities and the Weber-Fechner rule at high intensities. Threshold elevation due to bleaching is linear almost up to 17% bleached pigment and exponential thereafter. An equivalence can be established between bleaching and backgrounds with respect to threshold elevation, on the one hand, and with respect to response compression, on the other. These equivalences are the same within experimental error. The equivalence, moreover, appears to extend to the complete response curve. These results have implications for psychophysics as well as for photoreceptor transduction.. ...
Adaptation is not simply the price of admission for those audiences, but part of the attraction. That is, an adaptation is not only an invitation to experience a work anew in a different textual and/or medial framework; it is also an experience unto itself. Imagine the various Venn Diagrams that govern an audience-really, the audiences-experiencing a film adaptation like The Player. There are viewers who know that the film is an adaptation when they walk in, and there are viewers who only know that when the film tells them so (in an opening credit that says the "SCREENPLAY BY MICHAEL TOLKIN" is "BASED ON HIS NOVEL") (see Figure 2). There are viewers who miss that credit and dont know that the film is an adaptation at all. There are viewers who have read the book and there are viewers who have read the book twice. There are viewers who have read half the book, and there are viewers who havent read the book at all. And there are viewers who resolve to read the book while watching the film, who ...
The proposed project, Adopting and Demonstrating the Adaptation of Prevention Techniques (ADAPT), has two main goals: first, to assist the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to better understand the processes needed for adapting evidence-based behavioral interventions to fit new conditions or target populations; second, to utilize the CDCs draft adaptation guidance to adapt Jeff Kellys Popular Opinion Leader (POL) for use with adult, seropositive Hispanic men who have sex with other men (MSM). The target population will directly participate in all phases of the intervention adaptation process.. ADAPT, known as ADAPT-POL in El Paso, will include formative research and outcome monitoring. Throughout both periods, the ADAPT-POL staff will conduct process monitoring and evaluation to assess the delivery of the intervention, and to help the CDC understand how the draft adaptation guidance procedures work in a real world setting. Representatives of the target population will ...
The proposed project, Adopting and Demonstrating the Adaptation of Prevention Techniques (ADAPT), has two main goals: first, to assist the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to better understand the processes needed for adapting evidence-based behavioral interventions to fit new conditions or target populations; second, to utilize the CDCs draft adaptation guidance to adapt Jeff Kellys Popular Opinion Leader (POL) for use with adult, seropositive Hispanic men who have sex with other men (MSM). The target population will directly participate in all phases of the intervention adaptation process.. ADAPT, known as ADAPT-POL in El Paso, will include formative research and outcome monitoring. Throughout both periods, the ADAPT-POL staff will conduct process monitoring and evaluation to assess the delivery of the intervention, and to help the CDC understand how the draft adaptation guidance procedures work in a real world setting. Representatives of the target population will ...
Human access to the increasing amount of information and data plays an essential role for the professional level and also for everyday life. While information visualization has developed new and remarkable ways for visualizing data and enabling the exploration process, adaptive systems focus on users behavior to tailor information for supporting the information acquisition process. Recent research on adaptive visualization shows promising ways of synthesizing these two complementary approaches and make use of the surpluses of both disciplines. The emerged methods and systems aim to increase the performance, acceptance, and user experience of graphical data representations for a broad range of users. Although the evaluation results of the recently proposed systems are promising, some important aspects of information visualization are not considered in the adaptation process. The visual adaptation is commonly limited to change either visual parameters or replace visualizations entirely. Further, ...
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Factory built wheels are repeatable. As a lot of the build is done by machine. Handbuilts are not, as most of the process is manual. So a bad handbuilt will be a lot worse than a bad factory build. BUT by the same token, a good factory build (of the same wheel) will most likely not be as good as the best of handbuilts, as the machine is set up to be economic, quick and allow for all variabilty in rim/spoke/hub tolerances of stiffness/size/material and blah. Whereas the handbuilder is not so restricted by time as the machine, and can individually build the wheel based on what parts they actually get, rather than a nominal/worst limit part. There is *some* adaptation on *some* wheel building machines, but not all, and its *unlikely* to be as good or as comprehensive as those made by hand ...
Proton M.D. Syed Zainal Abidin Syed Mohamed Tahir told press today that Proton would be reducing the prices of its cars across the board by 2% to 5%.
Under normal conditions cells are in a homeostatic or steady state. When stimulus arrived to the cell, first the cell will adapt but if this stimulus crosses the boundary of adaptation it will cause cell injury. So cells respond to the stimulus by the following two ways: ...
View Notes - EX1 Terms from BIO 1320 at Texas State. Chapter 1 Key Terms Adaptation: a t rait that increases the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce compared to individuals without the
The 2013 Adaptation Academy is well on its way with an exciting group of participants, asking challenging questions and working through complex issues. Last ...
I apologize for the light level of posting (particularly since so many of you seem to be held in spellbinding suspense, according to my parents), but alot has gone into to making this the most heart-pounding, exhilirating finale ever! Plus I had two exames and a paper this week. Anyways, the doctors decided NOT to…
Sathekge, Mike Machaba; Maes, Alex; Kgomo, Mbo; Stoltz, Anton Carel; Pottel, Hans; Van de Wiele, Christophe (Schattauer, 2010) ...
Sathekge, Mike Machaba; Maes, Alex; Kgomo, Mbo; Stoltz, Anton Carel; Pottel, Hans; Van de Wiele, Christophe (Schattauer, 2010) ...
CAMBRIDGE MA Forty five years ago 834 young people (819 men and 15 women) received their bachelor of science degrees from MIT As one of them I have wondered ever since how we would do in life how
For a description of melanin-related disorders, see melanin and ocular melanosis. Melanism related to the process of adaptation ... is an adaptation for the prehistoric movement of humans away from equatorial regions, as there is less exposure to sunlight at ... or a high-altitude adaptation, since black fur absorbs more heat. The Silkie chicken commonly exhibits this trait. In April ...
"Subterranean mammals show convergent regression in ocular genes and enhancers, along with adaptation to tunneling". eLife. 6. ... The fusiform bodyshape (a tube tapered at both ends) adopted by many aquatic animals is an adaptation to enable them to travel ... The prior existence of suitable structures has been called pre-adaptation or exaptation. Kirk, John Thomas Osmond (2007). ... As a sensory adaptation, echolocation has evolved separately in cetaceans (dolphins and whales) and bats, but from the same ...
This is what is referred to as VOR adaptation. Ethanol consumption can disrupt the VOR, reducing dynamic visual acuity. This ... The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is a reflex, where activation of the vestibular system causes eye movement. This reflex ... The vestibulo-ocular reflex needs to be fast: for clear vision, head movement must be compensated almost immediately; otherwise ... In comatose patients, once it has been determined that the cervical spine is intact, a test of the vestibulo-ocular reflex can ...
This form of therapy is thought to promote habituation, adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, and/or sensory substitution ... Nystagmus (flickering of the eye, related to the Vestibulo-ocular reflex [VOR]) is often seen in patients with an acute ... This is called the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Movement of fluid in the semicircular canals signals the brain about the ... an adaptation to the injury. Although the patient's balance is restored, the balance system injury still exists. Benign ...
Melatonin has been shown to accelerate the adaptation of the circadian system to a nighttime work schedule. Melatonin may ... Bright light treatment is not recommended for patients with light sensitivity or ocular disease. Melatonin is a hormone ... or blue-blocking goggles during the morning commute home from work can improve circadian adaptation. For workers who want to ... and bright artificial light exposure has been developed as a method to improve circadian adaptation in night workers. The ...
... an adaptation (also termed gain adaptation) widely seen as a simple form of motor learning, possibly driven by an effort to ... ocular tremor, ocular drift and smooth pursuit). Velocity-based algorithms are a common approach for saccade detection in eye ... This effect was first observed in humans with ocular muscle palsy. In these cases, it was noticed that the patients would make ... On the other hand, opsoclonus or ocular flutter are composed purely of fast-phase saccadic eye movements. Without the use of ...
... suggesting that this adaptation was selected for in response to increased endurance running. Vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VORs): ... This adaptation, which allows humans to absorb great shock and force applied to the skeleton, is not seen in australopithecine ... These adaptations, described below, are all evidence for selection for endurance running. Many researchers compare the skeletal ... This was an important adaptation for running because it allowed Homo to see more clearly during the rough pitching motion that ...
Adaptation (eye) Ohba N, Ohba A (December 2006). "Nyctalopia and hemeralopia: the current usage trend in the literature". Br J ... Hemeralopia is known to occur in several ocular conditions. Cone dystrophy and achromatopsia, affecting the cones in the retina ... It can be described as insufficient adaptation to bright light. It is also called heliophobia and day blindness. In hemeralopia ... Rarely it may have ocular complications such as hemeralopia, pigmentary chorioretinitis, optic atrophy or retinal/iris coloboma ...
At least one clinical trial on readaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex undertaken by Dr Mingjia Dai from Mount Sinai ... Space adaptation syndrome (Space flight "zero-g" and return) Cha YH (2009). "Mal de debarquement". Semin Neurol. 29: 520-7. doi ... Dai M, Cohen B, Smouha E, Cho C (2014). "Readaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex relieves the mal de debarquement syndrome ... The protocol involves a physical manipulation of the patient intended to readapt the vestibulo-ocular reflex. While the program ...
Spastic ataxia-corneal dystrophy syndrome Spider lamb syndrome Splenic flexure syndrome Split hand syndrome Spondylo-ocular ... scapula syndrome Sneddon's syndrome Solipsism syndrome somatostatinoma syndrome Sopite syndrome Sotos syndrome Space adaptation ... Noonan syndrome Norman-Roberts syndrome Northern epilepsy syndrome Nutcracker syndrome Occipital horn syndrome Ocular ischemic ... Potter sequence Prader-Willi syndrome Pre-excitation syndrome Precordial catch syndrome Premenstrual syndrome Presumed ocular ...
... ocular MeSH G11.697.716.154 --- adaptation, ocular MeSH G11.697.716.154.371 --- dark adaptation MeSH G11.697.716.182 --- ... ocular MeSH G11.697.677.330 --- evoked potentials, visual MeSH G11.697.677.340 --- eye color MeSH G11.697.677.360 --- figural ... ocular MeSH G11.697.677.911 --- vision MeSH G11.697.677.911.500 --- phosphenes MeSH G11.697.677.911.700 --- vision, binocular ... vestibulo-ocular MeSH G11.561.730.869 --- startle reaction MeSH G11.561.796.255 --- gravity perception MeSH G11.561.796.263 ...
... visual adaptation, motion perception, and ocular function and accommodation (eye). The first version of the LEA test was ...
The vestibular system also relays information on head movement to the eye muscle, forming the vestibulo-ocular reflex to retain ... VRT works by causing the brain to use already existing neural mechanisms for adaptation, neuroplasticity, and compensation. ... aimed at assisting the eye to fixate during head rotation without the input from the lost canal vestibulo-ocular reflex) An ...
... including delayed ocular adaptation to darkness and impaired color vision, a disulfiram-like alcohol intolerance (19%), ...
Ocular motility study (95.16) P32 and other tracer studies of eye (95.2) Objective functional tests of eye (95.21) ... Dark adaptation study (95.09) Eye examination, not otherwise specified (95.1) Examinations of form and structure of eye (95.11 ...
Ocular autohemorrhaging has also been documented in other lizards, which suggests blood-squirting could have evolved from a ... so it appears as though the species incapable of squirting blood have lost the adaptation for reasons yet unstudied. To avoid ... While previous thought held that compounds were added to the blood from glands in the ocular sinus cavity, current research has ... Sherbrooke, W. C. (2000). "Sceloporus jarrovii (Yarrow's spiny lizard) Ocular Sinus Bleeding". Herpetological Review. 31: 243. ...
The raptor's adaptations for optimum visual resolution (an American kestrel can see a 2-mm insect from the top of an 18-m tree ... cone oil droplets and ocular media in four species of estrildid finch" (PDF). Journal of Comparative Physiology A. 186 (7-8): ... Adaptations to night vision include the large size of the eye, its tubular shape, large numbers of closely packed retinal rods ... The cost of this adaptation is that they have myopia in the lower part of their visual field. Birds with relatively large eyes ...
Afterimage human eye Eye movements Fixational eye movement Neural adaptation Visual perception. ... The first description of what is now known as ocular microtremor was made in 1934 (5). It is contentious whether ocular ... 2001). "Ocular microtremor: a tool for measuring depth of anaesthesia?" Br J Anaesth 86(4): 519-22. 4. Bolger, C., S. Bojanic, ... 1993). "Ocular microtremor measurement system: design and performance." Med Biol Eng Comput 31(3): 205-12. 2. Coakley, D. and J ...
In ocular physiology, adaptation is the ability of the eye to adjust to various levels of darkness and light. The human eye can ... Dark adaptation is far quicker and deeper in young people than the elderly. A minor mechanism of adaptation is the pupillary ... London: Macmillan Academic and Professional Ltd.; 1990 Adaptation, Ocular at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... Insufficiency of adaptation most commonly presents as insufficient adaptation to dark environment, called night blindness or ...
2010). Prism exposure promotes the resetting of the ocular-motor system in the brain and results in improved higher order ... Prism adaptation is a sensory-motor adaptation that occurs after the visual field has been artificially shifted laterally or ... prism adaptation has been suggested to improve spatial deficits in patients with unilateral neglect. During prism adaptation, ... was included to compare with the prism adaptation treatment. It was found that only prism adaptation yields significant long- ...
These fish are blind; no ocular tissue is found in their eye sockets except for a little black spot in each of the eyes. An ... Neuromasts (sensory papillae or pit organs) are interesting adaptations that this species of fish have developed to deal with ...
The main medical use emerging in this field is for research on eye development and ocular diseases. New research studies on ... "Cephalopod sense organs, nerves and the brain: Adaptations for high performance and life style." Marine and Freshwater Behavior ... meaning there would be similar expression of ocular disease in both organisms' eyes. An advantage of cephalopod eye ... ocular gene expression are being performed using cephalopod eyes due to the evidence of their convergent evolution with the ...
1999). "Mutations in the gene encoding 11-cis retinol dehydrogenase cause delayed dark adaptation and fundus albipunctatus". ... with steroids and retinoids and expression of its mRNA in extra-ocular human tissue". Biochem. J. 338 (Pt 1): 23-7. doi:10.1042 ...
Therefore, postnatal maturation of the retinal structures has led to strong light adaptations for infants. Vision problems in ... Part 6: Growth curves of ocular axial length and its components (author's transl)". Nippon Ganka Gakkai zasshi. 83 (9): 1679- ...
This is called the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). The balance system works with the visual and skeletal systems (the muscles ... This causes a form of motion sickness called space adaptation syndrome. This overview also explains acceleration as its ...
Adaptations of coins and banknotes so that the value can be determined by touch. For example: *In some currencies, such as the ... is a category of vision loss or visual impairment that is caused by factors unrelated to refractive errors or coexisting ocular ... They use a combination of vision and other senses to learn, although they may require adaptations in lighting or the size of ... inflammatory ocular hypertension syndrome (IOHS); 2) severe uveitic angle closure; 3) corticosteroid-induced; and 4) a ...
追従眼球運動適応時の大脳皮質MST野のニューロン活動について [in Japanese] Neural Activity During Adaptation of Ocular Following in Monkeys Cortical Area ... Computational studies on acquisition and adaptation of ocular following responses based on cerebellar synaptic plasticity ... Short-latency ocular following responses of monkey. I. Dependence on temporospatial properties of visual input MILES FA ... Ocular following response (OFR) is a slow tracking eye movement at ultra-short latency. It is
Cross-axis adaptation improves 3D vestibulo-ocular reflex alignment during chronic stimulation via a head-mounted multichannel ... Cross-axis adaptation improves 3D vestibulo-ocular reflex alignment during chronic stimulation via a head-mounted multichannel ... Cross-axis adaptation improves 3D vestibulo-ocular reflex alignment during chronic stimulation via a head-mounted multichannel ... Cross-axis adaptation improves 3D vestibulo-ocular reflex alignment during chronic stimulation via a head-mounted multichannel ...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa adaptation to the ocular surface: transcriptional changes and virulence determinants ... Pseudomonas aeruginosa adaptation to the ocular surface: transcriptional changes and virulence determinants ... Pseudomonas aeruginosa adaptation to the ocular surface: transcriptional changes and virulence determinants. Invest. Ophthalmol ... Conclusions: Use of an unbiased global genetic approach to study P. aeruginosa interaction with ocular surface components in ...
Home ❯ Projects ❯ The effect of visual contrast on human vestibulo-ocular reflex adaptation ...
... and predicts candidate sequences with a potential role in ocular disorders. ... Subterranean mammals show convergent regression in ocular genes and enhancers, along with adaptation to tunneling. ... A) Ocular genes that are more tissue-specific exhibit stronger acceleration in subterranean mole species. The y-axis ...
Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Adaptation and Motion Sickness Symptoms in Response to Virtual Reality Exposure. ... explore VOR and VVOR adaptation amplitude and rate during exposure to various virtual conditions, and (3) relate VOR adaptation ... Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR) is likely a primary source of such conflict and can adapt to reduce associated symptoms with ... Adaptation to the 50% condition took longer and was more nausea-inducing than the 200% or control conditions. Additionally, ...
Ocular stability and set-point adaptation. D. S. Zee, P. Jareonsettasin, R. J. Leigh ...
"Vestibulo-ocular Reflex Adaptation." Vestibular Rehabilitation, 4e Herdman SJ, Clendaniel RA. Herdman S.J., Clendaniel R.A. Eds ... Schubert M.C. Schubert, Michael C.Vestibulo-ocular Reflex Adaptation. In: Herdman SJ, Clendaniel RA. Herdman S.J., Clendaniel R ... Role of Vision and Head Motion in Adaptation-Overview. ++. Two sensory stimuli are required for significant adaptation of the ... Traditionally, adaptation paradigms designed to enhance the gain of the VOR have been done with short-term (less than 1 hour) ...
... viral adaptation and the development and use of antiviral drugs and vaccines to achieve improved outcomes in infection control ... The role of herpesviruses in ocular infections Asim V Farooq, Arpeet Shah, Deepak Shukla ... Virus Adaptation and Treatment ceased publishing in October 2019 All articles that have been published in Virus Adaptation and ... Back to Archived Journals » Virus Adaptation and Treatment » Volume 2. ...
Spiroplasmas: evolution, adaptation and diversity. Front Biosci. 2002;7:d619-40.PubMed ... His primary research interests include pediatric and adult ocular tumors, radiation therapy, ocular inflammation and infection ... Touitou V, Fenollar F, Cassoux N, Merle-Beral H, LeHoang P, Amoura Z, et al. Ocular Whipples disease: therapeutic strategy and ... Ocular lesions induced in C57 mice by the suckling mouse cataract agent (SMCA). Invest Ophthalmol. 1966;5:413-20.PubMed ...
Adaptation, Ocular / physiology * Animals * Color * Cues * Eye / anatomy & histology * Eye / cytology * Fishes / physiology* ...
Saccade and vestibular ocular motor adaptation Authors: Schubert, Michael C. , Zee, David S. ... ipsiversive lateropulsion and ocular tilt reaction (the static symptoms) and impairment of …vestibulo-ocular reflexes from the ... The linear vestibulo-ocular reflex, locomotion and falls in neurological disorders Authors: Liao, Ke , Walker, Mark F. , Joshi ... However, the means to test reliably the linear or translational vestibulo-ocular reflex (tVOR), …which depends on the otolithic ...
Adaptation, Ocular* * Adult * Convergence, Ocular* * Eye Movements* * Eyeglasses * Humans ...
Refractive adaptation phase. The primary purpose of this phase was to ensure that full refractive adaptation was complete ... The development of ocular dominance columns in normal and visually deprived monkeys. J Comp Neurol 1980;191:1-51. ... Refractive adaptation phase: a time period during which an improvement in vision of the amblyopic eye may occur in response to ... During refractive adaptation, visual acuity in seven children improved to an extent that they were no longer eligible to enter ...
To evaluate vestibular compensation via measurement of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) following vestibular schwannoma ... To evaluate vestibular compensation via measurement of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) following vestibular schwannoma ... Saccade and vestibular ocular motor adaptation. Restor Neurol Neurosci (2010) 28:9-18. doi:10.3233/RNN-2010-0523 ... High-velocity angular vestibulo-ocular reflex adaptation to position error signals. J Neurol Phys Ther (2010) 34:82-6. doi: ...
1975) Adaptation of the human vestibulo-ocular reflex to magnifying lenses. Brain Res 92:331-335. ... 1984) Neuronal events correlated with long-term adaptation of the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex in the primate flocculus. ... 1973) Changes of human vestibulo-ocular response induced by vision-reversal during head rotation. J Physiol (Lond) 234:102-103P ... 1978) A neural correlate in rabbits cerebellum to adaptive modification of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. Brain Res 150:611-616. ...
Adaptation, Ocular. The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of ... the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., ...
1. The act or state of adjustment or adaptation; especially change in the shape of the ocular lens for various focal distances ... ocular accom. (D) of contact lens wearer. ocular accom. (D) of hyperopes. ... ocular accom. (D) of contact lens wearer. ocular accom. (D) of myopes. ... The vertex distance was 14 mm and ocular accommodation was calculated using the formula A = K − B. The ocular accommodation ...
Adaptation, Ocular. The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of ... the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., ...
Adaptation, Ocular / physiology*. Adult. Dark Adaptation / physiology. Electroretinography. Humans. Infant. Light. Photic ... The median slope of the linear portion of the background adaptation function was about 0.9 for infants and adults. These ...
Adaptation, Ocular / physiology. Adolescent. Adult. Color Vision / physiology*. Female. Fluorescence*. Follow-Up Studies. ...
Amblyopia and Sensory Adaptations.- Introduction to Strabismus and the Ocular Motor Exam.- Sensory Examination.- Esotropia.- ... Pediatric Eye Exam.- Anatomy and Physiology of the Extraocular Muscles.- Laws of Ocular Motility and Introduction to Strabismus ... Exotropia.- Oblique Overaction and A- and V-Patterns.- Vertical Strabismus.- Strabismus Syndromes.- Neuro Based Ocular Motility ...
This is what is referred to as VOR adaptation. Ethanol consumption can disrupt the VOR, reducing dynamic visual acuity. This ... The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is a reflex, where activation of the vestibular system causes eye movement. This reflex ... The vestibulo-ocular reflex needs to be fast: for clear vision, head movement must be compensated almost immediately; otherwise ... In comatose patients, once it has been determined that the cervical spine is intact, a test of the vestibulo-ocular reflex can ...
Saccade and vestibular ocular motor adaptation. Restor Neurol Neurosci (2010) 28(1):9-18. doi:10.3233/RNN-2010-0523 ... The cerebellum is also involved in vestibular adaptation. Previous work has focused on the cerebellar role in VOR adaptation ( ... Epidemiology of vestibulo-ocular reflex function: data from the Baltimore longitudinal study of aging. Otol Neurotol (2015) 36( ... Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials to bone conducted vibration of the midline forehead at Fz in healthy subjects. ...
Angular vestibulo-ocular reflex responses in Otop1 mice. I. Otolith sensor input is essential for gravity context-specific ... An invertible mathematical model of cortical bones adaptation to mechanical loading.. Sci Rep. 2019 Apr 10;9(1):5890. ... Angular vestibulo-ocular reflex responses in Otop1 mice. II. Otolith sensor input improves compensation after unilateral ...
  • Eye position and cross-sensory learning both contribute to prism adaptation of auditory space. (rochester.edu)
  • Background and Purpose- This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness on neglect recovery of a 2-week treatment based on prism adaptation (PA) in comparison to an analogous visuomotor training performed without prisms, ie, neutral pointing (NP). (ahajournals.org)
  • 5 A variety of rehabilitation techniques have been explored 6,7 and the prism adaptation technique (PA) in particular has been shown to ameliorate neglect symptoms in large populations of patients. (ahajournals.org)
  • The aim of the present study is to directly compare the effect of a prism adaptation treatment with that of a treatment based on pointing with neutral goggles. (ahajournals.org)
  • In order to study how dorso-ventral and naso-occipital linear accelerations affect the ocular responses induced by inter-aural axis linear accelerations, three-dimensional cyclic modulation of eye positions and velocities during off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR) were analyzed in four rhesus monkeys. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The case represented a diagnostic challenge due to its atypism and given the steady increase in the prevalence of EBV-related ocular diseases in the last years, this report can serve as an example to prompt earlier serological tests to identify the aetiology in similar cases. (springer.com)
  • 18 week period of wearing glasses (refractive adaptation) followed by occlusion prescribed ("patching") for six or 12 hours a day. (bmj.com)
  • To appropriately evaluate mainstream therapies such as occlusion and penalisation, the beneficial effects of refractive adaptation need to be fully differentiated. (bmj.com)
  • Yet there is evidence that a successful period of refractive adaptation may fully correct the visual deficit and pre-empt the need for further treatment, 4 and, even where this is not the case, limited improvement may still enhance concordance with occlusion therapy. (bmj.com)
  • The Inverted Retina: Maladaptation or Pre-adaptation? (leaderu.com)
  • Vision is such an important adaptation in higher vertebrates that if the retina is indeed wired wrongly or badly designed it would certainly pose, as Dawkins implies, a considerable challenge to any teleological interpretation of nature. (leaderu.com)
  • Other dim light-adapted vertebrates with normal ocular anatomy, such as nocturnal and aquatic species, also demonstrate evidence of visual gene loss, but the absence of comparative studies has led to the untested assumption that subterranean mammals are special in the degree of this genomic regression. (deepdyve.com)
  • In fact, without this adaptation, the normal effects of age or the constant attacks from disease would render us with significant functional impairments-namely gaze and gait instability. (mhmedical.com)
  • To test vestibular function more fully one has to realize that 3D VOR ideally generates compensatory ocular rotations not only with a magnitude (gain) equal and opposite to the head rotation but also about an axis that is co-linear with the head rotation axis (alignment). (jove.com)
  • Yet, the study of ocular instability has a long history-starting with Jurin's 1738 observation [ 1 ] that the 'trembling of the eye' is unremitting-but it has proceeded in spurts and starts, and it is only in recent years that it has become a mainstay of oculomotor and visual neuroscience. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Using this instrument, we have explored the effects of optical aberrations on visual performance, and the role of neural adaptation to aberrations in visual perception. (vision-research.eu)
  • Adaptive Optics (AO) allows to appropriately control the blur level of the retinal image, resulting in a powerful technique to directly test visual functions, such as visual acuity as well as daily tasks (sharpness assessment of natural images and face recognition), under perfect optics and investigate neural adaptation to the blur produced by the optics of individual eyes. (vision-research.eu)
  • The focus of this chapter is on evidence for VOR adaptation from animal and human studies. (mhmedical.com)
  • ate Change is intended to provide a scientific and evidence-based coordinated response to the climate change adaptation needs of African countries in orde r to support the commitments and priorities of African governments. (who.int)
  • Despite the accumulating evidence for this evolutionary phenomenon, there remain important questions regarding the evolution of a regressed ocular phenotype. (deepdyve.com)
  • Virus Adaptation and Treatment ceased publishing in October 2019 All articles that have been published in Virus Adaptation and Treatment will continue to be available on the Dove Press site, and will be securely archived with CLOCKSS. (dovepress.com)
  • Here, we studied bacterial adaptions to the ocular surface that subsequently enable them to penetrate the corneal epithelium. (arvojournals.org)
  • Dry eye disease (DED) is a prevalent complication of diabetes and presents as reduced tear production and/or increased corneal surface sensitivity often with secondary ocular surface changes. (springer.com)
  • We asked whether spatial coding in the visual system is matched to the native blur specific to an individual's HOAs by investigating long-term adaptation to the blur produced by the optics of the eye. (vision-research.eu)
  • VOR adaptation as a predictor of cybersickness symptoms would elucidate the physiological mechanism by which sensory conflicts are able to induce these symptoms. (pacificu.edu)
  • The present study examined if the amplitude or rate of vision-enhanced and vision-denied VOR gain adaptation can predict the susceptibility and mitigation of cybersickness symptoms over time. (pacificu.edu)
  • Objectives The Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire is widely used to evaluate subjective symptoms of dry eye disease (DED) as a primary diagnostic criterion. (bmj.com)
  • Treatment for decreasing symptoms of dizziness can be categorized as habituation exercises or adaptation exercises (Herdman & Whitney, 2007). (asha.org)
  • In these models, parameter adaptation was driven by the correlation of a sensory error signal with a motor command signal, which were proposed to correspond to climbing fiber and mossy fiber signals, respectively. (plos.org)
  • 1993). "Ocular microtremor measurement system: design and performance. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, at the CSIC Visual Optics and Biophotonics Laboratory, we have developed an adaptive optics system, with a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor, a magnetic deformable mirror for the measurement and real time correction of ocular aberrations, combined with psychophysical channels. (vision-research.eu)
  • Traditionally, adaptation paradigms designed to enhance the gain of the VOR have been done with short-term (less than 1 hour) or long-term (greater than 1 day) time exposure. (mhmedical.com)