Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Adaptation, Ocular: The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Ocular Hypertension: A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Toxoplasmosis, Ocular: Infection caused by the protozoan parasite TOXOPLASMA in which there is extensive connective tissue proliferation, the retina surrounding the lesions remains normal, and the ocular media remain clear. Chorioretinitis may be associated with all forms of toxoplasmosis, but is usually a late sequel of congenital toxoplasmosis. The severe ocular lesions in infants may lead to blindness.Dark Adaptation: Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.Dominance, Ocular: The functional superiority and preferential use of one eye over the other. The term is usually applied to superiority in sighting (VISUAL PERCEPTION) or motor task but not difference in VISUAL ACUITY or dysfunction of one of the eyes. Ocular dominance can be modified by visual input and NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS.Albinism, Ocular: Albinism affecting the eye in which pigment of the hair and skin is normal or only slightly diluted. The classic type is X-linked (Nettleship-Falls), but an autosomal recessive form also exists. Ocular abnormalities may include reduced pigmentation of the iris, nystagmus, photophobia, strabismus, and decreased visual acuity.Refraction, Ocular: Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.Tonometry, Ocular: Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Ocular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.Eye Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the EYE.Ocular Motility Disorders: Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Tuberculosis, Ocular: Tuberculous infection of the eye, primarily the iris, ciliary body, and choroid.Tears: The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Ophthalmic Solutions: Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.Eye Infections, Parasitic: Mild to severe infections of the eye and its adjacent structures (adnexa) by adult or larval protozoan or metazoan parasites.Conjunctival DiseasesEye Infections: Infection, moderate to severe, caused by bacteria, fungi, or viruses, which occurs either on the external surface of the eye or intraocularly with probable inflammation, visual impairment, or blindness.Dry Eye Syndromes: Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.Uveitis: Inflammation of part or all of the uvea, the middle (vascular) tunic of the eye, and commonly involving the other tunics (sclera and cornea, and the retina). (Dorland, 27th ed)Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Figural Aftereffect: A perceptual phenomenon used by Gestalt psychologists to demonstrate that events in one part of the perceptual field may affect perception in another part.ConjunctivitisOcular Hypotension: Abnormally low intraocular pressure often related to chronic inflammation (uveitis).Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Vitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.Corneal Diseases: Diseases of the cornea.Aqueous Humor: The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Iris: The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Eye Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Ciliary Body: A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.Anterior Eye Segment: The front third of the eyeball that includes the structures between the front surface of the cornea and the front of the VITREOUS BODY.Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Accommodation, Ocular: The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Sclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Administration, Ophthalmic: Application of pharmaceutically active agents on the tissues of the EYE.Anterior Chamber: The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)Eye Infections, Bacterial: Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Afterimage: Continuation of visual impression after cessation of stimuli causing the original image.Refractive Errors: Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Onchocerciasis, Ocular: Filarial infection of the eyes transmitted from person to person by bites of Onchocerca volvulus-infected black flies. The microfilariae of Onchocerca are thus deposited beneath the skin. They migrate through various tissues including the eye. Those persons infected have impaired vision and up to 20% are blind. The incidence of eye lesions has been reported to be as high as 30% in Central America and parts of Africa.Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane: A chronic blistering disease with predilection for mucous membranes and less frequently the skin, and with a tendency to scarring. It is sometimes called ocular pemphigoid because of conjunctival mucous membrane involvement.Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.Convergence, Ocular: The turning inward of the lines of sight toward each other.Eyelids: Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.Chorioretinitis: Inflammation of the choroid in which the sensory retina becomes edematous and opaque. The inflammatory cells and exudate may burst through the sensory retina to cloud the vitreous body.Myopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.Dental Marginal Adaptation: The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.Retinal DiseasesAdministration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Keratitis: Inflammation of the cornea.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Glaucoma, Open-Angle: Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Vision, Monocular: Images seen by one eye.Eye Infections, Viral: Infections of the eye caused by minute intracellular agents. These infections may lead to severe inflammation in various parts of the eye - conjunctiva, iris, eyelids, etc. Several viruses have been identified as the causative agents. Among these are Herpesvirus, Adenovirus, Poxvirus, and Myxovirus.Blepharitis: Inflammation of the eyelids.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Vision, Binocular: The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Contrast Sensitivity: The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.Scleritis: Refers to any inflammation of the sclera including episcleritis, a benign condition affecting only the episclera, which is generally short-lived and easily treated. Classic scleritis, on the other hand, affects deeper tissue and is characterized by higher rates of visual acuity loss and even mortality, particularly in necrotizing form. Its characteristic symptom is severe and general head pain. Scleritis has also been associated with systemic collagen disease. Etiology is unknown but is thought to involve a local immune response. Treatment is difficult and includes administration of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids. Inflammation of the sclera may also be secondary to inflammation of adjacent tissues, such as the conjunctiva.Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Timolol: A beta-adrenergic antagonist similar in action to PROPRANOLOL. The levo-isomer is the more active. Timolol has been proposed as an antihypertensive, antiarrhythmic, antiangina, and antiglaucoma agent. It is also used in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS and tremor.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Keratitis, Herpetic: A superficial, epithelial Herpesvirus hominis infection of the cornea, characterized by the presence of small vesicles which may break down and coalesce to form dendritic ulcers (KERATITIS, DENDRITIC). (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.Strabismus: Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)Vision Disorders: Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).Pupil: The aperture in the iris through which light passes.Eye ProteinsVisual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Prostaglandins F, Synthetic: Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins F that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGF.Coloboma: Congenital anomaly in which some of the structures of the eye are absent due to incomplete fusion of the fetal intraocular fissure during gestation.Sensory Deprivation: The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.Saccades: An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.Motion Perception: The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Conjunctival Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the CONJUNCTIVA.Eyeglasses: A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular: A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)Uvea: The pigmented vascular coat of the eyeball, consisting of the CHOROID; CILIARY BODY; and IRIS, which are continuous with each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Eye Burns: Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Lacrimal Apparatus: The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Keratitis, Dendritic: A form of herpetic keratitis characterized by the formation of small vesicles which break down and coalesce to form recurring dendritic ulcers, characteristically irregular, linear, branching, and ending in knoblike extremities. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Iritis: Inflammation of the iris characterized by circumcorneal injection, aqueous flare, keratotic precipitates, and constricted and sluggish pupil along with discoloration of the iris.Uveitis, Anterior: Inflammation of the anterior uvea comprising the iris, angle structures, and the ciliary body. Manifestations of this disorder include ciliary injection, exudation into the anterior chamber, iris changes, and adhesions between the iris and lens (posterior synechiae). Intraocular pressure may be increased or reduced.Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Psychophysics: The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Eyelid DiseasesKeratoconjunctivitis: Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.Eye Infections, Fungal: Infection by a variety of fungi, usually through four possible mechanisms: superficial infection producing conjunctivitis, keratitis, or lacrimal obstruction; extension of infection from neighboring structures - skin, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx; direct introduction during surgery or accidental penetrating trauma; or via the blood or lymphatic routes in patients with underlying mycoses.Retinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Microphthalmos: Congenital or developmental anomaly in which the eyeballs are abnormally small.Corneal Opacity: Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Altitude: A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Eye Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the eye.Ophthalmic Artery: Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.Blindness: The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.Preservatives, Pharmaceutical: Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.Nystagmus, Pathologic: Involuntary movements of the eye that are divided into two types, jerk and pendular. Jerk nystagmus has a slow phase in one direction followed by a corrective fast phase in the opposite direction, and is usually caused by central or peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Pendular nystagmus features oscillations that are of equal velocity in both directions and this condition is often associated with visual loss early in life. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p272)Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Orbit: Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.Translations: Products resulting from the conversion of one language to another.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Conjunctivitis, Allergic: Conjunctivitis due to hypersensitivity to various allergens.Burns, ChemicalAnalysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Eye Enucleation: The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.Perceptual Distortion: Lack of correspondence between the way a stimulus is commonly perceived and the way an individual perceives it under given conditions.Conjunctivitis, Viral: Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.Trachoma: A chronic infection of the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.Mice, Inbred C57BLDiagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.Choroiditis: Inflammation of the choroid.Contact Lenses: Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Diplopia: A visual symptom in which a single object is perceived by the visual cortex as two objects rather than one. Disorders associated with this condition include REFRACTIVE ERRORS; STRABISMUS; OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES; TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES; and diseases of the BRAIN STEM and OCCIPITAL LOBE.Biometry: The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Lenses: Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Retinitis: Inflammation of the RETINA. It is rarely limited to the retina, but is commonly associated with diseases of the choroid (CHORIORETINITIS) and of the OPTIC DISK (neuroretinitis).Retinal Artery: Central retinal artery and its branches. It arises from the ophthalmic artery, pierces the optic nerve and runs through its center, enters the eye through the porus opticus and branches to supply the retina.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Hyperopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Limbus Corneae: An annular transitional zone, approximately 1 mm wide, between the cornea and the bulbar conjunctiva and sclera. It is highly vascular and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea. It is ophthalmologically significant in that it appears on the outer surface of the eyeball as a slight furrow, marking the line between the clear cornea and the sclera. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Genetic Fitness: The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.Axial Length, Eye: The distance between the anterior and posterior poles of the eye, measured either by ULTRASONOGRAPHY or by partial coherence interferometry.Eye, Artificial: A ready-made or custom-made prosthesis of glass or plastic shaped and colored to resemble the anterior portion of a normal eye and used for cosmetic reasons. It is attached to the anterior portion of an orbital implant (ORBITAL IMPLANTS) which is placed in the socket of an enucleated or eviscerated eye. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Darkness: The absence of light.Panuveitis: Inflammation in which both the anterior and posterior segments of the uvea are involved and a specific focus is not apparent. It is often severe and extensive and a serious threat to vision. Causes include systemic diseases such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, and syphilis, as well as malignancies. The intermediate segment of the eye is not involved.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Pigment Epithelium of Eye: The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.Fluorescein Angiography: Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.Emmetropia: The condition of where images are correctly brought to a focus on the retina.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Color Perception: Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.Optic Disk: The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Eye Manifestations: Ocular disorders attendant upon non-ocular disease or injury.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Eye Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of the eyes from impact, flying objects, glare, liquids, or injurious radiation.Corneal Ulcer: Loss of epithelial tissue from the surface of the cornea due to progressive erosion and necrosis of the tissue; usually caused by bacterial, fungal, or viral infection.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Benzalkonium Compounds: A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Vision Tests: A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.Fluorophotometry: Measurement of light given off by fluorescein in order to assess the integrity of various ocular barriers. The method is used to investigate the blood-aqueous barrier, blood-retinal barrier, aqueous flow measurements, corneal endothelial permeability, and tear flow dynamics.Cultural Characteristics: Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Choroid Neoplasms: Tumors of the choroid; most common intraocular tumors are malignant melanomas of the choroid. These usually occur after puberty and increase in incidence with advancing age. Most malignant melanomas of the uveal tract develop from benign melanomas (nevi).Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Head Movements: Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.Ophthalmoscopy: Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
(1/1010) Why and how is soft copy reading possible in clinical practice?

The properties of the human visual system (HVS) relevant to the diagnostic process are described after a brief introduction on the general problems and advantages of using soft copy for primary radiology interpretations. At various spatial and temporal frequencies the contrast sensitivity defines the spatial resolution of the eye-brain system and the sensitivity to flicker. The adaptation to the displayed radiological scene and the ambient illumination determine the dynamic range for the operation of the HVS. Although image display devices are determined mainly by state-of-the-art technology, analysis of the HVS may suggest technical characteristics for electronic displays that will help to optimize the display to the operation of the HVS. These include display size, spatial resolution, contrast resolution, luminance range, and noise, from which further consequences for the technical components of a monitor follow. It is emphasized that routine monitor quality control must be available in clinical practice. These image quality measures must be simple enough to be applied as part of the daily routine. These test instructions might also serve as elements of technical acceptance and constancy tests.  (+info)

(2/1010) Orientation-tuned spatial filters for texture-defined form.

Detection threshold for an orientation-texture-defined (OTD) test grating was elevated after adapting to an OTD grating of high orientation contrast. Threshold elevation was greatest for a test grating parallel to the adapting grating, and fell to zero for a test grating perpendicular to the adapting grating. We conclude that the human visual system contains an orientation-tuned neural mechanism sensitive to OTD form, and propose a model for this mechanism. We further propose that orientation discrimination for OTD bars and gratings is determined by the relative activity of these filters for OTD form.  (+info)

(3/1010) Local velocity representation: evidence from motion adaptation.

Adaptation to a moving visual pattern induces shifts in the perceived motion of subsequently viewed moving patterns. Explanations of such effects are typically based on adaptation-induced sensitivity changes in spatio-temporal frequency tuned mechanisms (STFMs). An alternative hypothesis is that adaptation occurs in mechanisms that independently encode direction and speed (DSMs). Yet a third possibility is that adaptation occurs in mechanisms that encode 2D pattern velocity (VMs). We performed a series of psychophysical experiments to examine predictions made by each of the three hypotheses. The results indicate that: (1) adaptation-induced shifts are relatively independent of spatial pattern of both adapting and test stimuli; (2) the shift in perceived direction of motion of a plaid stimulus after adaptation to a grating indicates a shift in the motion of the plaid pattern, and not a shift in the motion of the plaid components; and (3) the 2D pattern of shift in perceived velocity radiates away from the adaptation velocity, and is inseparable in speed and direction of motion. Taken together, these results are most consistent with the VM adaptation hypothesis.  (+info)

(4/1010) The effect of spatial frequency adaptation on the latency of spatial contrast detection.

The effect of spatial frequency adaptation on detection response time was studied using 2-D Gabor functions as stimuli. On the basis of pilot studies, it was expected that reaction time to a given spatial frequency at a low contrast would increase following adaptation to that spatial frequency at a high contrast. Subjects were tested using 2-D Gabor functions that ranged in frequency from 25 to 24 cpd. Subjects' reaction times to the Gabor functions were measured prior to adaptation and after adaptation to a particular spatial frequency. The adapting spatial frequency was either 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, or 16 cpd. The test stimuli were 0.3, 0.5, or 0.7 log units above the unadapted threshold contrast. The subjects adapted to the high contrast test grating for 3 min (80% contrast) and reaction times were again measured in an adapt-test-readapt paradigm. The results showed the greatest increase in reaction time after adaptation when adapting and test spatial frequencies within an octave of the adapting spatial frequency also showed an increase in reaction time but to a lesser extent. Reaction times to gratings with spatial frequencies more distant from the adapting spatial frequency were not significantly affected by the adaptation. The results obtained resemble the tuning curves found for threshold data. Reaction times for stimuli at 0.5 and 0.7 log units above the unadapted threshold were affected less by adaptation than those at 0.3 log units above the unadapted threshold. These results were evaluated in terms of a shifting contrast gain mechanism which may account for both the spatial frequency specific effects of adaptation and the differences found for the different contrast test levels.  (+info)

(5/1010) S-cone signals to temporal OFF-channels: asymmetrical connections to postreceptoral chromatic mechanisms.

Psychophysical tests of S-cone contributions to temporal ON- and OFF-channels were conducted. Detection thresholds for S-cone modulation were measured with two kinds of test stimuli presented on a CRT: a rapid-on sawtooth test and a rapid-off sawtooth test, assumed to be detected differentially by temporal ON- and OFF-channels, respectively. S-cone related ON- and OFF-temporal responses were separated by adapting for 5 min to 1 Hz monochromatic (420, 440, 450, 540, or 650 nm in separate sessions) sawtooth flicker presented in Maxwellian view. Circular test stimuli, with a sawtooth temporal profile and a Gaussian spatial taper, were presented for 1 s in one of four quadrants 1.0 degree from a central fixation point. A four-alternative forced-choice method combined with a double-staircase procedure was used to determine ON- and OFF-thresholds in the same session. Following adaptation, the threshold elevation was greater if the polarity of the test stimulus was the same as the polarity of the sawtooth adaptation flicker, consistent with separate ON- and OFF-responses from S-cones. This asymmetrical pattern was obtained, however, only when the adaptation stimuli appeared blue with a little redness. When the adaptation flicker had a clear reddish hue component, the threshold elevation did not depend on the polarity of the sawtooth test stimuli. These results are consistent with a model in which OFF-signals originating from S cones are maintained by a postreceptoral mechanism signaling redness, but not by a postreceptoral chromatic mechanism signaling blueness.  (+info)

(6/1010) Dopamine mediates circadian rhythms of rod-cone dominance in the Japanese quail retina.

A circadian clock modulates the functional organization of the Japanese quail retina. Under conditions of constant darkness, rods dominate electroretinogram (ERG) b-wave responses at night, and cones dominate them during the day, yielding a circadian rhythm in retinal sensitivity and rod-cone dominance. The activity of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, also exhibits a circadian rhythm in the retina with approximately threefold higher levels during the day than at night. The rhythm of tyrosine hydroxylase activity is opposite in phase to the circadian activity of tryptophan hydroxylase, the first enzyme in the melatonin biosynthetic pathway. We tested whether dopamine may be related to the physiological rhythms of the retina by examining the actions of pharmacological agents that effect dopamine receptors. We found that blocking dopamine D2 receptors in the retina during the day mimics the nighttime state by increasing the amplitude of the b-wave and shifting the retina to rod dominance. Conversely, activating D2 receptors at night mimics the daytime state by decreasing the amplitude of the b-wave and shifting the retina to cone dominance. A selective antagonist for D1 dopamine receptors has no effect on retinal sensitivity or rod-cone dominance. Reducing retinal dopamine partially abolishes rhythms in sensitivity and yields a rod-dominated retina regardless of the time of day. These results suggest that dopamine, under the control of a circadian oscillator, has a key role in modulating sensitivity and rod-cone dominance in the Japanese quail retina.  (+info)

(7/1010) Analysis of red/green color discrimination in subjects with a single X-linked photopigment gene.

Many subjects despite having only a single X-linked pigment gene (single-L/M-gene subjects) are able to make chromatic discriminations by Rayleigh matching, especially when large fields are used. We used a combination of psychophysics (Rayleigh match), electroretinograms (ERG), and molecular genetic techniques to rule out several possible explanations of this phenomenon. Use of rods for chromatic discrimination was unlikely since strong adapting fields were employed and the large-field match results were not consistent with rod participation. A putative mid- to long-wavelength photopigment that escapes detection by current molecular genetic analysis was ruled out by finding only a single L/M photopigment in flicker ERGs from 16 single-L/M-gene subjects. Large-field match results were not consistent with participation of S cones. Amino acid sequence polymorphisms in the S-pigment gene that might have shifted the S cone spectrum towards longer wavelengths were not found on sequencing. The mechanism of chromatic discrimination in the presence of a single photopigment therefore remains unknown. Further possible explanations such as variations in cone pigment density and retinal inhomogeneities are discussed.  (+info)

(8/1010) Time course of motion adaptation: motion-onset visual evoked potentials and subjective estimates.

The aim of this study was to quantitatively describe the dynamics of adaptation to visual motion with electrophysiological and psychophysical methods in man. We recorded visual evoked potentials (VEPs) to motion onset of random dot patterns from occipital and occipito-temporal electrodes during a succession of adaptation-recovery sequences. In these sequences the test stimulus was used to set the adaptation level: seven trials with 70% motion duty cycle (adaptation) followed by seven trials of 7% motion duty cycle (recovery). In a similar paradigm we determined the length of the perceptual motion after-effect to obtain a psychophysical measure of the time course of motion adaptation. Our results show a highly significant reduction of the N2 amplitude in the maximally compared to the minimally adapted condition (P < 0.001). Electrophysiological and psychophysical results both indicate that adaptation to visual motion is faster than recovery: The data were fit with an exponential model yielding adaptation and recovery time constants, respectively, of 2.5 and 10.2 s for the N2 amplitude (occipito temporal derivation) and of 7.7 and 16.7 s for the perceptual motion after-effect. Implications for the design of motion stimuli are discussed, e.g. a motion stimulus moving 10% of the time may lead to about 30% motion adaptation.  (+info)

*  Adaptation (eye)
In ocular physiology, adaptation is the ability of the eye to adjust to various levels of darkness and light. The human eye can ... Dark adaptation is far quicker and deeper in young people than the elderly. A minor mechanism of adaptation is the pupillary ... London: Macmillan Academic and Professional Ltd.; 1990 Adaptation, Ocular at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... Insufficiency of adaptation most commonly presents as insufficient adaptation to dark environment, called night blindness or ...
*  List of MeSH codes (G11)
... ocular MeSH G11.697.716.154 --- adaptation, ocular MeSH G11.697.716.154.371 --- dark adaptation MeSH G11.697.716.182 --- ... ocular MeSH G11.697.677.330 --- evoked potentials, visual MeSH G11.697.677.340 --- eye color MeSH G11.697.677.360 --- figural ... ocular MeSH G11.697.677.911 --- vision MeSH G11.697.677.911.500 --- phosphenes MeSH G11.697.677.911.700 --- vision, binocular ... vestibulo-ocular MeSH G11.561.730.869 --- startle reaction MeSH G11.561.796.255 --- gravity perception MeSH G11.561.796.263 ...
*  Nilutamide
... including delayed ocular adaptation to darkness and impaired color vision, a disulfiram-like alcohol intolerance (19%), ...
*  Balance disorder
This form of therapy is thought to promote habituation, adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, and/or sensory substitution ... Nystagmus (flickering of the eye, related to the Vestibulo-ocular reflex [VOR]) is often seen in patients with an acute ... This is called the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Movement of fluid in the semicircular canals signals the brain about the ... an adaptation to the injury. Although the patient's balance is restored, the balance system injury still exists. Benign ...
*  Convergent evolution
"Subterranean mammals show convergent regression in ocular genes and enhancers, along with adaptation to tunneling". eLife. 6. ... The fusiform bodyshape (a tube tapered at both ends) adopted by many aquatic animals is an adaptation to enable them to travel ... The prior existence of suitable structures has been called pre-adaptation or exaptation. Kirk, John Thomas Osmond (2007). ... As a sensory adaptation, echolocation has evolved separately in cetaceans (dolphins and whales) and bats, but from the same ...
*  Lea test
... visual adaptation, motion perception, and ocular function and accommodation (eye). The first version of the LEA test was ...
*  Vestibulo-ocular reflex
This is what is referred to as VOR adaptation. Ethanol consumption can disrupt the VOR, reducing dynamic visual acuity. This ... The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is a reflex, where activation of the vestibular system causes eye movement. This reflex ... The vestibulo-ocular reflex needs to be fast: for clear vision, head movement must be compensated almost immediately; otherwise ... In comatose patients, once it has been determined that the cervical spine is intact, a test of the vestibulo-ocular reflex can ...
*  Ocular tremor
Afterimage human eye Eye movements Fixational eye movement Neural adaptation Visual perception. ... The first description of what is now known as ocular microtremor was made in 1934 (5). It is contentious whether ocular ... 2001). "Ocular microtremor: a tool for measuring depth of anaesthesia?" Br J Anaesth 86(4): 519-22. 4. Bolger, C., S. Bojanic, ... 1993). "Ocular microtremor measurement system: design and performance." Med Biol Eng Comput 31(3): 205-12. 2. Coakley, D. and J ...
*  Melanism
For a description of melanin-related disorders, see melanin and ocular melanosis. Melanism related to the process of adaptation ... is an adaptation for the prehistoric movement of humans away from equatorial regions, as there is less exposure to sunlight at ... or a high-altitude adaptation, since black fur absorbs more heat. The Silkie chicken commonly exhibits this trait. In April ...
*  Prism adaptation
2010). Prism exposure promotes the resetting of the ocular-motor system in the brain and results in improved higher order ... Prism adaptation is a sensory-motor adaptation that occurs after the visual field has been artificially shifted laterally or ... prism adaptation has been suggested to improve spatial deficits in patients with unilateral neglect. During prism adaptation, ... was included to compare with the prism adaptation treatment. It was found that only prism adaptation yields significant long- ...
*  List of syndromes
Spastic ataxia-corneal dystrophy syndrome Spider lamb syndrome Splenic flexure syndrome Split hand syndrome Spondylo-ocular ... scapula syndrome Sneddon's syndrome Solipsism syndrome somatostatinoma syndrome Sopite syndrome Sotos syndrome Space adaptation ... Noonan syndrome Norman-Roberts syndrome Northern epilepsy syndrome Nutcracker syndrome Occipital horn syndrome Ocular ischemic ... Potter sequence Prader-Willi syndrome Pre-excitation syndrome Precordial catch syndrome Premenstrual syndrome Presumed ocular ...
*  Endurance running hypothesis
... suggesting that this adaptation was selected for in response to increased endurance running. Vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VORs): ... This adaptation, which allows humans to absorb great shock and force applied to the skeleton, is not seen in australopithecine ... These adaptations, described below, are all evidence for selection for endurance running. Many researchers compare the skeletal ... This was an important adaptation for running because it allowed Homo to see more clearly during the rough pitching motion that ...
*  Saccade
... an adaptation (also termed gain adaptation) widely seen as a simple form of motor learning, possibly driven by an effort to ... ocular tremor, ocular drift and smooth pursuit). Velocity-based algorithms are a common approach for saccade detection in eye ... This effect was first observed in humans with ocular muscle palsy. In these cases, it was noticed that the patients would make ... On the other hand, opsoclonus or ocular flutter are composed purely of fast-phase saccadic eye movements. Without the use of ...
*  Shift work sleep disorder
Melatonin has been shown to accelerate the adaptation of the circadian system to a nighttime work schedule. Melatonin may ... Bright light treatment is not recommended for patients with light sensitivity or ocular disease. Melatonin is a hormone ... or blue-blocking goggles during the morning commute home from work can improve circadian adaptation. For workers who want to ... and bright artificial light exposure has been developed as a method to improve circadian adaptation in night workers. The ...
*  Labyrinthitis
The vestibular system also relays information on head movement to the eye muscle, forming the vestibulo-ocular reflex to retain ... VRT works by causing the brain to use already existing neural mechanisms for adaptation, neuroplasticity, and compensation. ... aimed at assisting the eye to fixate during head rotation without the input from the lost canal vestibulo-ocular reflex) An ...
*  Hemeralopia
Adaptation (eye) Ohba N, Ohba A (December 2006). "Nyctalopia and hemeralopia: the current usage trend in the literature". Br J ... Hemeralopia is known to occur in several ocular conditions. Cone dystrophy and achromatopsia, affecting the cones in the retina ... It can be described as insufficient adaptation to bright light. It is also called heliophobia and day blindness. In hemeralopia ... Rarely it may have ocular complications such as hemeralopia, pigmentary chorioretinitis, optic atrophy or retinal/iris coloboma ...
*  Mal de debarquement
At least one clinical trial on readaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex undertaken by Dr Mingjia Dai from Mount Sinai ... Space adaptation syndrome (Space flight "zero-g" and return) Cha YH (2009). "Mal de debarquement". Semin Neurol. 29: 520-7. doi ... Dai M, Cohen B, Smouha E, Cho C (2014). "Readaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex relieves the mal de debarquement syndrome ... The protocol involves a physical manipulation of the patient intended to readapt the vestibulo-ocular reflex. While the program ...
*  ICD-9-CM Volume 3
Ocular motility study (95.16) P32 and other tracer studies of eye (95.2) Objective functional tests of eye (95.21) ... Dark adaptation study (95.09) Eye examination, not otherwise specified (95.1) Examinations of form and structure of eye (95.11 ...
*  Horned lizard
Ocular autohemorrhaging has also been documented in other lizards, which suggests blood-squirting could have evolved from a ... so it appears as though the species incapable of squirting blood have lost the adaptation for reasons yet unstudied. To avoid ... While previous thought held that compounds were added to the blood from glands in the ocular sinus cavity, current research has ... Sherbrooke, W. C. (2000). "Sceloporus jarrovii (Yarrow's spiny lizard) Ocular Sinus Bleeding". Herpetological Review. 31: 243. ...
*  Bird vision
The raptor's adaptations for optimum visual resolution (an American kestrel can see a 2-mm insect from the top of an 18-m tree ... cone oil droplets and ocular media in four species of estrildid finch" (PDF). Journal of Comparative Physiology A. 186 (7-8): ... Adaptations to night vision include the large size of the eye, its tubular shape, large numbers of closely packed retinal rods ... The cost of this adaptation is that they have myopia in the lower part of their visual field. Birds with relatively large eyes ...
*  Glossogobius ankaranensis
These fish are blind; no ocular tissue is found in their eye sockets except for a little black spot in each of the eyes. An ... Neuromasts (sensory papillae or pit organs) are interesting adaptations that this species of fish have developed to deal with ...
*  Cephalopod eye
The main medical use emerging in this field is for research on eye development and ocular diseases. New research studies on ... "Cephalopod sense organs, nerves and the brain: Adaptations for high performance and life style." Marine and Freshwater Behavior ... meaning there would be similar expression of ocular disease in both organisms' eyes. An advantage of cephalopod eye ... ocular gene expression are being performed using cephalopod eyes due to the evidence of their convergent evolution with the ...
*  RDH5
1999). "Mutations in the gene encoding 11-cis retinol dehydrogenase cause delayed dark adaptation and fundus albipunctatus". ... with steroids and retinoids and expression of its mRNA in extra-ocular human tissue". Biochem. J. 338 (Pt 1): 23-7. doi:10.1042 ...
*  Infant visual development
Therefore, postnatal maturation of the retinal structures has led to strong light adaptations for infants. Vision problems in ... Part 6: Growth curves of ocular axial length and its components (author's transl)". Nippon Ganka Gakkai zasshi. 83 (9): 1679- ...
*  Sense of balance
This is called the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). The balance system works with the visual and skeletal systems (the muscles ... This causes a form of motion sickness called space adaptation syndrome. This overview also explains acceleration as its ...
*  Efference copy
Efference copies are important in enabling motor adaptation such as to enhance gaze stability. They have a role in the ... efference copy has an important role in maintaining gaze stability with active head movement by augmenting the vestibulo-ocular ...
CiNii Articles - 
 		
			Neural Activity During Adaptation of Ocular Following in Monkeys Cortical Area MST
		
		
 	  CiNii Articles - Neural Activity During Adaptation of Ocular Following in Monkey's Cortical Area MST
追従眼球運動適応時の大脳皮質MST野のニューロン活動について [in Japanese] Neural Activity During Adaptation of Ocular Following in Monkey's Cortical Area ... Computational studies on acquisition and adaptation of ocular following responses based on cerebellar synaptic plasticity ... Short-latency ocular following responses of monkey. I. Dependence on temporospatial properties of visual input MILES FA ... Ocular following response (OFR) is a slow tracking eye movement at ultra-short latency. It is
more infohttps://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110007324985
Pseudomonas aeruginosa adaptation to the ocular surface: transcriptional changes and virulence determinants | IOVS | ARVO...  Pseudomonas aeruginosa adaptation to the ocular surface: transcriptional changes and virulence determinants | IOVS | ARVO...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa adaptation to the ocular surface: transcriptional changes and virulence determinants ... Pseudomonas aeruginosa adaptation to the ocular surface: transcriptional changes and virulence determinants ... Pseudomonas aeruginosa adaptation to the ocular surface: transcriptional changes and virulence determinants. Invest. Ophthalmol ... Conclusions: Use of an unbiased global genetic approach to study P. aeruginosa interaction with ocular surface components in ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2333953
Vestibulo-ocular Reflex Adaptation | Vestibular Rehabilitation | F.A. Davis PT Collection | McGraw-Hill Medical  Vestibulo-ocular Reflex Adaptation | Vestibular Rehabilitation | F.A. Davis PT Collection | McGraw-Hill Medical
"Vestibulo-ocular Reflex Adaptation." Vestibular Rehabilitation, 4e Herdman SJ, Clendaniel RA. Herdman S.J., Clendaniel R.A. Eds ... Schubert M.C. Schubert, Michael C.Vestibulo-ocular Reflex Adaptation. In: Herdman SJ, Clendaniel RA. Herdman S.J., Clendaniel R ... Role of Vision and Head Motion in Adaptation-Overview. ++. Two sensory stimuli are required for significant adaptation of the ... Traditionally, adaptation paradigms designed to enhance the gain of the VOR have been done with short-term (less than 1 hour) ...
more infohttp://fadavispt.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=1878§ionid=140995460
Low Intensity Blue Light Treatment of Seasonal Affective Disorder  Low Intensity 'Blue Light' Treatment of Seasonal Affective Disorder
Adaptation, Ocular. The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of ... the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/trial/63578/Low-Intensity-Blue-Light-Treatment-of-Seasonal-Affective-Disorder.html
Light Control of Localized Photobioconvection.  Light Control of Localized Photobioconvection.
Adaptation, Ocular. The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of ... the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/2528826/Light-Control-of-Localized-Photobioconvection.html
Electroretinographic assessment of background adaptation in 10-week-old human infants.  Electroretinographic assessment of background adaptation in 10-week-old human infants.
Adaptation, Ocular / physiology*. Adult. Dark Adaptation / physiology. Electroretinography. Humans. Infant. Light. Photic ... The median slope of the linear portion of the background adaptation function was about 0.9 for infants and adults. These ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Electroretinographic-assessment-background-adaptation-in/1949619.html
Frontiers | Smooth pursuit adaptation (SPA) exhibits features useful to compensate changes in the properties of the smooth...  Frontiers | Smooth pursuit adaptation (SPA) exhibits features useful to compensate changes in the properties of the smooth...
Smooth-pursuit adaptation (SPA) refers to the fact that pursuit gain in the early, still open-loop response phase of the ... Smooth-pursuit adaptation (SPA) refers to the fact that pursuit gain in the early, still open-loop response phase of the ... Keywords: smooth pursuit, monkey, adaptation, ocular, fatigue, vermis. Citation: Dash S and Thier P (2013) Smooth pursuit ... Smooth-pursuit adaptation (SPA) refers to the fact that pursuit gain in the early, still open-loop response phase of the ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnsys.2013.00067/full
Two-electrode recordings allow pharmacological manipula | Open-i  Two-electrode recordings allow pharmacological manipula | Open-i
Adaptation, Ocular/physiology. *Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism. *Animals. *Dibutyryl Cyclic GMP/pharmacology. *Diphtheria- ... Second, adaptation in cones, unlike that in rods, affected signal and noise differently. This difference helps to explain why ... Second, adaptation in cones, unlike that in rods, affected signal and noise differently. This difference helps to explain why ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC3815624_nihms522586f2&req=4
US9572487B2 - Methods and devices for interactive adjustment of a parameter of a continuously variable optical lens 
        -...  US9572487B2 - Methods and devices for interactive adjustment of a parameter of a continuously variable optical lens -...
Microscope including automatic ocular adaptation US20090295683A1 (en) 2009-12-03. Head mounted display with variable focal ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US9572487B2/en
Refractive changes in pregnancy | SpringerLink  Refractive changes in pregnancy | SpringerLink
Weinreb RN, Lu A, et al (1987) Maternal ocular adaptations during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Surv 42(8): 471-483PubMedGoogle ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00417-003-0674-0
Vestibular system - Scholarpedia  Vestibular system - Scholarpedia
Extreme vestibulo-ocular adaptation induced by prolonged optical reversal of vision. J Physiol 256: 381-414, 1976. ... Vestibular Adaptation and Compensation. Vestibular Adaptation. The vestibular system is capable of impressive adaptation in ... Long-term memory of this adaptation is then stored in a group of cells in VN, called floccular target cells or FTNs (Broussard ... The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), which functions to stabilize gaze and ensure clear vision during everyday activities, has ...
more infohttp://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Vestibular_system
Daytime-specific tyrosine hydroxylase inhibition revers | Open-i  Daytime-specific tyrosine hydroxylase inhibition revers | Open-i
Adaptation, Ocular/drug effects/genetics. *Animals. *Cell Line, Transformed. *Dopamine Agents/pharmacology ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4492925_nihms636878f5&req=4
HITLab : Thomas A. Furness IIIs papers  HITLab : Thomas A. Furness III's papers
Draper, M.H., Viire, E. S., Furness, T. A. and Parker, D. E. (1997). Theorized Relationship Between Vestibulo-ocular Adaptation ... Viirre, E., Draper, M., Gailey, C., Miller, D. and Furness, T.A. III (1998). Adaptation of the VOR in Patients with Low VOR ... Binocular retinal scanning laser display with integrated focus cues for ocular accommodation. Proceedings of the SPIE, Vol. ... Stereoscopic retinal scanning laser display with integrated focus cues for ocular accommodation. Proc. SPIE, 5291, 366-376. [ ...
more infohttp://www.hitl.washington.edu/people/papers.php?name=tfurness
Frontiers | Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Stabilization after Vestibular Schwannoma Surgery: A Story Told by Saccades | Neurology  Frontiers | Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Stabilization after Vestibular Schwannoma Surgery: A Story Told by Saccades | Neurology
To evaluate vestibular compensation via measurement of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) following vestibular schwannoma ... To evaluate vestibular compensation via measurement of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) following vestibular schwannoma ... Saccade and vestibular ocular motor adaptation. Restor Neurol Neurosci (2010) 28:9-18. doi:10.3233/RNN-2010-0523 ... High-velocity angular vestibulo-ocular reflex adaptation to position error signals. J Neurol Phys Ther (2010) 34:82-6. doi: ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fneur.2017.00015/full
A model of the smooth pursuit eye movement system | SpringerLink  A model of the smooth pursuit eye movement system | SpringerLink
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more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00363977
Sridharan V[au] - PubMed - NCBI  Sridharan V[au] - PubMed - NCBI
Evidence of blood-retinal barrier disruption and ocular adaptations.. Mao XW, Nishiyama NC, Byrum SD, Stanbouly S, Jones T, ... Characterization of mouse ocular response to a 35-day spaceflight mission: ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Sridharan+V%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50
nature.com search  nature.com search
Evidence of blood-retinal barrier disruption and ocular adaptations *Xiao W. Mao ... Evidence of blood-retinal barrier disruption and ocular adaptations . Opens in a new window. ... Characterization of mouse ocular response to a 35-day spaceflight mission: ... Rights & permissionsfor article Characterization of mouse ocular response to a 35-day spaceflight mission: ...
more infohttp://www.nature.com/search?author=%22W%20Xiao%22&error=cookies_not_supported&code=e378f3b5-16e4-4a62-804f-6ee105849fbd
  • In fact, without this adaptation, the normal effects of age or the constant attacks from disease would render us with significant functional impairments-namely gaze and gait instability. (mhmedical.com)
  • Four factors affect dark adaptation: Intensity and duration of the pre-adapting light By increasing the levels of pre-adapting luminances, the duration of cone mechanism dominance extends, while the rod mechanism switch over is more delayed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influence of age, spatial memory, and ocular fixation on localization of auditory, visual, and bimodal targets by human subjects. (rochester.edu)
  • Using a lens-wearing rodent model, we previously showed that bacteria could infect the cornea more efficiently if first pre-exposed to the ocular surface. (arvojournals.org)
  • In the present study, to understand how the MST contributes to the adaptation of the OFRs, we recorded single unit activities from the MST area in the step-down sequences. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Traditionally, adaptation paradigms designed to enhance the gain of the VOR have been done with short-term (less than 1 hour) or long-term (greater than 1 day) time exposure. (mhmedical.com)
  • The median slope of the linear portion of the background adaptation function was about 0.9 for infants and adults. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Preclinical studies have reported that the opioid growth factor (OGF) - OGF receptor (OGFr) regulatory pathway has a role in reversing or ameliorating several ocular-related complications of diabetes. (springer.com)
  • A number of VOR adaptation studies have demonstrated a robust capability for changing the normal VOR by coupling head motion with target motion. (mhmedical.com)
  • Safety studies in naïve rats and rabbits revealed no visible ocular pathology after 30 days of treatment. (springer.com)