The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
A perceptual phenomenon used by Gestalt psychologists to demonstrate that events in one part of the perceptual field may affect perception in another part.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Biological activities and function of the whole organism in human, animal, microorgansims, and plants, and of the biosphere.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Continuation of visual impression after cessation of stimuli causing the original image.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Products resulting from the conversion of one language to another.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.
The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Lack of correspondence between the way a stimulus is commonly perceived and the way an individual perceives it under given conditions.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
The absence of light.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.
A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A malabsorption syndrome resulting from extensive operative resection of the SMALL INTESTINE, the absorptive region of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.
Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.
Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A mechanism of communicating one's own sensory system information about a task, movement or skill.
The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.
Conversion from one language to another language.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
A mechanism of communication with a physiological system for homeostasis, adaptation, etc. Physiological feedback is mediated through extensive feedback mechanisms that use physiological cues as feedback loop signals to control other systems.
An autonomous region located in central Asia, within China.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.

Channeling of carbamoyl phosphate to the pyrimidine and arginine biosynthetic pathways in the deep sea hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi. (1/2155)

The kinetics of the coupled reactions between carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase (CPSase) and both aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) and ornithine transcarbamoylase (OTCase) from the deep sea hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi demonstrate the existence of carbamoyl phosphate channeling in both the pyrimidine and arginine biosynthetic pathways. Isotopic dilution experiments and coupled reaction kinetics analyzed within the context of the formalism proposed by Ovadi et al. (Ovadi, J., Tompa, P., Vertessy, B., Orosz, F., Keleti, T., and Welch, G. R. (1989) Biochem. J. 257, 187-190) are consistent with a partial channeling of the intermediate at 37 degrees C, but channeling efficiency increases dramatically at elevated temperatures. There is no preferential partitioning of carbamoyl phosphate between the arginine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Gel filtration chromatography at high and low temperature and in the presence and absence of substrates did not reveal stable complexes between P. abyssi CPSase and either ATCase or OTCase. Thus, channeling must occur during the dynamic association of coupled enzymes pairs. The interaction of CPSase-ATCase was further demonstrated by the unexpectedly weak inhibition of the coupled reaction by the bisubstrate analog, N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA). The anomalous effect of PALA suggests that, in the coupled reaction, the effective concentration of carbamoyl phosphate in the vicinity of the ATCase active site is 96-fold higher than the concentration in the bulk phase. Channeling probably plays an essential role in protecting this very unstable intermediate of metabolic pathways performing at extreme temperatures.  (+info)

The mammalian endoplasmic reticulum stress response element consists of an evolutionarily conserved tripartite structure and interacts with a novel stress-inducible complex. (2/2155)

When mammalian cells are subjected to calcium depletion stress or protein glycosylation block, the transcription of a family of glucose-regulated protein (GRP) genes encoding endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones is induced to high levels. The consensus mammalian ER stress response element (ERSE) conserved among grp promoters consists of a tripartite structure CCAAT(N9)CCACG, with N being a strikingly GC-rich region of 9 bp. The ERSE, in duplicate copies, can confer full stress inducibility to a heterologous promoter in a sequence-specific but orientation-independent manner. In addition to CBF/NF-Y and YY1 binding to the CCAAT and CCACG motifs, respectively, we further discovered that an ER stress-inducible complex (ERSF) from HeLa nuclear extract binds specifically to the ERSE. Strikingly, the interaction of the ERSF with the ERSE requires a conserved GGC motif within the 9 bp region. Since mutation of the GGC triplet sequence also results in loss of stress inducibility, specific sequence within the 9 bp region is an integral part of the tripartite structure. Finally, correlation of factor binding with stress inducibility reveals that ERSF binding to the ERSE alone is not sufficient; full stress inducibility requires integrity of the CCAAT, GGC and CCACG sequence motifs, as well as precise spacing among these sites.  (+info)

Shared usage of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 by primary and laboratory-adapted strains of feline immunodeficiency virus. (3/2155)

Strains of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) presently under investigation exhibit distinct patterns of in vitro tropism. In particular, the adaptation of FIV for propagation in Crandell feline kidney (CrFK) cells results in the selection of strains capable of forming syncytia with cell lines of diverse species origin. The infection of CrFK cells by CrFK-adapted strains appears to require the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and is inhibited by its natural ligand, stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha (SDF-1alpha). Here we found that inhibitors of CXCR4-mediated infection by human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1), such as the bicyclam AMD3100 and short peptides derived from the amino-terminal region of SDF-1alpha, also blocked infection of CrFK by FIV. Nevertheless, we observed differences in the ranking order of the peptides as inhibitors of FIV and HIV-1 and showed that such differences are related to the species origin of CXCR4 and not that of the viral envelope. These results suggest that, although the envelope glycoproteins of FIV and HIV-1 are substantially divergent, FIV and HIV-1 interact with CXCR4 in a highly similar manner. We have also addressed the role of CXCR4 in the life cycle of primary isolates of FIV. Various CXCR4 ligands inhibited infection of feline peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by primary FIV isolates in a concentration-dependent manner. These ligands also blocked the viral transduction of feline PBMC by pseudotyped viral particles when infection was mediated by the envelope glycoprotein of a primary FIV isolate but not by the G protein of vesicular stomatitis virus, indicating that they act at an envelope-mediated step and presumably at viral entry. These findings strongly suggest that primary and CrFK-adapted strains of FIV, despite disparate in vitro tropisms, share usage of CXCR4.  (+info)

Replicative fitness of protease inhibitor-resistant mutants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. (4/2155)

The relative replicative fitness of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mutants selected by different protease inhibitors (PIs) in vivo was determined. Each mutant was compared to wild type (WT), NL4-3, in the absence of drugs by several methods, including clonal genotyping of cultures infected with two competing viral variants, kinetics of viral antigen production, and viral infectivity/virion particle ratios. A nelfinavir-selected protease D30N substitution substantially decreased replicative capacity relative to WT, while a saquinavir-selected L90M substitution moderately decreased fitness. The D30N mutant virus was also outcompeted by the L90M mutant in the absence of drugs. A major natural polymorphism of the HIV-1 protease, L63P, compensated well for the impairment of fitness caused by L90M but only slightly improved the fitness of D30N. Multiply substituted indinavir-selected mutants M46I/L63P/V82T/I84V and L10R/M46I/L63P/V82T/I84V were just as fit as WT. These results indicate that the mutations which are usually initially selected by nelfinavir and saquinavir, D30N and L90M, respectively, impair fitness. However, additional mutations may improve the replicative capacity of these and other drug-resistant mutants. Hypotheses based on the greater fitness impairment of the nelfinavir-selected D30N mutant are suggested to explain observations that prolonged responses to delayed salvage regimens, including alternate PIs, may be relatively common after nelfinavir failure.  (+info)

Selection of RNA replicons capable of persistent noncytopathic replication in mammalian cells. (5/2155)

The natural life cycle of alphaviruses, a group of plus-strand RNA viruses, involves transmission to vertebrate hosts via mosquitoes. Chronic infections are established in mosquitoes (and usually in mosquito cell cultures), but infection of susceptible vertebrate cells typically results in rapid shutoff of host mRNA translation and cell death. Using engineered Sindbis virus RNA replicons expressing puromycin acetyltransferase as a dominant selectable marker, we identified mutations allowing persistent, noncytopathic replication in BHK-21 cells. Two of these adaptive mutations involved single-amino-acid substitutions in the C-terminal portion of nsP2, the viral helicase-protease. At one of these loci, nsP2 position 726, numerous substitution mutations were created and characterized in the context of RNA replicons and infectious virus. Our results suggest a direct correlation between the level of viral RNA replication and cytopathogenicity. This work also provides a series of alphavirus replicons for noncytopathic gene expression studies (E. V. Agapov, I. Frolov, B. D. Lindenbach, B. M. Pragai, S. Schlesinger, and C. M. Rice, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:12989-12994, 1998) and a general strategy for selecting RNA viral mutants adapted to different cellular environments.  (+info)

Genetic and fitness changes accompanying adaptation of an arbovirus to vertebrate and invertebrate cells. (6/2155)

The alternating host cycle and persistent vector infection may constrain the evolution of arboviruses. To test this hypothesis, eastern equine encephalitis virus was passaged in BHK or mosquito cells, as well as in alternating (both) host cell passages. High and low multiplicities were used to examine the effect of defective interfering particles. Clonal BHK and persistent mosquito cell infections were also evaluated. Fitness was measured with one-step growth curves and competition assays, and mutations were evaluated by nucleotide sequencing and RNA fingerprinting. All passages and assays were done at 32 degrees C to eliminate temperature as a selection factor. Viruses passaged in either cell type alone exhibited fitness declines in the bypassed cells, while high-multiplicity and clonal passages caused fitness declines in both types of cells. Bypassed cell fitness losses were mosquito and vertebrate specific and were not restricted to individual cell lines. Fitness increases occurred in the cell line used for single-host-adaptation passages and in both cells for alternately passaged viruses. Surprisingly, single-host-cell passage increased fitness in that cell type no more than alternating passages. However, single-host-cell adaptation resulted in more mutations than alternating cell passages. Mosquito cell adaptation invariably resulted in replacement of the stop codon in nsP3 with arginine or cysteine. In one case, BHK cell adaptation resulted in a 238-nucleotide deletion in the 3' untranslated region. Many nonsynonymous substitutions were shared among more than one BHK or mosquito cell passage series, suggesting positive Darwinian selection. Our results suggest that alternating host transmission cycles constrain the evolutionary rates of arboviruses but not their fitness for either host alone.  (+info)

The steady-state internal redox state (NADH/NAD) reflects the external redox state and is correlated with catabolic adaptation in Escherichia coli. (7/2155)

Escherichia coli MC4100 was grown in anaerobic glucose-limited chemostat cultures, either in the presence of an electron acceptor (fumarate, nitrate, or oxygen) or fully fermentatively. The steady-state NADH/NAD ratio depended on the nature of the electron acceptor. Anaerobically, the ratio was highest, and it decreased progressively with increasing midpoint potential of the electron acceptor. Similarly, decreasing the dissolved oxygen tension resulted in an increased NADH/NAD ratio. As pyruvate catabolism is a major switch point between fermentative and respiratory behavior, the fluxes through the different pyruvate-consuming enzymes were calculated. Although pyruvate formate lyase (PFL) is inactivated by oxygen, it was inferred that the in vivo activity of the enzyme occurred at low dissolved oxygen tensions (DOT +info)

cis-Acting elements responsible for low-temperature-inducible expression of the gene coding for the thermolabile isocitrate dehydrogenase isozyme of a psychrophilic bacterium, Vibrio sp. strain ABE-1. (8/2155)

Transcriptional control of the low-temperature-inducible icdII gene, encoding the thermolabile isocitrate dehydrogenase of a psychrophilic bacterium, Vibrio sp. strain ABE-1, was found to be mediated in part by a transcriptional silencer locating at nucleotide positions -560 to -526 upstream from the transcription start site of icdII. Deletion of the silencer resulted in a 20-fold-increased level of expression of the gene at low temperature (15 degrees C) but not at high temperature (37 degrees C). In addition, a CCAAT sequence located 2 bases upstream of the -35 region was found to be essential for the low-temperature-inducible expression of the gene. By deletion of this sequence, low-temperature-dependent expression of the gene was completely abolished. The ability of the icdII promoter to control the expression of other genes was confirmed by using a fusion gene containing the icdII promoter region and the promoterless icdI open reading frame, which encodes the non-cold-inducible isocitrate dehydrogenase isozyme of Vibrio sp. strain ABE-1. Escherichia coli transformants harboring icdII acquired an ability to grow rapidly at low temperature.  (+info)

The mechanisms by which adaptive phenotypes spread within an evolving population after their emergence are understood fairly well. Much less is known about the factors that influence the evolutionary accessibility of such phenotypes, a pre-requisite for their emergence in a population. Here, we investigate the influence of environmental quality on the accessibility of adaptive phenotypes of Escherichia colis central metabolic network. We used an established flux-balance model of metabolism as the basis for a genotype-phenotype map (GPM). We quantified the effects of seven qualitatively different environments (corresponding to both carbohydrate and gluconeogenic metabolic substrates) on the structure of this GPM. We found that the GPM has a more rugged structure in qualitatively poorer environments, suggesting that adaptive phenotypes could be intrinsically less accessible in such environments. Nevertheless, on average approximately 74% of the genotype can be altered by neutral drift, in the ...
This activity guides the analysis of a published scientific figure from a study that investigated physiological and genetic adaptations in the Bajau, a group of people who traditionally do freediving.. ...
There is an interesting article on evolvability which I wrote a bit more about here. It is by Massimo Pigliucci and titled, Is Evolvability Evolvable, for which the whole PDF is available online. Pigliucci discusses definitions of evolvability as well as different ideas about the origins of evolvability. Here is the abstract: In recent years,…
It is amazing what we, as human beings, can adapt to. The fact that I can now look down at the six-inch scar across my chest and the five inch gash under my arm without revulsion is truly amazing. One month ago I would not change my clothes in the same room that housed…
Classifying evolution as an ontogeny relieves the environment from having to account for phenotypes, something the authors insist that it cannot do. They assert, . . . multiple levels of internal constraints on possible phenotypes make the notion of evolution as the product of external selection operating on phenotypic variations generated at random radically untenable. In a developmental model of evolution, however, the environment doesnt bestow medals of fitness on adaptive phenotypes, but functions as it does in ontogeny. A developmental model of evolution demotes the environment, subordinating it to the needs of ontogenetic programs. In this supportive role, it can function well or poorly, and in so doing facilitate or retard phenotypic expression. Nature in this model cannot select, as in the Darwinian model; it can only nurture or neglect. The environment does not pick any particular path, but it will feed or starve whoever ventures ...
After reviewing the effects of mutations upon Functional Coding ElemenTs (FCTs), Michael Behes recent review article in Quarterly Review of Biology…
Under normal conditions cells are in a homeostatic or steady state. When stimulus arrived to the cell, first the cell will adapt but if this stimulus crosses the boundary of adaptation it will cause cell injury. So cells respond to the stimulus by the following two ways: ...
Advances in bioinformatics and high-throughput genetic analysis increasingly allow us to predict the genetic basis of adaptive traits. These predictions can be tested and confirmed, but the molecular-level changes-i.e. the molecular adaptation-that link genetic differences to organism fitness remain generally unknown. In recent years, a series of studies have started to unpick the mechanisms of adaptation at the molecular level. In particular, this work has examined how changes in protein function, activity, and regulation cause improved organismal fitness. Key to addressing molecular adaptations is identifying systems and designing experiments that integrate changes in the genome, protein chemistry (molecular phenotype), and fitness. Knowledge of the molecular changes underpinning adaptations allow new insight into the constraints on, and repeatability of adaptations, and of the basis of non-additive interactions between adaptive mutations. Here we critically discuss a series of studies that ...
The book develops a unifying perspective on how learning influences evolutionary dynamics which for the first time explains seemingly contradicting results from the literature. It also reveals formerly unknown facets of the complex interplay of the two major biological adaptation mechanisms. The results apply to models from computational intelligence and evolutionary biology alike, thus contribute to the transfer of principles of biological adaptation to digital processing system ...
Many clinicians are not adequately aware of the reasons that individuals with obesity struggle to achieve and maintain weight loss,1 and this poor awareness precludes the provision of effective intervention.2 Irrespective of starting weight, caloric restriction triggers several biological adaptations designed to prevent starvation.3 These adaptations might be potent enough to undermine the long-term effectiveness of lifestyle modification in most individuals with obesity, particularly in an environment that promotes energy overconsumption. However, they are not the only biological pressures that must be overcome for successful treatment. Additional biological adaptations occur with the development of obesity and these function to preserve, or even increase, an individuals highest sustained lifetime bodyweight. For example, preadipocyte proliferation occurs, increasing fat storage capacity. In addition, habituation to rewarding neural dopamine signaling develops with the chronic overconsumption ...
It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptations, initiated by exercise, can be amplified or reduced by nutrition. Various methods have been discussed to optimize training adaptations and some of these methods have been subject to extensive study. To date, most methods have focused on skeletal muscle, but it is important to note that training effects also include adaptations in other tissues (e.g., brain, vasculature), improvements in the absorptive capacity of the intestine, increases in tolerance to dehydration, and other effects that have received less attention in the literature. The purpose of this review is to define the concept of periodized nutrition (also referred to as nutritional training) and summarize the wide variety of methods available to athletes. The reader is referred to several other recent review articles that have discussed aspects of periodized nutrition in much more detail with primarily a focus on adaptations in the muscle. The purpose of this review is not to discuss ...
Author Summary The environment humans inhabit has changed many times in the last 100,000 years. Migration and dynamic local environments can lead to genetic adaptations favoring beneficial traits. Many genes responsible for these adaptations can alter disease susceptibility. Genes can also affect disease susceptibility by varying randomly across different populations. We have studied genetic variants that are known to modify disease susceptibility in the context of worldwide migration. We found that variants associated with 11 diseases have been affected to an extent that is not explained by random variation. We also found that the genetic risk of type 2 diabetes has steadily decreased along the worldwide human migration trajectory from Africa to America.
Transforming raw materials into industrial inputs involves process technologies and machineries which have over the years been imported at exorbitant costs. In addressing this, and in consonance with Councils mandate to advise on adaptation of machinery and processes for raw materials utilization, a number of technologies have been developed specifically for processing raw materials as industrial inputs ...
Description. James Simmie (Department of Planning, Oxford Brookes University) develops an evolutionary economics approach to adaptation and change in urban economies. Abstract: In this lecture, James Simmie develops one of the evolutionary economics approaches to understanding adaptation and change in the economic trajectories of urban economies. Neo-classical equilibrist versions of resilience and adaptation are rejected in favour of an evolutionary perspective. He argues in particular for an explanation based on why and how local economies adapt through time both to continual mutations and to periodic gales of creative destruction. Simmie focuses on the extent to which the panarchy conceptual framework can suggest testable hypotheses concerning urban and regional resilience. He explores some ...
The field of molecular evolution, which includes genome evolution, is devoted to finding variation within and between groups of organisms and explaining the processes responsible for generating this variation
The field of molecular evolution, which includes genome evolution, is devoted to finding variation within and between groups of organisms and explaining the processes responsible for generating this variation
With endless wearables available, it tends to be hard to pick a gadget that will suit you best. The correct one will be founded on your individual needs - regardless of whether its progression tallying, rest following or day in and day out pulse following - there is something for everybody. Nobody item does everything, except some come nearer than others. Wellness trackers fluctuate enormously in cost. The most recent age offers a wide scope of various highlights to look over at truly sensible costs. Likewise, with endless organizations delivering third and fourth era gadgets, the previous adaptations are descending in cost. While these wearables may not follow everything, with some looking you might have the option to discover one that meets your requirements. Rest following is likewise turning into a typical Watch Straps NZ. Rest assumes an imperative function healthy and prosperity for an amazing duration. Wearables shift incredibly as far as data they give, going from just checking complete ...
Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating lowered oxygen tension. Hypoxia, defined as a decline in O2 levels below normoxic levels of 20.8 - 20.95%, results in metabolic adaptation at both the cellular and organismal level ...
Get info about Concordia Seminary evolutionary biology. Nursing is one of the fastest-growing job areas, and for good reason. As the population ages, medical care will continue to expand rapidly.
While studying any subject in a new country has its benefits, there are a few particular subjects which really do require learning in a new environment. Read on to find out what they are.
09/27/18 - We present a meta-learning approach for adaptive text-to-speech (TTS) with few data. During training, we learn a multi-speaker mod...
If we are takling about scientificly evolving into a different form in this world, it may be possible but it will most likely be done by us rather than through adaptation (we arent patient enough for it). If we are talking about ascending to heavan/astral planes/etc./etc., we might want to find ...
The molecular mechanisms of enzymatic temperature adaptation are dictated by the delicate balance between the stability, flexibility, and activity of the extremophilic enzymes; therefore, identifying the factors that rule the stability-flexibility-activit
Learning, knowledge, research, insight: welcome to the world of UBC Library, the second-largest academic research library in Canada.
Learning and adaptation are considered to be stochastic in nature by most modern psychologists and by many engineers. Markov chains are among the simplest and best understood models of stochastic processes and, in recent years, have frequently found application as models of adaptive processes. A number of new techniques are developed for the analysis of synchronous and asynchronous Markov chains, with emphasis on the problems encountered in the use of these chains as models of adaptive processes. Signal flow analysis yields simplified computations of asymptotic success probabilities, delay times, and other indices of performance. The techniques are illustrated by several examples of adaptive processes. These examples yield further insight into the relations between adaptation and feedback ...
Microbes commonly display great genetic plasticity, which has allowed them to colonize all ecological niches on Earth. Bacillus subtilis is a soil-dwelling organism that can be isolated from a wide variety of environments. An interesting characteristic of this bacterium is its ability to form biofilms that display complex heterogeneity: individual, clonal cells develop diverse phenotypes in response to different environmental conditions within the biofilm. Here, we scrutinized the impact that the number and variety of the Rap-Phr family of regulators and cell-cell communication modules of B. subtilis has on genetic adaptation and evolution. We examine how the Rap family of phosphatase regulators impacts sporulation in diverse niches using a library of single and double rap-phr mutants in competition under 4 distinct growth conditions. Using specific DNA barcodes and whole-genome sequencing, population dynamics were followed, revealing the impact of individual Rap phosphatases and arising ...
African countries are on a move to development and there is need of great care for sustainable use of available resources. Supply systems for both urban and semi-urban regions are susceptible to the increasing risks arising from population growth, resource depletion, non-sustainable use, improper management, environmental and climatic risks. The research collaboration presented in this project provide a unique opportunity to address the adaptation of sustainable resource supply to avoid prescribed risks to urban and semi-urban developments. The project has similar objectives as the RARSUS project but in this case focusing on Mali.. The project aims at establishing a long-standing research-based higher education cooperation between Germany and the African partners in the area of sustainable resource supply management in urban and semi-urban regions. Alongside the project-related objectives, the initiated collaboration is expected to generate different synergies and mutual benefits by linking, ...
Using continuous reaction norms to characterize adaptive responses to temperature, the researchers reexamined a recent study that linked rapid adaptation to specific genetic changes. The study, by Holder and Bull, showed that phage populations quickly evolved higher growth rates at higher temperatures. But, Knies et al. explain, these growth rates were correlated with just one temperature point the optimal temperature for the ancestral populations (used at the beginning of the experiment). Knies et al. reexamined phage thermal adaptation by measuring growth rate over a wider range of temperatures, then used a recently developed statistical method to identify the biological determinants of the shifts in the reaction norm shapes, quantify their relative contributions, and identify the genetic basis of the adaptations ...
Genome-Wide Scan for Adaptive Divergence and Association with Population-Specific Covariates mathieu gautier doi: In population genomics studies, accounting for the neutral covariance structure across population allele frequencies is critical to improve the robustness of genome-wide scan approaches. Elaborating on the BayEnv model, this study investigates several modeling extensions i) to improve the estimation accuracy…
The genomics revolution has expanded from its origins in molecular biology to impact upon every discipline in the life sciences, including ecology. Several lines of ecological research can now be profitably addressed using genomics technology, including issues of nutrient cycling, population structure, life-history variation, trophic interaction, stress responses, and adaptation to environmental change.
While DNA takes a long time to evolve, the epigenetic programming that activates and silences our DNA is more malleable. Thus humans can exploit epigenetics to adjust rapidly to changing environments, by activating genes that facilitate adaptation to pathogens and climates, etc. Consistent with this, some genomic regions show highly variable methylation across individuals, with evidence that such variation is controlled by alleles at specific genetic loci.
To add a link to an uploaded journal article pdf, review the instructions that will arrive in an email following each successful use of the upload form (more help on hypertext links in Help ...
If we are trying to keep global warming to 2 degrees Celsius or less but 4 degrees is possible even within some of our lifetimes, which world do we prepare for? Talks at todays session on adaptation took on the problem of the multiple futures that decision-makers have to face. Mark Stafford-Smith of CSIRO in Australia talked specifically about long-term decisions - such as planting and managing forests - where the best option depends on which way the climate goes later this century. If you expect strong mitigation that holds down warming, then you try to preserve todays forests and nurse them through, protecting them from fire and other threats. Read more. ...
An increasing number of experiences, initiatives and projects aimed at developing and implementing specific actions to adapt to climate change. In this module you will be able to explore practical cases on adaptation developed in different territories of Spain and implemented by Public Administrations, private sector entities, organisations, and other actors. On the other hand, you will also be able to consult and access the case studies included in the European Climate-ADAPT Platform. Here you can find more information about this functionality and the connection with Climate-ADAPT ...
An increasing number of experiences, initiatives and projects aimed at developing and implementing specific actions to adapt to climate change. In this module you will be able to explore practical cases on adaptation developed in different territories of Spain and implemented by Public Administrations, private sector entities, organisations, and other actors. On the other hand, you will also be able to consult and access the case studies included in the European Climate-ADAPT Platform. Here you can find more information about this functionality and the connection with Climate-ADAPT ...
Ability to see at night or in low lighting depends on adaptation in which the pupil of the eye dilates, visual purple increases, and the intensity threshold of the retina is lowered. A decrease in the oxygen content of the … Continue reading →. ...
Animal adaptations are fun structure to learn for students. They are aware of many but might not have connected that these structures are what scientists call adaptations. Students will use Plan your 60-minute lesson in Science with helpful tips from Ellen Herman
The forces influencing evolutionary adaptations are undoubtedly governed by historic constraints: an organisms past constrains its future. To what degree, however, do prior mutations and ancestral phenotypes shape future evolutionary pathways? Did life in the past function or evolve similarly to life today?
Overall, the essays in this collection deal with diverse topics and theoretical concerns of adaptation studies today. They throw light on both often researched and neglected or undervalued works. (Poetics Today, 1 May 2015). Well-written, suggestively arranged in a series of six sections, A Companion to Literature, Film and Adaptation provides an invaluable resource for anyone interested in debates about the past, present and future of adaptation studies, and why the discipline represents an important advance in the field of interdisciplinary learning … Cartmells collection covers just about every area imaginable within adaptation studies, whether historical, theoretical or otherwise … [It] is a far cry from those collections that simply compare source with target texts; it encompasses comic-books, songs, silent cinema as well as more canonical texts and their cinematic variants. There is something for everyone in this volume. (Post Script, 2014). Summing Up: Recommended. Upper-division ...
Organisms evolve. Organizations evolve. How can you understand your organization within the context of the business ecosystem? By understanding the competitive landscape, adaptive peaks, the role of mutability and how to exploit niches.
I will be implementing an Exchange 2000 server in a new environment. Right now, mailguard is enabled on the Cisco PIX. Does anyone know what this will do if the only mail received on this connector...
View Notes - homo-heterosporous[1] from BIOL 240 at S.F. State. Are there risks (disadvantages) to being homothallic? Are there benefits (adaptive advantages) to being heterothallic? Are there risks
By Communications and Marketing. How does one start a totally new field of science? Just ask Kansas State Universitys Loretta Johnson, associate professor, and Michael Herman, professor, both in the Division of Biology.. Ten years ago, Johnson and Herman teamed up to start research in the new area of ecological genomics. To celebrate launching this new field of science, the Kansas State University Ecological Genomics Institute is hosting a special 10th anniversary symposium from Oct. 26-28 at the Kansas City Marriott on the Plaza.. The development of ecological genomics came from seemingly unrelated research programs. Hermans research had focused on the genetics of development in a roundworm called Caenorhabditis elegans, and Johnsons research had centered on the ecology and root systems of prairie grasses.. We both saw that by collaborating and learning from one another we could forge a new area to learn how ecological interactions are dictated by organisms genomes, or the collection of ...
An enduring puzzle in evolutionary biology is to understand how individuals and populations adapt to fluctuating environments. Here we present an integro-differential model of adaptive dynamics in a phenotype-structured population whose fitness landscape evolves in time due to periodic environmental oscillations. The analytical tractability of our model allows for a systematic investigation of the relative contributions of heritable variations in gene expression, environmental changes and natural selection as drivers of phenotypic adaptation. We show that environmental fluctuations can induce the population to enter an unstable and fluctuation-driven epigenetic state. We demonstrate that this can trigger the emergence of oscillations in the size of the population, and we establish a full characterisation of such oscillations. Moreover, the results of our analyses provide a formal basis for the claim that higher rates of epimutations can bring about higher levels of intrapopulation heterogeneity, whilst
Discussion regarding What kinds of adaptations are available to help someone resume driving a spinal cord injury? with Anne Bryden, OT and other experts
Regulation and Environmental Adaptation of Photosynthesis: An Attractive Theme for Structural Life Science Co-sponsored by GDRI-IPB (CNRS, France ...
Biological and artificial evolutionary systems exhibit varying degrees of evolvability and different rates of evolution. Such quantities can be affected by various factors. Here, we review some evolutionary mechanisms and discuss new developments in biology that can potentially improve evolvability or accelerate evolution in artificial systems. Biological notions are discussed to the degree they correspond to notions in Evolutionary Computation. We hope that the findings put forward here can be used to design computational models of evolution that produce significant gains in evolvability and evolutionary speed.. ...
Adaptive evolution of anti-viral siRNAi genes in bumblebees Sophie Helbing , Michael Lattorff doi: The high density of frequently interacting and closely related individuals in social insects enhance pathogen transmission and establishment within colonies. Group-mediated behavior supporting immune defenses tend to decrease selection acting on immune genes. Along with low effective population sizes this…
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Biological evolution accounts for the diversity of species developed through gradual processes over many generations. Species acquire many of their unique characteristics through biological adaptation, which involves the selection of naturally occurring variations in populations. Biological adaptations include changes in structures, behaviors, or physiology that enhance survival and reproductive success in a particular environment ...
In this paper, we seek to test two hypotheses that could, in principle, account for this deceleration. (H1) The observed deceleration indicates that the rate of evolutionary adaptation is truly slowing down. This occurs as the evolving population approaches a fitness peak or plateau because the remaining number of beneficial mutations, their marginal effect, or both become progressively smaller. This hypothesis assumes that fitness values of the chronologically ordered population samples are both qualitatively and quantitatively transitive; i.e., they follow a strict competitive hierarchy, such that the cumulative fitness improvement relative to the ancestor could be predicted from the incremental gains over the constituent time intervals. (H2) The rate of adaptation continues at the initial rapid pace, and the apparent deceleration is an artifact of using the ancestor as the common yardstick to measure adaptation. Under this hypothesis, fitness values are non-transitive. Consequently, the total ...
Adaptive evolution refers to changes within species as a result of stimuli in the environment, and one example is Hypericum perforatum, also known as St. Johns wort. This plant now has latitudinal...
A map is crucial for all travelers, from fun-seeking vacationers to serious scientific researchers. This months article is a map of the Engineered Adaptability series and highlights the places future articles will stop en route to its destination-a design-based framework that explains adaptability. To keep everyone traveling together, the articles will decipher information from peer-reviewed forums and supply an orientation so readers know where theyre headed.. Where Adaptability Goes, Evolutionary Theory Follows. Adaptability is a characteristic of all living things. If organisms couldnt adapt to changing environments, then evolutionary theory would have nothing to work with. Evolutionists struggle to explain how adaptability could emerge since a creature cannot adapt until it is already adaptable. Evolution assumes that adaptability mysteriously arose through random genetic mutations that somehow proved advantageous. Evolutionary theory offers a naturalistic explanation for the origin of ...
Physiological adaptations involved in alkane assimilation at a low temperature by Rhodococcus sp. strain Q15.: We examined physiological adaptations which allow
Climate change and its effects on habitats are unquestionably affecting life history traits and the distribution of many living organisms. Plasticity and genetic adaptation are important mechanisms by which species can respond to changes in their environment and, in the context of recent rapid climate change, such responses could ameliorate the negative consequences of this disturbance. However, the effectiveness and generality of plasticity versus adaptive responses to rapid changes are still a matter of scientific debate and clearly deserve further investigation, which we propose to address in a successful African small mammal, the striped mouse. The striped mouse has split into two species some 2.9 million years ago during a period of marked climate oscillation, and at present its various populations occupy much diversified environments ranging from arid to humid. The striped mouse has recently benefited from many studies resulting in a very good understanding of its biology and on which this ...
These types adaptations will ensure that critical lifesaving malnutrition treatment services to continue to reach children in need, while helping to keep both staff and community members safe. Further, many such adaptations are not new - they build on evidence generated from previous research, including that conducted by Action Against Hunger, as part of on-going innovation efforts to increase the quality and accessibility of nutrition services.. While COVID-19 presents unique challenges, the now wide-spread implementation of these adaptations also offer a new and unprecedented opportunity to capture lessons learned to inform not only the ongoing response, but how we apply these interventions in the future.. Action Against Hunger, in a coordinated effort with UNICEF and the US Centers for Disease Control, is conducting the Innovations and COVID-19 Adaptations in the Management of Child Wasting Project, a global study to capture adaptations and associated learning over the course of the pandemic. ...
Geoeconomics in relation to evolutionary theory, The organic view of social behaviour, Evolutionary theory versus environmental adaptation
Mimicry has had a significant historical influence as a tractable system for studying adaptation and is known to play a role in speciation. Here, we discuss recent theoretical treatment of adaptive walks to local adaptive peaks and contrast this with the adaptive landscape of mimicry. Evolution of n …
The fraction of reinforcing cis eQTL that have experienced recent selective sweeps in the laboratory strain lineage can be estimated from the distributions of θ values (Fig. S3). At the eQTL cutoffs used above, we found that θ was lower than expected by chance for approximately 78 genes (14.4% of reinforcing pairs), implying the action of selective sweeps in these regions. For eQTL triplets, approximately 56 genes (18.0% of reinforcing triplets) showed similar deficits of variation. At more permissive eQTL cutoffs, over 100 genes had lower θ than expected. Because many sweeps may be too recent (after divergence of the five strains) or too ancient (because of mutation accumulation) to be detected, these are likely substantial underestimates of the extent of sweeps affecting gene expression in the laboratory strain lineage.. Analyzing θ in the two classes of reinforcing eQTL (Fig. 1 and Fig. S1) separately is also informative. In this case, the appropriate set of opposing pairs for comparison ...
An adaptation in biology is a trait with a current functional role in the life history of an organism that is maintained and evolved by means of natural selection. An adaptation refers to both the current state of being adapted and to the dynamic evolutionary process that leads to the adaptation. Adaptations contribute to the fitness and survival of individuals. Organisms face a succession of environmental challenges as they grow and develop and are equipped with an adaptive plasticity as the phenotype of traits develop in response to the imposed conditions. The developmental norm of reaction for any given trait is essential to the correction of adaptation as it affords a kind of biological insurance or resilience to varying environments. ...
FIG. 3. Threshold shift of GSIR due to A456V. A comparison of wild-type and mutant enzyme kinetics is shown in A, and the relative β-cell glucose phosphorylation rate (rel. BGPR) is plotted in B as a function of blood glucose. The wild-type/wild-type threshold for GSIR is by definition 5 mmol/l (GSIR-5) and, in this study, is reached at ∼25.7% of the hypothetical maximum of the BGPR. The apparent GSRI-5 for A456V is calculated as 1.5 mmol/l based on adaptation of both GK alleles to low glucose when the rel. BGPR is ∼25.7%. ...
In the current scenario of global change, the impact of anthropogenic stressors is affecting the aquatic ecosystems, especially essential microorganisms such as phytoplan..
Speaker: Dr. Frank Rosenzweig Affiliation: University of Montana Host: Dr. Marc Meneghini Date & Time: April 1st - 2PM Place: Donnelly Centre Red Seminar Room
Several results of this study can be generalized. Qualitatively, phenotypes that are accessible only from mutations of large effect will be present in populations subjected to sudden environmental change, but will be absent in populations subjected to slower change. In our simulation, the large initial drop in fitness associated with the sudden change in environment pushes lineages very far from their ancestral adaptive peak and disperses them to different distant points on an adaptive landscape. Since there has been a sudden and large change in environment, the lineages suffer large drops in fitness. In our model, this corresponds to the structures melting. In this case, almost any change that produces an increase in stability will be beneficial, regardless of how dissimilar the structure is from the parental type, since all melted structures will have large and inevitable fitness costs with small differences between them, and fitness gains early in adaptation will be driven largely by gains in ...
Cutting-edge knowledge and current concepts on cold-adapted microorganisms including the major aspects of biodiversity in cold ecosystems, the physiology and molecular adaptation mechanisms, the various biomolecules related to cold adaptation, and the diverse strategies employed to cope with the cold.
Customer-focused services such as calibration, repairs or regional product adaptations are provided by Kistler Tech Centers in Germany, the US, China...
Find information about Carleton College evolutionary biology. Nursing is one of the fastest-growing job areas, and for good reason. As the population ages, medical care will continue to expand rapidly.
Learn about Pensacola Junior College evolutionary biology. Completion of an accredited nursing program or other medical training can qualify you to start working in a private hospital immediately.
Learn about Kansas Wesleyan University evolutionary biology. Nursing is one of the fastest-growing job areas, and for good reason. As the population ages, medical care will continue to expand rapidly.
Adaptation Adaptation is a term used to describe the ways in which organisms change over time in response to the changing demands of their environment.
The Chairs office coordinates of planning EEBs programs in teaching, research, and other functions. Responsibilities include:. ...
For example, if you have been shopping at the mall, with a trip to see Santa, and then walk into a family gathering for a meal, be mindful that that was a lot of potentially overstimulating experiences. Allow your child to stay close until you are sure that he or she shows clear signs the he is ready to play with all the new people. This may mean allowing your baby some quiet time in your arms before passing them on to all the loving relatives that want to hold and cuddle him/her. Or it might mean vocalizing to well meaning relatives that your toddler/preschooler needs a bit of space to unwind and get comfortable in this new environment before playing and interacting with ...
This page deals with Hiromu Arakawas original manga and its direct anime adaptation (titled Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood). For the loose 2003 anime …
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American Institute of Biological Sciences. Retrieved 20 June 2013. Beall CM, Laskowski D, Erzurum SC (2012). "Nitric oxide in ... Cynthia Beall is the leading scientist in the study of high-altitude adaptation in humans, particularly in places where there ... Her groundbreaking works among the Andean, Tibetan and East African highlanders are the basis of our knowledge on adaptation to ... Retrieved 20 June 2013.[permanent dead link] Beall CM (2007). "Two routes to functional adaptation: Tibetan and Andean high- ...
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Sexing skeletons is based on the observation that biological males and biological females differ most in the skull and pelvis; ... "Biocultural dimensions of archaeological study: a regional perspective". In: Biocultural adaptation in prehistoric America, pp ... Cambridge Studies in Biological and Evolutionary Anthropology: Cambridge University Press, 2008. Mays, Simon. The Archaeology ... Cambridge Studies in Biological and Evolutionary Anthropology: Cambridge University Press, 2008. 273-303. Buikstra, Jane E. " ...
A number of authors have also suggested that mood disorders are an evolutionary adaptation. A low or depressed mood can ... Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry. 30 (5): 815-826. doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2006.01.007. PMID 16647176 ... Nesse R (2000). "Is Depression an Adaptation?" (PDF). Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 57 (1): 14-20. CiteSeerX doi: ...
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doi:10.1016/0022-0981(86)90240-6. Crozier, W. J. (1920). "Notes on some problems of adaptation, 2. On the temporal relations of ... Fisher, W. K. (1925). "Asexual Reproduction in the Starfish, Sclerasterias" (PDF). Biological Bulletin. 48 (3): 171-175. doi: ... Biological Bulletin. 39 (2): 116-29. doi:10.2307/1536620. JSTOR 1536620. Alves, L. S. S.; A. Pereira & C. Ventura (2001). " ...
Chater, N.; Florencia, R.; Christiansen, M. H. (2009). "Restrictions on biological adaptation in language evolution". PNAS. 106 ... "Language has evolved as an adaptation" as being misleading. He argues instead that from a biological viewpoint the evolutionary ... those who believe in language as an adaptation, those who believe it is a by-product of another adaptation, and those who ... On the issue of whether language is best seen as having evolved as an adaptation or as a by product, evolutionary biologist W. ...
Another adaptation associated with intravertebral autotomy is that skin flaps fold over the wound at the site of autotomy to ... Emberts, Z.; Escalante, I.; Bateman, P. W. (2019). "The ecology and evolution of autotomy". Biological Reviews. 94 (6): 1881- ... There are also adaptations that help mitigate the cost of autotomy, as seen in the highly toxic salamander, Bolitoglossa ... Ainhum Antipredator adaptation Autoamputation Self-amputation (2000). The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language ...
Urbana, IL: Biological Computer Laboratory, University of Illinois. pp. 97-98, 98-101, 299, 419-420. Bateson, G. (1974). " ... Bateson, G. (1991). "The Moral and Aesthetic Structure of Human Adaptation". In Donaldson, R.E. (ed.). A Sacred Unity: Further ... Bateson, G. (1972). "Effects of Conscious Purpose on Human Adaptation". Steps to an Ecology of Mind: Collected Essays in ... Bateson, G.; von Foerster, Heinz (1974). Conditioning, Adaptation, Learning Model, and Double Bind. Cybernetics of Cybernetics ...
Leducq, J-B; Charron, G; Samani, P (2014). "Local climatic adaptation in a widespread microorganism". Proceedings of the Royal ... Society B: Biological Sciences. 281 (1777): 20132472. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.2472. PMC 3896012. PMID 24403328. Liti, G; Carter, ... Accordingly, its biogeography is mostly marked by natural processes like limited migration, glacial refugia and adaptation to ...
Selected effect theories of biological functions hold that the function of a biological trait is the function that the trait ... Function can be defined in a variety of ways, including as adaptation, as contributing to evolutionary fitness, in animal ... It is not always clear which behavior has contributed to the selection of a trait, as biological traits can have functions, ... From the point of view of natural selection, biological functions exist to contribute to fitness, increasing the chance that an ...
"Skin Color Adaptation". Human Biological Adaptability: Skin Color as an Adaptation. Palomar. Archived from the original on 18 ... Skin pigmentation is an evolutionary adaptation to various UVR levels around the world. As a consequence there are many health ... pre-existing high UVR-adapted state of modern humans before the out of Africa migration and not a later evolutionary adaptation ...
"Skin Color Adaptation". Human Biological Adaptability: Skin Color as an Adaptation. Palomar. Archived from the original on 18 ... "Human Biological Adaptability: Skin Color as an Adaptation". Post; Daniels Jr, F; Binford Jr, R. T.; et al. ( ... Skin pigmentation is an evolutionary adaptation to the various UV radiation levels around the world. There are health ... Relethford, John (1997). Fundamentals of Biological Anthropology. Mayfield Publishing Company. p. 270. ISBN 978-1559346672. ...
After the adaptation of flight was established, it may have been refined to target flying prey by echolocation. Bats may have ... Most molecular biological evidence supports the view that bats form a natural or monophyletic group. Genetic evidence indicates ... The adaptations of a particular bat species can directly influence what kinds of prey are available to it. Flight has enabled ... The adaptations of the kidneys of bats vary with their diets. Carnivorous and vampire bats consume large amounts of protein and ...
Stringer, C. (1984). "Human evolution and biological adaptation in the Pleistocene". In Foley, R. (ed.). Hominid evolution and ... Researchers often explain these features as adaptations to conserve heat in a cold climate, but they may also have been ... Body proportions are usually cited as being "hyperarctic" as adaptations to the cold, because they are similar to those of ... Holton, N. E.; Yokley, T. R.; Franciscus, R. G. (2011). "Climatic adaptation and Neandertal facial evolution: A comment on Rae ...
2008) argue that the "profound continuity" Charles Darwin noted between human and non-human animals in the biological domain is ... Pinker, S (2003). "Language as an adaptation to the cognitive niche". Studies in the Evolution of Language. 3: 16-37. doi: ... Linguist Noam Chomsky proposed a biological component of language, which he termed Universal Grammar. According to Chomsky, an ... Sugiyama, L. S.; Tooby, J.; Cosmides, L. (2002). "Cross-cultural evidence of cognitive adaptations for social exchange among ...
Series B, Biological Sciences. 363 (1506): 3047-54. doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0065. PMC 2607310. PMID 18579480. Fontaine MC, Pease ... In the plant Arabidopsis arenosa some of the alleles conferring adaptation to drought and phytotoxic levels of metal have been ... Biological Sciences. 284 (1856): 20170335. doi:10.1098/rspb.2017.0335. PMC 5474069. PMID 28592669. Pritchard JK, Stephens M, ... Biological Sciences. 283 (1838): 20161493. doi:10.1098/rspb.2016.1493. PMC 5031664. PMID 27629037. David WM, Mitchell DL, ...
Storz, Jay; Hideaki Moriyama (June 2008). "Mechanisms of Hemoglobin Adaptation to High Altitude Hypoxia". High Altitude ... Biological Chemistry Hoppe-Seyler. 368 (12): 1559-1569. doi:10.1515/bchm3.1987.368.2.1559. PMID 3442599. ...
Joseph K. So (1980). "Human Biological Adaptation to Arctic and Subarctic Zones". Annual Review of Anthropology. 9: 63-82. doi: ... With the availability of new data due to the development of modern genetics, the concept of races in a biological sense has ... With the rise of modern genetics, the concept of distinct human races in a biological sense has become obsolete. In 2019, the ...
Biological neurons are connected to each other in a complex, recurrent fashion. These connections are, unlike most artificial ... "Organismically-inspired robotics: homeostatic adaptation and teleology beyond the closed sensorimotor loop" (PDF).. ... Main article: Biological neuron models. Even single neurons have complex biophysical characteristics and can perform ... Hence there is a drive to produce simplified neuron models that can retain significant biological fidelity at a low ...
The application and adaptation of known techniques in this inventive way to a newly-discovered sample source is not ... especially in biological sciences, is undesirable. But he insisted that "any further guidance must come from the Supreme Court ... where development of useful new diagnostic and therapeutic methods is driven by investigation of complex biological systems. I ...
Those species that seek pest insects are considered beneficial 'biological control agents' and their presence encouraged in ... Feldhamer, George A.; Drickamer, Lee C.; Vessey, Stephen H.; Merritt, Joseph H.; Krajewski, Carey (2007). Mammalogy: Adaptation ... biological pest control programmes.[45] Combined, insectivorous birds eat 400-500 million metric tons of arthropods annually.[ ...
Linkages connect to nodes in a food web, which are aggregates of biological taxa called trophic species. Trophic species are ... Herbivore adaptations to plant defense. *Mimicry. *Plant defense against herbivory. *Predator avoidance in schooling fish ... biological, physical, and social interactions that affect, sustain, or are modified by living organisms, including humans".[77] ...
Evolutionary adaptationEdit. Poinsettia bracts are leaves which have evolved red pigmentation in order to attract insects and ... "Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 276 (1654): 121-127. doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.0858. PMC 2614250. PMID ... Some species have cryptic adaptations by which they use leaves in avoiding predators. For example, the caterpillars of some ... The shape and structure of leaves vary considerably from species to species of plant, depending largely on their adaptation to ...
... the Provisional model suggests that bipedalism arose in pre-Paleolithic australopithecine societies as an adaptation to ... "Cooking as a biological trait" (PDF). Comp Biochem Physiol a Mol Integr Physiol. 136 (1): 35-46. doi:10.1016/S1095-6433(03) ...
細胞適應(英語:Cellular adaptation)(代償性變化). 萎縮. 肥大. 增生. 異型增生(發育異常). 組織化生(英語:Metaplasia) 鱗狀上皮化生(英語:Squamous metaplasia). 腺性化生(英語: ...
For his work on the quantitative treatment of biological problems. 1900. Ernst Haeckel. For his long-continued and highly ... For his research on the population biology and evolution of plants which has greatly improved understanding of the adaptation ... This means evolution, population biology, organismal biology and biological diversity. It was first awarded in 1890. It comes ... characterised by the application of sophisticated mathematical analysis but focussed on developing biological understanding ...
Klein, Richard G. (1999). The Human Career: Human Biological and Cultural Origins (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago ... and dietary adaptations in early hominins". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 151 (3): 356-71. doi:10.1002/ajpa.22281 ... Strong jaw muscles are believed to be an evolutionary adaptation of P. boisei for a diet of nuts, seeds and hard fruit.[16] ...
The Biological Bulletin. 197 (1): 26-39. doi:10.2307/1542994. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2011.. ... Schmidt-Nielsen, Knut (1997). Animal Physiology: Adaptation and Environment. Cambridge University Press. p. 117. ISBN 0-521- ... The California two-spot octopus has had its genome sequenced, allowing exploration of its molecular adaptations.[151] Having ... Octopuses offer many possibilities in biological research, including their ability to regenerate limbs, change the colour of ...
"Biological Properties and Classification of the Caulobacter Group". Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 28 (3): 231-95. doi:10.1128/ ... "The Genetic Basis of Laboratory Adaptation in Caulobacter crescentus". J. Bacteriol. 192 (14): 3678-88. doi:10.1128/JB.00255- ...
Series B, Biological Sciences. 309 (1139): 395-460. Bibcode:1985RSPTB.309..395C. doi:10.1098/rstb.1985.0092.. ... The tail, partially stiffened by overlapping vertebral projections, balanced the body and was also an adaptation for speed.[9] ... Biological Reviews. 85 (1): 55-110. doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X.2009.00094.x. PMID 19895605.. ...
... with each side developing ever more sophisticated adaptations, such as the immune system and the many techniques pathogens have ... The evolution of biological complexity is one important outcome of the process of evolution.[1] Evolution has produced some ... From a biological perspective, there is no such thing as devolution. All changes in the gene frequencies of populations--and ... Later scientists regarded biological devolution as nonsense; rather, lineages become simpler or more complicated according to ...
"Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research = Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Medicas e Biologicas. 40 (4): 443-56. ... "The London climate change adaptation strategy - Draft report" (PDF). Greater London Authority. August 2008. Archived from the ... Newby, Kris (2019). Bitten: the Secret History of Lyme Disease and Biological Weapons. HarperCollins. ISBN 9780062896278. .. ... epidemiologist Jorge Benach provided Willy Burgdorfer, a researcher at the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory, with ...
Both of his biological sons served in the military during the war. In 1942, Captain Don E. Brown, was killed when his Douglas A ... a loose adaptation of Philip Gordon Wylie's 1930 novel Gladiator that influenced the creation of Superman.[2] He gradually ...
"Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 278 (1708): 1090-1097. doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.1579. PMC 3049027. PMID ... The underlying reason includes evolutionary adaptation of large mammals to humans as well as greater pest pressure on human ... "Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Retrieved 9 January 2017.. *^ Glowka, Lyle; Burhenne-Guilmin, Françoise ... We have driven the rate of biological extinction, the permanent loss of species, up several hundred times beyond its historical ...
"Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 82 (2): 161-168. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2004.00317.x.. CS1 maint: multiple names: ... Gramineae (Poaceae): the grasses have extreme adaptations for wind pollination. Only two genera have changed to insect ... The growth of biological thought: diversity, evolution and thought. Harvard University Press, 659. ...
"FHTET Biological Control Program-Sponsored Projects" (PDF). FHTET Biological Control Program. USDA Forest Service. Retrieved 10 ... These adaptations and counter adaptations probably have led to extensive diversification in both the Brassicaceae and one of ... Oxford biological.. *^ Martin, N. A. (2004-01-01). "History of an invader, Scaptomyza flava (Fallen, 1823) (Diptera: ... Given that not one of an estimated 76 species that prey on the plant has been approved for biological control in North America ...
Biological Sciences. 270 (1517): 819-26. doi:10.1098/rspb.2002.2290. PMC 1691313. PMID 12737660.. ... As the adaptation becomes more pronounced, the new species or race radiates from its entrance into the new space, or dies out ... The chances of such disorders are increased when the biological parents are more closely related. This is because such pairings ... Department of Anthropology and School of Biological & Biomedical Sciences, University of Durham, U.K.. ...
... which is the same hearing adaptation used by bats - and, in the rorqual whales, jaw adaptations, similar to those found in ... Sonar interferes with the basic biological functions of whales-such as feeding and mating-by impacting their ability to ... This adaptation allows the chest to compress during deep dives as opposed to resisting the force of water pressure.[11] ... This adaptation allows the chest to compress during deep dives as the pressure increases.[11] Mysticetes consist of four ...
"Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. 271 (1540): 705-714. doi:10.1098/rspb.2003.2635. PMC 1691650 ... Studies on fungal evolutionary genomics have shown pleiotropic traits that simultaneously affect adaptation and reproductive ... Unfortunately, the process of antagonistic pleiotropy may result in an altered evolutionary path with delayed adaptation, in ... adaptation and reproductive isolation are instantly facilitated, and in turn, pleiotropically causes adaptive speciation. The ...
Biological Reviews. 78 (2): 251-345. doi:10.1017/S1464793102006103. PMID 12803423.. *^ a b Sahney, S., Benton, M.J. & Falcon- ... Such adaptations are the result of environments such as remote islands and deserts where water is very scarce.[98]:143 Other ... "Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 274 (1610): 635-640. doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3763. PMC 2197205. PMID ... Biological and Biomedical Sciences. 39 (3): 298-313. doi:10.1016/j.shpsc.2008.06.004. PMID 18761282.. ...
Cellular adaptation. Atrophy. Hypertrophy. Hyperplasia. Dysplasia. Metaplasia Squamous. Glandular. Cell death. Necrosis ... Dill, K.; Hui Liu, R.; Grodzinski, P. (2008). Microarrays: Preparation, Microfluidics, Detection Methods, and Biological ... FISH can also be used to compare the genomes of two biological species, to deduce evolutionary relationships. A similar ...
"Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 357 (1418): 133-142. doi:10.1098/rstb.2001.1024. PMC ... International adaptations. As pasta was introduced elsewhere in the world, it became incorporated into a number of local ...
Herbivore adaptations to plant defense. *Mimicry. *Plant defense against herbivory. *Predator avoidance in schooling fish ... Biological data visualization. *Ecocline. *Ecological economics. *Ecological footprint. *Ecological forecasting. *Ecological ...
"Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 275 (1636): 759-65. doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.1370. PMC 2596898. PMID ... Butler, Ann B.; Hodos, William (2 September 2005). Comparative Vertebrate Neuroanatomy: Evolution and Adaptation. John Wiley & ... "Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 281 (1781): 20132689. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.2689. ISSN 0962-8452. PMC ... "Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 279 (1740): 3035-3040. doi:10.1098/rspb.2012.0558. ISSN 0962-8452. PMC ...
Durbin, R., S. Eddy, A. Krogh and G. Mitchison (1998). Biological sequence analysis (en inglés). Cambridge University Press. ... "Artificial life: organization, adaptation and complexity from the bottom up" (PDF). TRENDS in Cognitive Sciences 7 (11). Páxs ... "Improved tools for biological sequence comparison." (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 85 (8).. ...
... as well as similarities in dental adaptations, Wood and biological anthropologist Mark Collard suggested moving the species to ... The hand bones of OH 7 suggest precision gripping, important in dexterity, as well as adaptations for climbing. In regard to ... Nonetheless, the jaw adaptations for processing mechanically challenging food indicates technological advancement did not ...
Management of Biological Invasions. 7 (4): 321-328. doi:10.3391/mbi.2016.7.4.02. ISSN 1989-8649.. ... Pre-adaptations and evolution after the initial introduction also play a role in the success of the introduced species. If the ... Van Driesche, Jason; Roy Van Driesche (2004). Nature Out of Place: Biological Invasions In The Global Age. Island Press. p. 377 ... Williams, J.D.; G. K. Meffe (1998). "Non indigenous Species". Status and Trends of the Nation's Biological Resources. Reston, ...
Biological Adaptations of Strength Training. Official Title ICMJE Biological Adaptations of Strength Training to Obese and ... Biological Adaptations of Strength Training.. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ...
Biological anthropologists explore many of these environmental pressures and investigate the adaptations that populations ... This debate between acclimatization and adaptation is at the crux of what a biological anthropologist might study. They employ ... These tiny evolutionary changes usually are found within a specific population of people and often are due to adaptations that ... This type of change does not leave a lasting impression on a species the way an adaptation does. ...
We examine the implications of one form of biological adaptation - immune system learning - for human capital formation. Using ... Our findings highlight the importance of capturing the critical tradeoffs generated by biological adaptation to early adversity ... Fink, Günther and Venkataramani, Atheendar and Zanolini, Arianna, Early Life Adversity, Biological Adaptation, and Human ...
Tool use as adaptation Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society ... 30] address the role of cognition either as a (probably domain-general) pre-adaptation to flexible tool use or as a (more ... Your Name) thought you would like to see the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences web site. ... While the question of adaptation is undeniably key to understanding the emergence of tool-use behaviours, empirical data on the ...
It was launched in June 2008 with the overall goal to advance our understanding of the biological, ecological, biogeochemical, ... To address these questions for a wide range of potentially sensitive biological processes, Theme 2 activities are structured ... what are the underlying mechanisms of the observed responses and the potential for adaptation, how are they modulated by other ... and the ability of organisms to undergo physiological and genetic adaptations. A large gap in our understanding also concerns ...
2017 Adaptation to fragmentation: evolutionary dynamics driven by human influences. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 372, 20160037. (doi: ... 2005 Running to stand still: adaptation and the response of plants to rapid climate change. Ecol. Lett. 8, 1010-1020. (doi: ... These results, based on both linear models and QST estimates, suggest that adaptation can act swiftly to alter traits in the ... Effects of fragmentation on plant adaptation to urban environments Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
Adaptation in response to environmental unpredictability. Lluis Franch-Gras, Eduardo M. García-Roger, Manuel Serra, María José ... Adaptation in response to environmental unpredictability. Lluis Franch-Gras, Eduardo M. García-Roger, Manuel Serra, María José ... Adaptation in response to environmental unpredictability Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Proceedings of ... Your Name) thought you would like to see the Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences web site. ...
7. Adaptation: putting habitat selection to work. The process of adaptation to habitat unites ecological with evolutionary ... 2004 Conceptual issues in local adaptation. Ecol. Lett. 7, 1225-1241. doi:10.1111/j.1461-0248.2004.00684.x (doi:10.1111/j.1461- ... Adaptation and habitat selection in the eco-evolutionary process Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Adaptation tells us why there is a splendid but imperfect fit between form and function, why there is diversity and ...
ARCH3042 Ecology of human evolution: biological, social and cultural approaches to hominin adaptations.. Module Overview. This ... but also physiological adaptations in past and present-day hunter-gatherers and great apes. These physiological adaptations are ... examine evidence for the ecologies and adaptations of present-day hunter-gatherers and great apes. • evaluate key ... This module will combine approaches from human origins and biological anthropological research to evaluate how we can ...
Mind, Brain and Adaptation in the Nineteenth Century: Cerebral Localization and Its Biological Context from Gall to Ferrier. by ... He had localized sensory and motor areas, but he had not provided a psychophysiology which accounts for the adaptations of ... it lost sight of the significance of his questions and of the possibilities inherent in the biological, adaptive view shared by ... was the most important aspect of Galls work and which had been extended in Spencers conception of psychology as a biological ...
Research project: The genomics of adaptation and its consequences for marine biological invasions. Currently Active: Yes. The ... including those relevant to biological invasions such as phenotypic evolution, adaptation and population genomics. The proposed ... of the genetics of population adaptation is pertinent when one is attempting to understand and predict future marine biological ... The proposed research will use population genomics to identify genes or genomic regions that underlie local adaptation and are ...
We tested the hypothesis that vertebrae are an adaptation for enhanced feeding and fleeing performance. We created a population ... We tested the hypothesis that vertebrae are an adaptation for enhanced feeding and fleeing performance. We created a population ... Testing biological hypotheses with embodied robots: adaptations, accidents, and by-products in the evolution of vertebrates. ... Depending on the generation in which one looks, you could say that the change in N is an adaptation, an accident, or a by- ...
Adaptation of the Nisin-Controlled Expression System in Lactobacillus plantarum: a Tool To Study In Vivo Biological Effects. ... Adaptation of the Nisin-Controlled Expression System in Lactobacillus plantarum: a Tool To Study In Vivo Biological Effects ... Adaptation of the Nisin-Controlled Expression System in Lactobacillus plantarum: a Tool To Study In Vivo Biological Effects ... Adaptation of the Nisin-Controlled Expression System in Lactobacillus plantarum: a Tool To Study In Vivo Biological Effects ...
Compensatory Adaptation to the Loss of Biological Fitness Associated with Acquisition of Fusidic Acid Resistance in ... Compensatory Adaptation to the Loss of Biological Fitness Associated with Acquisition of Fusidic Acid Resistance in ... Compensatory Adaptation to the Loss of Biological Fitness Associated with Acquisition of Fusidic Acid Resistance in ... Compensatory Adaptation to the Loss of Biological Fitness Associated with Acquisition of Fusidic Acid Resistance in ...
Comparative genomics reveals high biological diversity and specific adaptations in the industrially and medically important ... Many aspects of biological differences between fungal species cannot be explained by current knowledge obtained from genome ... allows for the first time a genus-wide view of the biological diversity of the aspergilli and in many, but not all, cases ...
Comparative genomics reveals high biological diversity and specific adaptations in the industrially and medically important ... title = "Comparative genomics reveals high biological diversity and specific adaptations in the industrially and medically ... Comparative genomics reveals high biological diversity and specific adaptations in the industrially and medically important ... T1 - Comparative genomics reveals high biological diversity and specific adaptations in the industrially and medically ...
In Central Massachusetts, Teachers Use Inquiry to Investigate Biological Adaptations. Worcester, MA - Over the course of one ... Worcester-area elementary and middle school teachers learned more about biological adaptations during the July 9-13, 2018 ...
... cerevisiae adaptation in wine fermentation will be key to determine the domestication effects over low nitrogen adaptation, as ... In the present review, we summarize some recent efforts in the search of causative genes that account for yeast adaptation to ... Finally, we do a recapitulation of S. cerevisiae natural diversity related to low nitrogen adaptation, specially showing how ... well as to definitely proof that wild S. cerevisiae strains have potential genetic determinants for better adaptation to low ...
Neural correlates of action aftereffects triggered by adaptation to biological motion Steven Thurman; Jeroen van Boxtel; Martin ... Neural correlates of action aftereffects triggered by adaptation to biological motion You will receive an email whenever this ... These results suggest a direct link between perceptual adaptation and neural adaptation in right pSTS, and suggest this as a ... Neural correlates of action aftereffects triggered by adaptation to biological motion. Journal of Vision 2015;15(12):556. doi: ...
Hunter-Gatherer Adaptation and Resilience A Bioarchaeological Perspective. Temple, Daniel H. Stojanowski, Christopher M. ... Biological Anthropology, Primatology and Evolution 2018. Biological Anthropology, Primatology and Evolution 2018. .addthis_ ... Receive email alerts on new books, offers and news in Biological Anthropology, Primatology and Evolution 2018. ...
Results were qualitatively different from those obtained in previously reported studies of retinal velocity adaptation. ... study a series of experiments investigated the visual processes underpinning judgements of objective speed using an adaptation ... Troje, N. F. Decomposing biological motion: A framework for analysis and synthesis of human gait patterns. Journal of Vision 2 ... If adaptation is driven by norm-based speed, then shifts in perceived speed should be equal in the two cross-adaptation ...
Diseases and pests that influence adaptation to drought are considered. Use of varietal intercrops and rotations are examined. ... Diseases and pests that influence adaptation to drought are considered. Use of varietal intercrops and rotations are examined. ... Breeding and experimental field strategies for enhancing the adaptation to drought of cowpeas are described. ... Breeding and experimental field strategies for enhancing the adaptation to drought of cowpeas are described. ...
Complex Biological Systems. Adaptation and Tolerance to Extreme Environments. Fomina, Irina R. / Biel, Karl Y. / Soukhovolsky, ... John Wiley & Sons Complex Biological Systems Global climate change is one of the most serious and pressing issues facing our ... This new groundbreaking study focuses on the adaptation and tolerance of plants and animal life to the harsh conditions brought ...
Mental sharpness via adaptation. -Moses climbed a mountain and fasted, and thus activated. two primary biological stressors ... Longevinex® Capsules Simulate Biological Adaptation To High Altitude Environments. March 8, 2011: by Bill Sardi ... Anorexic individuals, under biological stress from food deprivation, another form of biological stress, experience an endorphin ... three molecules that are produced in response to emotional or biological stress. The physiological adaptation to stress ...
Climate Change Adaptation. The case for strategic and managed climate retreat. *. Data Management. Sharing data ... Biological Incorporation of a Choline Homologue Into Liver Phospholipids Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ...
Studies on thermal adaptation focus on symbionts because they are accessible both in vitro and in hospite. However, there is ... Here we show acclimatization and/or adaptation potential of menthol-bleached aposymbiotic coral Platygyra verweyi in terms of ... Coral bleaching patterns are the outcome of complex biological and environmental networking *David J. Suggett ... Studies on thermal adaptation focus on symbionts because they are accessible both in vitro and in hospite. However, there is ...
Promiscuity and fidelity seem to be specific biological adaptations. Their manifestations in men and women are not as different ... Promiscuity and fidelity seem to be specific biological adaptations. Their manifestations in men and women are not as different ... RECEIVED wisdom and biological theory both have it that males are (or, at least, would like to be) more promiscuous than ... As with many biological phenomena-height, for example-propensity for promiscuity in either sex might be expected to be normally ...
Convention on Biological Diversity Launches Adaptation Website. Bali, 13 December 2007 - To promote efforts that will allow all ... Secretariat of CBD launches Adaptation website at UNFCCC COP-13. The Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity is ... The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) ... Executive Secretary of the Convention on Biological Diversity invites all media to the CBD Secretariat for a briefing on the ...
Identify specific adaptations and explore diverse plant species surviving in unique environments. ... Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity. *HS-LS4-1 Communicate scientific information that common ancestry and biological ... Biodiversity, Adaptations, and Biomes. Travel through Longwoods four-acre Conservatory to experience the characteristics of ... HS-LS4-4 Construct an explanation based on evidence for how natural selection leads to adaptation of populations. ...
"Proceedings: Biological Sciences. 268 (1478): 1755-1758. doi:10.1098/rspb.2001.1708. PMC 1088805. PMID 11522192.. ... Anti-predator adaptation in action: the seal shark Dalatias licha (a-c) and the wreckfish Polyprion americanus (d-f) attempt to ... "Proceedings: Biological Sciences. 268 (1478): 1755-1758. doi:10.1098/rspb.2001.1708. PMC 1088805. PMID 11522192.. ... "Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 66 (2): 145-158. doi:10.1006/bijl.1998.0269.. ...
  • Some of these changes can be attributed to individuals' bodies making physiological adjustments to their environment ( acclimatization ), not an actual adaptation in the population that demonstrates evolution. (
  • Ecology of human evolution: biological, social and cultural approaches to hominin adaptations. (
  • This module explores human evolution in terms of physiological, social and cultural adaptations. (
  • The proposed research will use population genomics to identify genes or genomic regions that underlie local adaptation and are therefore prime targets for adaptive evolution during biological invasions. (
  • The increasing use of next generation sequencing (NGS) has allowed for the widespread application of genomic information to basic and applied biological questions, including those relevant to biological invasions such as phenotypic evolution, adaptation and population genomics. (
  • Importance of Biological Aspects in the Human Species Adaptation One of the biggest unknowns that humanity has been wondering over the years was first of all, the origin and evolution of human kind, and second how we have been able to survive through so many changes that have existed for millions of years? (
  • Even though human being is the next evolution of animal, people still have the basic thing that both animal and human being always have, and they cannot deny which is the adaptation of survival. (
  • Receive email alerts on new books, offers and news in Biological Anthropology, Primatology and Evolution 2018. (
  • HS-LS4-1 Communicate scientific information that common ancestry and biological evolution are supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence. (
  • Anti-predator adaptations are mechanisms developed through evolution that assist prey organisms in their constant struggle against predators . (
  • His work has applied this general approach to a variety of issues in vertebrate biology, focusing in particular on the primate postcranial skeleton: locomotor adaptations among anthropoid primates, the evolution of human bipedal locomotion, reconstruction of stature and body mass, bioarchaeological studies of various recent populations, climatic adaptation, and skeletal growth and aging in both humans and nonhuman primates. (
  • In the article, entitled "The Origin of Biological Information and the Higher Taxonomic Categories", Dr. Meyer argues that no current materialistic theory of evolution can account for the origin of the information necessary to build novel animal forms. (
  • To distinguish the latter case (phylogeny) from the former (ontogeny), Muller and Newman use the term "origination" to designate the causal processes by which biological form first arose during the evolution of life. (
  • This volume is based on the Arthur M. Sackler Colloquium of the National Academy of Sciences, "In the Light of Evolution I: Adaptation and Complex Design," held December 1-2, 2006, at the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center of the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering in Irvine, California. (
  • Therefore, genetic architecture can help us to answer biological questions about speciation, the evolution of sex and recombination, the survival of small populations, inbreeding, understanding diseases, animal and plant breeding, and more. (
  • Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. (
  • Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences web site. (
  • The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been considered for more than 20 years as a premier model organism for biological sciences, also being the main microorganism used in wide industrial applications, like alcoholic fermentation in the winemaking process. (
  • This position requires a person who has knowledge of general laboratory duties and/or biological sciences . (
  • LVT or Bachelor degree in biological sciences preferred. (
  • Bachelor's degree obtained through a formal four year program in Medical Technology or Physical/ Biological Sciences . (
  • Students from the School of Biological Sciences take a trip to Colwyn Bay Zoo to study the chimpanzees. (
  • 2012 2015: Helped run practical sessions in Cell Biology, Microbiology, Genetics, Plant & animal biology, Ecology 2009 -2012: Foundation Year Organiser & Module Supervisor, member of various committee including Teaching Strategy, Student Staff Liaison Committee, Progress & Exam Board Committee 2002 2012: Foundation Lecturer Department of Biological Sciences, University of Essex. (
  • 2010-present Schools Outreach Co-ordinator Department of Biological Sciences, University of Essex organised and participate in a number of Outreach events 2004 2006: Half day workshops In Dept of Biological Science for Widening Participation week run by University of Essex. (
  • 1990 1992 Dept. of Pathology & Microbiology, University of Bristol, Bristol, Avon 1986 1990 Dept of Biological Sciences, University of Exeter Ph.D. on the effect of Drought on growth, physiology and protein synthesis in Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) CASE studentship with Unilever) (Supervisors Prof. J. Bryant, Dr. Nick Smirnoff (University of Exeter) Dr. B.G. Smith (Unilever) 1983 1986 - B.Sc. (
  • Hons) Biological Sciences, University of Reading. (
  • Contact details I am always happy to hear from prospective schools who are interested in collaborating for 3rd year school based research projects &/ want to find out more about outreach activities that occur at the University of Essex and especially within School of Biological Sciences. (
  • I am also happy to hear from other members of the Biological Sciences and other members of The University, and external collaborators about outreach and school-based research projects. (
  • 2015 to present - Lecturer, Course director of Biological Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Essex. (
  • Biological Sciences (B.S. (
  • Why Study Biological Sciences at NIU? (
  • Within the department of biological sciences, I contributed to research projects performed by accomplished faculty in diverse fields. (
  • I was also able to cultivate leadership abilities through involvement in the Phi Sigma Biological Sciences Honor Society. (
  • The biological approach is also known as the physiological psychology or biopsychology and is heavily linked to the sciences, dealing with neurology (disorders of the brain and the nervous system) and genetics. (
  • Our Biological Sciences (Zoology) degree with Preliminary Year is a four-year course. (
  • Our Biological Sciences (Zoology) degree is aimed at anyone interested in the broad field of animal biology. (
  • Your degree title also remains flexible up until your final year, so that you can either continue with BSc Biological Sciences (Zoology) to graduation, or switch to another of our bioscience degrees during your first two years of study. (
  • Each of these entities is a candidate for exemplifying some kind of biological individual, and each has been treated as such in one or another part of the biological sciences. (
  • Those sciences recognize several kinds of biological individual as they attempt to discover generalizations, provide explanations, and make predictions about the biological world. (
  • Thus 'Scale' creates immediate interdisciplinary resonances within current novel attempts to make progress understanding complex biological systems, especially by bringing the natural and life sciences communities together. (
  • The close engagement of biological and physical sciences across length-scales is not only a better way of providing insight into biology questions. (
  • Find new ways to pursue your passion for life in the University of Calgary's Biological Sciences department. (
  • A master's degree in biological sciences will give you the pre-requisite for a PhD. (
  • Based on the presently available data, little is known about the responses of genetically diverse populations, synergistic effects from other stressors, and the ability of organisms to undergo physiological and genetic adaptations. (
  • It explores human ecology in the broad sense, combining not just cultural and social variability, but also physiological adaptations in past and present-day hunter-gatherers and great apes. (
  • These physiological adaptations are not just skeletal, but are also reflected in soft tissues and in surviving genotypes. (
  • First, their occupation of this extreme environment is driven by intense biological interaction (competition and predation) lower on the shore and an ability to withstand physiological stress during emersion ( Garrity, 1984 ), rather than by performance-enhancing thermal habitat selection. (
  • Stress , either physiological or biological , is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition. (
  • Consequently, an understanding of the genetics features allowing adaptation is pertinent when one attempts to understand and predict future biological invasions. (
  • Zoology is the study of all kinds of animals, including their anatomy, physiology, genetics, and their adaptations for survival and reproduction in different environments. (
  • They further argue that we know more about the causes of ontogenesis, due to advances in molecular biology, molecular genetics and developmental biology, than we do about the causes of phylogenesis - the ultimate origination of new biological forms during the remote past. (
  • This result is in concordance with quantitative genetics models of thermal adaptation but suggesting cogradient rather than countergradient variation. (
  • In the present review, we summarize some recent efforts in the search of causative genes that account for yeast adaptation to low nitrogen environments, specially focused in wine fermentation conditions. (
  • This is when Meerson also discovered adaptation to high-altitude environments produces super-human immunity, circulation, heart-pumping power, speed at performing mental tasks and ability to handle stress. (
  • Identify specific adaptations and explore diverse plant species surviving in unique environments. (
  • To address these questions for a wide range of potentially sensitive biological processes, Theme 2 activities are structured according to key ecosystem components and functional groups. (
  • Many members of the SETAC GLB made substantial progress in linking toxicant effects from various levels of biological organisation towards the ecosystem. (
  • As species' geographic ranges and ecosystem functions are altered in response to climate change, there is a need to integrate biodiversity conservation approaches that promote natural adaptation into land use planning. (
  • Biological anthropologists explore many of these environmental pressures and investigate the adaptations that populations undergo in response to them. (
  • HS-LS4-4 Construct an explanation based on evidence for how natural selection leads to adaptation of populations. (
  • Use mathematical representations to support explanations of how LS4.C: Adaptation Adaptation by natural selection acting over generations is one important process by which species change over time in response to changes in environmental conditions. Traits that support successful survival and reproduction in the new environment become more common; those that do not become less common. Thus, the distribution of traits in a population changes. ">natural selection may lead to increases and decreases of specific traits in populations over time. (
  • The Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) is dedicated to scientific discovery - exploring fundamental biology, understanding marine biodiversity and the environment, and informing the human condition through research and education. (
  • The comparative genomics and experimental study, presented here, allows for the first time a genus-wide view of the biological diversity of the aspergilli and in many, but not all, cases linked genome differences to phenotype. (
  • Altogether, the uses of yeast as model organism and its multiple biotechnological applications have boosted the genome sequencing of a great number of strains, revelling the genomics features that permit its adaptation to diverse ecological niches, including industrial ones, as is the case with wine fermentation [ 9 , 10 ]. (
  • Over the last few decades, the Biological Species Concept (BSC) has become predominately the dominant species definition used in biology. (
  • Master's Degree a biological science discipline such as Biology, Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, or Cell Biology. (
  • Psychobiology: Behavior from a Biological Perspective covers the problems encountered in understanding the biology of behavior. (
  • How we should think about biological individuals or agents and the roles they play in processes such as natural selection, speciation, and organismic development have become lively topics of discussion in the philosophy of biology in recent years. (
  • This type of change does not leave a lasting impression on a species the way an adaptation does. (
  • Particular attention is paid to elucidating (i) the mechanisms of calcification at the molecular, cellular and organism levels, (ii) synergistic effects with global warming, (iii) strain and species-specific differences in calcification responses and (iv) the potential for adaptation. (
  • Adaptation ' tells us why there is a splendid but imperfect fit between form and function, why there is diversity and progression in life and why species are not everywhere abundant. (
  • Many aspects of biological differences between fungal species cannot be explained by current knowledge obtained from genome sequences. (
  • That will be the topic will be discussed in this essay, an explanation of how the human species has adapted to the environment and for do that we must go back a little in history and see the process of adaptation that has taken place in humans. (
  • Biological Species Concept (BSC) What are biological species ? (
  • These definitions are not fringe accounts of species but prominent definitions in the current biological literature. (
  • Use mathematical representations to support explanations of how LS4.C: Adaptation Adaptation by natural selection acting over generations is one important process by which species change over time in response to changes in environmental conditions. Traits that support successful survival and reproduction in the new environment become more common; those that do not become less common. Thus, the distribution of traits in a population changes. ">natural selection Cause and Effect Phenomena may have more than one cause, and some cause and effect relationships in systems can only be described using probability. ">may lead to increases and decreases LS4.C: Adaptation Adaptation by natural selection acting over generations is one important process by which species change over time in response to changes in environmental conditions. Traits that support successful survival and reproduction in the new environment become more common; those that do not become less common. Thus, the distribution of traits in a population changes. ">of specific traits in populations over time. (
  • Adaptation by natural selection acting over generations is one important process by which species change over time in response to changes in environmental conditions. (
  • What groups do biological species consist of? (
  • These tiny evolutionary changes usually are found within a specific population of people and often are due to adaptations that are made to help cope with environmental pressures like increased solar radiation, high altitude and dietary differences. (
  • Work involved lecturing on the Extended Nurse Prescribing course 1998 - 2001: Senior Post Doctoral Research Officer (Part-time) Working on Genetic manipulation of the control of photosynthesis by SBPase Project Senior Post Doctoral Research Officer (Part-time) (April 1995 - April 1997) Working on MAPLE project (Micro evolutionary adaptation of plants to elevated CO2). (
  • The biological approach believes that most behavior is inherited and has an adaptive (or evolutionary) function. (
  • What are the effects of ocean acidification and related changes in seawater chemistry on marine organisms, what are the underlying mechanisms of the observed responses and the potential for adaptation, how are they modulated by other environmental stressors, and what are the consequences for marine ecosystems and ocean biogeochemical cycles? (
  • The mechanisms that underpin coral adaptation to rising temperatures are more complicated than in the other aquatic organisms because of the holobiont nature of corals, wherein in addition to their symbiosis with Symbiodiniaceae, they are also associated with a multitude of other microbes 7 . (
  • A diverse group of organisms, they can colonize a wide range of surfaces and are frequently found on tree bark, exposed rock, and as a part of biological soil crust . (
  • Drawing on the author's 35 years of experience as a teacher, researcher, and consultant in biomaterials science and engineering (BSE), Biological Performance of Materials: Fundamentals of Biocompatibility, Fourth Edition focuses primarily on principles of biological performance at a relatively fundamental level, analyzing interactions between living organisms and nonliving materials used in medical devices - the subject that sets BSE apart as a distinct field of investigation. (
  • Adaptation is a term used to describe the ways in which organisms change over time in response to the changing demands of their environment. (
  • Adaptation of desert organisms. (
  • Individual organisms have been central to philosophical reflection on such processes, but they are not the only type of biological individual. (
  • Focusing on organisms as one prominent kind of biological individual sheds substantial light on what biological individuals are. (
  • Of the many kinds of biological individual, organisms are the most prominent in common sense. (
  • We must also draw on our antecedent concept(s) of an organism and the status of organisms as biological individuals. (
  • Human activities greatly disturb ecosystems in ways that directly and indirectly reduce biological diversity, a major component of global change [ 1 ]. (
  • Finally, we do a recapitulation of S. cerevisiae natural diversity related to low nitrogen adaptation, specially showing how different studies have left in evidence the central role of the TORC1 signalling pathway in nitrogen utilization and positioned wild S. cerevisiae strains as a reservoir of beneficial alleles with potential industrial applications (e.g. improvement of industrial yeasts for wine production). (
  • 13 November 2017 - The Executive Secretaries of the Biological Diversity, Climate Change, and Desertification Conventions are calling for the establishment of a Facility to secure finance for large projects that will help to address common issues. (
  • 31 OCTOBER 2016 - The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) has published a detailed assessment of the implications of using climate geoengineering to limit global warming. (
  • Copenhagen, 14 December 2009 - The Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity released today a major study, Scientific Synthesis of the Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Marine Biological Diversity. (
  • More studies focused in disentangling the genetic bases of S. cerevisiae adaptation in wine fermentation will be key to determine the domestication effects over low nitrogen adaptation, as well as to definitely proof that wild S. cerevisiae strains have potential genetic determinants for better adaptation to low nitrogen conditions. (
  • Temperature adaptation of biological membranes. (
  • The Transfer of Calcium and Strontium Across Biological Membranes represents the proceedings of a Conference on The Transfer of Calcium and Strontium Across Biological Membranes, held in Cornell University, Ithaca, New York on May 13-16, 1962. (
  • This book is organized into seven sections encompassing 22 chapters, and deals first with some of the properties of biological membranes, the general aspects of ion transport, and chelation of divalent cations. (
  • The adaptation from generation of Paul and his friends has suffered is bad because they got experience during the war, which they have to adapt for their survival throughout the grenade, bullet, and boom. (
  • Under arid conditions, plant adaptation and survival depend obligatory on the plants' strategies to overcome drought and deficiencies on nutrients [ 4 ]. (
  • The grasping hands of primates, the sensitive antennae of insects, and the flowers and fruits of plants are all forms of adaptation that promote survival, reproduction, or both. (
  • and to infer the adaptations of extinct primates based mainly on cranial and dental evidence. (
  • Studies on thermal adaptation focus on symbionts because they are accessible both in vitro and in hospite . (
  • Contemporary theory for thermal adaptation of ectothermic metazoans focuses on the maximization of energy gain and performance (locomotion and foraging). (
  • The findings of this study point to the need to incorporate aspects of resting metabolism and energy conservation into theories of thermal adaptation. (
  • Human adaptation is the decision-making process and the set of actions undertaken to maintain the capacity to deal with future change or perturbations to a socio-ecological system without undergoing significant changes in function, structural identity, or feedbacks of that system while maintaining the option to develop. (
  • ecological processes frequently regulate the dynamics of ecosystems and the structure and dynamics of biological communities. (
  • The results of the present study specified the association plant-AMF and highlight AMF importance as a tailored mechanism of plant adaptation to arid ecosystems. (
  • The main N input pathways into the ecosystems are atmospheric deposition in wet, dry and gaseous forms, and the biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen N 2 . (
  • This module will combine approaches from human origins and biological anthropological research to evaluate how we can reconstruct the ecologies (in the broad sense) of hominins. (
  • Study of the material and biological information in the environment, preservation and interaction with the physical milieu, molecular biomarker identification and development of methodologies for their detection. (
  • Molecular strategies and metabolic functions required for the adaptation of bacteria to extreme conditions, using metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approaches. (
  • They insist that "the molecular mechanisms that bring about biological form in modern day embryos should not be confused" with the causes responsible for the origin (or "origination") of novel biological forms during the history of life (p.3). (
  • Second, with the adoption of corn as a major dietary constituent, the softer foodstuffs and more sedentary lifeway associated with that adaptation should result in a respective decrease in functional demand on the masticatory complex in particular and on the body in general. (
  • Gapparov M.M., Adaptation of renewal of rat liver proteins to dietary protein with low biological value, Voprosy meditsinskoi khimii, 1995, vol: 41(2), 29-32. (
  • We examine the implications of one form of biological adaptation - immune system learning - for human capital formation. (
  • The cars themselves aren't evolving, but the decisions made by humans about the design of them is what is actually starting to show biological adaptation and mutation. (
  • This work will be of value to psychobiologists, neurobiologists, behaviorists, and researchers who are interested in the biological aspects of behavior. (
  • The interaction between Theme 2 scientists across disciplines and work packages is further strengthened by joint community level manipulative experiments employing benthic and pelagic mesocosms and allowing all partners to address specific aspects of their work in complex biological system. (
  • The interaction of the adaptation currents with the neuronal dynamics is complex, impacting both the firing threshold and the behaviour of the cell (Benda et al. (
  • This volume analyzes these dyadic interaction patterns and builds a case for a new theory of adaptation: Interaction Adaptation Theory (IAT), which draws the soundest principles from previous theories while being responsive to current empirical evidence. (
  • Interpersonal Adaptation fills an important gap in the literature and should interest those who want to learn more about the dynamics of interaction patterns. (
  • Dr. Ruff earned his doctoral degree in biological anthropology from the University of Pennsylvania. (
  • This enables the collection of comprehensive multidisciplinary datasets on organism responses covering a wide range of relevant biological processes and strophic levels. (
  • In this study a series of experiments investigated the visual processes underpinning judgements of objective speed using an adaptation paradigm and video recordings of natural human locomotion. (
  • Later experiments investigate whether this adaptation effect can be explained in terms of known changes in the responsiveness of low-level neurons, or implicates higher-level processes involved in velocity constancy 19 . (
  • And these aging processes can be modified through mechanisms of adaptation (information gain). (
  • A theory of complex time, or adaptation and aging in complex systems, should include the many scales and connections among dynamical processes, and recognize that the effective age of an individual is dependent on the age of their environment, technology, and culture. (
  • Temperature is a ubiquitous force influencing biological processes ranging from cellular responses to life span. (
  • This research has questions covering a wide range of topics (e.g., speciation, adaptation, biogeography, comparative analyses) and time scales from ancient diversification to parent-offspring relationships. (
  • The study of the dynamics of adaptation to the rations containing casein and wheat protein showed some accumulation of hepatic protein on days 4-9. (
  • In this study, by disentangling those effects into a linear (sub-threshold) and a non-linear (supra-threshold) part, we focus on the the functional role of those two distinct components of adaptation onto the neuronal activity at various scales, starting from single-cell responses up to recurrent networks dynamics, and under stationary or non-stationary stimulations. (
  • The effects of slow currents on collective dynamics, like modulation of population oscillation and reliability of spike patterns, is quantified for various types of adaptation in sparse recurrent networks. (
  • By using a phenomenological model for neurons based on an integrate-and-fire model with intrinsic adaptation and its macroscopic counterparts, we studied the effects of slow adaptation currents on neuronal dynamics at the network level. (
  • This new groundbreaking study focuses on the adaptation and tolerance of plants and animal life to the harsh conditions brought on by climate change or global warming. (
  • Knowledge of farmers' perceptions of and adaptations to climate change is important to inform policies addressing the risk of climate change to farmers. (
  • Similar principles are found in macroscopic biological systems, such as the neuronal network of the free-living nematode worm C. elegans . (
  • As a conclusion, we reveal that the network is robust towards low frequency perturbations, shows adaptation at moderate stress frequencies, but transitions to an altered steady state at high frequency stimulation, which we believe is a predisposing factor towards stress-induced pathologies. (
  • This compensatory adaptation most likely plays a significant role in the stabilization of resistant bacteria within a given population. (
  • This spread of fusidic acid-resistant S. aureus strains is remarkable, as fusidic acid resistance was speculated to be associated with a biological fitness cost for the resistant bacteria ( 1 ). (
  • Biological fixation is carried out by free-living bacteria, Fabaceae- Rhizobium symbiosis and associative symbiontic free-living cyanobacteria, as well as by cyanobacteria in lichens. (
  • Kettlewell concluded that the moths' color was indeed the result of adaptation to conditions in their habitat. (
  • The team also found that soil microbes in experimental warming studies showed no sign of adaptation -- meaning a muted respiration response to rising temperatures -- in all of the biomes studied, except desert and boreal forest. (
  • We test these predictions by measuring effects of adaptation on visual sensitivity in the context of the neuronal representation of speed of visual motion. (
  • The effects of adaptation have already been studied at the single-cell level, resulting from either voltage or calcium gated channels both activated by the spiking activity and modulating the dynamical responses of the neurons. (
  • What Meerson discovered is that if the reduced oxygen pressure is intermittent rather than constant, the human body switches on defensive mechanisms that can produce super-normal resistance to biological and emotional stress. (
  • Product inhibition, feed-forward and feed-back inhibition and stimulation, and regulatory loops within signal transduction networks are a few of the approaches generated by biological systems to maintain both their robustness and adaptability. (
  • Successful conservation will need to embrace multiple climate adaptation approaches, but to date they have not been conveyed in an integrated way to help support immediate conservation planning and action in the face of inherent spatial uncertainty about future conditions. (
  • 2010 ). In this paper, we propose to investigate computationally some effects of neuronal adaptation, from both a single-cell and a network point of view. (
  • Often performs biological or chemical research. (
  • Senior Research Associate 1 (Cell Adaptation to Tumor Microe. (
  • This research theme aims to transform our understanding, treatment and control of complex time encompassing natural biological and disease phenomena, social systems, and technology by bridging deep theoretical ideas with areas of both empirical and practical depth. (
  • This Integrative Graduate Education and Research Training (IGERT) award supports the establishment of a multidisciplinary graduate training program of education and research on neural and musculoskeletal adaptation in form and function. (
  • The mechanics of biological tissues is a multidisciplinary and rapidly expanding area of research. (
  • On August 4th, 2004 an extensive review essay by Dr. Stephen C. Meyer, Director of Discovery Institute's Center for Science & Culture appeared in the Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington (volume 117, no. 2, pp. 213-239). (
  • This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Biological and Medical Data Analysis, ISBMDA 2004, held in Barcelona, Spain in November 2004. (
  • Henry Bernard David Kettlewell's study of the peppered moth, Biston betularia , is one of the most widely cited cases of natural selection producing adaptation. (
  • In this paper, we present field measurements of biological N 2 fixation (BNF) obtained by the natural 15 N abundance method, and use these to estimate the annual nitrogen input by the soil crusts and R. raetam . (
  • We follow a novel approach for the natural 15 N abundance technique, by using the non-N2-fixing lichens Squamarina lentigeria and S. cartilaginea (= S. crassa ) as reference in order to determine N 2 fixation by the biological crust in situ in the Negev desert. (
  • Boddey RM, Peoples MB, Palmer B, Dart PJ (2000) Use of the 15 N natural abundance technique to quantify biological nitrogen fixation by woody perennials. (
  • The potentially complex interactions among traits, strategies and functions with the environment describe evolution's ' structure ', which varies with ' scales ' of time, space and biological organization. (
  • 1996 . Copper-algae interactions: inheritance or adaptation? (
  • This debate between acclimatization and adaptation is at the crux of what a biological anthropologist might study. (
  • Here we show acclimatization and/or adaptation potential of menthol-bleached aposymbiotic coral Platygyra verweyi in terms of respiration breakdown temperature (RBT) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) enzyme activity in samples collected from two reef sites with contrasting temperature regimes: a site near a nuclear power plant outlet (NPP-OL, with long-term temperature perturbation) and Wanlitong (WLT) in southern Taiwan. (
  • However, the neural mechanisms underlying action adaptation aftereffects remain unknown. (
  • We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure neural adaptation after prolonged viewing of a BM stimulus (n=12). (
  • Using an event-related design with topping-up adaptation, we measured neural aftereffects from brain responses to morphed actions after adapting to walking or running actions within two bilateral regions of interest: 1) human medial temporal area (hMT+), a lower-level motion-sensitive region of cortex, and 2) superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), a higher-level action-selective area. (
  • Neural adaptation in hMT+ was observed only when the adapting and testing stimuli were in the same location. (
  • In contrast, neural adaptation in the action-sensitive area pSTS was found to be location-invariant. (
  • These results suggest a direct link between perceptual adaptation and neural adaptation in right pSTS, and suggest this as a core brain region for understanding social and perceptual deficits in Autism Spectrum Condition. (
  • Training in the techniques and interdisciplinary approach used in this study will be offered to other researchers at workshops, to undergraduate and graduate students at Arizona State University, and to high school students, including underrepresented groups, at open houses sponsored by the IGERT Neural & Musculoskeletal Adaptations in Form & Function program (NSF#9987619) at Arizona State University, to which both the PI and Co-PI are attached. (
  • Due to the increasing stringent legislation concerning the emission of volatile organic compounds, there is nowadays a growing interest to apply biological waste-gas treatment techniques for the removal of higher concentrations of specific contaminants from waste gases. (
  • Promiscuity and fidelity seem to be specific biological adaptations. (
  • Tissue growth and remodelling - general continuum theories of growth, remodelling and adaptation, with specific applications to arterial, tendon and cartilage growth and to bone healing. (
  • Eventually, chlorophylls (cyclic-heme mineral chelates) were developed that allowed the direct absorption of light energy to power biological reactions. (
  • Detailed models of intrinsic plasticity as a source of homeostasis and neuronal adaptation have already been investigated. (
  • It is suggested that the observed fatty acid substitution in phosphatidylcholine indicates a temperature-induced fluidity adaptation within the mitochondrial lipid bilayer, whereas the inverse acclimation pattern of cardiolipin provides a suitable lipid to accommodate the temperature-dependent modifications in the dynamic surface shape of integral membrane proteins. (
  • The data from the present study illustrate that the fusidic acid resistance-mediating amino acid substitutions P406L and H457Y are associated with a marked impairment of the biological fitness of S. aureus . (
  • [8] One study considered adaptation energy as an internal coordinate on the "dominant path" in the model of adaptation. (
  • This case study explored those issues in the Melamchi Valley of Nepal through a survey of 365 households and focus group discussions in 6 communities using a Community-Based Risk Screening Tool-Adaptation and Livelihoods (CRiSTAL). (
  • The purpose of this study is to compare esthetic, functional and biological properties of two restoration materials used to fill cavities. (
  • The human being in the course of history has shown an incredible ability in our adaptation to the environment. (
  • It has been argued that adaptation should have the effect of optimizing sensitivity to the new environment. (
  • In mammals, intestinal remodeling is essential for adaptation of infants to their new environment upon birth, and for the development of the complex adult gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which begins as they start to eat solid food. (
  • Belnap J (2001) Factors influencing nitrogen fixation and nitrogen release in biological soil crusts. (
  • In: Belnap J, Lange OL (eds) Biological soil crusts: structure, function and management. (
  • Belnap J (2002): Nitrogen fixation in biological soil crusts from southeast Utah, USA. (
  • Neuronal adaptation is the intrinsic capacity of the brain to change, by various mechanisms, its dynamical responses as a function of the context. (