The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
A perceptual phenomenon used by Gestalt psychologists to demonstrate that events in one part of the perceptual field may affect perception in another part.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Biological activities and function of the whole organism in human, animal, microorgansims, and plants, and of the biosphere.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Continuation of visual impression after cessation of stimuli causing the original image.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Products resulting from the conversion of one language to another.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.
The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Lack of correspondence between the way a stimulus is commonly perceived and the way an individual perceives it under given conditions.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
The absence of light.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.
A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A malabsorption syndrome resulting from extensive operative resection of the SMALL INTESTINE, the absorptive region of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.
Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.
Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A mechanism of communicating one's own sensory system information about a task, movement or skill.
The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.
Conversion from one language to another language.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
A mechanism of communication with a physiological system for homeostasis, adaptation, etc. Physiological feedback is mediated through extensive feedback mechanisms that use physiological cues as feedback loop signals to control other systems.
An autonomous region located in central Asia, within China.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.

Channeling of carbamoyl phosphate to the pyrimidine and arginine biosynthetic pathways in the deep sea hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi. (1/2155)

The kinetics of the coupled reactions between carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase (CPSase) and both aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) and ornithine transcarbamoylase (OTCase) from the deep sea hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi demonstrate the existence of carbamoyl phosphate channeling in both the pyrimidine and arginine biosynthetic pathways. Isotopic dilution experiments and coupled reaction kinetics analyzed within the context of the formalism proposed by Ovadi et al. (Ovadi, J., Tompa, P., Vertessy, B., Orosz, F., Keleti, T., and Welch, G. R. (1989) Biochem. J. 257, 187-190) are consistent with a partial channeling of the intermediate at 37 degrees C, but channeling efficiency increases dramatically at elevated temperatures. There is no preferential partitioning of carbamoyl phosphate between the arginine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Gel filtration chromatography at high and low temperature and in the presence and absence of substrates did not reveal stable complexes between P. abyssi CPSase and either ATCase or OTCase. Thus, channeling must occur during the dynamic association of coupled enzymes pairs. The interaction of CPSase-ATCase was further demonstrated by the unexpectedly weak inhibition of the coupled reaction by the bisubstrate analog, N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA). The anomalous effect of PALA suggests that, in the coupled reaction, the effective concentration of carbamoyl phosphate in the vicinity of the ATCase active site is 96-fold higher than the concentration in the bulk phase. Channeling probably plays an essential role in protecting this very unstable intermediate of metabolic pathways performing at extreme temperatures.  (+info)

The mammalian endoplasmic reticulum stress response element consists of an evolutionarily conserved tripartite structure and interacts with a novel stress-inducible complex. (2/2155)

When mammalian cells are subjected to calcium depletion stress or protein glycosylation block, the transcription of a family of glucose-regulated protein (GRP) genes encoding endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones is induced to high levels. The consensus mammalian ER stress response element (ERSE) conserved among grp promoters consists of a tripartite structure CCAAT(N9)CCACG, with N being a strikingly GC-rich region of 9 bp. The ERSE, in duplicate copies, can confer full stress inducibility to a heterologous promoter in a sequence-specific but orientation-independent manner. In addition to CBF/NF-Y and YY1 binding to the CCAAT and CCACG motifs, respectively, we further discovered that an ER stress-inducible complex (ERSF) from HeLa nuclear extract binds specifically to the ERSE. Strikingly, the interaction of the ERSF with the ERSE requires a conserved GGC motif within the 9 bp region. Since mutation of the GGC triplet sequence also results in loss of stress inducibility, specific sequence within the 9 bp region is an integral part of the tripartite structure. Finally, correlation of factor binding with stress inducibility reveals that ERSF binding to the ERSE alone is not sufficient; full stress inducibility requires integrity of the CCAAT, GGC and CCACG sequence motifs, as well as precise spacing among these sites.  (+info)

Shared usage of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 by primary and laboratory-adapted strains of feline immunodeficiency virus. (3/2155)

Strains of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) presently under investigation exhibit distinct patterns of in vitro tropism. In particular, the adaptation of FIV for propagation in Crandell feline kidney (CrFK) cells results in the selection of strains capable of forming syncytia with cell lines of diverse species origin. The infection of CrFK cells by CrFK-adapted strains appears to require the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and is inhibited by its natural ligand, stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha (SDF-1alpha). Here we found that inhibitors of CXCR4-mediated infection by human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1), such as the bicyclam AMD3100 and short peptides derived from the amino-terminal region of SDF-1alpha, also blocked infection of CrFK by FIV. Nevertheless, we observed differences in the ranking order of the peptides as inhibitors of FIV and HIV-1 and showed that such differences are related to the species origin of CXCR4 and not that of the viral envelope. These results suggest that, although the envelope glycoproteins of FIV and HIV-1 are substantially divergent, FIV and HIV-1 interact with CXCR4 in a highly similar manner. We have also addressed the role of CXCR4 in the life cycle of primary isolates of FIV. Various CXCR4 ligands inhibited infection of feline peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by primary FIV isolates in a concentration-dependent manner. These ligands also blocked the viral transduction of feline PBMC by pseudotyped viral particles when infection was mediated by the envelope glycoprotein of a primary FIV isolate but not by the G protein of vesicular stomatitis virus, indicating that they act at an envelope-mediated step and presumably at viral entry. These findings strongly suggest that primary and CrFK-adapted strains of FIV, despite disparate in vitro tropisms, share usage of CXCR4.  (+info)

Replicative fitness of protease inhibitor-resistant mutants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. (4/2155)

The relative replicative fitness of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mutants selected by different protease inhibitors (PIs) in vivo was determined. Each mutant was compared to wild type (WT), NL4-3, in the absence of drugs by several methods, including clonal genotyping of cultures infected with two competing viral variants, kinetics of viral antigen production, and viral infectivity/virion particle ratios. A nelfinavir-selected protease D30N substitution substantially decreased replicative capacity relative to WT, while a saquinavir-selected L90M substitution moderately decreased fitness. The D30N mutant virus was also outcompeted by the L90M mutant in the absence of drugs. A major natural polymorphism of the HIV-1 protease, L63P, compensated well for the impairment of fitness caused by L90M but only slightly improved the fitness of D30N. Multiply substituted indinavir-selected mutants M46I/L63P/V82T/I84V and L10R/M46I/L63P/V82T/I84V were just as fit as WT. These results indicate that the mutations which are usually initially selected by nelfinavir and saquinavir, D30N and L90M, respectively, impair fitness. However, additional mutations may improve the replicative capacity of these and other drug-resistant mutants. Hypotheses based on the greater fitness impairment of the nelfinavir-selected D30N mutant are suggested to explain observations that prolonged responses to delayed salvage regimens, including alternate PIs, may be relatively common after nelfinavir failure.  (+info)

Selection of RNA replicons capable of persistent noncytopathic replication in mammalian cells. (5/2155)

The natural life cycle of alphaviruses, a group of plus-strand RNA viruses, involves transmission to vertebrate hosts via mosquitoes. Chronic infections are established in mosquitoes (and usually in mosquito cell cultures), but infection of susceptible vertebrate cells typically results in rapid shutoff of host mRNA translation and cell death. Using engineered Sindbis virus RNA replicons expressing puromycin acetyltransferase as a dominant selectable marker, we identified mutations allowing persistent, noncytopathic replication in BHK-21 cells. Two of these adaptive mutations involved single-amino-acid substitutions in the C-terminal portion of nsP2, the viral helicase-protease. At one of these loci, nsP2 position 726, numerous substitution mutations were created and characterized in the context of RNA replicons and infectious virus. Our results suggest a direct correlation between the level of viral RNA replication and cytopathogenicity. This work also provides a series of alphavirus replicons for noncytopathic gene expression studies (E. V. Agapov, I. Frolov, B. D. Lindenbach, B. M. Pragai, S. Schlesinger, and C. M. Rice, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:12989-12994, 1998) and a general strategy for selecting RNA viral mutants adapted to different cellular environments.  (+info)

Genetic and fitness changes accompanying adaptation of an arbovirus to vertebrate and invertebrate cells. (6/2155)

The alternating host cycle and persistent vector infection may constrain the evolution of arboviruses. To test this hypothesis, eastern equine encephalitis virus was passaged in BHK or mosquito cells, as well as in alternating (both) host cell passages. High and low multiplicities were used to examine the effect of defective interfering particles. Clonal BHK and persistent mosquito cell infections were also evaluated. Fitness was measured with one-step growth curves and competition assays, and mutations were evaluated by nucleotide sequencing and RNA fingerprinting. All passages and assays were done at 32 degrees C to eliminate temperature as a selection factor. Viruses passaged in either cell type alone exhibited fitness declines in the bypassed cells, while high-multiplicity and clonal passages caused fitness declines in both types of cells. Bypassed cell fitness losses were mosquito and vertebrate specific and were not restricted to individual cell lines. Fitness increases occurred in the cell line used for single-host-adaptation passages and in both cells for alternately passaged viruses. Surprisingly, single-host-cell passage increased fitness in that cell type no more than alternating passages. However, single-host-cell adaptation resulted in more mutations than alternating cell passages. Mosquito cell adaptation invariably resulted in replacement of the stop codon in nsP3 with arginine or cysteine. In one case, BHK cell adaptation resulted in a 238-nucleotide deletion in the 3' untranslated region. Many nonsynonymous substitutions were shared among more than one BHK or mosquito cell passage series, suggesting positive Darwinian selection. Our results suggest that alternating host transmission cycles constrain the evolutionary rates of arboviruses but not their fitness for either host alone.  (+info)

The steady-state internal redox state (NADH/NAD) reflects the external redox state and is correlated with catabolic adaptation in Escherichia coli. (7/2155)

Escherichia coli MC4100 was grown in anaerobic glucose-limited chemostat cultures, either in the presence of an electron acceptor (fumarate, nitrate, or oxygen) or fully fermentatively. The steady-state NADH/NAD ratio depended on the nature of the electron acceptor. Anaerobically, the ratio was highest, and it decreased progressively with increasing midpoint potential of the electron acceptor. Similarly, decreasing the dissolved oxygen tension resulted in an increased NADH/NAD ratio. As pyruvate catabolism is a major switch point between fermentative and respiratory behavior, the fluxes through the different pyruvate-consuming enzymes were calculated. Although pyruvate formate lyase (PFL) is inactivated by oxygen, it was inferred that the in vivo activity of the enzyme occurred at low dissolved oxygen tensions (DOT +info)

cis-Acting elements responsible for low-temperature-inducible expression of the gene coding for the thermolabile isocitrate dehydrogenase isozyme of a psychrophilic bacterium, Vibrio sp. strain ABE-1. (8/2155)

Transcriptional control of the low-temperature-inducible icdII gene, encoding the thermolabile isocitrate dehydrogenase of a psychrophilic bacterium, Vibrio sp. strain ABE-1, was found to be mediated in part by a transcriptional silencer locating at nucleotide positions -560 to -526 upstream from the transcription start site of icdII. Deletion of the silencer resulted in a 20-fold-increased level of expression of the gene at low temperature (15 degrees C) but not at high temperature (37 degrees C). In addition, a CCAAT sequence located 2 bases upstream of the -35 region was found to be essential for the low-temperature-inducible expression of the gene. By deletion of this sequence, low-temperature-dependent expression of the gene was completely abolished. The ability of the icdII promoter to control the expression of other genes was confirmed by using a fusion gene containing the icdII promoter region and the promoterless icdI open reading frame, which encodes the non-cold-inducible isocitrate dehydrogenase isozyme of Vibrio sp. strain ABE-1. Escherichia coli transformants harboring icdII acquired an ability to grow rapidly at low temperature.  (+info)

The mechanisms by which adaptive phenotypes spread within an evolving population after their emergence are understood fairly well. Much less is known about the factors that influence the evolutionary accessibility of such phenotypes, a pre-requisite for their emergence in a population. Here, we investigate the influence of environmental quality on the accessibility of adaptive phenotypes of Escherichia colis central metabolic network. We used an established flux-balance model of metabolism as the basis for a genotype-phenotype map (GPM). We quantified the effects of seven qualitatively different environments (corresponding to both carbohydrate and gluconeogenic metabolic substrates) on the structure of this GPM. We found that the GPM has a more rugged structure in qualitatively poorer environments, suggesting that adaptive phenotypes could be intrinsically less accessible in such environments. Nevertheless, on average approximately 74% of the genotype can be altered by neutral drift, in the ...
This activity guides the analysis of a published scientific figure from a study that investigated physiological and genetic adaptations in the Bajau, a group of people who traditionally do freediving.. ...
There is an interesting article on evolvability which I wrote a bit more about here. It is by Massimo Pigliucci and titled, Is Evolvability Evolvable, for which the whole PDF is available online. Pigliucci discusses definitions of evolvability as well as different ideas about the origins of evolvability. Here is the abstract: In recent years,…
It is amazing what we, as human beings, can adapt to. The fact that I can now look down at the six-inch scar across my chest and the five inch gash under my arm without revulsion is truly amazing. One month ago I would not change my clothes in the same room that housed…
Classifying evolution as an ontogeny relieves the environment from having to account for phenotypes, something the authors insist that it cannot do. They assert, . . . multiple levels of internal constraints on possible phenotypes make the notion of evolution as the product of external selection operating on phenotypic variations generated at random radically untenable. In a developmental model of evolution, however, the environment doesnt bestow medals of fitness on adaptive phenotypes, but functions as it does in ontogeny. A developmental model of evolution demotes the environment, subordinating it to the needs of ontogenetic programs. In this supportive role, it can function well or poorly, and in so doing facilitate or retard phenotypic expression. Nature in this model cannot select, as in the Darwinian model; it can only nurture or neglect. The environment does not pick any particular path, but it will feed or starve whoever ventures ...
After reviewing the effects of mutations upon Functional Coding ElemenTs (FCTs), Michael Behes recent review article in Quarterly Review of Biology…
Under normal conditions cells are in a homeostatic or steady state. When stimulus arrived to the cell, first the cell will adapt but if this stimulus crosses the boundary of adaptation it will cause cell injury. So cells respond to the stimulus by the following two ways: ...
Advances in bioinformatics and high-throughput genetic analysis increasingly allow us to predict the genetic basis of adaptive traits. These predictions can be tested and confirmed, but the molecular-level changes-i.e. the molecular adaptation-that link genetic differences to organism fitness remain generally unknown. In recent years, a series of studies have started to unpick the mechanisms of adaptation at the molecular level. In particular, this work has examined how changes in protein function, activity, and regulation cause improved organismal fitness. Key to addressing molecular adaptations is identifying systems and designing experiments that integrate changes in the genome, protein chemistry (molecular phenotype), and fitness. Knowledge of the molecular changes underpinning adaptations allow new insight into the constraints on, and repeatability of adaptations, and of the basis of non-additive interactions between adaptive mutations. Here we critically discuss a series of studies that ...
The book develops a unifying perspective on how learning influences evolutionary dynamics which for the first time explains seemingly contradicting results from the literature. It also reveals formerly unknown facets of the complex interplay of the two major biological adaptation mechanisms. The results apply to models from computational intelligence and evolutionary biology alike, thus contribute to the transfer of principles of biological adaptation to digital processing system ...
Many clinicians are not adequately aware of the reasons that individuals with obesity struggle to achieve and maintain weight loss,1 and this poor awareness precludes the provision of effective intervention.2 Irrespective of starting weight, caloric restriction triggers several biological adaptations designed to prevent starvation.3 These adaptations might be potent enough to undermine the long-term effectiveness of lifestyle modification in most individuals with obesity, particularly in an environment that promotes energy overconsumption. However, they are not the only biological pressures that must be overcome for successful treatment. Additional biological adaptations occur with the development of obesity and these function to preserve, or even increase, an individuals highest sustained lifetime bodyweight. For example, preadipocyte proliferation occurs, increasing fat storage capacity. In addition, habituation to rewarding neural dopamine signaling develops with the chronic overconsumption ...
It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptations, initiated by exercise, can be amplified or reduced by nutrition. Various methods have been discussed to optimize training adaptations and some of these methods have been subject to extensive study. To date, most methods have focused on skeletal muscle, but it is important to note that training effects also include adaptations in other tissues (e.g., brain, vasculature), improvements in the absorptive capacity of the intestine, increases in tolerance to dehydration, and other effects that have received less attention in the literature. The purpose of this review is to define the concept of periodized nutrition (also referred to as nutritional training) and summarize the wide variety of methods available to athletes. The reader is referred to several other recent review articles that have discussed aspects of periodized nutrition in much more detail with primarily a focus on adaptations in the muscle. The purpose of this review is not to discuss ...
Author Summary The environment humans inhabit has changed many times in the last 100,000 years. Migration and dynamic local environments can lead to genetic adaptations favoring beneficial traits. Many genes responsible for these adaptations can alter disease susceptibility. Genes can also affect disease susceptibility by varying randomly across different populations. We have studied genetic variants that are known to modify disease susceptibility in the context of worldwide migration. We found that variants associated with 11 diseases have been affected to an extent that is not explained by random variation. We also found that the genetic risk of type 2 diabetes has steadily decreased along the worldwide human migration trajectory from Africa to America.
Transforming raw materials into industrial inputs involves process technologies and machineries which have over the years been imported at exorbitant costs. In addressing this, and in consonance with Councils mandate to advise on adaptation of machinery and processes for raw materials utilization, a number of technologies have been developed specifically for processing raw materials as industrial inputs ...
Description. James Simmie (Department of Planning, Oxford Brookes University) develops an evolutionary economics approach to adaptation and change in urban economies. Abstract: In this lecture, James Simmie develops one of the evolutionary economics approaches to understanding adaptation and change in the economic trajectories of urban economies. Neo-classical equilibrist versions of resilience and adaptation are rejected in favour of an evolutionary perspective. He argues in particular for an explanation based on why and how local economies adapt through time both to continual mutations and to periodic gales of creative destruction. Simmie focuses on the extent to which the panarchy conceptual framework can suggest testable hypotheses concerning urban and regional resilience. He explores some ...
The field of molecular evolution, which includes genome evolution, is devoted to finding variation within and between groups of organisms and explaining the processes responsible for generating this variation
The field of molecular evolution, which includes genome evolution, is devoted to finding variation within and between groups of organisms and explaining the processes responsible for generating this variation
With endless wearables available, it tends to be hard to pick a gadget that will suit you best. The correct one will be founded on your individual needs - regardless of whether its progression tallying, rest following or day in and day out pulse following - there is something for everybody. Nobody item does everything, except some come nearer than others. Wellness trackers fluctuate enormously in cost. The most recent age offers a wide scope of various highlights to look over at truly sensible costs. Likewise, with endless organizations delivering third and fourth era gadgets, the previous adaptations are descending in cost. While these wearables may not follow everything, with some looking you might have the option to discover one that meets your requirements. Rest following is likewise turning into a typical Watch Straps NZ. Rest assumes an imperative function healthy and prosperity for an amazing duration. Wearables shift incredibly as far as data they give, going from just checking complete ...
Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating lowered oxygen tension. Hypoxia, defined as a decline in O2 levels below normoxic levels of 20.8 - 20.95%, results in metabolic adaptation at both the cellular and organismal level ...
Get info about Concordia Seminary evolutionary biology. Nursing is one of the fastest-growing job areas, and for good reason. As the population ages, medical care will continue to expand rapidly.
While studying any subject in a new country has its benefits, there are a few particular subjects which really do require learning in a new environment. Read on to find out what they are.
09/27/18 - We present a meta-learning approach for adaptive text-to-speech (TTS) with few data. During training, we learn a multi-speaker mod...
If we are takling about scientificly evolving into a different form in this world, it may be possible but it will most likely be done by us rather than through adaptation (we arent patient enough for it). If we are talking about ascending to heavan/astral planes/etc./etc., we might want to find ...
The molecular mechanisms of enzymatic temperature adaptation are dictated by the delicate balance between the stability, flexibility, and activity of the extremophilic enzymes; therefore, identifying the factors that rule the stability-flexibility-activit
Learning, knowledge, research, insight: welcome to the world of UBC Library, the second-largest academic research library in Canada.
Learning and adaptation are considered to be stochastic in nature by most modern psychologists and by many engineers. Markov chains are among the simplest and best understood models of stochastic processes and, in recent years, have frequently found application as models of adaptive processes. A number of new techniques are developed for the analysis of synchronous and asynchronous Markov chains, with emphasis on the problems encountered in the use of these chains as models of adaptive processes. Signal flow analysis yields simplified computations of asymptotic success probabilities, delay times, and other indices of performance. The techniques are illustrated by several examples of adaptive processes. These examples yield further insight into the relations between adaptation and feedback ...
Microbes commonly display great genetic plasticity, which has allowed them to colonize all ecological niches on Earth. Bacillus subtilis is a soil-dwelling organism that can be isolated from a wide variety of environments. An interesting characteristic of this bacterium is its ability to form biofilms that display complex heterogeneity: individual, clonal cells develop diverse phenotypes in response to different environmental conditions within the biofilm. Here, we scrutinized the impact that the number and variety of the Rap-Phr family of regulators and cell-cell communication modules of B. subtilis has on genetic adaptation and evolution. We examine how the Rap family of phosphatase regulators impacts sporulation in diverse niches using a library of single and double rap-phr mutants in competition under 4 distinct growth conditions. Using specific DNA barcodes and whole-genome sequencing, population dynamics were followed, revealing the impact of individual Rap phosphatases and arising ...
African countries are on a move to development and there is need of great care for sustainable use of available resources. Supply systems for both urban and semi-urban regions are susceptible to the increasing risks arising from population growth, resource depletion, non-sustainable use, improper management, environmental and climatic risks. The research collaboration presented in this project provide a unique opportunity to address the adaptation of sustainable resource supply to avoid prescribed risks to urban and semi-urban developments. The project has similar objectives as the RARSUS project but in this case focusing on Mali.. The project aims at establishing a long-standing research-based higher education cooperation between Germany and the African partners in the area of sustainable resource supply management in urban and semi-urban regions. Alongside the project-related objectives, the initiated collaboration is expected to generate different synergies and mutual benefits by linking, ...
Using continuous reaction norms to characterize adaptive responses to temperature, the researchers reexamined a recent study that linked rapid adaptation to specific genetic changes. The study, by Holder and Bull, showed that phage populations quickly evolved higher growth rates at higher temperatures. But, Knies et al. explain, these growth rates were correlated with just one temperature point the optimal temperature for the ancestral populations (used at the beginning of the experiment). Knies et al. reexamined phage thermal adaptation by measuring growth rate over a wider range of temperatures, then used a recently developed statistical method to identify the biological determinants of the shifts in the reaction norm shapes, quantify their relative contributions, and identify the genetic basis of the adaptations ...
Genome-Wide Scan for Adaptive Divergence and Association with Population-Specific Covariates mathieu gautier doi: In population genomics studies, accounting for the neutral covariance structure across population allele frequencies is critical to improve the robustness of genome-wide scan approaches. Elaborating on the BayEnv model, this study investigates several modeling extensions i) to improve the estimation accuracy…
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The genomics revolution has expanded from its origins in molecular biology to impact upon every discipline in the life sciences, including ecology. Several lines of ecological research can now be profitably addressed using genomics technology, including issues of nutrient cycling, population structure, life-history variation, trophic interaction, stress responses, and adaptation to environmental change.
While DNA takes a long time to evolve, the epigenetic programming that activates and silences our DNA is more malleable. Thus humans can exploit epigenetics to adjust rapidly to changing environments, by activating genes that facilitate adaptation to pathogens and climates, etc. Consistent with this, some genomic regions show highly variable methylation across individuals, with evidence that such variation is controlled by alleles at specific genetic loci.
To add a link to an uploaded journal article pdf, review the instructions that will arrive in an email following each successful use of the upload form (more help on hypertext links in Help ...
If we are trying to keep global warming to 2 degrees Celsius or less but 4 degrees is possible even within some of our lifetimes, which world do we prepare for? Talks at todays session on adaptation took on the problem of the multiple futures that decision-makers have to face. Mark Stafford-Smith of CSIRO in Australia talked specifically about long-term decisions - such as planting and managing forests - where the best option depends on which way the climate goes later this century. If you expect strong mitigation that holds down warming, then you try to preserve todays forests and nurse them through, protecting them from fire and other threats. Read more. ...
An increasing number of experiences, initiatives and projects aimed at developing and implementing specific actions to adapt to climate change. In this module you will be able to explore practical cases on adaptation developed in different territories of Spain and implemented by Public Administrations, private sector entities, organisations, and other actors. On the other hand, you will also be able to consult and access the case studies included in the European Climate-ADAPT Platform. Here you can find more information about this functionality and the connection with Climate-ADAPT ...
An increasing number of experiences, initiatives and projects aimed at developing and implementing specific actions to adapt to climate change. In this module you will be able to explore practical cases on adaptation developed in different territories of Spain and implemented by Public Administrations, private sector entities, organisations, and other actors. On the other hand, you will also be able to consult and access the case studies included in the European Climate-ADAPT Platform. Here you can find more information about this functionality and the connection with Climate-ADAPT ...
Ability to see at night or in low lighting depends on adaptation in which the pupil of the eye dilates, visual purple increases, and the intensity threshold of the retina is lowered. A decrease in the oxygen content of the … Continue reading →. ...
Animal adaptations are fun structure to learn for students. They are aware of many but might not have connected that these structures are what scientists call adaptations. Students will use Plan your 60-minute lesson in Science with helpful tips from Ellen Herman
The forces influencing evolutionary adaptations are undoubtedly governed by historic constraints: an organisms past constrains its future. To what degree, however, do prior mutations and ancestral phenotypes shape future evolutionary pathways? Did life in the past function or evolve similarly to life today?
Overall, the essays in this collection deal with diverse topics and theoretical concerns of adaptation studies today. They throw light on both often researched and neglected or undervalued works. (Poetics Today, 1 May 2015). Well-written, suggestively arranged in a series of six sections, A Companion to Literature, Film and Adaptation provides an invaluable resource for anyone interested in debates about the past, present and future of adaptation studies, and why the discipline represents an important advance in the field of interdisciplinary learning … Cartmells collection covers just about every area imaginable within adaptation studies, whether historical, theoretical or otherwise … [It] is a far cry from those collections that simply compare source with target texts; it encompasses comic-books, songs, silent cinema as well as more canonical texts and their cinematic variants. There is something for everyone in this volume. (Post Script, 2014). Summing Up: Recommended. Upper-division ...
Organisms evolve. Organizations evolve. How can you understand your organization within the context of the business ecosystem? By understanding the competitive landscape, adaptive peaks, the role of mutability and how to exploit niches.
Personal Data may be processed for the following purposes: Machine/equipment installation; machine/equipment monitoring, diagnostics, fault analysis and debugging in order to optimize machine operations and to reduce support response times and costs; production and service team management (including applying for visas that are needed in customers location) and training; customer care and support activities; analyzing data for offering predictive and preventive maintenance; to facilitate spare parts ordering; backups and recovery as part of normal maintenance practice for the service; providing notifications internally and/or to the customer for certain alarm conditions or status/fault updates; auditing the machine/equipment remotely to verify the condition of the machine/equipment to determine if changes or adaptations are needed; or any other related purposes.. For these purposes, categories of Personal Data may typically include the following: Individuals name and contact details; sound ...
If I know one lump of clay perfectly, I know all the clay there is. This is the knowledge of principles, but their adaptations are various. When you know yourself you know all.. ...
Book tickets for best upcoming Haryanavi Adaptation Plays in Bareilly. Explore best Haryanavi Adaptation Plays near you in Bareilly on BookMyShow.
Book tickets for best upcoming Haryanavi Adaptation Plays in Gorakhpur. Explore best Haryanavi Adaptation Plays near you in Gorakhpur on BookMyShow.
I will be implementing an Exchange 2000 server in a new environment. Right now, mailguard is enabled on the Cisco PIX. Does anyone know what this will do if the only mail received on this connector...
View Notes - homo-heterosporous[1] from BIOL 240 at S.F. State. Are there risks (disadvantages) to being homothallic? Are there benefits (adaptive advantages) to being heterothallic? Are there risks
By Communications and Marketing. How does one start a totally new field of science? Just ask Kansas State Universitys Loretta Johnson, associate professor, and Michael Herman, professor, both in the Division of Biology.. Ten years ago, Johnson and Herman teamed up to start research in the new area of ecological genomics. To celebrate launching this new field of science, the Kansas State University Ecological Genomics Institute is hosting a special 10th anniversary symposium from Oct. 26-28 at the Kansas City Marriott on the Plaza.. The development of ecological genomics came from seemingly unrelated research programs. Hermans research had focused on the genetics of development in a roundworm called Caenorhabditis elegans, and Johnsons research had centered on the ecology and root systems of prairie grasses.. We both saw that by collaborating and learning from one another we could forge a new area to learn how ecological interactions are dictated by organisms genomes, or the collection of ...
An enduring puzzle in evolutionary biology is to understand how individuals and populations adapt to fluctuating environments. Here we present an integro-differential model of adaptive dynamics in a phenotype-structured population whose fitness landscape evolves in time due to periodic environmental oscillations. The analytical tractability of our model allows for a systematic investigation of the relative contributions of heritable variations in gene expression, environmental changes and natural selection as drivers of phenotypic adaptation. We show that environmental fluctuations can induce the population to enter an unstable and fluctuation-driven epigenetic state. We demonstrate that this can trigger the emergence of oscillations in the size of the population, and we establish a full characterisation of such oscillations. Moreover, the results of our analyses provide a formal basis for the claim that higher rates of epimutations can bring about higher levels of intrapopulation heterogeneity, whilst
Discussion regarding What kinds of adaptations are available to help someone resume driving a spinal cord injury? with Anne Bryden, OT and other experts
Regulation and Environmental Adaptation of Photosynthesis: An Attractive Theme for Structural Life Science Co-sponsored by GDRI-IPB (CNRS, France ...
Biological and artificial evolutionary systems exhibit varying degrees of evolvability and different rates of evolution. Such quantities can be affected by various factors. Here, we review some evolutionary mechanisms and discuss new developments in biology that can potentially improve evolvability or accelerate evolution in artificial systems. Biological notions are discussed to the degree they correspond to notions in Evolutionary Computation. We hope that the findings put forward here can be used to design computational models of evolution that produce significant gains in evolvability and evolutionary speed.. ...
Adaptive evolution of anti-viral siRNAi genes in bumblebees Sophie Helbing , Michael Lattorff doi: The high density of frequently interacting and closely related individuals in social insects enhance pathogen transmission and establishment within colonies. Group-mediated behavior supporting immune defenses tend to decrease selection acting on immune genes. Along with low effective population sizes this…
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Biological evolution accounts for the diversity of species developed through gradual processes over many generations. Species acquire many of their unique characteristics through biological adaptation, which involves the selection of naturally occurring variations in populations. Biological adaptations include changes in structures, behaviors, or physiology that enhance survival and reproductive success in a particular environment ...
In this paper, we seek to test two hypotheses that could, in principle, account for this deceleration. (H1) The observed deceleration indicates that the rate of evolutionary adaptation is truly slowing down. This occurs as the evolving population approaches a fitness peak or plateau because the remaining number of beneficial mutations, their marginal effect, or both become progressively smaller. This hypothesis assumes that fitness values of the chronologically ordered population samples are both qualitatively and quantitatively transitive; i.e., they follow a strict competitive hierarchy, such that the cumulative fitness improvement relative to the ancestor could be predicted from the incremental gains over the constituent time intervals. (H2) The rate of adaptation continues at the initial rapid pace, and the apparent deceleration is an artifact of using the ancestor as the common yardstick to measure adaptation. Under this hypothesis, fitness values are non-transitive. Consequently, the total ...
Adaptive evolution refers to changes within species as a result of stimuli in the environment, and one example is Hypericum perforatum, also known as St. Johns wort. This plant now has latitudinal...
A map is crucial for all travelers, from fun-seeking vacationers to serious scientific researchers. This months article is a map of the Engineered Adaptability series and highlights the places future articles will stop en route to its destination-a design-based framework that explains adaptability. To keep everyone traveling together, the articles will decipher information from peer-reviewed forums and supply an orientation so readers know where theyre headed.. Where Adaptability Goes, Evolutionary Theory Follows. Adaptability is a characteristic of all living things. If organisms couldnt adapt to changing environments, then evolutionary theory would have nothing to work with. Evolutionists struggle to explain how adaptability could emerge since a creature cannot adapt until it is already adaptable. Evolution assumes that adaptability mysteriously arose through random genetic mutations that somehow proved advantageous. Evolutionary theory offers a naturalistic explanation for the origin of ...
Physiological adaptations involved in alkane assimilation at a low temperature by Rhodococcus sp. strain Q15.: We examined physiological adaptations which allow
Climate change and its effects on habitats are unquestionably affecting life history traits and the distribution of many living organisms. Plasticity and genetic adaptation are important mechanisms by which species can respond to changes in their environment and, in the context of recent rapid climate change, such responses could ameliorate the negative consequences of this disturbance. However, the effectiveness and generality of plasticity versus adaptive responses to rapid changes are still a matter of scientific debate and clearly deserve further investigation, which we propose to address in a successful African small mammal, the striped mouse. The striped mouse has split into two species some 2.9 million years ago during a period of marked climate oscillation, and at present its various populations occupy much diversified environments ranging from arid to humid. The striped mouse has recently benefited from many studies resulting in a very good understanding of its biology and on which this ...
These types adaptations will ensure that critical lifesaving malnutrition treatment services to continue to reach children in need, while helping to keep both staff and community members safe. Further, many such adaptations are not new - they build on evidence generated from previous research, including that conducted by Action Against Hunger, as part of on-going innovation efforts to increase the quality and accessibility of nutrition services.. While COVID-19 presents unique challenges, the now wide-spread implementation of these adaptations also offer a new and unprecedented opportunity to capture lessons learned to inform not only the ongoing response, but how we apply these interventions in the future.. Action Against Hunger, in a coordinated effort with UNICEF and the US Centers for Disease Control, is conducting the Innovations and COVID-19 Adaptations in the Management of Child Wasting Project, a global study to capture adaptations and associated learning over the course of the pandemic. ...
Geoeconomics in relation to evolutionary theory, The organic view of social behaviour, Evolutionary theory versus environmental adaptation
Mimicry has had a significant historical influence as a tractable system for studying adaptation and is known to play a role in speciation. Here, we discuss recent theoretical treatment of adaptive walks to local adaptive peaks and contrast this with the adaptive landscape of mimicry. Evolution of n …
The fraction of reinforcing cis eQTL that have experienced recent selective sweeps in the laboratory strain lineage can be estimated from the distributions of θ values (Fig. S3). At the eQTL cutoffs used above, we found that θ was lower than expected by chance for approximately 78 genes (14.4% of reinforcing pairs), implying the action of selective sweeps in these regions. For eQTL triplets, approximately 56 genes (18.0% of reinforcing triplets) showed similar deficits of variation. At more permissive eQTL cutoffs, over 100 genes had lower θ than expected. Because many sweeps may be too recent (after divergence of the five strains) or too ancient (because of mutation accumulation) to be detected, these are likely substantial underestimates of the extent of sweeps affecting gene expression in the laboratory strain lineage.. Analyzing θ in the two classes of reinforcing eQTL (Fig. 1 and Fig. S1) separately is also informative. In this case, the appropriate set of opposing pairs for comparison ...
An adaptation in biology is a trait with a current functional role in the life history of an organism that is maintained and evolved by means of natural selection. An adaptation refers to both the current state of being adapted and to the dynamic evolutionary process that leads to the adaptation. Adaptations contribute to the fitness and survival of individuals. Organisms face a succession of environmental challenges as they grow and develop and are equipped with an adaptive plasticity as the phenotype of traits develop in response to the imposed conditions. The developmental norm of reaction for any given trait is essential to the correction of adaptation as it affords a kind of biological insurance or resilience to varying environments. ...
FIG. 3. Threshold shift of GSIR due to A456V. A comparison of wild-type and mutant enzyme kinetics is shown in A, and the relative β-cell glucose phosphorylation rate (rel. BGPR) is plotted in B as a function of blood glucose. The wild-type/wild-type threshold for GSIR is by definition 5 mmol/l (GSIR-5) and, in this study, is reached at ∼25.7% of the hypothetical maximum of the BGPR. The apparent GSRI-5 for A456V is calculated as 1.5 mmol/l based on adaptation of both GK alleles to low glucose when the rel. BGPR is ∼25.7%. ...
In the current scenario of global change, the impact of anthropogenic stressors is affecting the aquatic ecosystems, especially essential microorganisms such as phytoplan..
Speaker: Dr. Frank Rosenzweig Affiliation: University of Montana Host: Dr. Marc Meneghini Date & Time: April 1st - 2PM Place: Donnelly Centre Red Seminar Room
Several results of this study can be generalized. Qualitatively, phenotypes that are accessible only from mutations of large effect will be present in populations subjected to sudden environmental change, but will be absent in populations subjected to slower change. In our simulation, the large initial drop in fitness associated with the sudden change in environment pushes lineages very far from their ancestral adaptive peak and disperses them to different distant points on an adaptive landscape. Since there has been a sudden and large change in environment, the lineages suffer large drops in fitness. In our model, this corresponds to the structures melting. In this case, almost any change that produces an increase in stability will be beneficial, regardless of how dissimilar the structure is from the parental type, since all melted structures will have large and inevitable fitness costs with small differences between them, and fitness gains early in adaptation will be driven largely by gains in ...
Cutting-edge knowledge and current concepts on cold-adapted microorganisms including the major aspects of biodiversity in cold ecosystems, the physiology and molecular adaptation mechanisms, the various biomolecules related to cold adaptation, and the diverse strategies employed to cope with the cold.
Hi! Im Laura and I am a recovering history major who has re-channeled all of my passion for learning about the history of different countries to learning about their food culture. That doesnt mean every dish on here is strictly authentic, but it does mean that even my adaptations are not undertaken lightly. My goal is to show you-by doing-that these dishes are possible in your kitchen. Including desserts because I have quite the sweet tooth! Read More…. ...
Customer-focused services such as calibration, repairs or regional product adaptations are provided by Kistler Tech Centers in Germany, the US, China...
Find information about Carleton College evolutionary biology. Nursing is one of the fastest-growing job areas, and for good reason. As the population ages, medical care will continue to expand rapidly.
Learn about Pensacola Junior College evolutionary biology. Completion of an accredited nursing program or other medical training can qualify you to start working in a private hospital immediately.
Learn about Kansas Wesleyan University evolutionary biology. Nursing is one of the fastest-growing job areas, and for good reason. As the population ages, medical care will continue to expand rapidly.
Adaptation Adaptation is a term used to describe the ways in which organisms change over time in response to the changing demands of their environment.
Finding a good Adaptation TV show to watch can be hard, so weve ranked the best ones and included where to watch them. Check out our list of the best Adaptation TV shows of all time streaming on Tubi.
On Integration, Adaptation, Comfort Zones, and what is just beyond them by Avi Ganz 09/3/2015 Years ago, it was widely accepted that any person who was
The Chairs office coordinates of planning EEBs programs in teaching, research, and other functions. Responsibilities include:. ...
For example, if you have been shopping at the mall, with a trip to see Santa, and then walk into a family gathering for a meal, be mindful that that was a lot of potentially overstimulating experiences. Allow your child to stay close until you are sure that he or she shows clear signs the he is ready to play with all the new people. This may mean allowing your baby some quiet time in your arms before passing them on to all the loving relatives that want to hold and cuddle him/her. Or it might mean vocalizing to well meaning relatives that your toddler/preschooler needs a bit of space to unwind and get comfortable in this new environment before playing and interacting with ...
This page deals with Hiromu Arakawas original manga and its direct anime adaptation (titled Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood). For the loose 2003 anime …
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3, Prehistoric human biological adaptation". Anthropological papers of the AMNH. 57 (3). (Articles with short description, ... Catherines Island: 3. Prehistoric Human Biological Adaptation. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History ... Clark Spencer Larsen and George R. Milner (editors) (1994) In the Wake of Contact: Biological Responses to Conquest. Wiley-Liss ... Clark Spencer Larsen (born 1952) is an American biological anthropologist, author, and educator. His work focuses on ...
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American Institute of Biological Sciences. Retrieved 20 June 2013. Beall CM, Laskowski D, Erzurum SC (2012). "Nitric oxide in ... Cynthia Beall is the leading scientist in the study of high-altitude adaptation in humans, particularly in places where there ... Her groundbreaking works among the Andean, Tibetan and East African highlanders are the basis of our knowledge on adaptation to ... Retrieved 20 June 2013.[permanent dead link] Beall CM (2007). "Two routes to functional adaptation: Tibetan and Andean high- ...
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Chater, N.; Florencia, R.; Christiansen, M. H. (2009). "Restrictions on biological adaptation in language evolution". PNAS. 106 ... "Language has evolved as an adaptation" as being misleading. He argues instead that from a biological viewpoint the evolutionary ... those who believe in language as an adaptation, those who believe it is a by-product of another adaptation, and those who ... On the issue of whether language is best seen as having evolved as an adaptation or as a by product, evolutionary biologist W. ...
A number of authors have also suggested that mood disorders are an evolutionary adaptation (see also evolutionary psychiatry). ... Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry. 30 (5): 815-826. doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2006.01.007. PMID 16647176 ... Nesse R (2000). "Is Depression an Adaptation?" (PDF). Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 57 (1): 14-20. CiteSeerX doi: ...
2008) argue that the "profound continuity" Charles Darwin noted between human and non-human animals in the biological domain is ... Pinker, S (2003). "Language as an adaptation to the cognitive niche". Studies in the Evolution of Language. 3: 16-37. doi: ... Linguist Noam Chomsky proposed a biological component of language, which he termed Universal Grammar. According to Chomsky, an ... Sugiyama, L. S.; Tooby, J.; Cosmides, L. (2002). "Cross-cultural evidence of cognitive adaptations for social exchange among ...
Series B, Biological Sciences. 363 (1506): 3047-54. doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0065. PMC 2607310. PMID 18579480. Fontaine MC, Pease ... In the plant Arabidopsis arenosa some of the alleles conferring adaptation to drought and phytotoxic levels of metal have been ... Biological Sciences. 284 (1856): 20170335. doi:10.1098/rspb.2017.0335. PMC 5474069. PMID 28592669. Pritchard JK, Stephens M, ... Biological Sciences. 283 (1838): 20161493. doi:10.1098/rspb.2016.1493. PMC 5031664. PMID 27629037. David WM, Mitchell DL, ...
Storz, Jay; Hideaki Moriyama (June 2008). "Mechanisms of Hemoglobin Adaptation to High Altitude Hypoxia". High Altitude ... Biological Chemistry Hoppe-Seyler. 368 (12): 1559-1569. doi:10.1515/bchm3.1987.368.2.1559. PMID 3442599. ...
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Urbana, IL: Biological Computer Laboratory, University of Illinois. pp. 97-98, 98-101, 299, 419-420. Bateson, G. (1974). " ... Bateson, G. (1991). "The Moral and Aesthetic Structure of Human Adaptation". In Donaldson, R.E. (ed.). A Sacred Unity: Further ... Bateson, G. (1972). "Effects of Conscious Purpose on Human Adaptation". Steps to an Ecology of Mind: Collected Essays in ... Bateson, G.; von Foerster, Heinz (1974). Conditioning, Adaptation, Learning Model, and Double Bind. Cybernetics of Cybernetics ...
Leducq, J-B; Charron, G; Samani, P (2014). "Local climatic adaptation in a widespread microorganism". Proceedings of the Royal ... Society B: Biological Sciences. 281 (1777): 20132472. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.2472. PMC 3896012. PMID 24403328. Liti, G; Carter, ... Accordingly, its biogeography is mostly marked by natural processes like limited migration, glacial refugia and adaptation to ...
Selected effect theories of biological functions hold that the function of a biological trait is the function that the trait ... Function can be defined in a variety of ways, including as adaptation, as contributing to evolutionary fitness, in animal ... It is not always clear which behavior has contributed to the selection of a trait, as biological traits can have functions, ... From the point of view of natural selection, biological functions exist to contribute to fitness, increasing the chance that an ...
Thus the loss of fur was also a factor in further adaptations, both physical and behavioral, that differentiated humans from ... Giles, James (20 March 2015) [2010]. "Naked love: The evolution of human hairlessness". Biological Theory. 5 (4): 326-336. doi: ... The aquatic ape hypothesis (that hair loss was due to adaptation to an aquatic environment) has been generally discredited by ... Jablonski, N.G.; Chaplin, G. (2010). "Human skin pigmentation as an adaptation to UV radiation". Proceedings of the National ...
... species and biological traits at an alarming rate. This observation led to the question of how such loss of biological ... Otto, Sarah P. (November 21, 2018). "Adaptation, speciation and extinction in the Anthropocene". Proceedings of the Royal ... Management of biological invasion can also be costly. In Australia, the expense to monitor, control, manage, and research ... However, in most cases, the economic returns are far less than the cost caused by biological invasion. Not only have invasive ...
Stringer, C. (1984). "Human evolution and biological adaptation in the Pleistocene". In Foley, R. (ed.). Hominid evolution and ... Series B, Biological Sciences. 370 (1663): 1-11. doi:10.1098/rstb.2014.0062. PMC 4305163. PMID 25602066. Orban, Guy A; Caruana ... Researchers often explain these features as adaptations to conserve heat in a cold climate, but they may also have been ... Body proportions are usually cited as being "hyperarctic" as adaptations to the cold, because they are similar to those of ...
"Skin Color Adaptation". Human Biological Adaptability: Skin Color as an Adaptation. Palomar. Archived from the original on 18 ... Skin pigmentation is an evolutionary adaptation to various UVR levels around the world. As a consequence there are many health ... but may in fact be a later evolutionary adaptation to tropical rainforest regions. Due to mass migration and increased mobility ... "The distinct morphological phenotypes of Southeast Asian aborigines are shaped by novel mechanisms for adaptation to tropical ...
Joseph K. So (1980). "Human Biological Adaptation to Arctic and Subarctic Zones". Annual Review of Anthropology. 9: 63-82. doi: ... With the availability of new data due to the development of modern genetics, the concept of races in a biological sense has ... The term is derived from a now-disproven theory of biological race. In the past, other terms such as "Mongolian race", "yellow ... With the rise of modern genetics, the concept of distinct human races in a biological sense has become obsolete. In 2019, the ...
Lewontin criticized traditional neo-Darwinian approaches to adaptation. In his article "Adaptation" in the Italian Enciclopedia ... Lewontin briefly argued for the historical nature of biological causality in "Is Nature Probable or Capricious?". In "Organism ... "Adaptation," Scientific American, vol. 239, (1978) 212-228. Gould, S. J.; Lewontin, R. C. (1979). "The Spandrels of San Marco ... 16 (1, Logic in Biological Investigation): 25-27. doi:10.2307/1293548. JSTOR 1293548. Lewontin, R. C. (1970). "The Units of ...
"Skin Color Adaptation". Human Biological Adaptability: Skin Color as an Adaptation. Palomar. Archived from the original on 18 ... "Human Biological Adaptability: Skin Color as an Adaptation". Post; Daniels Jr, F; Binford Jr, R. T.; et al. ( ... Skin pigmentation is an evolutionary adaptation to the various UV radiation levels around the world. There are health ... This observation indicates that the frequencies may have increased due to continued adaptation to a low light conditions." ...
Biological Reviews 78:181195 Layne JR, Edgar CL and Medwith RE (1999) Cold hardiness of the woolly bear caterpillar ( ... W., Hochachka, Pater (2016). Biochemical adaptation. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691640556. OCLC 938370255. The ... 1995) Biological ice nucleation and its applications. St. Paul, MN: The American Phytopathological Society. Sinclair, Brent ( ... Human Reproduction 15:26-46 Lee RE and Costanzo JP (1998) Biological ice nucleation and ice distribution in cold-hardy ...
"The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 292 (34): 14250-14257. doi:10.1074/jbc.M117.795294. PMC 5572926. PMID 28634232.. ... This is vital for both homeostatsis in a static environment, and metabolic adaptation to a changing environment or need.[22] ... "The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280 (4): e3. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(20)76366-0. PMID 15665335.. ... "The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 249 (24): 7737-7741. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(19)42029-2. PMID 4372217.. ...
Other modern adaptations[edit]. Aside from its woody trunk, Archaeopteris possessed other modern adaptations to light ... Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. 69 (3): 345-417. doi:10.1111/j.1469-185x.1994.tb01276.x. S2CID ...
Biological methods[edit]. A biological weed control regiment can consist of biological control agents, bioherbicides, use of ... Yet another approach is the Harrington Seed Destructor, which is an adaptation of a coal pulverizing cage mill that uses steel ... Several studies provided evidence for the role of invertebrates to the biological control of weeds[13][14] ... Weed control plans typically consist of many methods which are divided into biological, chemical, cultural, and physical/ ...
"Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. 91 (1): 106-147. doi:10.1111/brv.12161. ISSN 1469-185X. PMID ... Edwin H. Colbert drew parallels between the system of extinction and adaptation between the Triassic-Jurassic and Cretaceous- ... Within his 1958 study recognizing biological turnover between the Triassic and Jurassic, Edwin H. Colbert's 1958 proposal was ... indicating a biological turnover where modern groups of fish started to supplant earlier groups.[5] Conodonts, which were ...
It was selected but this doesn't mean it is an adaptation. The reason is that, although it was selected, there was no selection ... Polymorphism is strongly tied to the adaptation of a species to its environment, which may vary in colour, food supply, and ... Polymorphism is common in nature; it is related to biodiversity, genetic variation, and adaptation. Polymorphism usually ...
Michael Tomasello (1999). "The Human Adaptation for Culture". Annual Review of Anthropology. 28: 509-29. doi:10.1146/annurev. ... biological anthropology, linguistic anthropology, cultural anthropology, and in the United States and Canada, archaeology.[35][ ... and that the basis of culture is found in evolved biological dispositions. ...
"The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (21): 15319-23. doi:10.1074/jbc.R700009200. PMID 17395581.. ... "adaptation" to environmental changes.[citation needed] ... differing in biological properties; each has evolved to handle ... Biological Sciences. 281 (1785): 20140454. doi:10.1098/rspb.2014.0454. PMC 4024302. PMID 24789904.. ...
"Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 278 (1721): 3096-101. doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.2784. PMC 3158932. PMID ... It is assumed this is an adaptation to survive predator attacks.[7] The Atlantic hagfish, representative of the subfamily ... The following hagfish and lamprey phylogeny is an adaptation based on the 2006 work by Shigeru Kuratani and Shigehiro Kuraku:[ ... which may be an adaptation to a scavenging lifestyle, allowing them to maximize sporadic opportunities for feeding. From an ...
Cellular adaptation. Atrophy. Hypertrophy. Hyperplasia. Dysplasia. Metaplasia Squamous. Glandular. Cell death. Necrosis ... List of biological development disorders. *Epidemiology of cancer. *Pleomorphism. References[edit]. .mw-parser-output .reflist{ ...
... play an important role in biological processes, and in the construction of biological structures (such as cell membranes). ... Raynard RS, Cossins AR (May 1991). "Homeoviscous adaptation and thermal compensation of sodium pump of trout erythrocytes". The ...
Peccei, Jocelyn Scott (২০০১)। "Menopause: Adaptation or epiphenomenon?"। Evolutionary Anthropology। 10 (2): 43-57। ডিওআই: ... Robin, Ashley (1991). Biological Perspectives on Human Pigmentation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ... "Climate change, species-area curves and the extinction crisis"। Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological ... "Human Biological Adaptability; Overview"। Palomar College। ৬ মার্চ ২০১৩ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ৬ ...
Biological fathers are important within the family system but must come from another clan than the mother. But, within the clan ... rejecting accommodation with white settlers and adaptation of European-American culture. Although Hawkins personally was never ...
It is a suite of adaptations and by-products that arose sometime during the recent evolutionary history of humans.[8] ... The theory of a biological basis of love has been explored by such biological sciences as evolutionary psychology, evolutionary ... Bode and Kushnick undertook a comprehensive review of romantic love from a biological perspective in 2021.[8] They considered ... Based on the content of that review, they proposed a biological definition of romantic love: .mw-parser-output .templatequote{ ...
... were concerned with technological and biological developments. Industrialization, Darwin's theory of evolution and Marx's ... as well as by adaptation of popular literary classics by the film and television industries. ...
"The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (2): 761-7. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.2.761. PMID 8557684. S2CID 9746955.. ... Calmodulins play an essential role in plant development and adaptation to environmental stimuli. ... "The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 266 (13): 8050-4. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)92938-8. PMID 1902469.. ... "The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (13): 9912-20. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(17)36969-7. PMID 8144585.. ...
Biological Conservation. 142: 1025-1031. *^ de Villemereuil, Pierre (2019). "Little Adaptive Potential in a Threatened ... Genetic adaptation to fragmented habitat: Over time species evolve to become adapted to their environment. This can lead to ... Fragmented populations also see genetic adaptation. For example, habitat fragmentation has resulted in a shift toward increased ...
This response is recognised as the first stage of the general adaptation syndrome that regulates stress responses among ... Biological determinism. *Connectionism. *Environmental determinism. *Nature versus nurture. *Psychological nativism. *Social ...
Adaptations[edit]. Paul Cornell's 1995 novel, Human Nature, as noted above, formed the basis of a two-part episode of the ... a ruthless Iranian soldier accidentally causes a deadly biological agent to be released in the Earth's atmosphere, killing ... In October 2012 a special adaptation of Benny's debut story, Love and War was published with Sylvester McCoy as the Seventh ... Due to the success of what was planned to be a one-off release, Big Finish continued the line with an adaptation of The Highest ...
Tsypkin (1971). Adaptation and learning in automatic systems. Academic Press. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-08-095582-7. .. ... However, algorithms are also implemented by other means, such as in a biological neural network (for example, the human brain ...
"Snake eyes: New insights into visual adaptations". ScienceDaily. 16 August 2016.. *^ Simões, Bruno F.; et al. (October 2016). " ... Australian Biological Resources Studies, Canberra. *^ Arnold EN (1984). "Evolutionary aspects of tail shedding in lizards and ... Biological Sciences. 271 Suppl 4 (suppl_4): S226-9. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2003.0151. PMC 1810015. PMID 15252991.. ... Jensen B, Moorman AF, Wang T (May 2014). "Structure and function of the hearts of lizards and snakes". Biological Reviews of ...
Evolutionary adaptationEdit. Poinsettia bracts are leaves which have evolved red pigmentation in order to attract insects and ... "Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 276 (1654): 121-127. doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.0858. PMC 2614250. PMID ... Some species have cryptic adaptations by which they use leaves in avoiding predators. For example, the caterpillars of some ... The shape and structure of leaves vary considerably from species to species of plant, depending largely on their adaptation to ...
The growth of biological thought. Harvard. p483: "Adaptation... could no longer be considered a static condition, a product of ... Series B, Biological Sciences. 355 (1403): 1553-1562. doi:10.1098/rstb.2000.0716. PMC 1692896. PMID 11127900.. CS1 maint: ref= ... "Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 361 (1465): 163-171. doi:10.1098/rstb.2005.1712. ISSN ... "Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 353 (1366): 307-314. doi:10.1098/rstb.1998.0211. ISSN ...
"Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 266 (1420): 649-56. doi:10.1098/rspb.1999.0685. PMC 1689826. PMID ... Ecological and behavioral adaptations. Camels do not directly store water in their humps; they are reservoirs of fatty tissue. ... "Camel Adaptations". Wildlife Conservation Society. Archived from the original (Flash) on 26 June 2012. Retrieved 29 November ... Fayed, R. H. "Adaptation of the Camel to Desert environment." Proceedings of the ESARF 11th Annual Conference. Available at:, ...
a b National Climate Change Adaptation Programme Retrieved 2008-07-31 *^ "Climate Adaptation Flagship (Overview)". 1 August ... Biological Conservation, 72, 39-354. *^ Beaumont, L.J., and Hughes, L. (2002) Potential changes in the distributions of ... National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility Retrieved 2011-07-06 *^ "Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation - Local ... National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility[edit]. The National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility (NCCARF) ...
"Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 271 (1552): 2011-2015. doi:10.1098/rspb.2004.2827. JSTOR 4142967. PMC ... It is also an adaptation to life in areas where small patches of fertile soil are adjacent to exposed areas with more sunlight ... "Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 282 (1814): 20151379. doi:10.1098/rspb.2015.1379. PMC 4571702. PMID ...
Biological organisation. জীবমণ্ডল , বাস্তুতন্ত্র , Biocoenosis , জনসংখ্যা , জীব, Biological system , অঙ্গ , কলা (জীববিজ্ঞান) , ... জীববিজ্ঞানে, অভিযোজন (ইংরেজি:Adaptation) হল কোন জীবের জীবদ্দশায় ভূমিকা রাখা একটি উপস্থিত কর্মসম্পাদনকারী বৈশিষ্ট্য, যা ...
Wise's adaptation of Michael Crichton's science-fiction thriller, The Andromeda Strain (1971), an anti-biological warfare film ... in an adaptation of Shirley Jackson's novel The Haunting of Hill House.[60] Wise's big-budget adaptation of Richard Rodgers and ... Between Curse and Snatcher, Wise directed Mademoiselle Fifi (1944), an adaptation of two Guy de Maupassant short stories that ... sound and scoring of music for an adaptation.[64] ...
"Biological Conservation. 154: 61-71. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2011.11.018.. *^ Danielsen, F.; Adrian, T.; Brofeldt, S.; Noordwijk, ... Weathering Uncertainty - Traditional knowledge for climate change assessment and adaptation. United Nations University. ... "Biological Conservation. 169: 258-267. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2013.11.017.. *^ Sodhi, N.S. and Ehrlich, P.R. (Eds.). 2010. ... 2014). "The eBird enterprise: An integrated approach to development and application of citizen science". Biological ...
Biological fathers are important within the family system but must come from another clan than the mother. But, within the clan ... rejecting accommodation with white settlers and adaptation of European-American culture. Although Hawkins personally was never ...
Film, TV, or theatrical adaptations[edit]. *A 1965 film adaptation titled The Amorous Adventures of Moll Flanders starred Kim ... After three children (one dies), Moll learns that her mother-in-law is actually her biological mother, which makes her husband ... A later American adaptation, Moll Flanders (1996), starred Robin Wright Penn as Moll Flanders and Morgan Freeman as Hibble, ... A second British television adaptation, broadcast by ITV in 1996, titled The Fortunes and Misfortunes of Moll Flanders, with ...
Origins and development of adaptation. by Symposium on Origins and Development of Adaptation (1983 : Ciba Foundation). ...
Comparative genomics reveals high biological diversity and specific adaptations in the industrially and medically important ... Comparative genomics reveals high biological diversity and specific adaptations in the industrially and medically important ... Comparative genomics reveals high biological diversity and specific adaptations in the industrially and medically important ... Comparative genomics reveals high biological diversity and specific adaptations in the industrially and medically important ...
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 99 (4): 738-759. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2010.01395.x. Cane ... Evolutionary selective adaptations are most likely to occur in native species having lived sympatrically with cane toads over ... One way in which Australian animals have adjusted to the presence of the cane toad is through learned behavioural adaptations. ... Furthermore, the presence of cane toads has induced genetically based behavioural adaptations in this snake species. ...
... from detecting an object moving in your direction to finding out what the object is through a phenomenon called adaptation. ... Biological basis of brains ability for rapid adaptation revealed. By ANI Tuesday, November 23, 2010 LONDON - When you detect ... Now, a new study details the biological basis of this ability for rapid adaptation: neurons located at the beginning of the ... The researchers found that the effect of adaptation on the synchrony of neurons in the thalamus was the key element in the ...
Adaptation Biologique et Vieillissement = Biological Adaptation and Ageing (247437) ...
Promiscuity and fidelity seem to be specific biological adaptations. Their manifestations in men and women are not as different ... Promiscuity and fidelity seem to be specific biological adaptations. Their manifestations in men and women are not as different ... RECEIVED wisdom and biological theory both have it that males are (or, at least, would like to be) more promiscuous than ... As with many biological phenomena-height, for example-propensity for promiscuity in either sex might be expected to be normally ...
Adiposity, biological markers of disease, and insulin resistance in Mexican American adolescents, 2004-2005. Prev Chronic Dis ... Cultural adaptation of a nutrition education curriculum for Latino families to promote acceptance. J Nutr Educ Behav 2011;43(4 ... Adaptation of a Culturally Relevant Nutrition and Physical Activity Program for Low-Income, Mexican-Origin Parents With Young ... Adaptation of a Culturally Relevant Nutrition and Physical Activity Program for Low-Income, Mexican-Origin Parents With Young ...
The aim of this article is to show that there is a real problem of biological individuality, and an urgent need to arbitrate ... but there remains a great deal of controversy about the exact status and definition of a biological individual. Recently some ... There is a real problem of biological individuality, and an urgent need to arbitrate among the current plethora of solutions to ... The major historical developments in theory of organismal adaptation are reviewed, clarifying what adaptation is and what it is ...
... Nat Genet. 2015 Jan;47(1):57 ... Adaptation, Biological / genetics* * Adolescent * Adult * Bacterial Proteins / genetics * Carrier State / microbiology* * Child ... This list of genes suggests a role in host adaptation for remodeling of regulatory networks and central metabolism, acquisition ... The characterization of genes involved in host adaptation may help in predicting bacterial evolution in patients with cystic ...
School of Biological and Marine Sciences Seminar Series 2020/2021 - Archive of events ... Climate change, adaptation and evolution in marine and terrestrial environments. Professor James Crabbe, Wolfson College, ... School of Biological and Marine Sciences Seminar Series 2017/2018 * School of Biological and Marine Sciences Seminar Series ... School of Biological and Marine Sciences Seminar Series 2019/2020 * School of Biological and Marine Sciences Seminar Series ...
Biological Nutrient Removal Pilot Facility. Annacis Island and Lulu Island Wastewater Treatment Plants. ...
Deschênes G, Fila M. Primary molecular disorders and secondary biological adaptations in bartter syndrome. Int J Nephrol. 2011 ... These effects, combined with biologic adaptations of downstream tubular segments, specifically the distal convoluted tubule ( ...
LS4.C: Adaptation. *Adaptation by natural selection acting over generations is one important process by which species change ... LS4.C: Adaptation. *Adaptation by natural selection acting over generations is one important process by which species change ... LS4.C: Adaptation. *Adaptation by natural selection acting over generations is one important process by which species change ...
Adaptations to environmental extremes by multicellular organisms. International Journal of Astrobiology , 09/07/2007 , Mohammed ... Biological Strategy The Beetles That Scatter "All the Light". White scarab beetles ... Biological Strategy How a Camels Fur Coat Keeps It Cool. Dromedary camel ... Each month, well bring you a selection of compelling updates to this ever-growing library of biological strategies and ...
... a reservoir of adaptations that insects can draw from when they adapt to new environments. If this interpretation is accurate, ... in biological sciences (or similar). International students are required to provide evidence of their proficiency in English ...
Ecological adaptation; Fragmentation and scale effect; Biological invasions and climate change; International conventions on ... Arctic and Antarctic bio-pulse (Resource exploitation and large-scale eco- perturbations; Under-ice ecosystems; Adaptation and ... Bioenergy is renewable energy derived from biological sources, to be used for heat, electricity, or vehicle fuel. Biofuel ... Biological pollution (invasion); Pollution prevention, control and engineering); Natural and man-made disasters ...
Dive into the research topics of Molecular adaptations of rod opsins in deep-sea fish. Together they form a unique ...
Deschênes G, Fila M. Primary molecular disorders and secondary biological adaptations in bartter syndrome. Int J Nephrol. 2011 ...
Age-factors; Biological-factors; Injuries; Muscle-function; Muscle-physiology; Muscle-stress; Muscular-disorders; ... Skeletal muscle injury versus adaptation with aging: novel insights on perplexing paradigms. ... current evidence supports a model of muscle adaptation and/or maladaptation, distinct from overt injury, in which myofiber ... muscle adaptation; myofiber degeneration; myofiber regeneration; inflammation ...
Paper presents diverse modes of governance of chemical and biological risks in agri-food sector, assesses their efficiency, ... high adaptation and compliance costs; unequal norms, implementing capability, policies and private strategies; public failures ... "Management of chemical and biological risks in agri-food chain," MPRA Paper 30905, University Library of Munich, Germany. ... Paper presents diverse modes of governance of chemical and biological risks in agri-food sector, assesses their efficiency, ...
Adaptation to environmental change. *Coevolution. *Evolution and physiology of life history timing in insects ...
Choin, J. et al. Genomic insights into population history and biological adaptation in Oceania. Nature 592, 583-589. https:// ... Jablonski, N. G. & Chaplin, G. Human skin pigmentation as an adaptation to UV radiation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 107, 8962-8968 ... Finally, to characterize biological systems and pathways affected by selected GSPs, we compiled a list of genes with Beringian ... Amongst the biological pathways impacted by non-synonymous GSPs, the categories with the greatest number of genes include ...
Genetics of Adaptation. Mauricio, Rodney. 148,45€. Biological Nitrogen Fixation: Towards Poverty Alleviation through ...
Multimeric and monomeric photosystem II supercomplexes represent structural adaptations to low- and high-light conditions. ... Journal of Biological Chemistry. Vol. 295Issue 51p17816-17826Published online: December 18, 2020 ...
Moncayo is an assistant professor in the Department of Biological Sciences at Ohio Northern University in Ada, Ohio. He is a ... Our study examined the extent of endemic DENV adaptation to peridomestic vectors. If this adaptation is species-specific, then ... Dengue Emergence and Adaptation to Peridomestic Mosquitoes. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(10):1790-1796. doi:10.3201/ ... Phylogenetic studies suggest that the DENV E protein may be important in the adaptation to urban vectors (11). In particular, ...
Natural selection, adaptation, extinctions, adaptive radiation, climate, macroecology, reptiles, amphibians Dr Daniel Pincheira ... School of Biological Sciences. Queens University Belfast. School of Biological Sciences. 19 Chlorine Gardens. Belfast BT9 5DL ... Development of biological and chemical approaches for the removal and/or recovery of high-value compounds from waste eg. ... The aim is to build a coherent theory of what life essentially is and use this to better inform biological science `from ...
Darwins Theory of Natural Selection Has Left a Legacy of Confusion over Biological Adaptation. Our ability to adapt to ...
  • It is claimed that a debate on biological individuality that seeks to account for diverse practices in the biological sciences should be broadened to include and give prominence to questions about uniqueness and temporality. (
  • Applications are invited from candidates with, or expecting to be awarded, at least an upper-second class bachelors degree (or equivalent qualification) in biological sciences (or similar). (
  • A general equation for the role of additive, dominance, and epistatic components of fitness in determining the rate of change in population fitness is given and claims that this law should hold the same position among the biological sciences as the second law of thermodynamics in physical sciences. (
  • Dr Frances Sussmilch is an ARC DECRA Fellow in Biological Sciences at the School of Natural Sciences. (
  • Go beyond the classroom walls and enter into active laboratory and field research in biological and environmental sciences. (
  • Immerse your students in active and ongoing research conducted by MBL research scientists that tackles the major questions in basic biological sciences. (
  • Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, 63 (Supple). (
  • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 2019, 374 (1770), 20180110. (
  • Publishing their findings in the journal Proceedings Of The Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, the researchers found that by the end of the heat stress exposure, all of the least-tolerant corals were dead, while the most-tolerant remained alive. (
  • Proceedings Of The Royal Society B: Biological Sciences , 289 (1981). (
  • A membership society whose goal is to advance and to diffuse knowledge of organic evolution and other broad biological principles so as to enhance the conceptual unification of the biological sciences. (
  • The theory of a biological basis of love has been explored by such biological sciences as evolutionary psychology , evolutionary biology , anthropology and neuroscience . (
  • Liberal Arts Biology covers fundamental principles of biological sciences at a level for non-science majors. (
  • To allow you to explore your various options, here's a list of some of currently available PhD opportunities across the School of Biological Sciences. (
  • Saudi journal of biological sciences 2020 6 0. (
  • Organisms or biological individuals? (
  • In the ocean, an organism's weight is supported by the water, and some organisms have additional adaptations that help them remain buoyant such as swim bladders in fish. (
  • A diverse instructional faculty will offer participants the opportunity to study a wide range of Antarctic organisms (bacteria, algae, invertebrates, fish), using different levels of biological analysis (spanning molecular biology, physiological ecology, species diversity, and evolution). (
  • Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using data to provide evidence for how specific biotic and abiotic differences in ecosystems (such as ranges of seasonal temperature, long-term climate change, acidity, light, geographic barriers, or evolution of other organisms) contribute to a change in gene frequency over time, leading to adaptation of populations. (
  • Natural selection leads to adaptation, that is, to a population dominated by organisms that are anatomically, behaviorally, and physiologically well suited to survive and reproduce in a specific environment. (
  • These will essentially further enforce the material taught during the lectures i.e. range of diversity within and between animal groups, their defining characteristics, and the functional perspective of adaptations - asking the question 'how do the adaptations we see in the organisms in front of us fit to life styles of the animals concerned? (
  • Understanding of how organisms can survive in a variety of environments is the study of small-scale adaptation to local conditions. (
  • Emphasize that organisms have adaptations that affect how well they survive in a specific environment. (
  • Over millions of years of evolution, organisms on earth have developed and perfected complex adaptations that allow them to survive and eventually thrive under specific environmental conditions. (
  • Newly married couples, for example, experience a period of adjustment analogous to the way biological organisms in an ecosystem adjust to the introduction of a new species. (
  • The characterization of genes involved in host adaptation may help in predicting bacterial evolution in patients with cystic fibrosis and in the design of future intervention strategies. (
  • How a lower‐level, bottom‐up evolutionary framework can be used to understand biological complexity involved in the origin of cellular life, early eukaryotic evolution, sexual life cycles and multicellular development is demonstrated. (
  • This biological adaptation is also a mechanism of rapid evolution, Pierce says. (
  • In recent years, evolutionary theorists have come to recognize that the reductionist, individualist, gene-centered approach to evolution cannot sufficiently account for the emergence of complex biological systems over time. (
  • Adaptation and evolution of biological materials. (
  • To understand that it's just a biological adaptation of evolution and that's it. (
  • It's an adaptation, a product of natural selection in the evolution of the human species. (
  • The module complements other biological modules in Stage 1, Ecology and Conservation, Evolution, Physiology and Marine Biology, and provides a foundation for Stage 2 modules at the Penryn campus. (
  • Define how ecophysiological processes structure microbial communities, influence their adaptation and evolution, and affect their detection on other planets. (
  • Designed to introduce students to general biological principles, with a focus on ecology and evolution. (
  • A biological anthropologist and paleobiologist, she studies the evolution of adaptations to the environment in Old World primates including humans. (
  • Her research on the evolution of human adaptations to the environment centers on the evolution of human skin and skin pigmentation, and includes an active field project examining the relationship between skin pigmentation and vitamin D production. (
  • A recent paper in the journal Evolution by ISU theoretical biologist Stephen Proulx has generated interest in the biological community. (
  • These mutations are the evolution strategies of the virus for host adaptation, and they might impede the efficacy of the current therapeutics and the accuracy of the diagnostic tests. (
  • Students will be able to demonstrate an understanding of human genetics, patterns of human heredity, the mechanisms of biological evolution, nature/nurture debate, primate taxonomy and behavior, and early human fossil evidence and interpretation. (
  • And the claim that complex adaptations can evolve independently multiple times (i.e., convergent evolution) collapses on close examination due to the implausibility of their appearing through undirected processes even once. (
  • It is suggested that the combination of an evolutionary and a physiological perspective will enable biologists and philosophers to supply an account of biological individuality that will be both more comprehensive and more in accordance with scientific practices. (
  • Biological and physiological role of PPARγ in the body has been established. (
  • Besides these molecular (such as oxidative stress tolerance), physiological/anatomical (such as chemical protection, horns and antlers) or lifestyle (such as arboreality) adaptations that reduce mortality risk, the organization of activity time budgets should be particularly important in shaping the variety of life histories observed in the wild. (
  • Here, we develop and apply a new generic modelling approach (AdaptR) that incorporates adaptive capacity through physiological limits, phenotypic plasticity, evolutionary adaptation and dispersal into a species distribution modelling framework. (
  • Demonstrate a conceptual understanding of the adaptation and diversity of microbial life on Earth and their physiological role in key biological processes. (
  • physiological Behaioral adaptations. (
  • Millet practices what she proses, too-she works at the Center for Biological Diversity . (
  • Local adaptation plays an important role in shaping diversity in species with low gene flow. (
  • Under the Post 2020 Global Biodiversity Framework, the Convention of Biological Diversity is planning to expand by at least 30% the protection of areas of land and sea of global relevance for biodiversity and its contribution to people. (
  • Investigate the role of adaptations in this theory and the diversity of species it can produce. (
  • Discover this theory's role in creating the incredible biological diversity present in our environment. (
  • Today they offer insight into adaptation to climate change, and they share techniques that support nutritional and biological diversity. (
  • While methane is emitted through rice cultivation, the traditional genetic diversity of rice plants is preserved here at the same time, which can form the basis for future land use adaptations. (
  • First term field trips to a range of habitats will allow you to study some of this diversity yourself, focusing on animal function and adaptations to different environments. (
  • Field trips will provide you with the opportunity to further develop your understanding of animal diversity by focusing on animal function and adaptations to differing environments and ecosystems. (
  • In practical classes you will be exposed to animal diversity concentrating on function and adaptation to environments and ecosystems. (
  • This paper demonstrates the power of biophysical modeling of population diversity for better understanding genome-environment interactions in biological phenomenon. (
  • We assert that the stability of whole genome adaptation is reflected in the frequencies of maintained diversity in these common variants (SNPs) for a population in its environment. (
  • Although more data on the effectiveness of climate change adaptation for species conservation are required, the diversity of examples reviewed suggests that climate change adaptation can successfully reduce negative impacts of, or enhance positive responses to, climate change. (
  • Myosin motor domains perform an extraordinary diversity of biological functions despite sharing a common mechanochemical cycle. (
  • Prior to becoming an academic, he served as Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs for the State of Wisconsin and worked in the non-governmental sector for twenty years, including as Executive Director of the Pacific Center for International Studies, a think-tank that focused on implementation of international wildlife treaty regimes, including the Convention on Biological Diversity and International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling. (
  • 1989. Microbial adaptation to degradation of hydrocarbons in polluted and unpolluted groundwater. (
  • Adaptation of a microbial community to demand-oriented biological methanation. (
  • Our long-term goals emphasize the utilization of mass spectrometry-based proteomics to fundamentally understand differential microbial adaptation and survival strategies and to integrate a novel systems biology platform for investigation of diverse biological systems, defining functional mechanisms of cellular regulation and pathogenesis. (
  • 2022). Within-population variability in coral heat tolerance indicates climate adaptation potential . (
  • Biological species have been treated traditionally as spatiotemporally unrestricted classes. (
  • This is causing impacts on species in all biomes, across many phyla, and all levels of biological complexity. (
  • Adaptation by natural selection acting over generations is one important process by which species change over time in response to changes in environmental conditions. (
  • The adaptation of members of the Caldicellulosiruptor genus to higher sugar concentrations established that the ability to develop improved strains via ALE is species dependent, with C. owensensis adapted to grow on 80 g/L, whereas C. kristjanssonii could only be adapted to 30 g/L glucose. (
  • To solve it, researchers at McGill University and the University of British Columbia synthesized more than 125 studies testing local adaptation in over 100 species. (
  • The authors say more direct tests of what drives local adaptation, especially studies of positive interactions and tropical species, are needed before we know the real scope of local adaptation to interactions. (
  • A daptation to local conditions can increase species' geographic distributions and rates of diversification, but which components of the environment commonly drive local adaptation-particularly the importance of biotic interactions-is unclear. (
  • Adaptation is a biological process where ALL species adapt to changing environments in order to survive. (
  • A research team led by biologists at Tufts University has found two genes that may allow some insect species to survive climate change by adjusting their biological annual clocks, while others succumb. (
  • Topics include adaptation, nutrient cycling and energy flow, population growth and species interactions, Mendelian and population genetics, speciation, and the history of life. (
  • By focusing on a single species, I have been able to integrate biological processes across the scales from the molecular to the community. (
  • In this first quantitative global assessment of biodiversity conservation interventions for climate change adaptation, we identified 77 peer-reviewed studies, including 443 cases describing the response of individual species' populations or assemblages to particular interventions, whilst also accounting for responses to climate change or particular climatic variables. (
  • The impacts of climate change are seen across all elements of the natural world, from the timing of biological events to species' interactions, distributions and population sizes. (
  • Conservation interventions can reduce these impacts by supporting climate change adaptation - interventions to reduce species' exposure or vulnerability to climate change, or enhance the species' capacity to adapt to climatic changes. (
  • This course explores the study of the biological history of the human species, from its emergence through the establishment of food-producing societies. (
  • She applied theoretical perspectives of social change and futures thinking approaches, to understand how ecological change is perceived and anticipated, influencing adaptation options in Australia, Colombia, and South Africa. (
  • I could be talking about non-fiction pieces I've written - about storms, trees, adaptation and vast ecological systems. (
  • We compared genetic patterns between two groups of populations that had experienced distinct hatchery rearing environments to identify specific outlier locations in the genome that may be related to hatchery adaptation. (
  • However, significant changes in B. pertussis populations have been observed after the introduction of vaccinations, suggesting a role for pathogen adaptation in the persistence and resurgence of pertussis. (
  • Furthermore, current evidence supports a model of muscle adaptation and/or maladaptation, distinct from overt injury, in which myofiber degeneration and inflammation do not contribute as significantly as once reported even in aged populations. (
  • Evolutionary adaptation relies on recombination and spontaneous mutagenesis to constantly introduce variation into populations, upon which natural selection can act. (
  • The workshop focused on research needed for characterizing exposures to nanomaterials among workers, other populations, and environments by measuring and modeling exposure levels, and by monitoring indicators of biological responses through the product life of a nanomaterial. (
  • They should provide new insights, at different geographic scales (in the major European oceans, seas and inland waters) and different climate change scenarios, on how climate-induced changes may affect important biological processes (including, reproductive success, population dynamics, migration patterns, interactions between fish populations, etc. (
  • Low mortality rate is often associated with slow life history, and so far, has mainly been assessed through examinations of specific adaptations and lifestyles that limit mortality risk. (
  • Students will be able to demonstrate an understanding of basic biological principles (heredity, physiology, evolutionary mechanisms, adaptation, ecology) in the context of their application to the human condition, as well as the role of cultural behavior in defining the distinctiveness of that condition. (
  • Our identities are part of a social ecology-a complex system of adaptation and accommodation that occurs in all living systems, including human relationships. (
  • Luckily for the Navy, the pandemic seems likely to remain an unparalleled test bed for biological threat mitigation measures until at least the end of 2021. (
  • Bode and Kushnick undertook a comprehensive review of romantic love from a biological perspective in 2021. (
  • This process occurs as part of the regulation of muscle adaptation. (
  • The programmatic emphasis is on the regulation, adaptation, and integration of mechanisms across all levels of biological organization from molecules to organ systems. (
  • 1 Computational Neurobiology Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, United States. (
  • Having an overview of the potential impacts of climate change on the Mauritian Sugarcane Industry, its effect can be reduced by formulating the right mitigation and adaptation strategies. (
  • For both of these questions, we also wanted to know which specific genes were involved in potential genetic adaptation. (
  • Previous research has found that genetic adaptation to the hatchery environment, a process sometimes referred to as domestication selection, can occur in as little as one generation. (
  • While both structural colour and transparency have been analysed in great detail by optical physicists, we are now making headway in uncovering the genetic and cell biological basis for these phenomena. (
  • Adaptation in marine invasion: a genetic perspective. (
  • It is a suite of adaptations and by-products that arose sometime during the recent evolutionary history of humans. (
  • The resilience of living humans as embodiments of the genome allows for the adaptation of groups to new or changing environments. (
  • More fundamentally these beneficial microbes may represent a novel evolutionary resource - a 'horizontal gene pool', a reservoir of adaptations that insects can draw from when they adapt to new environments. (
  • The emphasis of the Antarctic Biology Course is on integrative biology, with laboratory- and field-based projects focused on adaptations to extreme polar environments. (
  • Nevertheless, local adaptation was neither more common nor stronger when biotic interactions were left intact, either between experimental treatments within studies (control vs. biotic interactions experimentally manipulated) or between studies that used natural vs. biotically-altered transplant environments. (
  • Our results suggest that biotic interactions often fail to drive local adaptation even though they strongly affect fitness, perhaps because temperate biotic environments are unpredictable at the spatiotemporal scales required for local adaptation. (
  • Adaptation is a good thing because this allows all plants and animals to keep living when their environments change. (
  • As a living information and communications system, the genome encodes patterns in single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reflecting human adaptation that optimizes population survival in differing environments. (
  • In Biological Psychiatry, 75 (9, Suppl. (
  • Biological Psychiatry , 91 (8), e33-e34. (
  • Following the Turkish adaptation processes, the validity and reliability of the scale were examined with a pilot study. (
  • The findings can inform future-oriented practices to assess and implement processes of adaptation and address the transformational challenges to build resilient, just futures for nature and people. (
  • The central question in the learning trajectory Human Biology is what are the molecular and cellular bases of biological processes underlying human health and disease? (
  • I thought for sure local adaptation to interactions was widespread and we just needed a meta-analysis to show it. (
  • The authors found frequent local adaptation across studies and that negative interactions like being eaten or outcompeted strongly reduced performance. (
  • Nevertheless, local adaptation was not stronger or more common when experiments left interactions intact. (
  • So why don't interactions drive local adaptation even though they affect fitness? (
  • When the authors analyzed tropical data separately a stronger signal of local adaptation to interactions emerged. (
  • It doesn't explain why interactions don't drive local adaptation more often in temperate ecosystems, but it is intriguing evidence that interactions might be more evolutionarily important in the tropics," says Hargreaves. (
  • if this is common we expect transplant experiments to detect more frequent and stronger local adaptation when biotic interactions are left intact. (
  • Overall, local adaptation was common and biotic interactions affected fitness. (
  • However, the effect of ameliorating negative interactions varied with latitude, suggesting that interactions may promote local adaptation more often in tropical vs. temperate ecosystems, though few tropical studies were available to test this. (
  • In contrast, very little is known about their adaptation strategies in the mosquito vector, possibly due to the experimental challenges encountered while studying vector-parasite interactions. (
  • There is something special about relatedness caused by common ancestry, in contrast with the other mechanisms that may lead to individuals being genetically related, because it unites the interests of genes across the genome, allowing complex, multigenic adaptations to evolve. (
  • We consider adaptation to be the dynamic process of modifying expressions of the genome towards optimizing the survivability of a group that remains in a particular environment. (
  • With the publication of the virus genome information, Sino Biological has developed several research tools to support the study of virus biology. (
  • This study identified 77 peer-reviewed publications describing the degree of success observed for climate change adaptation interventions in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. (
  • One way in which Australian animals have adjusted to the presence of the cane toad is through learned behavioural adaptations. (
  • Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: A model-based functional imaging study on working memory and flexible behavioural adaptation. (
  • The time of melatonin onset under dim light (DLMO) and the time of the minimum core body temperature (CBT) are important commonly used markers of the circadian clock 4 .Misalignment between the biological clock and behavioural rhythms not only induces sleep disturbances and daytime sleepiness, but can also result in desynchronization of internal rhythms (for example when comparing the central clock to peripheral clocks) 5 . (
  • This list of genes suggests a role in host adaptation for remodeling of regulatory networks and central metabolism, acquisition of antibiotic resistance and loss of extracellular virulence factors. (
  • Analysis and summary of the current concept of biological role of nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in the body, that is a transcription factor, simulating the expression of target genes that regulate different chains of adipogenesis, thermogenesis, energy homeostasis, providing balance of glucose and sensitivity of cells to insulin, secretion of adipokines, anti-inflammatory, and anti-fibrotic effects. (
  • In this article we fixed on generalisation of data on the structure and functional peculiarities of PPARγ, since we provided the description of biological role of PPARα and PPARβ/δ in the previous issues of this journal (Current topics of toxicology 2016, No. 2 and No. 3). (
  • The emphasis will be on defining the key characteristics of the main phylogenetic groups and understanding adaptations from a functional perspective. (
  • The first quantitative global assessment of biodiversity conservation interventions for climate change adaptation has been undertaken, led by BTO researchers. (
  • Adaptation of a culturally relevant obesity prevention program involved qualitative research to tailor key obesity prevention messages, pilot testing and implementation of key messages and activities at family nights, and continual modification to incorporate culturally innovative elements. (
  • The newly established joint program between the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) and the University of Chicago (UChicago) leverages the unique partnership between two leading research institutions and combines the best of both worlds - access to a collaborative and expansive research environment that spans the scales of biological discovery at the MBL in Woods Hole, MA and the first-class resources of the University of Chicago. (
  • The High School Science Discovery Program puts the tools and technology of modern biological research in the hands of your students, allowing them to discover their inner scientists. (
  • The MBL convenes biologists from around the world to collaborate and conduct research, advancing our mission of biological discovery. (
  • In the research unit „Molecular Evolutionary Biology", we investigate adaptation mechanisms to abiotic and biotic factors in arthropods with state-of-the-art molecular biological, biochemical, genetical and bioinformatical methods. (
  • The research examines the cultural, political, and historical contexts framing climate adaptation narratives in these countries and how such narratives influence the implementation of adaptation. (
  • [3] Miller described evolutionary psychology as a starting place for further research: "Cognitive neuroscience could try to localize courtship adaptations in the brain. (
  • Government of Mauritius should play a central role in the development of an adaptation strategy for the sugarcane sector pertaining to policy formulation, research and development, fund disbursement, role of institutions among others. (
  • The objectives of NIOSH, NSET, and other partners were to review the state-of-the-science, identify critical gaps, and inform further development and adaptation of the interagency research strategy as appropriate. (
  • Organizing workshops to inform further development and adaptation of the inter-agency strategy as appropriate in their research categories is one of the coordinating agency roles. (
  • Proulx's research showed how the process of adaptation can play a role in generating organismal complexity. (
  • Biological research - why I study spiders. (
  • By watching a slideshow, reading about the rainforest, and completing some QR code research on rainforest animals and their adaptations. (
  • Second, even though research on climate adaptation and resilience is expanding rapidly across disciplines, adaptation is still largely treated as a local matter. (
  • This course examines the history of the concept of the biological race, the emergence, and the role of scientific racism, as well as the current scientific research objectives and methodologies. (
  • Cultural Adaptation of Terms Aids Study of Adverse Events Research from Italy indicates that terminology used in validated questionnaires for patient-reported outcomes should account for the social and cultural contexts of the countries involved. (
  • Drawing on both biological and cultural approaches, the authors first cover basic principles of cultural anthropology, environmental studies, and human biological adaptations to the environment. (
  • In previous articles, I have described how engineering principles better explain adaptation than does evolutionary theory ( here , here , here , here ). (
  • A daption to local conditions drives biological diversification, but what drives local adaptation? (
  • Local adaptation influences many biological levels, from phenotype to genotype, as well as. (
  • We identify where local adaptation is likely to occur and apply sensitivity analyses to identify the critical factors of interest when parameters are uncertain. (
  • Synthetic Biology Artificial Life (AL) is the enterprise of understanding biology by constructing biological phenomena out of artificial components, rather than breaking natural life forms down into their component parts. (
  • We are interested in characterizing the mechanisms of pathogenesis, adaptation, and survival in fungal and bacterial microbes from a systems biology perspective through mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics. (
  • Learning Dynamics from Large Biological Data Sets: Machine Learning Meets Systems Biology. (
  • As this Article explains, the adaptation finance gap is problematic not only for the directly impacted communities, but also for international society as a whole since climate vulnerability in one part of the world could in some cases compromise resilience in the rest of the world. (
  • From 2010 until 2015, Mach co-directed the scientific activities of Working Group II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which focuses on impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. (
  • This seminar will discuss the narratives of adaptation shaping conservation policies in the three countries, documenting the diverse understandings of adaptation and expectations for managing protected areas under climate change. (
  • It is assumed this is an adaptation to survive predator attacks. (
  • Students will love learning about rainforest animals and plants and the adaptations they have to survive in the tropical rainforest habitat. (
  • Paper presents diverse modes of governance of chemical and biological risks in agri-food sector, assesses their efficiency, complementarities, and challenges, and suggests recommendations for public policies improvement. (
  • Management of chemical and biological risks in agri-food chain ," MPRA Paper 30905, University Library of Munich, Germany. (
  • We welcome you to visit us and experience the Marine Biological Laboratory for yourself! (
  • Global Public Goods: The Climate-Security Nexus 1059 V. THE LAW AND GOVERNANCE OF MULTI-LEVEL CLIMATE 1062 ADAPTATION: A PROPOSED FRAMEWORK A. Treaty Regimes 1062 B. General International Law 1065 C. Enforcement 1067 D. Risks of Overreach 1069 VI. (
  • In this study, we directly measure how the fitness landscape neighborhood changes during laboratory adaptation. (
  • Laboratory emphasizes the experimental nature of biological investigation. (
  • Dimitri Deheyn unveils how his laboratory is working to understand and replicate these highly refined biological properties for development of sustainable and economically valuable technologies. (
  • Blending classic scholarship with exciting new developments in the discipline, Biological Psychology offers a fresh perspective on the brain's interaction with its environment. (
  • Scientists believe the evolutionary adaptation of four limbs likely began in an aquatic environment among a group called the lobe-finned fishes. (
  • This is evidenced by adaptation to stimulus parameters in sensory coding, and in learning of an up-to-date model of the environment at the behavioral level. (
  • This approach views biological adaptation as primarily occurring through internal mechanisms (the ability to actively sense the environment and adapt) rather than external influence [natural selection]. (
  • The Wetland plants vary a lot with respect to their size, biological cycle and adaptations to wetland environment. (
  • Address climate change adaptation, design of habitat networks and agri-environment schemes. (
  • Adaptation of modern biomedical technology to the study of sleep in the natural environment was reported. (
  • The biological function of a flower is to facilitate reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs . (
  • Biological adaptation is a powerful mechanism that makes many disorders hard to combat. (
  • Adaptation is a result of brilliant biological engineering rather than trial-and-error death and survival, which flips the mechanism of adaptation completely on its head. (
  • Now, a new study details the biological basis of this ability for rapid adaptation: neurons located at the beginning of the brain's sensory information pathway that changes their level of simultaneous firing. (
  • The purpose of th study is adaptation of the early learning observation and rating scale-teacher's form, developed by Coleman, West, and Gillis, to Turkish and the Turkish culture and evaluation of the causality relations between the learning domains through Path analysis in the Turkish sample. (
  • In this study, the effectiveness of agronomic adaptation options on the rainfed rice yield gap was evaluated for the baseline period (1981-2005) and two future periods (2016-2040 and 2026-2050) for India by using bias-corrected RegCM4 output and the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) model. (
  • In this paper we study steering such adaptation through sequential planning. (
  • How a brilliant-green sea slug manages to live for months at a time "feeding" on sunlight, like a plant, is clarified in a recent study published in The Biological Bulletin . (
  • For decades, music researchers have more or less settled into two camps: those who believe their subject of study is a biological adaptation, and those who believe it's a cultural invention. (
  • Predictive studies play a crucial role in the study of biological invasions of terrestrial plants under possible climate change scenarios. (
  • Mathematical models offer a unique tool to study such complex biological systems, and have been extensively employed in malaria epidemiology. (
  • Analytical review of scientific publications was performed using abstract databases of scientific libraries and text database of methodological and biological publications PubMed. (
  • The effective monitoring and evaluation of adaptation interventions is required to improve this evidence-base for future decision-making. (
  • These changes to the distribution of fitness effects can affect both the rate of adaptation and the accumulation of deleterious mutations. (
  • For example, demographic characteristics may affect energy investments among biological traits such as growth, reproduction, and somatic maintenance. (
  • Your brain's ability to rapidly switch from detecting an object moving in your direction to finding out what the object is through a phenomenon called adaptation. (
  • Ensuring sufficient preparedness and quick adaptation capacity of European marine and freshwater fisheries and aquaculture sectors to potential threats and opportunities due to climate change might be decisive for the long term sustainability of the two sectors, as well as for guaranteeing to European consumers and societies an acceptable degree of self-sufficiency of seafood supplies. (
  • The researchers found that the effect of adaptation on the synchrony of neurons in the thalamus was the key element in the shift between sensory input detection and discrimination. (
  • THE ADAPTATION CHALLENGE 1033 A. Optimal Adaptation vs. Maladaptation 1033 B. The Problem of Externalities and Coordination 1034 C. Multi-Level Public Goods 1037 D. Overcoming Externalities 1039 III. (
  • Consequently, positive international externalities of optimal adaptation (and negative externalities of maladaptation) are overlooked in the literature. (
  • FINDING THE DIVIDING LINE 1052 A. Adaptation as a Pure Domestic Public Good 1052 B. Adaptation as a Transboundary or a Global Public Good 1055 1. (
  • We show that the framework can be used to steer a biological entity modeled via a complex signaling pathway network that has numerous feedback loops that operate at different rates and have hard-to-understand aggregate behavior. (
  • This course examines the possible biological bases of modern human behavior, from a strong scientific and multi-disciplinary perspective. (
  • Physical Constraints in Biological Collective Behavior. (
  • We suspected there might be a basic biological principle of how our brain works that contributes to this phenomenon, called emotional adaptation," Sharot said. (
  • It is concluded that as the authors have come to better understand human adaptation, its complexities have been further revealed, a development already implicit in Darwin's notion. (
  • In this work ergonomic adaptation of robotic movements during human-robot collaboration is explored in a first test case, namely, adjustment of work sureface height. (
  • Nettle D. Selection, adaptation, inheritance and design in human culture: the view from the Price equation . (
  • Is a sea slug a good [biological model] for a human therapy? (
  • One can suppose that all adaptations become second nature in the normal human experience. (
  • Well, I found this article, Pleistocene migration routes into the Americas: Human biological adaptations and environmental constraints, which hits most of the major points. (
  • Identify the environmental limits for life by examining biological adaptations to extremes in environmental conditions. (
  • mitigation would mainly focus on stratagems required to limits further deterioration of the global climate and adaptation would address specific issues on how to reduce the severity of climate change due to past and future emission by mankind. (
  • RECEIVED wisdom and biological theory both have it that males are (or, at least, would like to be) more promiscuous than females. (
  • Plants have developed sophisticated mechanisms to sense the fluctuating availability of nutrients for their adaptation and survival under constantly changing atmospheric and soil conditions. (