Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Adaptation, Ocular: The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Dark Adaptation: Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Figural Aftereffect: A perceptual phenomenon used by Gestalt psychologists to demonstrate that events in one part of the perceptual field may affect perception in another part.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Biological Warfare: Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Biological Processes: Biological activities and function of the whole organism in human, animal, microorgansims, and plants, and of the biosphere.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Afterimage: Continuation of visual impression after cessation of stimuli causing the original image.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Dental Marginal Adaptation: The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Motion Perception: The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Biological Clocks: The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Systems Biology: Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Altitude: A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.Contrast Sensitivity: The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Translations: Products resulting from the conversion of one language to another.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.ArgentinaGenetic Fitness: The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Coltivirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE infecting Ixodidae ticks and transmitted by them to humans, deer, and small animals. The type species is COLORADO TICK FEVER VIRUS.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Chest Wall Oscillation: A respiratory support system used to remove mucus and clear airway by oscillating pressure on the chest.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Cultural Characteristics: Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Protein Interaction Mapping: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Saccades: An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Relative Biological Effectiveness: The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Darkness: The absence of light.Cortodoxone: 17,21-Dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A 17-hydroxycorticosteroid with glucocorticoid and anti-inflammatory activities.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Lenses: Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Short Bowel Syndrome: A malabsorption syndrome resulting from extensive operative resection of the SMALL INTESTINE, the absorptive region of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Biological Control Agents: Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Lighting: The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Color Perception: Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.Physical Conditioning, Animal: Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Adrenocortical Adenoma: A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Feedback, Sensory: A mechanism of communicating one's own sensory system information about a task, movement or skill.Mechanotransduction, Cellular: The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.Translating: Conversion from one language to another language.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Early Growth Response Protein 3: An early growth response transcription factor that is essential for the development of MUSCLE SPINDLES.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Feedback, Physiological: A mechanism of communication with a physiological system for homeostasis, adaptation, etc. Physiological feedback is mediated through extensive feedback mechanisms that use physiological cues as feedback loop signals to control other systems.Tibet: An autonomous region located in central Asia, within China.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular: A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.

Channeling of carbamoyl phosphate to the pyrimidine and arginine biosynthetic pathways in the deep sea hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi. (1/2155)

The kinetics of the coupled reactions between carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase (CPSase) and both aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) and ornithine transcarbamoylase (OTCase) from the deep sea hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi demonstrate the existence of carbamoyl phosphate channeling in both the pyrimidine and arginine biosynthetic pathways. Isotopic dilution experiments and coupled reaction kinetics analyzed within the context of the formalism proposed by Ovadi et al. (Ovadi, J., Tompa, P., Vertessy, B., Orosz, F., Keleti, T., and Welch, G. R. (1989) Biochem. J. 257, 187-190) are consistent with a partial channeling of the intermediate at 37 degrees C, but channeling efficiency increases dramatically at elevated temperatures. There is no preferential partitioning of carbamoyl phosphate between the arginine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Gel filtration chromatography at high and low temperature and in the presence and absence of substrates did not reveal stable complexes between P. abyssi CPSase and either ATCase or OTCase. Thus, channeling must occur during the dynamic association of coupled enzymes pairs. The interaction of CPSase-ATCase was further demonstrated by the unexpectedly weak inhibition of the coupled reaction by the bisubstrate analog, N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA). The anomalous effect of PALA suggests that, in the coupled reaction, the effective concentration of carbamoyl phosphate in the vicinity of the ATCase active site is 96-fold higher than the concentration in the bulk phase. Channeling probably plays an essential role in protecting this very unstable intermediate of metabolic pathways performing at extreme temperatures.  (+info)

The mammalian endoplasmic reticulum stress response element consists of an evolutionarily conserved tripartite structure and interacts with a novel stress-inducible complex. (2/2155)

When mammalian cells are subjected to calcium depletion stress or protein glycosylation block, the transcription of a family of glucose-regulated protein (GRP) genes encoding endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones is induced to high levels. The consensus mammalian ER stress response element (ERSE) conserved among grp promoters consists of a tripartite structure CCAAT(N9)CCACG, with N being a strikingly GC-rich region of 9 bp. The ERSE, in duplicate copies, can confer full stress inducibility to a heterologous promoter in a sequence-specific but orientation-independent manner. In addition to CBF/NF-Y and YY1 binding to the CCAAT and CCACG motifs, respectively, we further discovered that an ER stress-inducible complex (ERSF) from HeLa nuclear extract binds specifically to the ERSE. Strikingly, the interaction of the ERSF with the ERSE requires a conserved GGC motif within the 9 bp region. Since mutation of the GGC triplet sequence also results in loss of stress inducibility, specific sequence within the 9 bp region is an integral part of the tripartite structure. Finally, correlation of factor binding with stress inducibility reveals that ERSF binding to the ERSE alone is not sufficient; full stress inducibility requires integrity of the CCAAT, GGC and CCACG sequence motifs, as well as precise spacing among these sites.  (+info)

Shared usage of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 by primary and laboratory-adapted strains of feline immunodeficiency virus. (3/2155)

Strains of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) presently under investigation exhibit distinct patterns of in vitro tropism. In particular, the adaptation of FIV for propagation in Crandell feline kidney (CrFK) cells results in the selection of strains capable of forming syncytia with cell lines of diverse species origin. The infection of CrFK cells by CrFK-adapted strains appears to require the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and is inhibited by its natural ligand, stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha (SDF-1alpha). Here we found that inhibitors of CXCR4-mediated infection by human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1), such as the bicyclam AMD3100 and short peptides derived from the amino-terminal region of SDF-1alpha, also blocked infection of CrFK by FIV. Nevertheless, we observed differences in the ranking order of the peptides as inhibitors of FIV and HIV-1 and showed that such differences are related to the species origin of CXCR4 and not that of the viral envelope. These results suggest that, although the envelope glycoproteins of FIV and HIV-1 are substantially divergent, FIV and HIV-1 interact with CXCR4 in a highly similar manner. We have also addressed the role of CXCR4 in the life cycle of primary isolates of FIV. Various CXCR4 ligands inhibited infection of feline peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by primary FIV isolates in a concentration-dependent manner. These ligands also blocked the viral transduction of feline PBMC by pseudotyped viral particles when infection was mediated by the envelope glycoprotein of a primary FIV isolate but not by the G protein of vesicular stomatitis virus, indicating that they act at an envelope-mediated step and presumably at viral entry. These findings strongly suggest that primary and CrFK-adapted strains of FIV, despite disparate in vitro tropisms, share usage of CXCR4.  (+info)

Replicative fitness of protease inhibitor-resistant mutants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. (4/2155)

The relative replicative fitness of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mutants selected by different protease inhibitors (PIs) in vivo was determined. Each mutant was compared to wild type (WT), NL4-3, in the absence of drugs by several methods, including clonal genotyping of cultures infected with two competing viral variants, kinetics of viral antigen production, and viral infectivity/virion particle ratios. A nelfinavir-selected protease D30N substitution substantially decreased replicative capacity relative to WT, while a saquinavir-selected L90M substitution moderately decreased fitness. The D30N mutant virus was also outcompeted by the L90M mutant in the absence of drugs. A major natural polymorphism of the HIV-1 protease, L63P, compensated well for the impairment of fitness caused by L90M but only slightly improved the fitness of D30N. Multiply substituted indinavir-selected mutants M46I/L63P/V82T/I84V and L10R/M46I/L63P/V82T/I84V were just as fit as WT. These results indicate that the mutations which are usually initially selected by nelfinavir and saquinavir, D30N and L90M, respectively, impair fitness. However, additional mutations may improve the replicative capacity of these and other drug-resistant mutants. Hypotheses based on the greater fitness impairment of the nelfinavir-selected D30N mutant are suggested to explain observations that prolonged responses to delayed salvage regimens, including alternate PIs, may be relatively common after nelfinavir failure.  (+info)

Selection of RNA replicons capable of persistent noncytopathic replication in mammalian cells. (5/2155)

The natural life cycle of alphaviruses, a group of plus-strand RNA viruses, involves transmission to vertebrate hosts via mosquitoes. Chronic infections are established in mosquitoes (and usually in mosquito cell cultures), but infection of susceptible vertebrate cells typically results in rapid shutoff of host mRNA translation and cell death. Using engineered Sindbis virus RNA replicons expressing puromycin acetyltransferase as a dominant selectable marker, we identified mutations allowing persistent, noncytopathic replication in BHK-21 cells. Two of these adaptive mutations involved single-amino-acid substitutions in the C-terminal portion of nsP2, the viral helicase-protease. At one of these loci, nsP2 position 726, numerous substitution mutations were created and characterized in the context of RNA replicons and infectious virus. Our results suggest a direct correlation between the level of viral RNA replication and cytopathogenicity. This work also provides a series of alphavirus replicons for noncytopathic gene expression studies (E. V. Agapov, I. Frolov, B. D. Lindenbach, B. M. Pragai, S. Schlesinger, and C. M. Rice, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:12989-12994, 1998) and a general strategy for selecting RNA viral mutants adapted to different cellular environments.  (+info)

Genetic and fitness changes accompanying adaptation of an arbovirus to vertebrate and invertebrate cells. (6/2155)

The alternating host cycle and persistent vector infection may constrain the evolution of arboviruses. To test this hypothesis, eastern equine encephalitis virus was passaged in BHK or mosquito cells, as well as in alternating (both) host cell passages. High and low multiplicities were used to examine the effect of defective interfering particles. Clonal BHK and persistent mosquito cell infections were also evaluated. Fitness was measured with one-step growth curves and competition assays, and mutations were evaluated by nucleotide sequencing and RNA fingerprinting. All passages and assays were done at 32 degrees C to eliminate temperature as a selection factor. Viruses passaged in either cell type alone exhibited fitness declines in the bypassed cells, while high-multiplicity and clonal passages caused fitness declines in both types of cells. Bypassed cell fitness losses were mosquito and vertebrate specific and were not restricted to individual cell lines. Fitness increases occurred in the cell line used for single-host-adaptation passages and in both cells for alternately passaged viruses. Surprisingly, single-host-cell passage increased fitness in that cell type no more than alternating passages. However, single-host-cell adaptation resulted in more mutations than alternating cell passages. Mosquito cell adaptation invariably resulted in replacement of the stop codon in nsP3 with arginine or cysteine. In one case, BHK cell adaptation resulted in a 238-nucleotide deletion in the 3' untranslated region. Many nonsynonymous substitutions were shared among more than one BHK or mosquito cell passage series, suggesting positive Darwinian selection. Our results suggest that alternating host transmission cycles constrain the evolutionary rates of arboviruses but not their fitness for either host alone.  (+info)

The steady-state internal redox state (NADH/NAD) reflects the external redox state and is correlated with catabolic adaptation in Escherichia coli. (7/2155)

Escherichia coli MC4100 was grown in anaerobic glucose-limited chemostat cultures, either in the presence of an electron acceptor (fumarate, nitrate, or oxygen) or fully fermentatively. The steady-state NADH/NAD ratio depended on the nature of the electron acceptor. Anaerobically, the ratio was highest, and it decreased progressively with increasing midpoint potential of the electron acceptor. Similarly, decreasing the dissolved oxygen tension resulted in an increased NADH/NAD ratio. As pyruvate catabolism is a major switch point between fermentative and respiratory behavior, the fluxes through the different pyruvate-consuming enzymes were calculated. Although pyruvate formate lyase (PFL) is inactivated by oxygen, it was inferred that the in vivo activity of the enzyme occurred at low dissolved oxygen tensions (DOT +info)

cis-Acting elements responsible for low-temperature-inducible expression of the gene coding for the thermolabile isocitrate dehydrogenase isozyme of a psychrophilic bacterium, Vibrio sp. strain ABE-1. (8/2155)

Transcriptional control of the low-temperature-inducible icdII gene, encoding the thermolabile isocitrate dehydrogenase of a psychrophilic bacterium, Vibrio sp. strain ABE-1, was found to be mediated in part by a transcriptional silencer locating at nucleotide positions -560 to -526 upstream from the transcription start site of icdII. Deletion of the silencer resulted in a 20-fold-increased level of expression of the gene at low temperature (15 degrees C) but not at high temperature (37 degrees C). In addition, a CCAAT sequence located 2 bases upstream of the -35 region was found to be essential for the low-temperature-inducible expression of the gene. By deletion of this sequence, low-temperature-dependent expression of the gene was completely abolished. The ability of the icdII promoter to control the expression of other genes was confirmed by using a fusion gene containing the icdII promoter region and the promoterless icdI open reading frame, which encodes the non-cold-inducible isocitrate dehydrogenase isozyme of Vibrio sp. strain ABE-1. Escherichia coli transformants harboring icdII acquired an ability to grow rapidly at low temperature.  (+info)

The mechanisms by which adaptive phenotypes spread within an evolving population after their emergence are understood fairly well. Much less is known about the factors that influence the evolutionary accessibility of such phenotypes, a pre-requisite for their emergence in a population. Here, we investigate the influence of environmental quality on the accessibility of adaptive phenotypes of Escherichia colis central metabolic network. We used an established flux-balance model of metabolism as the basis for a genotype-phenotype map (GPM). We quantified the effects of seven qualitatively different environments (corresponding to both carbohydrate and gluconeogenic metabolic substrates) on the structure of this GPM. We found that the GPM has a more rugged structure in qualitatively poorer environments, suggesting that adaptive phenotypes could be intrinsically less accessible in such environments. Nevertheless, on average approximately 74% of the genotype can be altered by neutral drift, in the ...
This activity guides the analysis of a published scientific figure from a study that investigated physiological and genetic adaptations in the Bajau, a group of people who traditionally do freediving.. ...
This activity guides the analysis of a published scientific figure from a study that investigated physiological and genetic adaptations in the Bajau, a group of people who traditionally do freediving.. ...
There is an interesting article on evolvability which I wrote a bit more about here. It is by Massimo Pigliucci and titled, Is Evolvability Evolvable, for which the whole PDF is available online. Pigliucci discusses definitions of evolvability as well as different ideas about the origins of evolvability. Here is the abstract: In recent years,…
Classifying evolution as an ontogeny relieves the environment from having to account for phenotypes, something the authors insist that it cannot do. They assert, ". . . multiple levels of internal constraints on possible phenotypes make the notion of evolution as the product of external selection operating on phenotypic variations generated at random radically untenable." In a developmental model of evolution, however, the environment doesnt bestow medals of fitness on adaptive phenotypes, but functions as it does in ontogeny. A developmental model of evolution demotes the environment, subordinating it to the needs of ontogenetic programs. In this supportive role, it can function well or poorly, and in so doing facilitate or retard phenotypic expression. Nature in this model cannot select, as in the Darwinian model; it can only nurture or neglect. The environment does not pick any particular path, but it will feed or starve whoever ventures ...
Under normal conditions cells are in a homeostatic or steady state. When stimulus arrived to the cell, first the cell will adapt but if this stimulus crosses the boundary of adaptation it will cause cell injury. So cells respond to the stimulus by the following two ways: ...
Advances in bioinformatics and high-throughput genetic analysis increasingly allow us to predict the genetic basis of adaptive traits. These predictions can be tested and confirmed, but the molecular-level changes-i.e. the molecular adaptation-that link genetic differences to organism fitness remain generally unknown. In recent years, a series of studies have started to unpick the mechanisms of adaptation at the molecular level. In particular, this work has examined how changes in protein function, activity, and regulation cause improved organismal fitness. Key to addressing molecular adaptations is identifying systems and designing experiments that integrate changes in the genome, protein chemistry (molecular phenotype), and fitness. Knowledge of the molecular changes underpinning adaptations allow new insight into the constraints on, and repeatability of adaptations, and of the basis of non-additive interactions between adaptive mutations. Here we critically discuss a series of studies that ...
Many clinicians are not adequately aware of the reasons that individuals with obesity struggle to achieve and maintain weight loss,1 and this poor awareness precludes the provision of effective intervention.2 Irrespective of starting weight, caloric restriction triggers several biological adaptations designed to prevent starvation.3 These adaptations might be potent enough to undermine the long-term effectiveness of lifestyle modification in most individuals with obesity, particularly in an environment that promotes energy overconsumption. However, they are not the only biological pressures that must be overcome for successful treatment. Additional biological adaptations occur with the development of obesity and these function to preserve, or even increase, an individuals highest sustained lifetime bodyweight. For example, preadipocyte proliferation occurs, increasing fat storage capacity. In addition, habituation to rewarding neural dopamine signaling develops with the chronic overconsumption ...
It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptations, initiated by exercise, can be amplified or reduced by nutrition. Various methods have been discussed to optimize training adaptations and some of these methods have been subject to extensive study. To date, most methods have focused on skeletal muscle, but it is important to note that training effects also include adaptations in other tissues (e.g., brain, vasculature), improvements in the absorptive capacity of the intestine, increases in tolerance to dehydration, and other effects that have received less attention in the literature. The purpose of this review is to define the concept of periodized nutrition (also referred to as nutritional training) and summarize the wide variety of methods available to athletes. The reader is referred to several other recent review articles that have discussed aspects of periodized nutrition in much more detail with primarily a focus on adaptations in the muscle. The purpose of this review is not to discuss ...
Author Summary The environment humans inhabit has changed many times in the last 100,000 years. Migration and dynamic local environments can lead to genetic adaptations favoring beneficial traits. Many genes responsible for these adaptations can alter disease susceptibility. Genes can also affect disease susceptibility by varying randomly across different populations. We have studied genetic variants that are known to modify disease susceptibility in the context of worldwide migration. We found that variants associated with 11 diseases have been affected to an extent that is not explained by random variation. We also found that the genetic risk of type 2 diabetes has steadily decreased along the worldwide human migration trajectory from Africa to America.
Transforming raw materials into industrial inputs involves process technologies and machineries which have over the years been imported at exorbitant costs. In addressing this, and in consonance with Councils mandate to advise on adaptation of machinery and processes for raw materials utilization, a number of technologies have been developed specifically for processing raw materials as industrial inputs ...
Description. James Simmie (Department of Planning, Oxford Brookes University) develops an evolutionary economics approach to adaptation and change in urban economies. Abstract: In this lecture, James Simmie develops one of the evolutionary economics approaches to understanding adaptation and change in the economic trajectories of urban economies. Neo-classical equilibrist versions of resilience and adaptation are rejected in favour of an evolutionary perspective. He argues in particular for an explanation based on why and how local economies adapt through time both to continual mutations and to periodic gales of creative destruction. Simmie focuses on the extent to which the "panarchy" conceptual framework can suggest testable hypotheses concerning urban and regional resilience. He explores some ...
The field of molecular evolution, which includes genome evolution, is devoted to finding variation within and between groups of organisms and explaining the processes responsible for generating this variation
The field of molecular evolution, which includes genome evolution, is devoted to finding variation within and between groups of organisms and explaining the processes responsible for generating this variation
Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating lowered oxygen tension. Hypoxia, defined as a decline in O2 levels below normoxic levels of 20.8 - 20.95%, results in metabolic adaptation at both the cellular and organismal level ...
Get info about Concordia Seminary evolutionary biology. Nursing is one of the fastest-growing job areas, and for good reason. As the population ages, medical care will continue to expand rapidly.
While studying any subject in a new country has its benefits, there are a few particular subjects which really do require learning in a new environment. Read on to find out what they are.
If we are takling about scientificly evolving into a different form in this world, it may be possible but it will most likely be done by us rather than through adaptation (we arent patient enough for it). If we are talking about ascending to heavan/astral planes/etc./etc., we might want to find ...
Learning and adaptation are considered to be stochastic in nature by most modern psychologists and by many engineers. Markov chains are among the simplest and best understood models of stochastic processes and, in recent years, have frequently found application as models of adaptive processes. A number of new techniques are developed for the analysis of synchronous and asynchronous Markov chains, with emphasis on the problems encountered in the use of these chains as models of adaptive processes. Signal flow analysis yields simplified computations of asymptotic success probabilities, delay times, and other indices of performance. The techniques are illustrated by several examples of adaptive processes. These examples yield further insight into the relations between adaptation and feedback ...
Using continuous reaction norms to characterize adaptive responses to temperature, the researchers reexamined a recent study that linked rapid adaptation to specific genetic changes. The study, by Holder and Bull, showed that phage populations quickly evolved higher growth rates at higher temperatures. But, Knies et al. explain, these growth rates were correlated with just one temperature point the optimal temperature for the ancestral populations (used at the beginning of the experiment). Knies et al. reexamined phage thermal adaptation by measuring growth rate over a wider range of temperatures, then used a recently developed statistical method to identify the biological determinants of the shifts in the reaction norm shapes, quantify their relative contributions, and identify the genetic basis of the adaptations ...
Genome-Wide Scan for Adaptive Divergence and Association with Population-Specific Covariates mathieu gautier doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/023721 In population genomics studies, accounting for the neutral covariance structure across population allele frequencies is critical to improve the robustness of genome-wide scan approaches. Elaborating on the BayEnv model, this study investigates several modeling extensions i) to improve the estimation accuracy…
The genomics revolution has expanded from its origins in molecular biology to impact upon every discipline in the life sciences, including ecology. Several lines of ecological research can now be profitably addressed using genomics technology, including issues of nutrient cycling, population structure, life-history variation, trophic interaction, stress responses, and adaptation to environmental change.
While DNA takes a long time to evolve, the epigenetic programming that activates and silences our DNA is more malleable. Thus humans can exploit epigenetics to adjust rapidly to changing environments, by activating genes that facilitate adaptation to pathogens and climates, etc. Consistent with this, some genomic regions show highly variable methylation across individuals, with evidence that such variation is controlled by alleles at specific genetic loci.
To add a link to an uploaded journal article pdf, review the instructions that will arrive in an email following each successful use of the upload form (more help on hypertext links in Help ...
Ability to see at night or in low lighting depends on adaptation in which the pupil of the eye dilates, visual purple increases, and the intensity threshold of the retina is lowered. A decrease in the oxygen content of the … Continue reading →. ...
Animal adaptations are fun structure to learn for students. They are aware of many but might not have connected that these structures are what scientists call adaptations. Students will use Plan your 60-minute lesson in Science with helpful tips from Ellen Herman
Overall, the essays in this collection deal with diverse topics and theoretical concerns of adaptation studies today. They throw light on both often researched and neglected or undervalued works." (Poetics Today, 1 May 2015). "Well-written, suggestively arranged in a series of six sections, A Companion to Literature, Film and Adaptation provides an invaluable resource for anyone interested in debates about the past, present and future of adaptation studies, and why the discipline represents an important advance in the field of interdisciplinary learning … Cartmells collection covers just about every area imaginable within adaptation studies, whether historical, theoretical or otherwise … [It] is a far cry from those collections that simply compare source with target texts; it encompasses comic-books, songs, silent cinema as well as more canonical texts and their cinematic variants. There is something for everyone in this volume." (Post Script, 2014). "Summing Up: Recommended. Upper-division ...
Organisms evolve. Organizations evolve. How can you understand your organization within the context of the business ecosystem? By understanding the competitive landscape, adaptive peaks, the role of mutability and how to exploit niches.
I will be implementing an Exchange 2000 server in a new environment. Right now, mailguard is enabled on the Cisco PIX. Does anyone know what this will do if the only mail received on this connector...
View Notes - homo-heterosporous[1] from BIOL 240 at S.F. State. Are there risks (disadvantages) to being homothallic? Are there benefits (adaptive advantages) to being heterothallic? Are there risks
By Communications and Marketing. How does one start a totally new field of science? Just ask Kansas State Universitys Loretta Johnson, associate professor, and Michael Herman, professor, both in the Division of Biology.. Ten years ago, Johnson and Herman teamed up to start research in the new area of ecological genomics. To celebrate launching this new field of science, the Kansas State University Ecological Genomics Institute is hosting a special 10th anniversary symposium from Oct. 26-28 at the Kansas City Marriott on the Plaza.. The development of ecological genomics came from seemingly unrelated research programs. Hermans research had focused on the genetics of development in a roundworm called Caenorhabditis elegans, and Johnsons research had centered on the ecology and root systems of prairie grasses.. "We both saw that by collaborating and learning from one another we could forge a new area to learn how ecological interactions are dictated by organisms genomes, or the collection of ...
An enduring puzzle in evolutionary biology is to understand how individuals and populations adapt to fluctuating environments. Here we present an integro-differential model of adaptive dynamics in a phenotype-structured population whose fitness landscape evolves in time due to periodic environmental oscillations. The analytical tractability of our model allows for a systematic investigation of the relative contributions of heritable variations in gene expression, environmental changes and natural selection as drivers of phenotypic adaptation. We show that environmental fluctuations can induce the population to enter an unstable and fluctuation-driven epigenetic state. We demonstrate that this can trigger the emergence of oscillations in the size of the population, and we establish a full characterisation of such oscillations. Moreover, the results of our analyses provide a formal basis for the claim that higher rates of epimutations can bring about higher levels of intrapopulation heterogeneity, whilst
Regulation and Environmental Adaptation of Photosynthesis: An Attractive Theme for Structural Life Science Co-sponsored by GDRI-IPB (CNRS, France ...
Biological and artificial evolutionary systems exhibit varying degrees of evolvability and different rates of evolution. Such quantities can be affected by various factors. Here, we review some evolutionary mechanisms and discuss new developments in biology that can potentially improve evolvability or accelerate evolution in artificial systems. Biological notions are discussed to the degree they correspond to notions in Evolutionary Computation. We hope that the findings put forward here can be used to design computational models of evolution that produce significant gains in evolvability and evolutionary speed.. ...
Adaptive evolution of anti-viral siRNAi genes in bumblebees Sophie Helbing , Michael Lattorff doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/017681 The high density of frequently interacting and closely related individuals in social insects enhance pathogen transmission and establishment within colonies. Group-mediated behavior supporting immune defenses tend to decrease selection acting on immune genes. Along with low effective population sizes this…
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Biological evolution accounts for the diversity of species developed through gradual processes over many generations. Species acquire many of their unique characteristics through biological adaptation, which involves the selection of naturally occurring variations in populations. Biological adaptations include changes in structures, behaviors, or physiology that enhance survival and reproductive success in a particular environment ...
In this paper, we seek to test two hypotheses that could, in principle, account for this deceleration. (H1) The observed deceleration indicates that the rate of evolutionary adaptation is truly slowing down. This occurs as the evolving population approaches a fitness peak or plateau because the remaining number of beneficial mutations, their marginal effect, or both become progressively smaller. This hypothesis assumes that fitness values of the chronologically ordered population samples are both qualitatively and quantitatively transitive; i.e., they follow a strict competitive hierarchy, such that the cumulative fitness improvement relative to the ancestor could be predicted from the incremental gains over the constituent time intervals. (H2) The rate of adaptation continues at the initial rapid pace, and the apparent deceleration is an artifact of using the ancestor as the common yardstick to measure adaptation. Under this hypothesis, fitness values are non-transitive. Consequently, the total ...
Adaptive evolution refers to changes within species as a result of stimuli in the environment, and one example is Hypericum perforatum, also known as St. Johns wort. This plant now has latitudinal...
A map is crucial for all travelers, from fun-seeking vacationers to serious scientific researchers. This months article is a map of the Engineered Adaptability series and highlights the places future articles will stop en route to its destination-a design-based framework that explains adaptability. To keep everyone traveling together, the articles will decipher information from peer-reviewed forums and supply an orientation so readers know where theyre headed.. Where Adaptability Goes, Evolutionary Theory Follows. Adaptability is a characteristic of all living things. If organisms couldnt adapt to changing environments, then evolutionary theory would have nothing to work with. Evolutionists struggle to explain how adaptability could emerge since a creature cannot adapt until it is already adaptable. Evolution assumes that adaptability mysteriously arose through random genetic mutations that somehow proved advantageous. Evolutionary theory offers a naturalistic explanation for the origin of ...
Physiological adaptations involved in alkane assimilation at a low temperature by Rhodococcus sp. strain Q15.: We examined physiological adaptations which allow
Climate change and its effects on habitats are unquestionably affecting life history traits and the distribution of many living organisms. Plasticity and genetic adaptation are important mechanisms by which species can respond to changes in their environment and, in the context of recent rapid climate change, such responses could ameliorate the negative consequences of this disturbance. However, the effectiveness and generality of plasticity versus adaptive responses to rapid changes are still a matter of scientific debate and clearly deserve further investigation, which we propose to address in a successful African small mammal, the striped mouse. The striped mouse has split into two species some 2.9 million years ago during a period of marked climate oscillation, and at present its various populations occupy much diversified environments ranging from arid to humid. The striped mouse has recently benefited from many studies resulting in a very good understanding of its biology and on which this ...
... , The organic view of social behaviour, Evolutionary theory versus environmental adaptation
The fraction of reinforcing cis eQTL that have experienced recent selective sweeps in the laboratory strain lineage can be estimated from the distributions of θ values (Fig. S3). At the eQTL cutoffs used above, we found that θ was lower than expected by chance for approximately 78 genes (14.4% of reinforcing pairs), implying the action of selective sweeps in these regions. For eQTL triplets, approximately 56 genes (18.0% of reinforcing triplets) showed similar deficits of variation. At more permissive eQTL cutoffs, over 100 genes had lower θ than expected. Because many sweeps may be too recent (after divergence of the five strains) or too ancient (because of mutation accumulation) to be detected, these are likely substantial underestimates of the extent of sweeps affecting gene expression in the laboratory strain lineage.. Analyzing θ in the two classes of reinforcing eQTL (Fig. 1 and Fig. S1) separately is also informative. In this case, the appropriate set of opposing pairs for comparison ...
An adaptation in biology is a trait with a current functional role in the life history of an organism that is maintained and evolved by means of natural selection. An adaptation refers to both the current state of being adapted and to the dynamic evolutionary process that leads to the adaptation. Adaptations contribute to the fitness and survival of individuals. Organisms face a succession of environmental challenges as they grow and develop and are equipped with an adaptive plasticity as the phenotype of traits develop in response to the imposed conditions. The developmental norm of reaction for any given trait is essential to the correction of adaptation as it affords a kind of biological insurance or resilience to varying environments. ...
FIG. 3. Threshold shift of GSIR due to A456V. A comparison of wild-type and mutant enzyme kinetics is shown in A, and the relative β-cell glucose phosphorylation rate (rel. BGPR) is plotted in B as a function of blood glucose. The wild-type/wild-type threshold for GSIR is by definition 5 mmol/l (GSIR-5) and, in this study, is reached at ∼25.7% of the hypothetical maximum of the BGPR. The apparent GSRI-5 for A456V is calculated as 1.5 mmol/l based on adaptation of both GK alleles to low glucose when the rel. BGPR is ∼25.7%. ...
In the current scenario of global change, the impact of anthropogenic stressors is affecting the aquatic ecosystems, especially essential microorganisms such as phytoplan..
Speaker: Dr. Frank Rosenzweig Affiliation: University of Montana Host: Dr. Marc Meneghini Date & Time: April 1st - 2PM Place: Donnelly Centre Red Seminar Room
Several results of this study can be generalized. Qualitatively, phenotypes that are accessible only from mutations of large effect will be present in populations subjected to sudden environmental change, but will be absent in populations subjected to slower change. In our simulation, the large initial drop in fitness associated with the sudden change in environment pushes lineages very far from their ancestral adaptive peak and disperses them to different distant points on an adaptive landscape. Since there has been a sudden and large change in environment, the lineages suffer large drops in fitness. In our model, this corresponds to the structures melting. In this case, almost any change that produces an increase in stability will be beneficial, regardless of how dissimilar the structure is from the parental type, since all melted structures will have large and inevitable fitness costs with small differences between them, and fitness gains early in adaptation will be driven largely by gains in ...
Cutting-edge knowledge and current concepts on cold-adapted microorganisms including the major aspects of biodiversity in cold ecosystems, the physiology and molecular adaptation mechanisms, the various biomolecules related to cold adaptation, and the diverse strategies employed to cope with the cold.
Therefore, genetic architecture can help us to answer biological questions about speciation, the evolution of sex and ... Lewontin, R. C. (1978-09-01). "Adaptation". Scientific American. 239 (3): 212-218, 220, 222 passim. doi:10.1038/ ... Stadler, Peter F.; Stadler, Bärbel M. R. (2015-04-14). "Genotype-Phenotype Maps". Biological Theory. 1 (3): 268-279. doi: ...
Catherines Island: 3. Prehistoric Human Biological Adaptation. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History ... Clark Spencer Larsen and George R. Milner (editors) (1994) In the Wake of Contact: Biological Responses to Conquest. Wiley-Liss ... Clark Spencer Larsen (born 1952) is an American biological anthropologist, author, and educator. His work focuses on ... Clark Spencer Larsen (1995) Biological Changes in Human Populations with Agriculture. Annual Review of Anthropology 24:185-213 ...
Biological structure and function. 3. CUP Archive. pp. 15-17. ISBN 0-521-20048-2. Retrieved 21 Mar 2010.. ... Spearman, R.I.C (1973). "Function Adaptation in the Invertebrate Integument:". The integument: a textbook of skin biology. ...
American Institute of Biological Sciences. Retrieved 2013-06-20. Beall CM, Laskowski D, Erzurum SC (2012). "Nitric oxide in ... Cynthia Beall is the leading scientist in the study of high-altitude adaptation in humans, particularly in places where there ... Her groundbreaking works among the Andean, Tibetan and East African highlanders are the basis of our knowledge on adaptation to ... permanent dead link] Beall CM (2007). "Two routes to functional adaptation: Tibetan and Andean high-altitude natives". Proc ...
Spuhler suggests that extended female sexuality has evolved as a by-product of an adaptation in females that increases the ... Gangestad, S. W.; Thornhill, R. (2008). "Human oestrus". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. 275 ... However, no empirical evidence has established the link between hormones and endurance walking as an adaptation and extended ... Muller, J. K.; Eggert, A. K. (1989). "Paternity assurance by helpful males: Adaptations to sperm competition in burying beetles ...
Stringer, C (1984). "Human evolution and biological adaptation in the Pleistocene". In Foley, R (ed.). Hominid evolution and ... Some climatic adaptations, such as high-altitude adaptation in humans, are thought to have been acquired by archaic admixture. ... usually thought to be an adaptation to cold climate.[111] The same adaptation is found in some modern people living in the ... Series B, Biological Sciences. 371 (1698): 20150237. doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0237. PMC 4920294. PMID 27298468.. ...
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doi:10.1016/0022-0981(86)90240-6. Crozier, W. J. (1920). "Notes on some problems of adaptation, 2. On the temporal relations of ... Fisher, W. K. (1925). "Asexual Reproduction in the Starfish, Sclerasterias" (PDF). Biological Bulletin. 48 (3): 171-175. doi: ... Biological Bulletin. 39 (2): 116-29. doi:10.2307/1536620. Alves, L. S. S.; A. Pereira & C. Ventura (2001). "Sexual and asexual ...
A number of authors have also suggested that mood disorders are an evolutionary adaptation. A low or depressed mood can ... Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry. 30 (5): 815-826. doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2006.01.007. PMID 16647176 ... Nesse R (2000). "Is Depression an Adaptation?" (PDF). Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 57 (1): 14-20. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.57.1.14. PMID ...
Sexing skeletons is based on the observation that biological males and biological females differ most in the skull and pelvis; ... "Biocultural dimensions of archaeological study: a regional perspective". In: Biocultural adaptation in prehistoric America, pp ... Cambridge Studies in Biological and Evolutionary Anthropology: Cambridge University Press, 2008. Mays, Simon. The Archaeology ... Cambridge Studies in Biological and Evolutionary Anthropology: Cambridge University Press, 2008. 273-303. Buikstra, Jane E. " ...
Leducq, J-B; Charron, G; Samani, P (2014). "Local climatic adaptation in a widespread microorganism". Proceedings of the Royal ... Society B: Biological Sciences. 281: 20132472. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.2472. PMC 3896012 . PMID 24403328. Liti, G; Carter, DM; ... Accordingly, its biogeography is mostly marked by natural processes like limited migration, glacial refugia and adaptation to ...
"Skin Color Adaptation". Human Biological Adaptability: Skin Color as an Adaptation. Palomar. Archived from the original on 18 ... Skin pigmentation is an evolutionary adaptation to various UVR levels around the world. As a consequence there are many health ... pre-existing high UV adapted state of modern humans before the out of Africa migration and not a later evolutionary adaptation ...
Adaptation of biological networks. 34000 EUR/year, 1992-2019, principal investigator. http://linkgroup.hu/petercsermely.php hu: ... His area of research area is related to the adaptation and learning of complex systems and their network descriptions. He is ... His major fields of study are the adaptation and learning of complex networks. In 1995 Csermely launched a highly successful ...
Storz, Jay; Hideaki Moriyama (June 2008). "Mechanisms of Hemoglobin Adaptation to High Altitude Hypoxia". High Altitude ... Biological Chemistry Hoppe-Seyler. 368 (12): 1559-1569. PMID 3442599. ...
"Human Biological Adaptation to Arctic and Subarctic Zones". Annual Review of Anthropology; Vol. 9, (1980), pp. 63-82 Steegmann ... link Watts, E.S. (1981). "The Biological Race Concept and Diseases of Modern Man." In Biocultural Aspects of Disease. New York ... Marta Mirazon Lahr of the Department of Biological Anthropology at Cambridge University used the term Mongoloid to refer to ... He also argues that scientists have a professional and ethical duty to avoid such biological analyses since they could ...
"Skin Color Adaptation". Human Biological Adaptability: Skin Color as an Adaptation. Palomar. Archived from the original on 18 ... Skin pigmentation is an evolutionary adaptation to the various UV radiation levels around the world. There are health ... Relethford, John (1997). Fundamentals of Biological Anthropology. Mayfield Publishing Company. p. 270. ISBN 1559346671. ...
"Biological Rhythms and Human Adaptation to the Environment". US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (AMRMC), US Army ... Ebert, D., K.P. Ebmeier, T. Rechlin, and W.P. Kaschka, "Biological Rhythms and Behavior", Advances in Biological Psychiatry. ... The variations of the timing and duration of biological activity in living organisms occur for many essential biological ... Alexander Chizhevsky Bacterial circadian rhythms Biological clock (aging) Circannual cycle Circaseptan, 7-day biological cycle ...
After the adaptation of flight was established, it may have been refined to target flying prey by echolocation. Bats may have ... Most molecular biological evidence supports the view that bats form a natural or monophyletic group. Genetic evidence indicates ... The adaptations of a particular bat species can directly influence what kinds of prey are available to it. Flight has enabled ... This adaptation does not permit bats to reduce their wingspans, unlike birds which can partly fold their wings in flight, ...
"Reproductive adaptations in Antarctic invertebrates". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 14: 67-75. Rohde, K. 2002. " ... "Adaptations within the Antarctic marine benthic ecosystem. In: Adaptations within Antarctic ecosystems". Proceedings 3rd SCAR ... "Larval ecology of marine benthic invertebrates: Palaeobiological implications". Biological Reviews 58: 21-89. Laptikhovsky, V. ...
Lewontin has long been a critic of traditional neo-Darwinian approaches to adaptation. In his article "Adaptation" in the ... Lewontin briefly argued for the historical nature of biological causality in "Is Nature Probable or Capricious?". In "Organism ... "Adaptation," Scientific American, vol. 239, (1978) 212-228. Gould, S. J.; Lewontin, R. C. (1979). "The Spandrels of San Marco ... 16 (1, Logic in Biological Investigation): 25-27. doi:10.2307/1293548. JSTOR 1293548. Lewontin, R. C. (1970). "The Units of ...
With a very hot dry summer, a mild winter, and brackish groundwater, the plants need adaptations in order to survive. ... ISBN 978-94-007-3008-3. "Bahrain: Status and Trends of Biodiversity". Convention on Biological Diversity. Retrieved 27 November ... One of the commonest of these is the dwarf shrub Zygophyllum qatarense, which has many adaptations to suit the harsh ... Riegl, Bernhard; Purkis, Sam J. (2012). Coral Reefs of the Gulf: Adaptation to Climatic Extremes. Springer Science & Business ...
Biological and behavioral determinants of language development, 29, 66. Pinker, S. (2003). Language as an adaptation to the ... Series B: Biological Sciences, 267(1441), 403-413. doi 10.1098/rspb.2000.1015 PMID 10722223 Baron-Cohen, S. (1997). ... 2008) argue that the "profound continuity" Charles Darwin noted between human and non-human animals in the biological domain is ... Linguist Noam Chomsky proposed a biological component of language, which he termed Universal Grammar. According to Chomsky, an ...
Osorio, D. (1996). "Colour vision as an adaptation to frugivory in primates". Royal Society of London: Biological Sciences. 263 ... Weiner, Irving B. (2003). Handbook of Psychology, Biological Psychology. John Wiley & Sons. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-471-38403-8. ...
Nixon, P. J. (2000). "Chlororespiration". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 355 (1402): ... Chlororespiration: an adaptation to nitrogen deficiency in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. http://www.wikigenes.org/e/ref/e/11607187 ...
Forest Adaptation and Restoration under Global Change; Climate Change and Forest Health Forests and Biological Invasions; ... the Convention on Biological Diversity, the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and other forest-related international ... Ecosystem Services and Biological Invasions Forest, Soil and Water Interactions The three institutional goals are: Goal 1 - ...
Biological neurons are connected to each other in a complex, recurrent fashion. These connections are, unlike most artificial ... "Organismically-inspired robotics: homeostatic adaptation and teleology beyond the closed sensorimotor loop" (PDF).. ... Main article: Biological neuron models. Even single neurons have complex biophysical characteristics and can perform ... Hence there is a drive to produce simplified neuron models that can retain significant biological fidelity at a low ...
Biological Adaptations of Strength Training. Official Title ICMJE Biological Adaptations of Strength Training to Obese and ... Biological Adaptations of Strength Training.. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ...
Biological anthropologists explore many of these environmental pressures and investigate the adaptations that populations ... This debate between acclimatization and adaptation is at the crux of what a biological anthropologist might study. They employ ... These tiny evolutionary changes usually are found within a specific population of people and often are due to adaptations that ... This type of change does not leave a lasting impression on a species the way an adaptation does. ...
This adaptation resulted in the capacity of this strain to grow in the presence of supersaturating amounts of toluene (Chapter ... The toxicity of various pollutants in a waste-gas stream for microorganisms could limit the application of biological waste-gas ... A disadvantage of trickie-bed reactors for biological waste-gas treatment is the reduction in reactor performance which is ... there is nowadays a growing interest to apply biological waste-gas treatment techniques for the removal of higher ...
We examine the implications of one form of biological adaptation - immune system learning - for human capital formation. Using ... Our findings highlight the importance of capturing the critical tradeoffs generated by biological adaptation to early adversity ... Fink, Günther and Venkataramani, Atheendar and Zanolini, Arianna, Early Life Adversity, Biological Adaptation, and Human ...
Tool use as adaptation Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society ... 30] address the role of cognition either as a (probably domain-general) pre-adaptation to flexible tool use or as a (more ... Your Name) thought you would like to see the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences web site. ... While the question of adaptation is undeniably key to understanding the emergence of tool-use behaviours, empirical data on the ...
It was launched in June 2008 with the overall goal to advance our understanding of the biological, ecological, biogeochemical, ... To address these questions for a wide range of potentially sensitive biological processes, Theme 2 activities are structured ... what are the underlying mechanisms of the observed responses and the potential for adaptation, how are they modulated by other ... and the ability of organisms to undergo physiological and genetic adaptations. A large gap in our understanding also concerns ...
2017 Adaptation to fragmentation: evolutionary dynamics driven by human influences. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 372, 20160037. (doi: ... 2005 Running to stand still: adaptation and the response of plants to rapid climate change. Ecol. Lett. 8, 1010-1020. (doi: ... These results, based on both linear models and QST estimates, suggest that adaptation can act swiftly to alter traits in the ... Effects of fragmentation on plant adaptation to urban environments Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
Adaptation in response to environmental unpredictability. Lluis Franch-Gras, Eduardo M. García-Roger, Manuel Serra, María José ... Adaptation in response to environmental unpredictability. Lluis Franch-Gras, Eduardo M. García-Roger, Manuel Serra, María José ... Adaptation in response to environmental unpredictability Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Proceedings of ... Your Name) thought you would like to see the Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences web site. ...
Temperature adaptation of biological membranes. The effects of acclimation temperature on the unsaturation of the main neutral ... suggested that the observed fatty acid substitution in phosphatidylcholine indicates a temperature-induced fluidity adaptation ...
7. Adaptation: putting habitat selection to work. The process of adaptation to habitat unites ecological with evolutionary ... 2004 Conceptual issues in local adaptation. Ecol. Lett. 7, 1225-1241. doi:10.1111/j.1461-0248.2004.00684.x (doi:10.1111/j.1461- ... Adaptation and habitat selection in the eco-evolutionary process Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Adaptation tells us why there is a splendid but imperfect fit between form and function, why there is diversity and ...
ARCH3042 Ecology of human evolution: biological, social and cultural approaches to hominin adaptations.. Module Overview. This ... but also physiological adaptations in past and present-day hunter-gatherers and great apes. These physiological adaptations are ... examine evidence for the ecologies and adaptations of present-day hunter-gatherers and great apes. • evaluate key ... This module will combine approaches from human origins and biological anthropological research to evaluate how we can ...
Mind, Brain and Adaptation in the Nineteenth Century: Cerebral Localization and Its Biological Context from Gall to Ferrier. by ... He had localized sensory and motor areas, but he had not provided a psychophysiology which accounts for the adaptations of ... it lost sight of the significance of his questions and of the possibilities inherent in the biological, adaptive view shared by ... was the most important aspect of Galls work and which had been extended in Spencers conception of psychology as a biological ...
Research project: The genomics of adaptation and its consequences for marine biological invasions. Currently Active: Yes. The ... including those relevant to biological invasions such as phenotypic evolution, adaptation and population genomics. The proposed ... of the genetics of population adaptation is pertinent when one is attempting to understand and predict future marine biological ... The proposed research will use population genomics to identify genes or genomic regions that underlie local adaptation and are ...
We tested the hypothesis that vertebrae are an adaptation for enhanced feeding and fleeing performance. We created a population ... We tested the hypothesis that vertebrae are an adaptation for enhanced feeding and fleeing performance. We created a population ... Testing biological hypotheses with embodied robots: adaptations, accidents, and by-products in the evolution of vertebrates. ... Depending on the generation in which one looks, you could say that the change in N is an adaptation, an accident, or a by- ...
Under such conditions, obesity is perceived by the physiologist as a necessary biological adaptation rather than a disease. For ... a disease or a biological adaptation?. @article{Tremblay2000ObesityAD, title={Obesity: a disease or a biological adaptation?}, ... Obesity: a disease or a biological adaptation? An update.. *Jean-Philippe Chaput, Éric Doucet, Angelo Tremblay ...
3, Prehistoric human biological adaptation. Anthropological papers of the AMNH ; v. 57, pt. 3. en_US. ... 3, Prehistoric human biological adaptation. Anthropological papers of the AMNH ; v. 57, pt. 3. ... implying human biological continuity for at least 3500 years prior to European contact; and (3) the economic regime for the ... and a later mixed agricultural and hunting-gathering adaptation (A.D. 1150-A.D. 1550); (2) the Georgia coast represents ...
Adaptation of the Nisin-Controlled Expression System in Lactobacillus plantarum: a Tool To Study In Vivo Biological Effects. ... Adaptation of the Nisin-Controlled Expression System in Lactobacillus plantarum: a Tool To Study In Vivo Biological Effects ... Adaptation of the Nisin-Controlled Expression System in Lactobacillus plantarum: a Tool To Study In Vivo Biological Effects ... Adaptation of the Nisin-Controlled Expression System in Lactobacillus plantarum: a Tool To Study In Vivo Biological Effects ...
Compensatory Adaptation to the Loss of Biological Fitness Associated with Acquisition of Fusidic Acid Resistance in ... Compensatory Adaptation to the Loss of Biological Fitness Associated with Acquisition of Fusidic Acid Resistance in ... Compensatory Adaptation to the Loss of Biological Fitness Associated with Acquisition of Fusidic Acid Resistance in ... Compensatory Adaptation to the Loss of Biological Fitness Associated with Acquisition of Fusidic Acid Resistance in ...
The Aspen Global Change Institute is an independent nonprofit dedicated to furthering scientific understanding of Earth systems and global environmental change in service of society. Our work includes interdisciplinary research, education and outreach, and collaboration with resource managers and policy-makers. Together we strive to facilitate scientific discussion for the betterment of society and natural systems, while promoting practical solutions to the challenges of todays changing Earth systems. ...
Comparative genomics reveals high biological diversity and specific adaptations in the industrially and medically important ... Many aspects of biological differences between fungal species cannot be explained by current knowledge obtained from genome ... allows for the first time a genus-wide view of the biological diversity of the aspergilli and in many, but not all, cases ...
Comparative genomics reveals high biological diversity and specific adaptations in the industrially and medically important ... title = "Comparative genomics reveals high biological diversity and specific adaptations in the industrially and medically ... Comparative genomics reveals high biological diversity and specific adaptations in the industrially and medically important ... T1 - Comparative genomics reveals high biological diversity and specific adaptations in the industrially and medically ...
In Central Massachusetts, Teachers Use Inquiry to Investigate Biological Adaptations. Worcester, MA - Over the course of one ... Worcester-area elementary and middle school teachers learned more about biological adaptations during the July 9-13, 2018 ...
Biological Species Concept Essay ...Biological Species Concept (BSC) What are biological species? At first glance, this seems ... Biological and Human Final Essay ... Biological and Humanistic Personality PSY/250 October 7, 2014 Mark Peterson Biological ... Importance of Biological Aspects in the Human Species Adaptation Topics: Human, Natural selection, Natural environment Pages: 1 ... The adaptation is not always good but it is depend on the situation they are in. The adaptation from generation of Paul and his ...
... cerevisiae adaptation in wine fermentation will be key to determine the domestication effects over low nitrogen adaptation, as ... In the present review, we summarize some recent efforts in the search of causative genes that account for yeast adaptation to ... Finally, we do a recapitulation of S. cerevisiae natural diversity related to low nitrogen adaptation, specially showing how ... well as to definitely proof that wild S. cerevisiae strains have potential genetic determinants for better adaptation to low ...
Neural correlates of action aftereffects triggered by adaptation to biological motion Steven Thurman; Jeroen van Boxtel; Martin ... Neural correlates of action aftereffects triggered by adaptation to biological motion You will receive an email whenever this ... These results suggest a direct link between perceptual adaptation and neural adaptation in right pSTS, and suggest this as a ... Neural correlates of action aftereffects triggered by adaptation to biological motion. Journal of Vision 2015;15(12):556. doi: ...
  • What are the effects of ocean acidification and related changes in seawater chemistry on marine organisms, what are the underlying mechanisms of the observed responses and the potential for adaptation, how are they modulated by other environmental stressors, and what are the consequences for marine ecosystems and ocean biogeochemical cycles? (epoca-project.eu)
  • Particular attention is paid to elucidating (i) the mechanisms of calcification at the molecular, cellular and organism levels, (ii) synergistic effects with global warming, (iii) strain and species-specific differences in calcification responses and (iv) the potential for adaptation. (epoca-project.eu)
  • a very interesting recent review discusses the mechanisms of yeast adaptation to wine fermentation from an "omics" point of view [ 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the neural mechanisms underlying action adaptation aftereffects remain unknown. (arvojournals.org)
  • We also measured fMR-adaptation to repeated actions (e.g. repetition suppression) and found significant effects in the right pSTS, although the strength of fMR-adaptation did not correlate with perceptual aftereffects, suggesting that distinct mechanisms are involved in action aftereffects and repetition suppression. (arvojournals.org)
  • What Meerson discovered is that if the reduced oxygen pressure is intermittent rather than constant, the human body switches on defensive mechanisms that can produce super-normal resistance to biological and emotional stress. (resveratrolnews.com)
  • The mechanisms that underpin coral adaptation to rising temperatures are more complicated than in the other aquatic organisms because of the holobiont nature of corals, wherein in addition to their symbiosis with Symbiodiniaceae, they are also associated with a multitude of other microbes 7 . (nature.com)
  • Nielsen, H. D., Brownlee, C., Coelho, S. M. and Brown, M. T. (2003), Inter-population differences in inherited copper tolerance involve photosynthetic adaptation and exclusion mechanisms in Fucus serratus . (wiley.com)
  • Neuronal adaptation is the intrinsic capacity of the brain to change, by various mechanisms, its dynamical responses as a function of the context. (springer.com)
  • The time scale of these adaptation mechanisms can expand over a wide range up to minutes (Pozzorini et al. (springer.com)
  • Combined all together, those two distinct adaptation mechanisms can prevent the saturation in the spike generation process of a neuron or modulate its synchronization properties, both acting in a different manner as shown in previous experimental (Deemyad et al. (springer.com)
  • The molecular genetic mechanisms facilitating local adaptation in salmonids continue to be poorly characterized. (wiley.com)
  • The Hand lab investigates (1) mechanisms of tolerance to severe desiccation in animals, especially the roles of Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins and protective solutes in preserving dry biological structures, (2) mitochondrial bioenergetics to identify the origins of deep metabolic arrest seen in dormant states like diapause, and (3) the translational applications of emerging insights to improve preservation of human cells for biomedical purposes. (lsu.edu)
  • Biological anthropologists explore many of these environmental pressures and investigate the adaptations that populations undergo in response to them. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Based on the presently available data, little is known about the responses of genetically diverse populations, synergistic effects from other stressors, and the ability of organisms to undergo physiological and genetic adaptations. (epoca-project.eu)
  • HS-LS4-4 Construct an explanation based on evidence for how natural selection leads to adaptation of populations. (longwoodgardens.org)
  • Use mathematical representations to support explanations of how LS4.C: Adaptation Adaptation by natural selection acting over generations is one important process by which species change over time in response to changes in environmental conditions. Traits that support successful survival and reproduction in the new environment become more common; those that do not become less common. Thus, the distribution of traits in a population changes. ">natural selection Cause and Effect Phenomena may have more than one cause, and some cause and effect relationships in systems can only be described using probability. ">may lead to increases and decreases LS4.C: Adaptation Adaptation by natural selection acting over generations is one important process by which species change over time in response to changes in environmental conditions. Traits that support successful survival and reproduction in the new environment become more common; those that do not become less common. Thus, the distribution of traits in a population changes. ">of specific traits in populations over time. (nextgenscience.org)
  • Use mathematical representations to support explanations of how LS4.C: Adaptation Adaptation by natural selection acting over generations is one important process by which species change over time in response to changes in environmental conditions. Traits that support successful survival and reproduction in the new environment become more common; those that do not become less common. Thus, the distribution of traits in a population changes. ">natural selection may lead to increases and decreases of specific traits in populations over time. (nextgenscience.org)
  • The scale and extent to which local adaptation occurs in salmonid populations appears to be context- and trait dependent (Fraser et al. (wiley.com)
  • However, local adaptation is primarily thought to be a response to environmental variation, and indeed recent reviews have highlighted the roles temperature and diseases play in determining functional divergence among populations (Garcia de Leaniz et al. (wiley.com)
  • 2011 ). A better understanding of the patterns and processes that affect the development and maintenance of local adaptation is critical to our understanding of speciation processes (Schluter 2000 ) as well as the effective conservation of locally adapted populations (Fraser and Bernatchez 2001 ). (wiley.com)
  • These tiny evolutionary changes usually are found within a specific population of people and often are due to adaptations that are made to help cope with environmental pressures like increased solar radiation, high altitude and dietary differences. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Work involved lecturing on the Extended Nurse Prescribing course 1998 - 2001: Senior Post Doctoral Research Officer (Part-time) Working on Genetic manipulation of the control of photosynthesis by SBPase Project Senior Post Doctoral Research Officer (Part-time) (April 1995 - April 1997) Working on MAPLE project (Micro evolutionary adaptation of plants to elevated CO2). (essex.ac.uk)
  • The biological approach believes that most behavior is inherited and has an adaptive (or evolutionary) function. (prezi.com)
  • To address these questions for a wide range of potentially sensitive biological processes, Theme 2 activities are structured according to key ecosystem components and functional groups. (epoca-project.eu)
  • Many members of the SETAC GLB made substantial progress in linking toxicant effects from various levels of biological organisation towards the ecosystem. (springer.com)
  • Human activities greatly disturb ecosystems in ways that directly and indirectly reduce biological diversity, a major component of global change [ 1 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Finally, we do a recapitulation of S. cerevisiae natural diversity related to low nitrogen adaptation, specially showing how different studies have left in evidence the central role of the TORC1 signalling pathway in nitrogen utilization and positioned wild S. cerevisiae strains as a reservoir of beneficial alleles with potential industrial applications (e.g. improvement of industrial yeasts for wine production). (biomedcentral.com)
  • 13 November 2017 - The Executive Secretaries of the Biological Diversity, Climate Change, and Desertification Conventions are calling for the establishment of a Facility to secure finance for large projects that will help to address common issues. (cbd.int)
  • 31 OCTOBER 2016 - The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) has published a detailed assessment of the implications of using climate geoengineering to limit global warming. (cbd.int)
  • Copenhagen, 14 December 2009 - The Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity released today a major study, Scientific Synthesis of the Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Marine Biological Diversity. (cbd.int)
  • This research has questions covering a wide range of topics (e.g., speciation, adaptation, biogeography, comparative analyses) and time scales from ancient diversification to parent-offspring relationships. (bc.edu)
  • Human adaptation is the decision-making process and the set of actions undertaken to maintain the capacity to deal with future change or perturbations to a socio-ecological system without undergoing significant changes in function, structural identity, or feedbacks of that system while maintaining the option to develop. (york.ac.uk)
  • ecological processes frequently regulate the dynamics of ecosystems and the structure and dynamics of biological communities. (york.ac.uk)
  • Consistently, at the molecular level, activation of growth factor signaling pathways by EGFR / ERBB / AKT and a switch from phospho-Ser118 (pS118)- to pS167-ER α were observed during MCF7-LTED adaptation. (nature.com)
  • Study of the material and biological information in the environment, preservation and interaction with the physical milieu, molecular biomarker identification and development of methodologies for their detection. (inta-csic.es)
  • Molecular strategies and metabolic functions required for the adaptation of bacteria to extreme conditions, using metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approaches. (inta-csic.es)
  • Second, with the adoption of corn as a major dietary constituent, the softer foodstuffs and more sedentary lifeway associated with that adaptation should result in a respective decrease in functional demand on the masticatory complex in particular and on the body in general. (amnh.org)
  • Gapparov M.M., Adaptation of renewal of rat liver proteins to dietary protein with low biological value, Voprosy meditsinskoi khimii, 1995, vol: 41(2), 29-32. (msk.ru)
  • The adaptation from generation of Paul and his friends has suffered is bad because they got experience during the war, which they have to adapt for their survival throughout the grenade, bullet, and boom. (studymode.com)
  • The interaction between Theme 2 scientists across disciplines and work packages is further strengthened by joint community level manipulative experiments employing benthic and pelagic mesocosms and allowing all partners to address specific aspects of their work in complex biological system. (epoca-project.eu)
  • The interaction of the adaptation currents with the neuronal dynamics is complex, impacting both the firing threshold and the behaviour of the cell (Benda et al. (springer.com)
  • This volume analyzes these dyadic interaction patterns and builds a case for a new theory of adaptation: Interaction Adaptation Theory (IAT), which draws the soundest principles from previous theories while being responsive to current empirical evidence. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Interpersonal Adaptation fills an important gap in the literature and should interest those who want to learn more about the dynamics of interaction patterns. (booktopia.com.au)
  • The study of the dynamics of adaptation to the rations containing casein and wheat protein showed some accumulation of hepatic protein on days 4-9. (msk.ru)
  • In this study, by disentangling those effects into a linear (sub-threshold) and a non-linear (supra-threshold) part, we focus on the the functional role of those two distinct components of adaptation onto the neuronal activity at various scales, starting from single-cell responses up to recurrent networks dynamics, and under stationary or non-stationary stimulations. (springer.com)
  • The effects of slow currents on collective dynamics, like modulation of population oscillation and reliability of spike patterns, is quantified for various types of adaptation in sparse recurrent networks. (springer.com)
  • By using a phenomenological model for neurons based on an integrate-and-fire model with intrinsic adaptation and its macroscopic counterparts, we studied the effects of slow adaptation currents on neuronal dynamics at the network level. (springer.com)
  • As a conclusion, we reveal that the network is robust towards low frequency perturbations, shows adaptation at moderate stress frequencies, but transitions to an altered steady state at high frequency stimulation, which we believe is a predisposing factor towards stress-induced pathologies. (uni.lu)
  • It is suggested that the observed fatty acid substitution in phosphatidylcholine indicates a temperature-induced fluidity adaptation within the mitochondrial lipid bilayer, whereas the inverse acclimation pattern of cardiolipin provides a suitable lipid to accommodate the temperature-dependent modifications in the dynamic surface shape of integral membrane proteins. (nih.gov)
  • This compensatory adaptation most likely plays a significant role in the stabilization of resistant bacteria within a given population. (asm.org)
  • This spread of fusidic acid-resistant S. aureus strains is remarkable, as fusidic acid resistance was speculated to be associated with a biological fitness cost for the resistant bacteria ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Biological fixation is carried out by free-living bacteria, Fabaceae- Rhizobium symbiosis and associative symbiontic free-living cyanobacteria, as well as by cyanobacteria in lichens. (springer.com)
  • The first topic in the solicitation is for proposals in the area of Analyses of the Temporal Nature of Human Adaptation to Long-Duration Low-Earth Orbit Missions. (diigo.com)
  • We test these predictions by measuring effects of adaptation on visual sensitivity in the context of the neuronal representation of speed of visual motion. (salk.edu)
  • The effects of adaptation have already been studied at the single-cell level, resulting from either voltage or calcium gated channels both activated by the spiking activity and modulating the dynamical responses of the neurons. (springer.com)
  • For example, both genes and groups have been considered kinds of biological individual that function as units of selection. (stanford.edu)
  • This debate between acclimatization and adaptation is at the crux of what a biological anthropologist might study. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The data from the present study illustrate that the fusidic acid resistance-mediating amino acid substitutions P406L and H457Y are associated with a marked impairment of the biological fitness of S. aureus . (asm.org)
  • One study considered adaptation energy as an internal coordinate on the "dominant path" in the model of adaptation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Henry Bernard David Kettlewell's study of the peppered moth, Biston betularia , is one of the most widely cited cases of natural selection producing adaptation. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This case study explored those issues in the Melamchi Valley of Nepal through a survey of 365 households and focus group discussions in 6 communities using a Community-Based Risk Screening Tool-Adaptation and Livelihoods (CRiSTAL). (bioone.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to compare esthetic, functional and biological properties of two restoration materials used to fill cavities. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Training in the techniques and interdisciplinary approach used in this study will be offered to other researchers at workshops, to undergraduate and graduate students at Arizona State University, and to high school students, including underrepresented groups, at open houses sponsored by the IGERT Neural & Musculoskeletal Adaptations in Form & Function program (NSF#9987619) at Arizona State University, to which both the PI and Co-PI are attached. (igert.org)
  • Biological systems have long been an inspiration in the study of complex systems. (wsj.com)
  • This work will be of value to psychobiologists, neurobiologists, behaviorists, and researchers who are interested in the biological aspects of behavior. (elsevier.com)
  • The human being in the course of history has shown an incredible ability in our adaptation to the environment. (studymode.com)
  • It has been argued that adaptation should have the effect of optimizing sensitivity to the new environment. (salk.edu)
  • In mammals, intestinal remodeling is essential for adaptation of infants to their new environment upon birth, and for the development of the complex adult gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which begins as they start to eat solid food. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In a subsequent 2017 article, Think Biologically: Messy Management for a Complex World , Messrs. Reeves, Levin and Ueda wrote about the application of biological thinking to the management of companies in a fast changing, global environment. (wsj.com)
  • Here we show acclimatization and/or adaptation potential of menthol-bleached aposymbiotic coral Platygyra verweyi in terms of respiration breakdown temperature (RBT) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) enzyme activity in samples collected from two reef sites with contrasting temperature regimes: a site near a nuclear power plant outlet (NPP-OL, with long-term temperature perturbation) and Wanlitong (WLT) in southern Taiwan. (nature.com)
  • We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure neural adaptation after prolonged viewing of a BM stimulus (n=12). (arvojournals.org)
  • Using an event-related design with topping-up adaptation, we measured neural aftereffects from brain responses to morphed actions after adapting to walking or running actions within two bilateral regions of interest: 1) human medial temporal area (hMT+), a lower-level motion-sensitive region of cortex, and 2) superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), a higher-level action-selective area. (arvojournals.org)
  • Neural adaptation in hMT+ was observed only when the adapting and testing stimuli were in the same location. (arvojournals.org)
  • In contrast, neural adaptation in the action-sensitive area pSTS was found to be location-invariant. (arvojournals.org)
  • These results suggest a direct link between perceptual adaptation and neural adaptation in right pSTS, and suggest this as a core brain region for understanding social and perceptual deficits in Autism Spectrum Condition. (arvojournals.org)
  • We follow a novel approach for the natural 15 N abundance technique, by using the non-N2-fixing lichens Squamarina lentigeria and S. cartilaginea (= S. crassa ) as reference in order to determine N 2 fixation by the biological crust in situ in the Negev desert. (springer.com)
  • The team also found that soil microbes in experimental warming studies showed no sign of adaptation -- meaning a muted respiration response to rising temperatures -- in all of the biomes studied, except desert and boreal forest. (eurekalert.org)
  • In: Belnap J, Lange OL (eds) Biological soil crusts: structure, function and management. (springer.com)