Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Anthropology, Physical: The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.Altitude: A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.Anthropology, Cultural: It is the study of social phenomena which characterize the learned, shared, and transmitted social activities of particular ethnic groups with focus on the causes, consequences, and complexities of human social and cultural variability.Anthropology, Medical: Field of social science that is concerned with differences between human groups as related to health status and beliefs.Forensic Anthropology: Scientific study of human skeletal remains with the express purpose of identification. This includes establishing individual identity, trauma analysis, facial reconstruction, photographic superimposition, determination of time interval since death, and crime-scene recovery. Forensic anthropologists do not certify cause of death but provide data to assist in determination of probable cause. This is a branch of the field of physical anthropology and qualified individuals are certified by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1992 Jun;13(2):146)Nelson Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by HYPERPIGMENTATION, enlarging pituitary mass, visual defects secondary to compression of the OPTIC CHIASM, and elevated serum ACTH. It is caused by the expansion of an underlying ACTH-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA that grows in the absence of feedback inhibition by adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS, usually after ADRENALECTOMY.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Altitude Sickness: Multiple symptoms associated with reduced oxygen at high ALTITUDE.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Earth Sciences: Fields of science encompassing studies and research from the disciplines of PHYSICS; CHEMISTRY; BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; and MATHEMATICS; that are related to the planet EARTH. Subfields include atmospheric chemistry; CLIMATOLOGY; ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; GEOGRAPHY; GEOLOGY; geophysics; METEOROLOGY; OCEANOGRAPHY; PALEONTOLOGY; mineralogy; and seismology.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Porcupines: Common name for large, quilled rodents (RODENTIA) comprised of two families: Old World porcupines (Hystricidae) and New World porcupines (Erethizontidae).Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Caulerpa: A genus of toxic marine GREEN ALGAE found throughout tropical and subtropical seas. One species, Caulerpa taxifolia, is highly invasive and produces the poison caulerpenyne, deadly to marine organisms though not humans.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Moon: The natural satellite of the planet Earth. It includes the lunar cycles or phases, the lunar month, lunar landscapes, geography, and soil.Biological Specimen Banks: Facilities that collect, store, and distribute tissues, e.g., cell lines, microorganisms, blood, sperm, milk, breast tissue, for use by others. Other uses may include transplantation and comparison of diseased tissues in the identification of cancer.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Cultural Evolution: The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Societies, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.LondonIron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Iron Chelating Agents: Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Iron Overload: An excessive accumulation of iron in the body due to a greater than normal absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract or from parenteral injection. This may arise from idiopathic hemochromatosis, excessive iron intake, chronic alcoholism, certain types of refractory anemia, or transfusional hemosiderosis. (From Churchill's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1989)Pacific OceanIron, Dietary: Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.Ferritins: Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.
(1/2155) Channeling of carbamoyl phosphate to the pyrimidine and arginine biosynthetic pathways in the deep sea hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi.

The kinetics of the coupled reactions between carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase (CPSase) and both aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) and ornithine transcarbamoylase (OTCase) from the deep sea hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi demonstrate the existence of carbamoyl phosphate channeling in both the pyrimidine and arginine biosynthetic pathways. Isotopic dilution experiments and coupled reaction kinetics analyzed within the context of the formalism proposed by Ovadi et al. (Ovadi, J., Tompa, P., Vertessy, B., Orosz, F., Keleti, T., and Welch, G. R. (1989) Biochem. J. 257, 187-190) are consistent with a partial channeling of the intermediate at 37 degrees C, but channeling efficiency increases dramatically at elevated temperatures. There is no preferential partitioning of carbamoyl phosphate between the arginine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Gel filtration chromatography at high and low temperature and in the presence and absence of substrates did not reveal stable complexes between P. abyssi CPSase and either ATCase or OTCase. Thus, channeling must occur during the dynamic association of coupled enzymes pairs. The interaction of CPSase-ATCase was further demonstrated by the unexpectedly weak inhibition of the coupled reaction by the bisubstrate analog, N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA). The anomalous effect of PALA suggests that, in the coupled reaction, the effective concentration of carbamoyl phosphate in the vicinity of the ATCase active site is 96-fold higher than the concentration in the bulk phase. Channeling probably plays an essential role in protecting this very unstable intermediate of metabolic pathways performing at extreme temperatures.  (+info)

(2/2155) The mammalian endoplasmic reticulum stress response element consists of an evolutionarily conserved tripartite structure and interacts with a novel stress-inducible complex.

When mammalian cells are subjected to calcium depletion stress or protein glycosylation block, the transcription of a family of glucose-regulated protein (GRP) genes encoding endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones is induced to high levels. The consensus mammalian ER stress response element (ERSE) conserved among grp promoters consists of a tripartite structure CCAAT(N9)CCACG, with N being a strikingly GC-rich region of 9 bp. The ERSE, in duplicate copies, can confer full stress inducibility to a heterologous promoter in a sequence-specific but orientation-independent manner. In addition to CBF/NF-Y and YY1 binding to the CCAAT and CCACG motifs, respectively, we further discovered that an ER stress-inducible complex (ERSF) from HeLa nuclear extract binds specifically to the ERSE. Strikingly, the interaction of the ERSF with the ERSE requires a conserved GGC motif within the 9 bp region. Since mutation of the GGC triplet sequence also results in loss of stress inducibility, specific sequence within the 9 bp region is an integral part of the tripartite structure. Finally, correlation of factor binding with stress inducibility reveals that ERSF binding to the ERSE alone is not sufficient; full stress inducibility requires integrity of the CCAAT, GGC and CCACG sequence motifs, as well as precise spacing among these sites.  (+info)

(3/2155) Shared usage of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 by primary and laboratory-adapted strains of feline immunodeficiency virus.

Strains of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) presently under investigation exhibit distinct patterns of in vitro tropism. In particular, the adaptation of FIV for propagation in Crandell feline kidney (CrFK) cells results in the selection of strains capable of forming syncytia with cell lines of diverse species origin. The infection of CrFK cells by CrFK-adapted strains appears to require the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and is inhibited by its natural ligand, stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha (SDF-1alpha). Here we found that inhibitors of CXCR4-mediated infection by human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1), such as the bicyclam AMD3100 and short peptides derived from the amino-terminal region of SDF-1alpha, also blocked infection of CrFK by FIV. Nevertheless, we observed differences in the ranking order of the peptides as inhibitors of FIV and HIV-1 and showed that such differences are related to the species origin of CXCR4 and not that of the viral envelope. These results suggest that, although the envelope glycoproteins of FIV and HIV-1 are substantially divergent, FIV and HIV-1 interact with CXCR4 in a highly similar manner. We have also addressed the role of CXCR4 in the life cycle of primary isolates of FIV. Various CXCR4 ligands inhibited infection of feline peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by primary FIV isolates in a concentration-dependent manner. These ligands also blocked the viral transduction of feline PBMC by pseudotyped viral particles when infection was mediated by the envelope glycoprotein of a primary FIV isolate but not by the G protein of vesicular stomatitis virus, indicating that they act at an envelope-mediated step and presumably at viral entry. These findings strongly suggest that primary and CrFK-adapted strains of FIV, despite disparate in vitro tropisms, share usage of CXCR4.  (+info)

(4/2155) Replicative fitness of protease inhibitor-resistant mutants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

The relative replicative fitness of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mutants selected by different protease inhibitors (PIs) in vivo was determined. Each mutant was compared to wild type (WT), NL4-3, in the absence of drugs by several methods, including clonal genotyping of cultures infected with two competing viral variants, kinetics of viral antigen production, and viral infectivity/virion particle ratios. A nelfinavir-selected protease D30N substitution substantially decreased replicative capacity relative to WT, while a saquinavir-selected L90M substitution moderately decreased fitness. The D30N mutant virus was also outcompeted by the L90M mutant in the absence of drugs. A major natural polymorphism of the HIV-1 protease, L63P, compensated well for the impairment of fitness caused by L90M but only slightly improved the fitness of D30N. Multiply substituted indinavir-selected mutants M46I/L63P/V82T/I84V and L10R/M46I/L63P/V82T/I84V were just as fit as WT. These results indicate that the mutations which are usually initially selected by nelfinavir and saquinavir, D30N and L90M, respectively, impair fitness. However, additional mutations may improve the replicative capacity of these and other drug-resistant mutants. Hypotheses based on the greater fitness impairment of the nelfinavir-selected D30N mutant are suggested to explain observations that prolonged responses to delayed salvage regimens, including alternate PIs, may be relatively common after nelfinavir failure.  (+info)

(5/2155) Selection of RNA replicons capable of persistent noncytopathic replication in mammalian cells.

The natural life cycle of alphaviruses, a group of plus-strand RNA viruses, involves transmission to vertebrate hosts via mosquitoes. Chronic infections are established in mosquitoes (and usually in mosquito cell cultures), but infection of susceptible vertebrate cells typically results in rapid shutoff of host mRNA translation and cell death. Using engineered Sindbis virus RNA replicons expressing puromycin acetyltransferase as a dominant selectable marker, we identified mutations allowing persistent, noncytopathic replication in BHK-21 cells. Two of these adaptive mutations involved single-amino-acid substitutions in the C-terminal portion of nsP2, the viral helicase-protease. At one of these loci, nsP2 position 726, numerous substitution mutations were created and characterized in the context of RNA replicons and infectious virus. Our results suggest a direct correlation between the level of viral RNA replication and cytopathogenicity. This work also provides a series of alphavirus replicons for noncytopathic gene expression studies (E. V. Agapov, I. Frolov, B. D. Lindenbach, B. M. Pragai, S. Schlesinger, and C. M. Rice, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:12989-12994, 1998) and a general strategy for selecting RNA viral mutants adapted to different cellular environments.  (+info)

(6/2155) Genetic and fitness changes accompanying adaptation of an arbovirus to vertebrate and invertebrate cells.

The alternating host cycle and persistent vector infection may constrain the evolution of arboviruses. To test this hypothesis, eastern equine encephalitis virus was passaged in BHK or mosquito cells, as well as in alternating (both) host cell passages. High and low multiplicities were used to examine the effect of defective interfering particles. Clonal BHK and persistent mosquito cell infections were also evaluated. Fitness was measured with one-step growth curves and competition assays, and mutations were evaluated by nucleotide sequencing and RNA fingerprinting. All passages and assays were done at 32 degrees C to eliminate temperature as a selection factor. Viruses passaged in either cell type alone exhibited fitness declines in the bypassed cells, while high-multiplicity and clonal passages caused fitness declines in both types of cells. Bypassed cell fitness losses were mosquito and vertebrate specific and were not restricted to individual cell lines. Fitness increases occurred in the cell line used for single-host-adaptation passages and in both cells for alternately passaged viruses. Surprisingly, single-host-cell passage increased fitness in that cell type no more than alternating passages. However, single-host-cell adaptation resulted in more mutations than alternating cell passages. Mosquito cell adaptation invariably resulted in replacement of the stop codon in nsP3 with arginine or cysteine. In one case, BHK cell adaptation resulted in a 238-nucleotide deletion in the 3' untranslated region. Many nonsynonymous substitutions were shared among more than one BHK or mosquito cell passage series, suggesting positive Darwinian selection. Our results suggest that alternating host transmission cycles constrain the evolutionary rates of arboviruses but not their fitness for either host alone.  (+info)

(7/2155) The steady-state internal redox state (NADH/NAD) reflects the external redox state and is correlated with catabolic adaptation in Escherichia coli.

Escherichia coli MC4100 was grown in anaerobic glucose-limited chemostat cultures, either in the presence of an electron acceptor (fumarate, nitrate, or oxygen) or fully fermentatively. The steady-state NADH/NAD ratio depended on the nature of the electron acceptor. Anaerobically, the ratio was highest, and it decreased progressively with increasing midpoint potential of the electron acceptor. Similarly, decreasing the dissolved oxygen tension resulted in an increased NADH/NAD ratio. As pyruvate catabolism is a major switch point between fermentative and respiratory behavior, the fluxes through the different pyruvate-consuming enzymes were calculated. Although pyruvate formate lyase (PFL) is inactivated by oxygen, it was inferred that the in vivo activity of the enzyme occurred at low dissolved oxygen tensions (DOT +info)

(8/2155) cis-Acting elements responsible for low-temperature-inducible expression of the gene coding for the thermolabile isocitrate dehydrogenase isozyme of a psychrophilic bacterium, Vibrio sp. strain ABE-1.

Transcriptional control of the low-temperature-inducible icdII gene, encoding the thermolabile isocitrate dehydrogenase of a psychrophilic bacterium, Vibrio sp. strain ABE-1, was found to be mediated in part by a transcriptional silencer locating at nucleotide positions -560 to -526 upstream from the transcription start site of icdII. Deletion of the silencer resulted in a 20-fold-increased level of expression of the gene at low temperature (15 degrees C) but not at high temperature (37 degrees C). In addition, a CCAAT sequence located 2 bases upstream of the -35 region was found to be essential for the low-temperature-inducible expression of the gene. By deletion of this sequence, low-temperature-dependent expression of the gene was completely abolished. The ability of the icdII promoter to control the expression of other genes was confirmed by using a fusion gene containing the icdII promoter region and the promoterless icdI open reading frame, which encodes the non-cold-inducible isocitrate dehydrogenase isozyme of Vibrio sp. strain ABE-1. Escherichia coli transformants harboring icdII acquired an ability to grow rapidly at low temperature.  (+info)

*  Clark Spencer Larsen
Catherines Island: 3. Prehistoric Human Biological Adaptation. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History ... Clark Spencer Larsen and George R. Milner (editors) (1994) In the Wake of Contact: Biological Responses to Conquest. Wiley-Liss ... Clark Spencer Larsen (born 1952) is an American biological anthropologist, author, and educator. His work focuses on ... Clark Spencer Larsen (1995) Biological Changes in Human Populations with Agriculture. Annual Review of Anthropology 24:185-213 ...
*  Mongoloid
"Human Biological Adaptation to Arctic and Subarctic Zones". Annual Review of Anthropology; Vol. 9, (1980), pp. 63-82 Steegmann ... link Watts, E.S. (1981). "The Biological Race Concept and Diseases of Modern Man." In Biocultural Aspects of Disease. New York ... Marta Mirazon Lahr of the Department of Biological Anthropology at Cambridge University used the term Mongoloid to refer to ... He also argues that scientists have a professional and ethical duty to avoid such biological analyses since they could ...
*  Claviger
... displays unusual biological adaptations to myrmecophily. This pselaphid is of palearctic distribution. Species list: ...
*  Genetics and archaeogenetics of South Asia
201-228, ISBN 1-4020-5561-7 Hemphill, B.E.; Lukacs, J.R.; Kennedy, K.A.R. (1991). "Biological Adaptations and Affinities of ... A Non-Metric Analysis of Bronze Age Bactrain Biological Affinities. Madison, Wisconsin. p. 13. (paper read at the South Asia ...
*  Evolutionary psychology of language
Chater, N.; Florencia, R.; Christiansen, M. H. "Restrictions on biological adaptation in language evolution". PNAS. 106 (4): ... "Language has evolved as an adaptation" as being misleading. He argues instead that from a biological viewpoint the evolutionary ... those who believe in language as an adaptation, those who believe it is a by-product of another adaptation, and those who ... On the issue of whether language is best seen as having evolved as an adaptation or as a by product, evolutionary biologist W. ...
*  Cold and heat adaptations in humans
Newman, Marshall T. (1961-06-01). "Biological Adaptation of Man to His Environment: Heat, Cold, Altitude, and Nutrition". ... Cold and heat adaptations in humans are a part of the broad adaptability of Homo sapiens. Adaptations in humans can be ... Allen's rule is a biological rule that says the limbs of an endotherm is either shorter in cold climates or longer in hot ... Social adaptations enabled early modern humans to occupy environments with temperatures that were drastically different from ...
*  Alvin Liberman
He attributed this greater difficulty to the human biological adaptation to speech. Liberman discovered that children who fail ... and convinced Liberman that speech perception is the result of the human biological adaptations to language. Human listeners ... He took a biological perspective on language and his 'nativist' approach was often controversial as well as influential. He ... He made mention that speech itself is not only attributed to biological evolution, rather it is also species specific. Liberman ...
*  Race and genetics
Biological adaptation plays a role in these bodily features and skin type. According to Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, "From a ... Edwards saw Lewontin's argument as based on a political stance, denying biological differences to argue for social equality. In ... Long, J.C. & Kittles, R.A. (2009). "Human genetic diversity and the nonexistence of biological races". Human Biology. 81 (5/6 ... Long, Jeffrey C.; Kittles, Rick A. (2009). "Human Genetic Diversity and the Nonexistence of Biological Races". Human Biology. ...
*  Naftali Tishby
He works on the mathematical and statistical theory of learning and biological adaptation. Tishby is married and has four ...
*  Biological functionalism
Corning, Peter A. "Biological Adaptation in Human Societies: A 'Basic Needs' Approach" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) ... In this sense, biological functionalism maintains that while bad results often occur in life, which do not serve any pragmatic ... By that fact, biological functionalism maintains that our individual survival and health is the driving provocation of actions ... Biological functionalism is an anthropological paradigm, asserting that all social institutions, beliefs, values and practices ...
*  Péter Csermely
Adaptation of biological networks. 34000 EUR/year, 1992-2019, principal investigator. http://linkgroup.hu/petercsermely.php hu: ... His area of research area is related to the adaptation and learning of complex systems and their network descriptions. He is ... His major fields of study are the adaptation and learning of complex networks. In 1995 Csermely launched a highly successful ...
*  List of Chairs of the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle
This Chair was then combined with the Chair of Physical-Chemistry of Biological Adaptation. Natural Iconography or the Art of ...
*  Phosphorus deficiency
These biological adaptations to roots work to maintain the levels of vital nutrients. In larger commercial agriculture settings ... In conjunction to root size, other genetic root adaptations to low phosphorus conditions such as mycorrhizal symbioses have ... variation of plants to adopt these desirable phosphorus intake adaptations may be a long-term phosphorus deficiency correction ...
*  Phenotypic plasticity
Hazel JR (1995). "Thermal adaptation in biological membranes: is homeoviscous adaptation the explanation?". Annual Review of ... Plasticity is usually thought to be an evolutionary adaptation to environmental variation that is reasonably predictable and ... Chadwick W, Little TJ (March 2005). "A parasite-mediated life-history shift in Daphnia magna". Proceedings: Biological Sciences ... adaptation to thermal variation has been hypothesized to be a key mechanism dictating the capacity of organisms for phenotypic ...
*  Forest dieback
The feedback loop is reinforced and the biological adaptations of the species determine its survival. Projections for dieback ...
*  Neuroscience of free will
Richard F. Rakos (2004). "The Belief in Free Will as a Biological Adaptation: Thinking Inside and Outside the Behavior Analytic ...
*  Toktokkies
... gets its water source from the fog through special biological adaptations. When the fog rolls in at night or early in the ... This adaptation allows them to trap moisture when they breathe. They have also learned to burrow in the sand when they get too ...
*  Lloyd Peck
He is known for his research into biological adaptations of animals to extreme cold, in particular sea spiders. He presented ...
*  Animal Coloration (book)
At that time, most zoologists felt that natural selection could not be the main cause of biological adaptation, and sought ...
*  Waccamaw Siouan
Cultural and Biological Adaptations in the Southern Coastal Plain (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1988), pp. 76-91. Jones ...
*  Ecotype
Evolutionary biology portal Environment portal Ecology portal Earth sciences portal Adaptation Biological classification Cline ... Biological Services, National Museum of Canada, 177 (66) Reindeer Bergerud, Arthur T. (1996), "Evolving Perspectives on Caribou ...
*  Pleistocene human diet
The initial technological and biological adaptations each have knock on effects that allow a greater range of species to be ... The most prevalent dietary adaptation since the Neolithic is lactase persistence, an adaptation that allows humans to digest ... Major functional adaptations have arisen in the last few thousand years as human technology has altered the environment. ... There are clear biological drawbacks of cannibalism including disease, and in addition instances of ritual cannibalism that ...
*  Hypostatic model of personality
... biological adaptation) and the "human" system (social adaptation), both having the same biological underpinnings and partially ... In critical situations, biological and social fields of adaptation converge, forming an integrated, bio-social adaptation ... biological adaptation), or because they like good food or want to enjoy the company of others (social adaptation). They can ... biological adaptation), or to fulfill their love, have children to bear their name, or simply have a good time together (social ...
*  Co-adaptation
Tommasini, Steven M.; Nasser, Philip; Hu, Bin; Jepsen, Karl J. (2007). "Biological Co-Adaptation of Morphological and ... In biology, co-adaptation is the process by which two or more species, genes or phenotypic traits undergo adaptation as a pair ... Co-adaptation and its examples are often seen as evidence for co-evolution. At genetic level, co-adaptation is the accumulation ... Co-adaptation and coevolution, although similar in process, are not the same; co-adaptation refers to the interactions between ...
*  List of ecoregions in North America (CEC)
... and they are the cause for many biological adaptations. There is a combination of highly weathered and leached soils as well as ... Biological Conservation. 137 (3): 391-402. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2007.02.022. Center for biological diversity. (n.d.). Retrieved ... Plants have adaptations such as fluffy seed masses, staying low to the ground, and use of other plant masses for extra ... This includes tree adaptations such as buttress roots and thick root mats that grow laterally along the forest floor. These ...
*  John R. Lukacs
... an investigation of Harappan biological affinities in light of recent biological and archaeological research. [South Asian ... He has worked extensively on health and human adaptation in the prehistory of South Asia. Much of this work focuses on ... Biological Anthropology: the State of the Science]. (1998). Physiological Stress in Prehistoric India: New Data on Localized ... Lukacs, J. R. and B. E. Hemphill (1993). Odontometry and biological affinity in South Asia: analysis of three ethnic groups ...
Anthropology | California State University, Northridge  Anthropology | California State University, Northridge
Anthropology involves the study of people, their origins, their biological variations and characteristics, their languages and ... cultural patterns, their social structures and institutions, and their adaptation to their environment. As stated on the ... Anthropology is the only contemporary discipline that approaches human questions from historical, biological, linguistic, and ...
more infohttps://www.csun.edu/social-behavioral-sciences/anthropology?page=1
Early Life Adversity, Biological Adaptation, and Human Capital by Günther Fink, Atheendar Venkataramani, Arianna Zanolini ::...  Early Life Adversity, Biological Adaptation, and Human Capital by Günther Fink, Atheendar Venkataramani, Arianna Zanolini ::...
We examine the implications of one form of biological adaptation - immune system learning - for human capital formation. Using ... Our findings highlight the importance of capturing the critical tradeoffs generated by biological adaptation to early adversity ... Fink, Günther and Venkataramani, Atheendar and Zanolini, Arianna, Early Life Adversity, Biological Adaptation, and Human ...
more infohttps://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2705563
Obesity: a disease or a biological adaptation? - Semantic Scholar  Obesity: a disease or a biological adaptation? - Semantic Scholar
Under such conditions, obesity is perceived by the physiologist as a necessary biological adaptation rather than a disease. For ... a disease or a biological adaptation?. @article{Tremblay2000ObesityAD, title={Obesity: a disease or a biological adaptation?}, ... Obesity: a disease or a biological adaptation? An update.. *Jean-Philippe Chaput, Éric Doucet, Angelo Tremblay ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Obesity%3A-a-disease-or-a-biological-adaptation%3F-Tremblay-Doucet/f551bfaf15fac4c8dee5a4ce4714c21461603e28
Vasopressin and Biological Adaptations | Aspen Global Change Institute  Vasopressin and Biological Adaptations | Aspen Global Change Institute
The Aspen Global Change Institute is an independent nonprofit dedicated to furthering scientific understanding of Earth systems and global environmental change in service of society. Our work includes interdisciplinary research, education and outreach, and collaboration with resource managers and policy-makers. Together we strive to facilitate scientific discussion for the betterment of society and natural systems, while promoting practical solutions to the challenges of today's changing Earth systems. ...
more infohttps://www.agci.org/lib/16s2/vasopressin-and-biological-adaptations
The anthropology of St. Catherines Island. 3, Prehistoric human biological adaptation. Anthropological papers of the AMNH ; v....  The anthropology of St. Catherines Island. 3, Prehistoric human biological adaptation. Anthropological papers of the AMNH ; v....
3, Prehistoric human biological adaptation. Anthropological papers of the AMNH ; v. 57, pt. 3. en_US. ... 3, Prehistoric human biological adaptation. Anthropological papers of the AMNH ; v. 57, pt. 3. ... implying human biological continuity for at least 3500 years prior to European contact; and (3) the economic regime for the ... and a later mixed agricultural and hunting-gathering adaptation (A.D. 1150-A.D. 1550); (2) the Georgia coast represents ...
more infohttp://digitallibrary.amnh.org/handle/2246/306?show=full
Longevinex® Capsules Simulate Biological Adaptation To High Altitude Environments | ResveratrolNews.com  Longevinex® Capsules Simulate Biological Adaptation To High Altitude Environments | ResveratrolNews.com
Mental sharpness via adaptation. -Moses climbed a mountain and fasted, and thus activated. two primary biological stressors ... Longevinex® Capsules Simulate Biological Adaptation To High Altitude Environments. March 8, 2011: by Bill Sardi ... Anorexic individuals, under biological stress from food deprivation, another form of biological stress, experience an endorphin ... three molecules that are produced in response to emotional or biological stress. The physiological adaptation to stress ...
more infohttp://www.resveratrolnews.com/longevinex-capsules-simulate-biological-adaptation-to-high-altitude-environments/292/
In Central Massachusetts, Teachers Use Inquiry to Investigate Biological Adaptations - Professional development for Teachers &...  In Central Massachusetts, Teachers Use Inquiry to Investigate Biological Adaptations - Professional development for Teachers &...
In Central Massachusetts, Teachers Use Inquiry to Investigate Biological Adaptations. Worcester, MA - Over the course of one ... Worcester-area elementary and middle school teachers learned more about biological adaptations during the July 9-13, 2018 ...
more infohttp://mits.org/central-ma-teachers-investigate-adaptations/
Adaptations in Human Evolution - How Biological Anthropology Works | HowStuffWorks  Adaptations in Human Evolution - How Biological Anthropology Works | HowStuffWorks
Biological anthropologists explore many of these environmental pressures and investigate the adaptations that populations ... This debate between acclimatization and adaptation is at the crux of what a biological anthropologist might study. They employ ... These tiny evolutionary changes usually are found within a specific population of people and often are due to adaptations that ... This type of change does not leave a lasting impression on a species the way an adaptation does. ...
more infohttps://science.howstuffworks.com/life/evolution/biological-anthropology3.htm
Neural correlates of action aftereffects triggered by adaptation to biological motion | JOV | ARVO Journals  Neural correlates of action aftereffects triggered by adaptation to biological motion | JOV | ARVO Journals
Neural correlates of action aftereffects triggered by adaptation to biological motion Steven Thurman; Jeroen van Boxtel; Martin ... Neural correlates of action aftereffects triggered by adaptation to biological motion You will receive an email whenever this ... These results suggest a direct link between perceptual adaptation and neural adaptation in right pSTS, and suggest this as a ... Neural correlates of action aftereffects triggered by adaptation to biological motion. Journal of Vision 2015;15(12):556. doi: ...
more infohttp://jov.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2433664
Theme 2: Biological and ecosystem responses, acclimation and adaptation  Theme 2: Biological and ecosystem responses, acclimation and adaptation
It was launched in June 2008 with the overall goal to advance our understanding of the biological, ecological, biogeochemical, ... To address these questions for a wide range of potentially sensitive biological processes, Theme 2 activities are structured ... what are the underlying mechanisms of the observed responses and the potential for adaptation, how are they modulated by other ... and the ability of organisms to undergo physiological and genetic adaptations. A large gap in our understanding also concerns ...
more infohttp://www.epoca-project.eu/index.php/what-do-we-do/science/themes-a-wp/theme-2.html
Toluene : biological waste-gas treatment, toxicity and microbial adaptation  Toluene : biological waste-gas treatment, toxicity and microbial adaptation
This adaptation resulted in the capacity of this strain to grow in the presence of supersaturating amounts of toluene (Chapter ... The toxicity of various pollutants in a waste-gas stream for microorganisms could limit the application of biological waste-gas ... A disadvantage of trickie-bed reactors for biological waste-gas treatment is the reduction in reactor performance which is ... there is nowadays a growing interest to apply biological waste-gas treatment techniques for the removal of higher ...
more infohttps://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/wurpubs/30825
The genomics of adaptation and its consequences for marine biological invasions | Ocean and Earth Science, National...  The genomics of adaptation and its consequences for marine biological invasions | Ocean and Earth Science, National...
Research project: The genomics of adaptation and its consequences for marine biological invasions. Currently Active: Yes. The ... including those relevant to biological invasions such as phenotypic evolution, adaptation and population genomics. The proposed ... of the genetics of population adaptation is pertinent when one is attempting to understand and predict future marine biological ... The proposed research will use population genomics to identify genes or genomic regions that underlie local adaptation and are ...
more infohttps://www.southampton.ac.uk/oes/research/projects/the-genomics-of-adaptation.page
Tool use as adaptation | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences  Tool use as adaptation | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Tool use as adaptation Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society ... 30] address the role of cognition either as a (probably domain-general) pre-adaptation to flexible tool use or as a (more ... Your Name) thought you would like to see the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences web site. ... While the question of adaptation is undeniably key to understanding the emergence of tool-use behaviours, empirical data on the ...
more infohttp://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/368/1630/20120408
Comparative genomics reveals high biological diversity and specific adaptations in the industrially and medically important...  Comparative genomics reveals high biological diversity and specific adaptations in the industrially and medically important...
Comparative genomics reveals high biological diversity and specific adaptations in the industrially and medically important ... Many aspects of biological differences between fungal species cannot be explained by current knowledge obtained from genome ... allows for the first time a genus-wide view of the biological diversity of the aspergilli and in many, but not all, cases ...
more infohttps://www.aspergillus.org.uk/articles/comparative-genomics-reveals-high-biological-diversity-and-specific-adaptations
Frontiers | Testing Biological Hypotheses with Embodied Robots: Adaptations, Accidents, and By-Products in the Evolution of...  Frontiers | Testing Biological Hypotheses with Embodied Robots: Adaptations, Accidents, and By-Products in the Evolution of...
We tested the hypothesis that vertebrae are an adaptation for enhanced feeding and fleeing performance. We created a population ... We tested the hypothesis that vertebrae are an adaptation for enhanced feeding and fleeing performance. We created a population ... Testing biological hypotheses with embodied robots: adaptations, accidents, and by-products in the evolution of vertebrates. ... Depending on the generation in which one looks, you could say that the change in N is an adaptation, an accident, or a by- ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/frobt.2014.00012/full
ARCH3042 | Ecology of human evolution: biological, social and cultural approaches to hominin adaptations. | University of...  ARCH3042 | Ecology of human evolution: biological, social and cultural approaches to hominin adaptations. | University of...
ARCH3042 Ecology of human evolution: biological, social and cultural approaches to hominin adaptations.. Module Overview. This ... but also physiological adaptations in past and present-day hunter-gatherers and great apes. These physiological adaptations are ... examine evidence for the ecologies and adaptations of present-day hunter-gatherers and great apes. • evaluate key ... This module will combine approaches from human origins and biological anthropological research to evaluate how we can ...
more infohttps://www.southampton.ac.uk/courses/modules/arch3042.page
plant adaptation to urban environment | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences  plant adaptation to urban environment | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
2017 Adaptation to fragmentation: evolutionary dynamics driven by human influences. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 372, 20160037. (doi: ... 2005 Running to stand still: adaptation and the response of plants to rapid climate change. Ecol. Lett. 8, 1010-1020. (doi: ... These results, based on both linear models and QST estimates, suggest that adaptation can act swiftly to alter traits in the ... Effects of fragmentation on plant adaptation to urban environments Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
more infohttp://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/372/1712/20160038
Adaptation to unpredictability | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences  Adaptation to unpredictability | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences
Adaptation in response to environmental unpredictability. Lluis Franch-Gras, Eduardo M. García-Roger, Manuel Serra, María José ... Adaptation in response to environmental unpredictability. Lluis Franch-Gras, Eduardo M. García-Roger, Manuel Serra, María José ... Adaptation in response to environmental unpredictability Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Proceedings of ... Your Name) thought you would like to see the Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences web site. ...
more infohttp://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/284/1868/20170427
Temporal patterns of local adaptation | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences  Temporal patterns of local adaptation | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences
In contrast to experimental evolution work on microbial adaptation, temporal adaptation was stronger than spatial adaptation ... 2009 Local adaptation of bacteriophages to their bacterial hosts in soil. Science 325, 833. (doi:10.1126/science.1174173). ... 2008 Local adaptation of microbial communities to heavy metal stress in polluted sediments of Lake Erie. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. ... 2013 Time-shift experiments and patterns of adaptation across time and space. Ecol. Lett. 16, 31-38. (doi:10.1111/ele.12007). ...
more infohttp://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/283/1840/20161652
DAVID FERRIER: LOCALIZATION OF SENSORY-MOTOR PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY - Mind, 
Brain and Adaptation in the Nineteenth Century: Cerebral...  DAVID FERRIER: LOCALIZATION OF SENSORY-MOTOR PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY - Mind, Brain and Adaptation in the Nineteenth Century: Cerebral...
Mind, Brain and Adaptation in the Nineteenth Century: Cerebral Localization and Its Biological Context from Gall to Ferrier. by ... He had localized sensory and motor areas, but he had not provided a psychophysiology which accounts for the adaptations of ... it lost sight of the significance of his questions and of the possibilities inherent in the biological, adaptive view shared by ... was the most important aspect of Gall's work and which had been extended in Spencer's conception of psychology as a biological ...
more infohttp://human-nature.com/mba/chap8.html
  • Molecular strategies and metabolic functions required for the adaptation of bacteria to extreme conditions, using metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approaches. (inta-csic.es)
  • The interaction between Theme 2 scientists across disciplines and work packages is further strengthened by joint community level manipulative experiments employing benthic and pelagic mesocosms and allowing all partners to address specific aspects of their work in complex biological system. (epoca-project.eu)
  • We examine the implications of one form of biological adaptation - immune system learning - for human capital formation. (ssrn.com)
  • Our findings highlight the importance of capturing the critical tradeoffs generated by biological adaptation to early adversity in human capital models. (ssrn.com)
  • 3, Prehistoric human biological adaptation. (amnh.org)
  • Longevinex® users have begun to provide evidence for an exceptional biological phenomenon first described by Felix Z. Meerson MD. Their accounts of super-human health are provided within the following text of this report. (resveratrolnews.com)
  • A hallmark of human vision is the capacity to recognize diverse actions from point-light displays of biological motion (BM). (arvojournals.org)
  • Using an event-related design with topping-up adaptation, we measured neural aftereffects from brain responses to morphed actions after adapting to walking or running actions within two bilateral regions of interest: 1) human medial temporal area (hMT+), a lower-level motion-sensitive region of cortex, and 2) superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), a higher-level action-selective area. (arvojournals.org)
  • The human being in the course of history has shown an incredible ability in our adaptation to the environment. (studymode.com)
  • In other words, in present time the human being, have a lot more technology that helps us compensate for disadvantages or biological disabilities that we can present and thus helps us to better survive in this crucial world today. (studymode.com)
  • The concept of Mongoloid races is historical referring to a grouping of human beings historically regarded as a biological taxon. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results suggest a direct link between perceptual adaptation and neural adaptation in right pSTS, and suggest this as a core brain region for understanding social and perceptual deficits in Autism Spectrum Condition. (arvojournals.org)
  • This enables the collection of comprehensive multidisciplinary datasets on organism responses covering a wide range of relevant biological processes and strophic levels. (epoca-project.eu)
  • Second, with the adoption of corn as a major dietary constituent, the softer foodstuffs and more sedentary lifeway associated with that adaptation should result in a respective decrease in functional demand on the masticatory complex in particular and on the body in general. (amnh.org)
  • We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure neural adaptation after prolonged viewing of a BM stimulus (n=12). (arvojournals.org)
  • To address these questions for a wide range of potentially sensitive biological processes, Theme 2 activities are structured according to key ecosystem components and functional groups. (epoca-project.eu)
  • Study of the material and biological information in the environment, preservation and interaction with the physical milieu, molecular biomarker identification and development of methodologies for their detection. (inta-csic.es)
  • The concept behind the project is imagining or speculating on a future where cars may be made out of biological materials. (dezeen.com)
  • For future applications it is essential to be able to establish dose-response curves for the targeted biological effect and thus to control the production of a heterologous biopeptide by a live lactobacillus. (asm.org)
  • The cars themselves aren't evolving, but the decisions made by humans about the design of them is what is actually starting to show biological adaptation and mutation. (dezeen.com)
  • All the quiet on the Western Front" is a novel by Erich Maria Remarque, who is a German veteran of WWI, shows people a painful picture, line of thought, and the adaptation of the young group soldier in the war. (studymode.com)
  • These results tentatively support the hypothesis that vertebrae evolved as an adaptation for enhanced feeding and fleeing performance in early vertebrates. (frontiersin.org)
  • A great difficulty here is in crafting words that sound believable in describing this extraordinary biological phenomenon over plain advertising hype. (resveratrolnews.com)