Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
Acyltransferases in the inner mitochondrial membrane that catalyze the reversible transfer of acyl groups from acyl-CoA to L-carnitine and thereby mediate the transport of activated fatty acids through that membrane. EC 2.3.1.
An enzyme localized predominantly within the plasma membrane of lymphocytes. It catalyzes the transfer of long-chain fatty acids, preferentially unsaturated fatty acids, to lysophosphatides with the formation of 1,2-diacylglycero-3-phosphocholine and CoA. EC 2.3.1.23.
An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.
An enzyme that catalyses the last step of the TRIACYLGLYCEROL synthesis reaction in which diacylglycerol is covalently joined to LONG-CHAIN ACYL COA to form triglyceride. It was formerly categorized as EC 2.3.1.124.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of O-acetylcarnitine from acetyl-CoA plus carnitine. EC 2.3.1.7.
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl group transfer of ACYL COA to 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to generate 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. This enzyme has alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subunits.
Covalent attachment of LIPIDS and FATTY ACIDS to other compounds and PROTEINS.
Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.
Errors in metabolic processing of STEROIDS resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of palmitoyl-CoA to palmitoylcarnitine in the inner mitochondrial membrane. EC 2.3.1.21.
A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 2.3.1.26.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acid in which the hydrophobic regions are composed of two fatty acids and a polar alcohol is joined to the C-3 position of glycerol through a phosphodiester bond. They are named according to their polar head groups, such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.
Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.
Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.
A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.
A fatty acid coenzyme derivative which plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.
The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

Modified peptidoglycan transpeptidase activity in a carbenicillin-resistant mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 18s. (1/3185)

A carbenicillin-resistant mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 18s was found to possess peptidoglycan transpeptidase activity significantly more resistant to inhibition by benzyl penicillin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, and cephaloridine than that of the parent strain. The mutant was more resistant than the parent strain to all of the beta-lactam antibiotics tested, and 50% inhibition values for these compounds against membrane-bound model transpeptidase activity paralleled this increase. The resistance of the mutant to kanamycin, streptomycin, and chloramphenicol was unchanged.  (+info)

Patterns of evolutionary rate variation among genes of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. (2/3185)

The anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway is responsible for the production of anthocyanin pigments in plant tissues and shares a number of enzymes with other biochemical pathways. The six core structural genes of this pathway have been cloned and characterized in two taxonomically diverse plant species (maize and snapdragon). We have recently cloned these genes for a third species, the common morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea. This additional information provides an opportunity to examine patterns of evolution among genes within a single biochemical pathway. We report here that upstream genes in the anthocyanin pathway have evolved substantially more slowly than downstream genes and suggest that this difference in evolutionary rates may be explained by upstream genes being more constrained because they participate in several different biochemical pathways. In addition, regulatory genes associated with the anthocyanin pathway tend to evolve more rapidly than the structural genes they regulate, suggesting that adaptive evolution of flower color may be mediated more by regulatory than by structural genes. Finally, for individual anthocyanin genes, we found an absence of rate heterogeneity among three major angiosperm lineages. This rate constancy contrasts with an accelerated rate of evolution of three CHS-like genes in the Ipomoea lineage, indicating that these three genes have diverged without coordinated adjustment by other pathway genes.  (+info)

Analysis of 4-phosphopantetheinylation of polyhydroxybutyrate synthase from Ralstonia eutropha: generation of beta-alanine auxotrophic Tn5 mutants and cloning of the panD gene region. (3/3185)

The postulated posttranslational modification of the polyhydroxybutyrate (PHA) synthase from Ralstonia eutropha by 4-phosphopantetheine was investigated. Four beta-alanine auxotrophic Tn5-induced mutants of R. eutropha HF39 were isolated, and two insertions were mapped in an open reading frame with strong similarity to the panD gene from Escherichia coli, encoding L-aspartate-1-decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.15), whereas two other insertions were mapped in an open reading frame (ORF) with strong similarity to the NAD(P)+ transhydrogenase (EC 1.6.1.1) alpha 1 subunit, encoded by the pntAA gene from Escherichia coli. The panD gene was cloned by complementation of the panD mutant of R. eutropha Q20. DNA sequencing of the panD gene region (3,312 bp) revealed an ORF of 365 bp, encoding a protein with 63 and 67% amino acid sequence similarity to PanD from E. coli and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. Subcloning of only this ORF into vectors pBBR1MCS-3 and pBluescript KS- led to complementation of the panD mutants of R. eutropha and E. coli SJ16, respectively. panD-encoded L-aspartate-1-decarboxylase was further confirmed by an enzymatic assay. Upstream of panD, an ORF with strong similarity to pntAA from E. coli, encoding NAD(P)+ transhydrogenase subunit alpha 1 was found; downstream of panD, two ORFs with strong similarity to pntAB and pntB, encoding subunits alpha 2 and beta of the NAD(P)+ transhydrogenase, respectively, were identified. Thus, a hitherto undetermined organization of pan and pnt genes was found in R. eutropha. Labeling experiments using one of the R. eutropha panD mutants and [2-14C]beta-alanine provided no evidence that R. eutropha PHA synthase is covalently modified by posttranslational attachment of 4-phosphopantetheine, nor did the E. coli panD mutant exhibit detectable labeling of functional PHA synthase from R. eutropha.  (+info)

Redundant systems of phosphatidic acid biosynthesis via acylation of glycerol-3-phosphate or dihydroxyacetone phosphate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (4/3185)

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae lipid particles harbor two acyltransferases, Gat1p and Slc1p, which catalyze subsequent steps of acylation required for the formation of phosphatidic acid. Both enzymes are also components of the endoplasmic reticulum, but this compartment contains additional acyltransferase(s) involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidic acid (K. Athenstaedt and G. Daum, J. Bacteriol. 179:7611-7616, 1997). Using the gat1 mutant strain TTA1, we show here that Gat1p present in both subcellular fractions accepts glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate as a substrate. Similarly, the additional acyltransferase(s) present in the endoplasmic reticulum can acylate both precursors. In contrast, yeast mitochondria harbor an enzyme(s) that significantly prefers dihydroxyacetone phosphate as a substrate for acylation, suggesting that at least one additional independent acyltransferase is present in this organelle. Surprisingly, enzymatic activity of 1-acyldihydroxyacetone phosphate reductase, which is required for the conversion of 1-acyldihydroxyacetone phosphate to 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate (lysophosphatidic acid), is detectable only in lipid particles and the endoplasmic reticulum and not in mitochondria. In vivo labeling of wild-type cells with [2-3H, U-14C]glycerol revealed that both glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate can be incorporated as a backbone of glycerolipids. In the gat1 mutant and the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase slc1 mutant, the dihydroxyacetone phosphate pathway of phosphatidic acid biosynthesis is slightly preferred as compared to the wild type. Thus, mutations of the major acyltransferases Gat1p and Slc1p lead to an increased contribution of mitochondrial acyltransferase(s) to glycerolipid synthesis due to their substrate preference for dihydroxyacetone phosphate.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of phospholipase B from Kluyveromyces lactis, and cloning of phospholipase B gene. (5/3185)

Phospholipase B (PLB) from the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis was purified to homogeneity from culture medium. The enzyme was highly glycosylated with apparent molecular mass of 160-250 kDa, and had two pH optima, at pH 2.0 and pH 7.5. At acidic pH the enzyme hydrolyzed all phospholipid substrates tested here without metal ion. On the other hand, at alkaline pH the enzyme showed substrate specificity for phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine and required Ca2+, Fe3+, or Al3+ for the activity. The alkaline activity was increased more than 20-fold in the presence of Al3+ compared to that in the presence of Ca2+. cDNA sequence of PLB (KlPLB) was analyzed by a combination of several PCR procedures. KlPLB encoded a protein consist of 640 amino acids and the deduced amino acid sequence showed 66.7% similarity with the T. delbrueckii PLB. The amino acid sequence contained the lipase consensus sequence (G-X-S-X-G) and the catalytic aspartic acid motif. Replacement of Arg-112 or Asp-406 with alanine caused loss of the enzymatic activity at both pH. These results suggested that PLB activity are dependent on a catalytic mechanism similar to that of cytosolic phospholipase A2.  (+info)

Metabolic engineering of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates): from DNA to plastic. (6/3185)

Poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) are a class of microbially produced polyesters that have potential applications as conventional plastics, specifically thermoplastic elastomers. A wealth of biological diversity in PHA formation exists, with at least 100 different PHA constituents and at least five different dedicated PHA biosynthetic pathways. This diversity, in combination with classical microbial physiology and modern molecular biology, has now opened up this area for genetic and metabolic engineering to develop optimal PHA-producing organisms. Commercial processes for PHA production were initially developed by W. R. Grace in the 1960s and later developed by Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd., in the United Kingdom in the 1970s and 1980s. Since the early 1990s, Metabolix Inc. and Monsanto have been the driving forces behind the commercial exploitation of PHA polymers in the United States. The gram-negative bacterium Ralstonia eutropha, formerly known as Alcaligenes eutrophus, has generally been used as the production organism of choice, and intracellular accumulation of PHA of over 90% of the cell dry weight have been reported. The advent of molecular biological techniques and a developing environmental awareness initiated a renewed scientific interest in PHAs, and the biosynthetic machinery for PHA metabolism has been studied in great detail over the last two decades. Because the structure and monomeric composition of PHAs determine the applications for each type of polymer, a variety of polymers have been synthesized by cofeeding of various substrates or by metabolic engineering of the production organism. Classical microbiology and modern molecular bacterial physiology have been brought together to decipher the intricacies of PHA metabolism both for production purposes and for the unraveling of the natural role of PHAs. This review provides an overview of the different PHA biosynthetic systems and their genetic background, followed by a detailed summation of how this natural diversity is being used to develop commercially attractive, recombinant processes for the large-scale production of PHAs.  (+info)

Epidermal growth factor regulates fatty acid uptake and metabolism in Caco-2 cells. (7/3185)

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been reported to stimulate carbohydrate, amino acid, and electrolyte transport in the small intestine, but its effects on lipid transport are poorly documented. This study aimed to investigate EGF effects on fatty acid uptake and esterification in a human enterocyte cell line (Caco-2). EGF inhibited cell uptake of [14C]palmitate and markedly reduced its incorporation into triglycerides. In contrast, the incorporation in phospholipids was enhanced. To elucidate the mechanisms involved, key steps of lipid synthesis were investigated. The amount of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP), which is thought to be important for fatty acid absorption, and the activity of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), an enzyme at the branch point of diacylglycerol utilization, were reduced. EGF effects on DGAT and on palmitate esterification occurred at 2-10 ng/ml, whereas effects on I-FABP and palmitate uptake occurred only at 10 ng/ml. This suggests that EGF inhibited palmitate uptake by reducing the I-FABP level and shifted its utilization from triglycerides to phospholipids by inhibiting DGAT. This increase in phospholipid synthesis might play a role in the restoration of enterocyte absorption function after intestinal mucosa injury.  (+info)

Role of ArgR in activation of the ast operon, encoding enzymes of the arginine succinyltransferase pathway in Salmonella typhimurium. (8/3185)

The ast operon, encoding enzymes of the arginine succinyltransferase (AST) pathway, was cloned from Salmonella typhimurium, and the nucleotide sequence for the upstream flanking region was determined. The control region contains several regulatory consensus sequences, including binding sites for NtrC, cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP), and ArgR. The results of DNase I footprintings and gel retardation experiments confirm binding of these regulatory proteins to the identified sites. Exogenous arginine induced AST under nitrogen-limiting conditions, and this induction was abolished in an argR derivative. AST was also induced under carbon starvation conditions; this induction required functional CRP as well as functional ArgR. The combined data are consistent with the hypothesis that binding of one or more ArgR molecules to a region between the upstream binding sites for NtrC and CRP and two putative promoters plays a pivotal role in modulating expression of the ast operon in response to nitrogen or carbon limitation.  (+info)

Glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoenzymes of human pancreas were purified, characterized and evaluated for their possible role in the metabolism of ethanol. Human pancreas has at least two GST isoenzymes belonging to the Alpha class (pI 8.8 and 8.1), one belonging to the Mu class (pI 6.4) and one belonging to the Pi class (pI 4.9). During the purification of GSTs from pancreas as well as from heart, liver, lung, brain and muscle, the fatty acid ethyl ester synthase (FAEES) activity was monitored in order to evaluate the role of GSTs in metabolism of ethanol, as suggested in earlier studies. Both t.l.c. and h.p.l.c. were used to identify ethyl oleate in reaction mixtures to monitor FAEES activity. During the purification of GSTs with the use of affinity chromatography on GSH linked to epoxy-activated Sepharose 6B, FAEES and GST activities from each of these tissues segregated independently. Purified GST isoenzymes from these tissues did not exhibit any FAEES activity. Antibodies raised against ...
Shop Acyl-coenzyme A amino acid N-acyltransferase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Acyl-coenzyme A amino acid N-acyltransferase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Lecithin retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) is a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the esterification of all-trans-retinol into all-trans-retinyl ester. This reaction is essential for the retinoid cycle in retinal photopigmentation and to metabolize vitamin A in the liver. Mutations in the LRAT gene have been associated with early-onset severe retinal dystrophy. LRAT is also known as phosphatidylcholine--retinol O-acyltransferase, LCA14, AI449251, and 1300010A18Rik.. ...
Lecithin retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) is a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the esterification of all-trans-retinol into all-trans-retinyl ester. This reaction is essential for the retinoid cycle in retinal photopigmentation and to metabolize vitamin A in the liver. Mutations in the LRAT gene have been associated with early-onset severe retinal dystrophy. LRAT is also known as phosphatidylcholine--retinol O-acyltransferase, LCA14, AI449251, and 1300010A18Rik.. ...
A novel location of the bile-acid-conjugating enzyme bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase (BAT) has been discovered in the cytosolic fraction of rat kidney. Both taurine and glycine were utilized as substrates. Formation of bile acid N-acyl amidates was verified by h.p.l.c. by comparison with authentic standards and by specific hydrolysis using cholylglycine hydrolase. Immunoblot analysis using a human liver anti-BAT polyclonal antibody indicated that rat kidney BAT has the same molecular mass as rat liver BAT. These findings suggest that the kidney has a role in bile acid metabolism and physiology.. ...
This study has demonstrated the importance of NOME in mediating acute pancreatic toxicity and inflammation induced by alcohol, damage arising primarily from Ca2+-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction in PACs. Many theories have been proposed to explain the detrimental effects of alcohol in AP,22 ,23 including direct actions on Ca2+-release mechanisms,24 OME-sensitised mitochondrial dysfunction25 and formation of toxic FAEEs.26 The association between alcohol and fat in pancreatic damage is particularly intriguing; diets rich in corn oil and alcohol induce chronic pancreatic injury in rats.24 Epidemiological studies suggest that high fat diets may be linked to development of acute and chronic alcoholic pancreatitis,27 while hypertriglyceridaemia is an independent risk factor for both.28 The present data highlight the importance of NOME in mediating acute PAC damage leading to AP. It is likely that under conditions of OME inhibition, available alcohol and fatty acid from triglyceride hydrolysis are ...
Glycylpeptide N-tetradecanoyltransferase 1 also known as myristoyl-CoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase 1 (NMT-1) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NMT1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000136448 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000020936 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Duronio RJ, Reed SI, Gordon JI (May 1992). Mutations of human myristoyl-CoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase cause temperature-sensitive myristic acid auxotrophy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 89 (9): 4129-33. doi:10.1073/pnas.89.9.4129. PMC 525646 . PMID 1570339. Entrez Gene: NMT1 N-myristoyltransferase 1. Rajala RV, Datla RS, Moyana TN, et al. (2000). N-myristoyltransferase. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 204 (1-2): 135-55. doi:10.1023/A:1007012622030. PMID 10718634. Geyer M, Fackler OT, Peterlin BM (2001). Structure--function relationships in HIV-1 Nef. EMBO Rep. 2 (7): 580-5. doi:10.1093/embo-reports/kve141. PMC 1083955 . ...
A combination of site-directed and random mutagenesis generated sequence variants of a plastidial lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase. Alanine substitutions of residues present within two conserved motifs including the putative catalytic histidine resulted in a loss of acyltransferase activity assessed as complementation competance. Substitutions at five sites within the central core resulted in reduced or loss of activity. Truncation mutants reveal that sequences in the C-terminal moiety are essential for function.. ...
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This gene encodes a protein that is involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis. The GPI-anchor is a glycolipid found on many blood cells and serves to anchor proteins to the cell surface. This protein is an essential component of the multisubunit enzyme, GPI transamidase. GPI transamidase mediates GPI anchoring in the endoplasmic reticulum, by catalyzing the transfer of fully assembled GPI units to proteins. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012 ...
Using 5-rapid amplification of cDNA ends, we have identified an extended 5-end of mRNA coding for human myristoyl-CoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase (NMT). PCR using primers based on this new 5-sequence and reverse primers within the currently accepted coding sequence of the enzyme resulted in the identification of a novel splice variant of NMT. In vitro translation of these cDNAs resulted in the production of proteins with apparent molecular masses of 63 kDa and 48 kDa. Immunoprecipitation of NMT from human cell lines and immunoblotting of a range of rat tissues has identified proteins with molecular masses corresponding to those derived from these cDNAs, and provided evidence that their relative abundance differs among tissues. Our results provide evidence that this enzyme exists in different forms resulting from alternative splicing of the mRNA ...
GPI transamidase component PIG-T is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PIGT gene. This gene encodes a protein that is involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis. The GPI-anchor is a glycolipid found on many blood cells and serves to anchor proteins to the cell surface. This protein is an essential component of the multisubunit enzyme, GPI transamidase. GPI transamidase mediates GPI anchoring in the endoplasmic reticulum, by catalyzing the transfer of fully assembled GPI units to proteins. PIGT has been shown to interact with PIGK and GPAA1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000124155 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000017721 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Vainauskas S, Menon AK (Apr 2005). Endoplasmic reticulum localization of Gaa1 and PIG-T, subunits of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol transamidase complex. J Biol Chem. 280 (16): 16402-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M414253200. PMID 15713669. Entrez Gene: ...
Proteins that have a GPI glycolipid modification are acknowledged to be key in the lifecycle of Plasmodium; for example the involvement of the GPI-anchored MSP1 on merozoites in erythrocyte invasion. The enzyme that transfers the preformed GPI to the proteins such as MSP1 is named GPI:protein transamidase, however, studying this enzyme biochemically has been arduous, due to the following hurdles. Firstly, the GPI:protein transamidase functions as a subunit in multidomain complex, some components of which maybe membrane associated, and there are no reports of functional recombinant reconstitution of this complex. Secondly, there are no convenient and sensitive transamidase assays available that are amenable to medium/high throughput studies, even though large small molecule cysteine peptidase inhibitor libraries exist and can be used to studying this enzyme.. Any input/thoughts on how to overcome the aforementioned obstacles in studying the Plasmodium GPI:protein transamidase would be most ...
Complete information for BAAT gene (Protein Coding), Bile Acid-CoA:Amino Acid N-Acyltransferase, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Purified Recombinant Human NMT2 Protein, Myc/DDK-tagged, C13 and N15-labeled from Creative Biomart. Recombinant Human NMT2 Protein, Myc/DDK-tagged, C13 and N15-labeled can be used for research.
BioAssay record AID 144067 submitted by ChEMBL: Tested for Inhibitory concentration against human N-myristoyltransferase (NMT) in radiochemical HPLC end point assay with peptide GNAASARR-NH2 and [3H]myristoyl-CoA radioligand at 1 uM; ND=Not determined.
Site-directed mutagenesis of rodent liver bile acid CoA: amino acid N-acyltransferase (BAT) - this project involves a combination of molecular biology, enzymology and protein mass ...
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Поиск диссертаций, авторефератов, научных статей и публикаций в русскоязычных источниках и периодике. LpxM(msbB) mutant
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lipoyltransferase II: transfers lipoyl group from lipoyl-AMP to the specific lysine residue of lipoate-dependent enzymes; isolated from bovine liver; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank AB006441
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This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases transferring groups other than aminoacyl groups. This enzyme participates in lysine
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BY MARY L. CHANG. Diglyceride acyltransferase, known to lipidologists as DGAT, gets a lot of attention in the April issue of the Journal of Lipid Research, where its the focus of an article by researchers at Columbia University and AstraZeneca and a related commentary. ...
Catalyzes the formation of diacylglycerol from 2-monoacylglycerol and fatty acyl-CoA. Probably not involved in absorption of dietary fat in the small intestine.
Catalyzes the terminal and only committed step in triacylglycerol synthesis by using diacylglycerol and fatty acyl CoA as substrates. In contrast to DGAT2 it is not essential for survival. May be involved in VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) assembly. In liver, plays a role in esterifying exogenous fatty acids to glycerol. Functions as the major acyl-CoA retinol acyltransferase (ARAT) in the skin, where it acts to maintain retinoid homeostasis and prevent retinoid toxicity leading to skin and hair disorders. ...
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The CoA derivatives of a number of aliphatic and aromatic acids, but not phenylacetyl-CoA or (indol-3-yl)acetyl-CoA, can act as donor. Not identical with EC 2.3.1.68 glut
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A RUGALMAS FOGLALKOZTATÁS ELTERJESZTÉSE A SZÉCHENYI 2020 PROGRAM TÁMOGATÁSÁVAL 11 KONZORCIUM EGYÜTTMŰKÖDÉSÉBEN. 2,007 milliárd forint európai uniós támogatás segítségével valósul meg a rugalmas foglalkoztatás elterjesztését célzó Széchenyi 2020 pályázat GINOP 5.3.1., „A komponense. A pályázat célkitűzése, hogy a konvergencia régiókban működő kis- illetve közepes vállalatok (kkv-k) szakmailag magas szintű, száz százalékosan finanszírozott átvilágítási, tanácsadói és fejlesztői szolgáltatást vehessenek igénybe munkaszervezésük rugalmasabbá tételéhez. A Széchenyi 2020 Program keretében 2014-ben jelent meg „A rugalmas foglalkoztatás elterjesztése a konvergencia régiókban című pályázat, melynek „A munkáltatói átvilágítást végző szervezetek kiválasztása és az átvilágítás lefolytatása elnevezésű „A komponense a szervezeti kultúra fejlesztésének és a munka-magánélet összhangjának támogatását ...
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Genetic information processingProtein fateProtein modification and repairapolipoprotein N-acyltransferase (TIGR00546; EC 2.3.1.-; HMM-score: 15.1) ...
The Ca2+ ionophore 4-Br A23187 is effective in increasing [Ca2+]i and eliciting secretion when ICRAC is inhibited by SK&F 96365. Antigen (Ag) (1 μg/ml) sti
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A 3D tervezés és 3D nyomtatás nyújtotta lehetőségek folyamatosan bővülnek az orvosi gyakorlatban. A technológia leggyakoribb felhasználási területe a 3D anatómiai modellek nyomtatása sebészi döntéstámogatás céljából. Az így személyre szabott és kinyomtatott modelleknek számos egyéb felhasználási területük van: komplex anatómiai szituációk pontos megjelenítése, az adott beteg sebészi beavatkozásának szimulációja a tényleges beavatkozást megelőzően, betegoktatás és a különböző diszciplínák között az eset megbeszélésének megkönnyítése. A technológia szívsebészeti vonatkozásában kiemelendő a kamrákat és a nagyereket érintő elváltozások 3D anatómiai modellezése és funkcionális elemzése, míg a mellkassebészetben az onkológiai betegek erősen vaszkularizált tumorának eradikálásakor lehet a sebészi terápia felállításában szerepe. A virtuális és 3D nyomtatott modellek új diagnosztikai lehetőséget jelentenek, ...
(R)-Lisofylline ((R)-Lisophylline) is a (R)-enantiomer of the metabolite of Pentoxifylline with anti-inflammatory properties. (R)-Lisofylline is a lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase inhibitor with an IC50 of 0.6 µM and interrupts IL-12 signaling-mediated STAT4 activation. (R)-Lisofylline has the potential for type 1 diabetes, autoimmune disorders research. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
Displays acyl-CoA-dependent lysophospholipid acyltransferase activity with a subset of lysophospholipids as substrates; converts lysophosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylethanolamine, 1-alkenyl-lysophatidylethanolamine to 1-alkenyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylglycerol and alkyl-lysophosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylglycerol and alkyl-phosphatidylcholine, respectively. In contrast, has no lysophosphatidylinositol, glycerol-3-phosphate, diacylglycerol or lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase activity. Prefers long chain acyl-CoAs (C16, C18) as acyl donors (By similarity). Converts lysophosphatidylcholine to phosphatidycholine.
Displays acyl-CoA-dependent lysophospholipid acyltransferase activity with a subset of lysophospholipids as substrates; converts lysophosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylcholine to phosphatidycholine, 1-alkenyl-lysophatidylethanolamine to 1-alkenyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylglycerol and alkyl-lysophosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylglycerol and alkyl-phosphatidylcholine, respectively. In contrast, has no lysophosphatidylinositol, glycerol-3-phosphate, diacylglycerol or lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase activity. Prefers long chain acyl-CoAs (C16, C18) as acyl donors ...
The budding yeast ALE1 gene encodes a lysophospholipid acyltransferase (LPLAT) with broad specificity. We show that yeast LPLAT (ScLPLAT) belongs to a distinct protein family that includes human MBOAT1, MBOAT2, MBOAT4, and several closely related proteins from other eukaryotes. We further show that two plant proteins within this family, the Arabidopsis proteins AtLPLAT1 and AtLPLAT2, possess lysophospholipid acyltransferase activities similar to ScLPLAT. We propose that other members of this protein family, which we refer to as the LPLAT family, also are likely to possess LPLAT activity. Finally, we show that ScLPLAT differs from the specific lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase that is encoded by SLC1 in that it cannot efficiently use lysophosphatidic acid produced by acylation of glycerol-3-phosphate in vitro.. ...
1C4T: Expression, purification, and structural analysis of the trimeric form of the catalytic domain of the Escherichia coli dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase.
Mice with genetic disruption of the DGAT1 or DGAT2 genes have been made by the Farese laboratory at UCSF. Surprisingly, DGAT1−/− mice[8] are healthy and fertile and have no changes in triglyceride levels. These mice are also lean and resistant to diet-induced obesity, consequently generating interest in DGAT1 inhibitors for the treatment of obesity. However, these mice also fail to lactate, showing a complete lack of milk production due to their inability to produce milk lipid droplets.[8] In contrast, DGAT2−/− mice[9] have reduced triglyceride levels but are lipopenic, suffer from skin barrier abnormalities (including the inability to retain moisture), and die shortly after birth. ...
BioAssay record AID 143943 submitted by ChEMBL: The compound was tested for the affinity against Candida albicans N-myristoyltransferase (NMT).
Falany, C.N., Johnson, M.R., Barnes, S. and Diasio, R.B. (1994). „Glycine and taurine conjugation of bile acids by a single enzyme. Molecular cloning and expression of human liver bile acid CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 269: 19375-19379. PMID 8034703 ...
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Seed triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis involves a metabolic network containing multiple different diacylglycerol (DAG) and acyl donor substrate pools. This network of pathways overlaps with those for essential membrane lipid synthesis and utilizes multiple different classes of TAG biosynthetic enzymes. Acyl flux through this network ultimately dictates the final oil fatty acid composition. Most strategies to alter seed oil composition involve the overexpression of lipid biosynthetic enzymes, but how these enzymes are assembled into metabolons and which substrate pools are used by each is still not well understood. To understand the roles of different classes of TAG biosynthetic acyltransferases in seed oil biosynthesis, we utilized the Arabidopsis thaliana diacylglycerol acyltransferase mutant dgat1-1, (in which phosphatidylcholine:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (AtPDAT1) is the major TAG biosynthetic enzyme), and enhanced TAG biosynthesis by expression of Arabidopsis acyltransferases AtDGAT1 ...
jats:p,Several years of extensive research using the new powerful techniques of molecular biology have enabled the direct comparison of functionally or evolutionarily related genes and their products at the nucleotide and aminoacid sequence levels. Two types of synthase with similar functions are discussed as an interesting example. Stilbene synthases, e.g. resveratrol synthase, produce the stilbene backbone as a key reaction in the biosynthesis of stilbene-type phytoalexins. Chalcone synthase is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of flavonoids, including certain phytoalexins derived from a 6′-deoxychalcone which is synthesized by cooperation of chalcone synthase with a reductase. Resveratrol and chalcone synthases utilize the same substrates (4-coumaroyl-CoA and 3 molecules of malonyl-CoA ) and catalyze the same condensing type of enzyme reaction (resulting in sequential addition of acetate units via malonyl-CoA ), but the products differ in the newly formed ring systems (resveratrol and ...
Triacylglycerol (TAG) is a major component of lipid storage in yeast. The acyl CoA: diacylgycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) that catalyzes the final and rate-limiting step in the production of TAG is rather interesting. Consequently, cloning and analysis of the gene-encoding TAG synthase, diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene (DGA1), of the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidiobolus fluvialis DMKU-RK253 were undertaken. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of DGA1 from R. fluvialis DMKU-RK253 (RfDGA1) showed similarity with the acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) from other organisms. The cDNA of RfDGA1 was cloned into the yeast expression vector pYES2 and heterologously overexpressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One of the transformants showed a 1.6-fold increase in lipid content compared with the wild-type strain harbouring the pYES2 empty vector. Furthermore, DGA1 overexpression in R. fluvialis DMKU-RK253 resulted in a 2.5-fold increase in lipid content when compared with the wild-type
GenBank) dihydrolipoyllysine-residue succinyltransferase component of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (E2)(dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase component of 2-oxoglutaratedehydrogenase complex ...
Objective HCV is intimately linked with the liver lipid metabolism, devoted to the efflux of triacylglycerols stored in lipid droplets (LDs) in the form of triacylglycerol-rich very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs): (i) the most infectious HCV particles are those of lowest density due to association with triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins and (ii) HCV-infected patients frequently develop hepatic steatosis (increased triacylglycerol storage). The recent identification of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 (LPCAT1) as an LD phospholipid-remodelling enzyme prompted us to investigate its role in liver lipid metabolism and HCV infectious cycle. ...
Transgenic technology has become an important technique for crop genetic improvement. The application of well-characterized promoters is essential for developing a vector system for efficient genetic transformation. Therefore, isolation and functional validation of more alternative constitutive promoters to the CaMV35S promoter is highly desirable. In this study, a 2093-bp sequence upstream of the translation initiation codon ATG of AtSCPL30 was isolated as the full-length promoter (PD1). To characterize the AtSCPL30 promoter (PD1) and eight 5′ deleted fragments (PD2-PD9) of different lengths were fused with GUS to produce the promoter::GUS plasmids and were translocated into Nicotiana benthamiana. PD1-PD9 could confer strong and constitutive expression of transgenes in almost all tissues and development stages in Nicotiana benthamiana transgenic plants. Additionally, PD2-PD7 drove transgene expression consistently over twofold higher than the well-used CaMV35S promoter under normal and stress
Endophilins have been proposed to have an enzymatic activity (a lysophosphatidic acid acyl transferase or LPAAT activity) that can make phosphatidic acid in membranes1,2,3. This activity is thought to change the bilayer asymmetry in such a way that negative membrane curvature at the neck of a budding vesicle will be stabilized. An LPAAT activity has also been proposed for CtBP/BARS (carboxy-terminal binding protein/brefeldin A-ribosylated substrate), a transcription co-repressor that is implicated in dynamin-independent endocytosis and fission of the Golgi in mitosis4,5,6. Here we show that the LPAAT activity associated with endophilin is a contaminant of the purification procedure and can be also found associated with the pleckstrin homology domain of dynamin. Likewise, the LPAAT activity associated with CtBP/BARS is also a co-purification artefact. The proposed locus of activity in endophilins includes the BAR domain, which has no catalytic site but instead senses positive membrane curvature. These
phosphatidylethanolamine, N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine, N-monomethylphosphatidylethanolamine, N,N-dimethylphosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanol, lysophosphatidylethanolamine - structure, occurrence, biochemistry and analysis, N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine
Plant Acyl-CoA:Lysophosphatidylcholine Acyltransferases (LPCATs) have different specificities in their forward and reverse reactions
Metabolic & Genetic Information Center Inborn erros of metabolism LIPOYLTRANSFERASE 2 DEFICIENCY (LIPT2D) NELABA NELABA ENCEPHALOPATHY, NEONATAL SEVERE, WITH LACTIC ACIDOSIS AND BRAIN ABNORMALITIES
The ZDHHC9-GOLGA7 complex is a palmitoyltransferase specific for hRAS and nRAS (Swarthout et al. 2005). DHHC (Asp-His-His-Cys) palmitoyltransferases are eukaryotic integral membrane enzymes that catalyze protein palmitoylation, which is important in a range of physiological processes, including small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) signaling, cell adhesion, and neuronal receptor scaffolding. Rana et al. 2018 presented crystal structures of two DHHC palmitoyltransferases and a covalent intermediate mimic. The active site resides at the membrane-cytosol interface allow the enzyme to catalyze thioester-exchange using fatty acyl-coenzyme A, explaining why membrane-proximal cysteines are candidates for palmitoylation. The acyl chain binds in a cavity formed by the transmembrane domain. Rana et al. 2018 proposed a mechanism for acyl chain-length selectivity in DHHC enzymes on the basis of cavity mutants with preferences for shorter and longer acyl chains. Protein S-acylation is a reversible lipidic ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [James R Petrie, Thomas Vanhercke, Pushkar Shrestha, Anna El Tahchy, Adam White, Xue-Rong Zhou, Qing Liu, Maged P Mansour, Peter D Nichols, Surinder P Singh].
Amazon SWF metrics are available starting today in all AWS regions. Amazon SWF is a background job, task coordination and state management service for cloud and on-premise applications. It provides features that let you build and run reliable background jobs and other applications that need to track and manage state. With Amazon SWF, you can stop writing complex glue-code and state machinery and invest more in the business logic that makes your applications unique. Amazon SWF metrics give you latency information to tell you how long steps in your workflows are taking and give you counts for key state changes in those workflows. Now, in addition to using CPU metrics to scale your worker fleets with Amazon Auto Scaling, you can use information about how long your workflow steps are taking to determine if your workers are falling behind and automatically add or reduce computing capacity. This helps you make sure your workflow applications can efficiently keep up with demand from your end-users. For ...
Palmitoyl acyl transferase (PAT); Palmitoylating enzyme; zDHHC proteins Protein palmitoylation is the first discovered and the most common lipid modification. This posttranslational change involves...
RPH629Hu01, MGAT2; DGAT2L5; DC5; 2-Acylglycerol O-Acyltransferase 2; Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase candidate 5; Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2-like protein 5 | Products for research use only!
1IIC: Structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae N-myristoyltransferase with bound myristoylCoA and peptide provide insights about substrate recognition and catalysis.
View Zdhhc17/Zdhhc17 FVB.129P2-Zdhhc17: phenotypes, images, diseases, and references.
We report the cloning and initial characterization of the genes encoding DGAT2 (diacylglycerol transferase 2), MOGAT1 and MOGAT2 (monoacylglycerol transferases 1 and 2) in domestic cattle (Bos taurus). The three closely related genes belong to a gene family with at least eight members in mammals and …
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GPI Transamidase Subunit; Involved In Attachment Of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) Anchors To Proteins; May Have A Role In Recognition Of The Attachment Signal Or Of The Lipid Portion Of GPI
Complete information for LPGAT1 gene (Protein Coding), Lysophosphatidylglycerol Acyltransferase 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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Zdhhc20 - mouse gene knockout kit via CRISPR, 1 kit. |dl||dt|Kit Component:|/dt||dd|- |strong|KN319685G1|/strong|, Zdhhc20 gRNA vector 1 in |a href=http://www.origene.com/CRISPR-CAS9/Detail.
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Detailed information about the celline expression of DLST in NB-4 stained with HPA003010. The antibody showed a Medium/High level of staining
The lung (adjectival form: pulmonary) is the essential respiration organ in many air-breathing animals, including most tetrapods, a few fish and a few snails. In mammals and the more complex life forms, the two lungs are located near the backbone on either side of the heart. Their principal function is to transport oxygen from the atmosphere into the bloodstream, and to release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere. This exchange of gases is accomplished in the mosaic of specialized cells that form millions of tiny, exceptionally thin-walled air sacs called alveoli ...
A gene gun or a biolistic particle delivery system, originally designed for plant transformation, is a device for injecting cells with genetic information. The payload is an elemental particle of a heavy metal coated with plasmid DNA. This technique is often simply referred to as bioballistics or biolistics ...
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Fast delivery of ZDHHC3 knockout Human Cell Lines for the study of gene function. Created by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing. Includes matched wildtype control.
Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), an integral membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum, catalyses the final step in the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate pathway leading to triacylglycerol. Although DGAT has been cloned ...
Category:EC 2.3 (acyltransferases)Edit. *Category:EC 2.3.1 *Aminolevulinic acid synthase EC 2.3.1.37 ...
... lecithin retinol acyltransferases (LRATs). Steps 3, 4, 5, and 6 occur in rod cell outer segments; Steps 1, 2, and 7 occur in ...
Pseudotropine acyltransferase, an enzyme. *Putrescine aminotransferase, an enzyme. Places[edit]. *Pat, Hungary, a village in ...
Acyltransferases in bacterial glycerophospholipid synthesis". J Lipid Res. 49 (9): 1867-1874. doi:10.1194/jlr.R800005-JLR200. ...
Reed LJ, Hackert ML (1990). "Structure-function relationships in dihydrolipoamide acyltransferases". J. Biol. Chem. 265 (16): ...
Reed LJ, Hackert ML (1990). "Structure-function relationships in dihydrolipoamide acyltransferases". J Biol Chem. 265 (16): ... The inner-core domain is necessary to form the oligomeric core of the enzyme complex and catalyzes the acyltransferase reaction ...
ISBN 978-1-133-10629-6. "Peptidyl Transferase - Acyltransferases - Transferases - Enzymes - Products". www.axonmedchem.com. ...
The MBOAT (membrane bound O-acyl transferase) family of membrane proteins is a family of various acyltransferase enzymes. All ... A computational model of human ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) (Q96T53) revealed a transmembrane channel that facilitates ... 2011). "Membrane-bound O-acyltransferases (MBOATs)". Front. Biol. 6 (3): 177. doi:10.1007/s11515-011-1149-z. S2CID 41626991.CS1 ... "The ghrelin O-acyltransferase structure reveals a catalytic channel for transmembrane hormone acylation". The Journal of ...
Reed LJ, Hackert ML (Jun 1990). "Structure-function relationships in dihydrolipoamide acyltransferases". The Journal of ...
Jogl G, Hsiao YS, Tong L (Nov 2004). "Structure and function of carnitine acyltransferases". Annals of the New York Academy of ... Cronin CN (Sep 1997). "The conserved serine-threonine-serine motif of the carnitine acyltransferases is involved in carnitine ... This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, to be specific those acyltransferases transferring groups other than ... Saeed A, McMillin JB, Wolkowicz PE, Brouillette WJ (Sep 1993). "Carnitine acyltransferase enzymic catalysis requires a positive ...
... (CPT1) also known as carnitine acyltransferase I, CPTI, CAT1, CoA:carnitine acyl transferase ( ... It is part of a family of enzymes called carnitine acyltransferases. This "preparation" allows for subsequent movement of the ... van der Leij FR, Huijkman NC, Boomsma C, Kuipers JR, Bartelds B (2000). "Genomics of the human carnitine acyltransferase genes ... although a variety of in silico models for CPT1 have been created based on closely related carnitine acyltransferases, such as ...
GPAT-3 is also known as: 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 9 (AGPAT9), lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase theta ( ... Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 3 (GPAT-3) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AGPAT9 gene. ... "Entrez Gene: AGPAT9: 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 9". Human GPAT3 genome location and GPAT3 gene details page ... 2006). "Identification of a novel human lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, LPAAT-theta, which activates mTOR pathway". J. ...
CYP2D6, dopamine β-hydroxylase, flavin-containing monooxygenase 3, butyrate-CoA ligase, and glycine N-acyltransferase are the ... "Substrate/Product". glycine N-acyltransferase. BRENDA. Technische Universität Braunschweig. "Compound Summary". p- ...
acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase activity. • long-chain-enoyl-CoA hydratase activity. Cellular component. • membrane. • ... Trifunctional enzyme subunit beta, mitochondrial (TP-beta) also known as 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, acetyl-CoA acyltransferase, ...
Glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase. *1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase. *2-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O- ...
Glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase. *1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase. *2-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O- ...
Glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase. *1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase. *2-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O- ...
Rana, MS; Lee, CJ; Banerjee, A (28 February 2019). "The molecular mechanism of DHHC protein acyltransferases". Biochemical ...
Hou H, John Peter AT, Meiringer C, Subramanian K, Ungermann C (August 2009). "Analysis of DHHC acyltransferases implies ... Rana, MS; Lee, CJ; Banerjee, A (28 February 2019). "The molecular mechanism of DHHC protein acyltransferases". Biochemical ... "The vacuolar DHHC-CRD protein Pfa3p is a protein acyltransferase for Vac8p". J. Cell Biol. 170 (7): 1091-9. doi:10.1083/jcb. ... "Protein palmitoylation by a family of DHHC protein S-acyltransferases". J. Lipid Res. 47 (6): 1118-27. doi:10.1194/jlr.R600007- ...
"Entrez Gene: AGPAT2 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 2 (lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, beta)". Human AGPAT2 ... 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase beta is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AGPAT2 gene. This gene ... Aguado B, Campbell RD (Feb 1998). "Characterization of a human lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase that is encoded by a gene ... Eberhardt C, Gray PW, Tjoelker LW (Aug 1997). "Human lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase. cDNA cloning, expression, and ...
"Entrez Gene: Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1". Nakanishi H, Shindou H, Hishikawa D, Harayama T, Ogasawara R, Suwabe A ... Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the LPCAT1 gene. Lysophosphatidylcholine ( ... LPC) acyltransferase (LPCAT; EC 2.3.1.23) catalyzes the conversion of LPC to phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the remodeling pathway ... lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 (LPCAT1). Expression in alveolar type II cells and possible involvement in surfactant ...
Lysophospholipid acyltransferase 7 also known as membrane-bound O-acyltransferase domain-containing protein 7 (MBOAT7) is an ... It is homologous to other membrane-bound O-acyltransferases. This gene encodes a member of the membrane-bound O- ... acyltransferases family of integral membrane proteins that have acyltransferase activity. The encoded protein is a ... "Entrez Gene: Membrane bound O-acyltransferase domain containing 7". Wende H, Volz A, Ziegler A (July 2000). "Extensive gene ...
Hedgehog acyltransferase (HHAT), also called skinny hedgehog homology in humans, is a human gene. The HHAT gene encodes an ... Finally the HHAT protein shares a short but significant sequence similarity to membrane-bound O-acyltransferases. Kawakami Y, ... "OMIM Entry - * 605743 - HEDGEHOG ACYLTRANSFERASE; HHAT". www.omim.org. Retrieved 2017-02-20. Chamoun Z, Mann RK, Nellen D, von ... Kessler DP, Bellotto M, Beachy PA, Basler K (September 2001). "Skinny hedgehog, an acyltransferase required for palmitoylation ...
2004). "Overexpression of human diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, acyl-coa:cholesterol acyltransferase 1, or acyl-CoA: ... Sterol O-acyltransferase 2, also known as SOAT2, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SOAT2 gene. This gene is a ... Lin S; Lu X; Chang CC; Chang TY (2004). "Human Acyl-Coenzyme A:Cholesterol Acyltransferase Expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary ... "Entrez Gene: SOAT2 sterol O-acyltransferase 2". Chang TY, Chang CC, Cheng D; Chang (1997). "Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol ...
Substrate/Product "glycine N-acyltransferase". BRENDA. Technische Universität Braunschweig. Retrieved 7 May 2014. Substrate/ ... which is then metabolized by glycine N-acyltransferase into hippuric acid. In combination with ascorbic acid (vitamin C, E300 ...
Monoacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MOGAT3 gene. Acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol ... "Entrez Gene: Monoacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 3". Cheng D, Nelson TC, Chen J, Walker SG, Wardwell-Swanson J, Meegalla R, Taub ... acyltransferase (MOGAT; EC 2.3.1.22) catalyzes the synthesis of diacylglycerol from 2-monoacylglycerol and fatty acyl-CoA. ... R, Billheimer JT, Ramaker M, Feder JN (Apr 2003). "Identification of acyl coenzyme A:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase 3, an ...
Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GPAM gene. Glycerol-3- ... "Entrez Gene: GPAM glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, mitochondrial". Skorve J, Ruyter B, Rustan AC, et al. (1990). "Effect ... Igal RA, Wang S, Gonzalez-Baró M, Coleman RA (2001). "Mitochondrial glycerol phosphate acyltransferase directs the ... Thomas PD, Poznansky MJ (1990). "Lipid peroxidation inactivates rat liver microsomal glycerol-3-phosphate acyl transferase. ...
... inhibits sphingosine acyltransferase. Fumonisin B4 and other fumonisins frequently contaminate maize and other ...
Substrate/Product "glycine N-acyltransferase". BRENDA. Technische Universität Braunschweig. Retrieved 7 May 2014. Substrate/ ... which is then metabolized by glycine N-acyltransferase into hippuric acid. Humans metabolize toluene and benzoic acid which is ...
Sterol Acyltransferase) Different from the Yeast and Mammalian Acyl-CoA:Sterol Acyltransferases*". Journal of Biological ... an area where Sten have had great impact by increasing the knowledge of how specialized acyltransferases and phospholipases are ... diacylglycerol acyltransferases in triacylglycerol production". Biochemical Society Transactions. 28 (6): 703-705. doi:10.1042/ ...
Diglyceride acyltransferase (or O-acyltransferase), DGAT, catalyzes the formation of triglycerides from diacylglycerol and Acyl ... cholesterol acyltransferase-related enzymes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273 (41): 26765-71. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.41. ... a second mammalian diacylglycerol acyltransferase, and related family members". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (42): ... "Acylation of acylglycerols by acyl coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1). Functional importance of DGAT1 in the ...
Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency (LCAT deficiency) is a disorder of lipoprotein metabolism. The disease has two ... Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters in lipoproteins. Symptoms of the familial ... "Lecithin-Cholesterol Acyltransferase Deficiency: Overview, Presentation, Differential Diagnosis". 2016-08-08. Kuivenhoven, J. A ... "Lecithin-Cholesterol Acyltransferase Deficiency: Overview, Presentation, Differential Diagnosis". 2016-08-08. Reference, ...
Characterization of Late Acyltransferase Genes of Yersinia pestis and Their Role in Temperature-Dependent Lipid A Variation ... Identification of Essential Residues in Apolipoprotein N-Acyl Transferase, a Member of the CN Hydrolase Family Dominique Vidal- ... Acyl Chain Specificity of the Acyltransferases LpxA and LpxD and Substrate Availability Contribute to Lipid A Fatty Acid ... Characterization of the Bifunctional Glycosyltransferase/Acyltransferase Penicillin-Binding Protein 4 of Listeria monocytogenes ...
Glyceronephosphate O-acyltransferase Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase Long-chain-alcohol O-fatty-acyltransferase ... Acyltransferase is a type of transferase enzyme that acts upon acyl groups. Examples include: ... Acetyltransferase Acyltransferases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Biology portal v t e ...
The microsomal cardiolipin remodeling enzyme acyl-CoA lysocardiolipin acyltransferase is an acyltransferase of multiple anionic ... lysophosphatidylglycerol acyltransferase 1, and lysocardiolipin acyltransferase 1, which has both lysophosphatidylinositol and ... including 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (also known as lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase), acyl-CoA: ... This domain is found at the C terminus of several lysophospholipid acyltransferases, ...
MULTISPECIES: lauroyl acyltransferase [Leptospira] MULTISPECIES: lauroyl acyltransferase [Leptospira]. gi,488619399,ref,WP_ ...
Definition of dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes ... dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase. Definition: an enzyme that catalyzes an important step in plasmalogen biosynthesis ...
This family contains acyltransferases involved in phospholipid biosynthesis and proteins of unknown function. This family also ... 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase InterPro: IPR004552 AGPAT1; AGPAT2; AGPAT3; AGPAT4; AGPAT5; AGPAT6; AGPAT7; ... AYTL1; AYTL2; GNPAT; GPAM; GPAT3; LYCAT; TAZ; TMEM68; Neuwald AF (1997). "Barth syndrome may be due to an acyltransferase ...
The Structure and Function of Acylglycerophosphate Acyltransferase 4/ Lysophosphatidic Acid Acyltransferase Delta (AGPAT4/LPAAT ... phosphate acyltransferase mutant of Escherichia coli and encodes a protein which has similarities to other acyltransferases. ... Coleman, J. Characterization of the Escherichia coli gene for 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (plsC). Mol. Gen. ... Endophilin and CtBP/BARS are not acyl transferases in endocytosis or Golgi fission. *Jennifer L. Gallop1. , ...
Acyl transferase/acyl hydrolase/lysophospholipase (IPR016035). Short name: Acyl_Trfase/lysoPLipase Description. This ... This domain can be found in acyl transferases such as bacterial malonyl-CoA ACP transacylase (FabD) and the homologous domain ...
Cholesterol Ester Aortic Wall Cholesterol Acyltransferase Ester Hydrolase Acyl Transfer These keywords were added by machine ... Patelski, J., Pniewska, B., Pioruńska, M. and Obrebska, M., The arterial acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase and cholesterol ... Patelski J., Pioruńska M. (1977) Cholesterol Ester: Lysolecithin Acyltransferase Activity of the Aorta. In: Manning G.W., Haust ...
Gnpat glyceronephosphate O-acyltransferase [Mus musculus] Gnpat glyceronephosphate O-acyltransferase [Mus musculus]. Gene ID: ... glyceronephosphate O-acyltransferaseprovided by MGI. Primary source. MGI:MGI:1343460 See related. Ensembl:ENSMUSG00000031985 ... glycerone-phosphate O-acyltransferase activity IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more info ... dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase. Names. DAP-AT. DHAP-AT. acyl-CoA:dihydroxyacetonephosphateacyltransferase. ...
Definition of 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes ... See: lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase. Further information. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the ...
The two familial forms of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency are termed familial LCAT deficiency (complete ... encoded search term (Lecithin-Cholesterol Acyltransferase Deficiency) and Lecithin-Cholesterol Acyltransferase Deficiency What ... Lecithin-Cholesterol Acyltransferase Deficiency. Updated: Aug 08, 2016 * Author: Catherine Anastasopoulou, MD, PhD, FACE; Chief ... Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is a lipoprotein-associated enzyme which plays a large role in the esterification ...
Modulation of expression of acyltransferases to modify hydroxycinnamic acid content. Title: Modulation of expression of ... Differential phylogenetic expansions in BAHD acyltransferases across five angiosperm taxa and evidence of divergent expression ...
Oxalyltransferase, a plant cell‐wall acyltransferase activity, transfers oxalate groups from ascorbate metabolites to ... We conclude that plants possess apoplastic acyltransferase (oxalyltransferase) activity that transfers oxalyl groups from ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
This lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase-mediated reaction requires an apoprotein cofactor, primarily apoprotein A-I. Some ... Chen, C. H., and Albers, J. J., 1985, Activation of lecithinxholesterol acyltransferase by apolipoproteins E-2, E-3, and A-IV ... Albers J.J. (1987) Lecithin-Cholesterol Acyltransferase and Plasma Lipid Transfer Protein. In: Gallo L.L. (eds) Cardiovascular ... Preferential formation of disaturated phospholipid species occurs with this lysolecithin acyltransferase reaction. ...
The acyl transferase of the PBP also catalyses aminolysis and hydrolysis of properly structured thiolesters, but it lacks ... The glycosyl transferase module is linked, via a short junction site, to the amino end of a Q447-N844 acyl transferase module, ... The catalytic, glycosyl transferase and acyl transferase modules of the cell wall peptidoglycan-polymerizing penicillin-binding ... showing that the functioning of the glycosyl transferase is acyl transferase independent. In the absence of penicillin, the ...
AcyltransferaseImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a ... Phosphate-acyl-ACP acyltransferaseUniRule annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ... phosphate:acyl-[acyl carrier protein] acyltransferase activity Source: UniProtKB-UniRule. Complete GO annotation on QuickGO ... ... Acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]--phosphate acyltransferaseUniRule annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ...
... glycerol-sn-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) is an enzyme responsible for the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of ... Transcriptional Regulation of Acyl-CoA:Glycerol-sn-3-Phosphate Acyltransferases Ken Karasawa 1,*, Kazunari Tanigawa 1, Ayako ... Acyl-CoA:glycerol-sn-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) is an enzyme responsible for the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of ... "Transcriptional Regulation of Acyl-CoA:Glycerol-sn-3-Phosphate Acyltransferases." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 20, no. 4: 964. ...
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis LipB enzyme functions as a cysteine/lysine dyad acyltransferase. Qingjun Ma, Xin Zhao, Ali ... LipB Functions as a Cysteine/Lysine Acyltransferase.. To further assess the role of the strictly conserved residue pair Cys-176 ... This analogy, in turn, would render LipB a cysteine/lysine acyltransferase, which, to our knowledge, is unprecedented in the ... We provide evidence that the transferase functions as a cysteine/lysine dyad acyltransferase, in which two invariant residues ( ...
ACYL-[ACYL-CARRIER-PROTEIN]--UDP-N-ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE O-ACYLTRANSFERASE. A. 264. Escherichia coli. Mutation(s): 0 EC: 2.3.1.129 ... UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase (LpxA) initiates lipid A biosynthesis by catalyzing the transfer of R-3-hydroxymyristic ... UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase (LpxA) initiates lipid A biosynthesis by catalyzing the transfer of R-3-hydroxymyristic ... Nucleotide Substrate Recognition by Udp-N-Acetylglucosamine Acyltransferase (Lpxa) in the First Step of Lipid a Biosynthesis.. ...
Compare Anti-lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 4 Antibody Products from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View ... Anti-lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 4 Antibody Products. Anti-Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 4 antibodies are ... The protein may also be known as AGPAT7, AYTL3, LPAAT-eta, LPEAT2, lysophospholipid acyltransferase LPCAT4, and 1-AGP ... acyltransferase 7. The reported amino acid length is 524 and the expected mass is 57.2 kDa. Variants of this antigen may also ...
Lysophospholipid acyltransferases (LPLATs) catalyze the reacylation step of the phospholipid remodeling pathway also known as ... Acyltransferase which contributes to the regulation of free arachidonic acid (AA) in the cell through the remodeling of ... 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase activity Source: Reactome. *2-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase activity ... Lysophospholipid acyltransferase 7Add BLAST. 472. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ...
Recombinant Diacylglycerol acyltransferase/mycolyltransferase Ag85B protein (Tagged) is an Escherichia coli Full length protein ... ab236191 could indicate that this peptide derived from E.coli-expressed Mycobacterium kansasii Diacylglycerol acyltransferase/ ... ab236191 could indicate that this peptide derived from E.coli-expressed Mycobacterium kansasii Diacylglycerol acyltransferase/ ...
Rabbit polyclonal 1-AGP acyltransferase 4 antibody. Validated in IHC and tested in Human. Cited in 1 publication(s). Immunogen ... Anti-1-AGP acyltransferase 4 antibody. See all 1-AGP acyltransferase 4 primary antibodies. ... 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase delta antibody. *1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 4 ( ... Golgi membrane fission requires the CtBP1-S/BARS-induced activation of lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase d.. Nat Commun 7: ...
... glucosamine N-acyltransferase, acyltransferase LpxD, acyl-ACP:UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxyacyl)-GlcN N-acyltransferase, firA (gene), lpxD ... UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxymyristoyl)glucosamine N-acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.191, UDP-3-O-acyl-glucosamine N-acyltransferase, UDP-3-O-(R ... Buetow L, Smith TK, Dawson A, Fyffe S, Hunter WN (March 2007). "Structure and reactivity of LpxD, the N-acyltransferase of ... Bartling CM, Raetz CR (May 2008). "Steady-state kinetics and mechanism of LpxD, the N-acyltransferase of lipid A biosynthesis ...
... monoacylglycerol acyltransferases (MGATs), and acylglycerolphosphate acyltransferases (AGPATs), which are each necessary for ... 2015) Acyltransferase inhibitors: A patent review (2010-present). Expert Opin Ther Pat 25(2):145-158. ... AbLpxM Possesses Acyltransferase and Acylprotein Thioesterase Activities.. To measure activity of AbLpxM, we measured the ... With this assay, we measured acyl-transferase activity for AbLpxM using lauryl-ACP as an acyl chain donor and titrating lipid ...
Summary: Mouse models of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes that develop peripheral neuropathy display increased levels of nerve triglycerides, which return to normal upon dietary reversal, suggesting that altered lipids are involved in disease. ...
  • This domain is found at the C terminus of several lysophospholipid acyltransferases, including 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (also known as lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase), acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylglycerol acyltransferase 1, and lysocardiolipin acyltransferase 1, which has both lysophosphatidylinositol and lysophosphatidylglycerol acyltransferase activities [ PMID: 19075029 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Belongs to the 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase family. (abcam.com)
  • The HXXXXD motif is essential for acyltransferase activity and may constitute the binding site for the phosphate moiety of the glycerol-3-phosphate. (abcam.com)
  • Finally, we show that ScLPLAT differs from the specific lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase that is encoded by SLC1 in that it cannot efficiently use lysophosphatidic acid produced by acylation of glycerol-3-phosphate in vitro. (diva-portal.org)
  • Sequential acylation of the three stereochemical positions of glycerol-3-phosphate (G-3-P) occurs by acyltransferase enzymes. (plantphysiol.org)
  • We have isolated a cDNA clone encoding this embryo-specific, microsomal acyltransferase via heterologous complementation of an Escherichia coli mutant deficient in sn -1-acyl-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity. (wiley.com)
  • Glycerol-3-phosphate Acyltransferase 1 Promotes Tumor Cell Migration and Poor Survival in Ovarian Carcinoma. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In this study, we targeted the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase GPAM along with choline kinase-α (CHKA), the enzymes that catabolize the products of EDI3 to determine which downstream pathway is relevant for migration. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Glycerol 3-phosphate, derived primarily from glycolysis or gluconeogenesis, is esterified at the sn -1 carbon position by glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferases producing lysophosphatidate (1-acylglycerol 3-phosphate). (aocs.org)
  • Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency (LCAT deficiency) is a disorder of lipoprotein metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is a lipoprotein-associated enzyme which plays a large role in the esterification of free cholesterol, the maturation of high density-lipoprotein (HDL) particles, and the intravascular stage of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). (medscape.com)
  • This lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase-mediated reaction requires an apoprotein cofactor, primarily apoprotein A-I. Some data suggest that apoproteins other than A-I may also serve as physiological cofactors for the LCAT reaction. (springer.com)
  • Objectives- Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency (LCAT-def) is characterized by low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and the accumulation of lipoprotein-X (LpX). (ahajournals.org)
  • Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is an enzyme that esterifies free cholesterol (FC) into cholesteryl ester (CE) in high-density lipoprotein (HDL). (ahajournals.org)
  • Plasma lipoprotein metabolism is influenced by several factors that may act by regulating the expression of proteins involved in lipoprotein metabolism, such as lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). (epfl.ch)
  • Diglyceride acyltransferase (or O-acyltransferase), DGAT , catalyzes the formation of triglycerides from diacylglycerol and Acyl-CoA . (wikipedia.org)
  • The midway gene encodes a protein similar to mammalian acyl coenzyme A: diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), which converts diacylglycerol (DAG) into triacylglycerol (TAG). (genetics.org)
  • Furthermore, microsomal membrane preparations typically contain endogenous diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) from the host cells, and these DGAT activities can further acylate DAG to form triglyceride (TG). (nih.gov)
  • In addition, DAG produced by this acyltransferase can serve as a substrate for both native and coexpressed diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyses the last step in acyl-CoA-dependent triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and is an important determinant of cellular oil content and quality. (unl.edu)
  • The last step of the TG biosynthetic pathway is catalyzed by acyl coenzyme-A:1,2-diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) at the endoplasmic reticulum. (aocs.org)
  • In the enterocyte, TGs are resynthesized mainly by monoacylglycerol acyltransferase and DGAT. (aocs.org)
  • Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) plays a critical role in the synthesis of triacylglycerol. (springer.com)
  • Meegalla RL, Billheimer JT, Cheng D (2002) Concerted elevation of acylcoenzyme A: diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) activity through independent stimulation of mRNA expression of DGAT1 and DGAT2 by carbohydrate and insulin. (springer.com)
  • Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters in lipoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that facilitates the esterification of lipoprotein cholesterol and subsequent removal from peripheral tissues to the liver. (curehunter.com)
  • 1.006 g/ml from patients with familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency have yielded new evidence of abnormalities in this lipoprotein class. (curehunter.com)
  • Lecithin retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) is a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the esterification of all-trans-retinol into all-trans-retinyl ester. (clontech.com)
  • Lecithin-Cholesterol Acyltransferase Human ELISA by BioVendor, Cat. (lucerna-chem.ch)
  • These are catalyzed by members of a superfamily of enzymes known as lysophospholipid acyltransferases (LPLATs), which are present in all domains of life and play important roles in diverse biological processes. (pnas.org)
  • SEs are synthesized by sterol acyltransferases, a family of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of fatty acil groups to the hydroxyl group at C-3 position of the sterol backbone. (frontiersin.org)
  • Monoacylglycerol acyltransferase enzymes (MGAT1, MGAT2, and MGAT3) convert monoacylglycerol to diacylglycerol (DAG). (nih.gov)
  • To improve utilization of such substrates, we expressed three castor acyltransferase enzymes that incorporate HFA at each stereochemical position during TAG synthesis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • It is these reactions that make acyltransferase enzymes worthy candidates for manipulating the synthesis of oil containing unusual FA. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The acyl-glycerol phosphate acyltransferase (AGPAT) family of enzymes have been largely identified through sequence homology, with eleven isoforms identified in both mice and humans. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • The recent discovery of at least 23 enzymes that mediate palmitoylation (palmitoyl acyltransferases or PATs 1 ) suggests that regulation of palmitoylation is far more complex than previously assumed. (mcponline.org)
  • The protein is homologous to other membrane-bound O-acyltransferases . (wikipedia.org)
  • Golgi membrane fission requires the CtBP1-S/BARS-induced activation of lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase d. (abcam.com)
  • membrane bound O-acyltransferase domain. (wikigenes.org)
  • CIL56-induced cell death requires a protein acyltransferase complex comprising the enzyme ZDHHC5 and an accessory subunit, GOLGA7, that is mutually stabilizing and localizes to the plasma membrane. (ssrn.com)
  • Hishikawa D, Shindou H, Kobayashi S, Nakanishi H, Taguchi R, Shimizu T. Discovery of a lysophospholipid acyltransferase family essential for membrane asymmetry and diversity. (labome.org)
  • In this review, we summarize recent studies on cloning and characterization of lysophospholipid acyltransferases that contribute to membrane asymmetry and diversity. (labome.org)
  • Member of the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT) family encodes a lysophospholipid acyltransferase with broad substrate specificity. (labome.org)
  • Porcupine (PORCN) is a membrane bound O-acyltransferase that is required for Wnt palmitoylation, secretion, and biologic activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Ghrelin-O-Acyltransferase (GOAT) is an 11-transmembrane integral membrane protein that octanoylates Ser3 of the metabolism-regulating gastric peptide hormone ghrelin, producing the active form of this hormone. (jhu.edu)
  • Lysophospholipid acyltransferase (LPLAT) proteins are required for many essential biological activities involving the transfer of acyl chains. (pnas.org)
  • The budding yeast ALE1 gene encodes a lysophospholipid acyltransferase (LPLAT) with broad specificity. (diva-portal.org)
  • We further show that two plant proteins within this family, the Arabidopsis proteins AtLPLAT1 and AtLPLAT2, possess lysophospholipid acyltransferase activities similar to ScLPLAT. (diva-portal.org)
  • Shindou H. [Lysophospholipid acyltransferase and platelet-activating factor (PAF) biosynthetic enzyme]. (labome.org)
  • These results indicate that human MBOAT5 is a lysophospholipid acyltransferase acting preferentially on LPC, LPS and LPE. (labome.org)
  • Shindou H, Hishikawa D, Harayama T, Yuki K, Shimizu T. Recent progress on acyl CoA: lysophospholipid acyltransferase research. (labome.org)
  • This family contains acyltransferases involved in phospholipid biosynthesis and proteins of unknown function. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the glyceronephosphate O-acyltransferase (Gnpat) KO mouse, a model of complete deficiency in ether lipid biosynthesis were found reduced brain levels of various neurotransmitters. (nih.gov)
  • In this work, we identified three genes ESA02293, ESA02951 and ESA01386 encoding for the late acyltransferases of lipid A biosynthesis pathway in C. sakazakii . (mdpi.com)
  • The second acylation reaction in glycerolipid biosynthesis is catalyzed by an sn -1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase. (wiley.com)
  • The corresponding transcript was detectable in developing embryos but not in leaves of L. douglasii , and expression of the open reading frame in E. coli caused sn -1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity which showed properties different from those of the bacterial acyltransferase but typical of the L. douglusii enzyme involved in triacylglycerol biosynthesis. (wiley.com)
  • Sterol acyltransferases are categorized into acyl-CoA:sterol acyltransferases (ASAT) and phospholipid:sterol acyltransferases (PSAT) depending on whether the fatty acyl donor substrate is a long-chain acyl-CoA or a phospolipid. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recruiting a new substrate for triacylglycerol synthesis in plants: the monoacylglycerol acyltransferase pathway. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We demonstrate that heterologous expression of a mouse MGAT acyltransferase in Nicotiana benthamiana significantly increases TAG accumulation in vegetative tissues despite the low levels of endogenous MAG substrate available. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • However, unlike the rat liver enzyme, the human cholesterol acyltransferase does not efficiently utilize added cholesterol as substrate. (portlandpress.com)
  • Anti-Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 4 antibodies are available from several suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Your search returned 59 lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 4 Antibodies across 18 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Cloning and characterization of mouse lung-type acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 (LPCAT1). (labome.org)
  • Morimoto R, Shindou H, Oda Y, Shimizu T. Phosphorylation of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 2 at Ser34 enhances platelet-activating factor production in endotoxin-stimulated macrophages. (labome.org)
  • The recent identification of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 (LPCAT1) as an LD phospholipid-remodelling enzyme prompted us to investigate its role in liver lipid metabolism and HCV infectious cycle. (bmj.com)
  • Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT)-β catalyzes the conversion of lysophosphatidic acid to phosphatidic acid, an essential component of several signaling pathways, including the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the present study, I report the functional characterization of AGPAT4 as a lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • This work enables the interrogation of other bacterial acyltransferases' structure-mechanism relationships, and the assay described herein provides a foundation for quantitatively characterizing the enzymology of any number of clinically relevant LPLAT proteins. (pnas.org)
  • Leung, D. W. The structure and functions of human lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases. (nature.com)
  • The firA gene of Escherichia coli encodes UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-glucosamine N-acyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • AGPAT9 encodes a member of the lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase protein family. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Further provided are methods of producing an epoxy fatty acid by transforming a cell with a first isolated nucleic acid that encodes a diacylglycerol acyltransferase polypeptide and a second isolated nucleic acid that encodes an epoxygenase polypeptide, such that expression of the diacylglycerol acyltransferase polypeptide and the epoxygenase polypeptide increases an amount of epoxy fatty acid in the cell. (uky.edu)
  • Acyl-CoA:glycerol- sn -3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) is an enzyme responsible for the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of glycerophospholipids and triacylglycerol (TAG). (mdpi.com)
  • SlCGT is therefore the first example of a GDSL lipase-like protein that lost hydrolytic activity and has acquired a completely new function in plant metabolism, functioning in secondary metabolism as acyltransferase in synthesis of hydroxycinnamate esters by employing amino acid residues different from the lipase catalytic triad. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Acyl CoA: Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1, EC 2.3.1.20) is a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the terminal and only committed step in triacylglycerol synthesis by using diacylglycerol and fatty acyl CoA as substrates. (scialert.net)
  • Farese RV Jr, Cases S, Smith SJ (2000) Triglyceride synthesis: insights from the cloning of diacylglycerol acyltransferase. (springer.com)
  • Patelski J., Pioruńska M. (1977) Cholesterol Ester: Lysolecithin Acyltransferase Activity of the Aorta. (springer.com)
  • We conclude that plants possess apoplastic acyltransferase (oxalyltransferase) activity that transfers oxalyl groups from ascorbate catabolites to carbohydrates, forming relatively long‐lived O ‐oxalyl‐carbohydrates. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • In this work, we present the structure of the bacterial LPLAT protein LpxM, and we describe a high-throughput, label-free mass spectrometric assay to characterize acyltransferase enzymatic activity. (pnas.org)
  • 3. The activity of cholesterol acyltransferase in human liver was 25% of that measured in rat liver under similar conditions of assay. (portlandpress.com)
  • Alanine substitutions of residues present within two conserved motifs including the putative catalytic histidine resulted in a loss of acyltransferase activity assessed as complementation competance. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • In addition to its acyltransferase activity, it may act as a ligase. (hmdb.ca)
  • In the past, the contribution of peroxisomal carnitine acyltransferase activity to the generation of medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines in the cytoplasm has been ignored. (biochemj.org)
  • The activity of acyl-CoA : cholesterol acyltransferase also exhibited a characteristic diurnal rhythm, with the minimum activity occurring 3 h after the onset of darkness. (portlandpress.com)
  • Acute administration of corticotropin led to a 3-fold increase in the activity of cholesterol esterase, a 50% decrease in the activity of acyl-CoA : cholesterol acyltransferase and a 2-fold increase in the activity of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase. (portlandpress.com)
  • A pH-rate comparison of these substrates reveals minimal differences in acyltransferase activity across pH 6.0-9.0. (jhu.edu)
  • In patients with multiple-drug-resistant M. tuberculosis , expression of one gene from this pathway, lipB , encoding for octanoyl-[acyl carrier protein]-protein acyltransferase is considerably up-regulated, thus making it a potential target in the search for novel antiinfectives against tuberculosis. (pnas.org)
  • Ghrelin and ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) levels were analysed by western-blot, immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR in 53 biopsies of human omental adipose tissue. (cun.es)
  • In enzymology, a 1-alkyl-2-acetylglycerol O-acyltransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction. (morebooks.de)
  • Milk fatty acid unsaturation: genetic parameters and effects of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) and acyl CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1). (scielo.br)
  • Lysophospholipid acyltransferases (LPLATs) catalyze the reacylation step of the phospholipid remodeling pathway also known as the Lands cycle. (uniprot.org)
  • 1. In the presence of CoA and ATP, human liver microsomes catalyse the incorporation of [ 14 C]oleate or [ 14 C]cholesterol into cholesteryl oleate, thus demonstrating the presence of acyl-coenzyme A-cholesterol acyltransferase (cholesterol acyltransferase) in human liver. (portlandpress.com)
  • The activities of neutral cholesterol esterase and acyl-CoA : cholesterol acyltransferase in rat adrenal gland were measured at various time intervals over 24 h. (portlandpress.com)
  • Increased expression of acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase-1" by J.-H Kim, S.-M Ee et al. (edu.au)
  • Diacylglycerol can also be generated via the monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT) pathway [5]. (aocs.org)
  • Overall, this study contributes to enlarge the current knowledge on plant sterol acyltransferases and set the basis for further studies aimed at understanding the role of SE metabolism in tomato plant growth and development. (frontiersin.org)
  • In most organs, the bulk of cholesterol is unesterified, although nearly all possess a varying capability of esterifying cholesterol through the action of either sterol O -acyltransferase (SOAT) 1 or, in the case of hepatocytes and enterocytes, SOAT2. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The microsomal cardiolipin remodeling enzyme acyl-CoA lysocardiolipin acyltransferase is an acyltransferase of multiple anionic lysophospholipids. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • 1-Acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase catalyzes the esterification of the sn -2 carbon of lysophosphatidate forming phosphatidate. (aocs.org)
  • These developmental defects are ameliorated by increased flux of hydroxy-fatty acids into seed triacylglycerol created through the expression of either castor ( Ricinus communis ) acyltransferase enzyme ACYL-COA:DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE2 or PHOSPHOLIPID:DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE1A. (plantphysiol.org)
  • A unique cardiac cytosolic acyltransferase with preferential selectivity for fatty acids that form cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase metabolites and reverse essential fatty acid deficiency. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This unique acyltransferase is selective for fatty acids, thus far tested, that are substrates for cyclooxygenase or lipoxygenase (i.e., arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, linoleic and dihomo-gamma-linoleic acids) or which reverse the symptoms of essential fatty acid deficiency (columbinic acid). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Expression of a complete acyltransferase pathway to efficiently process HFA establishes a benchmark in the quest to successfully produce modified oils in plants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Monoacylglycerol acyltransferases (MGATs) are predominantly associated with lipid absorption and resynthesis in the animal intestine where they catalyse the first step in the monoacylglycerol (MAG) pathway by acylating MAG to form diacylglycerol (DAG). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Mitochondrial acyltransferase which transfers an acyl group to the N-terminus of glycine and glutamine, although much less efficiently. (hmdb.ca)
  • In summary, this thesis has characterized AGPAT4 as a lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase with a potential role in mitochondrial function. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Isolated nucleic acid and amino acid sequences encoding a diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) polypeptide are provided. (uky.edu)
  • No such fatty acid selectivity was exhibited by the cytosolic acyl-CoA synthetase or by the acyltransferase activities present in cardiac microsomes and mitochondria. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Functions of the three acyltransferases were confirmed by overexpressing the genes in E. coli , isolating lipid As and analyzing their structures using an ESI/MS. C. sakazakii LpxL and LpxM transfer a C14:0 secondary acyl chain to the 2′- and 3′-position of lipid A, respectively. (mdpi.com)
  • Wang, X. Identification of Three Genes Encoding for the Late Acyltransferases of Lipid A in Cronobacter sakazakii . (mdpi.com)
  • Cai L, Li Y, Tao G, Guo W, Zhang C, Wang X. Identification of Three Genes Encoding for the Late Acyltransferases of Lipid A in Cronobacter sakazakii . (mdpi.com)
  • Palmitoylation is mediated by a family of at least 23 palmitoyl acyltransferases (PATs) characterized by an Asp-His-His-Cys (DHHC) motif. (mcponline.org)
  • Finally, we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana GPAT4 acyltransferase can produce MAG in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using oleoyl-CoA as the acyl-donor. (sigmaaldrich.com)