The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
An epoxydodecadienamide isolated from several species, including ACREMONIUM, Acrocylindrum, and Helicoceras. It inhibits the biosynthesis of several lipids by interfering with enzyme function.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.
A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A plant family of the order Primulales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
A suspected industrial carcinogen (and listed as such by OSHA). Its N-hydroxy metabolite is strongly carcinogenic and mutagenic.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A ketone oxidoreductase that catalyzes the overall conversion of alpha-keto acids to ACYL-CoA and CO2. The enzyme requires THIAMINE DIPHOSPHATE as a cofactor. Defects in genes that code for subunits of the enzyme are a cause of MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE. The enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.2.4.3.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for KETONES.
An autosomal recessive inherited disorder with multiple forms of phenotypic expression, caused by a defect in the oxidative decarboxylation of branched-chain amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BRANCHED-CHAIN). These metabolites accumulate in body fluids and render a "maple syrup" odor. The disease is divided into classic, intermediate, intermittent, and thiamine responsive subtypes. The classic form presents in the first week of life with ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia, emesis, neonatal seizures, and hypertonia. The intermediate and intermittent forms present in childhood or later with acute episodes of ataxia and vomiting. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p936)
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.
A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Compounds used extensively as acetylation, oxidation and dehydrating agents and in the modification of proteins and enzymes.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
Derivatives of caprylic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated eight carbon aliphatic structure.
Chemical compounds derived from acids by the elimination of a molecule of water.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

Microbial and chemical transformations of some 12,13-epoxytrichothec-9,10-enes. (1/1855)

Resting cells of Streptomyces griseus, Mucor mucedo, and a growing culture of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus when mixed with compounds related to 12,13-epoxytrichothec-9-ene-4beta,15-diacetoxy-3alpha-ol(anguidine) produced a series of derivatives that were either partially hydrolyzed or selectively acylated. These derivatives showed marked differences in activities as assayed by antifungal and tissue culture cytotoxicity tests.  (+info)

Activity in saline of phthalylated or succinylated derivatives of mycobacterial water-soluble adjuvant. (2/1855)

A water-soluble fraction (WSA) of the cell wall can substitute for mycobacterial cells in Freund complete adjuvant. However, when WSA is administered in saline instead of in a water-in-oil emulsion, its adjuvant activity is very weak, and under certain experimental conditions it can even inhibit the humoral immune response. The data reported in the present study show that after treatment by phthalic or succinic anhydride the adjuvant activity of WSA was markedly changed, since high levels of circulating antibodies were produced when these derivatives were administered with an antigen in an aqueous medium. Moreover, the antigenic determinants of WSA were modified and acylated WSA had no tuberculin-like activity.  (+info)

Gas-liquid chromatography of the heptafluorobutyrate derivatives of the O-methyl-glycosides on capillary columns: a method for the quantitative determination of the monosaccharide composition of glycoproteins and glycolipids. (3/1855)

We have developed a method involving the formation of hepta-fluorobutyrate derivatives of O-methyl-glycosides liberated from glycoproteins and glycolipids following methanolysis. The stable derivatives of the most common monosaccharides of these glycoconjugates (Ara, Rha, Xyl, Fuc, Gal, Man, Glc, GlcNAc, GalNAc, Neu5Ac, KDN) can be separated and quantitatively and reproducibly determined with a high degree of sensitivity level (down to 25 pmol) in the presence of lysine as an internal standard. The GlcNAc residue bound to Asn in N-glycans is quantitatively recovered as two peaks. The latter were easily distinguished from the other GlcNAc residues of N-glycans, thus allowing a considerable improvement of the data on structure of N-glycans obtained from a single carbohydrate analysis. The most common contaminants present in buffers commonly used for the isolation of soluble or membrane-bound glycoproteins (SDS, Triton X-100, DOC, TRIS, glycine, and polyacrylamide or salts, as well as monosaccharide constituents of proteoglycans or degradation products of nucleic acids) do not interfere with these determinations. A carbohydrate analysis of glycoproteins isolated from a SDS/PAGE gel or from PDVF membranes can be performed on microgram amounts without significant interferences. Since fatty acid methyl esters and sphingosine derivatives are separated from the monosaccharide peaks, the complete composition of gangliosides can be achieved in a single step starting from less than 1 microg of the initial compound purified by preparative Silicagel TLC. Using electron impact ionization mass spectrometry, reporter ions for the different classes of O-methyl-glycosides (pentoses, deoxy-hexoses, hexoses, hexosamines, uronic acids, sialic acid, and KDN) allow the identification of these compounds in very complex mixtures. The mass of each compound can be determined in the chemical ionization mode and detection of positive or negative ions. This method presents a considerable improvement compared to those using TMS derivatives. Indeed the heptafluorobutyrate derivatives are stable, and acylation of amino groups is complete. Moreover, there is no interference with contaminants and the separation between fatty acid methyl-esters and O-methyl glycosides is achieved.  (+info)

The dually acylated NH2-terminal domain of gi1alpha is sufficient to target a green fluorescent protein reporter to caveolin-enriched plasma membrane domains. Palmitoylation of caveolin-1 is required for the recognition of dually acylated g-protein alpha subunits in vivo. (4/1855)

Here we investigate the molecular mechanisms that govern the targeting of G-protein alpha subunits to the plasma membrane. For this purpose, we used Gi1alpha as a model dually acylated G-protein. We fused full-length Gi1alpha or its extreme NH2-terminal domain (residues 1-32 or 1-122) to green fluorescent protein (GFP) and analyzed the subcellular localization of these fusion proteins. We show that the first 32 amino acids of Gi1alpha are sufficient to target GFP to caveolin-enriched domains of the plasma membrane in vivo, as demonstrated by co-fractionation and co-immunoprecipitation with caveolin-1. Interestingly, when dual acylation of this 32-amino acid domain was blocked by specific point mutations (G2A or C3S), the resulting GFP fusion proteins were localized to the cytoplasm and excluded from caveolin-rich regions. The myristoylated but nonpalmitoylated (C3S) chimera only partially partitioned into caveolin-containing fractions. However, both nonacylated GFP fusions (G2A and C3S) no longer co-immunoprecipitated with caveolin-1. Taken together, these results indicate that lipid modification of the NH2-terminal of Gi1alpha is essential for targeting to its correct destination and interaction with caveolin-1. Also, a caveolin-1 mutant lacking all three palmitoylation sites (C133S, C143S, and C156S) was unable to co-immunoprecipitate these dually acylated GFP-G-protein fusions. Thus, dual acylation of the NH2-terminal domain of Gi1alpha and palmitoylation of caveolin-1 are both required to stabilize and perhaps regulate this reciprocal interaction at the plasma membrane in vivo. Our results provide the first demonstration of a functional role for caveolin-1 palmitoylation in its interaction with signaling molecules.  (+info)

S-myristoylation of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C in Trypanosoma brucei. (5/1855)

Covalent modification with lipid can target cytosolic proteins to biological membranes. With intrinsic membrane proteins, the role of acylation can be elusive. Herein, we describe covalent lipid modification of an integral membrane glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (GPI-PLC) from the kinetoplastid Trypanosoma brucei. Myristic acid was detected on cysteine residue(s) (i.e. thiomyristoylation). Thiomyristoylation occurred both co- and post-translationally. Acylated GPI-PLC was active against variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). The half-life of fatty acid on GPI-PLC was 45 min, signifying the dynamic nature of the modification. Deacylation in vitro decreased activity of GPI-PLC 18-30-fold. Thioacylation, from kinetic analysis, activated GPI-PLC by accelerating the conversion of a GPI-PLC.VSG complex to product. Reversible thioacylation is a novel mechanism for regulating the activity of a phospholipase C.  (+info)

Redundant systems of phosphatidic acid biosynthesis via acylation of glycerol-3-phosphate or dihydroxyacetone phosphate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (6/1855)

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae lipid particles harbor two acyltransferases, Gat1p and Slc1p, which catalyze subsequent steps of acylation required for the formation of phosphatidic acid. Both enzymes are also components of the endoplasmic reticulum, but this compartment contains additional acyltransferase(s) involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidic acid (K. Athenstaedt and G. Daum, J. Bacteriol. 179:7611-7616, 1997). Using the gat1 mutant strain TTA1, we show here that Gat1p present in both subcellular fractions accepts glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate as a substrate. Similarly, the additional acyltransferase(s) present in the endoplasmic reticulum can acylate both precursors. In contrast, yeast mitochondria harbor an enzyme(s) that significantly prefers dihydroxyacetone phosphate as a substrate for acylation, suggesting that at least one additional independent acyltransferase is present in this organelle. Surprisingly, enzymatic activity of 1-acyldihydroxyacetone phosphate reductase, which is required for the conversion of 1-acyldihydroxyacetone phosphate to 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate (lysophosphatidic acid), is detectable only in lipid particles and the endoplasmic reticulum and not in mitochondria. In vivo labeling of wild-type cells with [2-3H, U-14C]glycerol revealed that both glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate can be incorporated as a backbone of glycerolipids. In the gat1 mutant and the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase slc1 mutant, the dihydroxyacetone phosphate pathway of phosphatidic acid biosynthesis is slightly preferred as compared to the wild type. Thus, mutations of the major acyltransferases Gat1p and Slc1p lead to an increased contribution of mitochondrial acyltransferase(s) to glycerolipid synthesis due to their substrate preference for dihydroxyacetone phosphate.  (+info)

Accumulation of N-acyl-ethanolamine phospholipids in rat brains during post-decapitative ischemia: a 31p NMR study. (7/1855)

Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR) spectroscopy has been used to study accumulation of N-acyl-ethanolamine phospholipids in rat brains during post-decapitative ischemia. Lipids were extracted from rat brain homogenates and the extracts were thoroughly washed with aq. potassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The lower organic phases were isolated and evaporated to dryness under a stream of nitrogen and the lipids were redissolved in CDCl3-CH3OH-H2O 100.0:29.9:5.2 (v/v/v) for NMR analysis. Increasing the period of post-decapitative ischemia resulted in an accumulation of two signals in the NMR spectra at 0.18 and 0.22 ppm (relative to the chemical shift of 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PCDIACYL) at -0.84 ppm). These signals were identified as originating from 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(N-acyl)-ethanolamine (NAPEDIACYL) and 1-(1'-alkenyl)-2-acyl-sn -glycero-3-phospho-(N-acyl)-ethanolamine (NAPEPLAS), respectively, by spiking with authentic materials. Additionally, the identification was verified by thin-layer chromatography, which also showed the accumulation of N-acyl-ethanolamine phospholipids. The use of K-EDTA instead of the commonly used Cs-EDTA in the preparation of the NMR samples allowed the separation of the chemical shifts of N-acyl-ethanolamine phospholipids from those of the ethanolamine phospholipids. Moreover, the chemical shift of cardiolipin was moved from 0.15 ppm observed with Cs-EDTA to about 0.31 ppm with K-EDTA. The present study demonstrates that it is possible to detect and quantify post-decapitative accumulation of NAPE subclasses (NAPEDIACYL and NAPEPLAS) in rat brains by the use of 31P NMR spectroscopy.  (+info)

Surfactant protein A enhances the binding and deacylation of E. coli LPS by alveolar macrophages. (8/1855)

Surfactant protein (SP) A and SP-D are involved in multiple immunomodulatory functions of innate host defense partly via their interaction with alveolar macrophages (AMs). In addition, both SP-A and SP-D bind to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To investigate the functional significance of this interaction, we first tested the ability of SP-A and SP-D to enhance the binding of tritium-labeled Escherichia coli LPS to AMs. In contrast to SP-D, SP-A enhanced the binding of LPS by AMs in a time-, temperature-, and concentration-dependent manner. Coincubation with surfactant-like lipids did not affect the SP-A-mediated enhancement of LPS binding. At SP-A-to-LPS molar ratios of 1:2-1:3, the LPS binding by AMs reached 270% of control values. Second, we investigated the role of SP-A in regulating the degradation of LPS by AMs. In the presence of SP-A, deacylation of LPS by AMs increased by approximately 2.3-fold. Pretreatment of AMs with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C had no effect on the SP-A-enhanced LPS binding but did reduce the amount of serum-enhanced LPS binding by 50%, suggesting that a cell surface molecule distinct from CD14 mediates the effect of SP-A. Together the results for the first time provide direct evidence that SP-A enhances LPS binding and degradation by AMs.  (+info)

Protein acylation is the post-translational modification of proteins via the attachment of functional groups through acyl linkages. Protein acylation has been observed as a mechanism controlling biological signaling.[2] One prominent type is fatty acylation, the addition of fatty acids to particular amino acids (e.g. myristoylation, palmitoylation or palmitoleoylation).[3] Different types of fatty acids engage in global protein acylation.[4] Palmitoleoylation is an acylation type where the monounsaturated fatty acid palmitoleic acid is covalently attached to serine or threonine residues of proteins.[5][6] Palmitoleoylation appears to play a significant role in trafficking and targeting and function of Wnt proteins.[7][8]. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Widespread and enzyme-independent Nε-acetylation and Nε-succinylation of proteins in the chemical conditions of the mitochondrial matrix. AU - Wagner, Gregory R.. AU - Payne, R. Mark. PY - 2013/10/4. Y1 - 2013/10/4. N2 - Background:The mechanisms initiating protein acylation in mitochondria are unknown. Results:The pH and acyl-CoA concentrations of the mitochondrial matrix are sufficient to cause protein lysine acetylation and succinylation. Conclusion:Protein acylation in mitochondria may be a nonenzymatic event facilitated by the alkaline pH and high acyl-CoA concentrations. Significance:The mitochondrial deacylases SIRT3 and SIRT5 may have evolved to regulate nonenzymatic protein acylation.. AB - Background:The mechanisms initiating protein acylation in mitochondria are unknown. Results:The pH and acyl-CoA concentrations of the mitochondrial matrix are sufficient to cause protein lysine acetylation and succinylation. Conclusion:Protein acylation in mitochondria may be a ...
Six long chain fatty acid esters of quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3G) acylated enzymatically were used for determining their antiproliferative action in comparison to precursor compounds (quercetin, Q3G and six fatty acids namely, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexanoic acids) using HepG2 cells. Long chain fatty acid esters of Q3G showed significant inhibition of cell proliferation (approximately 85% to 90%) compared to the precursor compounds and two prescribed anticancer-drugs (Sorafenib and Cisplatin) after 6 hrs and 24 hrs by inducing cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and DNA topoisomerase II inhibition. Among the six fatty acid esters of Q3G, oleic acid ester (OA-Q3G) displayed the greatest anti-proliferation action and upon further investigation showed significant regulation of expression of genes involved in cell cycle, growth, survival and apoptosis at gene and protein level. Overall, results of the study suggest strong potential of these ...
Lipid A, the hydrophobic anchor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is an essential component in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. It can stimulate the innate immune system via Toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 2 (TLR4/MD2), leading to the release of inflammatory cytokines. In this study, six Escherichia coli strains which can produce lipid A with different acylation patterns were constructed; the influence of lipid A acylation pattern on the membrane permeability and innate immune stimulation has been systematically investigated. The lipid A species were isolated and identified by matrix assisted laser ionization desorption-time of flight/tandem mass spectrometry. N-Phenyl naphthylamine uptake assay and antibiotic susceptibility test showed that membrane permeability of these strains were different. The lower the number of acyl chains in lipid A, the stronger the membrane permeability. LPS purified from these strains were used to stimulate human or mouse macrophage cells, and
Colored grains are rich sources of anthocyanins that could play an important role in the prevention of various diseases associated with oxidative stress. Bearing in mind that cereals are widely grown crops, anthocyanins-rich colored grains could be used as a functional food ingredient that...
Flavonoids have shown promise as natural plant-based antioxidants for protecting lipids from oxidation. bottom 96-well plates were purchased from Corning Incorporated (Edison NY USA). Quercetion-3-fatty acids 25.6% saturated fatty acids 5.6% EPA 22.9% DHA by weight). LDL isolated from human plasma (in 150 mM NaCl 0.01% EDTA pH 7.4) was purchased from EMD Chemicals Inc. (Gibbstown NJ USA). Free fatty acids were purchased from Nu-Check-prep Inc. (Waterville MN USA). All other chemicals were purchased from Fisher Scientific. 2.2 Synthesis of Fatty Acid Acylated Derivatives of Q3G Synthesis of fatty acid esters of Q3G (phenolipids) was carried out through enzymatic esterification of Q3G separately with stearic acid (STA) oleic acid (OLA) linoleic acid (LNA) α-linolenic acid (ALA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and decosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as acyl donors as previously described [14] (Figure 1). Briefly Q3G (500 mg) and each acyl donor were added into a reaction vessel containing dried 3 ? molecular ...
A variety of cysteine-containing, lipid-modified peptides are found to be S-acylated by cultured mammalian cells. The acylation reaction is highly specific for cysteinyl over serinyl residues and for lipid-modified peptides over hydrophilic peptides. The S-acylation process appears by various criteria to be enzymatic and resembles the S-acylation of plasma membrane-associated proteins in various characteristics, including inhibition by tunicamycin. The substrate range of the S-acylation reaction encompasses, but is not limited to, lipopeptides incorporating the motifs myristoylGC- and -CXC(farnesyl)-OCH3, which are reversibly S-acylated in various intracellular proteins. Mass-spectrometric analysis indicates that palmitoyl residues constitute the predominant but not the only type of S-acyl group coupled to a lipopeptide carrying the myristoylGC- motif, with smaller amounts of S-stearoyl and S-oleoyl substituents also detectable. Fluorescence microscopy using NBD-labeled cysteinyl lipopeptides ...
Protein acylation is critical for many cellular functions across all domains of life. In bacteria, lipoproteins have important roles in virulence and are targets for the development of antimicrobials and vaccines. Bacterial lipoproteins are secreted from the cytosol via the Sec pathway and acylated on an N-terminal cysteine residue through the action of three enzymes. In Gram-negative bacteria, the Lol pathway transports lipoproteins to the outer membrane. Here, we demonstrate that the Aat secretion system is a composite system sharing similarity with elements of a type I secretion systems and the Lol pathway. During secretion, the AatD subunit acylates the substrate CexE on a highly conserved N-terminal glycine residue. Mutations disrupting glycine acylation interfere with membrane incorporation and trafficking. Our data reveal CexE as the first member of a new class of glycine-acylated lipoprotein, while Aat represents a new secretion system that displays the substrate lipoprotein on the cell ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Myristylation and palmitylation of HSV-1 UL11 are not essential for its function. AU - Baird, Nicholas L.. AU - Starkey, Jason L.. AU - Hughes, David J.. AU - Wills, John W.. PY - 2010/2/5. Y1 - 2010/2/5. N2 - All herpesviruses encode a homolog of the herpes simplex virus type-1 UL11 tegument protein. Deletion of UL11 disrupts virus envelopment, causes capsid accumulation within the cytoplasm, and reduces virus release. UL11 requires acylation with myristate and palmitate for membrane binding, lipid raft trafficking, and accumulation at the site of virus envelopment. Thus, it was predicted that acylation of UL11 would be necessary for efficient virion production, similar to HIV-1 Gag which requires myristylation for virus production. Accordingly, recombinant viruses were created to express UL11 derivatives that are not acylated, are partially acylated, or contain foreign acylation signals. Unexpectedly, the non-acylated UL11 rescued some growth defects of a UL11-null mutant, even ...
The lens fiber major intrinsic protein (otherwise known as aquaporin-0 (AQP0), MIP26 and MP26) has been examined by mass spectrometry (MS) in order to determine the speciation of acyl modifications to the side chains of lysine residues and the N-terminal amino group. The speciation of acyl modifications to the side chain of one specific, highly conserved lysine residue (K238) and the N-terminal amino group of human and bovine AQP0 revealed, in decreasing order of abundance, oleoyl, palmitoyl, stearoyl, eicosenoyl, dihomo-γ-linolenoyl, palmitoleoyl and eicosadienoyl modifications. In the case of human AQP0, an arachidonoyl modification was also found at the N-terminus. The relative abundances of these modifications mirror the fatty acid composition of lens phosphatidylethanolamine lipids. This lipid class would be expected to be concentrated in the inner leaflet of the lens fiber membrane to which each of the potential AQP0 lipidation sites is proximal. Our data evidence a broad lipidation ...
A first simple step to judge if the reaction is successful would be to run the reaction mixture on a gel. There is evidence that, in spite of a bigger mass, acylated ACP can travel faster than apo or holoACP in an SDS-PAGE, due to active binding of the SDS detergent molecules to the hydrophobic acyl chain which increases the charge to mass ratio of the entire molecule, thus, facilitating faster migration (fig. 5) (2,7). On the other hand it is possible to run the reaction mixture also on a native gel and compare the migration pattern of the proteins. The potein that would migrate faster than apoACP in SDS PAGE but slower than it in a native page (separation by mass) would be the acylated ACP (fig. 6). Supposing that just a fraction of the ACP interacts to produce the acylated derivative, bands for both hexanoyl-ACP and apo/ holoACP were also expected. Dimerization of holo-ACP would also generate and additional band) Although this approach isnt quantitative, it would give a hint about the ...
4BD0: Neutron and X-Ray Crystal Structures of a Perdeuterated Enzyme Inhibitor Complex Reveal the Catalytic Proton Network of the Toho-1 Beta-Lactamase for the Acylation Reaction.
4BD1: Neutron and X-Ray Crystal Structures of a Perdeuterated Enzyme Inhibitor Complex Reveal the Catalytic Proton Network of the Toho-1 Beta-Lactamase for the Acylation Reaction.
Acylation is the term given to substituting an acyl group such as CH-3CO- into another molecule. An acyl group is a hydrocarbon group attached to a carbon-oxygen double bond ...
And TNF-a were analysed by flow cytometry. LPS with acylation defects induced significant higher 23388095 TNF-a and IL-12 synthesis at 2 h and 4 h
Ferulic acid acylation of oligosaccharides catalyzed by feruloyl esterases (FAE) is a promising route to produce feruloylated oligosaccharides. However, modulation of FAE synthetic properties is a key step to improve the acylation. The efficiency of H. insolens FAE to catalyze the feruloylation in six different surfactantless microemulsions reaction systems was evaluated. The highest yield (57%) w ...
Ferulic acid acylation of oligosaccharides catalyzed by feruloyl esterases (FAE) is a promising route to produce feruloylated oligosaccharides. However, modulation of FAE synthetic properties is a key step to improve the acylation. The efficiency of H. insolens FAE to catalyze the feruloylation in six different surfactantless microemulsions reaction systems was evaluated. The highest yield (57%) w ...
img src=http://openwetware.org/images/5/53/Reaction.PNG width=431 height=251 alt=N-acylation reaction title=Scheme of the N-acylation reaction used to incorporate the hydrophobic modifications in the oligonucleotides. An amino group present in the oligonucleotide reacts with the carboxylic group present in the molecule containing the hydrophobic groups with the help of HATU and HOAt activators., ,p, Oligonucleotides still attached to the CPG beads were ordered from Biomers, with the 5-amino-C6-modifier and the Monomethoxytrityl (MMT) group still on. The nucleotide sequence was the following: 5-CGCGGATGGCGATGCGCGCAC-3.,/p, ,p, The amino-C6-modifier confers the amino group necessary for the attachment of the hydrophobic modifications. ,/p, ,img src=http://openwetware.org/images/b/b4/Amino_modifier.png width=233 height=42 alt=N-acylation reaction title=Amino-C6-modifier., ,p, The MMT group was then removed and the Fmoc-L-dap(Palmitate)-OH molecule (Cas nº 724785-41-5) was ...
Involved with EC 6.3.2.4, EC 6.3.2.7 or EC 6.3.2.13, EC 6.3.2.8 and EC 6.3.2.9 in the synthesis of a cell-wall peptide. -!- Also catalyzes the reaction when the C-terminal residue of the tripeptide is meso-2,4-diaminoheptanedioate (acylated at its L-center), linking the D-Ala--D-Ala to the carboxy group of the L-center. -!- Formerly EC 6.3.2.15 ...
The IP Industry Base is a public available database about the global market of IP practitioners. Currently is provides high-quality profiles of more than 4910 companies, 15620 professionals and 4250 places. The service of the IP Industry Base is dedicated to technology managers, IP professionals and IPR academia. The open data of the IP Industry Base aims to create transparency for the market of IP practitioners.
Trifluoromethanesulfonic Acid as Acylation Catalyst: Special Feature for C- and-or O-Acylation Reactions. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial effect of diet composition on circulating acylated ghrelin levels in healthy women. A randomized cross-over study of three experimental treatments was performed. A total of 11 healthy young women of normal body weight completed the study. All 11 subjects consumed three iso-energetic meals of different macronutrient composition, a balanced meal (50% carbohydrates, 30% fat and 20% protein), a high-fat meal (45% carbohydrates, 45% fat and 10% protein) and a high-protein meal (45% carbohydrates, 20% fat and 35% protein), for breakfast on separate days. The test meals were administered 1 month apart. Blood samples were withdrawn immediately before and at 15, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after the test meal for measurement of plasma acylated ghrelin, as well as serum glucose, insulin and triacylglycerol (triglyceride) levels. Acylated ghrelin fell significantly after ingestion of both the balanced and high-protein meals. Ghrelin persisted at ...
I have done a friedel crafts acylation reaction to 4-chloro phenol using benzoyl chloride. Now my reaction mixture contains o-acylated product and probably unreacted phenol. both of which contain phenolic OH group. Now how can I separate the unreacted phenol from the acylated product. I doubt whether base extraction can do it because both the components phenol and its acylated product have phenolic OH. Is there any other way such that I can remove the unreacted phenol and get the pure acylated product ...
Here the chlorobenzamide group is coupled onto the molecule before the indole-forming step, eliminating the need for carboxylate protection. The synthesis starts with (5), a β-sulfonate modified aryl hydrazine. Acylation of aryl hydrazines normally occurs preferentially at the β-nitrogen. In contrast, The sulfonate group of (5) is electron-withdrawing, reducing the nucleophilicity of the β-nitrogen and favoring acylation at the α-position [2]. The α-acyl-arylhydrazine (6) can therefore be prepared from (5) by pyridine-catalyzed acylation with 4-chlorobenzoic acid chloride. This process is mechanistically equivalent to the pyridine-catalyzed acylation of the previous synthesis. Afterward, the sulfonate is readily hydrolyzed by treatment with dilute acid ...
Vaccinia virus (VV) is a large DNA virus belonging to the Orthopoxvirus family. The viral replicative life cycle takes place solely within the cytoplasm of a mammalian host cell. The VV genome contains 196 open reading frames which are expressed in a highly regulated and temporal fashion in order to bring about the production of a mature virion. In the process of viral replication many VV proteins are synthesized that require posttranslational modifications to become functional. A few of these modifications include, glycosylation, ADP-ribosylation, phosphorylation, fatty acid acylation, and proteolytic processing. This last modification is especially important with regard to the structural proteins of the virus in that they undergo prysis for an infectious virus particle to be formed, a common theme in viral systems. In order to understand these events in more detail, three abundant virion protein constituents 4a, 4b, and 25K were chosen as models for study. The three main questions we wanted to ...
The erythrocyte Rh antigens contain an Mr = 32,000 integral protein which is thought to contribute in some way to the organization of surrounding phospholipid. To search for possible fatty acid acylation of the Rh polypeptide ...
QM:QM models, where QM is a fast molecular orbital method, offers advantages over standard quantum mechanics: molecular mechanics (QM:MM) models, especially in the description of charge transfer and mutual polarization between layers. The ONIOM QM:QM scheme also allows for reactions across the layer boundary, but the understanding of these events is limited. To explain the factors that affect cross-boundary events, a set of proton transfer processes, including the acylation reaction in serine protease, have been investigated. For reactions inside out, that is, when a group breaks a bond in the high layer and forms a new bond with a group in the low layer, QM methods that are overbinding relative to the QM method, for example, Hartree-Fock versus B3LYP, can severely overestimate the exothermicity of the reaction. This might lead to artificial reactivity across the QM:QM boundary, a phenomenon called model escape. The accuracy for reactions that occur outside in, that is, when a group in the ...
tRNA acylation levels of exponentially growing MG1655 and MG1655relA::HTF measured by northern blotting analysis. Total tRNA was extracted from cells growing in MOPS minimal medium with 0.2% glucose as the carbon source before and after isoleucine starvation. A fraction of the purified tRNA was deacylated (by 100 mM Tris-HCL [pH 9]) and charged and uncharged samples were separated by urea PAGE and transferred to a membrane. tRNAileTUV, tRNAasnUTVW and tRNAtrpT were detected by hybridization with radiolabeled tRNA-specific DNA oligonucleotide probes.
The chemoselective acylation of primary aliphatic amines has been achieved in under ten minutes (and for aromatic amines under 120 min) using vibration ball-milling, avoiding undesirable solvents which are typically employed for such reactions (e.g.DMF). Under optimised conditions, the synthesis of amides in
Lipase-catalyzed acylation of galactosides.30 mM of aromatic galactosides were reacted with an equivalent amount of donor substrates with Novozym 435 (20 mg/mL)
Takeo Kawabata and co-workers from Kyoto University have reported in ACIE on the synthesis of multifidosides through a regioselective acylation. ACIE paper
beta-Lactamase I catalyses the hydrolysis of penicillins by an acyl-enzyme mechanism. A procedure was developed for determining the rate constants for the acylation and deacylation steps for the good substrates benzylpenicillin and phenoxymethylpenicillin; this depends on determining the fraction of enzyme that is present as acyl-enzyme in the steady state. ...
Amino Acyl Transfer RNA: Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.
CBLs determine the cellular localization of their interacting protein kinases (DAngelo et al., 2006; Xu et al., 2006; Cheong et al., 2007). The resulting CBL/CIPK complexes exert important functions at the plasma membrane by regulating the activity of ion channels and H+-ATPases (Xu et al., 2006; Fuglsang et al., 2007). The aims of this study were to investigate the potential dual lipid modification of CBL proteins by myristoylation and acylation and to unravel the influence of these lipid modifications on the functional regulation of processes decoding calcium signals. Our studies identify myristoylation and S-acylation by palmitic and stearic acids as essential modifications for calcium sensor function and report novel steps in the plasma membrane transport of acylated CBL proteins and in the membrane targeting of CBL/CIPK complexes. Importantly, our observation that the lipid modification status of the CBL protein determines the targeting of preassembled CBL/CIPK complexes provides a novel ...
Partial purification and characterization of acetyl coenzyme A: taxa-4(20),11(12)-dien-5alpha-ol O-acetyl transferase that catalyzes the first acylation step of taxol biosynthesis ...
Ghrelin, Mice, Regulation, Secretion, Insulin, Plasma, Administration, Acylation, Glucose, Cells, Mouse, Antigen, Axis, Growth Hormone, Hormone, Igf-i, Injection, Reports, Stomach, T-antigen
If I used Autobean on GWT client to serialise my POJO (sent out thro RequestBuilder) but I plan to use say, groovy, perl or php to service that request, I would need to know the serialization format of Autobean.. What is and where can I get the JSON format spec for Autobean?. ...
Švehlı́ková, Vanda, Bennett, Richard N., Mellon, Fred A., Needs, Paul W., Piacente, Sonia, Kroon, Paul A. and Bao, Yongping (2004) Isolation, identification and stability of acylated derivatives of apigenin 7-O-glucoside from chamomile (Chamomilla recutita [L.] Rauschert). Phytochemistry, 65 (16). pp. 2323-2332. ISSN 1873-3700 Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serine protease acylation proceeds with a subtle re-orientation of the histidine ring at the tetrahedral intermediate. AU - Zhou, Yanzi. AU - Zhang, Yingkai. PY - 2011/2/7. Y1 - 2011/2/7. N2 - The acylation mechanism of a prototypical serine protease trypsin and its complete free energy reaction profile have been determined by Born-Oppenheimer ab initio QM/MM molecular dynamics simulations with umbrella sampling.. AB - The acylation mechanism of a prototypical serine protease trypsin and its complete free energy reaction profile have been determined by Born-Oppenheimer ab initio QM/MM molecular dynamics simulations with umbrella sampling.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=78751489563&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=78751489563&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1039/c0cc04112b. DO - 10.1039/c0cc04112b. M3 - Article. C2 - 21116528. AN - SCOPUS:78751489563. VL - 47. SP - 1577. EP - 1579. JO - Chemical Communications. JF - Chemical ...
The mixed acylation of cellulose with fatty acids and acetic anhydride was accomplished in an excess of fatty acid, thus avoiding the addition of a toxic solvent. The experimental design enabled the parameters of a model reaction with octanoic acid to be optimized. The products contained both acetyl and octanoyl acyl groups in a 2.4/1 ratio and the maximum degree of substitution (DS) was 2.2. The use of fatty acids higher than C8 resulted in a decrease of the DS. The model reaction was applied to the esterification of four lignocellulosic wastes (LW). Their reactivity was comparable to that of cellulose when no pretreatment was used. A solvent-exchange pretreatment improved the acylation of LW by about 60%, whereas that of cellulose was increased by more than 400%. The hydrophobic character of the esterified products was confirmed.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ureas in Organic Synthesis. XIII. Reactions of 1,3-Disubstituted Ureas with Acetic Acid Derivatives. AU - Shtrykova, Victoria Victorovna. AU - Bakibaev, A. A.. PY - 1997/4. Y1 - 1997/4. N2 - Reaction of 1,3-disubstituted ureas with the derivatives of acetic acid yields depending on the substrate structure and process conditions either acetamides or N-acetylureas. Addition of urea inhibits N-acylation.. AB - Reaction of 1,3-disubstituted ureas with the derivatives of acetic acid yields depending on the substrate structure and process conditions either acetamides or N-acetylureas. Addition of urea inhibits N-acylation.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0031328205&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0031328205&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0031328205. VL - 33. SP - 460. EP - 463. JO - Russian Journal of Organic Chemistry. JF - Russian Journal of Organic Chemistry. SN - 1070-4280. IS - 4. ER - ...
Polysaccharide esters (cellulose and starch) are among the first polymeric materials applied commercially. The way of producing these technically relevant derivatives, mainly the carboxylic acid esters of C2 to C4 acids, have not been changed significantly during their history of manufacture. The investigation of new acylation methods and strategies of analysis was revived during the last decade by the search for tailored, biocompatible, material for specific fields of application, e.g., biotechnology, sensor technique and medicine. Unconventional solvents were developed for completely homo-geneous acylation reaction applying state of the art techniques of modern organic chemistry for polysaccharide modification. This book will provide a first comprehensive summary of acylation methods in a very practical manner. Detailed structure analysis is indispensable for the evaluation of structure-property-relationships. Spectroscopic methods in particular FTIR- and NMR spectroscopy including two ...
Ceramide, a key intermediate in sphingolipid metabolism, is synthesized by acylation of sphinganine followed by dehydrogenation of dihydroceramide to ceramide. Using radioactive sphinganine, we have examined the site and topology of dihydroceramide synthesis in well-characterized subcellular fractions from rat liver. [4,5-3H]Sphinganine was introduced as a complex with BSA and was metabolized to [4,5-3H]dihydroceramide upon incubation of rat liver homogenates or microsomes with fatty acyl CoA. Conditions were established in a detergent-free system in which dihydroceramide synthesis was not limited by either substrate availability or by amounts of microsomal protein or reaction time. The distribution of dihydroceramide synthesis was found to exactly parallel that of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker upon subfractionation of microsomes, and no endogenous activity was detected in either purified Golgi apparatus or plasma membrane fractions. Limited protease digestion demonstrated that ...
Identification of components of the intracellular transport machinery of acylated proteins by a genome-wide RNAi screen [Elektronische Ressource] / presented by Julia Ritzerfeld : IDENTIFICATIO N O F CO M PO NENTS O F TH E INTRACELLU LAR TRANSPO RT M ACH INERY O F ACYLATED PRO TEINS BY A GENO M E‐W IDE RNAI SCREEN DISSERTATIO N submitted to the Combined Faculties for the Natural Sciences and for Mathematics of the Ruperto Caro la University of Heidelberg, Germany for the degree of Doctor of Natural Sciences Julia Ritzerfeld
Catalyzes the N-acylation of UDP-3-O-(hydroxytetradecanoyl)glucosamine using 3-hydroxytetradecanoyl-ACP as the acyl donor. Is involved in the biosynthesis of lipid A, a phosphorylated glycolipid that anchors the lipopolysaccharide to the outer membrane of the cell. Prefers (3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl-ACP over (3R)-3-hydroxyhexadecanoyl-ACP as the acyl donor in vitro, which is consistent with the structure of E.coli lipid A that contains over 95% (R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoate at the 2 and 2 positions.
BYK-P 104 S Chemistry of 1,3-Dithiane ADISI Alkenes and Alkynes II Docking Analysis of various Social Networking sites Enzymatic acylation of di- and trisaccharides with fatty acids: choosing the appropriate enzyme, support and solvent Computational Studies of Subtilisin-Catalyzed Transesterification of Sucrose: Importance of Entropic Effects Effect of the Immobilization Method of Lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus on Sucrose Acylation Comparative Surface Activities of Di and Trisaccharide Fatty Acid Esters Describing partially unfolded states of proteins from sparse NMR data Describing Partially Unfolded States of Proteins from Sparse NMR Ddata Towards the prediction of protein interaction partners using physical docking
and I-C (compounds of Formula I where R1 = Z-CEb-N(R2)(R3)), the hydroxy group of compound of Formula I-B (compounds of Formula I where R = Z-CH2OH) was converted to A2, a phihalimide group, following the procedures as described in Scheme 5 fin: the conversion of compound of Formula VII to compound of Formula VL Reaction of compound of Formula I-C* under conditions described in Scheme 4 afforded compound of Formula I-C. Reaction of compound of Formula I- C with but not limited to various alkylating agents, various aldehydes/ketones under reductive animation conditions, various acylating agents such as acetic anhydride, benzoyi chlorides, or with caiboxyiic acids in the presence of EDC or DCC with HOBT or HOAT, or with sulphonylating agents such as Ts2O or MeSC^Cl afforded compounds of Formula I-C * \ For example, in a typical preparation of compounds of Formula I-C (compounds of Formula I where R1 = Z^-CHT-NO^XR3)), a compound of Formula I-C is treated with a suitable acylating agent in ...
Researchers in Brazil found that women with fibromyalgia had decreased levels of acylated ghrelin, which were related to pain intensity.
Researchers in Brazil found that women with fibromyalgia had decreased levels of acylated ghrelin, which were related to pain intensity.
BioAssay record AID 213359 submitted by ChEMBL: Rate constant of acylation on trypsin was determined at 10 percent and at 95 minutes for maximum inhibition and no enzyme activity was recovered over the 2 h-time.
Lysine acetylation refers to addition of an acetyl moiety to the epsilon‐amino group of a lysine residue and is important for regulating protein functions in various organisms from bacteria to humans
Fat is an important energy source from food. More than 95% of dietary fat is long-chain triacylglycerols (TAG), the remaining being phospholipids (4.5%) and sterols. In the small intestine lumen, dietary TAG is hydrolyzed to fatty acids (FA) and monoacylglycerols (MAG) by pancreatic lipase. These products are then emulsified with the help of phospholipids (PL) and bile acids (BA) present in bile to form micelles. Free FAs and MAGs are taken up by the enterocyte where they are rapidly resynthesized in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to form TAG. PLs from the diet as well as bile - mainly LPA - too are absorbed by the enterocyte and are acylated to form phosphatidic acid (PA), which is also converted into TAG. Absorbed cholesterol (CL) is acylated to cholesterol esters (CE). Within the ER, TAG joins CE and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) to form chylomicrons that enter circulation through the lymph ...
Fat is an important energy source from food. More than 95% of dietary fat is long-chain triacylglycerols (TAG), the remaining being phospholipids (4.5%) and sterols. In the small intestine lumen, dietary TAG is hydrolyzed to fatty acids (FA) and monoacylglycerols (MAG) by pancreatic lipase. These products are then emulsified with the help of phospholipids (PL) and bile acids (BA) present in bile to form micelles. Free FAs and MAGs are taken up by the enterocyte where they are rapidly resynthesized in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to form TAG. PLs from the diet as well as bile - mainly LPA - too are absorbed by the enterocyte and are acylated to form phosphatidic acid (PA), which is also converted into TAG. Absorbed cholesterol (CL) is acylated to cholesterol esters (CE). Within the ER, TAG joins CE and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) to form chylomicrons that enter circulation through the lymph ...
Plays a role in lysophospholipid acylation. Transfers fatty acids to the 1-position via an enzyme-bound acyl-ACP intermediate in the presence of ATP and magnesium. Its physiological function is to regenerate phosphatidylethanolamine from 2-acyl-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (2-acyl-GPE) formed by transacylation reactions or degradation by phospholipase A1.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Offers a method dedicated to stoichiometry quantification. StoichiolyzeR proposes a package leaning on the combined exploitation of information related to precursor and fragment ions data gathered from data-independent acquisitions (DIAs). This application is an approach which is able to consider peptides that include multiple lysine residues to census site-specific acylation stoichiometry.
Chitosan has many unique physical and chemical properties, acylation, sulfation and oxidation, grafting and crosslinking of hydroxyethyl, hydroxymethyl.
1. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2014, 136, 11783-11791. Concerted Amidation of Activated Esters: Reaction Path and Origins of Selectivity in the Kinetic Resolution of Cyclic Amines via NHC and Hydroxamic Acid Co-Catalyzed Acyl Transfer Allen, S. E.; Hsieh, S.-Y.; Gutierrez, O.; Bode, J. W.; Kozlowksi, M. C. 2. Organometallics, 2
A servlet designed to get around the Same Origin Policy restriction for POSTing forms or parsing JSON while developing a Google Web Toolkit (GWT) base
Friedel-Crafts acylation involves the acylation of aromatic rings. Typical acylating agents are acyl chlorides. Typical Lewis ... In the related Nenitzescu reductive acylation (1936) a saturated hydrocarbon is added making it a reductive acylation to ... Friedel-Crafts Acylation. Organic-chemistry.org. Retrieved on 2014-01-11. *^ Fuson, R. C.; Weinstock, H. H.; Ullyot, G. E. ( ... Groves, J. K. (1972). "The Friedel-Crafts acylation of alkenes". Chem. Soc. Rev. 1: 73. doi:10.1039/cs9720100073.. ...
N-Acylation[edit]. Main article: Palmitoylation. The N-terminus can also be modified by the addition of a fatty acid anchor to ...
Acylation[edit]. Main article: Anilide. Aniline reacts with acyl chlorides such as acetyl chloride to give amides. The amides ...
Alkylation, acylation, and sulfonation[edit]. Aside from their basicity, the dominant reactivity of amines is their ...
... in biologyEdit. See also: protein lipidation. Protein acylation is the post-translational modification of proteins ... Acylation can be used to prevent rearrangement reactions that would normally occur in alkylation. To do this an acylation ... Protein acylation has been observed as a mechanism controlling biological signaling.[2] One prominent type is fatty acylation, ... Different types of fatty acids engage in global protein acylation.[4] Palmitoleoylation is an acylation type where the ...
See Kostanecki acylation.) The first step is an enolization which is a proton transfer created a hydroxide instead of a ... The second step is an acylation in which the newly formed bond from the enolization attacks an electrophilic carbon in the ... Baker-Venkataraman rearrangement Kostanecki acylation Robert Robinson (organic chemist) Allan, J.; Robinson, R. J. Chem. Soc. ...
Friedel-Crafts acylation involves the acylation of aromatic rings. Typical acylating agents are acyl chlorides. Typical Lewis ... In the related Nenitzescu reductive acylation (1936) a saturated hydrocarbon is added making it a reductive acylation to ... Friedel-Crafts Acylation. Organic-chemistry.org. Retrieved on 2014-01-11. Fuson, R. C.; Weinstock, H. H.; Ullyot, G. E. (1935 ... Friedel-Crafts acylation is also possible with acid anhydrides. Reaction conditions are similar to the Friedel-Crafts ...
Friedel-Crafts Acylation. Organic-chemistry.org. Retrieved on 2014-01-11.. ... A similar mechanism occurs in the Friedel-Crafts acylation. "electrophilic substitution - the alkylation of benzene". www. ...
Healy MJ, Kerner J, Bieber LL (1988). "Enzymes of carnitine acylation. Is overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase of liver ...
See Friedel-Crafts acylation. carboxylic acids to form an organic acid anhydrides. In the above reactions, HX (hydrogen halide ... For example, chloroformylation, a specific type of Friedel-Crafts acylation which uses formaldehyde as a reagent[citation ...
Vedejs E, Daugulis O, Diver ST (26 January 1996). "Enantioselective Acylations Catalyzed by Chiral Phosphines". The Journal of ... Vedejs E, Diver ST (1 April 1993). "Tributylphosphine: a remarkable acylation catalyst". Journal of the American Chemical ... acylation and alkylation of achiral and prochiral nucleophiles, parallel kinetic resolution, and control of configuration by ...
Nile, Aaron H.; Hannoush, Rami N. (February 2016). "Fatty acylation of Wnt proteins". Nature Chemical Biology. 12 (2): 60-69. ... Lanyon-Hogg, Thomas; Faronato, Monica; Serwa, Remigiusz A.; Tate, Edward W. (2017). "Dynamic Protein Acylation: New Substrates ...
other acylations. *3,5-Dihydroxy-4-isopropyl-trans-stilbene. Glycosides. *Astringin (Piceatannol 3-O-glucoside) ...
Ma BJ, Taylor WA, Dolinsky VW, Hatch GM (1999). "Acylation of monolysocardiolipin in rat heart". J Lipid Res. 40 (10): 1837-45 ...
Iodoacetamide Polgár, L. (1979). "Deuterium isotope effects on papain acylation. Evidence for lack of general base catalysis ...
Van Den Bosch H, Van Golde MG, Slotboom AJ, Van Deenen LL (1968). "The acylation of isomeric monoacyl phosphatidylcholines". ...
It also undergoes Friedel-Crafts acylation. Whereas pyridine does not normally undergo a Diels-Alder reaction, arsabenzene ...
... enzymes involved in protein/peptide acylation; enzymes involved in phospholipid re-modelling. The structure for one MBOAT ... "The ghrelin O-acyltransferase structure reveals a catalytic channel for transmembrane hormone acylation". The Journal of ...
Ma BJ, Taylor WA, Dolinsky VW, Hatch GM (October 1999). "Acylation of monolysocardiolipin in rat heart". Journal of Lipid ...
Known for Kostanecki acylation name reactions. In 1896, he developed the theory of dyes and studied the natural vegetable dyes ...
Jul 1968). "The acylation of isomeric monoacyl phosphatidylcholines". Biochim Biophys Acta. 152 (4): 694-703. doi:10.1016/0005- ... Arthur, G. (Jul 1989). "Acylation of 2-acyl-glycerophosphocholine in guinea-pig heart microsomal fractions". Biochem J. 261 (2 ... 2-acylglycerophosphocholine O-acyltransferase, an enzyme purified in liver microsomes, catalyzes specifically the acylation of ...
Polgar, L (1979). "Deuterium isotope effects on papain acylation. Evidence for lack of general base catalysis and for enzyme- ...
The reaction mechanism involves the acylation and activation of the acid 1 to the mixed anhydride 3. The amide will serve as a ... Höfle, Gerhard; Steglich, Wolfgang; Vorbrüggen, Helmut (1978). "4-Dialkylaminopyridines as Highly Active Acylation Catalysts. [ ... nucleophile for the cyclization forming the azlactone 4. Deprotonation and acylation of the azlactone forms the key carbon- ...
Acylation with succinic acid is called succination. Oversuccination occurs when more than one succinate adds to a substrate.[ ...
Shemyakin, MM; Antonov VK; Shkrob AM (1963). "Activation of the amide group by acylation". Peptides, Proc. 6th Europ. Pept. ...
... aromatic sulfonation and acylation and alkylating Friedel-Crafts reactions. It further consists of alkylation and acylation. In ...
Greaves J, Chamberlain LH (April 2010). "S-acylation by the DHHC protein family". Biochem. Soc. Trans. 38 (2): 522-4. doi: ...
Acylation gives esters such as vinyl acetate. In general, enols are less stable than their keto equivalents, because of the ...
Gerhard Höfle, Wolfgang Steglich, Helmut Vorbrüggen (1978). "4-Dialkylaminopyridines as Highly Active Acylation Catalysts". ...
A C-C acylation reaction can occur with a malonic ester-type compound, in the following scheme useful for syntheses of ... 1979). "C-Acylation under Virtually Neutral Conditions". Angewandte Chemie International Edition in English. 18: 72-74. doi: ... Yet another reaction involves the acylation of triphenylalkelynephosphoranes. (C6H5)3P=CHR + R'-CO-Im → (C6H5)3P+-CHR-COR' + Im ...
Acylation can be used to prevent rearrangement reactions that would normally occur in alkylation. To do this an acylation ... Protein acylation has been observed as a mechanism controlling biological signaling. One prominent type is fatty acylation, the ... Different types of fatty acids engage in global protein acylation. Palmitoleoylation is an acylation type where the ... In chemistry, acylation (or alkanoylation) is the process of adding an acyl group to a compound. The compound providing the ...
The Kostanecki acylation is a method used in organic synthesis to form chromones or coumarins by acylation of O-hydroxyaryl ... The mechanism consists of three well-differentiated reactions: Phenol O-acylation with formation of a tetrahedral intermediate ...
Klapper, M. H. and Klotz, I. M. (1972). Acylation with dicarboxylic acid anhydrides. In "Methods in Enzymology", C.H.W. Hirs ... Amino acid analysis of alkali-treated acylated proteins revealed that acylation by acetic and succinic anhydrides prevents or ... Mechanisms are proposed to explain the observed inhibiting effects of protein acylation and certain additives on lysinoalanine ... Friedman M. (1978) Inhibition of Lysinoalanine Synthesis by Protein Acylation. In: Friedman M. (eds) Nutritional Improvement of ...
Acylation in biologyEdit. See also: protein lipidation. Protein acylation is the post-translational modification of proteins ... Acylation can be used to prevent rearrangement reactions that would normally occur in alkylation. To do this an acylation ... Protein acylation has been observed as a mechanism controlling biological signaling.[2] One prominent type is fatty acylation, ... Different types of fatty acids engage in global protein acylation.[4] Palmitoleoylation is an acylation type where the ...
Lipid A acylation and bacterial resistance against vertebrate antimicrobial peptides.. Guo L1, Lim KB, Poduje CM, Daniel M, ... The PhoP-PhoQ activated gene, pagP, was identified as important to inducible CAMP resistance and increased acylation of lipid A ... Similarly, in response to Mg2+ limited growth, other enteric Gram-negative bacteria demonstrated increased lipid A acylation. ... Compounds that inhibit the ability to increase lipid A acylation may have utility as new antimicrobial agents. ...
The acylation of the amino group is performed selectively by the method of the invention. The indolyl NH groups of tryptophan, ... If the acylation of optically active amino acids is desired without racemation, it is recommendable to keep the reaction ... The process is a very gentle one, so that it is suitable also and very especially for the acylation of expensive amino acids. ... The problem has therefore existed of finding a method for the acylation of aminocarboxylic acids which gives products of high ...
Get Acylation at Spectrum Chemical. SpectrumChemical.com carries a full line of fine chemicals, lab appliances and lab supplies ... Acylation GC Derivatizing Reagents Acylation. Produce less polar and more volatile derivatives with Spectrums selection of GC ... Spectrum specializes in providing the top GC derivatizing reagents acylation but if you do not see the product, grade or form ... derivatizing reagents acylation. These reagents target carbohydrates, amino acids, and can be used for drugs of abuse testing. ...
The PhoP-PhoQ activated gene, pagP, was identified as important to inducible CAMP resistance and increased acylation of … ... Lipid A acylation and bacterial resistance against vertebrate antimicrobial peptides Cell. 1998 Oct 16;95(2):189-98. doi: ... The PhoP-PhoQ activated gene, pagP, was identified as important to inducible CAMP resistance and increased acylation of lipid A ... Similarly, in response to Mg2+ limited growth, other enteric Gram-negative bacteria demonstrated increased lipid A acylation. ...
Van Vranken JG, Nowinski SM, Clowers KJ, Jeong MY, Ouyang Y, Berg JA, Gygi JP, Gygi SP, Winge DR, Rutter J. ACP Acylation Is an ... Chen B, Niu J, Kreuzer J, Zheng B, Jarugumilli GK, Haas W, Wu X. Auto-fatty acylation of transcription factor RFX3 regulates ... "Acylation" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Acylation" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and ...
Acylation of lysophosphatidylcholine plays a key role in the response of monocytes to lipopolysaccharide.. Schmid B1, Finnen MJ ...
Characterizing RNA structures in vitro and in vivo with selective 2-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension sequencing ... 2006) Selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE): Quantitative RNA structure analysis at single ... Multiplexed RNA structure characterization with selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension sequencing (SHAPE- ... Multiplexed RNA structure characterization with selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension sequencing (SHAPE- ...
The Friedel-Crafts acylation of toluene with benzoic anhydride in the liquid phase (batch mode, 383K) was carried out in order ... Reversible depression of the acylation was explained by; the loss of benzoic anhydride by the reaction of activated benzoic ... Keywords: Catalytic Reaction, Ion Exchange, Friedel-Crafts-Type Acylation, Insoluble Heteropoly Acid, Catalytic Activity ...
The method is based on Friedel-Crafts acylation using acid anhydrides. The method has been optimized, and Y(OTf)3 in catalytic ... A fast and green method is developed for regioselective acylation of indoles in the 3-position without the need for protection ... Tran, P.H.; Tran, H.N.; Hansen, P.E.; Do, M.H.N.; Le, T.N. A Simple, Effective, Green Method for the Regioselective 3-Acylation ... The method is based on Friedel-Crafts acylation using acid anhydrides. The method has been optimized, and Y(OTf)3 in catalytic ...
In this study, six Escherichia coli strains which can produce lipid A with different acylation patterns were constructed; the ... These results suggest that the lipid A acylation pattern influences both the bacterial membrane permeability and innate immune ... influence of lipid A acylation pattern on the membrane permeability and innate immune stimulation has been systematically ... In this study, six Escherichia coli strains which can produce lipid A with different acylation patterns were constructed; the ...
Using N-(3-carboxypropanoyl)-β-phenyl-α-alanine as a model it has been established that when steroid alcohols are esterified with 3-carboxypropanamido acids, the carboxy group of the succinic acid...
Keywords: lipase-catalytic acylation; mannose-diester lauric diacid-cholesterol; glycyrrhetinic acid liposomes; mannose ... receptor; liver-targeting lipase-catalytic acylation; mannose-diester lauric diacid-cholesterol; glycyrrhetinic acid liposomes ... Acid Liposomes Containing Mannose-Diester Lauric Diacid-Cholesterol Conjugate Synthesized by Lipase-Catalytic Acylation for ... Acid Liposomes Containing Mannose-Diester Lauric Diacid-Cholesterol Conjugate Synthesized by Lipase-Catalytic Acylation for ...
... with acyl chlorides or anhydrides led to acylation on the NH group rather than on the OH. The structures of the products were ... Attempted acylation of the anticancer agent hydroxyurea (HU) ... Attempted acylation of the anticancer agent hydroxyurea (HU) ... Acylation or phosphorylation of hydroxyurea unexpectedly takes place on N rather than on O, leading to the formation of amides ... Acylation or phosphorylation of hydroxyurea unexpectedly takes place on N rather than on O, leading to the formation of amides ...
T. Mukaiyama, T. Ohno, T. Nishimura, and S. Suda, "The catalytic friedel-crafts acylation reaction using a catalyst generated ... 5. Perfluorinated sulfonic acid resin (Nafion-H) catalyzed intramolecular Friedel-Crafts acylation," Journal of Organic ... Environmentally Benign Mortar-Pestle-Induced Acylation and O-Alkylation of Aromatic and Heteroaromatic Compounds under Solvent- ... catalytic Friedel-Crafts acylation," Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications, no. 14, pp. 1157-1158, 1993. ...
... in the Reductive Acylation Reaction Catalyzed by Human Branched-Chain Alpha-Ketoacid Dehydrogenase: Refined Phosphorylation ... Roles of His291-alpha and His146-beta in the reductive acylation reaction catalyzed by human branched-chain alpha-ketoacid ...
... in the Reductive Acylation Reaction Catalyzed by Human Branched-Chain Alpha-Ketoacid Dehydrogenase: Refined Phosphorylation ... Roles of His291-alpha and His146-beta in the reductive acylation reaction catalyzed by human branched-chain alpha-ketoacid ...
Plasma Membrane Association by N-Acylation Governs PKG Function in Toxoplasma gondii. Kevin M. Brown, Shaojun Long, L. David ... Plasma Membrane Association by N-Acylation Governs PKG Function in Toxoplasma gondii ... Plasma Membrane Association by N-Acylation Governs PKG Function in Toxoplasma gondii ... Plasma Membrane Association by N-Acylation Governs PKG Function in Toxoplasma gondii ...
A solvent-exchange pretreatment improved the acylation of LW by about 60%, whereas that of cellulose was increased by more than ... The mixed acylation of cellulose with fatty acids and acetic anhydride was accomplished in an excess of fatty acid, thus ... Solvent-free fatty acylation of cellulose and lignocellulosic wastes. Part 2: reactions with fatty acids Carlos Vaca-Garcia 1 ... Solvent-free fatty acylation of cellulose and lignocellulosic wastes. Part 2: reactions with fatty acids. Bioresource ...
Compound was tested for the rate constant of acylation against the enzyme trypsin. ...
The acylation reaction utilizes a Lewis acid catalyst, such as BF3 or AlCl3, to produce an acyl cation that adds to the ... Acylation does not suffer from R-group rearrangement to a more stable carbocation species suffered by R groups Friedel-Crafts ... Important reagents for acylation are acyl halides, carboxylic acids, anhydrides and ketenes. The alkyl group R in the acylating ... Acylation requires an electron rich aromatic ring system and cannot contain any electron withdrawing substituents on the ring. ...
... код для вставки. код для вставки на сайт или в ... 610 Enzymatic Enantioselective Acylation of Sterically Aromatic Secondary Alcohol 0.9 1 0.7 6 0.6 0.5 4 25 Figure 3. Loading of ... Enzymatic Enantioselective Acylation of Sterically Aromatic Secondary Alcohol Lee-Suan Chua and Mohamad Roji Sarmidi* Dept of ... 614 Enzymatic Enantioselective Acylation of Sterically Aromatic Secondary Alcohol The performance of ChiroCLEC-PC was 20 fold ...
Acylation-Stimulating Protein (ASP). Acylation Stimulating Protein (ASP, also known as C3a desArg) is one of activation ... Acylation Stimulating Protein Human, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody, Clone: 4H3 Type: Monoclonal Antibody. ... You are here: Home Products by Molecule of Interest Acylation-Stimulating Protein (ASP) ...
Lysine fatty acylation targets R-Ras2 to plasma membrane. To investigate the function of R-Ras2 lysine fatty acylation, we ... R-Ras2 has a higher lysine fatty acylation level in Sirt6 KO MEFs than that in Sirt6 WT MEFs. Lysine fatty acylation targets R- ... Identification of SIRT6 defatty-acylation targets. To identify the lysine defatty-acylation targets of SIRT6 that contribute to ... In mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), Sirt6 knockout (KO) increased R-Ras2 lysine fatty acylation. Lysine fatty acylation ...
The Digital Library strives to provide access to its collections and resources to the Villanova University community and the global community of scholars, subject to any intellectual property or other restrictions on use. Certain materials, such as historical documents, handwritten materials, and foreign language materials, present unique accessibility challenges and formatting limitations. If you are experiencing difficulties in accessing, viewing, or navigating the Digital Library, please contact us at [email protected] or 610.519.5271.. ...
Looking for abbreviations of ASP? It is Acylation Stimulating Protein. Acylation Stimulating Protein listed as ASP ... Cianflone, "Acylation stimulating protein: a female lipogenic factor?" Obesity Reviews, vol.. Cianflone, "Acylation stimulating ... Smith et al., "Cross-sectional associations of acylation stimulating protein (ASP) and adipose tissue gene expression with ... Smith et al., "Change in plasma acylation stimulating protein during euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp in overweight and ...
Relative difficulty of saponifying an acetoxy group at C1 and ease of acylation of a hydroxy group in this position as compared ... Hydroxy Group Acetic Anhydride Acylation Reaction Acetoxy Group OCOC Institute of the Chemistry of Plant Substances, Academy of ... Relative difficulty of saponifying an acetoxy group at C1 and ease of acylation of a hydroxy group in this position as compared ...
  • For example, Friedel-Crafts acylation uses acetyl chloride (ethanoyl chloride), CH3COCl, as the agent and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) as a catalyst to add an ethanoyl (acetyl) group to benzene: The mechanism of this reaction is electrophilic aromatic substitution. (wikipedia.org)
  • To do this an acylation reaction is performed, then the carbonyl is removed by Clemmensen reduction or a similar process. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism consists of three well-differentiated reactions: Phenol O-acylation with formation of a tetrahedral intermediate Intramolecular aldol condensation to cyclize and to form a hydroxydihydrochromone Elimination of the hydroxyl group to form the chromone (or coumarin) Alvocidib (flavopiridol) Dimefline Flavoxate Allan-Robinson reaction Baker-Venkataraman rearrangement Gaspar, A. (wikipedia.org)
  • An analogous reaction conducted with hydroxamic acids (RCONHOH) or N -hydroxycarbamates (ROCONHOH) led to acylation on the OH. (rsc.org)
  • T. Mukaiyama, T. Ohno, T. Nishimura, and S. Suda, "The catalytic friedel-crafts acylation reaction using a catalyst generated from GaCl3 and a silver salt," Chemistry Letters , pp. 1059-1062, 1991. (hindawi.com)
  • The acylation reaction utilizes a Lewis acid catalyst, such as BF3 or AlCl3, to produce an acyl cation that adds to the aromatic ring. (thermofisher.com)
  • Thus, in this microscale Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction of ferrocene with acetic anhydride using a phosphoric acid as the Lewis acid catalyst, the major reaction is acetylferrocene ([Fe(C5H4COCH3)(C5H5)]), with minor presence of diacetylferrocene (Fe(C5H4COCH3)2). (thermofisher.com)
  • Prior to the second step of acylation, 1-acyl-DHAP is reduced in an NADPH-dependent reaction yielding LPA. (asm.org)
  • Whereas in mitochondria only G-3-P and in peroxisomes only DHAP serve as substrates for the acylation reaction, both precursors can be utilized for acylation reactions in the microsomal fraction ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • This supports the hypothesis that Glu166 is the general base in the acylation half of the reaction cycle. (nih.gov)
  • It was demonstrated that in the presence of hydrogen and Pd/C in the reaction medium the (R,S)-1-phenylethanol acylation rate is not hindered, whereas the selectivity was strongly altered in the latter case, leading to significant amounts of side products. (deepdyve.com)
  • A drawback of this extremely versatile acylation reaction is the generation of large amounts of corrosive aqueous waste following post-synthesis workup. (ku.edu)
  • Angewandte Chemie DOI: 10.1002/ange.200704360 Synthetic Methods Carbamoyl Translocations by an Anionic ortho-Fries and Cumulenolate a-Acylation Pathway: Regioselective Synthesis of Polysubstituted Chromone 3- and 8-Carboxamides** Todd K. Macklin,* Jane Panteleev, and Victor Snieckus* In memory of Albert I. Meyers In an initial planned foray towards the total synthesis of schumanniophytine 1,[1] we envisaged (Scheme 1) a concise route incorporating a double intramolecular reaction Scheme 1. (docme.ru)
  • For the α-CT-catalyzed hydrolysis of Suc-Phe-pNA, 15 N-KIE is on k c / K m and thus reflects structural features of transition states for all reaction steps up to and including acylation of the active site serine. (usu.edu)
  • Significantly, 15 N-KIE does not vary over the temperature range 5−45 °C. This result eliminates one of the competing hypotheses for the convex Eyring plot observed for this reaction, that is, a temperature-dependent change in rate-limiting step within the chemical manifold of acylation, but supports a mechanism in which an isomerization of enzyme conformation is coupled to active site chemistry. (usu.edu)
  • However, due to a facile decarbonylation under the reaction conditions it was found to be more expedient to employ esters, such as 165, produced by acylation with oxalyl chloride (Equation (79) Table 4). (chempedia.info)
  • The Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction involves the addition of an acyl group to an aromatic ring. (byjus.com)
  • In a Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction, the aromatic ring is transformed into a ketone . (byjus.com)
  • On this page, we're going to talk about a reaction called enamine alkylation and acylation. (clutchprep.com)
  • Friedel-Crafts Acylation requires an acyl halide to complex with a Lewis Acid Catalyst before the reaction can begin. (clutchprep.com)
  • The Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction of ferrocene involves the addition of the acylium cation to one of the carbon atoms on the ring, followed by loss of a proton (to solvent). (vernier.com)
  • In contrast, the biotinylation of selected peptides unrelated to GnRH under identical reaction conditions indicated no significant evidence of O- acylation of seryl residues. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Previously, we found that human Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is S-acylated (palmitoylated) in vitro and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mouse models, and that S-acylation increased for ALS-causing SOD1 mutants relative to wild type. (elsevier.com)
  • Produce less polar and more volatile derivatives with Spectrum's selection of GC derivatizing reagents acylation. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • Spectrum specializes in providing the top GC derivatizing reagents acylation but if you do not see the product, grade or form of the ingredient you require, just contact our chemical specialist at 800-772-8786. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • Important reagents for acylation are acyl halides, carboxylic acids, anhydrides and ketenes. (thermofisher.com)
  • We have shown that hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) promotes both intramolecular and intermolecular FC acylation without additional catalysts or reagents. (ku.edu)
  • The acylation reagents market in North America is expected to grow at a CAGR of 3.6%, from 2013 to 2018. (micromarketmonitor.com)
  • North America has contributed the largest share to the global acylation reagents market. (micromarketmonitor.com)
  • The U.S. accounted for the largest share in the North American acylation reagents market in 2013. (micromarketmonitor.com)
  • Furthermore, favorable regulatory norms and increased investments & support from the government are expected to drive the acylation reagents market in North America. (micromarketmonitor.com)
  • This report includes the competitive landscape and company profiles of key players in the acylation reagents market in North America. (micromarketmonitor.com)
  • The acylation reagents market in North America is segmented and forecast based on various technologies and end-users of the market in this region. (micromarketmonitor.com)
  • This report on acylation reagents in North America provides a detailed analysis of this market, along with country specific data in this region. (micromarketmonitor.com)
  • Acylation of human insulin was studied using, C2 and C12 transfer reagents, N- succinimidyl acetate and N-succinimidyl dodecanoate (lauryl) respectively. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These results also demonstrate for the first time that the N- hydroxysuccinimide-biotin esters are capable of significant O-acylation and may be generally useful reagents for detecting highly reactive hydroxyamino acid residues. (elsevier.com)
  • Acylation can be used to prevent rearrangement reactions that would normally occur in alkylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acylation does not suffer from R-group rearrangement to a more stable carbocation species suffered by R groups Friedel-Crafts alkylation reactions, a major disadvantage, because electrophilic attack in acylation is via an acylium ion (an acyl cation, RC≡O+). (thermofisher.com)
  • The Friedel-Crafts acylation is one of the most important reactions in both academia and industry for the synthesis of aromatic ketones. (ku.edu)
  • It is well known that premature polymer precipitation from initially homogeneous solution in Friedel-Crafts acylation polycondensation synthesis prevents further macromolecular chain growth reactions and produces polymer of undesirably low molecular weight and of poor thermal stability. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Post-crosslink reactions are carried out with 4,4'TDA as a crosslinker and the carboxylic acid groups in TDA can undergo Friedel-Craft acylation with the phenyls pendent rings in sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone)s copolymers to prepare PEMs for fuel cell applications. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is generally accepted that premature polymer precipitation from initially homogeneous solution in Friedel-Crafts acylation polycondensation synthesis prevents further macromolecular chain growth reactions and produces polymer of undesirably low molecular weight and of poor thermal stability. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Briefly, loading of the Fmoc-Gly-OH to Rink amide resin and all acylation reactions were carried out for 1 h using a 3-fold excess of Fmoc-amino acids activated with DIC (3.5 mmol) in the presence of HOBt (3.5 mmol). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Side reactions often interfere in the acylation of carboxamides by carbonyl chlorides for example, exchange of acyl groups 626 or formation of amidines627 may occur on treatment of anilides with acyl chlorides. (chempedia.info)
  • The two primary types of Friedel-Crafts reactions are the alkylation and acylation reactions. (byjus.com)
  • Acylation reactions of a number of alcohols, phenols and thiols with acetic anhydride demonstrated that Potassium carbonate is a convenient and efficient catalyst for the synthesis of esters and thioesters. (ac.ir)
  • Protein acylation is the post-translational modification of proteins via the attachment of functional groups through acyl linkages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Palmitoleoylation is an acylation type where the monounsaturated fatty acid palmitoleic acid is covalently attached to serine or threonine residues of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acid analysis of alkali-treated acylated proteins revealed that acylation by acetic and succinic anhydrides prevents or minimizes destruction of lysine residues and the formation of lysinoalanine in wheat gluten and soy protein and, in wool, minimizes destruction of cystine and lysine residues and the formation of lanthionine lysinoalanine. (springer.com)
  • However, it remains unclear whether SIRT6 regulates other proteins by defatty-acylation. (elifesciences.org)
  • In case of soluble proteins, S-acylation confers stable membrane attachment. (portlandpress.com)
  • Myristoylation or farnesylation of many soluble proteins constitutes the initial transient membrane adsorption step prior to S-acylation. (portlandpress.com)
  • Surprisingly, we have found that S-acylation is a key determinant in targeting STX19 to tubular recycling endosomes, suggesting that S-acylation may play a general role in directing proteins to this compartment. (biologists.org)
  • To gain further insights into the effect of acylation, we compared the functional and structural properties of pro-CyaA and CyaA proteins. (pasteur.fr)
  • N-terminal acylation of the α-subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins is believed to play a major role in regulating the cellular localization and signaling of G-proteins, but physiological evidence has been lacking. (elsevier.com)
  • Given that S-acylation facilitates anchoring of soluble proteins to cell membranes, our findings suggest that S-acylation and membrane localization may play an important role in CCS-mediated SOD1 maturation. (elsevier.com)
  • Protein acylation has been observed as a mechanism controlling biological signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different types of fatty acids engage in global protein acylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanisms are proposed to explain the observed inhibiting effects of protein acylation and certain additives on lysinoalanine formation. (springer.com)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Acylation" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Acylation" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Because of their high electron density, acylation of ferrocene is accomplished under milder conditions using a phosphoric acid as acid catalyst. (thermofisher.com)
  • Murzin, Dmitry 2010-03-10 00:00:00 Acylation of (R,S)-1-phenylethanol, which is a product of acetophenone hydrogenation, over a Pd-supported catalyst, was studied in ethyl acetate with an immobilized lipase. (deepdyve.com)
  • This heterogenized catalyst can be used as an efficient catalyst for the acylation of alcohols, phenols, and amines with acetic anhydride under mild and solvent-free conditions. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Maryam Hajjami, Arash Ghorbani-Choghamarani and Zahra Khani, "L-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic Acid-4-Hydrogen Sulfate (Supported on Silica Gel) as a New and Efficient Catalyst for Acylation of Alcohols, Phenols and Amines Under Solvent-Free Conditions", Letters in Organic Chemistry (2013) 10: 324. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Erbium trifluoromethanesulfonate is found to be a good catalyst for the Friedel-Crafts acylation of arenes containing electron-donating substituents using aromatic carboxylic acids as the acylating agents under microwave irradiation. (ruc.dk)
  • Potassium carbonate: a highly efficient catalyst for the acylation of alcohols, phenols and thiols under mild conditions', Iranian Chemical Communication , 2(Issue 1, pp. 1-81), pp. 39-47. (ac.ir)
  • So Friedel-Crafts Acylation is going to involve an acyl halide typically acid chloride complexing with a Lewis acid catalyst to produce an electrophile but in this case my active electrophile is not going to be a carbocation like alkylation, it's going to be an acylium ion. (clutchprep.com)
  • A simple and efficient methodology for Friedel-Crafts acylation of 3-methylindole using Amberlyst 15 resin as catalyst is described. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The mixed acylation of cellulose with fatty acids and acetic anhydride was accomplished in an excess of fatty acid, thus avoiding the addition of a toxic solvent. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Acylation requires an electron rich aromatic ring system and cannot contain any electron withdrawing substituents on the ring. (thermofisher.com)
  • Enzymatic Enantioselective Acylation of Sterically Aromatic Secondary Alcohol. (docme.ru)
  • Enzymatic Enantioselective Acylation of Sterically Aromatic Secondary Alcohol Lee-Suan Chua and Mohamad Roji Sarmidi* Dept of Bioprocess Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia. (docme.ru)
  • This study investigated the enantioselective acylation of sterically aromatic secondary alcohol, namely (R,S)-1-phenylethanol with lauric acid in a batch stirredtank reactor. (docme.ru)
  • Lipase-catalyzed acylation of galactosides.30 mM of aromatic galactosides were reacted with an equivalent amount of donor substrates with Novozym 435 (20 mg/mL) and 100 mg/mL of molecular sieves (5Å, 8-12 mesh) in 2-methyl-2-propanol. (nih.gov)
  • The Kostanecki acylation is a method used in organic synthesis to form chromones or coumarins by acylation of O-hydroxyaryl ketones with aliphatic acid anhydrides, followed by cyclization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peter, Susan J., Suggs, Laura J., Engel, Paul S. and Mikos, Antonios G., "Synthesis of poly(propylene fumarate) by acylation of propylene glycol in the presence of a proton scavenger. (rice.edu)
  • The paper reviews the available data for enzymatic hydroxycinnamate saccharide ester synthesis in organic solvent systems as well as other enzymatic hydroxycinnamate acylations in ionic liquid systems. (dtu.dk)
  • Carbamoyl Translocations by an Anionic ortho-Fries and Cumulenolate -Acylation Pathway Regioselective Synthesis of Polysubstituted Chromone 3- and 8-Carboxamides. (docme.ru)
  • All of the mutations conferred a surfactin-negative phenotype, supporting the finding that the conserved Ser in the amino-acylation site is required for peptide synthesis. (mysciencework.com)
  • This, coupled with recent findings that only the fourth, Val-activating, domain is required for competence, suggests that some activity, other than amino-acylation and perhaps unrelated to peptide synthesis, possessed by the fourth domain is involved in the role of srfA in regulating competence development. (mysciencework.com)
  • Takeo Kawabata and co-workers from Kyoto University have reported in ACIE on the synthesis of multifidosides through a regioselective acylation. (wordpress.com)
  • pagP mutants demonstrated increased outer membrane permeability in response to CAMP, supporting the hypothesis that increased lipid A acylation is a CAMP resistance mechanism. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we report that a novel posttranslational mechanism, reversible lysine fatty acylation, regulates R-Ras2, a member of the Ras family. (elifesciences.org)
  • Our study establishes lysine fatty acylation as a previously unknown mechanism that regulates the Ras family of GTPases and provides an important mechanism by which SIRT6 functions as a tumor suppressor. (elifesciences.org)
  • Although TEM-1 beta-lactamase is among the best studied enzymes, its acylation mechanism remains controversial. (nih.gov)
  • Profiling of additional clinically important class A and C β-lactamases suggests that this highly unusual reversible acylation and deacylation mechanism is a general mechanism of inhibition for avibactam. (pnas.org)
  • Friedel-Crafts acylations proceed through a four-step mechanism. (byjus.com)
  • Figure 1 shows the general mechanism for the Friedel-Crafts acylation of benzene. (ipl.org)
  • Let's take a look at the exact mechanism of Friedel-Crafts Acylation. (clutchprep.com)
  • Boyd, A.P., Ross, P.J., Conroy, H., Mahon, N Lavelle, E.C.and Mills, K.H.G. `Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin modulates innate and adaptive immune responses: distinct roles for acylation and enzymatic activity in immunomodulation and cell death? (tcd.ie)
  • In this study, we examined the roles of acylation and enzymatic activity in the immunomodulatory and lytic effects of CyaA. (tcd.ie)
  • Our findings demonstrate that the enzymatic activity plays a critical role in the immunomodulatory effects of CyaA, whereas acylation facilitates the induction of apoptosis and cell lysis, and as such, NA-CyaA has considerable potential as a nontoxic therapeutic molecule with potent anti-inflammatory properties. (tcd.ie)
  • Acylation of 2-naphthol (2), 1-naphthol(6) and resorcinol (11) with salicylic acid (1) in the presence of PPA affords salicylate esters (4,7,13 and 14), 1,2-benzoxanthone (5), 3,4-benzoxanthone(8), 3-hydroxyxanthone(12), 2-salicyloyl-1-naphthol(9) and 11-hydroxy-12H-benzo[b]xanthen-12-one (10). (unigoa.ac.in)
  • Cellulose fatty esters were prepared by acylation of cellulose acetate with various fatty acids catalyzed by immobilized lipase from Candida antarctica (Novozyme) in acetonitrile. (uoi.gr)
  • This methodology shows good selectivity towards the formation of the products of 2-acylation, (3-methyl-1H-indol-2-yl)ketones. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The method is based on Friedel-Crafts acylation using acid anhydrides. (mdpi.com)
  • Attempted acylation of the anticancer agent hydroxyurea (HU) with acyl chlorides or anhydrides led to acylation on the NH group rather than on the OH. (rsc.org)
  • Lipid A acylation and bacterial resistance against vertebrate antimicrobial peptides. (nih.gov)
  • Similarly, in response to Mg2+ limited growth, other enteric Gram-negative bacteria demonstrated increased lipid A acylation. (nih.gov)
  • Compounds that inhibit the ability to increase lipid A acylation may have utility as new antimicrobial agents. (nih.gov)
  • the influence of lipid A acylation pattern on the membrane permeability and innate immune stimulation has been systematically investigated. (mdpi.com)
  • These results suggest that the lipid A acylation pattern influences both the bacterial membrane permeability and innate immune stimulation. (mdpi.com)
  • Wang, X. Influence of Lipid A Acylation Pattern on Membrane Permeability and Innate Immune Stimulation. (mdpi.com)
  • The traditional means of acylation to introduce carbonyls, such as the Friedel-Crafts acylation, can be limited in scope. (ecu.edu)
  • by means of acylation of aminopropyl- glass supports by copolymers of N- vinyl pyrrolidone (N-VP,1) and acryloyl chloride (AC,2), M = 7700 and 35000 respectively [50, 51]. (chempedia.info)
  • The effect of acylation on the conformation of the peptides has been studied by means of circular dichroism and fluorescence properties of a Trp residue which has been included at position 29. (ucm.es)
  • SIRT6, a sirtuin with established tumor suppressor function, regulates the lysine fatty acylation of R-Ras2. (elifesciences.org)
  • In addition, S-acylation also protects STX19 from proteosomal degradation, indicating that S-acylation regulates the function of STX19 at multiple levels. (biologists.org)
  • In chemistry, acylation (or alkanoylation) is the process of adding an acyl group to a compound. (wikipedia.org)
  • The compound used in an acyl group is called the acylation agent. (micromarketmonitor.com)
  • Acylation is the term given to substituting an acyl group such as CH-3CO- into another molecule. (blogspot.com)
  • 5. Perfluorinated sulfonic acid resin (Nafion-H) catalyzed intramolecular Friedel-Crafts acylation," Journal of Organic Chemistry , vol. 56, no. 12, pp. 3955-3957, 1991. (hindawi.com)
  • Darío A. Vargas, Leticia J. Méndez and Alicia S. Cánepa*, "Improvements in the Acylation of 3-Methylindole Using Amberlyst-15", Letters in Organic Chemistry (2020) 17: 890. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The PhoP-PhoQ activated gene, pagP, was identified as important to inducible CAMP resistance and increased acylation of lipid A, the major component of the outer leaflet of the outer membrane. (nih.gov)
  • Lysine fatty acylation promotes the plasma membrane localization of R-Ras2 and its interaction with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase PI3K, leading to activated Akt and increased cell proliferation. (elifesciences.org)
  • We found that mutation of critical basic amino acids drastically reduced membrane interaction and hence S-acylation of GAP-43. (portlandpress.com)
  • Acylation of the 47-kilodalton major membrane immunogen of Treponema pallidum determines its hydrophobicity. (asm.org)
  • A fast and green method is developed for regioselective acylation of indoles in the 3-position without the need for protection of the NH position. (mdpi.com)
  • Influence of acylation of the peptide corresponding to the amino-terminal region of endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase on the interaction with model membranes. (ucm.es)
  • Acylation with either myristic or palmitic acid confers the peptide strech the ability to adopt extended conformations. (ucm.es)
  • A. C. Hengge and Ross L. Stein "Role of Protein Conformational Mobility in Enzyme Catalysis - Acylation of α-Chymotrypsin by Specific Peptide Substrates", Biochemistry. (usu.edu)
  • Strikingly, biotinylation of GnRH under denaturing conditions largely abolished O-acylation, indicating that the observed O-biotinylation was dependent on peptide conformation. (elsevier.com)
  • The invention relates to a simple and inexpensive acylation process, especially for the acetylation of aminocarboxylic acids. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Protein S-acylation is a reversible post-translational modification involving the addition of fatty acids to cysteines and is catalyzed by transmembrane protein acyltransferases (PATs) mainly expressed at the Golgi complex. (portlandpress.com)
  • The Friedel-Crafts acylation of toluene with benzoic anhydride in the liquid phase (batch mode, 383K) was carried out in order to apply the strong acidity of these catalysts. (go.jp)
  • Protein S-acylation, also known as palmitoylation, consists of the addition of a lipid molecule to one or more cysteine residues through a thioester bond. (portlandpress.com)
  • In mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), Sirt6 knockout (KO) increased R-Ras2 lysine fatty acylation. (elifesciences.org)
  • They are also precursors for protein post-translational lysine acylation modifications. (nature.com)
  • However, the key elements that regulate this post-translational lysine acylation pathway remain unknown. (nature.com)
  • These results not only illustrate the landscape of this new lysine acylation pathway, but also open new avenues for studying diverse functions of cellular metabolites associated with this pathway. (nature.com)
  • Three chloramphenicol derivatives (1-3) with an unusual acylation pattern were identified in a cat -containing mutant of L. enzymogenes and in the wild type. (unl.edu)
  • Copper-Induced Expression of a Transmissible Lipoprotein Intramolecular Transacylase Alters Lipoprotein Acylation and the Toll-Like Receptor 2 Response to Listeria monocytogenes. (harvard.edu)
  • 1] correspond to the stretching vibrations of C=0 groups, which were directly bonded to graphenes via the Friedel-Crafts acylation of 4-aminobenzoic acid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Friedel-Crafts acylation with anisoyl chloride proceeds on the remaining unsubstituted position on the furan ring (2). (chempedia.info)
  • An acid anhydride can be used as an alternative to the acyl halide in Friedel-Crafts acylations. (byjus.com)
  • A facile synthetic method to chromenones and thiochromenones has been developed using a one-pot Friedel-Crafts acylation of alkynes with suitably substituted benzoyl chlorides. (ndsl.kr)
  • Adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) of Bordetella pertussis belongs to the repeat in toxin family of pore-forming toxins, which require posttranslational acylation to lyse eukaryotic cells. (tcd.ie)
  • One prominent type is fatty acylation, the addition of fatty acids to particular amino acids (e.g. myristoylation, palmitoylation or palmitoleoylation). (wikipedia.org)
  • CyaA is synthetized as a pro-toxin, pro-CyaA, and converted into its cytotoxic form upon acylation of two lysines. (pasteur.fr)
  • We further identified a critical hydrophobic segment, distal from the acylation region, that folds at higher urea concentration in CyaA than in pro-CyaA. (pasteur.fr)
  • Our HDX-MS data provides direct evidence that the presence of acyl chains in CyaA induces a significant stabilization of the apolar segments of the hydrophobic domain and of most of the acylation region. (pasteur.fr)
  • We propose a refolding model dependent on calcium and driven by local and distal acylation-dependent interactions within CyaA. (pasteur.fr)
  • Therefore, CyaA acylation is not only critical for cell intoxication, but also for protein refolding into its active conformation. (pasteur.fr)
  • In contrast, acylation was not essential for the immunomodulatory function of CyaA, but was required for maximal caspase-3 activation and cytotoxic activity. (tcd.ie)
  • In contrast to animal cells, plant cells and bacteria lack the DHAP acylation pathway ( 8 , 27 ). (asm.org)
  • Using the TEM-1 enzyme, we characterized avibactam inhibition by measuring the on-rate for acylation and the off-rate for deacylation. (pnas.org)
  • Solvent-free fatty acylation of cellulose and lignocellulosic wastes. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Ce travail de thèse a pour objectif d'élaborer de nouveaux revêtements composites en utilisant les nanocristaux de cellulose (NCC) comme additifs biosourcés. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The signals for GAP-43 S-acylation are confined to the first 13 amino acids, including the S-acylatable cysteines 3 and 4 embedded in a hydrophobic region, followed by a cluster of basic amino acids. (portlandpress.com)
  • A family of bacterial cysteine protease type III effectors utilizes acylation-dependent and -independent strategies to localize to plasma membranes. (harvard.edu)
  • Figure 5 from Purification of five serine transfer ribonucleic acid species from Escherichia coli and their acylation by homologous and heterologous seryl transfer ribonucleic acid synthetases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Holdings: The Kinetics of the Direct Method of Acylation. (villanova.edu)
  • Coupling calcium-binding and acylation-driven folding is likely pertinent for other Repeat-In-Toxin cytolysins produced by many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. (pasteur.fr)
  • Substitution of the two lysines confirmed that they were the only sites of acylation and showed that although each was acylated in the absence of the other, both sites were required for in vivo toxin activity. (sciencemag.org)
  • This solvent-promoted acylation is practically simple and accommodates a broad substrates scope. (ku.edu)
  • Protein fatty acylation is included in the class of modifications where attachment via an acyl linkage is employed including myristoylation and palmitoylation. (tamu.edu)
  • The effects of acylation-stimulating protein (ASP) and insulin on free fatty acid (FFA) release from isolated human fat cells and the signal transduction pathways to induce these effects were studied. (lu.se)