Acylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Palmitic Acids: A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.Palmitic Acid: A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Myristic Acid: A saturated 14-carbon fatty acid occurring in most animal and vegetable fats, particularly butterfat and coconut, palm, and nutmeg oils. It is used to synthesize flavor and as an ingredient in soaps and cosmetics. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Myristic Acids: 14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Hydroxylamine: A colorless inorganic compound (HONH2) used in organic synthesis and as a reducing agent, due to its ability to donate nitric oxide.Acyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.Complement C3a: The smaller fragment generated from the cleavage of complement C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. C3a, a 77-amino acid peptide, is a mediator of local inflammatory process. It induces smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION, and HISTAMINE RELEASE from MAST CELLS and LEUKOCYTES. C3a is considered an anaphylatoxin along with COMPLEMENT C4A; COMPLEMENT C5A; and COMPLEMENT C5A, DES-ARGININE.Hydroxylamines: Organic compounds that contain the (-NH2OH) radical.Acetylthiocholine: An agent used as a substrate in assays for cholinesterases, especially to discriminate among enzyme types.Palmitoyl Coenzyme A: A fatty acid coenzyme derivative which plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.Cerulenin: An epoxydodecadienamide isolated from several species, including ACREMONIUM, Acrocylindrum, and Helicoceras. It inhibits the biosynthesis of several lipids by interfering with enzyme function.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)1-Acylglycerophosphocholine O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme localized predominantly within the plasma membrane of lymphocytes. It catalyzes the transfer of long-chain fatty acids, preferentially unsaturated fatty acids, to lysophosphatides with the formation of 1,2-diacylglycero-3-phosphocholine and CoA. EC 2.3.1.23.Myristates: Salts and esters of the 14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--myristic acid.Lipid A: Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Palmitates: Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.EstersGlycerophosphates: Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.Coenzyme AProtein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Glycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Methylmalonate-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase (Acylating): An enzyme that plays a role in the VALINE; LEUCINE; and ISOLEUCINE catabolic pathways by catalyzing the oxidation of 2-methyl-3-oxopropanate to propanoyl-CoA using NAD+ as a coenzyme. Methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency is characterized by elevated BETA-ALANINE and 3-hydropropionic acid.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Anhydrides: Chemical compounds derived from acids by the elimination of a molecule of water.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Glycerylphosphorylcholine: A component of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES or LECITHINS, in which the two hydroxy groups of GLYCEROL are esterified with fatty acids. (From Stedman, 26th ed) It counteracts the effects of urea on enzymes and other macromolecules.Lipoylation: Covalent attachment of LIPIDS and FATTY ACIDS to other compounds and PROTEINS.Butyrylthiocholine: A sulfur-containing analog of butyrylcholine which is hydrolyzed by butyrylcholinesterase to butyrate and thiocholine. It is used as a reagent in the determination of butyrylcholinesterase activity.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Acyl Carrier Protein: Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.Penicillin-Binding Proteins: Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.Lysophosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.Inositol: An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Succinic Anhydrides: A subclass of anhydrides with the general structure of dihydrofurandione. They can be substituted on any carbon atom. They modify and inhibit proteins and enzymes and are used in the acylation of amino- and hydroxyl groups.
(1/1855) Microbial and chemical transformations of some 12,13-epoxytrichothec-9,10-enes.

Resting cells of Streptomyces griseus, Mucor mucedo, and a growing culture of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus when mixed with compounds related to 12,13-epoxytrichothec-9-ene-4beta,15-diacetoxy-3alpha-ol(anguidine) produced a series of derivatives that were either partially hydrolyzed or selectively acylated. These derivatives showed marked differences in activities as assayed by antifungal and tissue culture cytotoxicity tests.  (+info)

(2/1855) Activity in saline of phthalylated or succinylated derivatives of mycobacterial water-soluble adjuvant.

A water-soluble fraction (WSA) of the cell wall can substitute for mycobacterial cells in Freund complete adjuvant. However, when WSA is administered in saline instead of in a water-in-oil emulsion, its adjuvant activity is very weak, and under certain experimental conditions it can even inhibit the humoral immune response. The data reported in the present study show that after treatment by phthalic or succinic anhydride the adjuvant activity of WSA was markedly changed, since high levels of circulating antibodies were produced when these derivatives were administered with an antigen in an aqueous medium. Moreover, the antigenic determinants of WSA were modified and acylated WSA had no tuberculin-like activity.  (+info)

(3/1855) Gas-liquid chromatography of the heptafluorobutyrate derivatives of the O-methyl-glycosides on capillary columns: a method for the quantitative determination of the monosaccharide composition of glycoproteins and glycolipids.

We have developed a method involving the formation of hepta-fluorobutyrate derivatives of O-methyl-glycosides liberated from glycoproteins and glycolipids following methanolysis. The stable derivatives of the most common monosaccharides of these glycoconjugates (Ara, Rha, Xyl, Fuc, Gal, Man, Glc, GlcNAc, GalNAc, Neu5Ac, KDN) can be separated and quantitatively and reproducibly determined with a high degree of sensitivity level (down to 25 pmol) in the presence of lysine as an internal standard. The GlcNAc residue bound to Asn in N-glycans is quantitatively recovered as two peaks. The latter were easily distinguished from the other GlcNAc residues of N-glycans, thus allowing a considerable improvement of the data on structure of N-glycans obtained from a single carbohydrate analysis. The most common contaminants present in buffers commonly used for the isolation of soluble or membrane-bound glycoproteins (SDS, Triton X-100, DOC, TRIS, glycine, and polyacrylamide or salts, as well as monosaccharide constituents of proteoglycans or degradation products of nucleic acids) do not interfere with these determinations. A carbohydrate analysis of glycoproteins isolated from a SDS/PAGE gel or from PDVF membranes can be performed on microgram amounts without significant interferences. Since fatty acid methyl esters and sphingosine derivatives are separated from the monosaccharide peaks, the complete composition of gangliosides can be achieved in a single step starting from less than 1 microg of the initial compound purified by preparative Silicagel TLC. Using electron impact ionization mass spectrometry, reporter ions for the different classes of O-methyl-glycosides (pentoses, deoxy-hexoses, hexoses, hexosamines, uronic acids, sialic acid, and KDN) allow the identification of these compounds in very complex mixtures. The mass of each compound can be determined in the chemical ionization mode and detection of positive or negative ions. This method presents a considerable improvement compared to those using TMS derivatives. Indeed the heptafluorobutyrate derivatives are stable, and acylation of amino groups is complete. Moreover, there is no interference with contaminants and the separation between fatty acid methyl-esters and O-methyl glycosides is achieved.  (+info)

(4/1855) The dually acylated NH2-terminal domain of gi1alpha is sufficient to target a green fluorescent protein reporter to caveolin-enriched plasma membrane domains. Palmitoylation of caveolin-1 is required for the recognition of dually acylated g-protein alpha subunits in vivo.

Here we investigate the molecular mechanisms that govern the targeting of G-protein alpha subunits to the plasma membrane. For this purpose, we used Gi1alpha as a model dually acylated G-protein. We fused full-length Gi1alpha or its extreme NH2-terminal domain (residues 1-32 or 1-122) to green fluorescent protein (GFP) and analyzed the subcellular localization of these fusion proteins. We show that the first 32 amino acids of Gi1alpha are sufficient to target GFP to caveolin-enriched domains of the plasma membrane in vivo, as demonstrated by co-fractionation and co-immunoprecipitation with caveolin-1. Interestingly, when dual acylation of this 32-amino acid domain was blocked by specific point mutations (G2A or C3S), the resulting GFP fusion proteins were localized to the cytoplasm and excluded from caveolin-rich regions. The myristoylated but nonpalmitoylated (C3S) chimera only partially partitioned into caveolin-containing fractions. However, both nonacylated GFP fusions (G2A and C3S) no longer co-immunoprecipitated with caveolin-1. Taken together, these results indicate that lipid modification of the NH2-terminal of Gi1alpha is essential for targeting to its correct destination and interaction with caveolin-1. Also, a caveolin-1 mutant lacking all three palmitoylation sites (C133S, C143S, and C156S) was unable to co-immunoprecipitate these dually acylated GFP-G-protein fusions. Thus, dual acylation of the NH2-terminal domain of Gi1alpha and palmitoylation of caveolin-1 are both required to stabilize and perhaps regulate this reciprocal interaction at the plasma membrane in vivo. Our results provide the first demonstration of a functional role for caveolin-1 palmitoylation in its interaction with signaling molecules.  (+info)

(5/1855) S-myristoylation of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C in Trypanosoma brucei.

Covalent modification with lipid can target cytosolic proteins to biological membranes. With intrinsic membrane proteins, the role of acylation can be elusive. Herein, we describe covalent lipid modification of an integral membrane glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (GPI-PLC) from the kinetoplastid Trypanosoma brucei. Myristic acid was detected on cysteine residue(s) (i.e. thiomyristoylation). Thiomyristoylation occurred both co- and post-translationally. Acylated GPI-PLC was active against variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). The half-life of fatty acid on GPI-PLC was 45 min, signifying the dynamic nature of the modification. Deacylation in vitro decreased activity of GPI-PLC 18-30-fold. Thioacylation, from kinetic analysis, activated GPI-PLC by accelerating the conversion of a GPI-PLC.VSG complex to product. Reversible thioacylation is a novel mechanism for regulating the activity of a phospholipase C.  (+info)

(6/1855) Redundant systems of phosphatidic acid biosynthesis via acylation of glycerol-3-phosphate or dihydroxyacetone phosphate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae lipid particles harbor two acyltransferases, Gat1p and Slc1p, which catalyze subsequent steps of acylation required for the formation of phosphatidic acid. Both enzymes are also components of the endoplasmic reticulum, but this compartment contains additional acyltransferase(s) involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidic acid (K. Athenstaedt and G. Daum, J. Bacteriol. 179:7611-7616, 1997). Using the gat1 mutant strain TTA1, we show here that Gat1p present in both subcellular fractions accepts glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate as a substrate. Similarly, the additional acyltransferase(s) present in the endoplasmic reticulum can acylate both precursors. In contrast, yeast mitochondria harbor an enzyme(s) that significantly prefers dihydroxyacetone phosphate as a substrate for acylation, suggesting that at least one additional independent acyltransferase is present in this organelle. Surprisingly, enzymatic activity of 1-acyldihydroxyacetone phosphate reductase, which is required for the conversion of 1-acyldihydroxyacetone phosphate to 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate (lysophosphatidic acid), is detectable only in lipid particles and the endoplasmic reticulum and not in mitochondria. In vivo labeling of wild-type cells with [2-3H, U-14C]glycerol revealed that both glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate can be incorporated as a backbone of glycerolipids. In the gat1 mutant and the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase slc1 mutant, the dihydroxyacetone phosphate pathway of phosphatidic acid biosynthesis is slightly preferred as compared to the wild type. Thus, mutations of the major acyltransferases Gat1p and Slc1p lead to an increased contribution of mitochondrial acyltransferase(s) to glycerolipid synthesis due to their substrate preference for dihydroxyacetone phosphate.  (+info)

(7/1855) Accumulation of N-acyl-ethanolamine phospholipids in rat brains during post-decapitative ischemia: a 31p NMR study.

Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR) spectroscopy has been used to study accumulation of N-acyl-ethanolamine phospholipids in rat brains during post-decapitative ischemia. Lipids were extracted from rat brain homogenates and the extracts were thoroughly washed with aq. potassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The lower organic phases were isolated and evaporated to dryness under a stream of nitrogen and the lipids were redissolved in CDCl3-CH3OH-H2O 100.0:29.9:5.2 (v/v/v) for NMR analysis. Increasing the period of post-decapitative ischemia resulted in an accumulation of two signals in the NMR spectra at 0.18 and 0.22 ppm (relative to the chemical shift of 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PCDIACYL) at -0.84 ppm). These signals were identified as originating from 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(N-acyl)-ethanolamine (NAPEDIACYL) and 1-(1'-alkenyl)-2-acyl-sn -glycero-3-phospho-(N-acyl)-ethanolamine (NAPEPLAS), respectively, by spiking with authentic materials. Additionally, the identification was verified by thin-layer chromatography, which also showed the accumulation of N-acyl-ethanolamine phospholipids. The use of K-EDTA instead of the commonly used Cs-EDTA in the preparation of the NMR samples allowed the separation of the chemical shifts of N-acyl-ethanolamine phospholipids from those of the ethanolamine phospholipids. Moreover, the chemical shift of cardiolipin was moved from 0.15 ppm observed with Cs-EDTA to about 0.31 ppm with K-EDTA. The present study demonstrates that it is possible to detect and quantify post-decapitative accumulation of NAPE subclasses (NAPEDIACYL and NAPEPLAS) in rat brains by the use of 31P NMR spectroscopy.  (+info)

(8/1855) Surfactant protein A enhances the binding and deacylation of E. coli LPS by alveolar macrophages.

Surfactant protein (SP) A and SP-D are involved in multiple immunomodulatory functions of innate host defense partly via their interaction with alveolar macrophages (AMs). In addition, both SP-A and SP-D bind to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To investigate the functional significance of this interaction, we first tested the ability of SP-A and SP-D to enhance the binding of tritium-labeled Escherichia coli LPS to AMs. In contrast to SP-D, SP-A enhanced the binding of LPS by AMs in a time-, temperature-, and concentration-dependent manner. Coincubation with surfactant-like lipids did not affect the SP-A-mediated enhancement of LPS binding. At SP-A-to-LPS molar ratios of 1:2-1:3, the LPS binding by AMs reached 270% of control values. Second, we investigated the role of SP-A in regulating the degradation of LPS by AMs. In the presence of SP-A, deacylation of LPS by AMs increased by approximately 2.3-fold. Pretreatment of AMs with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C had no effect on the SP-A-enhanced LPS binding but did reduce the amount of serum-enhanced LPS binding by 50%, suggesting that a cell surface molecule distinct from CD14 mediates the effect of SP-A. Together the results for the first time provide direct evidence that SP-A enhances LPS binding and degradation by AMs.  (+info)

*  Myristoylation
Dual acylation of proteins can facilitate more tightly regulated protein localization, specifically targeting proteins to lipid ... This specific dual modification is important for GPCR pathways and is referred to as the dual fatty acylation switch. ... Acylation Prenylation Palmitoylation Glycophosphatidylinositol Cox, David L. Nelson, Michael M. (2005). Lehninger principles of ...
*  Acylation
... can be used to prevent rearrangement reactions that would normally occur in alkylation. To do this an acylation ... In chemistry, acylation (rarely, but more formally: alkanoylation) is the process of adding an acyl group to a compound. The ... Protein acylation is the post-translational modification of proteins via the attachment of functional groups through acyl ... Towler, D A; Gordon, J I; Adams, S P; Glaser, L (1988). "The Biology and Enzymology of Eukaryotic Protein Acylation". Annual ...
*  S-acylation
Protein S-acylation is a sub-type of S-acylation where the first of those molecules is a protein, and connected to the second ... S-acylation is the process of chemically linking a molecule to another molecule via an thioester bond. ... A prominent type of protein S-acylation is palmitoylation, which promotes lipid membrane association of the protein, for ... "Site-specific analysis of protein S-acylation by resin-assisted capture". The Journal of Lipid Research. 52 (2): 393-398. doi: ...
*  Kostanecki acylation
The Kostanecki acylation is a method used in organic synthesis to form chromones or coumarins by acylation of O-hydroxyaryl ... The mechanism consists of three well-differentiated reactions: Phenol O-acylation with formation of a tetrahedral intermediate ...
*  Acylation stimulating protein
The view of C3a/C3adesArg as an acylation stimulating activity is not universally accepted. The evidence is discussed in a ... C3adesArg is more commonly named ASP or acylation-stimulating-protein due to its marked stimulating action on triacylglycerol ... Maslowska, M; Vu, H; Phelis, S; Sniderman, AD; Rhode, BM; Blank, D; Cianflone, K (1999). "Plasma acylation stimulating protein ... Sniderman, Allan D.; Maslowska, Magdalena; Cianflone, Katherine (2000). "Of mice and men (and women) and the acylation- ...
*  Friedel-Crafts reaction
In the related Nenitzescu reductive acylation (1936) a saturated hydrocarbon is added making it a reductive acylation to ... Friedel-Crafts acylation is the acylation of aromatic rings with an acyl chloride using a strong Lewis acid catalyst. Friedel- ... Friedel-Crafts Acylation. Organic-chemistry.org. Retrieved on 2014-01-11. Fuson, R. C.; Weinstock, H. H.; Ullyot, G. E. (1935 ... In it benzene is reacted with succinic anhydride, the intermediate product is reduced and a second FC acylation takes place ...
*  Carnitine O-octanoyltransferase
Healy MJ, Kerner J, Bieber LL (1988). "Enzymes of carnitine acylation. Is overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase of liver ...
*  Acyl halide
See Friedel-Crafts acylation. carboxylic acids to form an organic acid anhydrides. In the above reactions, HX (hydrogen halide ... For example, chloroformylation, a specific type of Friedel-Crafts acylation which uses formaldehyde as a reagent[citation ...
*  Minisci reaction
A side-reaction is acylation. The ratio between alkylation and acylation depends on the substrate and the reaction conditions. ... Homolytic acylation of protonated pyridines and pyrazines with α-keto acids: the problem of monoacylation, in: J. Org. Chem. ...
*  Monolysocardiolipin
Ma BJ, Taylor WA, Dolinsky VW, Hatch GM (1999). "Acylation of monolysocardiolipin in rat heart". J Lipid Res. 40 (10): 1837-45 ...
*  Iodoacetic acid
Iodoacetamide Polgár, L. (1979). "Deuterium isotope effects on papain acylation. Evidence for lack of general base catalysis ...
*  2-acylglycerophosphocholine O-acyltransferase
Van Den Bosch H, Van Golde MG, Slotboom AJ, Van Deenen LL (1968). "The acylation of isomeric monoacyl phosphatidylcholines". ...
*  Arsabenzene
It also undergoes Friedel-Crafts acylation. Whereas pyridine does not normally undergo a Diels-Alder reaction, arsabenzene ...
*  Monolysocardiolipin acyltransferase
Ma, BJ; Taylor, WA; Dolinsky, VW; Hatch, GM (1999). "Acylation of monolysocardiolipin in rat heart". Journal of Lipid Research ...
*  Stanisław Kostanecki
Known for Kostanecki acylation name reactions. In 1896, he developed the theory of dyes and studied the natural vegetable dyes ...
*  1-Lysophosphatidylcholine
Jul 1968). "The acylation of isomeric monoacyl phosphatidylcholines". Biochim Biophys Acta. 152 (4): 694-703. doi:10.1016/0005- ... Arthur, G. (Jul 1989). "Acylation of 2-acyl-glycerophosphocholine in guinea-pig heart microsomal fractions". Biochem J. 261 (2 ... 2-acylglycerophosphocholine O-acyltransferase, an enzyme purified in liver microsomes, catalyzes specifically the acylation of ...
*  Iodoacetamide
Polgar, L (1979). "Deuterium isotope effects on papain acylation. Evidence for lack of general base catalysis and for enzyme- ...
*  Dakin-West reaction
The reaction mechanism involves the acylation and activation of the acid 1 to the mixed anhydride 3. The amide will serve as a ... Höfle, Gerhard; Steglich, Wolfgang; Vorbrüggen, Helmut (1978). "4-Dialkylaminopyridines as Highly Active Acylation Catalysts. [ ... nucleophile for the cyclization forming the azlactone 4. Deprotonation and acylation of the azlactone forms the key carbon- ...
*  Aminoacylation
Acylation tRNA aminoacylation Transfer RNA-like structures. ...
*  Cyclol
Shemyakin, MM; Antonov VK; Shkrob AM (1963). "Activation of the amide group by acylation". Peptides, Proc. 6th Europ. Pept. ...
*  Electrophilic substitution
... aromatic sulfonation and acylation and alkylating Friedel-Crafts reactions. It further consists of alkylation and acylation. In ...
*  DHHC domain
Greaves J, Chamberlain LH (April 2010). "S-acylation by the DHHC protein family". Biochem. Soc. Trans. 38 (2): 522-4. doi: ...
*  Wolfgang Steglich
Höfle, G., Steglich, W., Vorbrüggen, H. (1978). "4-Dialkylaminopyridines as Highly Active Acylation Catalysts". Angew. Chem. ...
*  Carbonyldiimidazole
A C-C acylation reaction can occur with a malonic ester-type compound, in the following scheme useful for syntheses of ... 1979). "C-Acylation under Virtually Neutral Conditions". Angewandte Chemie International Edition in English. 18: 72-74. doi: ... Yet another reaction involves the acylation of triphenylalkelynephosphoranes. (C6H5)3P=CHR + R'-CO-Im → (C6H5)3P+-CHR-COR' + Im ...
*  Azo dye
Typical reactions include metal complexation and acylation. Illustrative azo dyes or their precursors Direct Brown 78 Direct ...
Marine Drugs | Free Full-Text | Influence of Lipid A Acylation Pattern on Membrane Permeability and Innate Immune Stimulation  Marine Drugs | Free Full-Text | Influence of Lipid A Acylation Pattern on Membrane Permeability and Innate Immune Stimulation
In this study, six Escherichia coli strains which can produce lipid A with different acylation patterns were constructed; the ... These results suggest that the lipid A acylation pattern influences both the bacterial membrane permeability and innate immune ... influence of lipid A acylation pattern on the membrane permeability and innate immune stimulation has been systematically ... In this study, six Escherichia coli strains which can produce lipid A with different acylation patterns were constructed; the ...
more infohttp://mdpi.com/1660-3397/11/9/3197/xml
Acylation - Wikipedia  Acylation - Wikipedia
Acylation can be used to prevent rearrangement reactions that would normally occur in alkylation. To do this an acylation ... In chemistry, acylation (rarely, but more formally: alkanoylation) is the process of adding an acyl group to a compound. The ... Protein acylation is the post-translational modification of proteins via the attachment of functional groups through acyl ... Towler, D A; Gordon, J I; Adams, S P; Glaser, L (1988). "The Biology and Enzymology of Eukaryotic Protein Acylation". Annual ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acylation
S-acylation - Wikipedia  S-acylation - Wikipedia
Protein S-acylation is a sub-type of S-acylation where the first of those molecules is a protein, and connected to the second ... S-acylation is the process of chemically linking a molecule to another molecule via an thioester bond. ... A prominent type of protein S-acylation is palmitoylation, which promotes lipid membrane association of the protein, for ... "Site-specific analysis of protein S-acylation by resin-assisted capture". The Journal of Lipid Research. 52 (2): 393-398. doi: ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S-acylation
Acylation - Wikipedia  Acylation - Wikipedia
Acylation in biologyEdit. See also: protein lipidation. Protein acylation is the post-translational modification of proteins ... Acylation can be used to prevent rearrangement reactions that would normally occur in alkylation. To do this an acylation ... Protein acylation has been observed as a mechanism controlling biological signaling.[2] One prominent type is fatty acylation, ... Different types of fatty acids engage in global protein acylation.[4] Palmitoleoylation is an acylation type where the ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acylated
Inhibition of Lysinoalanine Synthesis by Protein Acylation | SpringerLink  Inhibition of Lysinoalanine Synthesis by Protein Acylation | SpringerLink
Klapper, M. H. and Klotz, I. M. (1972). Acylation with dicarboxylic acid anhydrides. In "Methods in Enzymology", C.H.W. Hirs ... Amino acid analysis of alkali-treated acylated proteins revealed that acylation by acetic and succinic anhydrides prevents or ... Mechanisms are proposed to explain the observed inhibiting effects of protein acylation and certain additives on lysinoalanine ... Friedman M. (1978) Inhibition of Lysinoalanine Synthesis by Protein Acylation. In: Friedman M. (eds) Nutritional Improvement of ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-3366-1_30
Acylation | Organic Chemicals | Spectrum Chemical  Acylation | Organic Chemicals | Spectrum Chemical
Get Acylation at Spectrum Chemical. SpectrumChemical.com carries a full line of fine chemicals, lab appliances and lab supplies ... Acylation GC Derivatizing Reagents Acylation. Produce less polar and more volatile derivatives with Spectrum's selection of GC ... Spectrum specializes in providing the top GC derivatizing reagents acylation but if you do not see the product, grade or form ... derivatizing reagents acylation. These reagents target carbohydrates, amino acids, and can be used for drugs of abuse testing. ...
more infohttps://www.spectrumchemical.com/OA_HTML/Chemicals_TCI-Organic-Chemicals_Analytical-Chemistry_GC-Derivatizing-Reagents_Acylation.jsp?minisite=10020&respid=22372
Friedel-Crafts-Type Acylation by Insoluble Heteropoly Acid Catalysts  Friedel-Crafts-Type Acylation by Insoluble Heteropoly Acid Catalysts
The Friedel-Crafts acylation of toluene with benzoic anhydride in the liquid phase (batch mode, 383K) was carried out in order ... Reversible depression of the acylation was explained by; the loss of benzoic anhydride by the reaction of activated benzoic ... Keywords: Catalytic Reaction, Ion Exchange, Friedel-Crafts-Type Acylation, Insoluble Heteropoly Acid, Catalytic Activity ...
more infohttps://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/kakoronbunshu1975/21/6/21_6_1147/_article/-char/en
Acylation-Stimulating Protein (ASP) | BioVendor  Acylation-Stimulating Protein (ASP) | BioVendor
Acylation-Stimulating Protein (ASP). Acylation Stimulating Protein (ASP, also known as C3a desArg) is one of activation ... Acylation Stimulating Protein Human, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody, Clone: 4H3 Type: Monoclonal Antibody. ... You are here: Home Products by Molecule of Interest Acylation-Stimulating Protein (ASP) ...
more infohttps://www.biovendor.com/acylation-stimulating-protein
Enzymatic Enantioselective Acylation of Sterically Aromatic Secondary Alcohol.  Enzymatic Enantioselective Acylation of Sterically Aromatic Secondary Alcohol.
... код для вставки. код для вставки на сайт или в ... 610 Enzymatic Enantioselective Acylation of Sterically Aromatic Secondary Alcohol 0.9 1 0.7 6 0.6 0.5 4 25 Figure 3. Loading of ... Enzymatic Enantioselective Acylation of Sterically Aromatic Secondary Alcohol Lee-Suan Chua and Mohamad Roji Sarmidi* Dept of ... 614 Enzymatic Enantioselective Acylation of Sterically Aromatic Secondary Alcohol The performance of ChiroCLEC-PC was 20 fold ...
more infohttps://www.docme.ru/doc/1933506/enzymatic-enantioselective-acylation-of-sterically-aromat..
Acylation of steroid alcohols with 3-carboxypropanamido acids | Springer for Research & Development  Acylation of steroid alcohols with 3-carboxypropanamido acids | Springer for Research & Development
Using N-(3-carboxypropanoyl)-β-phenyl-α-alanine as a model it has been established that when steroid alcohols are esterified with 3-carboxypropanamido acids, the carboxy group of the succinic acid...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00579074
Acylation at carbon  Claisen ester condensation  Acylation at carbon Claisen ester condensation
Enolate acylation - Claisen condensation. • Enamine acylation. • Wittig reaction. • Acid-catalysed Bromination. • Base- ...
more infohttp://chemtube3d.com/Acylation%20at%20carbon%20-%20Claisen%20ester%20condensation.html
Multiplexed RNA structure characterization with selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension sequencing (SHAPE...  Multiplexed RNA structure characterization with selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension sequencing (SHAPE...
Characterizing RNA structures in vitro and in vivo with selective 2-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension sequencing ... 2006) Selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE): Quantitative RNA structure analysis at single ... Multiplexed RNA structure characterization with selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension sequencing (SHAPE- ... Multiplexed RNA structure characterization with selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension sequencing (SHAPE- ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/108/27/11063?ijkey=82f5c581c55e3756ad4b21b38ab6d56342c003f2&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
SIRT6 regulates Ras-related protein R-Ras2 by lysine defatty-acylation | eLife  SIRT6 regulates Ras-related protein R-Ras2 by lysine defatty-acylation | eLife
Lysine fatty acylation targets R-Ras2 to plasma membrane. To investigate the function of R-Ras2 lysine fatty acylation, we ... R-Ras2 has a higher lysine fatty acylation level in Sirt6 KO MEFs than that in Sirt6 WT MEFs. Lysine fatty acylation targets R- ... Identification of SIRT6 defatty-acylation targets. To identify the lysine defatty-acylation targets of SIRT6 that contribute to ... In mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), Sirt6 knockout (KO) increased R-Ras2 lysine fatty acylation. Lysine fatty acylation ...
more infohttps://elifesciences.org/articles/25158
Molecules | Free Full-Text | A Simple, Effective, Green Method for the Regioselective  3-Acylation of Unprotected Indoles  Molecules | Free Full-Text | A Simple, Effective, Green Method for the Regioselective 3-Acylation of Unprotected Indoles
The method is based on Friedel-Crafts acylation using acid anhydrides. The method has been optimized, and Y(OTf)3 in catalytic ... A fast and green method is developed for regioselective acylation of indoles in the 3-position without the need for protection ... Tran, P.H.; Tran, H.N.; Hansen, P.E.; Do, M.H.N.; Le, T.N. A Simple, Effective, Green Method for the Regioselective 3-Acylation ... The method is based on Friedel-Crafts acylation using acid anhydrides. The method has been optimized, and Y(OTf)3 in catalytic ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/20/10/19605
Avidin acylation prevents the complement-dependent lysis of avidin-carrying erythrocytes | Biochemical Journal  Avidin acylation prevents the complement-dependent lysis of avidin-carrying erythrocytes | Biochemical Journal
Avidin acylation prevents the complement-dependent lysis of avidin-carrying erythrocytes. V R Muzykantov, M D Smirnov, G P ... Avidin acylation prevents the complement-dependent lysis of avidin-carrying erythrocytes. V R Muzykantov, M D Smirnov, G P ... Avidin acylation prevents the complement-dependent lysis of avidin-carrying erythrocytes Message Subject (Your Name) has ... Acylation of avidin with succinic anhydride strongly decreases its ability to induce complement-dependent haemolysis. However, ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/273/2/393
Microwave Chemistry Highlights: Allylation of Aldehydes, Tandem Diels-Alder/Acylation, Molecular Diversity, Arylation of...  Microwave Chemistry Highlights: Allylation of Aldehydes, Tandem Diels-Alder/Acylation, Molecular Diversity, Arylation of...
Tandem Diels-Alder/Acylation Sequence. A one-pot Diels-Alder/acylation (or vice versa) sequence for the synthesis of isoquinol- ...
more infohttps://www.organic-chemistry.org/Highlights/2007/15November.shtm
Stereochemical features of diterpene alkaloids in acylation and alkaline hydrolysis reactions | Springer for Research &...  Stereochemical features of diterpene alkaloids in acylation and alkaline hydrolysis reactions | Springer for Research &...
Relative difficulty of saponifying an acetoxy group at C1 and ease of acylation of a hydroxy group in this position as compared ... Hydroxy Group Acetic Anhydride Acylation Reaction Acetoxy Group OCOC Institute of the Chemistry of Plant Substances, Academy of ... Relative difficulty of saponifying an acetoxy group at C1 and ease of acylation of a hydroxy group in this position as compared ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00571216
Fatty acid acylation regulates trafficking of the unusual Plasmodium falciparum calpain to the nucleolus  Fatty acid acylation regulates trafficking of the unusual Plasmodium falciparum calpain to the nucleolus
HC1 has an acylation motif that confers membrane localization. While Pf_calpain HC3 is sufficient to drive the protein to the ... Fatty acid acylation regulates trafficking of the unusual Plasmodium falciparum calpain to the nucleolus. Ilaria Russo, Anna ... HC1 is membrane anchored as a consequence of acylation. A. The sequence of HC1. The amino acids predicted to be modified by ... Fatty acylation of proteins: new insights into membrane targeting of myristoylated and palmitoylated proteins. Biochim Biophys ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2746569/
  • In contrast, yeast mitochondria harbor an enzyme(s) that significantly prefers dihydroxyacetone phosphate as a substrate for acylation, suggesting that at least one additional independent acyltransferase is present in this organelle. (asm.org)
  • In contrast to animal cells, plant cells and bacteria lack the DHAP acylation pathway ( 8 , 27 ). (asm.org)
  • Lysine fatty acylation promotes the plasma membrane localization of R-Ras2 and its interaction with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase PI3K, leading to activated Akt and increased cell proliferation. (elifesciences.org)
  • Acylation of the 47-kilodalton major membrane immunogen of Treponema pallidum determines its hydrophobicity. (asm.org)
  • Acylation of avidin with succinic anhydride strongly decreases its ability to induce complement-dependent haemolysis. (biochemj.org)
  • However, the ability of avidin to cross-link the biotin-containing structures decreases after acylation. (biochemj.org)
  • A single-step acylation of rutin and naringin, catalyzed by immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B in 2-methyl-2-butanol, occurred preferentially on the primary hydroxyl group. (ovid.com)
  • Relative difficulty of saponifying an acetoxy group at C 1 and ease of acylation of a hydroxy group in this position as compared with a hydroxy group C 10 has been shown for alkaloids with a lycoctonine skeleton. (springer.com)