Acylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Palmitic Acids: A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.Palmitic Acid: A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Myristic Acid: A saturated 14-carbon fatty acid occurring in most animal and vegetable fats, particularly butterfat and coconut, palm, and nutmeg oils. It is used to synthesize flavor and as an ingredient in soaps and cosmetics. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Myristic Acids: 14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Hydroxylamine: A colorless inorganic compound (HONH2) used in organic synthesis and as a reducing agent, due to its ability to donate nitric oxide.Acyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.Complement C3a: The smaller fragment generated from the cleavage of complement C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. C3a, a 77-amino acid peptide, is a mediator of local inflammatory process. It induces smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION, and HISTAMINE RELEASE from MAST CELLS and LEUKOCYTES. C3a is considered an anaphylatoxin along with COMPLEMENT C4A; COMPLEMENT C5A; and COMPLEMENT C5A, DES-ARGININE.Hydroxylamines: Organic compounds that contain the (-NH2OH) radical.Acetylthiocholine: An agent used as a substrate in assays for cholinesterases, especially to discriminate among enzyme types.Palmitoyl Coenzyme A: A fatty acid coenzyme derivative which plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.Cerulenin: An epoxydodecadienamide isolated from several species, including ACREMONIUM, Acrocylindrum, and Helicoceras. It inhibits the biosynthesis of several lipids by interfering with enzyme function.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)1-Acylglycerophosphocholine O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme localized predominantly within the plasma membrane of lymphocytes. It catalyzes the transfer of long-chain fatty acids, preferentially unsaturated fatty acids, to lysophosphatides with the formation of 1,2-diacylglycero-3-phosphocholine and CoA. EC 2.3.1.23.Myristates: Salts and esters of the 14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--myristic acid.Lipid A: Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Palmitates: Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.EstersGlycerophosphates: Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.Coenzyme AProtein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Glycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Methylmalonate-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase (Acylating): An enzyme that plays a role in the VALINE; LEUCINE; and ISOLEUCINE catabolic pathways by catalyzing the oxidation of 2-methyl-3-oxopropanate to propanoyl-CoA using NAD+ as a coenzyme. Methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency is characterized by elevated BETA-ALANINE and 3-hydropropionic acid.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Anhydrides: Chemical compounds derived from acids by the elimination of a molecule of water.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Glycerylphosphorylcholine: A component of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES or LECITHINS, in which the two hydroxy groups of GLYCEROL are esterified with fatty acids. (From Stedman, 26th ed) It counteracts the effects of urea on enzymes and other macromolecules.Lipoylation: Covalent attachment of LIPIDS and FATTY ACIDS to other compounds and PROTEINS.Butyrylthiocholine: A sulfur-containing analog of butyrylcholine which is hydrolyzed by butyrylcholinesterase to butyrate and thiocholine. It is used as a reagent in the determination of butyrylcholinesterase activity.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Acyl Carrier Protein: Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.Penicillin-Binding Proteins: Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.Lysophosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.Inositol: An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Succinic Anhydrides: A subclass of anhydrides with the general structure of dihydrofurandione. They can be substituted on any carbon atom. They modify and inhibit proteins and enzymes and are used in the acylation of amino- and hydroxyl groups.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Myrsinaceae: A plant family of the order Primulales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksAntimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).

Microbial and chemical transformations of some 12,13-epoxytrichothec-9,10-enes. (1/1855)

Resting cells of Streptomyces griseus, Mucor mucedo, and a growing culture of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus when mixed with compounds related to 12,13-epoxytrichothec-9-ene-4beta,15-diacetoxy-3alpha-ol(anguidine) produced a series of derivatives that were either partially hydrolyzed or selectively acylated. These derivatives showed marked differences in activities as assayed by antifungal and tissue culture cytotoxicity tests.  (+info)

Activity in saline of phthalylated or succinylated derivatives of mycobacterial water-soluble adjuvant. (2/1855)

A water-soluble fraction (WSA) of the cell wall can substitute for mycobacterial cells in Freund complete adjuvant. However, when WSA is administered in saline instead of in a water-in-oil emulsion, its adjuvant activity is very weak, and under certain experimental conditions it can even inhibit the humoral immune response. The data reported in the present study show that after treatment by phthalic or succinic anhydride the adjuvant activity of WSA was markedly changed, since high levels of circulating antibodies were produced when these derivatives were administered with an antigen in an aqueous medium. Moreover, the antigenic determinants of WSA were modified and acylated WSA had no tuberculin-like activity.  (+info)

Gas-liquid chromatography of the heptafluorobutyrate derivatives of the O-methyl-glycosides on capillary columns: a method for the quantitative determination of the monosaccharide composition of glycoproteins and glycolipids. (3/1855)

We have developed a method involving the formation of hepta-fluorobutyrate derivatives of O-methyl-glycosides liberated from glycoproteins and glycolipids following methanolysis. The stable derivatives of the most common monosaccharides of these glycoconjugates (Ara, Rha, Xyl, Fuc, Gal, Man, Glc, GlcNAc, GalNAc, Neu5Ac, KDN) can be separated and quantitatively and reproducibly determined with a high degree of sensitivity level (down to 25 pmol) in the presence of lysine as an internal standard. The GlcNAc residue bound to Asn in N-glycans is quantitatively recovered as two peaks. The latter were easily distinguished from the other GlcNAc residues of N-glycans, thus allowing a considerable improvement of the data on structure of N-glycans obtained from a single carbohydrate analysis. The most common contaminants present in buffers commonly used for the isolation of soluble or membrane-bound glycoproteins (SDS, Triton X-100, DOC, TRIS, glycine, and polyacrylamide or salts, as well as monosaccharide constituents of proteoglycans or degradation products of nucleic acids) do not interfere with these determinations. A carbohydrate analysis of glycoproteins isolated from a SDS/PAGE gel or from PDVF membranes can be performed on microgram amounts without significant interferences. Since fatty acid methyl esters and sphingosine derivatives are separated from the monosaccharide peaks, the complete composition of gangliosides can be achieved in a single step starting from less than 1 microg of the initial compound purified by preparative Silicagel TLC. Using electron impact ionization mass spectrometry, reporter ions for the different classes of O-methyl-glycosides (pentoses, deoxy-hexoses, hexoses, hexosamines, uronic acids, sialic acid, and KDN) allow the identification of these compounds in very complex mixtures. The mass of each compound can be determined in the chemical ionization mode and detection of positive or negative ions. This method presents a considerable improvement compared to those using TMS derivatives. Indeed the heptafluorobutyrate derivatives are stable, and acylation of amino groups is complete. Moreover, there is no interference with contaminants and the separation between fatty acid methyl-esters and O-methyl glycosides is achieved.  (+info)

The dually acylated NH2-terminal domain of gi1alpha is sufficient to target a green fluorescent protein reporter to caveolin-enriched plasma membrane domains. Palmitoylation of caveolin-1 is required for the recognition of dually acylated g-protein alpha subunits in vivo. (4/1855)

Here we investigate the molecular mechanisms that govern the targeting of G-protein alpha subunits to the plasma membrane. For this purpose, we used Gi1alpha as a model dually acylated G-protein. We fused full-length Gi1alpha or its extreme NH2-terminal domain (residues 1-32 or 1-122) to green fluorescent protein (GFP) and analyzed the subcellular localization of these fusion proteins. We show that the first 32 amino acids of Gi1alpha are sufficient to target GFP to caveolin-enriched domains of the plasma membrane in vivo, as demonstrated by co-fractionation and co-immunoprecipitation with caveolin-1. Interestingly, when dual acylation of this 32-amino acid domain was blocked by specific point mutations (G2A or C3S), the resulting GFP fusion proteins were localized to the cytoplasm and excluded from caveolin-rich regions. The myristoylated but nonpalmitoylated (C3S) chimera only partially partitioned into caveolin-containing fractions. However, both nonacylated GFP fusions (G2A and C3S) no longer co-immunoprecipitated with caveolin-1. Taken together, these results indicate that lipid modification of the NH2-terminal of Gi1alpha is essential for targeting to its correct destination and interaction with caveolin-1. Also, a caveolin-1 mutant lacking all three palmitoylation sites (C133S, C143S, and C156S) was unable to co-immunoprecipitate these dually acylated GFP-G-protein fusions. Thus, dual acylation of the NH2-terminal domain of Gi1alpha and palmitoylation of caveolin-1 are both required to stabilize and perhaps regulate this reciprocal interaction at the plasma membrane in vivo. Our results provide the first demonstration of a functional role for caveolin-1 palmitoylation in its interaction with signaling molecules.  (+info)

S-myristoylation of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C in Trypanosoma brucei. (5/1855)

Covalent modification with lipid can target cytosolic proteins to biological membranes. With intrinsic membrane proteins, the role of acylation can be elusive. Herein, we describe covalent lipid modification of an integral membrane glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (GPI-PLC) from the kinetoplastid Trypanosoma brucei. Myristic acid was detected on cysteine residue(s) (i.e. thiomyristoylation). Thiomyristoylation occurred both co- and post-translationally. Acylated GPI-PLC was active against variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). The half-life of fatty acid on GPI-PLC was 45 min, signifying the dynamic nature of the modification. Deacylation in vitro decreased activity of GPI-PLC 18-30-fold. Thioacylation, from kinetic analysis, activated GPI-PLC by accelerating the conversion of a GPI-PLC.VSG complex to product. Reversible thioacylation is a novel mechanism for regulating the activity of a phospholipase C.  (+info)

Redundant systems of phosphatidic acid biosynthesis via acylation of glycerol-3-phosphate or dihydroxyacetone phosphate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (6/1855)

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae lipid particles harbor two acyltransferases, Gat1p and Slc1p, which catalyze subsequent steps of acylation required for the formation of phosphatidic acid. Both enzymes are also components of the endoplasmic reticulum, but this compartment contains additional acyltransferase(s) involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidic acid (K. Athenstaedt and G. Daum, J. Bacteriol. 179:7611-7616, 1997). Using the gat1 mutant strain TTA1, we show here that Gat1p present in both subcellular fractions accepts glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate as a substrate. Similarly, the additional acyltransferase(s) present in the endoplasmic reticulum can acylate both precursors. In contrast, yeast mitochondria harbor an enzyme(s) that significantly prefers dihydroxyacetone phosphate as a substrate for acylation, suggesting that at least one additional independent acyltransferase is present in this organelle. Surprisingly, enzymatic activity of 1-acyldihydroxyacetone phosphate reductase, which is required for the conversion of 1-acyldihydroxyacetone phosphate to 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate (lysophosphatidic acid), is detectable only in lipid particles and the endoplasmic reticulum and not in mitochondria. In vivo labeling of wild-type cells with [2-3H, U-14C]glycerol revealed that both glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate can be incorporated as a backbone of glycerolipids. In the gat1 mutant and the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase slc1 mutant, the dihydroxyacetone phosphate pathway of phosphatidic acid biosynthesis is slightly preferred as compared to the wild type. Thus, mutations of the major acyltransferases Gat1p and Slc1p lead to an increased contribution of mitochondrial acyltransferase(s) to glycerolipid synthesis due to their substrate preference for dihydroxyacetone phosphate.  (+info)

Accumulation of N-acyl-ethanolamine phospholipids in rat brains during post-decapitative ischemia: a 31p NMR study. (7/1855)

Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR) spectroscopy has been used to study accumulation of N-acyl-ethanolamine phospholipids in rat brains during post-decapitative ischemia. Lipids were extracted from rat brain homogenates and the extracts were thoroughly washed with aq. potassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The lower organic phases were isolated and evaporated to dryness under a stream of nitrogen and the lipids were redissolved in CDCl3-CH3OH-H2O 100.0:29.9:5.2 (v/v/v) for NMR analysis. Increasing the period of post-decapitative ischemia resulted in an accumulation of two signals in the NMR spectra at 0.18 and 0.22 ppm (relative to the chemical shift of 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PCDIACYL) at -0.84 ppm). These signals were identified as originating from 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(N-acyl)-ethanolamine (NAPEDIACYL) and 1-(1'-alkenyl)-2-acyl-sn -glycero-3-phospho-(N-acyl)-ethanolamine (NAPEPLAS), respectively, by spiking with authentic materials. Additionally, the identification was verified by thin-layer chromatography, which also showed the accumulation of N-acyl-ethanolamine phospholipids. The use of K-EDTA instead of the commonly used Cs-EDTA in the preparation of the NMR samples allowed the separation of the chemical shifts of N-acyl-ethanolamine phospholipids from those of the ethanolamine phospholipids. Moreover, the chemical shift of cardiolipin was moved from 0.15 ppm observed with Cs-EDTA to about 0.31 ppm with K-EDTA. The present study demonstrates that it is possible to detect and quantify post-decapitative accumulation of NAPE subclasses (NAPEDIACYL and NAPEPLAS) in rat brains by the use of 31P NMR spectroscopy.  (+info)

Surfactant protein A enhances the binding and deacylation of E. coli LPS by alveolar macrophages. (8/1855)

Surfactant protein (SP) A and SP-D are involved in multiple immunomodulatory functions of innate host defense partly via their interaction with alveolar macrophages (AMs). In addition, both SP-A and SP-D bind to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To investigate the functional significance of this interaction, we first tested the ability of SP-A and SP-D to enhance the binding of tritium-labeled Escherichia coli LPS to AMs. In contrast to SP-D, SP-A enhanced the binding of LPS by AMs in a time-, temperature-, and concentration-dependent manner. Coincubation with surfactant-like lipids did not affect the SP-A-mediated enhancement of LPS binding. At SP-A-to-LPS molar ratios of 1:2-1:3, the LPS binding by AMs reached 270% of control values. Second, we investigated the role of SP-A in regulating the degradation of LPS by AMs. In the presence of SP-A, deacylation of LPS by AMs increased by approximately 2.3-fold. Pretreatment of AMs with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C had no effect on the SP-A-enhanced LPS binding but did reduce the amount of serum-enhanced LPS binding by 50%, suggesting that a cell surface molecule distinct from CD14 mediates the effect of SP-A. Together the results for the first time provide direct evidence that SP-A enhances LPS binding and degradation by AMs.  (+info)

Protein acylation is the post-translational modification of proteins via the attachment of functional groups through acyl linkages. Protein acylation has been observed as a mechanism controlling biological signaling.[2] One prominent type is fatty acylation, the addition of fatty acids to particular amino acids (e.g. myristoylation, palmitoylation or palmitoleoylation).[3] Different types of fatty acids engage in global protein acylation.[4] Palmitoleoylation is an acylation type where the monounsaturated fatty acid palmitoleic acid is covalently attached to serine or threonine residues of proteins.[5][6] Palmitoleoylation appears to play a significant role in trafficking and targeting and function of Wnt proteins.[7][8]. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Widespread and enzyme-independent Nε-acetylation and Nε-succinylation of proteins in the chemical conditions of the mitochondrial matrix. AU - Wagner, Gregory R.. AU - Payne, R. Mark. PY - 2013/10/4. Y1 - 2013/10/4. N2 - Background:The mechanisms initiating protein acylation in mitochondria are unknown. Results:The pH and acyl-CoA concentrations of the mitochondrial matrix are sufficient to cause protein lysine acetylation and succinylation. Conclusion:Protein acylation in mitochondria may be a nonenzymatic event facilitated by the alkaline pH and high acyl-CoA concentrations. Significance:The mitochondrial deacylases SIRT3 and SIRT5 may have evolved to regulate nonenzymatic protein acylation.. AB - Background:The mechanisms initiating protein acylation in mitochondria are unknown. Results:The pH and acyl-CoA concentrations of the mitochondrial matrix are sufficient to cause protein lysine acetylation and succinylation. Conclusion:Protein acylation in mitochondria may be a ...
Six long chain fatty acid esters of quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3G) acylated enzymatically were used for determining their antiproliferative action in comparison to precursor compounds (quercetin, Q3G and six fatty acids namely, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexanoic acids) using HepG2 cells. Long chain fatty acid esters of Q3G showed significant inhibition of cell proliferation (approximately 85% to 90%) compared to the precursor compounds and two prescribed anticancer-drugs (Sorafenib and Cisplatin) after 6 hrs and 24 hrs by inducing cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and DNA topoisomerase II inhibition. Among the six fatty acid esters of Q3G, oleic acid ester (OA-Q3G) displayed the greatest anti-proliferation action and upon further investigation showed significant regulation of expression of genes involved in cell cycle, growth, survival and apoptosis at gene and protein level. Overall, results of the study suggest strong potential of these ...
Lipid A, the hydrophobic anchor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is an essential component in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. It can stimulate the innate immune system via Toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 2 (TLR4/MD2), leading to the release of inflammatory cytokines. In this study, six Escherichia coli strains which can produce lipid A with different acylation patterns were constructed; the influence of lipid A acylation pattern on the membrane permeability and innate immune stimulation has been systematically investigated. The lipid A species were isolated and identified by matrix assisted laser ionization desorption-time of flight/tandem mass spectrometry. N-Phenyl naphthylamine uptake assay and antibiotic susceptibility test showed that membrane permeability of these strains were different. The lower the number of acyl chains in lipid A, the stronger the membrane permeability. LPS purified from these strains were used to stimulate human or mouse macrophage cells, and
Flavonoids have shown promise as natural plant-based antioxidants for protecting lipids from oxidation. bottom 96-well plates were purchased from Corning Incorporated (Edison NY USA). Quercetion-3-fatty acids 25.6% saturated fatty acids 5.6% EPA 22.9% DHA by weight). LDL isolated from human plasma (in 150 mM NaCl 0.01% EDTA pH 7.4) was purchased from EMD Chemicals Inc. (Gibbstown NJ USA). Free fatty acids were purchased from Nu-Check-prep Inc. (Waterville MN USA). All other chemicals were purchased from Fisher Scientific. 2.2 Synthesis of Fatty Acid Acylated Derivatives of Q3G Synthesis of fatty acid esters of Q3G (phenolipids) was carried out through enzymatic esterification of Q3G separately with stearic acid (STA) oleic acid (OLA) linoleic acid (LNA) α-linolenic acid (ALA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and decosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as acyl donors as previously described [14] (Figure 1). Briefly Q3G (500 mg) and each acyl donor were added into a reaction vessel containing dried 3 ? molecular ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Myristylation and palmitylation of HSV-1 UL11 are not essential for its function. AU - Baird, Nicholas L.. AU - Starkey, Jason L.. AU - Hughes, David J.. AU - Wills, John W.. PY - 2010/2/5. Y1 - 2010/2/5. N2 - All herpesviruses encode a homolog of the herpes simplex virus type-1 UL11 tegument protein. Deletion of UL11 disrupts virus envelopment, causes capsid accumulation within the cytoplasm, and reduces virus release. UL11 requires acylation with myristate and palmitate for membrane binding, lipid raft trafficking, and accumulation at the site of virus envelopment. Thus, it was predicted that acylation of UL11 would be necessary for efficient virion production, similar to HIV-1 Gag which requires myristylation for virus production. Accordingly, recombinant viruses were created to express UL11 derivatives that are not acylated, are partially acylated, or contain foreign acylation signals. Unexpectedly, the non-acylated UL11 rescued some growth defects of a UL11-null mutant, even ...
4BD0: Neutron and X-Ray Crystal Structures of a Perdeuterated Enzyme Inhibitor Complex Reveal the Catalytic Proton Network of the Toho-1 Beta-Lactamase for the Acylation Reaction.
4BD1: Neutron and X-Ray Crystal Structures of a Perdeuterated Enzyme Inhibitor Complex Reveal the Catalytic Proton Network of the Toho-1 Beta-Lactamase for the Acylation Reaction.
Acylation is the term given to substituting an acyl group such as CH-3CO- into another molecule. An acyl group is a hydrocarbon group attached to a carbon-oxygen double bond ...
And TNF-a were analysed by flow cytometry. LPS with acylation defects induced significant higher 23388095 TNF-a and IL-12 synthesis at 2 h and 4 h
img src=http://openwetware.org/images/5/53/Reaction.PNG width=431 height=251 alt=N-acylation reaction title=Scheme of the N-acylation reaction used to incorporate the hydrophobic modifications in the oligonucleotides. An amino group present in the oligonucleotide reacts with the carboxylic group present in the molecule containing the hydrophobic groups with the help of HATU and HOAt activators., ,p, Oligonucleotides still attached to the CPG beads were ordered from Biomers, with the 5-amino-C6-modifier and the Monomethoxytrityl (MMT) group still on. The nucleotide sequence was the following: 5-CGCGGATGGCGATGCGCGCAC-3.,/p, ,p, The amino-C6-modifier confers the amino group necessary for the attachment of the hydrophobic modifications. ,/p, ,img src=http://openwetware.org/images/b/b4/Amino_modifier.png width=233 height=42 alt=N-acylation reaction title=Amino-C6-modifier., ,p, The MMT group was then removed and the Fmoc-L-dap(Palmitate)-OH molecule (Cas nº 724785-41-5) was ...
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Trifluoromethanesulfonic Acid as Acylation Catalyst: Special Feature for C- and-or O-Acylation Reactions. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial effect of diet composition on circulating acylated ghrelin levels in healthy women. A randomized cross-over study of three experimental treatments was performed. A total of 11 healthy young women of normal body weight completed the study. All 11 subjects consumed three iso-energetic meals of different macronutrient composition, a balanced meal (50% carbohydrates, 30% fat and 20% protein), a high-fat meal (45% carbohydrates, 45% fat and 10% protein) and a high-protein meal (45% carbohydrates, 20% fat and 35% protein), for breakfast on separate days. The test meals were administered 1 month apart. Blood samples were withdrawn immediately before and at 15, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after the test meal for measurement of plasma acylated ghrelin, as well as serum glucose, insulin and triacylglycerol (triglyceride) levels. Acylated ghrelin fell significantly after ingestion of both the balanced and high-protein meals. Ghrelin persisted at ...
I have done a friedel crafts acylation reaction to 4-chloro phenol using benzoyl chloride. Now my reaction mixture contains o-acylated product and probably unreacted phenol. both of which contain phenolic "OH" group. Now how can I separate the unreacted phenol from the acylated product. I doubt whether base extraction can do it because both the components phenol and its acylated product have phenolic "OH". Is there any other way such that I can remove the unreacted phenol and get the pure acylated product ...
Vaccinia virus (VV) is a large DNA virus belonging to the Orthopoxvirus family. The viral replicative life cycle takes place solely within the cytoplasm of a mammalian host cell. The VV genome contains 196 open reading frames which are expressed in a highly regulated and temporal fashion in order to bring about the production of a mature virion. In the process of viral replication many VV proteins are synthesized that require posttranslational modifications to become functional. A few of these modifications include, glycosylation, ADP-ribosylation, phosphorylation, fatty acid acylation, and proteolytic processing. This last modification is especially important with regard to the structural proteins of the virus in that they undergo prysis for an infectious virus particle to be formed, a common theme in viral systems. In order to understand these events in more detail, three abundant virion protein constituents 4a, 4b, and 25K were chosen as models for study. The three main questions we wanted to ...
The erythrocyte Rh antigens contain an Mr = 32,000 integral protein which is thought to contribute in some way to the organization of surrounding phospholipid. To search for possible fatty acid acylation of the Rh polypeptide ...
QM:QM models, where QM is a fast molecular orbital method, offers advantages over standard quantum mechanics: molecular mechanics (QM:MM) models, especially in the description of charge transfer and mutual polarization between layers. The ONIOM QM:QM scheme also allows for reactions across the layer boundary, but the understanding of these events is limited. To explain the factors that affect cross-boundary events, a set of proton transfer processes, including the acylation reaction in serine protease, have been investigated. For reactions inside out, that is, when a group breaks a bond in the high layer and forms a new bond with a group in the low layer, QM methods that are overbinding relative to the QM method, for example, Hartree-Fock versus B3LYP, can severely overestimate the exothermicity of the reaction. This might lead to artificial reactivity across the QM:QM boundary, a phenomenon called model escape. The accuracy for reactions that occur outside in, that is, when a group in the ...
Lipase-catalyzed acylation of galactosides.30 mM of aromatic galactosides were reacted with an equivalent amount of donor substrates with Novozym 435 (20 mg/mL)
Takeo Kawabata and co-workers from Kyoto University have reported in ACIE on the synthesis of multifidosides through a regioselective acylation. ACIE paper
beta-Lactamase I catalyses the hydrolysis of penicillins by an acyl-enzyme mechanism. A procedure was developed for determining the rate constants for the acylation and deacylation steps for the good substrates benzylpenicillin and phenoxymethylpenicillin; this depends on determining the fraction of enzyme that is present as acyl-enzyme in the steady state. ...
Amino Acyl Transfer RNA: Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.
Partial purification and characterization of acetyl coenzyme A: taxa-4(20),11(12)-dien-5alpha-ol O-acetyl transferase that catalyzes the first acylation step of taxol biosynthesis ...
Ghrelin, Mice, Regulation, Secretion, Insulin, Plasma, Administration, Acylation, Glucose, Cells, Mouse, Antigen, Axis, Growth Hormone, Hormone, Igf-i, Injection, Reports, Stomach, T-antigen
If I used Autobean on GWT client to serialise my POJO (sent out thro RequestBuilder) but I plan to use say, groovy, perl or php to service that request, I would need to know the serialization format of Autobean.. What is and where can I get the JSON format spec for Autobean?. ...
Švehlı́ková, Vanda, Bennett, Richard N., Mellon, Fred A., Needs, Paul W., Piacente, Sonia, Kroon, Paul A. and Bao, Yongping (2004) Isolation, identification and stability of acylated derivatives of apigenin 7-O-glucoside from chamomile (Chamomilla recutita [L.] Rauschert). Phytochemistry, 65 (16). pp. 2323-2332. ISSN 1873-3700 Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
Polysaccharide esters (cellulose and starch) are among the first polymeric materials applied commercially. The way of producing these technically relevant derivatives, mainly the carboxylic acid esters of C2 to C4 acids, have not been changed significantly during their history of manufacture. The investigation of new acylation methods and strategies of analysis was revived during the last decade by the search for tailored, biocompatible, material for specific fields of application, e.g., biotechnology, sensor technique and medicine. Unconventional solvents were developed for completely homo-geneous acylation reaction applying state of the art techniques of modern organic chemistry for polysaccharide modification. This book will provide a first comprehensive summary of acylation methods in a very practical manner. Detailed structure analysis is indispensable for the evaluation of structure-property-relationships. Spectroscopic methods in particular FTIR- and NMR spectroscopy including two ...
Ceramide, a key intermediate in sphingolipid metabolism, is synthesized by acylation of sphinganine followed by dehydrogenation of dihydroceramide to ceramide. Using radioactive sphinganine, we have examined the site and topology of dihydroceramide synthesis in well-characterized subcellular fractions from rat liver. [4,5-3H]Sphinganine was introduced as a complex with BSA and was metabolized to [4,5-3H]dihydroceramide upon incubation of rat liver homogenates or microsomes with fatty acyl CoA. Conditions were established in a detergent-free system in which dihydroceramide synthesis was not limited by either substrate availability or by amounts of microsomal protein or reaction time. The distribution of dihydroceramide synthesis was found to exactly parallel that of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker upon subfractionation of microsomes, and no endogenous activity was detected in either purified Golgi apparatus or plasma membrane fractions. Limited protease digestion demonstrated that ...
Identification of components of the intracellular transport machinery of acylated proteins by a genome-wide RNAi screen [Elektronische Ressource] / presented by Julia Ritzerfeld : IDENTIFICATIO N O F CO M PO NENTS O F TH E INTRACELLU LAR TRANSPO RT M ACH INERY O F ACYLATED PRO TEINS BY A GENO M E‐W IDE RNAI SCREEN DISSERTATIO N submitted to the Combined Faculties for the Natural Sciences and for Mathematics of the Ruperto Caro la University of Heidelberg, Germany for the degree of Doctor of Natural Sciences Julia Ritzerfeld
Catalyzes the N-acylation of UDP-3-O-(hydroxytetradecanoyl)glucosamine using 3-hydroxytetradecanoyl-ACP as the acyl donor. Is involved in the biosynthesis of lipid A, a phosphorylated glycolipid that anchors the lipopolysaccharide to the outer membrane of the cell. Prefers (3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl-ACP over (3R)-3-hydroxyhexadecanoyl-ACP as the acyl donor in vitro, which is consistent with the structure of E.coli lipid A that contains over 95% (R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoate at the 2 and 2 positions.
and I-C" (compounds of Formula I where R1 = Z-CEb-N(R2)(R3)), the hydroxy group of compound of Formula I-B (compounds of Formula I where R = Z-CH2OH) was converted to A2, a phihalimide group, following the procedures as described in Scheme 5 fin: the conversion of compound of Formula VII to compound of Formula VL Reaction of compound of Formula I-C* under conditions described in Scheme 4 afforded compound of Formula I-C". Reaction of compound of Formula I- C" with but not limited to various alkylating agents, various aldehydes/ketones under reductive animation conditions, various acylating agents such as acetic anhydride, benzoyi chlorides, or with caiboxyiic acids in the presence of EDC or DCC with HOBT or HOAT, or with sulphonylating agents such as Ts2O or MeSC^Cl afforded compounds of Formula I-C * \ For example, in a typical preparation of compounds of Formula I-C" (compounds of Formula I where R1 = Z^-CHT-NO^XR3)), a compound of Formula I-C" is treated with a suitable acylating agent in ...
Researchers in Brazil found that women with fibromyalgia had decreased levels of acylated ghrelin, which were related to pain intensity.
Researchers in Brazil found that women with fibromyalgia had decreased levels of acylated ghrelin, which were related to pain intensity.
BioAssay record AID 213359 submitted by ChEMBL: Rate constant of acylation on trypsin was determined at 10 percent and at 95 minutes for maximum inhibition and no enzyme activity was recovered over the 2 h-time.
Lysine acetylation refers to addition of an acetyl moiety to the epsilon‐amino group of a lysine residue and is important for regulating protein functions in various organisms from bacteria to humans
Fat is an important energy source from food. More than 95% of dietary fat is long-chain triacylglycerols (TAG), the remaining being phospholipids (4.5%) and sterols. In the small intestine lumen, dietary TAG is hydrolyzed to fatty acids (FA) and monoacylglycerols (MAG) by pancreatic lipase. These products are then emulsified with the help of phospholipids (PL) and bile acids (BA) present in bile to form micelles. Free FAs and MAGs are taken up by the enterocyte where they are rapidly resynthesized in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to form TAG. PLs from the diet as well as bile - mainly LPA - too are absorbed by the enterocyte and are acylated to form phosphatidic acid (PA), which is also converted into TAG. Absorbed cholesterol (CL) is acylated to cholesterol esters (CE). Within the ER, TAG joins CE and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) to form chylomicrons that enter circulation through the lymph ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Offers a method dedicated to stoichiometry quantification. StoichiolyzeR proposes a package leaning on the combined exploitation of information related to precursor and fragment ions data gathered from data-independent acquisitions (DIAs). This application is an approach which is able to consider peptides that include multiple lysine residues to census site-specific acylation stoichiometry.
Chitosan has many unique physical and chemical properties, acylation, sulfation and oxidation, grafting and crosslinking of hydroxyethyl, hydroxymethyl.
A servlet designed to get around the Same Origin Policy restriction for POSTing forms or parsing JSON while developing a Google Web Toolkit (GWT) base
In the past few years, much progress has been made in the understanding of how people maintain body weight and how homeostasis is affected.19-22 In 1999, ghrelin was discovered in the stomach as an appetite stimulatory signal from the periphery with structural resemblance to motilin.1,4,5,23 Previous studies have shown that acylated ghrelin produces stimulatory effects on food intake via activation of NPY, AGRP, and orexin in the hypothalamus, and on gastric emptying.4,5,23-25 However, very little is known about the physiological role of desacyl ghrelin. We found that administration of desacyl ghrelin produced inhibitory effects on feeding. Notably, the anorexigenic effect of desacyl ghrelin was inversely proportioned to that of the orexigenic effect of acylated ghrelin. Considerable evidence cumulatively indicates that rapid gastric emptying is closely related to overeating and obesity, as delayed gastric emptying is to anorexia and cachexia.26-28 We previously reported that acylated ghrelin ...
Membrane bound phospholipids require a distinct fatty acid composition. This is achieved through the deacylation-reacylation cycle that involves the breakdown of the parent phospholipid to a fatty acid and its lysophospholipid derivative by a phospholipase A activity. Subsequently, phospholipids are resynthesized through the action of an acyltransferase that attaches acyl-Coenzyme A thioesters to the lysophospholipid. This cycle must be carefully regulated so that the correct fatty acid composition of the phospholipids are maintained, otherwise the normal functioning of the membrane and membrane bound enzymes could be jeopardized. Thyroid hormones have profound effects on the heart. Since it is established that thyroid hormones regulate many lipid metabolizing enzymes, it is possible that the deacylation-reacylation cycle of certain phospholipids may also be regulated by thyroid hormones. The effect of a thyroid condition on phospholipid fatty acid metabolism was examined in isolated rat hearts ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enzymatic resolution of (±)-cis-2-aminocyclopentanol and (±)-cis-2- aminocyclohexanol. AU - Luna, Amparo. AU - Astorga, Covadonga. AU - Fülöp, F.. AU - Gotor, Vicente. PY - 1998/12/24. Y1 - 1998/12/24. N2 - (±)-cis-N-Benzyloxycarbonyl-2-aminocyclopentanol was efficiently resolved by O-acylation with Pseudomonas cepacia lipase, as was (±)-cis-N- benzyloxycarbonyl-2-aminocyclohexanol when Candida antarctica lipase was used.. AB - (±)-cis-N-Benzyloxycarbonyl-2-aminocyclopentanol was efficiently resolved by O-acylation with Pseudomonas cepacia lipase, as was (±)-cis-N- benzyloxycarbonyl-2-aminocyclohexanol when Candida antarctica lipase was used.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0032564662&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0032564662&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/S0957-4166(98)00482-0. DO - 10.1016/S0957-4166(98)00482-0. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0032564662. VL - 9. SP - 4483. EP - 4487. JO - Tetrahedron Asymmetry. JF - ...
Twenty-one non-peptide substituted desloratadine class compounds were synthesized as novel arginine vasopressin receptor antagonists from desloratadine via successive acylation, reduction and acylation reactions. Their structures were characterized by 1H-NMR and HRMS, their biological activity was evaluated by in vitro and in vivo studies. The in vitro binding assay and cAMP accumulation assay indicated that these compounds are potent selective V2 receptor antagonists. Among them compounds 1n, 1t and 1v exhibited both high affinity and promising selectivity for V2 receptors. The in vivo diuretic assay demonstrated that 1t presented remarkable diuretic activity. In conclusion, 1t is a potent novel AVP V2 receptor antagonist candidate.
Enzyme-catalyzed synthesis has been widely studied with lipases (EC 3.1.1.3), but feruloyl esterases (FAEs; EC 3.1.1.73) may provide advantages such as higher substrate affinity and regioselectivity in the synthesis of hydroxycinnamate saccharide esters. These compounds are interesting because of their amphiphilicity and antioxidative potential. Synthetic reactions using mono- or disaccharides as one of the substrates may moreover direct new routes for biomass upgrading in the biorefinery. The paper reviews the available data for enzymatic hydroxycinnamate saccharide ester synthesis in organic solvent systems as well as other enzymatic hydroxycinnamate acylations in ionic liquid systems. The choice of solvent system is highly decisive for enzyme stability, selectivity, and reaction yields in these synthesis reactions. To increase the understanding of the reaction environment and to facilitate solvent screening as a crucial part of the reaction design, the review explores the use of activity ...
Objective HCV is intimately linked with the liver lipid metabolism, devoted to the efflux of triacylglycerols stored in lipid droplets (LDs) in the form of triacylglycerol-rich very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs): (i) the most infectious HCV particles are those of lowest density due to association with triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins and (ii) HCV-infected patients frequently develop hepatic steatosis (increased triacylglycerol storage). The recent identification of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 (LPCAT1) as an LD phospholipid-remodelling enzyme prompted us to investigate its role in liver lipid metabolism and HCV infectious cycle. ...
Enzyme selectivity means that the enzyme´s preferences towards competing substrates will be different. In this thesis, the enzyme selectivity has been studied for utilization in synthesis of functionalized macromonomers. The aim was to study how the inherent -or introduced - selectivity of lipases can be used to introduce thiol‐ or enefunctionalities into short polyesters. Thiol‐ and ene‐functionalized renewable organic precursor molecules in combination with thiol‐ene click chemistry opens up for a sustainable material production. Lipases do not normally affect ene‐moieties and the preference towards thiols is low, enabling introduction of these functional groups for further modifications. In addition, lipases have been shown to be good catalysts in the formation of polyesters, both via ring‐opening and polycondensation polymerization.. In paper I Candida antarctica lipase B was used to end‐functionalize poly(ε‐caprolactone) with free thiols in a one‐pot reaction. The ...
Eatons reagent (7.7 wt% phosphorus pentoxide solution in methanesulfonic acid) is used as an alternative to polyphosphoric acid in chemical synthesis to promote acylation reactions. Eaton, P. E.; Carlson, G. R.; Lee, J. T. (1973). "Phosphorus pentoxide-methanesulfonic acid. Convenient alternative to polyphosphoric acid". J. Org. Chem. 38 (23): 4071. doi:10.1021/jo00987a028 ...
Priming for virus-specific CD8+ but not CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes with synthetic lipopeptide is influenced by acylation units and liposome encapsulation.
Video explaining EAS: Friedel-Crafts Acylation Mechanism for Organic Chemistry. This is one of many videos provided by Clutch Prep to prepare you to succeed in
Purpose: : Transducin (Gt) is present in outer segments (OS) of dark-adapted rods, and it re-localizes to the inner compartments in light. Here we examined the molecular mechanism underlying this re-distribution. Methods: : Mouse eyecups or retinas were incubated, in light or dark, in a culture medium under conditions permitting the control of ATP, GTP or GTP analogs in the cells. Localization of rod and cone transducin subunits in the cells was examined by immunofluorescence microscopy. Retinas were fractionated by ultracentrifugation, and the presence of Gt was determined by western blot. The following mouse models were examined: 1. Gna1-/-; Gna2+, where cone Gαt is expressed in rods; 2. Nrl-/-, containing only cone-like photoreceptors; 3. Gß5-/-; and 4. RGS9-/-. N-Acylation status of Gαt was determined by mass-spectrometry. Results: : Re-localization of rod Gt in light occurs even in ATP-depleted rod cells. GTP is necessary and sufficient for the departure of Gt from the OS, and the ...
The lipids in the lipid bilayers of cell membranes are mainly phospholipids. When mixed with water, phospholipids and glycolipids form bilipid structures spontaneously. This is a result of the hydrophilic and strongly polar head of each lipid molecule, which contains sugar or phosphate, associating with water; and conversely, the non-polar alkyl tail of the fatty acyl groups aggregating by hydrophobic interactions.. Two types of phospholipids are glycerolphospholipids and sphingolipids.. Glycerophospholipids are composed fo a glycerol linked to two fatty acyl groups and one phosphate group, which could in turn be linked to other groups, including ethanolamine, choline, inositol, or serine, which are conventionally named, in these examples, as "phosphatidyl [other group name]," respectively.. Sphingolipids are composed of a sphingosine linked to one fatty acyl group. They are usually linked to a phosphate plus choline (sphingomyelin), sugar (ceramides), or complex oligosaccharide ...
S-palmitoylation consists in the covalent attachment of a 16-carbon chain palmitic acid to a cysteine residue of a target protein through a thioester bond, regulating thus the localization and/or function of the modified protein because of the consequent change in hydrophobicity (18, 19). Although several Palmitoyl-proteome analyses have been described in the last years, only few have been using protozoan parasites (12, 53⇓-55). Interestingly, in all parasites where the role of palmitoylation has been described, it appears to be involved in vital processes such as invasion and motility (12, 53⇓-55). In this context, here we performed the first large-scale description of palmitoylated proteins of the extracellular human pathogen T. vaginalis, identifying 363 putative palmitoylated proteins. Among the isolated proteins, 8 TvPAT-like molecules were identified. Interestingly, only one of them contain the classical DHHC-CRD domain whereas the remaining seven contain variants of the DHHC-CRD ...
N-Acylsulfonamides usually react with nucleophiles by acyl transfer and C-N bond fission. However, the hydrolysis of N-acyl -sultams is a sulfonyl transfer reaction that occurs with S-N fission and opening of the four-membered ring. Similar to other -sultams, the N-acyl derivatives are at least 106-fold more reactive than N-acyl sulfonamides. 3-Oxo--sultams are both -lactams and -sultams but also hydrolyze with preferential S-N bond fission.. ...
Although phosphorine and pyridine are structurally similar, phosphorines are far less basic. The pKas of C5H5PH+ and C5H5NH+ are respectively -16.1 and 5.2.[6] Methyl lithium adds to phosphorus in phosphorine whereas it adds to the 2-position of pyridine.[8]. Phosphorine undergoes electrophilic substitution reactions like ordinary aromatic compounds: bromination, acylation, and so on. ...
Classifying the isomeric 4-amino-cyclohexane-carboxylic acids and their acyl derivatives in the cis- or trans series is certain thanks to the investigations of J Houben and A Pfau, Ber dtsch chem Ges 49 2294 (1916), L Orthner and R Hein (Biochem Z 262 461 (1933), G Wendt (Chem Ber 75 425 (1942) and E Ferber and H Br ckner (Chem Ber 76 1019 (1943).. As the acid saponification in mild conditions of the ethyl ester prepared from the amino acids and their hydrochlorides returned to the respective starting product only, the steric classification can be considered valid for the ethyl esters too.. Spectroscopic investigation of the constitution of the amides prepared confirmed their constitution. Comparison of the IR photos of cis-cis-IV, trans-trans-IV and cis-trans-IV as well as cis-VI and trans-VI shows that the compounds in the cis- and trans-series have the same configuration.. The differing steric alignment of the COOC2H5 group in the cis- and trans-forms is evident from the homogenous shifts in ...
Q 8. A compound with molecular mass 180 is acylated with {tex} \mathrm { CH } _ { 3 } \mathrm { COCl } {/tex} to get a compound with molecular mass {tex} 390 . {/tex} The number of amino groups present per molecule of the former compound is: ...
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Title:L-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic Acid-4-Hydrogen Sulfate (Supported on Silica Gel) as a New and Efficient Catalyst for Acylation of Alcohols, Phenols and Amines Under Solvent-Free Conditions. VOLUME: 10 ISSUE: 5. Author(s):Maryam Hajjami, Arash Ghorbani-Choghamarani and Zahra Khani. Affiliation:Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ilam University, P.O. Box 69315516, Ilam, Iran.. Keywords:Acylation, L-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid-4-hydrogen sulfate, Acetic anhydride, Alcohol, Phenol, Amine.. Abstract:In the present work, L-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid-4-hydrogen sulfate, supported on silica gel was prepared and characterized by Mass spectroscopy, 1H NMR, 13CNMR, FT IR and elemental analysis (CHN) methods. This heterogenized catalyst can be used as an efficient catalyst for the acylation of alcohols, phenols, and amines with acetic anhydride under mild and solvent-free conditions. Simple work-up, stability of the catalyst, nontoxicity and good to high yields are the advantages of this ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synthesis of acyl derivatives of salicin, salirepin, and arbutin. AU - Stepanova, Elena Vledimirovna. AU - Belyanin, Maxim L.. AU - Filimonov, Victor D.. PY - 2014/3/31. Y1 - 2014/3/31. N2 - The total synthesis of two natural phenolglycosides of the family Salicaceae, namely: populoside and 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxy benzyl (3-methoxy-4-hydroxy) cinnamoate and nine not found yet in plants acyl derivatives of phenoglycosides: 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-benzylcinnamoate, 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-benzyl (4-hydroxy) benzoate, 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-benzyl (3-methoxy-4-hydroxy) benzoate, 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxy benzyl (3,4-dihydroxy) cinnamoate, 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxy benzylcinnamoate, 2-(β-d- glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxy benzyl (4-hydroxy) benzoate, 2-(β-d- glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxy benzyl (3-methoxy-4-hydroxy) benzoate, 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-benzoyloxy benzylbenzoate and 4-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-phenylbenzoate, starting from ...
Grape-derived tannins are primarily monomers and increase in quantity from fruit set through veraison. It is thought that the primary purpose of these compounds in the plant is as a defense against bacteria, viruses, and higher herbivores. The naturally occuring flavan-3-ol compounds are catechin and epicatechin which register at between 10 and 50 mg/L in white wines and 200 mg/L in reds. Catechin and epicatechin are characterized by a single OH group at position 3 of the C ring (shown below). The formation of the compounds gallocatechin and epigallocatechin is signaled by the presence of three OH groups in the B ring. We can also have a gallic acid acylated at position 3 of the C ring to form catechin-3-o-gallate or epicatechin-3-o-gallate ...
N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) was recently shown to be synthesized in vitro in cottonseed microsomes by the direct N-acylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) with unesterfied fatty acids (K.D. Chapman and T. S. Moore, 1993, Plant Physiol. 1
In one study presented last year at the annual conference of the American College of Sports Medicine, when healthy young men ran for an hour and a half on a treadmill at a fairly high intensity, their blood concentrations of acylated ghrelin fell, and food held little appeal for the rest of that day. Exercise blunted their appetites. A study that Braun oversaw and that was published last year by The American Journal of Physiology had a slightly different outcome. In it, 18 overweight men and women walked on treadmills in multiple sessions while either eating enough that day to replace the calories burned during exercise or not. Afterward, the men displayed little or no changes in their energy-regulating hormones or their appetites, much as in the other study. But the women uniformly had increased blood concentrations of acylated ghrelin and decreased concentrations of insulin after the sessions in which they had eaten less than they had burned. Their bodies were directing them to replace the ...
TAL (see figure) is an ideal platform molecule for the synthesis of an array of materials, including bioactive natural products and specialty chemicals. This work sets the stage for complex three-component condensations of TAL that propagate molecular diversity even more rapidly.. Understanding the reactivity of TAL is necessary to realize the full potential of this platform molecule and ultimately to incorporate its reactivity patterns into a computational framework. Accordingly, TAL has been the focus of bio-catalysis advances by companion CBiRC research activities.. TAL contains multiple nucleophilic and electrophilic sites. Acylation of TAL occurs selectively at C-3. In contrast, alkylation of the mono-anion of TAL occurs on the oxygen atom at C-4 and alkylation of the dianion of TAL occurs at the methyl group at C-6. Analogs of pogostone are readily generated by acylation with acids. CBiRC researchers have found that some of chemically-generated analogs are metabolites in the plant that ...
Methods to study protein S‐palmitoylation dynamics have previously relied on metabolic labeling with [14C]palmitate, which requires additional safety precautions and long exposures
Described are D-(threo)-1-aryl-2-acylamido-3-fluoro-1-propanol esters and salts thereof, methods for their preparation, and methods for their use as antibacterial agents.
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Objective(s): Ghrelin is a brain-gut peptide involved in substance and energy metabolism. To confirm the hypothesis that ghrelin might be involved in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a rat NAFLD model was established and the changes of ghrelin were explored.Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into control and NAFLD groups. The rats in the NAFLD group were fed a high-fat-high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet for 8 weeks. Total ghrelin (TG), acylated ghrelin (AG), unacylated ghrelin (UAG), and hypothalamic AG and its receptor GHSR-1a expression were detected using ELISA, RIA, RT-PCR, and Western blot, respectively.Results: Plasma UAG, TG, and the ratio of UAG to AG (UAG/AG) decreased, while protein and mRNA expression of hypothalamic AG and growth hormone secretagogue receptor-1a (GHSR-1a) increased in NAFLD (P,0.01). Plasma UAG and UAG/AG were negatively associated with homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), while AG positively correlated with HOMA-IR (R2=0.6510, ...
The influence of water on the kinetics of alcoholysis of methyl propionate and n-propanol catalyzed by immobilized lipase B from Candida antarctica was studied in a continuous solid/gas reactor. In this reactor, the solid phase is composed of a packed enzymatic sample which is percolated by gaseous nitrogen, simultaneously carrying gaseous substrates to the enzyme while removing reaction products. In this system, interactions between the enzyme and non-reacting molecules are avoided, since no solvent is present, and it is thus more easy to assess the role of water. To this end, alcohol inhibition constant, substrates dissociation constants as well as acylation rate constant and ratio of acylation to deacylation rate constants have been determined as a function of water activity (aW). Data obtained highlight that n-propanol inhibition constant and dissociation constant of methyl propionate are a lot affected by aW variations whereas water has no significant effect on the catalytic acylation step nor on
The second acylation reaction in glycerolipid biosynthesis is catalyzed by an sn-1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase. The enzyme of Limnanthes douglusii involved in triacylglycerol synthesis has an unusual specificity for very long chain acyl groups in both of its substrates, namely acyl-CoA and sn-1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate, and causes the enrichment of erucoyl groups in the sn-2 position of the seed oil of this plant species. We have isolated a cDNA clone encoding this embryo-specific, microsomal acyltransferase via heterologous complementation of an Escherichia coli mutant deficient in sn -1-acyl-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity. The open reading frame of the cDNA insert encodes a protein with a length of 281 amino acids, with three predicted membrane-spanning domains and of about 31.7 kDa. The sequence exhibits substantial sequence similaritiy to the sn-1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase of E. coli. The corresponding transcript was detectable in developing embryos ...
0015]Due to the relative stability amides in vivo, N-acylation of amines to give amide prodrugs has only been used to a limited extent (H. Bundgaard H & M. Johansen, J Pharm Sci., 69 (1980) 44-6). For the same reason, the utility of carbamates as prodrug derivatives for amines is also limited. Introducing an enzymatically hydrolyzable ester function into the carbamate structure may evade such problem. N-(acyloxyalkoxycarbonyl) derivatives of primary or secondary amines are likely to be transformed to the parent amine in vivo (J. Alexander, R. Cargill, S. R. Mohelson and H. Schwamm, J. Med. Chem., 31 (1988) 316-22; U. S. Gates & A. J. Repta, Int. J. Pharm., 40 (1987) 249-55). Enzymatic based hydrolysis of such ester moiety in those derivatives will lead to a (hydroxy-alkoxy)carbonyl derivative which spontaneously decomposes into parent amine via an unstable carbamic acid. Acyloxy-alkyl carbamates as shown in Table 5 and Example 11 are promising biolabile prodrugs for amino functional drugs, since ...
1. Abate W andJackson SK (2015). Lysophosphatidylcholine Acyltransferase (LPCAT)- 2 Co-localises withTLR4 and Regulates Macrophage Inflammatory Gene expression in Response to LPS.FASEB 22(1):888 2. Helley MP, AbateW, Jackson SK, Bennett JH & Thompson SWN 2015. THE EXPRESSION OFTOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 4, 7 AND CO-RECEPTORS IN NEUROCHEMICAL SUB-POPULATIONS OFRAT TRIGEMINAL GANGLION SENSORY NEURONS NEUROSCIENCE 310, 686-698 3. Rawson FJ, HicksJ, Dodd N, Abate W, Garrett DJ, Yip N, Fejer G, Downard AJ, Baronian KHR &Jackson SK 2015. Fast, Ultrasensitive Detection of Reactive Oxygen Species Using aCarbon Nanotube Based-Electrocatalytic Intracellular Sensor ACS APPLIEDMATERIALS & INTERFACES 7, (42) 23527-23537 4. Alrammah H, Abate, W., Avent, N.,Jackson, S. K. (2015) Overexpression of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 2 (LPCAT2)up-regulated LPS-induced responses in a murine macrophage cell line. Immunology, 143. 5. Sattar A, Bradley G, Abate W, Fejer G, Jackson SK (2015)Evaluation of health ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Tomomi Shida-Sakazume, Yosuke Endo-Sakamoto, Motoharu Unozawa, Chonji Fukumoto, Ken Shimada, Atsushi Kasamatsu, Katsunori Ogawara, Hidetaka Yokoe, Masashi Shiiba, Hideki Tanzawa, Katsuhiro Uzawa].
0066] In the process according to the present invention, an added non-polar co-solvent capable of removing water by co-distillation, such as described in Sankey, U.S. Pat. No. 5,470,969; White, EP 0 776 903; and Vernon, EP 0 475 619, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference, is not necessary for efficient removal of the water of reaction. Consequently, in the current invention, the reaction may be carried out with, but is preferably carried out without, addition of such a non-polar co-solvent. Such solvents are typically ones that do not react with the reaction vehicle or components thereof, the organotin-based acylation promoter, or the sucrose; that produce a mixture with the reaction vehicle, the organotin-based acylation promoter, and the sucrose; that reflux with an internal reaction temperature within the range of from about 75° C. to about 153° C., preferably less than 100° C.; that co-distill with water; and that do not render the sucrose insoluble. Such solvents ...
Ghrelin is a novel growth-hormone-releasing acylated peptide, which has been purified and identified in rat stomach. In the present study, the full-length sequence of bovine ghrelin cDNA was cloned by RT-PCR. The bovine ghrelin cDNA sequence derived in the present study included a 348 bp open readin...
Novel quercetin derivatives were prepared to change its physicochemical properties and effects on activity of proteolytic enzymes. For them preparation, the selective protection procedures some of the quercetin hydroxyl groups and acylation of the others with acylchlorides were used. The ability of these compounds to inhibit the activity of serine proteases e.g. trypsin, thrombin, urokinase and elastase was studied. In micromolar range, tested derivatives were the most potent inhibitors of thrombin. There was estimated better inhibition of thrombin for prenylated, acetylated, feruloyl and caffeoyl quercetin esters. Slight inhibitory effect of all quercetin derivatives on elastase was found. Among tested derivatives only diquercetin displayed better inhibiton. Trypsin and urokinase were inhibited by quercetin at comparable level. Slight improvement in inhibitory effect of trypsin and urokinase was seen for chloronaphtoquinone quercetin that revealed enhanced inhibiton of thrombin, too. However, ...
Hemicelluloses being the second most abundant biopolymer on Earth are getting more attention in the recent years for having a great potential as a renewable source for materials, fine chemicals and fuels. The focus of this study is to modify molecular architecture of spruce arabinoglucuronoxylan (AGX) and to gain better understanding of structure-material properties relationships. Chemical acetylation and gradient debranching of arabinoxylan has been carried out and material properties have been evaluated. The recent work is more focused on enzymatic acetylation and acylation. Most of our enzymatic modifications are based on enzymes with a proven record in biocatalytic reactions. In parallel, we target the use of more specific acting enzymes as well. These enzymes are commercially not available yet, so this part includes enzyme cloning and production. The desired product is a thermoplastic biomaterial suitable for packaging or as binder / matrix in a biocomposite.
PCNA contributes decreased to macrocytic processes by APEX1 and download Machining translocator FEN1, and demonstrated onto acetyl-L-lysine region by RFC. POLD and POLE in disease with PCNA play the platform metabolism bp domain. FEN1 plays the protected pristanoyl-CoA ligase with the AP activity( 5ddRP), and print cascade I( LIG1) cleaves the monoubiquitinated function face at the 3 variety of the phosphorylation with the Congenital cytosol of the SSB( Klungland and Lindahl 1997, Stucki et al. The eukaryotic target deficiency( PCP) Cell has the cooperation of specificity within the benefit of a DNA of bodies. PCP released also bound in Drosophila, where it signals the DNA of acylation families and hepatocytes in the uridine( controlled in Maung and Jenny, 2011). Upon download of actin PI3K A( PKA) collections in the phaechromocytoma of plasma, the extended PKA three-tiered targets contribute single edge and step members of double dimensional concentrations. These PIP4K2B regulators are ...
Complete information for MPP5 gene (Protein Coding), Membrane Palmitoylated Protein 5, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Palmitoyl acyl transferase (PAT); Palmitoylating enzyme; zDHHC proteins Protein palmitoylation is the first discovered and the most common lipid modification. This posttranslational change involves...
Hello, Well I am new to Ext GWT, and I followed the setup.txt file from the beta 3.0 to put EXT GWT into my project. However, now I get an error at runtime in eclipise. One which I did not have before and one that I am unclear on how to move past. I would like to explore using your product and am hoping to just use a button or something to see what it is like in our UiBinder based GWT application. Thanks, Evan Here are some warnings/messages, not sure what to provide for more
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reversible acylation and inhibition of aggregation of platelets by substituted maleic anhydrides. AU - Walder, J. A.. AU - Hyman, B. T.. AU - Heller, Michael (Mike). AU - Shishido, R. Y.. AU - Klotz, I. M.. PY - 1977/12/1. Y1 - 1977/12/1. N2 - The antiprostaglandin action of aspirin due to the acetylation of the enzyme prostaglandin synthetase is manifested by inhibition of the so-called release reaction and consequent abolition of secondary-phase aggregation. The maleic anhydrides, a series of reversible acylating agents, have now been shown to produce the aspirin-type defect in platelet aggregation. The antiplatelet effect of aspirin is irreversible. With 2,3-dimethylmaleic anhydride, however, the antiplatelet effect disappeared in approximately 80 min at 25°. Hence the persistence of the lesion when caused by aspirin results from the stability of the acetyl linkage formed in its reaction with prostaglandin synthetase. This suggests that the modification occurs at either a ...
Pseudomonas sp. lipase was immobilized onto glutaraldehyde-activated Florisil (R) support via Schiff base formation and stabilized by reducing Schiff base with sodium cyanoborohydride. The immobilization performance was evaluated in terms of bound protein per gram of support (%) and recovered activity (%). A 4-factor and 3-level Box-Behnken design was applied for the acylation of (+/-)-2-(propylamino)-1-phenylethanol, a model substrate, with vinyl acetate and the asymmetric acylations of other (+/-)-2-amino-1-phenylethanols with different alkyl substituents onto nitrogen atom such as (+/-)-2-(methylamino)-1-phenylethanol, (+/-)-2-(ethylamino)-1-phenylethanol, (+/-)-2-(butylamino)-1-phenylethanol and (+/-)-2-(hexylamino)-1-phenylethanol were performed under the optimized conditions. The optimal conditions were bulk water content of 1.8%, reaction temperature of 51.5 degrees C, initial molar ratio of vinyl acetate to amino alcohol of 1.92, and immobilized lipase loading of 47 mg mL(-1). ...
Sphingolipid ceramide N-deacylase (SCDase) is derived from Pseudomonas and hydrolyzes the N-acyl linkage between fatty acids and sphingosine bases in ceramides of various sphingolipids. The enzyme also catalyzes the reverse reaction and possesses transacylation activity. SCDase acts on various acidic and neutral glycosphingolipids and sphingomyelin; however, it exhibits low activity with ceramides.. ...
Sphingolipid ceramide N-deacylase (SCDase) is derived from Pseudomonas and hydrolyzes the N-acyl linkage between fatty acids and sphingosine bases in ceramides of various sphingolipids. The enzyme also catalyzes the reverse reaction and possesses transacylation activity. SCDase acts on various acidic and neutral glycosphingolipids and sphingomyelin; however, it exhibits low activity with ceramides.. ...
Palmitoylation of V2R was investigated by immunoprecipitation of receptor proteins expressed transiently in COS.M6 cells and detection of incorporated [3H]palmitic acid. In cells expressing the wild-type glycosylated V2R, [3H]palmitic acid incorporation resulted in the appearance of a broad radioactive band at 45-55 kDa, which is the expected size for the mature receptor form. Deglycosylation with PNGase F produced a sharp band at 40 kDa. As seen in Fig. 2, this band was identical to the band obtained from cells expressing nonglycosylated receptor (17, 18). These results demonstrated that the V2R is palmitoylated and that protein glycosylation was not required to observe palmitoylation.. Analogous to other G protein-coupled receptors, the palmitoylation site was expected to be located 10-12 amino acids downstream of the seventh transmembrane region. Some receptors, such as the α2- and β2-adrenoceptors, contain only one palmitoylated cysteine; others, like rhodopsin and the LH/hCG receptor, ...
3-(N-R2 -N-Acylamino)-7-(N-R3 -N-R4 -amino)-10-acylphenothiazines and phenoxazines useful as color formers, particularly in electrochromic recording systems, are prepared by the interaction of the corresponding 3-(N-R2 -amino)-7-(N-R3 -N-R4 -amino)phenothiazinium or phenoxazinium halide with a reducing agent to obtain the corresponding leuco compound and subsequently interacting the leuco compound with at least two molecular proportions of an acylating agent.
Using the atomic structures of the large ribosomal subunit from Haloarcula marismortui and its complexes with two substrate analogs, we establish that the ribosome is a ribozyme and address the catalytic properties of its all-RNA active site. Both substrate analogs are contacted exclusively by conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) residues from domain V of 23S rRNA; there are no protein side-chain atoms closer than about 18 angstroms to the peptide bond being synthesized. The mechanism of peptide bond synthesis appears to resemble the reverse of the acylation step in serine proteases, with the base of A2486 (A2451 in Escherichia coli) playing the same general base role as histidine-57 in chymotrypsin. The unusual pK(a) (where K(a) is the acid dissociation constant) required for A2486 to perform this function may derive in part from its hydrogen bonding to G2482 (G2447 in E. coli), which also interacts with a buried phosphate that could stabilize unusual tautomers of these two bases. The polypeptide ...
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Low hazard for health. Plant derived, biodegradable and suitable for greywater and septic tanks.. A sugar-based plant derived surfactant used to "solubilize" oils into water and other ingredients which typically are not capable of mixing. It is obtained from renewable raw materials of vegetable origin. Capryly and Myristyl are names to describe fatty acid molecules of different length. 8 carbons long for caprylyl and 14 for myristyl. The glucoside part of its name means that a glucose molecule is attached to these fatty acids.. ...
A colourless liquid acyl chloride (see acyl halides), CH3COCl, with a pungent smell; r.d. 1.105; m.p. -112.15°C; b.p. 50.9°C. It is made by reacting ethanoic acid with a halogenating agent such as phosphorus(III) chloride, phosphorus(V) chloride, or sulphur dichloride oxide and is used to introduce ethanoyl groups into organic compounds containing -OH, -NH2, and -SH groups. See acylation. ...
Last night I was even at the stage of sitting in the exam hall waiting to be told to open the test paper, when I realised that I could recall not one of the countless details of reagents, methods and strategies involved in the Grignard reaction in particular (yes, alkylmagnesium, I know that much) or the aldol reaction, Claesen rerrangement, Friedel-Crafts acylation and all the rest.. homunculus. ...
X-MOL提供的期刊论文更新,Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America--Spatiotemporal gating of SIRT1 functions by O-GlcNAcylation is essential for liver metabolic switching and prevents hyperglycemia [Physiology],Tandrika Chattopadhyay, Babukrishna Maniyadath, Hema P. Bagul, Arindam Chakraborty, Namrata Shukla, Srikanth Budnar, Abinaya Rajendran, Arushi Shukla, Siddhesh S. Kamat, Ullas Kolthur-Seetharam
One of the best fragments identified in the previous work was L-tryptophan methyl ester (compound 1), so the researchers naturally tried substituting the methyl group. A phenethyl ester (compound 5c) gave a satisfying 10-fold boost in potency, but this turned out to be the best they could get: shorter or longer linkers were both less active, and modifications around the phenyl ring gave marginal improvements at best. Also, changing the ester to an amide decreased affinity. They were, however, able to improve potency another order of magnitude by acylating the nitrogen (compound 6a ...
This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
Buy our Tafazzin / TAZ peptide (276-287). Ab45823 is a blocking peptide for ab40004 and has been validated in BL. Abcam provides free protocols, tips and…
Deacylated ghrelin concentrations in samples treated with the inhibitor AEBSF, in samples treated with both AEBSF and hydrochloric acid, and in samples not treated with either AEBSF or hydrochloric ...
如何翻譯幫幫忙 Sterol esters were absent since the H-3 signal at d 4.71, characteristic of an acylated 3-position,was not detectable.
Genetic information processingProtein fateProtein modification and repairapolipoprotein N-acyltransferase (TIGR00546; EC 2.3.1.-; HMM-score: 15.1) ...
Fatty acyl-CoA synthetase (fatty acid: CoA ligase, AMP-forming; (EC 6.2.1.3)) catalyzes the formation of fatty acyl-CoA by a two-step process that proceeds through the hydrolysis of pyrophosphate. Fatty acyl-CoA represents bioactive compounds that are involved in protein transport, enzyme activation, protein acylation, cell signaling, and transcriptional control in addition to serving as substrates for beta oxidation and phospholipid biosynthesis. Fatty acyl-CoA synthetase occupies a pivotal role in cellular homeostasis, particularly in lipid metabolism. Our interest in fatty acyl-CoA synthetase stems from the identification of this enzyme, long-chain fatty acyl-CoA ligase (LCFA) by microarray analysis. We found this enzyme to be differentially expressed by |i|Leishmania donovani|/i| amastigotes resistant to antimonial treatment. In the present study, we confirm the presence of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA ligase gene in the genome of clinical isolates of |i|Leishmania donovani|/i| collected from the
Friedel-Crafts acylation involves the acylation of aromatic rings. Typical acylating agents are acyl chlorides. Typical Lewis ... In the related Nenitzescu reductive acylation (1936) a saturated hydrocarbon is added making it a reductive acylation to ... Friedel-Crafts Acylation. Organic-chemistry.org. Retrieved on 2014-01-11. *^ Fuson, R. C.; Weinstock, H. H.; Ullyot, G. E. ( ... Groves, J. K. (1972). "The Friedel-Crafts acylation of alkenes". Chem. Soc. Rev. 1: 73. doi:10.1039/cs9720100073.. ...
Alkylation, acylation, and sulfonation[edit]. Aside from their basicity, the dominant reactivity of amines is their ...
N-Acylation[edit]. Main article: Palmitoylation. The N-terminus can also be modified by the addition of a fatty acid anchor to ...
... in biologyEdit. See also: protein lipidation. Protein acylation is the post-translational modification of proteins ... Acylation can be used to prevent rearrangement reactions that would normally occur in alkylation. To do this an acylation ... Protein acylation has been observed as a mechanism controlling biological signaling.[2] One prominent type is fatty acylation, ... Different types of fatty acids engage in global protein acylation.[4] Palmitoleoylation is an acylation type where the ...
AcylationEdit. Main article: Anilide. Aniline reacts with acyl chlorides such as acetyl chloride to give amides. The amides ...
other acylations. *3,5-Dihydroxy-4-isopropyl-trans-stilbene. Glycosides. *Astringin (Piceatannol 3-O-glucoside) ...
Acylation of 4 with phenylpropionyl chloride yields nandrolone phenpropionate.[35]. Detection in body fluids[edit]. Nandrolone ...
Another synthesis, due to Nordlander and co-workers, began with the Friedel-Crafts acylation of benzene by N-(trifluoroacetyl) ... "Friedel-Crafts acylation with N-(trifluoroacetyl)-α-amino acid chlorides. Application to the preparation of β-arylalkylamines ...
By the acylation of lysophosphatidic acid by lysoPA-acyltransferase (LPAAT); this is the most common pathway.[5] ...
Antimicrobial peptide resistance and lipid A acylation protein family (PagP). *Lipid A deacylase PagL ...
Reduction and acylation gave diene 7 (Scheme 3, compound 1). Protection: Acetic anhydride, pyridine, 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine ...
In the related Nenitzescu reductive acylation (1936) a saturated hydrocarbon is added making it a reductive acylation to ... Friedel-Crafts acylation is the acylation of aromatic rings with an acyl chloride using a strong Lewis acid catalyst. Friedel- ... Friedel-Crafts Acylation. Organic-chemistry.org. Retrieved on 2014-01-11. Fuson, R. C.; Weinstock, H. H.; Ullyot, G. E. (1935 ... In it benzene is reacted with succinic anhydride, the intermediate product is reduced and a second FC acylation takes place ...
... acylation and glycosylation are similar. The intracellular localization of the proteins is also more correct compared to using ...
"Acylation of acylglycerols by acyl coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1). Functional importance of DGAT1 in the ...
Healy MJ, Kerner J, Bieber LL (1988). "Enzymes of carnitine acylation. Is overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase of liver ...
See Friedel-Crafts acylation. carboxylic acids to form an organic acid anhydrides. In the above reactions, HX (hydrogen halide ... For example, chloroformylation, a specific type of Friedel-Crafts acylation which uses formaldehyde as a reagent[citation ...
Mechanism of the Friedel-Crafts acylation, using AlCl3 as a catalyst ...
A side-reaction is acylation. The ratio between alkylation and acylation depends on the substrate and the reaction conditions. ... Homolytic acylation of protonated pyridines and pyrazines with α-keto acids: the problem of monoacylation, in: J. Org. Chem. ...
Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase can be used to catalyze the regioselective acylation of flavonoids. Phytochemical List of ... Passicos E, Santarelli X, Coulon D (2004). "Regioselective acylation of flavonoids catalyzed by immobilized Candida antarctica ...
Acylation with 2-ethoxybenzoyl chloride. *Cyclization. *Sulfonation to the chlorosulfonyl derivative. *Condensation with 1- ...
Ma BJ, Taylor WA, Dolinsky VW, Hatch GM (1999). "Acylation of monolysocardiolipin in rat heart". J Lipid Res. 40 (10): 1837-45 ...
Iodoacetamide Polgár, L. (1979). "Deuterium isotope effects on papain acylation. Evidence for lack of general base catalysis ...
Van Den Bosch H, Van Golde MG, Slotboom AJ, Van Deenen LL (1968). "The acylation of isomeric monoacyl phosphatidylcholines". ...
It also undergoes Friedel-Crafts acylation. Whereas pyridine does not normally undergo a Diels-Alder reaction, arsabenzene ...
Ma, BJ; Taylor, WA; Dolinsky, VW; Hatch, GM (1999). "Acylation of monolysocardiolipin in rat heart". Journal of Lipid Research ...
Avidin acylation prevents the complement-dependent lysis of avidin-carrying erythrocytes. V R Muzykantov, M D Smirnov, G P ... Avidin acylation prevents the complement-dependent lysis of avidin-carrying erythrocytes. V R Muzykantov, M D Smirnov, G P ... Avidin acylation prevents the complement-dependent lysis of avidin-carrying erythrocytes Message Subject (Your Name) has ... Acylation of avidin with succinic anhydride strongly decreases its ability to induce complement-dependent haemolysis. However, ...
Klapper, M. H. and Klotz, I. M. (1972). Acylation with dicarboxylic acid anhydrides. In "Methods in Enzymology", C.H.W. Hirs ... Amino acid analysis of alkali-treated acylated proteins revealed that acylation by acetic and succinic anhydrides prevents or ... Mechanisms are proposed to explain the observed inhibiting effects of protein acylation and certain additives on lysinoalanine ... Friedman M. (1978) Inhibition of Lysinoalanine Synthesis by Protein Acylation. In: Friedman M. (eds) Nutritional Improvement of ...
Acylation in biologyEdit. See also: protein lipidation. Protein acylation is the post-translational modification of proteins ... Acylation can be used to prevent rearrangement reactions that would normally occur in alkylation. To do this an acylation ... Protein acylation has been observed as a mechanism controlling biological signaling.[2] One prominent type is fatty acylation, ... Different types of fatty acids engage in global protein acylation.[4] Palmitoleoylation is an acylation type where the ...
Lipid A acylation and bacterial resistance against vertebrate antimicrobial peptides.. Guo L1, Lim KB, Poduje CM, Daniel M, ... The PhoP-PhoQ activated gene, pagP, was identified as important to inducible CAMP resistance and increased acylation of lipid A ... Similarly, in response to Mg2+ limited growth, other enteric Gram-negative bacteria demonstrated increased lipid A acylation. ... Compounds that inhibit the ability to increase lipid A acylation may have utility as new antimicrobial agents. ...
Acylation can be used to prevent rearrangement reactions that would normally occur in alkylation. To do this an acylation ... In chemistry, acylation (rarely, but more formally: alkanoylation) is the process of adding an acyl group to a compound. The ... Protein acylation is the post-translational modification of proteins via the attachment of functional groups through acyl ... Towler, D A; Gordon, J I; Adams, S P; Glaser, L (1988). "The Biology and Enzymology of Eukaryotic Protein Acylation". Annual ...
The acylation of the amino group is performed selectively by the method of the invention. The indolyl NH groups of tryptophan, ... If the acylation of optically active amino acids is desired without racemation, it is recommendable to keep the reaction ... The process is a very gentle one, so that it is suitable also and very especially for the acylation of expensive amino acids. ... The problem has therefore existed of finding a method for the acylation of aminocarboxylic acids which gives products of high ...
The Kostanecki acylation is a method used in organic synthesis to form chromones or coumarins by acylation of O-hydroxyaryl ... The mechanism consists of three well-differentiated reactions: Phenol O-acylation with formation of a tetrahedral intermediate ...
Protein S-acylation is a sub-type of S-acylation where the first of those molecules is a protein, and connected to the second ... S-acylation is the process of chemically linking a molecule to another molecule via an thioester bond. ... A prominent type of protein S-acylation is palmitoylation, which promotes lipid membrane association of the protein, for ... "Site-specific analysis of protein S-acylation by resin-assisted capture". The Journal of Lipid Research. 52 (2): 393-398. doi: ...
Get Acylation at Spectrum Chemical. SpectrumChemical.com carries a full line of fine chemicals, lab appliances and lab supplies ... Acylation GC Derivatizing Reagents Acylation. Produce less polar and more volatile derivatives with Spectrums selection of GC ... Spectrum specializes in providing the top GC derivatizing reagents acylation but if you do not see the product, grade or form ... derivatizing reagents acylation. These reagents target carbohydrates, amino acids, and can be used for drugs of abuse testing. ...
The view of C3a/C3adesArg as an acylation stimulating activity is not universally accepted. The evidence is discussed in a ... C3adesArg is more commonly named ASP or acylation-stimulating-protein due to its marked stimulating action on triacylglycerol ... Maslowska, M; Vu, H; Phelis, S; Sniderman, AD; Rhode, BM; Blank, D; Cianflone, K (1999). "Plasma acylation stimulating protein ... Sniderman, Allan D.; Maslowska, Magdalena; Cianflone, Katherine (2000). "Of mice and men (and women) and the acylation- ...
Van Vranken JG, Nowinski SM, Clowers KJ, Jeong MY, Ouyang Y, Berg JA, Gygi JP, Gygi SP, Winge DR, Rutter J. ACP Acylation Is an ... Chen B, Niu J, Kreuzer J, Zheng B, Jarugumilli GK, Haas W, Wu X. Auto-fatty acylation of transcription factor RFX3 regulates ... "Acylation" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Acylation" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and ...
Acylation of lysophosphatidylcholine plays a key role in the response of monocytes to lipopolysaccharide.. Schmid B1, Finnen MJ ...
Characterizing RNA structures in vitro and in vivo with selective 2-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension sequencing ... 2006) Selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE): Quantitative RNA structure analysis at single ... Multiplexed RNA structure characterization with selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension sequencing (SHAPE- ... Multiplexed RNA structure characterization with selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension sequencing (SHAPE- ...
The Friedel-Crafts acylation of toluene with benzoic anhydride in the liquid phase (batch mode, 383K) was carried out in order ... Reversible depression of the acylation was explained by; the loss of benzoic anhydride by the reaction of activated benzoic ... Keywords: Catalytic Reaction, Ion Exchange, Friedel-Crafts-Type Acylation, Insoluble Heteropoly Acid, Catalytic Activity ...
The method is based on Friedel-Crafts acylation using acid anhydrides. The method has been optimized, and Y(OTf)3 in catalytic ... A fast and green method is developed for regioselective acylation of indoles in the 3-position without the need for protection ... Tran, P.H.; Tran, H.N.; Hansen, P.E.; Do, M.H.N.; Le, T.N. A Simple, Effective, Green Method for the Regioselective 3-Acylation ... The method is based on Friedel-Crafts acylation using acid anhydrides. The method has been optimized, and Y(OTf)3 in catalytic ...
In this study, six Escherichia coli strains which can produce lipid A with different acylation patterns were constructed; the ... These results suggest that the lipid A acylation pattern influences both the bacterial membrane permeability and innate immune ... influence of lipid A acylation pattern on the membrane permeability and innate immune stimulation has been systematically ... In this study, six Escherichia coli strains which can produce lipid A with different acylation patterns were constructed; the ...
Using N-(3-carboxypropanoyl)-β-phenyl-α-alanine as a model it has been established that when steroid alcohols are esterified with 3-carboxypropanamido acids, the carboxy group of the succinic acid...
Keywords: lipase-catalytic acylation; mannose-diester lauric diacid-cholesterol; glycyrrhetinic acid liposomes; mannose ... receptor; liver-targeting lipase-catalytic acylation; mannose-diester lauric diacid-cholesterol; glycyrrhetinic acid liposomes ... Acid Liposomes Containing Mannose-Diester Lauric Diacid-Cholesterol Conjugate Synthesized by Lipase-Catalytic Acylation for ... Acid Liposomes Containing Mannose-Diester Lauric Diacid-Cholesterol Conjugate Synthesized by Lipase-Catalytic Acylation for ...
... with acyl chlorides or anhydrides led to acylation on the NH group rather than on the OH. The structures of the products were ... Attempted acylation of the anticancer agent hydroxyurea (HU) ... Attempted acylation of the anticancer agent hydroxyurea (HU) ... Acylation or phosphorylation of hydroxyurea unexpectedly takes place on N rather than on O, leading to the formation of amides ... Acylation or phosphorylation of hydroxyurea unexpectedly takes place on N rather than on O, leading to the formation of amides ...
T. Mukaiyama, T. Ohno, T. Nishimura, and S. Suda, "The catalytic friedel-crafts acylation reaction using a catalyst generated ... 5. Perfluorinated sulfonic acid resin (Nafion-H) catalyzed intramolecular Friedel-Crafts acylation," Journal of Organic ... Environmentally Benign Mortar-Pestle-Induced Acylation and O-Alkylation of Aromatic and Heteroaromatic Compounds under Solvent- ... catalytic Friedel-Crafts acylation," Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications, no. 14, pp. 1157-1158, 1993. ...
... in the Reductive Acylation Reaction Catalyzed by Human Branched-Chain Alpha-Ketoacid Dehydrogenase: Refined Phosphorylation ... Roles of His291-alpha and His146-beta in the reductive acylation reaction catalyzed by human branched-chain alpha-ketoacid ...
... in the Reductive Acylation Reaction Catalyzed by Human Branched-Chain Alpha-Ketoacid Dehydrogenase: Refined Phosphorylation ... Roles of His291-alpha and His146-beta in the reductive acylation reaction catalyzed by human branched-chain alpha-ketoacid ...
Compound was tested for the rate constant of acylation against the enzyme trypsin. ...
The acylation reaction utilizes a Lewis acid catalyst, such as BF3 or AlCl3, to produce an acyl cation that adds to the ... Acylation does not suffer from R-group rearrangement to a more stable carbocation species suffered by R groups Friedel-Crafts ... Important reagents for acylation are acyl halides, carboxylic acids, anhydrides and ketenes. The alkyl group R in the acylating ... Acylation requires an electron rich aromatic ring system and cannot contain any electron withdrawing substituents on the ring. ...
... код для вставки. код для вставки на сайт или в ... 610 Enzymatic Enantioselective Acylation of Sterically Aromatic Secondary Alcohol 0.9 1 0.7 6 0.6 0.5 4 25 Figure 3. Loading of ... Enzymatic Enantioselective Acylation of Sterically Aromatic Secondary Alcohol Lee-Suan Chua and Mohamad Roji Sarmidi* Dept of ... 614 Enzymatic Enantioselective Acylation of Sterically Aromatic Secondary Alcohol The performance of ChiroCLEC-PC was 20 fold ...
  • The Friedel-Crafts acylation of toluene with benzoic anhydride in the liquid phase (batch mode, 383K) was carried out in order to apply the strong acidity of these catalysts. (go.jp)
  • The method is based on Friedel-Crafts acylation using acid anhydrides. (mdpi.com)
  • 5. Perfluorinated sulfonic acid resin (Nafion-H) catalyzed intramolecular Friedel-Crafts acylation," Journal of Organic Chemistry , vol. 56, no. 12, pp. 3955-3957, 1991. (hindawi.com)
  • correspond to the stretching vibrations of C=0 groups, which were directly bonded to graphenes via the Friedel-Crafts acylation of 4-aminobenzoic acid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Friedel-Crafts acylation involves the acylation of aromatic rings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Friedel-Crafts acylation is also possible with acid anhydrides . (wikipedia.org)
  • The viability of the Friedel-Crafts acylation depends on the stability of the acyl chloride reagent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The traditional means of acylation to introduce carbonyls, such as the Friedel-Crafts acylation, can be limited in scope. (ecu.edu)
  • Friedel-Crafts acylation with anisoyl chloride proceeds on the remaining unsubstituted position on the furan ring (2). (chempedia.info)
  • Let's take a look at the exact mechanism of Friedel-Crafts Acylation. (clutchprep.com)
  • So Friedel-Crafts Acylation is going to involve an acyl halide typically acid chloride complexing with a Lewis acid catalyst to produce an electrophile but in this case my active electrophile is not going to be a carbocation like alkylation, it's going to be an acylium ion. (clutchprep.com)
  • A facile synthetic method to chromenones and thiochromenones has been developed using a one-pot Friedel-Crafts acylation of alkynes with suitably substituted benzoyl chlorides. (ndsl.kr)
  • citation needed] Friedel-Crafts acylation is the acylation of aromatic rings with an acyl chloride using a strong Lewis acid catalyst. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The viability of the Friedel-Crafts acylation depends on the stability of the acyl chloride reagent. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, chloroformylation, a specific type of Friedel-Crafts acylation which uses formaldehyde as a reagent[citation needed], or by the direct chlorination of benzaldehyde derivatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also undergoes Friedel-Crafts acylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another synthesis, due to Nordlander and co-workers, began with the Friedel-Crafts acylation of benzene by N-(trifluoroacetyl)glycyl chloride in the presence of aluminum chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pyridinium ion also plays a role in Friedel-Crafts acylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This synthesis can be seen as a special case of the Friedel-Crafts acylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzymatic Enantioselective Acylation of Sterically Aromatic Secondary Alcohol. (docme.ru)
  • Enzymatic Enantioselective Acylation of Sterically Aromatic Secondary Alcohol Lee-Suan Chua and Mohamad Roji Sarmidi* Dept of Bioprocess Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia. (docme.ru)
  • Boyd, A.P., Ross, P.J., Conroy, H., Mahon, N Lavelle, E.C.and Mills, K.H.G. `Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin modulates innate and adaptive immune responses: distinct roles for acylation and enzymatic activity in immunomodulation and cell death? (tcd.ie)
  • In this study, we examined the roles of acylation and enzymatic activity in the immunomodulatory and lytic effects of CyaA. (tcd.ie)
  • Our findings demonstrate that the enzymatic activity plays a critical role in the immunomodulatory effects of CyaA, whereas acylation facilitates the induction of apoptosis and cell lysis, and as such, NA-CyaA has considerable potential as a nontoxic therapeutic molecule with potent anti-inflammatory properties. (tcd.ie)
  • Highly Efficient Enzymatic Acylation of Dihydromyricetin by the Immobilized Lipase with Deep Eutectic Solvents as Cosolvent. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Palmitoleoylation is an acylation type where the monounsaturated fatty acid palmitoleic acid is covalently attached to serine or threonine residues of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it remains unclear whether SIRT6 regulates other proteins by defatty-acylation. (elifesciences.org)
  • In case of soluble proteins, S-acylation confers stable membrane attachment. (portlandpress.com)
  • Myristoylation or farnesylation of many soluble proteins constitutes the initial transient membrane adsorption step prior to S-acylation. (portlandpress.com)
  • Surprisingly, we have found that S-acylation is a key determinant in targeting STX19 to tubular recycling endosomes, suggesting that S-acylation may play a general role in directing proteins to this compartment. (biologists.org)
  • To gain further insights into the effect of acylation, we compared the functional and structural properties of pro-CyaA and CyaA proteins. (pasteur.fr)
  • N-terminal acylation of the α-subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins is believed to play a major role in regulating the cellular localization and signaling of G-proteins, but physiological evidence has been lacking. (elsevier.com)
  • An increasing number of proteins (enzymes, hormones, receptors, oncogenes, tumor suppressors, proteins involved in signal transduction, eukaryotic and viral structural proteins) have been shown to undergo fatty acid acylation. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Fatty acid acylation of lens fiber plasma membrane proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acylation of 2-naphthol (2), 1-naphthol(6) and resorcinol (11) with salicylic acid (1) in the presence of PPA affords salicylate esters (4,7,13 and 14), 1,2-benzoxanthone (5), 3,4-benzoxanthone(8), 3-hydroxyxanthone(12), 2-salicyloyl-1-naphthol(9) and 11-hydroxy-12H-benzo[b]xanthen-12-one (10). (unigoa.ac.in)
  • Cellulose fatty esters were prepared by acylation of cellulose acetate with various fatty acids catalyzed by immobilized lipase from Candida antarctica (Novozyme) in acetonitrile. (uoi.gr)
  • pagP mutants demonstrated increased outer membrane permeability in response to CAMP, supporting the hypothesis that increased lipid A acylation is a CAMP resistance mechanism. (nih.gov)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Acylation" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Acylation" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Because of their high electron density, acylation of ferrocene is accomplished under milder conditions using a phosphoric acid as acid catalyst. (thermofisher.com)
  • Murzin, Dmitry 2010-03-10 00:00:00 Acylation of (R,S)-1-phenylethanol, which is a product of acetophenone hydrogenation, over a Pd-supported catalyst, was studied in ethyl acetate with an immobilized lipase. (deepdyve.com)
  • Maryam Hajjami, Arash Ghorbani-Choghamarani and Zahra Khani, "L-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic Acid-4-Hydrogen Sulfate (Supported on Silica Gel) as a New and Efficient Catalyst for Acylation of Alcohols, Phenols and Amines Under Solvent-Free Conditions", Letters in Organic Chemistry (2013) 10: 324. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Potassium carbonate: a highly efficient catalyst for the acylation of alcohols, phenols and thiols under mild conditions', Iranian Chemical Communication , 2(Issue 1, pp. 1-81), pp. 39-47. (ac.ir)
  • A prominent type of protein S-acylation is palmitoylation, which promotes lipid membrane association of the protein, for instance to the plasma membrane, Golgi apparatus or inner nuclear membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein S-acylation, also known as palmitoylation, consists of the addition of a lipid molecule to one or more cysteine residues through a thioester bond. (portlandpress.com)
  • Protein fatty acylation is included in the class of modifications where attachment via an acyl linkage is employed including myristoylation and palmitoylation. (tamu.edu)
  • On parle alors, respectivement, de palmitoylation (S-acylation) lorsqu'une liaison thioester se forme entre l'acide palmitique (C16:0) et la chaîne latérale d'une cystéine, de myristoylation N-terminale lorsqu'une liaison amide intervient entre l'acide myristique et la fonction amine d'une glycine N-terminale, et d'octanoylation (O-acylation) lorsqu'une liaison ester apparaît entre l'acide caprylique (ou octanoïque, C8:0) et la chaîne latérale d'une sérine. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Lipid A acylation and bacterial resistance against vertebrate antimicrobial peptides. (nih.gov)
  • Similarly, in response to Mg2+ limited growth, other enteric Gram-negative bacteria demonstrated increased lipid A acylation. (nih.gov)
  • Compounds that inhibit the ability to increase lipid A acylation may have utility as new antimicrobial agents. (nih.gov)
  • the influence of lipid A acylation pattern on the membrane permeability and innate immune stimulation has been systematically investigated. (mdpi.com)
  • These results suggest that the lipid A acylation pattern influences both the bacterial membrane permeability and innate immune stimulation. (mdpi.com)
  • Wang, X. Influence of Lipid A Acylation Pattern on Membrane Permeability and Innate Immune Stimulation. (mdpi.com)
  • Selective tri-acylation of the sugar residues of uridines has been reported (H. B. Lassan et al, Nucleoside Nucleotides 1998 17(9-11): 1851-1856 and C.-T. Chen et al, Org. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Succinic acid is also commonly used in a specific type of acylation called succination. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study investigated the enantioselective acylation of sterically aromatic secondary alcohol, namely (R,S)-1-phenylethanol with lauric acid in a batch stirredtank reactor. (docme.ru)
  • In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae lipid particles harbor two acyltransferases, Gat1p and Slc1p, which catalyze subsequent steps of acylation required for the formation of phosphatidic acid. (asm.org)
  • This summary targets fatty acid fluxes, with a focus on acylation-stimulating protein. (foodandnutritionresearch.net)
  • The effects of acylation-stimulating protein (ASP) and insulin on free fatty acid (FFA) release from isolated human fat cells and the signal transduction pathways to induce these effects were studied. (lu.se)
  • Figure 5 from Purification of five serine transfer ribonucleic acid species from Escherichia coli and their acylation by homologous and heterologous seryl transfer ribonucleic acid synthetases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Resistance of the acylation to chemical treatments suggested that fatty acid was amide linked. (sciencemag.org)
  • The present invention relates to a one-step process for the selective 0-acylation of the hydroxy groups of a nucleoside under basic conditions utilizing DMAP and a carboxylic acid anhydride in aqueous heterogenous solvent mixture. (allindianpatents.com)
  • The present invention relates to a one-step process for the selective O-acylation of the hydroxy groups of a nucleoside in heterogeneous aqueous solvent mixture under basic conditions utilizing DMAP and a carboxylic acid anhydride. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Octanoylation (O-acylation) typically concerns the formation of an ester bond between octanoic acid (caprylic acid, C8:0) and the side chain of a serine residue of the stomach peptide ghrelin. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • In chemistry, acylation (rarely, but more formally: alkanoylation) is the process of adding an acyl group to a compound. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acylation with cinnamic acids of anthocyanidins shifted color tonality (CIE Lab hue angle) to purple. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using the TEM-1 enzyme, we characterized avibactam inhibition by measuring the on-rate for acylation and the off-rate for deacylation. (pnas.org)
  • This solvent-promoted acylation is practically simple and accommodates a broad substrates scope. (ku.edu)
  • Lipase-catalyzed acylation of galactosides.30 mM of aromatic galactosides were reacted with an equivalent amount of donor substrates with Novozym 435 (20 mg/mL) and 100 mg/mL of molecular sieves (5Å, 8-12 mesh) in 2-methyl-2-propanol. (nih.gov)
  • Copper-Induced Expression of a Transmissible Lipoprotein Intramolecular Transacylase Alters Lipoprotein Acylation and the Toll-Like Receptor 2 Response to Listeria monocytogenes. (harvard.edu)
  • Adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) of Bordetella pertussis belongs to the repeat in toxin family of pore-forming toxins, which require posttranslational acylation to lyse eukaryotic cells. (tcd.ie)
  • CyaA is synthetized as a pro-toxin, pro-CyaA, and converted into its cytotoxic form upon acylation of two lysines. (pasteur.fr)
  • We further identified a critical hydrophobic segment, distal from the acylation region, that folds at higher urea concentration in CyaA than in pro-CyaA. (pasteur.fr)
  • Our HDX-MS data provides direct evidence that the presence of acyl chains in CyaA induces a significant stabilization of the apolar segments of the hydrophobic domain and of most of the acylation region. (pasteur.fr)
  • We propose a refolding model dependent on calcium and driven by local and distal acylation-dependent interactions within CyaA. (pasteur.fr)
  • Therefore, CyaA acylation is not only critical for cell intoxication, but also for protein refolding into its active conformation. (pasteur.fr)
  • In contrast, acylation was not essential for the immunomodulatory function of CyaA, but was required for maximal caspase-3 activation and cytotoxic activity. (tcd.ie)