Acyl-CoA Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the first and rate-determining steps of peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids. It acts on COENZYME A derivatives of fatty acids with chain lengths from 8 to 18, using FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE as a cofactor.Acyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.Diacylglycerol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses the last step of the TRIACYLGLYCEROL synthesis reaction in which diacylglycerol is covalently joined to LONG-CHAIN ACYL COA to form triglyceride. It was formerly categorized as EC 2.3.1.124.Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 2.3.1.26.NADPH Oxidase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Coenzyme ACoenzyme A Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
(1/269) The peroxisome proliferator (PP) response element upstream of the human acyl CoA oxidase gene is inactive among a sample human population: significance for species differences in response to PPs.

Peroxisome proliferators (PP) cause peroxisome proliferation, associated with rodent hepatocyte growth perturbation and hepatocarcinogenesis. However, in humans this class of non-genotoxic carcinogens does not appear to have the same adverse effects. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) mediates the effects of PPs in rodents via peroxisome proliferator response elements (PPREs) upstream of PP-responsive genes such as acyl coenzyme A oxidase (ACO). When the human ACO promoter was cloned previously, it was found to be active and to contain a consensus PPRE (-1918 AGGTCA C TGGTCA -1906). To confirm and extend those original findings, we isolated a 2 kb genomic fragment of the ACO gene promoter from a human liver biopsy and used it to create a beta-galactosidase reporter gene plasmid. The human ACO promoter reporter plasmid was added to both Hepalclc7 and NIH 3T3 cells together with a plasmid expressing mPPARa and assessed for its ability to drive PP-mediated gene transcription. The human ACO promoter fragment was inactive, unlike the equivalent rat ACO promoter fragment used as a positive control. The PPRE within our cloned fragment of the human ACO promoter differed at three positions (5'-AGGTCA G CTGTCA-3') from the previously published active human ACO promoter. Next, we studied the frequency of the inactive versus the active human PPRE within the human population. Using a PCR strategy, we isolated and analysed genomic DNA fragments from 22 unrelated human individuals and from the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. In each case, the PPRE contained the inactive sequence. These data show that the human ACO gene promoter found in a sample human population is inactive. This may explain at the genomic level the lack of response of humans to some of the adverse effects of the PP class of non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens.  (+info)

(2/269) Oxidation of medium-chain acyl-CoA esters by extracts of Aspergillus niger: enzymology and characterization of intermediates by HPLC.

The activities of beta-oxidation enzymes were measured in extracts of glucose- and triolein-grown cells of Aspergillus niger. Growth on triolein stimulated increased enzyme activity, especially for acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. No acyl-CoA oxidase activity was detected. HPLC analysis after incubation of triolein-grown cell extracts with decanoyl-CoA showed that beta-oxidation was limited to one cycle. Octanoyl-CoA accumulated as the decanoyl-CoA was oxidized. Beta-oxidation enzymes in isolated mitochondrial fractions were also studied. The results are discussed in the context of methyl ketone production by fungi.  (+info)

(3/269) Beneficial effects of fibrates on apolipoprotein A-I metabolism occur independently of any peroxisome proliferative response.

BACKGROUND: In humans, fibrates are frequently used normolipidemic drugs. Fibrates act by regulating genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism via activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) in liver. In rodents, however, fibrates induce a peroxisome proliferation, leading to hepatomegaly and possibly hepatocarcinogenesis. Although this peroxisome proliferative response appears not to occur in humans, it remains controversial whether the beneficial effects of fibrates on lipoprotein metabolism can occur dissociated from such undesirable peroxisomal response. Here, we assessed the influence of fenofibrate on lipoprotein metabolism and peroxisome proliferation in the rabbit, an animal that, contrary to rodents and similar to humans, is less sensitive to peroxisome proliferators. METHODS AND RESULTS: First, we demonstrate that in normal rabbits, fenofibrate given at a high dose for 2 weeks does not influence serum concentrations or intestinal mRNA levels of the HDL apolipoprotein apoA-I. Therefore, the study was continued with human apoA-I transgenic rabbits that overexpress the human apoA-I gene under control of its homologous promoter, including its PPAR-response elements. In these animals, fenofibrate increases serum human apoA-I concentrations via an increased expression of the human apoA-I gene in liver. Interestingly, liver weight or mRNA levels and activity of fatty acyl-CoA oxidase, a rate-limiting and marker enzyme of peroxisomal beta-oxidation, remain unchanged after fenofibrate. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of the human apoA-I transgene in rabbit liver suffices to confer fibrate-mediated induction of serum apoA-I. Furthermore, these data provide in vivo evidence that the beneficial effects of fibrates on lipoprotein metabolism occur mechanistically dissociated from any deleterious activity on peroxisome proliferation and possibly hepatocarcinogenesis.  (+info)

(4/269) Absence of spontaneous peroxisome proliferation in enoyl-CoA Hydratase/L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient mouse liver. Further support for the role of fatty acyl CoA oxidase in PPARalpha ligand metabolism.

Peroxisomes contain a classical L-hydroxy-specific peroxisome proliferator-inducible beta-oxidation system and also a second noninducible D-hydroxy-specific beta-oxidation system. We previously generated mice lacking fatty acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX), the first enzyme of the L-hydroxy-specific classical beta-oxidation system; these AOX-/- mice exhibited sustained activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), resulting in profound spontaneous peroxisome proliferation in liver cells. These observations implied that AOX is responsible for the metabolic degradation of PPARalpha ligands. In this study, the function of enoyl-CoA hydratase/L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (L-PBE), the second enzyme of this peroxisomal beta-oxidation system, was investigated by disrupting its gene. Mutant mice (L-PBE-/-) were viable and fertile and exhibited no detectable gross phenotypic defects. L-PBE-/- mice showed no hepatic steatosis and manifested no spontaneous peroxisome proliferation, unlike that encountered in livers of mice deficient in AOX. These results indicate that disruption of classical peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation system distal to AOX step does not interfere with the inactivation of endogenous ligands of PPARalpha, further confirming that the AOX gene is indispensable for the physiological regulation of this receptor. The absence of appreciable changes in lipid metabolism also indicates that enoyl-CoAs, generated in the classical system in L-PBE-/- mice are diverted to D-hydroxy-specific system for metabolism by D-PBE. When challenged with a peroxisome proliferator, L-PBE-/- mice showed increases in the levels of hepatic mRNAs and proteins that are regulated by PPARalpha except for appreciable blunting of peroxisome proliferative response as compared with that observed in hepatocytes of wild type mice similarly treated. This blunting of peroxisome proliferative response is attributed to the absence of L-PBE protein in L-PBE-/- mouse liver, because all other proteins are induced essentially to the same extent in both wild type and L-PBE-/- mice.  (+info)

(5/269) Activation of flavin-containing oxidases underlies light-induced production of H2O2 in mammalian cells.

Violet-blue light is toxic to mammalian cells, and this toxicity has been linked with cellular production of H2O2. In this report, we show that violet-blue light, as well as UVA, stimulated H2O2 production in cultured mouse, monkey, and human cells. We found that H2O2 originated in peroxisomes and mitochondria, and it was enhanced in cells overexpressing flavin-containing oxidases. These results support the hypothesis that photoreduction of flavoproteins underlies light-induced production of H2O2 in cells. Because H2O2 and its metabolite, hydroxyl radicals, can cause cellular damage, these reactive oxygen species may contribute to pathologies associated with exposure to UVA, violet, and blue light. They may also contribute to phototoxicity often encountered during light microscopy. Because multiphoton excitation imaging with 1,047-nm wavelength prevented light-induced H2O2 production in cells, possibly by minimizing photoreduction of flavoproteins, this technique may be useful for decreasing phototoxicity during fluorescence microscopy.  (+info)

(6/269) Impairment of peroxisomal biogenesis in human colon carcinoma.

Peroxisomes and the activities of their enzymes have been reported to be significantly reduced in various types of tumors including the colon carcinoma. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the gene expression of several peroxisomal proteins in human colon carcinoma and additionally those of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) and PEX5, a receptor protein involved in the import of most peroxisomal matrix proteins. Samples from adenocarcinomas and adjacent normal colon were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. The mRNA content was assessed by a novel sensitive dot blot RNase protection assay and northern blotting. By immunohistochemistry, peroxisomes were distinctly visualized in normal colonocytes but were not detected in colon carcinoma cells. The protein levels of catalase (CAT), acyl-CoA oxidase as well as the 22 and 70 kDa peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMP22 and PMP70) were all significantly decreased in carcinomas. The corresponding mRNAs for CAT and PMP70, however, were unchanged. In contrast, the mRNA of PEX5 was significantly increased. The expression of PPARalpha was not altered in tumors, neither at protein nor mRNA levels. These observations show that the reduction of peroxisomes and their proteins in colon carcinoma is not due to a generalized reduction of transcription of their genes. It seems more likely that this phenomenon is regulated at a post-transcriptional or translational level. Alternatively, and more likely, an impairment of the biogenesis of the organelle could account for the paucity of peroxisomes in colon carcinoma.  (+info)

(7/269) Arachidonic acid and PGE2 regulation of hepatic lipogenic gene expression.

N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) suppress hepatic and adipocyte de novo lipogenesis by inhibiting the transcription of genes encoding key lipogenic proteins. In cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, arachidonic acid (20:4,n-6) suppression of lipogenic gene expression requires cyclooxygenase (COX) activity. In this study, we found no evidence to support a role for COX-1 or -2 in the 20:4,n-6 inhibition of hepatocyte lipogenic gene expression. In contrast to L1 preadipocytes, adipocytes and rat liver, RT-PCR and Western analyses did not detect COX-1 or COX-2 expression in cultured primary hepatocytes. Moreover, the COX inhibitor, flurbiprofen, did not affect the 20:4,n-6 regulation of lipogenic gene expression in primary hepatocytes. Despite the absence of COX-1 and -2 expression in primary hepatocytes, prostaglandins (PGE2 and PGF2alpha) suppressed fatty acid synthase, l-pyruvate kinase, and the S14 protein mRNA, while having no effect on acyl-CoA oxidase or CYP4A2 mRNA. Using PGE2 receptor agonist, the PGE2 effect on lipogenic gene expression was linked to EP3 receptors. PGE2 inhibited S14CAT activity in transfected primary hepatocytes and targeted the S14 PUFA-response region located -220 to -80 bp upstream from the transcription start site. Taken together, these studies show that COX-1 and COX-2 do not contribute to the n-6 PUFA suppression of hepatocyte lipogenic gene expression. However, cyclooxygenase products from non-parenchymal cells can act on parenchymal cells through a paracrine process and mimic the effects of n-6 PUFA on lipogenic gene expression.  (+info)

(8/269) Novel form of lipolysis induced by leptin.

Hyperleptinemia causes disappearance of body fat without a rise in free fatty acids (FFA) or ketones, suggesting that leptin can deplete adipocytes of fat without releasing FFA. To test this, we measured FFA and glycerol released from adipocytes obtained from normal lean Zucker diabetic fatty rats (+/+) and incubated for 0, 3, 6, or 24 h in either 20 ng/ml recombinant leptin or 100 nM norepinephrine (NE). Whereas NE increased both FFA and glycerol release from adipocytes of +/+ rats, leptin increased glycerol release in +/+ adipocytes without a parallel increase in FFA release. In adipocytes of obese Zucker diabetic fatty rats (fa/fa) with defective leptin receptors, NE increased both FFA and glycerol release, but leptin had no effect on either. Leptin significantly lowered the mRNA of leptin and fatty acid synthase of adipocytes (FAS) (p < 0.05), and up-regulated the mRNA of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, (CPT-1), and acyl CoA oxidase (ACO) (p < 0.05). NE (100 nM) also lowered leptin mRNA (p < 0.05) but did not affect FAS, PPARalpha, ACO, or CPT-1 expression. We conclude that in normal adipocytes leptin directly decreases FAS expression, increases PPARalpha and the enzymes of FFA oxidation, and stimulates a novel form of lipolysis in which glycerol is released without a proportional release of FFA.  (+info)

*  Acyl-CoA oxidase
Other names in common use include fatty acyl-CoA oxidase, acyl coenzyme A oxidase, and fatty acyl-coenzyme A oxidase. This ... In enzymology, an acyl-CoA oxidase (EC 1.3.3.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acyl-CoA + O2 ⇌ {\ ... Osumi T, Hashimoto T, Ui N (June 1980). "Purification and properties of acyl-CoA oxidase from rat liver". J. Biochem. 87 (6): ... November 1980). "Stereochemistry of dehydrogenation catalyzed by Acyl-CoA oxidase". J. Biochem. 88 (5): 1481-6. PMID 7462191. ...
*  List of OMIM disorder codes
ARFGEF2 Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency; 264470; ACOX1 Perry syndrome; 168605; DCTN1 Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome ... SCARB2 Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, long chain, deficiency of; 201460; ACADL Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, medium chain, deficiency of; ... ACADM Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, short chain, deficiency of; 201470; ACADS Adenocarcinoma of lung, response to tyrosine kinase ... HADHSC 3-hydroxyisobutryl-CoA hydrolase deficiency; 250620; HIBCH 3-M syndrome; 273750; CUL7 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase 1 ...
*  ACOX1
2002). "Peroxisomal acyl CoA oxidase deficiency". J. Pediatr. 140 (1): 128-30. doi:10.1067/mpd.2002.120511. PMID 11815777. ... ACOX3 Acyl-CoA oxidase GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000161533 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... 1995). "Overexpression and characterization of the human peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase in insect cells". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (9 ... 1994). "Large deletion of the peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase gene in pseudoneonatal adrenoleukodystrophy". J. Clin. Invest. 94 (2 ...
*  Ada regulon
It shows some homology to acyl-CoA oxidases and those containing flavins. Recent observations suggest that AidB may bind to ...
*  7-Keto-DHEA
Malic Enzyme and Fatty Acyl CoA Oxidase. In keeping with the biological definition of thermogenesis, all three of these enzyme ...
*  ACOX3
Acyl-Coenzyme A oxidase 3 also known as pristanoyl -CoA oxidase (ACOX3)is involved in the desaturation of 2-methyl branched ... ACOX1 Acyl-CoA oxidase GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000087008 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... and trihydroxycoprostanic acids are oxidized by one single peroxisomal branched chain acyl-CoA oxidase in human liver and ... "Entrez Gene: ACOX3 acyl-Coenzyme A oxidase 3, pristanoyl". Human ACOX3 genome location and ACOX3 gene details page in the UCSC ...
*  Nutriepigenomics
... and acyl-CoA oxidase. Changes in expression were reportedly due to epigenetic regulation of either the gene promoter itself, or ... Feeding a PR-diet to pregnant and/or lactating mice also increased expression of glucokinase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, PPARα, ...
*  HSD17B4
... acyl-CoA oxidase (see, e.g., ACOX1, MIM 609751); the 'D-bifunctional enzyme,' with enoyl-CoA hydratase and D-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA ... Jiang LL, Miyazawa S, Souri M, Hashimoto T (1997). "Structure of D-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase/D-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA ... Itoh M, Suzuki Y, Takashima S (1999). "A novel peroxisomal enzyme, D-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase/D-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA ... 1997). "Purification and properties of human D-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase: medium-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase is D-3- ...
*  3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoyl-CoA 24-hydroxylase
An inducible fatty acyl-CoA oxidase, a noninducible fatty acyl-CoA oxidase, and a noninducible trihydroxycoprostanoyl-CoA ... THC-CoA oxidase, THCA-CoA oxidase, 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoyl-CoA oxidase, 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha- ... Schepers L, Van Veldhoven PP, Casteels M, Eyssen HJ, Mannaerts GP (1990). "Presence of three acyl-CoA oxidases in rat liver ... 12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-chole stanoyl-CoA oxidase from rabbit liver". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (29): 18481-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.29 ...
*  D-bifunctional protein deficiency
... and branched chain acyl-CoA oxidase. G. Möller; E.G. van Grunsven; R.J.A. Wanders; J. Adamski (2001). "Molecular basis of D- ... DBP is a stereospecific enzyme; hydratase domain forms only (R)-hydroxy-acyl-CoA intermediates from trans-2-enoyl-CoAs. D-BP is ... D-BP knockout mice show compensatory upregulation of other peroxisomal enzymes in absence of D-BP such as palmitoyl-CoA oxidase ... This breaks the hydrophobic interactions necessary for proper substrate binding with CoA esters. The most common clinical ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D08)
... acyl-coa dehydrogenase, long-chain MeSH D08.811.682.660.150.200 --- acyl-CoA oxidase MeSH D08.811.682.660.150.300 --- butyryl- ... acyl-coa dehydrogenases MeSH D08.811.682.660.150.100 --- acyl-coa dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.660.150.150 --- ... sarcosine oxidase MeSH D08.811.682.662.640 --- proline oxidase MeSH D08.811.682.662.680 --- pyridoxamine-phosphate oxidase MeSH ... acyl-carrier protein s-acetyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.134.060 --- acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050. ...
*  Mixed-function oxidase
... dehydrogenation of fatty acyl-CoA in peroxisomes). Most of the oxidases are flavoproteins. The name "mixed-function oxidase" ... saturated fatty acyl-CoA and NADPH are oxidized by molecular oxygen (O2) to produce monounsaturated fatty acyl-CoA, NADP+ and 2 ... Desaturation of fatty acyl-CoA in vertebrates is an example of the mixed-function oxidase reaction. In the process, ... Mixed-function oxidase is the name of a family of oxidase enzymes that catalyze a reaction in which each of the two atoms of ...
*  List of diseases (A)
... deficiency of Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, very long chain, deficiency of Acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency Adactylia unilateral dominant ... Acute promyelocytic leukemia Acute renal failure Acute respiratory distress syndrome Acute tubular necrosis Acyl-CoA ... dehydrogenase, medium chain, deficiency of Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, short chain, ...
*  Beta oxidation
The first oxidation step in the peroxisome is catalyzed by the enzyme acyl-CoA oxidase. The β-ketothiolase used in peroxisomal ... Cn-acyl CoA + FAD + NAD+ + H 2O + CoA → Cn-2-acyl CoA + FADH 2 + NADH + H+ + acetyl CoA Fatty acid catabolism consists of: ... The final cycle produces two separate acetyl CoAs, instead of one acyl CoA and one acetyl CoA. For every cycle, the Acyl CoA ... is not an appropriate substrate for acyl CoA dehydrogenase, or enoyl CoA hydratase: If the acyl CoA contains a cis-Δ3 bond, ...
*  Flavin group
D-amino acid oxidase, glucose oxidase, xanthine oxidase, and acyl CoA dehydrogenase. FADH and FADH2 are reduced forms of FAD. ... Flavin adenine dinucleotide is a group bound to many enzymes including ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase, monoamine oxidase, ...
*  Nitroalkane oxidase
"Cloning of nitroalkane oxidase from Fusarium oxysporum identifies a new member of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase superfamily". Proc ... a carbanion-forming flavoprotein homologous to acyl-CoA dehydrogenase". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 433 (1): 157-65. doi:10.1016/j. ... In enzymology, a nitroalkane oxidase (EC 1.7.3.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction a nitroalkane + H2O + O2 ... Other names in common use include nitroethane oxidase, NAO, and nitroethane:oxygen oxidoreductase. This enzyme participates in ...
*  Acyl-CoA thioesterase 9
... cytochrome c oxidase, subunit 4, isoform 2) genes with racing performance in Thoroughbred horses". Equine Veterinary Journal. ... Acyl-CoA thioesterase 9 is a protein that is encoded by the human ACOT9 gene. It is a member of the acyl-CoA thioesterase ... These enzymes have also been referred to in the literature as acyl-CoA hydrolases, acyl-CoA thioester hydrolases, and palmitoyl ... as opposed to long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases, which ligate fatty acids to CoA, to produce the CoA ester. The role of the ACOT ...
*  Long-chain-alcohol oxidase
It has been found in certain Candida yeast, where it participates in omega oxidation of fatty acids to produce acyl-CoA for ... Other names in common use include long-chain fatty alcohol oxidase, fatty alcohol oxidase, fatty alcohol:oxygen oxidoreductase ... Long-chain alcohol oxidase is one of two enzyme classes that oxidize long-chain or fatty alcohols to aldehydes. ... Long-chain alcohol oxidase is also used in germinating seedlings of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) to degrade esterified long- ...
*  Rhabdomyolysis
... deficiency of subtypes of acyl CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD, SCAD, MCAD, VLCAD, 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency), ... thiolase deficiency Mitochondrial myopathies: deficiency of succinate dehydrogenase, cytochrome c oxidase and coenzyme Q10 ...
*  List of EC numbers (EC 1)
... protoporphyrinogen oxidase EC 1.3.3.5: bilirubin oxidase EC 1.3.3.6: acyl-CoA oxidase EC 1.3.3.7: dihydrouracil oxidase EC 1.3. ... medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase EC 1.3.8.8: long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase EC 1.3.8.9: very-long-chain acyl-CoA ... pyruvate oxidase EC 1.2.3.4: oxalate oxidase EC 1.2.3.5: glyoxylate oxidase EC 1.2.3.6: pyruvate oxidase (CoA-acetylating) EC ... stearoyl-CoA 9-desaturase EC 1.14.19.2: acyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) desaturase EC 1.14.19.3: linoleoyl-CoA desaturase EC 1.14. ...
*  Adenosine triphosphate
Dozens of ATP equivalents are generated by the beta-oxidation of a single long acyl chain. The acetyl-CoA produced by beta- ... In oxidative phosphorylation, the key control point is the reaction catalyzed by cytochrome c oxidase, which is regulated by ... In the presence of air and various cofactors and enzymes, fatty acids are degraded to acetyl-CoA. The pathway is called beta- ... imply a high amount of reduced cytochrome c and a high level of cytochrome c oxidase activity. An additional level of ...
*  Riboflavin
... and branched-chain amino acids requires FAD in the shared E3 portion of their respective dehydrogenase complexes Fatty acyl CoA ... phosphate oxidase The primary coenzyme form of vitamin B6 (pyridoxal phosphate) is FMN dependent Oxidation of pyruvate, α- ...
*  Flavin adenine dinucleotide
... short/branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase), valine (isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase), and lysine (glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase). ... Glucose oxidase (GOX) catalyzes the oxidation of β-D-glucose to D-glucono-δ-lactone with the simultaneous reduction of enzyme- ... such as for multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. In addition, riboflavin deficiency itself (and the resulting lack of ... Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is an extensively studied flavoenzyme due to its biological importance with the catabolism of ...
*  Mitochondrial matrix
The Citric Acid Cycle involves acyl-CoA, Pyruvate, Acetyl-CoA, Citrate, Isocitrate, α-Ketoglutarate, Succinyl-CoA, Fumarate, ... Cytochrome C Oxidase). The electron transport chain is responsible for establishing a pH and electrochemical gradient that ... β-Oxidation uses pyruvate carboxylase, Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and 𝛽-Ketothiolase. Amino acid production is facilitated by ... The production of acetyl-CoA begins the citric acid cycle while the co-enzymes produced are used in the electron transport ...
*  Transporter Classification Database
Family 4.C.2 The Carnitine O-Acyl Transferase (CrAT) Family 4.C.3 The Acyl-CoA Thioesterase (AcoT) Family 4.D.1 The Putative ... NADPH Oxidase Family 5.B.2 The Eukaryotic Cytochrome b561 (Cytb561) Family 5.B.3 The Geobacter Nanowire Electron Transfer (G- ... Superfamily 3.D.4 Proton-translocating Cytochrome Oxidase (COX) Superfamily 3.D.5 The Na+-translocating NADH:Quinone ...
*  Metabolism
Fatty acids are made by fatty acid synthases that polymerize and then reduce acetyl-CoA units. The acyl chains in the fatty ... In humans, these include cytochrome P450 oxidases, UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, and glutathione S-transferases. This system of ... and this breakdown process involves the release of significant amounts of acetyl-CoA, propionyl-CoA, and pyruvate, which can ... Finally, the acetyl group on the CoA is oxidised to water and carbon dioxide in the citric acid cycle and electron transport ...
Google Livres  Google Livres
The mouse peroxisome proliferator activated receptor...response element in the 5' flanking sequence of the rat acyl-CoA oxidase ... sequence of the rat acyl CoA oxidase gene. EMBO J, 11:433-139, 1992. 84. Osumi T, Osada S, Tsukamoto T. Analysis of peroxisome ... sequence of the rat acyl CoA oxidase gene. EMBO J. 11, 433-439. Unterberg, C., Borchers, T., H0jmp, P., Roepstorff, P., Knudsen ... flanking sequence of the rat acyl CoA oxidase gene, EMBO }., 11, 433, 1992. 95. Muerhoff, AS, Griffin, KJ, and Johnson, E. F, ...
more infohttps://books.google.fr/books?id=9KztuPhf3xAC&qtid=7c7e7a4a&hl=fr&source=gbs_quotes_r&cad=5
Abstract: Regulation of key markers of lipid metabolism by short chain fatty acids in differentiated pig adipocytes (2014 ADSA...  Abstract: Regulation of key markers of lipid metabolism by short chain fatty acids in differentiated pig adipocytes (2014 ADSA...
Increasing concentrations of SCFAs (µM to low mM) led to an upregulation of expression of acyl CoA oxidase (ACO) and sterol ... and that this was accompanied by increased expression of acyl CoA oxidase (ACO), a marker of peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, ...
more infohttps://asas.confex.com/asas/jam2014/webprogram/Paper7574.html
acoxl - Acyl-CoA oxidase-like - Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) - acoxl gene & protein  acoxl - Acyl-CoA oxidase-like - Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) - acoxl gene & protein
... fatty acid beta-oxidation using acyl-CoA oxidase, lipid homeostasis ... acyl-CoA oxidase activity, fatty acid binding, flavin adenine dinucleotide binding, ... IPR006091 Acyl-CoA_Oxase/DH_cen-dom. IPR002655 Acyl-CoA_oxidase_C. IPR036250 AcylCo_DH-like_C. IPR009075 AcylCo_DH/oxidase_C. ... IPR006091 Acyl-CoA_Oxase/DH_cen-dom. IPR002655 Acyl-CoA_oxidase_C. IPR036250 AcylCo_DH-like_C. IPR009075 AcylCo_DH/oxidase_C. ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/F6WJR4
Progressive endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to hepatocarcinogenesis in fatty acyl-CoA oxidase 1-deficient mice.  -...  Progressive endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to hepatocarcinogenesis in fatty acyl-CoA oxidase 1-deficient mice. -...
Progressive endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to hepatocarcinogenesis in fatty acyl-CoA oxidase 1-deficient mice.. Huang ... Progressive Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Contributes to Hepatocarcinogenesis in Fatty Acyl-CoA Oxidase 1-Deficient Mice ... Progressive Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Contributes to Hepatocarcinogenesis in Fatty Acyl-CoA Oxidase 1-Deficient Mice ... Progressive Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Contributes to Hepatocarcinogenesis in Fatty Acyl-CoA Oxidase 1-Deficient Mice ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Huang%20J%2C%20Viswakarma%20N%2C%20Yu%20S%2C%20Jia%20Y%2C%20Bai%20L%2C%20Vluggens%20A%2C%20Cherkaoui-Malki%20M%2C%20Khan%20M
Acyl-CoA oxidase - Wikipedia  Acyl-CoA oxidase - Wikipedia
Other names in common use include fatty acyl-CoA oxidase, acyl coenzyme A oxidase, and fatty acyl-coenzyme A oxidase. This ... In enzymology, an acyl-CoA oxidase (EC 1.3.3.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acyl-CoA + O2 ⇌ {\ ... Osumi T, Hashimoto T, Ui N (June 1980). "Purification and properties of acyl-CoA oxidase from rat liver". J. Biochem. 87 (6): ... November 1980). "Stereochemistry of dehydrogenation catalyzed by Acyl-CoA oxidase". J. Biochem. 88 (5): 1481-6. PMID 7462191. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acyl-CoA_oxidase
Peroxisomal Acyl-Coa Oxidase Deficiency disease: Malacards - Research Articles, Drugs, Genes, Clinical Trials  Peroxisomal Acyl-Coa Oxidase Deficiency disease: Malacards - Research Articles, Drugs, Genes, Clinical Trials
MalaCards integrated aliases for Peroxisomal Acyl-Coa Oxidase Deficiency:. Name: Peroxisomal Acyl-Coa Oxidase Deficiency 54 12 ... An important gene associated with Peroxisomal Acyl-Coa Oxidase Deficiency is ACOX1 (Acyl-CoA Oxidase 1), and among its related ... MalaCards organs/tissues related to Peroxisomal Acyl-Coa Oxidase Deficiency:. 39 Liver, Brain, Eye, Testes ... peroxisomal acyl-coa oxidase deficiency:. Onset and clinical course infantile onset Mortality/Aging death in infancy ...
more infohttp://www.malacards.org/card/peroxisomal_acyl_coa_oxidase_deficiency
The role of Acyl-CoA oxidase in peroxisome division and longevity in yeast  - Spectrum: Concordia University Research Repository  The role of Acyl-CoA oxidase in peroxisome division and longevity in yeast - Spectrum: Concordia University Research Repository
The role of Acyl-CoA oxidase in peroxisome division and longevity in yeast Title:. The role of Acyl-CoA oxidase in peroxisome ... Acyl-CoA oxidase (Aox) is an enzyme that carries out the first step of Ý-oxidation of free fatty acids in peroxisomes. Here I ... Gregg, Christopher (2009) The role of Acyl-CoA oxidase in peroxisome division and longevity in yeast. PhD thesis, Concordia ... The role of Acyl-CoA oxidase in peroxisome division and longevity in yeast ...
more infohttps://spectrum.library.concordia.ca/976261/
ACOX2 gene - Genetics Home Reference - NIH  ACOX2 gene - Genetics Home Reference - NIH
The product of this gene belongs to the acyl-CoA oxidase family. It encodes the branched-chain acyl-CoA oxidase which is ... acyl-CoA oxidase 2. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Open All Close All ... Oxidizes the CoA esters of the bile acid intermediates di- and tri-hydroxycholestanoic acids (PubMed:27884763). Capable of ...
more infohttps://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/gene/ACOX2
Molecular mechanisms of alcoholic fatty liver.  - PubMed - NCBI  Molecular mechanisms of alcoholic fatty liver. - PubMed - NCBI
... acyl-CoA oxidase; CYP4A, cytochrome P450 4A. ... acyl-CoA carboxylase; MCD, malonyl-CoA decarboxylase; CPT-1, ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19032584
MCM- Lipid Catabolism Flashcards by David Cutich | Brainscape  MCM- Lipid Catabolism Flashcards by David Cutich | Brainscape
Acyl-CoA Oxidase 33 What does Acyl-CoA Oxidase in the peroxisome produce ... What happens to Fatty Acyl-CoA once it is remade in the Mitochondrial Matrix ... No; the outside membrane of the mitochondria is impermeable to Fatty Acyl-CoA ... What happens to Fatty Acyl-CoA to get into the inner membrane ... Carnitine is added and CoA is detracted making Fatty Acyl- ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/mcm-lipid-catabolism-7056755/packs/11319404
JCI -
Liver inflammation and fibrosis  JCI - Liver inflammation and fibrosis
PPAR stimulation facilitates oxidation of lipids by upregulating acyl-CoA oxidase and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD ... PPAR stimulation facilitates oxidation of lipids by upregulating acyl-CoA-oxidase and MCAD. Thus, PPARs are possible ... The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX) homologues NOX1 and NOX2/gp91(phox) mediate hepatic fibrosis in ... Hepatocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced oxidase 4 regulates stress signaling, fibrosis, and insulin ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/88881
Molecules  | Free Full-Text | Protective Effect of Cactus Cladode Extracts on Peroxisomal Functions in Microglial BV-2 Cells...  Molecules | Free Full-Text | Protective Effect of Cactus Cladode Extracts on Peroxisomal Functions in Microglial BV-2 Cells...
Reversal of mouse Acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1) null phenotype by human ACOX1b isoform. Lab. Investig. 2010, 90, 696-708. [Google ... acyl-CoA oxidase 1; catalase; β-oxidation; Escherichia coli; lipopolysaccharides; LPS; nitric oxide; Opuntia; peroxisomes; ... Modulation of peroxisomes abundance by argan oil and lipopolysaccharides in acyl-CoA oxidase 1-deficient fibroblasts. Health ... The inflammatory response in acyl-CoA oxidase 1 deficiency (pseudoneonatal adrenoleukodystrophy). Endocrinology 2012, 153, 2568 ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/22/1/102/htm
MT2013-31: Allo HCT for Metabolic Disorders and Severe Osteopetrosis - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov  MT2013-31: Allo HCT for Metabolic Disorders and Severe Osteopetrosis - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Acyl-CoA Oxidase Deficiency D-Bifunctional Enzyme Deficiency Multifunctional Enzyme Deficiency Alpha-methylacyl-CoA Racmase ... Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase deficiency Aspartylglucosaminuria Fucosidosis Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter ... Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts Multiple sulfatase deficiency Osteopetrosis Peroxisomal acyl-CoA ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02171104?term=weston+miller&rank=1
Performance, feed utilization, and hepatic metabolic response of weaned juvenile Atlantic bluefin tuna ( Thunnus thynnus L.):...  Performance, feed utilization, and hepatic metabolic response of weaned juvenile Atlantic bluefin tuna ( Thunnus thynnus L.):...
Aco acyl coA oxidase, cptI carnitine palmitoyl transferase I, elovl5 fatty acyl elongase 5, fabp2 fatty acid binding protein 2 ... Nutritional regulation of carnitine palmitoyl transferase I (cptI) and acyl coA oxidase (aco) gene transcription in liver of ... Nutritional regulation of fatty acid synthase (fas), delta-6 fatty acyl desaturase (fads2d6) and fatty acyl elongase 5 (elovl5 ... Morais S, Mourente G, Ortega A, Tocher JA, Tocher DR (2011) Expression of fatty acyl desaturase and elongase genes, and ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10695-018-0587-9
Interaction of Fish Oil and Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Affecting Hepatic Activity of Lipogenic Enzymes and Gene Expression in...  Interaction of Fish Oil and Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Affecting Hepatic Activity of Lipogenic Enzymes and Gene Expression in...
Acyl-CoA oxidase. 3.63 ± 0.40*. 10.7 ± 1.5†. 8.24 ± 0.83†. 11.7 ± 1.1†‡. 10.5 ± 1.0†. 11.8 ± 1.4†‡. ... Enoyl-CoA hydratase. 3,175 ± 71*. 5,723 ± 371†. 5,368 ± 595†. 6,106 ± 280†. 5,860 ± 427†. 6,466 ± 477†. ... 3-Ketoacyl-CoA thiolase. 668 ± 36*. 1,259 ± 48†. 1,194 ± 68†. 1,425 ± 96†. 1,333 ± 163†. 1,384 ± 79†. ... Acyl-CoA oxidase. 100 ± 8*. 208 ± 29†‡. 168 ± 9†. 163 ± 6†. 139 ± 6§. 133 ± 8. ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/54/2/412.figures-only
Lipogenesis Flashcards by boden christianson | Brainscape  Lipogenesis Flashcards by boden christianson | Brainscape
1) Fatty acyl CoA Synthetase. 2) CPT-1 or Carnitine acyltransferase (RLS) inhibited by Malonyl CoA. 3) Carnitine-acylcarnitine ... 1) Oxidation: Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase:synth FADH2. 2) Hydration. 3) Oxidation: NADH. 4) Thiolysis: Acetyl CoA ... 1) Acyl CoA dehydrogenase. 2) Hydratase. 3) Dehydrogenase. 4) acyl tranferase or ketothiolase ... 1)Becomes Propionyl CoA uses propionyl CoA carboxylase (requires biotin then goes to methylmalonyl CoA which uses methylmalonyl ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/lipogenesis-7058055/packs/11323877
Role of beta-oxidation in jasmonate biosynthesis and systemic wound signaling in tomato. - Semantic Scholar  Role of beta-oxidation in jasmonate biosynthesis and systemic wound signaling in tomato. - Semantic Scholar
... exhibited a preference for C12 and C14 straight-chain acyl-CoAs and also was active in the metabolism of C18 cyclopentanoid-CoA ... Map-based cloning studies demonstrated that this phenotype results from loss of function of an acyl-CoA oxidase (ACX1A) that ... Long-chain acyl-CoA oxidases of Arabidopsis.. *Mark A. Hooks, Fiona A Kellas, Ian A Graham ... Map-based cloning studies demonstrated that this phenotype results from loss of function of an acyl-CoA oxidase (ACX1A) that ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Role-of-beta-oxidation-in-jasmonate-biosynthesis-in-Li-Schilmiller/d77b9f1d2997b9ab480f82f99ae9b4729a36058f
Cross-talk between Akkermansia muciniphila and intestinal epithelium controls diet-induced obesity | PNAS  Cross-talk between Akkermansia muciniphila and intestinal epithelium controls diet-induced obesity | PNAS
... acyl-CoA-oxidase, encoded by Acox1; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator, encoded by Pgc1a; and peroxisome ... proliferator-activated receptor alpha, encoded by Ppara) without affecting lipogenesis markers (e.g., acetyl-CoA carboxylase, ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/110/22/9066
Antiobesity Effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid in High-Fat/High-Sucrose Diet-Induced Obesity | Diabetes  Antiobesity Effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid in High-Fat/High-Sucrose Diet-Induced Obesity | Diabetes
Moreover, activities of acyl-CoA oxidase and hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase in the liver and skeletal muscle, respectively, were ... Acyl-CoA oxidase, fatty acid synthase (FAS), and hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities were measured spectrophotometrically ... Acyl-CoA oxidase of rat liver: a new enzyme for fatty acid oxidation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1978;83:479-485. ... ACO, acyl-CoA oxidase; ATGL, adipose triglyceride lipase; CPT-1a, carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1a; CS, citrate synthase; GK, ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/59/10/2495.long
Dietary saponins of sea cucumber alleviate orotic acid-induced fatty liver in rats via PPARalpha and SREBP-1c signaling.  Dietary saponins of sea cucumber alleviate orotic acid-induced fatty liver in rats via PPARalpha and SREBP-1c signaling.
Hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARalpha), together with its target gene CPT and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) ... The malonyl-CoA-dependent rate was monitored for 3 min.. The enzyme activity of malic enzyme (ME; EC1.1.1.40) was determined as ... The difference between with and without L-carnitine gave the L-carnitine-dependent rate for formation of CoA-SH. ... M of palmitoyl-CoA, and 0.1% Triton-X. The entire solution was equilibrated at 27?C. The reaction was initiated by the addition ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Dietary-saponins-sea-cucumber-alleviate/20211032.html
  • Identification and characterization of DGA2, an acyltransferase of the DGAT1 acylCoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase family in the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. (archives-ouvertes.fr)