Enzymes that reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a 3-hydroxyacyl CoA to 3-ketoacyl CoA in the presence of NAD. They are key enzymes in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis.
Enzymes that catalyze the first step in the beta-oxidation of FATTY ACIDS.
A flavoprotein oxidoreductase that has specificity for medium-chain fatty acids. It forms a complex with ELECTRON TRANSFERRING FLAVOPROTEINS and conveys reducing equivalents to UBIQUINONE.
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
An enzyme that catalyses the last step of the TRIACYLGLYCEROL synthesis reaction in which diacylglycerol is covalently joined to LONG-CHAIN ACYL COA to form triglyceride. It was formerly categorized as EC 2.3.1.124.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 2.3.1.26.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
Coenzyme A is an essential coenzyme that plays a crucial role in various metabolic processes, particularly in the transfer and activation of acetyl groups in important biochemical reactions such as fatty acid synthesis and oxidation, and the citric acid cycle.
Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.4.1.2.
Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an enzyme that plays a critical role in the pentose phosphate pathway, catalyzing the oxidation of glucose-6-phosphate to 6-phosphoglucono-δ-lactone while reducing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+) to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen (NADPH), thereby protecting cells from oxidative damage and maintaining redox balance.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC 1.1.1.42.) EC 1.1.1.41.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
An enzyme that catalyzes the first and rate-determining steps of peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids. It acts on COENZYME A derivatives of fatty acids with chain lengths from 8 to 18, using FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE as a cofactor.
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reduction of lipoamide by NADH to yield dihydrolipoamide and NAD+. The enzyme is a component of several MULTIENZYME COMPLEXES.
Reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of carbohydrates to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2.; and 1.1.99.
An 86-amino acid polypeptide, found in central and peripheral tissues, that displaces diazepam from the benzodiazepine recognition site on the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (RECEPTORS, GABA). It also binds medium- and long-chain acyl-CoA esters and serves as an acyl-CoA transporter. This peptide regulates lipid metabolism.
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.
An alcohol oxidoreductase which catalyzes the oxidation of L-iditol to L-sorbose in the presence of NAD. It also acts on D-glucitol to form D-fructose. It also acts on other closely related sugar alcohols to form the corresponding sugar. EC 1.1.1.14
Glycerolphosphate Dehydrogenase is an enzyme (EC 1.1.1.8) that catalyzes the reversible conversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate to glycerol 3-phosphate, using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) as an electron acceptor in the process.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.
Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.
The Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase Complex is a multi-enzyme complex involved in the citric acid cycle, catalyzing the oxidative decarboxylation of alpha-ketoglutarate to succinyl-CoA and CO2, thereby connecting the catabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, and fats to the generation of energy in the form of ATP.
Compounds with three contiguous nitrogen atoms in linear format, H2N-N=NH, and hydrocarbyl derivatives.
A fatty acid coenzyme derivative which plays a key role in fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.
Reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of sugar alcohols to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2. and EC 1.1.99.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
D-Glucose:1-oxidoreductases. Catalyzes the oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-gamma-lactone and reduced acceptor. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.47; EC 1.1.1.118; EC 1.1.1.119 and EC 1.1.99.10.
Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 6-phospho-D-gluconate and NADP+ to yield D-ribulose 5-phosphate, carbon dioxide, and NADPH. The reaction is a step in the pentose phosphate pathway of glucose metabolism. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.1.1.43.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD. In eukaryotes the enzyme can be found as a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex I. Under experimental conditions the enzyme can use CYTOCHROME C GROUP as the reducing cofactor. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 1.6.2.1.
An enzyme that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of inosine 5'-phosphate to xanthosine 5'-phosphate in the presence of NAD. EC 1.1.1.205.
Alcohol oxidoreductases with substrate specificity for LACTIC ACID.
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
Flavoproteins that catalyze reversibly the reduction of carbon dioxide to formate. Many compounds can act as acceptors, but the only physiologically active acceptor is NAD. The enzymes are active in the fermentation of sugars and other compounds to carbon dioxide and are the key enzymes in obtaining energy when bacteria are grown on formate as the main carbon source. They have been purified from bovine blood. EC 1.2.1.2.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A class of enzymes that catalyzes the oxidation of 17-hydroxysteroids to 17-ketosteroids. EC 1.1.-.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of XANTHINE in the presence of NAD+ to form URIC ACID and NADH. It acts also on a variety of other purines and aldehydes.
The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Hydroxybutyrate Dehydrogenase is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of certain acids, specifically catalyzing the reversible conversion of D-3-hydroxybutyrate to acetoacetate.
A ketone oxidoreductase that catalyzes the overall conversion of alpha-keto acids to ACYL-CoA and CO2. The enzyme requires THIAMINE DIPHOSPHATE as a cofactor. Defects in genes that code for subunits of the enzyme are a cause of MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE. The enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.2.4.3.
The E1 component of the multienzyme PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX. It is composed of 2 alpha subunits (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha subunit) and 2 beta subunits (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 beta subunit).
Oxidoreductases that are specific for KETONES.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases that catalyzes the reversible conversion of CORTISOL to the inactive metabolite CORTISONE. Enzymes in this class can utilize either NAD or NADP as cofactors.
An oxidoreductase involved in pyrimidine base degradation. It catalyzes the catabolism of THYMINE; URACIL and the chemotherapeutic drug, 5-FLUOROURACIL.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of UDPglucose to UDPglucuronate in the presence of NAD+. EC 1.1.1.22.
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A flavoprotein oxidoreductase that has specificity for short-chain fatty acids. It forms a complex with ELECTRON-TRANSFERRING FLAVOPROTEINS and conveys reducing equivalents to UBIQUINONE.
A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Triglycerides are the most common type of fat in the body, stored in fat cells and used as energy; they are measured in blood tests to assess heart disease risk, with high levels often resulting from dietary habits, obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, and alcohol consumption.
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
A low-affinity 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase found in a variety of tissues, most notably in LIVER; LUNG; ADIPOSE TISSUE; vascular tissue; OVARY; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The enzyme acts reversibly and can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors.
An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible DEAMINATION of L-ALANINE to PYRUVATE and AMMONIA. The enzyme is needed for growth when ALANINE is the sole CARBON or NITROGEN source. It may also play a role in CELL WALL synthesis because L-ALANINE is an important constituent of the PEPTIDOGLYCAN layer.
A 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase which catalyzes the reversible reduction of the active androgen, DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE to 5 ALPHA-ANDROSTANE-3 ALPHA,17 BETA-DIOL. It also has activity towards other 3-alpha-hydroxysteroids and on 9-, 11- and 15- hydroxyprostaglandins. The enzyme is B-specific in reference to the orientation of reduced NAD or NADPH.
Sugar alcohol dehydrogenases that have specificity for MANNITOL. Enzymes in this category are generally classified according to their preference for a specific reducing cofactor.
Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of palmitoyl-CoA to palmitoylcarnitine in the inner mitochondrial membrane. EC 2.3.1.21.
Catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of hydroxyl groups of prostaglandins.
A flavoprotein oxidoreductase that has specificity for long-chain fatty acids. It forms a complex with ELECTRON-TRANSFERRING FLAVOPROTEINS and conveys reducing equivalents to UBIQUINONE.
A metalloflavoprotein enzyme involved the metabolism of VITAMIN A, this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of RETINAL to RETINOIC ACID, using both NAD+ and FAD coenzymes. It also acts on both the 11-trans- and 13-cis-forms of RETINAL.
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction-oxidation reaction of 20-hydroxysteroids, such as from a 20-ketosteroid to a 20-alpha-hydroxysteroid (EC 1.1.1.149) or to a 20-beta-hydroxysteroid (EC 1.1.1.53).
An high-affinity, NAD-dependent 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase that acts unidirectionally to catalyze the dehydrogenation of CORTISOL to CORTISONE. It is found predominantly in mineralocorticoid target tissues such as the KIDNEY; COLON; SWEAT GLANDS; and the PLACENTA. Absence of the enzyme leads to a fatal form of childhood hypertension termed, APPARENT MINERALOCORTICOID EXCESS SYNDROME.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A mitochondrial flavoprotein, this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of 3-methylbutanoyl-CoA to 3-methylbut-2-enoyl-CoA using FAD as a cofactor. Defects in the enzyme, is associated with isovaleric acidemia (IVA).
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of aspartic beta-semialdehyde to homoserine, which is the branch point in biosynthesis of methionine, lysine, threonine and leucine from aspartic acid. EC 1.1.1.3.

Molecular cloning of cDNA encoding mitochondrial very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase from bovine heart. (1/257)

AIM: To clone the cDNA encoding an isoenzyme of mitochondrial very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) from bovine heart lambda gt11 and lambda gt10 cDNA libraries. METHODS: The clone was isolated with immunoscreening technique and validated by (1) the microsequences of the N-terminus and three internal proteolytic fragments from the purified enzyme; (2) identification of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (AD) signature sequence; and (3) high homology of the deduced peptide sequences, as expected, with those of rat liver mitochondrial VLCAD. RESULTS: The cDNA (2203 bp) corresponds to a approximately 2.4-kb mRNA band from the same tissue source revealed by a Northern blotting. The deduced peptide sequence of 655 amino acids (70,537 Da) is composed of a 40-amino acid mitochondrial leader peptide moiety (4,346 Da) and a 615-amino acid peptide as a mature protein (66,191 Da). A comparison of the peptide sequences in the AD family shows the major diversity in their signal sequences, suggesting a structural basis for their different mitochondrial locations. The catalytic sites are all highly conserved among VLCAD. Ser-251 analogous to and Cys-215 diversified to other family members. A pseudo-consensus sequence of leucine zipper was found in the C-terminal region from Leu-568 to Leu-589, implying a mechanism whereby the dimer of this protein is formed by zipping these leucine residues from the alpha-helixes of 2 monomers. CONCLUSION: The isolated cDNA clone encodes an isoenzyme of mitochondrial VLCAD in bovine heart.  (+info)

The medium-/long-chain fatty acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (fadF) gene of Salmonella typhimurium is a phase 1 starvation-stress response (SSR) locus. (2/257)

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) is an enteric pathogen that causes significant morbidity in humans and other mammals. During their life cycle, salmonellae must survive frequent exposures to a variety of environmental stresses, e.g. carbon-source (C) starvation. The starvation-stress response (SSR) of S. typhimurium encompasses the genetic and physiological realignments that occur when an essential nutrient becomes limiting for bacterial growth. The function of the SSR is to produce a cell capable of surviving long-term starvation. This paper reports that three C-starvation-inducible lac fusions from an S. typhimurium C-starvation-inducible lac fusion library are all within a gene identified as fadF, which encodes an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACDH) specific for medium-/long-chain fatty acids. This identification is supported by several findings: (a) significant homology at the amino acid sequence level with the ACDH enzymes from other bacteria and eukaryotes, (b) undetectable beta-oxidation levels in fadF insertion mutants, (c) inability of fad insertion mutants to grow on oleate or decanoate as a sole C-source, and (d) inducibility of fadF::lac fusions by the long-chain fatty acid oleate. In addition, the results indicate that the C-starvation-induction of fadF is under negative control by the FadR global regulator and positive control by the cAMP:cAMP receptor protein complex and ppGpp. It is also shown that the fadF locus is important for C-starvation-survival in S. typhimurium. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that fadF is induced within cultured Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells, suggesting that signals for its induction (C-starvation and/or long-chain fatty acids) may be present in the intracellular environment encountered by S. typhimurium. However, fadF insertion mutations did not have an overt effect on mouse virulence.  (+info)

Oxidation of medium-chain acyl-CoA esters by extracts of Aspergillus niger: enzymology and characterization of intermediates by HPLC. (3/257)

The activities of beta-oxidation enzymes were measured in extracts of glucose- and triolein-grown cells of Aspergillus niger. Growth on triolein stimulated increased enzyme activity, especially for acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. No acyl-CoA oxidase activity was detected. HPLC analysis after incubation of triolein-grown cell extracts with decanoyl-CoA showed that beta-oxidation was limited to one cycle. Octanoyl-CoA accumulated as the decanoyl-CoA was oxidized. Beta-oxidation enzymes in isolated mitochondrial fractions were also studied. The results are discussed in the context of methyl ketone production by fungi.  (+info)

Outcome of medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency after diagnosis. (4/257)

BACKGROUND: Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is the most common inborn error of fatty acid metabolism. Undiagnosed, it has a mortality rate of 20-25%. Neonatal screening for the disorder is now possible but it is not known whether this would alter the prognosis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the outcome of MCAD deficiency after the diagnosis has been established. METHOD: All patients with a proved diagnosis of MCAD deficiency attending one centre in a four year period were reviewed. RESULTS: Forty one patients were identified. Follow up was for a median of 6.7 years (range, 9 months to 14 years). Nearly half of the patients were admitted to hospital with symptoms characteristic of MCAD deficiency before the correct diagnosis was made. After diagnosis, two patients were admitted to hospital with severe encephalopathy but there were no additional deaths or appreciable morbidity. There was a high incidence (about one fifth) of previous sibling deaths among the cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Undiagnosed, MCAD deficiency results in considerable mortality and morbidity. However, current management improves outcome, supporting the view that the disorder should be included in newborn screening programmes.  (+info)

A novel acyl-CoA oxidase that can oxidize short-chain acyl-CoA in plant peroxisomes. (5/257)

Short-chain acyl-CoA oxidases are beta-oxidation enzymes that are active on short-chain acyl-CoAs and that appear to be present in higher plant peroxisomes and absent in mammalian peroxisomes. Therefore, plant peroxisomes are capable of performing complete beta-oxidation of acyl-CoA chains, whereas mammalian peroxisomes can perform beta-oxidation of only those acyl-CoA chains that are larger than octanoyl-CoA (C8). In this report, we have shown that a novel acyl-CoA oxidase can oxidize short-chain acyl-CoA in plant peroxisomes. A peroxisomal short-chain acyl-CoA oxidase from Arabidopsis was purified following the expression of the Arabidopsis cDNA in a baculovirus expression system. The purified enzyme was active on butyryl-CoA (C4), hexanoyl-CoA (C6), and octanoyl-CoA (C8). Cell fractionation and immunocytochemical analysis revealed that the short-chain acyl-CoA oxidase is localized in peroxisomes. The expression pattern of the short-chain acyl-CoA oxidase was similar to that of peroxisomal 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, a marker enzyme of fatty acid beta-oxidation, during post-germinative growth. Although the molecular structure and amino acid sequence of the enzyme are similar to those of mammalian mitochondrial acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, the purified enzyme has no activity as acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. These results indicate that the short-chain acyl-CoA oxidases function in fatty acid beta-oxidation in plant peroxisomes, and that by the cooperative action of long- and short-chain acyl-CoA oxidases, plant peroxisomes are capable of performing the complete beta-oxidation of acyl-CoA.  (+info)

Cloning and mapping of three pig acyl-CoA dehydrogenase genes. (6/257)

To investigate the structure of porcine genes involved in the beta-oxidation of fatty acid, we isolated the short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD), medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD), and long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD) genes from the pig. The cDNA of SCAD, MCAD and LCAD genes were 1899 bp, 1835 bp 1835 bp and 1704 bp long and coded for 413-aa, 422-aa and 430-aa precursor proteins, respectively. Three genes, SCAD, MCAD and LCAD were mapped to 14p16.2-23.2, 6q32.4-33, and 15q24.2-26.3, respectively.  (+info)

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha mediates the adaptive response to fasting. (7/257)

Prolonged deprivation of food induces dramatic changes in mammalian metabolism, including the release of large amounts of fatty acids from the adipose tissue, followed by their oxidation in the liver. The nuclear receptor known as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) was found to play a role in regulating mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, suggesting that PPARalpha may be involved in the transcriptional response to fasting. To investigate this possibility, PPARalpha-null mice were subjected to a high fat diet or to fasting, and their responses were compared with those of wild-type mice. PPARalpha-null mice chronically fed a high fat diet showed a massive accumulation of lipid in their livers. A similar phenotype was noted in PPARalpha-null mice fasted for 24 hours, who also displayed severe hypoglycemia, hypoketonemia, hypothermia, and elevated plasma free fatty acid levels, indicating a dramatic inhibition of fatty acid uptake and oxidation. It is shown that to accommodate the increased requirement for hepatic fatty acid oxidation, PPARalpha mRNA is induced during fasting in wild-type mice. The data indicate that PPARalpha plays a pivotal role in the management of energy stores during fasting. By modulating gene expression, PPARalpha stimulates hepatic fatty acid oxidation to supply substrates that can be metabolized by other tissues.  (+info)

Evaluating newborn screening programmes based on dried blood spots: future challenges. (8/257)

A UK national programme to screen all newborn infants for phenylketonuria was introduced in 1969, followed in 1981 by a similar programme for congenital hypothyroidism. Decisions to start these national programmes were informed by evidence from observational studies rather than randomised controlled trials. Subsequently, outcome for affected children has been assessed through national disease registers, from which inferences about the effectiveness of screening have been made. Both programmes are based on a single blood specimen, collected from each infant at the end of the first week of life, and stored as dried spots on a filter paper or 'Guthrie' card. This infrastructure has made it relatively easy for routine screening for other conditions to be introduced at a district or regional level, resulting in inconsistent policies and inequitable access to effective screening services. This variation in screening practices reflects uncertainty and the lack of a national framework to guide the introduction and evaluation of new screening initiatives, rather than geographical variations in disease prevalence or severity. More recently, developments in tandem mass spectrometry have made it technically possible to screen for several inborn errors of metabolism in a single analytical step. However, for each of these conditions, evidence is required that the benefits of screening outweigh the harms. How should that evidence be obtained? Ideally policy decisions about new screening initiatives should be informed by evidence from randomised controlled trials but for most of the conditions for which newborn screening is proposed, large trials would be needed. Prioritising which conditions should be formally evaluated, and developing a framework to support their evaluation, poses an important challenge to the public health, clinical and scientific community. In this chapter, issues underlying the evaluation of newborn screening programmes will be discussed in relation to medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, a recessively inherited disorder of fatty acid oxidation.  (+info)

3-Hydroxyacyl CoA Dehydrogenases (3-HADs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the beta-oxidation of fatty acids. These enzymes catalyze the third step of the beta-oxidation process, which involves the oxidation of 3-hydroxyacyl CoA to 3-ketoacyl CoA. This reaction is an essential part of the energy-generating process that occurs in the mitochondria of cells and allows for the breakdown of fatty acids into smaller molecules, which can then be used to produce ATP, the primary source of cellular energy.

There are several different isoforms of 3-HADs, each with specific substrate preferences and tissue distributions. The most well-known isoform is the mitochondrial 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (M3HD), which is involved in the oxidation of medium and long-chain fatty acids. Other isoforms include the short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (SCHAD) and the long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD), which are involved in the oxidation of shorter and longer chain fatty acids, respectively.

Deficiencies in 3-HADs can lead to serious metabolic disorders, such as 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (3-HAD deficiency), which is characterized by the accumulation of toxic levels of 3-hydroxyacyl CoAs in the body. Symptoms of this disorder can include hypoglycemia, muscle weakness, cardiomyopathy, and developmental delays. Early diagnosis and treatment of 3-HAD deficiency are essential to prevent serious complications and improve outcomes for affected individuals.

Acyl-CoA dehydrogenases are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the body's energy production process. They are responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of various fatty acids, which are broken down into smaller molecules called acyl-CoAs in the body.

More specifically, acyl-CoA dehydrogenases facilitate the removal of electrons from the acyl-CoA molecules, which are then transferred to coenzyme Q10 and eventually to the electron transport chain. This process generates energy in the form of ATP, which is used by cells throughout the body for various functions.

There are several different types of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases, each responsible for oxidizing a specific type of acyl-CoA molecule. These include:

* Very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD), which oxidizes acyl-CoAs with 12 to 20 carbon atoms
* Long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD), which oxidizes acyl-CoAs with 14 to 20 carbon atoms
* Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD), which oxidizes acyl-CoAs with 6 to 12 carbon atoms
* Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD), which oxidizes acyl-CoAs with 4 to 8 carbon atoms
* Isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase, which oxidizes isovaleryl-CoA, a specific type of branched-chain acyl-CoA molecule

Deficiencies in these enzymes can lead to various metabolic disorders, such as medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) or long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCADD), which can cause symptoms such as hypoglycemia, muscle weakness, and developmental delays.

Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase is a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the body's energy production process. Specifically, they are involved in the breakdown of fatty acids within the cells.

More technically, acyl-CoA dehydrogenases catalyze the removal of electrons from the thiol group of acyl-CoAs, forming a trans-double bond and generating FADH2. This reaction is the first step in each cycle of fatty acid beta-oxidation, which occurs in the mitochondria of cells.

There are several different types of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases, each specific to breaking down different lengths of fatty acids. For example, very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) is responsible for breaking down longer chain fatty acids, while medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) breaks down medium-length chains.

Deficiencies in these enzymes can lead to various metabolic disorders, such as MCAD deficiency or LC-FAOD (long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders), which can cause symptoms like vomiting, lethargy, and muscle weakness, especially during periods of fasting or illness.

Acyl Coenzyme A (often abbreviated as Acetyl-CoA or Acyl-CoA) is a crucial molecule in metabolism, particularly in the breakdown and oxidation of fats and carbohydrates to produce energy. It is a thioester compound that consists of a fatty acid or an acetate group linked to coenzyme A through a sulfur atom.

Acyl CoA plays a central role in several metabolic pathways, including:

1. The citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle): In the mitochondria, Acyl-CoA is formed from the oxidation of fatty acids or the breakdown of certain amino acids. This Acyl-CoA then enters the citric acid cycle to produce high-energy electrons, which are used in the electron transport chain to generate ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the main energy currency of the cell.
2. Beta-oxidation: The breakdown of fatty acids occurs in the mitochondria through a process called beta-oxidation, where Acyl-CoA is sequentially broken down into smaller units, releasing acetyl-CoA, which then enters the citric acid cycle.
3. Ketogenesis: In times of low carbohydrate availability or during prolonged fasting, the liver can produce ketone bodies from acetyl-CoA to supply energy to other organs, such as the brain and heart.
4. Protein synthesis: Acyl-CoA is also involved in the modification of proteins by attaching fatty acid chains to them (a process called acetylation), which can influence protein function and stability.

In summary, Acyl Coenzyme A is a vital molecule in metabolism that connects various pathways related to energy production, fatty acid breakdown, and protein modification.

Diacylglycerol O-Acyltransferase (DGAT) is an enzyme that catalyzes the final step in triacylglycerol synthesis, which is the formation of diacylglycerol and fatty acyl-CoA into triacylglycerol. This enzyme plays a crucial role in lipid metabolism and energy storage in cells. There are two main types of DGAT enzymes, DGAT1 and DGAT2, which share limited sequence similarity but have similar functions. Inhibition of DGAT has been explored as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders.

Sterol O-Acyltransferase (SOAT, also known as ACAT for Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in cholesterol homeostasis within cells. Specifically, it catalyzes the reaction of esterifying free cholesterol with fatty acyl-coenzyme A (fatty acyl-CoA) to form cholesteryl esters. This enzymatic activity allows for the intracellular storage of excess cholesterol in lipid droplets, reducing the levels of free cholesterol in the cell and thus preventing its potential toxic effects on membranes and proteins. There are two isoforms of SOAT, SOAT1 and SOAT2, which exhibit distinct subcellular localization and functions. Dysregulation of SOAT activity has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative disorders.

L-Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme found in various tissues within the body, including the heart, liver, kidneys, muscles, and brain. It plays a crucial role in the process of energy production, particularly during anaerobic conditions when oxygen levels are low.

In the presence of the coenzyme NADH, LDH catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate, generating NAD+ as a byproduct. Conversely, in the presence of NAD+, LDH can convert lactate back to pyruvate using NADH. This reversible reaction is essential for maintaining the balance between lactate and pyruvate levels within cells.

Elevated blood levels of LDH may indicate tissue damage or injury, as this enzyme can be released into the circulation following cellular breakdown. As a result, LDH is often used as a nonspecific biomarker for various medical conditions, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), liver disease, muscle damage, and certain types of cancer. However, it's important to note that an isolated increase in LDH does not necessarily pinpoint the exact location or cause of tissue damage, and further diagnostic tests are usually required for confirmation.

Acyltransferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an acyl group (a functional group consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and single-bonded to a hydrogen atom) from one molecule to another. This transfer involves the formation of an ester bond between the acyl group donor and the acyl group acceptor.

Acyltransferases play important roles in various biological processes, including the biosynthesis of lipids, fatty acids, and other metabolites. They are also involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics (foreign substances) by catalyzing the addition of an acyl group to these compounds, making them more water-soluble and easier to excrete from the body.

Examples of acyltransferases include serine palmitoyltransferase, which is involved in the biosynthesis of sphingolipids, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), which facilitates the transfer of cholesteryl esters between lipoproteins.

Acyltransferases are classified based on the type of acyl group they transfer and the nature of the acyl group donor and acceptor molecules. They can be further categorized into subclasses based on their sequence similarities, three-dimensional structures, and evolutionary relationships.

Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is a group of enzymes responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones, and reducing equivalents such as NAD+ to NADH. In humans, ADH plays a crucial role in the metabolism of ethanol, converting it into acetaldehyde, which is then further metabolized by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) into acetate. This process helps to detoxify and eliminate ethanol from the body. Additionally, ADH enzymes are also involved in the metabolism of other alcohols, such as methanol and ethylene glycol, which can be toxic if allowed to accumulate in the body.

Coenzyme A, often abbreviated as CoA or sometimes holo-CoA, is a coenzyme that plays a crucial role in several important chemical reactions in the body, particularly in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fatty acids, and amino acids. It is composed of a pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) derivative called pantothenate, an adenosine diphosphate (ADP) molecule, and a terminal phosphate group.

Coenzyme A functions as a carrier molecule for acetyl groups, which are formed during the breakdown of carbohydrates, fatty acids, and some amino acids. The acetyl group is attached to the sulfur atom in CoA, forming acetyl-CoA, which can then be used as a building block for various biochemical pathways, such as the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) and fatty acid synthesis.

In summary, Coenzyme A is a vital coenzyme that helps facilitate essential metabolic processes by carrying and transferring acetyl groups in the body.

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolic pathway of glycolysis. Its primary function is to convert glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (a triose sugar phosphate) into D-glycerate 1,3-bisphosphate, while also converting nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) into its reduced form NADH. This reaction is essential for the production of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during cellular respiration. GAPDH has also been implicated in various non-metabolic processes, including DNA replication, repair, and transcription regulation, due to its ability to interact with different proteins and nucleic acids.

Coenzyme A (CoA) ligases, also known as CoA synthetases, are a class of enzymes that activate acyl groups, such as fatty acids and amino acids, by forming a thioester bond with coenzyme A. This activation is an essential step in various metabolic pathways, including fatty acid oxidation, amino acid catabolism, and the synthesis of several important compounds like steroids and acetylcholine.

CoA ligases catalyze the following reaction:

acyl group + ATP + CoA ↔ acyl-CoA + AMP + PP~i~

In this reaction, an acyl group (R-) from a carboxylic acid is linked to the thiol (-SH) group of coenzyme A through a high-energy thioester bond. The energy required for this activation is provided by the hydrolysis of ATP to AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate (PP~i~).

CoA ligases are classified into three main types based on the nature of the acyl group they activate:

1. Acyl-CoA synthetases (or long-chain fatty acid CoA ligases) activate long-chain fatty acids, typically containing 12 or more carbon atoms.
2. Aminoacyl-CoA synthetases activate amino acids to form aminoacyl-CoAs, which are essential intermediates in the catabolism of certain amino acids.
3. Short-chain specific CoA ligases activate short-chain fatty acids (up to 6 carbon atoms) and other acyl groups like acetate or propionate.

These enzymes play a crucial role in maintaining cellular energy homeostasis, metabolism, and the synthesis of various essential biomolecules.

Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is a class of enzymes that play a crucial role in the metabolism of alcohol and other aldehydes in the body. These enzymes catalyze the oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids, using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) as a cofactor.

There are several isoforms of ALDH found in different tissues throughout the body, with varying substrate specificities and kinetic properties. The most well-known function of ALDH is its role in alcohol metabolism, where it converts the toxic aldehyde intermediate acetaldehyde to acetate, which can then be further metabolized or excreted.

Deficiencies in ALDH activity have been linked to a number of clinical conditions, including alcohol flush reaction, alcohol-induced liver disease, and certain types of cancer. Additionally, increased ALDH activity has been associated with chemotherapy resistance in some cancer cells.

Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GLDH or GDH) is a mitochondrial enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of amino acids, particularly within liver and kidney tissues. It catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of glutamate to alpha-ketoglutarate, which links amino acid metabolism with the citric acid cycle and energy production. This enzyme is significant in clinical settings as its levels in blood serum can be used as a diagnostic marker for diseases that damage liver or kidney cells, since these cells release GLDH into the bloodstream upon damage.

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), also known as Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase, is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in cellular metabolism, particularly in the glycolytic pathway. It catalyzes the conversion of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate (1,3-BPG), while also converting nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to its reduced form NADH. This reaction is essential for the production of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during cellular respiration. GAPDH has been widely used as a housekeeping gene in molecular biology research due to its consistent expression across various tissues and cells, although recent studies have shown that its expression can vary under certain conditions.

Malate Dehydrogenase (MDH) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the Krebs cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle or tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. It catalyzes the reversible oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate, while simultaneously reducing NAD+ to NADH. This reaction is essential for energy production in the form of ATP and NADH within the cell.

There are two main types of Malate Dehydrogenase:

1. NAD-dependent Malate Dehydrogenase (MDH1): Found primarily in the cytoplasm, this isoform plays a role in the malate-aspartate shuttle, which helps transfer reducing equivalents between the cytoplasm and mitochondria.
2. FAD-dependent Malate Dehydrogenase (MDH2): Located within the mitochondrial matrix, this isoform is involved in the Krebs cycle for energy production.

Abnormal levels of Malate Dehydrogenase enzyme can be indicative of certain medical conditions or diseases, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), muscle damage, or various types of cancer. Therefore, MDH enzyme activity is often assessed in diagnostic tests to help identify and monitor these health issues.

Isocitrate Dehydrogenase (IDH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate in the presence of NAD+ or NADP+, producing NADH or NADPH respectively. This reaction occurs in the citric acid cycle, also known as the Krebs cycle or tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, which is a crucial metabolic pathway in the cell's energy production and biosynthesis of various molecules. There are three isoforms of IDH found in humans: IDH1 located in the cytosol, IDH2 in the mitochondrial matrix, and IDH3 within the mitochondria. Mutations in IDH1 and IDH2 have been associated with several types of cancer, such as gliomas and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), leading to abnormal accumulation of 2-hydroxyglutarate, which can contribute to tumorigenesis.

Alcohol oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones, while reducing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to NADH. These enzymes play an important role in the metabolism of alcohols and other organic compounds in living organisms.

The most well-known example of an alcohol oxidoreductase is alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which is responsible for the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde in the liver during the metabolism of alcoholic beverages. Other examples include aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH).

These enzymes are important targets for the development of drugs used to treat alcohol use disorder, as inhibiting their activity can help to reduce the rate of ethanol metabolism and the severity of its effects on the body.

Acyl-CoA oxidase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the breakdown of fatty acids within the body. It is located in the peroxisomes, which are small organelles found in the cells of living organisms. The primary function of acyl-CoA oxidase is to catalyze the initial step in the beta-oxidation of fatty acids, a process that involves the sequential removal of two-carbon units from fatty acid molecules in the form of acetyl-CoA.

The reaction catalyzed by acyl-CoA oxidase is as follows:

acyl-CoA + FAD → trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-CoA + FADH2 + H+

In this reaction, the enzyme removes a hydrogen atom from the fatty acyl-CoA molecule and transfers it to its cofactor, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). This results in the formation of trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-CoA, FADH2, and a proton. The FADH2 produced during this reaction can then be used to generate ATP through the electron transport chain, while the trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-CoA undergoes further reactions in the beta-oxidation pathway.

There are two main isoforms of acyl-CoA oxidase found in humans: ACOX1 and ACOX2. ACOX1 is primarily responsible for oxidizing straight-chain fatty acids, while ACOX2 specializes in the breakdown of branched-chain fatty acids. Mutations in the genes encoding these enzymes can lead to various metabolic disorders, such as peroxisomal biogenesis disorders and Refsum disease.

Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DHLD) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in several important metabolic pathways in the human body, including the citric acid cycle and the catabolism of certain amino acids. DHLD is a component of multi-enzyme complexes, such as the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) and the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDC).

The primary function of DHLD is to catalyze the oxidation of dihydrolipoamide, a reduced form of lipoamide, back to its oxidized state (lipoamide) while simultaneously reducing NAD+ to NADH. This reaction is essential for the continued functioning of the PDC and KGDC, as dihydrolipoamide is a cofactor for these enzyme complexes.

Deficiencies in DHLD can lead to serious metabolic disorders, such as maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and riboflavin-responsive multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (RR-MADD). These conditions can result in neurological symptoms, developmental delays, and metabolic acidosis, among other complications. Treatment typically involves dietary modifications, supplementation with specific nutrients, and, in some cases, enzyme replacement therapy.

Carbohydrate dehydrogenases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of carbohydrates, including sugars and sugar alcohols. These enzymes play a crucial role in cellular metabolism by helping to convert these molecules into forms that can be used for energy or as building blocks for other biological compounds.

During the oxidation process, carbohydrate dehydrogenases remove hydrogen atoms from the carbohydrate substrate and transfer them to an electron acceptor, such as NAD+ or FAD. This results in the formation of a ketone or aldehyde group on the carbohydrate molecule and the reduction of the electron acceptor to NADH or FADH2.

Carbohydrate dehydrogenases are classified into several subgroups based on their substrate specificity, cofactor requirements, and other factors. Some examples include glucose dehydrogenase, galactose dehydrogenase, and sorbitol dehydrogenase.

These enzymes have important applications in various fields, including biotechnology, medicine, and industry. For example, they can be used to detect or quantify specific carbohydrates in biological samples, or to produce valuable chemical compounds through the oxidation of renewable resources such as plant-derived sugars.

A Diazepam Binding Inhibitor (DBI) is a protein that inhibits the binding of benzodiazepines, such as diazepam, to their receptor site in the central nervous system. DBI is also known as the alpha-2-macroglobulin-like protein 1 or A2ML1. It is involved in regulating the activity of the GABA-A receptor complex, which plays a crucial role in inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain. When DBI binds to the benzodiazepine site on the GABA-A receptor, it prevents diazepam and other benzodiazepines from exerting their effects, which include sedation, anxiety reduction, muscle relaxation, and anticonvulsant activity.

Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is an enzyme complex that plays a crucial role in the process of cellular respiration, specifically in the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle) and the electron transport chain. It is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotic cells.

SDH catalyzes the oxidation of succinate to fumarate, converting it into a molecule of fadaquate in the process. During this reaction, two electrons are transferred from succinate to the FAD cofactor within the SDH enzyme complex, reducing it to FADH2. These electrons are then passed on to ubiquinone (CoQ), which is a mobile electron carrier in the electron transport chain, leading to the generation of ATP, the main energy currency of the cell.

SDH is also known as mitochondrial complex II because it is the second complex in the electron transport chain. Mutations in the genes encoding SDH subunits or associated proteins have been linked to various human diseases, including hereditary paragangliomas, pheochromocytomas, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), and some forms of neurodegenerative disorders.

L-Iditol 2-Dehydrogenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction between L-iditol and NAD+ to produce L-sorbose and NADH + H+. This enzyme plays a role in the metabolism of sugars, specifically in the conversion of L-iditol to L-sorbose in various organisms, including bacteria and fungi. The reaction catalyzed by this enzyme is part of the polyol pathway, which is involved in the regulation of osmotic pressure and other cellular processes.

Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of glucose and lipids. It catalyzes the conversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) to glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P), which is a key intermediate in the synthesis of triglycerides, phospholipids, and other glycerophospholipids.

There are two main forms of GPD: a cytoplasmic form (GPD1) and a mitochondrial form (GPD2). The cytoplasmic form is involved in the production of NADH, which is used in various metabolic processes, while the mitochondrial form is involved in the production of ATP, the main energy currency of the cell.

Deficiencies or mutations in GPD can lead to a variety of metabolic disorders, including glycerol kinase deficiency and congenital muscular dystrophy. Elevated levels of GPD have been observed in certain types of cancer, suggesting that it may play a role in tumor growth and progression.

Fatty acids are carboxylic acids with a long aliphatic chain, which are important components of lipids and are widely distributed in living organisms. They can be classified based on the length of their carbon chain, saturation level (presence or absence of double bonds), and other structural features.

The two main types of fatty acids are:

1. Saturated fatty acids: These have no double bonds in their carbon chain and are typically solid at room temperature. Examples include palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0).
2. Unsaturated fatty acids: These contain one or more double bonds in their carbon chain and can be further classified into monounsaturated (one double bond) and polyunsaturated (two or more double bonds) fatty acids. Examples of unsaturated fatty acids include oleic acid (C18:1, monounsaturated), linoleic acid (C18:2, polyunsaturated), and alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3, polyunsaturated).

Fatty acids play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as energy storage, membrane structure, and cell signaling. Some essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources.

NAD (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) is a coenzyme found in all living cells. It plays an essential role in cellular metabolism, particularly in redox reactions, where it acts as an electron carrier. NAD exists in two forms: NAD+, which accepts electrons and becomes reduced to NADH. This pairing of NAD+/NADH is involved in many fundamental biological processes such as generating energy in the form of ATP during cellular respiration, and serving as a critical cofactor for various enzymes that regulate cellular functions like DNA repair, gene expression, and cell death.

Maintaining optimal levels of NAD+/NADH is crucial for overall health and longevity, as it declines with age and in certain disease states. Therefore, strategies to boost NAD+ levels are being actively researched for their potential therapeutic benefits in various conditions such as aging, neurodegenerative disorders, and metabolic diseases.

Oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions, which involve the transfer of electrons from one molecule (the reductant) to another (the oxidant). These enzymes play a crucial role in various biological processes, including energy production, metabolism, and detoxification.

The oxidoreductase-catalyzed reaction typically involves the donation of electrons from a reducing agent (donor) to an oxidizing agent (acceptor), often through the transfer of hydrogen atoms or hydride ions. The enzyme itself does not undergo any permanent chemical change during this process, but rather acts as a catalyst to lower the activation energy required for the reaction to occur.

Oxidoreductases are classified and named based on the type of electron donor or acceptor involved in the reaction. For example, oxidoreductases that act on the CH-OH group of donors are called dehydrogenases, while those that act on the aldehyde or ketone groups are called oxidases. Other examples include reductases, peroxidases, and catalases.

Understanding the function and regulation of oxidoreductases is important for understanding various physiological processes and developing therapeutic strategies for diseases associated with impaired redox homeostasis, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Aldehyde oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids using NAD+ or FAD as cofactors. They play a crucial role in the detoxification of aldehydes generated from various metabolic processes, such as lipid peroxidation and alcohol metabolism. These enzymes are widely distributed in nature and have been identified in bacteria, yeast, plants, and animals.

The oxidation reaction catalyzed by aldehyde oxidoreductases involves the transfer of electrons from the aldehyde substrate to the cofactor, resulting in the formation of a carboxylic acid and reduced NAD+ or FAD. The enzymes are classified into several families based on their sequence similarity and cofactor specificity.

One of the most well-known members of this family is alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which catalyzes the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones as part of the alcohol metabolism pathway. Another important member is aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), which further oxidizes the aldehydes generated by ADH to carboxylic acids, thereby preventing the accumulation of toxic aldehydes in the body.

Deficiencies in ALDH enzymes have been linked to several human diseases, including alcoholism and certain types of cancer. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of aldehyde oxidoreductases is essential for developing new therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Glucose 1-Dehydrogenase (G1DH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of β-D-glucose into D-glucono-1,5-lactone and reduces the cofactor NAD+ into NADH. This reaction plays a role in various biological processes, including glucose sensing and detoxification of reactive carbonyl species. G1DH is found in many organisms, including humans, and has several isoforms with different properties and functions.

Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in steroid hormone metabolism. They catalyze the oxidation and reduction reactions of hydroxyl groups on the steroid molecule, which can lead to the activation or inactivation of steroid hormones. HSDs are involved in the conversion of various steroids, including sex steroids (e.g., androgens, estrogens) and corticosteroids (e.g., cortisol, cortisone). These enzymes can be found in different tissues throughout the body, and their activity is regulated by various factors, such as hormones, growth factors, and cytokines. Dysregulation of HSDs has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

The Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase Complex (KGDC or α-KGDH) is a multi-enzyme complex that plays a crucial role in the Krebs cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle. It is located within the mitochondrial matrix of eukaryotic cells and functions to catalyze the oxidative decarboxylation of α-ketoglutarate into succinyl-CoA, thereby connecting the Krebs cycle to the electron transport chain for energy production.

The KGDC is composed of three distinct enzymes:

1. α-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (E1): This enzyme catalyzes the decarboxylation and oxidation of α-ketoglutarate to form a thioester intermediate with lipoamide, which is bound to the E2 component.
2. Dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase (E2): This enzyme facilitates the transfer of the acetyl group from the lipoamide cofactor to CoA, forming succinyl-CoA and regenerating oxidized lipoamide.
3. Dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (E3): The final enzyme in the complex catalyzes the reoxidation of reduced lipoamide back to its disulfide form, using FAD as a cofactor and transferring electrons to NAD+, forming NADH.

The KGDC is subject to regulation by several mechanisms, including phosphorylation-dephosphorylation reactions that can inhibit or activate the complex, respectively. Dysfunction of this enzyme complex has been implicated in various diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

Triazenes are a class of organic compounds that contain a triazene functional group, which is composed of three nitrogen atoms bonded in a row (-N=N-NH-). In the context of medicine, certain triazene derivatives have been studied and used in cancer chemotherapy. For example, dacarbazine (also known as DTIC) is a triazene anticancer drug that is used to treat malignant melanoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma. These compounds are believed to work by alkylating DNA, which can disrupt cancer cell growth and division. However, their use is limited due to side effects and the development of resistance in some cases.

Palmitoyl Coenzyme A, often abbreviated as Palmitoyl-CoA, is a type of fatty acyl coenzyme A that plays a crucial role in the body's metabolism. It is formed from the esterification of palmitic acid (a saturated fatty acid) with coenzyme A.

Medical Definition: Palmitoyl Coenzyme A is a fatty acyl coenzyme A ester, where palmitic acid is linked to coenzyme A via an ester bond. It serves as an important intermediate in lipid metabolism and energy production, particularly through the process of beta-oxidation in the mitochondria. Palmitoyl CoA also plays a role in protein modification, known as S-palmitoylation, which can affect protein localization, stability, and function.

Sugar alcohol dehydrogenases (SADHs) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion between sugar alcohols and sugars, which involves the gain or loss of a pair of electrons, typically in the form of NAD(P)+/NAD(P)H. These enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism of sugar alcohols, which are commonly found in various plants and some microorganisms.

Sugar alcohols, also known as polyols, are reduced forms of sugars that contain one or more hydroxyl groups instead of aldehyde or ketone groups. Examples of sugar alcohols include sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol, and erythritol. SADHs can interconvert these sugar alcohols to their corresponding sugars through a redox reaction that involves the transfer of hydrogen atoms.

The reaction catalyzed by SADHs is typically represented as follows:

R-CH(OH)-CH2OH + NAD(P)+ ↔ R-CO-CH2OH + NAD(P)H + H+

where R represents a carbon chain, and CH(OH)-CH2OH and CO-CH2OH represent the sugar alcohol and sugar forms, respectively.

SADHs are widely distributed in nature and have been found in various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. These enzymes have attracted significant interest in biotechnology due to their potential applications in the production of sugar alcohols and other value-added products. Additionally, SADHs have been studied as targets for developing novel antimicrobial agents, as inhibiting these enzymes can disrupt the metabolism of certain pathogens that rely on sugar alcohols for growth and survival.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Glucose dehydrogenases (GDHs) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of glucose to generate gluconic acid or glucuronic acid. This reaction involves the transfer of electrons from glucose to an electron acceptor, most commonly nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) or phenazine methosulfate (PMS).

GDHs are widely distributed in nature and can be found in various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. They play important roles in different biological processes, such as glucose metabolism, energy production, and detoxification of harmful substances. Based on their cofactor specificity, GDHs can be classified into two main types: NAD(P)-dependent GDHs and PQQ-dependent GDHs.

NAD(P)-dependent GDHs use NAD+ or NADP+ as a cofactor to oxidize glucose to glucono-1,5-lactone, which is then hydrolyzed to gluconic acid by an accompanying enzyme. These GDHs are involved in various metabolic pathways, such as the Entner-Doudoroff pathway and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway.

PQQ-dependent GDHs, on the other hand, use pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) as a cofactor to catalyze the oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid directly. These GDHs are typically found in bacteria and play a role in energy production and detoxification.

Overall, glucose dehydrogenases are essential enzymes that contribute to the maintenance of glucose homeostasis and energy balance in living organisms.

3-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (3-HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in steroid hormone biosynthesis. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of 3-beta-hydroxy steroids to 3-keto steroids, which is an essential step in the production of various steroid hormones, including progesterone, cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones such as testosterone and estradiol.

There are several isoforms of 3-HSDs that are expressed in different tissues and have distinct substrate specificities. For instance, 3-HSD type I is primarily found in the ovary and adrenal gland, where it catalyzes the conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone to 17-hydroxycortisol. On the other hand, 3-HSD type II is mainly expressed in the testes, adrenal gland, and placenta, where it catalyzes the conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to androstenedione and androstenedione to testosterone.

Defects in 3-HSDs can lead to various genetic disorders that affect steroid hormone production and metabolism, resulting in a range of clinical manifestations such as adrenal insufficiency, ambiguous genitalia, and sexual development disorders.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the pentose phosphate pathway, which is a metabolic pathway that supplies reducing energy to cells by converting glucose into ribose-5-phosphate and NADPH.

PGD catalyzes the third step of this pathway, in which 6-phosphogluconate is converted into ribulose-5-phosphate, with the concurrent reduction of NADP+ to NADPH. This reaction is essential for the generation of NADPH, which serves as a reducing agent in various cellular processes, including fatty acid synthesis and antioxidant defense.

Deficiencies in PGD can lead to several metabolic disorders, such as congenital nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia, which is characterized by the premature destruction of red blood cells due to a defect in the pentose phosphate pathway.

NADH dehydrogenase, also known as Complex I, is an enzyme complex in the electron transport chain located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD+ and the reduction of coenzyme Q to ubiquinol, playing a crucial role in cellular respiration and energy production. The reaction involves the transfer of electrons from NADH to coenzyme Q, which contributes to the generation of a proton gradient across the membrane, ultimately leading to ATP synthesis. Defects in NADH dehydrogenase can result in various mitochondrial diseases and disorders.

Inosine Monophosphate Dehydrogenase (IMDH or IMPDH) is an enzyme that is involved in the de novo biosynthesis of guanine nucleotides. It catalyzes the conversion of inosine monophosphate (IMP) to xanthosine monophosphate (XMP), which is the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of guanosine triphosphate (GTP).

There are two isoforms of IMPDH, type I and type II, which are encoded by separate genes. Type I IMPDH is expressed in most tissues, while type II IMPDH is primarily expressed in lymphocytes and other cells involved in the immune response. Inhibitors of IMPDH have been developed as immunosuppressive drugs to prevent rejection of transplanted organs. Defects in the gene encoding IMPDH type II have been associated with retinal degeneration and hearing loss.

Lactate dehydrogenases (LDH) are a group of intracellular enzymes found in nearly all human cells, particularly in the heart, liver, kidneys, muscles, and brain. They play a crucial role in energy production during anaerobic metabolism, converting pyruvate to lactate while regenerating NAD+ from NADH. LDH exists as multiple isoenzymes (LDH-1 to LDH-5) in the body, each with distinct distributions and functions.

An elevated level of LDH in the blood may indicate tissue damage or injury, as these enzymes are released into the circulation following cellular destruction. Therefore, measuring LDH levels is a common diagnostic tool to assess various medical conditions, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), liver disease, muscle damage, and some types of cancer. However, an isolated increase in LDH may not be specific enough for a definitive diagnosis, and additional tests are usually required for confirmation.

Cholesteryl esters are formed when cholesterol, a type of lipid (fat) that is important for the normal functioning of the body, becomes combined with fatty acids through a process called esterification. This results in a compound that is more hydrophobic (water-repelling) than cholesterol itself, which allows it to be stored more efficiently in the body.

Cholesteryl esters are found naturally in foods such as animal fats and oils, and they are also produced by the liver and other cells in the body. They play an important role in the structure and function of cell membranes, and they are also precursors to the synthesis of steroid hormones, bile acids, and vitamin D.

However, high levels of cholesteryl esters in the blood can contribute to the development of atherosclerosis, a condition characterized by the buildup of plaque in the arteries, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke. Cholesteryl esters are typically measured as part of a lipid profile, along with other markers such as total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides.

Formate dehydrogenases (FDH) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of formic acid (formate) to carbon dioxide and hydrogen or to carbon dioxide and water, depending on the type of FDH. The reaction is as follows:

Formic acid + Coenzyme Q (or NAD+) -> Carbon dioxide + H2 (or H2O) + Reduced coenzyme Q (or NADH)

FDHs are widely distributed in nature and can be found in various organisms, including bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. They play a crucial role in the metabolism of many microorganisms that use formate as an electron donor for energy conservation or as a carbon source for growth. In addition to their biological significance, FDHs have attracted much interest as biocatalysts for various industrial applications, such as the production of hydrogen, reduction of CO2, and detoxification of formic acid in animal feed.

FDHs can be classified into two main types based on their cofactor specificity: NAD-dependent FDHs and quinone-dependent FDHs. NAD-dependent FDHs use nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) as a cofactor, while quinone-dependent FDHs use menaquinone or ubiquinone as a cofactor. Both types of FDHs have a similar reaction mechanism that involves the transfer of a hydride ion from formate to the cofactor and the release of carbon dioxide.

FDHs are composed of two subunits: a small subunit containing one or two [4Fe-4S] clusters and a large subunit containing a molybdenum cofactor (Moco) and one or two [2Fe-2S] clusters. Moco is a complex prosthetic group that consists of a pterin ring, a dithiolene group, and a molybdenum atom coordinated to three ligands: a sulfur atom from the dithiolene group, a terminal oxygen atom from a mononucleotide, and a serine residue. The molybdenum center can adopt different oxidation states (+4, +5, or +6) during the catalytic cycle, allowing for the transfer of electrons and the activation of formate.

FDHs have various applications in biotechnology and industry, such as the production of hydrogen gas, the removal of nitrate from wastewater, and the synthesis of fine chemicals. The high selectivity and efficiency of FDHs make them attractive catalysts for these processes, which require mild reaction conditions and low energy inputs. However, the stability and activity of FDHs are often limited by their sensitivity to oxygen and other inhibitors, which can affect their performance in industrial settings. Therefore, efforts have been made to improve the properties of FDHs through protein engineering, genetic modification, and immobilization techniques.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

17-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17-HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in steroid hormone biosynthesis. They are involved in the conversion of 17-ketosteroids to 17-hydroxy steroids or vice versa, by adding or removing a hydroxyl group (–OH) at the 17th carbon atom of the steroid molecule. This conversion is essential for the production of various steroid hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones such as estrogen and testosterone.

There are several isoforms of 17-HSDs, each with distinct substrate specificities, tissue distributions, and functions:

1. 17-HSD type 1 (17-HSD1): This isoform primarily catalyzes the conversion of estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2), an active form of estrogen. It is mainly expressed in the ovary, breast, and adipose tissue.
2. 17-HSD type 2 (17-HSD2): This isoform catalyzes the reverse reaction, converting estradiol (E2) to estrone (E1). It is primarily expressed in the placenta, prostate, and breast tissue.
3. 17-HSD type 3 (17-HSD3): This isoform is responsible for the conversion of androstenedione to testosterone, an essential step in male sex hormone biosynthesis. It is predominantly expressed in the testis and adrenal gland.
4. 17-HSD type 4 (17-HSD4): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to androstenedione, an intermediate step in steroid hormone biosynthesis. It is primarily expressed in the placenta.
5. 17-HSD type 5 (17-HSD5): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of cortisone to cortisol, a critical step in glucocorticoid biosynthesis. It is predominantly expressed in the adrenal gland and liver.
6. 17-HSD type 6 (17-HSD6): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of androstenedione to testosterone, similar to 17-HSD3. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the ovary.
7. 17-HSD type 7 (17-HSD7): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2), similar to 17-HSD1. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the ovary.
8. 17-HSD type 8 (17-HSD8): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of DHEA to androstenedione, similar to 17-HSD4. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the testis.
9. 17-HSD type 9 (17-HSD9): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2), similar to 17-HSD1. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the placenta.
10. 17-HSD type 10 (17-HSD10): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of DHEA to androstenedione, similar to 17-HSD4. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the testis.
11. 17-HSD type 11 (17-HSD11): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2), similar to 17-HSD1. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the placenta.
12. 17-HSD type 12 (17-HSD12): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of DHEA to androstenedione, similar to 17-HSD4. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the testis.
13. 17-HSD type 13 (17-HSD13): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2), similar to 17-HSD1. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the placenta.
14. 17-HSD type 14 (17-HSD14): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of DHEA to androstenedione, similar to 17-HSD4. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the testis.
15. 17-HSD type 15 (17-HSD15): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2), similar to 17-HSD1. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the placenta.
16. 17-HSD type 16 (17-HSD16): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of DHEA to androstenedione, similar to 17-HSD4. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the testis.
17. 17-HSD type 17 (17-HSD17): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2), similar to 17-HSD1. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the placenta.
18. 17-HSD type 18 (17-HSD18): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of DHEA to androstenedione, similar to 17-HSD4. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the testis.
19. 17-HSD type 19 (17-HSD19): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2), similar to 17-HSD1. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the placenta.
20. 17-HSD type 20 (17-HSD20): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of DHEA to androstenedione, similar to 17-HSD4. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the testis.
21. 17-HSD type 21 (17-HSD21): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2), similar to 17-HSD1. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the placenta.
22. 17-HSD type 22 (17-HSD22): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of DHEA to androstenedione, similar to 17-HSD4. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the testis.
23. 17-HSD type 23 (17-HSD23): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2), similar to 17-HSD1. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the placenta.
24. 17-HSD type 24 (17-HSD24): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of DHEA to androstenedione, similar to 17-HSD4. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the testis.
25. 17-HSD type 25 (17-HSD25): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2), similar to 17-HSD1. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the placenta.
26. 17-HSD type 26 (17-HSD26): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of DHEA to androstenedione, similar to 17-HSD4. However

Oxidation-Reduction (redox) reactions are a type of chemical reaction involving a transfer of electrons between two species. The substance that loses electrons in the reaction is oxidized, and the substance that gains electrons is reduced. Oxidation and reduction always occur together in a redox reaction, hence the term "oxidation-reduction."

In biological systems, redox reactions play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy production, metabolism, and signaling. The transfer of electrons in these reactions is often facilitated by specialized molecules called electron carriers, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2).

The oxidation state of an element in a compound is a measure of the number of electrons that have been gained or lost relative to its neutral state. In redox reactions, the oxidation state of one or more elements changes as they gain or lose electrons. The substance that is oxidized has a higher oxidation state, while the substance that is reduced has a lower oxidation state.

Overall, oxidation-reduction reactions are fundamental to the functioning of living organisms and are involved in many important biological processes.

Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of purines, which are nitrogen-containing compounds that form part of DNA and RNA. Specifically, XDH helps to break down xanthine and hypoxanthine into uric acid, a waste product that is excreted in the urine.

XDH can exist in two interconvertible forms: a dehydrogenase form (XDH) and an oxidase form (XO). In its dehydrogenase form, XDH uses NAD+ as an electron acceptor to convert xanthine into uric acid. However, when XDH is converted to its oxidase form (XO), it can use molecular oxygen as an electron acceptor instead, producing superoxide and hydrogen peroxide as byproducts. These reactive oxygen species can contribute to oxidative stress and tissue damage in the body.

Abnormal levels or activity of XDH have been implicated in various diseases, including gout, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Esterification is a chemical reaction that involves the conversion of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid into an ester, typically through the removal of a molecule of water. This reaction is often catalyzed by an acid or a base, and it is a key process in organic chemistry. Esters are commonly found in nature and are responsible for the fragrances of many fruits and flowers. They are also important in the production of various industrial and consumer products, including plastics, resins, and perfumes.

Microsomes are subcellular membranous vesicles that are obtained as a byproduct during the preparation of cellular homogenates. They are not naturally occurring structures within the cell, but rather formed due to fragmentation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during laboratory procedures. Microsomes are widely used in various research and scientific studies, particularly in the fields of biochemistry and pharmacology.

Microsomes are rich in enzymes, including the cytochrome P450 system, which is involved in the metabolism of drugs, toxins, and other xenobiotics. These enzymes play a crucial role in detoxifying foreign substances and eliminating them from the body. As such, microsomes serve as an essential tool for studying drug metabolism, toxicity, and interactions, allowing researchers to better understand and predict the effects of various compounds on living organisms.

Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, also known as hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.16), is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of succinic semialdehyde to succinate, which is a key step in the GABA degradation pathway.

Deficiency in this enzyme can lead to an accumulation of succinic semialdehyde and its downstream metabolite, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), resulting in neurological symptoms such as developmental delay, hypotonia, seizures, and movement disorders. GHB is a naturally occurring neurotransmitter and also a recreational drug known as "Grievous Bodily Harm" or "Liquid Ecstasy."

The gene that encodes for succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase is located on chromosome 6 (6p22.3) and has been identified as ALDH5A1. Mutations in this gene can lead to succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency, which is an autosomal recessive disorder.

Ketone oxidoreductases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ketones to corresponding alcohols or vice versa, through the process of reduction or oxidation. These enzymes play an essential role in various metabolic pathways and biochemical reactions within living organisms.

In the context of medical research and diagnostics, ketone oxidoreductases have gained attention for their potential applications in the development of biosensors to detect and monitor blood ketone levels, particularly in patients with diabetes. Elevated levels of ketones in the blood (known as ketonemia) can indicate a serious complication called diabetic ketoacidosis, which requires prompt medical attention.

One example of a ketone oxidoreductase is the enzyme known as d-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (d-BDH), which catalyzes the conversion of d-beta-hydroxybutyrate to acetoacetate. This reaction is part of the metabolic pathway that breaks down fatty acids for energy production, and it becomes particularly important during periods of low carbohydrate availability or insulin deficiency, as seen in diabetes.

Understanding the function and regulation of ketone oxidoreductases can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders like diabetes and contribute to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for their management.

NADP (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate) is a coenzyme that plays a crucial role as an electron carrier in various redox reactions in the human body. It exists in two forms: NADP+, which functions as an oxidizing agent and accepts electrons, and NADPH, which serves as a reducing agent and donates electrons.

NADPH is particularly important in anabolic processes, such as lipid and nucleotide synthesis, where it provides the necessary reducing equivalents to drive these reactions forward. It also plays a critical role in maintaining the cellular redox balance by participating in antioxidant defense mechanisms that neutralize harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS).

In addition, NADP is involved in various metabolic pathways, including the pentose phosphate pathway and the Calvin cycle in photosynthesis. Overall, NADP and its reduced form, NADPH, are essential molecules for maintaining proper cellular function and energy homeostasis.

11-Beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11-β-HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the metabolism of steroid hormones, particularly cortisol and cortisone, which belong to the class of glucocorticoids. These enzymes exist in two isoforms: 11-β-HSD1 and 11-β-HSD2.

1. 11-β-HSD1: This isoform is primarily located within the liver, adipose tissue, and various other peripheral tissues. It functions as a NADPH-dependent reductase, converting inactive cortisone to its active form, cortisol. This enzyme helps regulate glucocorticoid action in peripheral tissues, influencing glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation.
2. 11-β-HSD2: This isoform is predominantly found in mineralocorticoid target tissues such as the kidneys, colon, and salivary glands. It functions as a NAD+-dependent dehydrogenase, converting active cortisol to its inactive form, cortisone. By doing so, it protects the mineralocorticoid receptor from being overstimulated by cortisol, ensuring aldosterone specifically binds and activates this receptor to maintain proper electrolyte and fluid balance.

Dysregulation of 11-β-HSDs has been implicated in several disease states, including metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and psychiatric disorders. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of these enzymes is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat related conditions.

Uridine Diphosphate (UDP) Glucose Dehydrogenase is an enzyme that plays a role in carbohydrate metabolism. Its systematic name is UDP-glucose:NAD+ oxidoreductase, and it catalyzes the following chemical reaction:

UDP-glucose + NAD+ -> UDP-glucuronate + NADH + H+

This enzyme helps convert UDP-glucose into UDP-glucuronate, which is a crucial component in the biosynthesis of various substances in the body, such as glycosaminoglycans and other glyconjugates. The reaction also results in the reduction of NAD+ to NADH, which is an essential coenzyme in numerous metabolic processes.

UDP-glucose dehydrogenase is widely distributed in various tissues, including the liver, kidney, and intestine. Deficiencies or mutations in this enzyme can lead to several metabolic disorders, such as glucosuria and hypermethioninemia.

Palmitic acid is a type of saturated fatty acid, which is a common component in many foods and also produced by the body. Its chemical formula is C16:0, indicating that it contains 16 carbon atoms and no double bonds. Palmitic acid is found in high concentrations in animal fats, such as butter, lard, and beef tallow, as well as in some vegetable oils, like palm kernel oil and coconut oil.

In the human body, palmitic acid can be synthesized from other substances or absorbed through the diet. It plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including energy storage, membrane structure formation, and signaling pathways regulation. However, high intake of palmitic acid has been linked to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases due to its potential to raise low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in the blood.

It is essential to maintain a balanced diet and consume palmitic acid-rich foods in moderation, along with regular exercise and a healthy lifestyle, to reduce the risk of chronic diseases.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

Butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (BD) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the breakdown and metabolism of fatty acids, specifically those with medium chain length. It catalyzes the oxidation of butyryl-CoA to crotonyl-CoA, which is an important step in the beta-oxidation pathway.

The reaction catalyzed by BD can be summarized as follows:

butyryl-CoA + FAD → crotonyl-CoA + FADH2 + CO2

In this reaction, butyryl-CoA is oxidized to crotonyl-CoA, and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) is reduced to FADH2. The release of CO2 is a byproduct of the reaction.

BD is an important enzyme in energy metabolism, as it helps to generate reducing equivalents that can be used in the electron transport chain to produce ATP, the primary source of cellular energy. Deficiencies in BD have been linked to various metabolic disorders, including a rare genetic disorder known as multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD), which is characterized by impaired fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.

Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a genetic disorder that affects the normal functioning of an enzyme called G6PD. This enzyme is found in red blood cells and plays a crucial role in protecting them from damage.

In people with G6PD deficiency, the enzyme's activity is reduced or absent, making their red blood cells more susceptible to damage and destruction, particularly when they are exposed to certain triggers such as certain medications, infections, or foods. This can lead to a condition called hemolysis, where the red blood cells break down prematurely, leading to anemia, jaundice, and in severe cases, kidney failure.

G6PD deficiency is typically inherited from one's parents in an X-linked recessive pattern, meaning that males are more likely to be affected than females. While there is no cure for G6PD deficiency, avoiding triggers and managing symptoms can help prevent complications.

Lipid metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down and utilizes lipids (fats) for various functions, such as energy production, cell membrane formation, and hormone synthesis. This complex process involves several enzymes and pathways that regulate the digestion, absorption, transport, storage, and consumption of fats in the body.

The main types of lipids involved in metabolism include triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and fatty acids. The breakdown of these lipids begins in the digestive system, where enzymes called lipases break down dietary fats into smaller molecules called fatty acids and glycerol. These molecules are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the liver, which is the main site of lipid metabolism.

In the liver, fatty acids may be further broken down for energy production or used to synthesize new lipids. Excess fatty acids may be stored as triglycerides in specialized cells called adipocytes (fat cells) for later use. Cholesterol is also metabolized in the liver, where it may be used to synthesize bile acids, steroid hormones, and other important molecules.

Disorders of lipid metabolism can lead to a range of health problems, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). These conditions may be caused by genetic factors, lifestyle habits, or a combination of both. Proper diagnosis and management of lipid metabolism disorders typically involves a combination of dietary changes, exercise, and medication.

Triglycerides are the most common type of fat in the body, and they're found in the food we eat. They're carried in the bloodstream to provide energy to the cells in our body. High levels of triglycerides in the blood can increase the risk of heart disease, especially in combination with other risk factors such as high LDL (bad) cholesterol, low HDL (good) cholesterol, and high blood pressure.

It's important to note that while triglycerides are a type of fat, they should not be confused with cholesterol, which is a waxy substance found in the cells of our body. Both triglycerides and cholesterol are important for maintaining good health, but high levels of either can increase the risk of heart disease.

Triglyceride levels are measured through a blood test called a lipid panel or lipid profile. A normal triglyceride level is less than 150 mg/dL. Borderline-high levels range from 150 to 199 mg/dL, high levels range from 200 to 499 mg/dL, and very high levels are 500 mg/dL or higher.

Elevated triglycerides can be caused by various factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and certain medical conditions like diabetes, hypothyroidism, and kidney disease. Medications such as beta-blockers, steroids, and diuretics can also raise triglyceride levels.

Lifestyle changes such as losing weight, exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet low in saturated and trans fats, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, and quitting smoking can help lower triglyceride levels. In some cases, medication may be necessary to reduce triglycerides to recommended levels.

Oleic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid that is commonly found in various natural oils such as olive oil, sunflower oil, and grapeseed oil. Its chemical formula is cis-9-octadecenoic acid, and it is a colorless liquid at room temperature. Oleic acid is an important component of human diet and has been shown to have potential health benefits, including reducing the risk of heart disease and improving immune function. It is also used in the manufacture of soaps, cosmetics, and other personal care products.

Cholesterol is a type of lipid (fat) molecule that is an essential component of cell membranes and is also used to make certain hormones and vitamins in the body. It is produced by the liver and is also obtained from animal-derived foods such as meat, dairy products, and eggs.

Cholesterol does not mix with blood, so it is transported through the bloodstream by lipoproteins, which are particles made up of both lipids and proteins. There are two main types of lipoproteins that carry cholesterol: low-density lipoproteins (LDL), also known as "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoproteins (HDL), also known as "good" cholesterol.

High levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood can lead to a buildup of cholesterol in the walls of the arteries, increasing the risk of heart disease and stroke. On the other hand, high levels of HDL cholesterol are associated with a lower risk of these conditions because HDL helps remove LDL cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it back to the liver for disposal.

It is important to maintain healthy levels of cholesterol through a balanced diet, regular exercise, and sometimes medication if necessary. Regular screening is also recommended to monitor cholesterol levels and prevent health complications.

11-Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 (11β-HSD1) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of steroid hormones, particularly cortisol, in the body. Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone produced by the adrenal glands that helps regulate various physiological processes such as metabolism, immune response, and stress response.

11β-HSD1 is primarily expressed in liver, fat, and muscle tissues, where it catalyzes the conversion of cortisone to cortisol. Cortisone is a biologically inactive form of cortisol that is produced when cortisol levels are high, and it needs to be converted back to cortisol for the hormone to exert its effects.

By increasing the availability of active cortisol in these tissues, 11β-HSD1 has been implicated in several metabolic disorders, including obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Inhibitors of 11β-HSD1 are currently being investigated as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of these conditions.

Alanine Dehydrogenase (ADH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion between alanine and pyruvate with the reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride (NADH). This reaction plays a role in the metabolism of amino acids, particularly in the catabolism of alanine.

In humans, there are multiple isoforms of ADH that are expressed in different tissues and have different functions. The isoform known as ALDH4A1 is primarily responsible for the conversion of alanine to pyruvate in the liver. Deficiencies or mutations in this enzyme can lead to a rare genetic disorder called 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria, which is characterized by elevated levels of 4-hydroxybutyric acid in the urine and neurological symptoms.

Mannitol dehydrogenases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of mannitol to mannose or the reverse reduction reaction, depending on the cofactor used. These enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism of mannitol, a sugar alcohol found in various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and plants.

There are two main types of mannitol dehydrogenases:

1. Mannitol-2-dehydrogenase (MT-2DH; EC 1.1.1.67): This enzyme oxidizes mannitol to fructose, using NAD+ as a cofactor. It is widely distributed in bacteria and fungi, contributing to their metabolic versatility.
2. Mannitol-1-dehydrogenase (MT-1DH; EC 1.1.1.17): This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of mannitol to mannose, using NADP+ as a cofactor. It is primarily found in plants and some bacteria, where it plays a role in osmoregulation and stress response.

In summary, mannitol dehydrogenases are enzymes that facilitate the interconversion of mannitol and its corresponding sugars (mannose or fructose) through oxidation-reduction reactions.

Microbodies are small, membrane-bound organelles found in the cells of eukaryotic organisms. They typically measure between 0.2 to 0.5 micrometers in diameter and play a crucial role in various metabolic processes, particularly in the detoxification of harmful substances and the synthesis of lipids.

There are several types of microbodies, including:

1. Peroxisomes: These are the most common type of microbody. They contain enzymes that help break down fatty acids and amino acids, producing hydrogen peroxide as a byproduct. Another set of enzymes within peroxisomes then converts the harmful hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen, thus detoxifying the cell.
2. Glyoxysomes: These microbodies are primarily found in plants and some fungi. They contain enzymes involved in the glyoxylate cycle, a metabolic pathway that helps convert stored fats into carbohydrates during germination.
3. Microbody-like particles (MLPs): These are smaller organelles found in certain protists and algae. Their functions are not well understood but are believed to be involved in lipid metabolism.

It is important to note that microbodies do not have a uniform structure or function across all eukaryotic cells, and their specific roles can vary depending on the organism and cell type.

Carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase (CPT) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the transport of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix, where they undergo beta-oxidation to produce energy. There are two main forms of this enzyme: CPT1 and CPT2.

CPT1 is located on the outer mitochondrial membrane and catalyzes the transfer of a long-chain fatty acyl group from coenzyme A (CoA) to carnitine, forming acylcarnitine. This reaction is reversible and allows for the regulation of fatty acid oxidation in response to changes in energy demand.

CPT2 is located on the inner mitochondrial membrane and catalyzes the reverse reaction, transferring the long-chain fatty acyl group from carnitine back to CoA, allowing for the entry of the fatty acid into the beta-oxidation pathway.

Deficiencies in CPT1 or CPT2 can lead to serious metabolic disorders, such as carnitine deficiency and mitochondrial myopathies, which can cause muscle weakness, cardiomyopathy, and other symptoms. Treatment may involve dietary modifications, supplementation with carnitine or medium-chain fatty acids, and in some cases, enzyme replacement therapy.

Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases (HPGDs) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of prostaglandins, which are hormone-like lipid compounds with various physiological effects in the body. The oxidation reaction catalyzed by HPGDs involves the removal of hydrogen atoms from the prostaglandin molecule and the addition of a ketone group in its place.

The HPGD family includes several isoforms, each with distinct tissue distributions and substrate specificities. The most well-known isoform is 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), which preferentially oxidizes PGE2 and PGF2α at the 15-hydroxyl position, thereby inactivating these prostaglandins.

The regulation of HPGD activity is critical for maintaining prostaglandin homeostasis, as imbalances in prostaglandin levels have been linked to various pathological conditions, including inflammation, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. For example, decreased 15-PGDH expression has been observed in several types of cancer, leading to increased PGE2 levels and promoting tumor growth and progression.

Overall, Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases play a crucial role in regulating prostaglandin signaling and have important implications for human health and disease.

Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, long-chain (LCHAD) is a medical term that refers to an enzyme found in the body that plays a crucial role in breaking down fatty acids for energy. This enzyme is responsible for catalyzing the first step in the beta-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids, which involves the removal of hydrogen atoms from the fatty acid molecule to create a double bond.

Mutations in the gene that encodes LCHAD can lead to deficiencies in the enzyme's activity, resulting in an accumulation of unmetabolized long-chain fatty acids in the body. This can cause a range of symptoms, including hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), muscle weakness, and liver dysfunction. In severe cases, LCHAD deficiency can lead to serious complications such as heart problems, developmental delays, and even death.

LCHAD deficiency is typically diagnosed through newborn screening or genetic testing, and treatment may involve dietary modifications, supplementation with medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs), and avoidance of fasting to prevent the breakdown of fatty acids for energy. In some cases, LCHAD deficiency may require more intensive treatments such as carnitine supplementation or liver transplantation.

Retinal dehydrogenase, also known as Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of alcohol and other aldehydes in the body. In the eye, retinal dehydrogenase plays a specific role in the conversion of retinaldehyde to retinoic acid, which is an important molecule for the maintenance and regulation of the visual cycle and overall eye health.

Retinoic acid is involved in various physiological processes such as cell differentiation, growth, and survival, and has been shown to have a protective effect against oxidative stress in the retina. Therefore, retinal dehydrogenase deficiency or dysfunction may lead to impaired visual function and increased susceptibility to eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy.

Acetyl Coenzyme A, often abbreviated as Acetyl-CoA, is a key molecule in metabolism, particularly in the breakdown and oxidation of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins to produce energy. It is a coenzyme that plays a central role in the cellular process of transforming the energy stored in the chemical bonds of nutrients into a form that the cell can use.

Acetyl-CoA consists of an acetyl group (two carbon atoms) linked to coenzyme A, a complex organic molecule. This linkage is facilitated by an enzyme called acetyltransferase. Once formed, Acetyl-CoA can enter various metabolic pathways. In the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), Acetyl-CoA is further oxidized to release energy in the form of ATP, NADH, and FADH2, which are used in other cellular processes. Additionally, Acetyl-CoA is involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol, and certain amino acids.

In summary, Acetyl Coenzyme A is a vital molecule in metabolism that connects various biochemical pathways for energy production and biosynthesis.

Acylation is a medical and biological term that refers to the process of introducing an acyl group (-CO-) into a molecule. This process can occur naturally or it can be induced through chemical reactions. In the context of medicine and biology, acylation often occurs during post-translational modifications of proteins, where an acyl group is added to specific amino acid residues, altering the protein's function, stability, or localization.

An example of acylation in medicine is the administration of neuraminidase inhibitors, such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu), for the treatment and prevention of influenza. These drugs work by inhibiting the activity of the viral neuraminidase enzyme, which is essential for the release of newly formed virus particles from infected cells. Oseltamivir is administered orally as an ethyl ester prodrug, which is then hydrolyzed in the body to form the active acylated metabolite that inhibits the viral neuraminidase.

In summary, acylation is a vital process in medicine and biology, with implications for drug design, protein function, and post-translational modifications.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

20-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases (20-HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the metabolism of steroid hormones. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of steroid hormone precursors to their active forms by adding or removing a hydroxyl group at the 20th carbon position of the steroid molecule.

There are several isoforms of 20-HSDs, each with distinct tissue distribution and substrate specificity. The most well-known isoforms include 20-HSD type I and II, which have opposing functions in regulating the activity of cortisol, a glucocorticoid hormone produced by the adrenal gland.

Type I 20-HSD, primarily found in the liver and adipose tissue, converts inactive cortisone to its active form, cortisol. In contrast, type II 20-HSD, expressed mainly in the kidney, brain, and immune cells, catalyzes the reverse reaction, converting cortisol back to cortisone.

Dysregulation of 20-HSDs has been implicated in various medical conditions, such as metabolic disorders, inflammatory diseases, and cancers. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of these enzymes is essential for developing targeted therapies for these conditions.

11-Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 (11β-HSD2) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of steroid hormones, particularly cortisol and aldosterone. It is primarily found in tissues such as the kidneys, colon, and salivary glands.

The main function of 11β-HSD2 is to convert active cortisol into inactive cortisone, which helps to prevent excessive mineralocorticoid receptor activation by cortisol. This is important because cortisol can bind to and activate mineralocorticoid receptors, leading to increased sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys, as well as other effects on blood pressure and electrolyte balance.

By converting cortisol to cortisone, 11β-HSD2 helps to protect mineralocorticoid receptors from being overstimulated by cortisol, allowing aldosterone to bind and activate these receptors instead. This is important for maintaining normal blood pressure and electrolyte balance.

Deficiencies or mutations in the 11β-HSD2 enzyme can lead to a condition called apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME), which is characterized by high blood pressure, low potassium levels, and increased sodium reabsorption in the kidneys. This occurs because cortisol is able to bind to and activate mineralocorticoid receptors in the absence of 11β-HSD2 activity.

Lipids are a broad group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. They include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids. Lipids serve many important functions in the body, including energy storage, acting as structural components of cell membranes, and serving as signaling molecules. High levels of certain lipids, particularly cholesterol and triglycerides, in the blood are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Isovaleryl-CoA Dehydrogenase (IVD) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the catabolism of leucine, an essential amino acid. This enzyme is located in the mitochondrial matrix and is responsible for catalyzing the third step in the degradation pathway of leucine.

Specifically, Isovaleryl-CoA Dehydrogenase facilitates the conversion of isovaleryl-CoA to 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA through the removal of two hydrogen atoms from the substrate. This reaction requires the coenzyme flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as an electron acceptor, which gets reduced to FADH2 during the process.

Deficiency in Isovaleryl-CoA Dehydrogenase can lead to a rare genetic disorder known as isovaleric acidemia, characterized by the accumulation of isovaleryl-CoA and its metabolic byproducts, including isovaleric acid, 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid, and methylcrotonylglycine. These metabolites can cause various symptoms such as vomiting, dehydration, metabolic acidosis, seizures, developmental delay, and even coma or death in severe cases.

Isoenzymes, also known as isoforms, are multiple forms of an enzyme that catalyze the same chemical reaction but differ in their amino acid sequence, structure, and/or kinetic properties. They are encoded by different genes or alternative splicing of the same gene. Isoenzymes can be found in various tissues and organs, and they play a crucial role in biological processes such as metabolism, detoxification, and cell signaling. Measurement of isoenzyme levels in body fluids (such as blood) can provide valuable diagnostic information for certain medical conditions, including tissue damage, inflammation, and various diseases.

Multienzyme complexes are specialized protein structures that consist of multiple enzymes closely associated or bound together, often with other cofactors and regulatory subunits. These complexes facilitate the sequential transfer of substrates along a series of enzymatic reactions, also known as a metabolic pathway. By keeping the enzymes in close proximity, multienzyme complexes enhance reaction efficiency, improve substrate specificity, and maintain proper stoichiometry between different enzymes involved in the pathway. Examples of multienzyme complexes include the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, the citrate synthase complex, and the fatty acid synthetase complex.

Homoserine dehydrogenase is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of certain amino acids. Specifically, it catalyzes the conversion of homoserine to aspartate semialdehyde, which is a key step in the biosynthesis of several essential amino acids, including threonine, methionine, and isoleucine. The reaction catalyzed by homoserine dehydrogenase involves the oxidation of homoserine to form aspartate semialdehyde, using NAD or NADP as a cofactor. There are several isoforms of this enzyme found in different organisms, and it has been studied extensively due to its importance in amino acid metabolism and potential as a target for antibiotic development.

Acyl CoA Beta oxidation Thorpe, C.; Kim, J. J. (June 1995). "Structure and Mechanism of Action of the Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenases ... "Thermal unfolding of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and iso(3)valeryl-CoA dehydrogenase: study of the effect of genetic ... "Mechanism of activation of acyl-CoA substrates by medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase: interaction of the thioester carbonyl ... An additional class of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase was discovered that catalyzes α,β-unsaturation reactions with steroid-CoA ...
In enzymology, an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (NADP+) (EC 1.3.1.8) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acyl-CoA + ... crotonyl-CoA reductase, and acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (NADP+). As of late 2007, only one structure has been solved for this class ... Other names in common use include 2-enoyl-CoA reductase, dehydrogenase, acyl coenzyme A (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, ... the two substrates of this enzyme are acyl-CoA and NADP+, whereas its 3 products are 2,3-dehydroacyl-CoA, NADPH, and H+. This ...
Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase Butyryl-CoA (also known as butanoyl-CoA) Mahler HR (January 1954). " ... Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.8.1, butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, butanoyl-CoA dehydrogenase, butyryl dehydrogenase, ... short-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase, short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, 3-hydroxyacyl CoA reductase, butanoyl-CoA:( ... Short-chain+acyl-CoA+dehydrogenase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology ( ...
... (EC 1.3.8.8, palmitoyl-CoA dehydrogenase, palmitoyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, long-chain acyl ... long-chain-acyl-CoA:(acceptor) 2,3-oxidoreductase, ACADL (gene).) is an enzyme with systematic name long-chain acyl-CoA: ... Long-chain+acyl-CoA+dehydrogenase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology (EC ... and long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases from rat liver mitochondria. Isolation of the holo- and apoenzymes and conversion of the ...
... acyl dehydrogenase (ambiguous), fatty-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ambiguous), acyl CoA dehydrogenase (ambiguous), general acyl CoA ... Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.8.7, fatty acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (ambiguous), acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase ... dehydrogenase (ambiguous), medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, acyl-CoA:(acceptor) 2,3-oxidoreductase (ambiguous), ... Medium-chain+acyl-CoA+dehydrogenase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology ( ...
... (EC 1.3.8.9, ACADVL (gene).) is an enzyme with systematic name very-long-chain acyl-CoA: ... Very-long-chain+acyl-CoA+dehydrogenase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology ... crystal structure of human very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 283 (14): 9435-43. doi ... I. Purification and properties of very-long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 267 (2 ...
The entire sequence of transfer reactions is as follows: Acyl-CoAAcyl-CoA dehydrogenase → ETF → ETF-QO → UQ → Complex III. ... Deficiency in ETF dehydrogenase causes the human genetic disease multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. ETQ-QO links the ... Singla M, Guzman G, Griffin AJ, Bharati S (Mar 2008). "Cardiomyopathy in multiple Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: a clinico- ... also known as MADD for multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency), in which there is an improper buildup of fats and proteins ...
"Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency". Orphanet. INSERM and the European Commission. Retrieved 30 August 2018. "Glutaric ... "Highly efficient ketone body treatment in multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency-related leukodystrophy". Pediatr Res. 77 ( ... L-3-hydroxybutyrate treatment of multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD)". The Lancet. 361 (9367): 1433-5. doi: ... while the ETFDH gene encodes the enzyme electron-transferring-flavoprotein dehydrogenase. When one of these enzymes is ...
"Acyl-CoA dehydrogenases, electron transfer flavoprotein and electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase". Biochemical Society ... A crystal structure of the complex of one of its interactors, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD; gene name ACADM) has ... Crane FL, Beinert H (September 1954). "A Link Between Fatty Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase and Cytochrome C: A New Flavin Enzyme". ... Defects in either of the ETF subunits or ETFDH cause multiple acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (OMIM # 231680), earlier called ...
"Acyl-CoA dehydrogenases, electron transfer flavoprotein and electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase". Biochemical Society ... A crystal structure of the complex of one of its interactors, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD; gene name ACADM) has ... Crane FL, Beinert H (September 1954). "A Link Between Fatty Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase and Cytochrome C: A New Flavin Enzyme". ... Defects in either of the ETF subunits or ETFDH cause multiple acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (OMIM # 231680), earlier called ...
Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD deficiency or MCADD) is a disorder of fatty acid oxidation that impairs ... "Orphanet: Medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency". www.orpha.net. Retrieved 14 April 2019. Morris, Andrew A.M.; ... Rinaldo, P.; O'Shea, J. J.; Coates, P. M.; Hale, D. E.; Stanley, C. A.; Tanaka, K. (1988). "Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase ... "Maternal medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency identified by newborn screening". Molecular Genetics and Metabolism. ...
"acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, very long chain". Strauss AW, Powell CK, Hale DE, Anderson MM, Ahuja A, Brackett JC, Sims HF (Nov 1995 ... Very long-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, mitochondrial (VLCAD) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ACADVL ... Acyl CoA dehydrogenase GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000072778 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Clear correlation of genotype with disease phenotype in very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency". American Journal of ...
Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, C-2 to C-3 short chain is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ACADS gene. This gene encodes a ... "Entrez Gene: Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, C-2 to C-3 short chain". Tein I, Elpeleg O, Ben-Zeev B, Korman SH, Lossos A, Lev D, Lerman ... As short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase is involved in beta-oxidation, a deficiency in this enzyme is marked by an increased ... GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Short-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency Human ACADS genome location and ACADS gene ...
ISBN 978-1-118-16945-2. Roth, Karl S. (2013-12-19). "Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency". Medscape. Beermann, C.; ... The cytosolic acetyl-CoA is carboxylated by acetyl CoA carboxylase into malonyl-CoA, the first committed step in the synthesis ... Pyruvate is then decarboxylated to form acetyl-CoA in the mitochondrion. However, this acetyl CoA needs to be transported into ... To obtain cytosolic acetyl-CoA, citrate (produced by the condensation of acetyl-CoA with oxaloacetate) is removed from the ...
Due to this mutation, effective levels of very long-chain-acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase are low or absent in the body, giving rise to ... A change of the gene that codes for very long-chain-acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase (VLCAD) results in a deficiency or malfunction of ... "Very Long Chain Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (LCAD)". "VLCAD deficiency , Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center ( ... Mutations in the ACADVL gene lead to inadequate levels of an enzyme called very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase ...
Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family, member 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACAD10 gene. This gene encodes a member ... "Entrez Gene: Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family, member 10". Bian L, Hanson RL, Muller YL, Ma L, Kobes S, Knowler WC, Bogardus C, ... "Identification and characterization of new long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases". Molecular Genetics and Metabolism. 102 (4): 418 ... of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family of enzymes (ACADs), which participate in the beta-oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria ...
Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency - similar in biochemical features; responsive to riboflavin in the majority of late- ... dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase. This dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase dysfunction disrupted folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism ...
Beta oxidation of acyl-CoA occurs in four steps. 1. Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase catalyzes dehydrogenation of the acyl-CoA, creating ... The latter conversion is mediated by acyl-CoA synthase" acyl-P + HS-CoAacyl-S-CoA + Pi + H+ Three types of acyl-CoA ... A rare disease called multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) is a fatty acid metabolism disorder. Acyl-CoA is ... catalyzed by acyl-CoA synthetase. Fatty acids are converted to their acyl phosphate, the precursor to acyl-CoA. ...
"Long-Chain Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology". eMedicine. 24 March 2016. Retrieved ... "HADHA hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase/3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase/enoyl-CoA hydratase (trifunctional protein), alpha subunit [Homo ... "OMIM Entry - * 600890 - HYDROXYACYL-CoA DEHYDROGENASE/3-KETOACYL-CoA THIOLASE/ENOYL-CoA HYDRATASE, ALPHA SUBUNIT; HADHA". omim. ... Avoiding factors that might precipitate condition Glucose Low fat/high carbohydrate nutrition Long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase ...
Wang SS, Fernhoff PM, Hannon WH, Khoury MJ (1999). "Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency human genome epidemiology ... "ACADM - Medium-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, mitochondrial precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - ACADM gene & protein". ... "Long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency as a cause of pulmonary surfactant dysfunction". The Journal of Biological ... "Molecular cloning of cDNAs encoding rat and human medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and assignment of the gene to human ...
... (GCDH) is an enzyme encoded by the GCDH gene on chromosome 19. The protein belongs to the acyl-CoA ... "GCDH glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase [ Homo sapiens (human) ]". NCBI. Retrieved 6 August 2015. Fu Z, Wang M, Paschke R, Rao KS, ... Chemistry portal Biology portal Technology portal Glutaryl-CoA+dehydrogenase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical ... Rao KS, Albro M, Dwyer TM, Frerman FE (December 2006). "Kinetic mechanism of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase". Biochemistry. 45 (51 ...
Short/branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADSB) is a member of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family of enzymes that catalyze ... an enzyme in the acyl CoA dehydrogenase family. It can cause short/branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. The human ... "Entrez Gene: acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, short/branched chain". Andresen BS, Christensen E, Corydon TJ, Bross P, Pilgaard B, ... The cDNA is significantly similar to the cDNA of other members of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family; its structure is closest ...
"Cloning of nitroalkane oxidase from Fusarium oxysporum identifies a new member of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase superfamily". Proc ... a carbanion-forming flavoprotein homologous to acyl-CoA dehydrogenase". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 433 (1): 157-65. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Ikeda Y, Dabrowski C, Tanaka K (25 January 1983). "Separation and properties of five distinct acyl-CoA dehydrogenases from rat ... Identification of a new 2-methyl branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase". J. Biol. Chem. 258 (2): 1066-76. doi:10.1016/S0021- ... as it accepts electrons from multiple acetyl-CoA dehydrogenases. In plants, ETF-Q oxidoreductase is also important in the ... NADH dehydrogenase succinate dehydrogenase Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase cytochrome c oxidase (CS1 errors: periodical ...
Other names in common use include branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, 2-methyl branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and 2- ... Ikeda Y, Dabrowski C, Tanaka K (1983). "Separation and properties of five distinct acyl-CoA dehydrogenases from rat liver ... Identification of a new 2-methyl branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase". J. Biol. Chem. 258 (2): 1066-76. PMID 6401712. Portal ... a 2-methylacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.99.12) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 2-methylbutanoyl-CoA + ...
"Follow-up of patients with short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiencies identified through ... "Orphanet: Short chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency". www.orpha.net. Retrieved 2016-10-30. Online Mendelian Inheritance in ... Mutations in the ACADS gene lead to inadequate levels of short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, which is important for breaking ... The symptoms of short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency may be triggered during illnesses such as viral infections. In ...
... acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, long chain - which is a member of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family. The acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family ... "Cardiac hypertrophy in mice with long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase or very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency". ... Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, long chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACADL gene. ACADL is a gene that encodes LCAD ... "Entrez Gene: Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, long chain". Kurtz DM, Tolwani RJ, Wood PA (May 1998). "Structural characterization of the ...
"Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 9 (ACAD 9) is the long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase in human embryonic and fetal brain". Biochemical and ... Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family member 9, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ACAD9 gene. Mitochondrial ... "Human acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-9 plays a novel role in the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids". The Journal ... "Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 9 is required for the biogenesis of oxidative phosphorylation complex I". Cell Metabolism. 12 (3): 283- ...
Two prominent examples are coumaroyl-coenzyme A and crotonyl-coenzyme A. They arise by the action of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases. ... "Structure and mechanism of action of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenases". FASEB Journal. 9 (9): 718-25. doi:10.1096/fasebj.9.9.7601336 ... it is the acyl group derived from acrylic acid. The preferred IUPAC name for the group is prop-2-enoyl, and it is also known as ...
Acyl-CoA dehydrogenases are enzymes that catalyze formation of a double bond between C2 (α) and C3 (β) of the acyl-CoA ... Thorpe C, Kim JJ (June 1995). "Structure and mechanism of action of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenases". FASEB Journal. 9 (9): 718-25 ... Plant stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein desaturase (EC 1.14.19.1), an enzyme that catalyzes the introduction of a double bond at ... Family 1 includes Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD) (EC 1.14.19.1). Family 2 is composed of: Bacterial fatty acid desaturases. ...
Acyl CoA Beta oxidation Thorpe, C.; Kim, J. J. (June 1995). "Structure and Mechanism of Action of the Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenases ... "Thermal unfolding of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and iso(3)valeryl-CoA dehydrogenase: study of the effect of genetic ... "Mechanism of activation of acyl-CoA substrates by medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase: interaction of the thioester carbonyl ... An additional class of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase was discovered that catalyzes α,β-unsaturation reactions with steroid-CoA ...
Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is a condition that prevents the body from converting certain fats to ... medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/medium-chain-acyl-coa-dehydrogenase-deficiency/ Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase ... Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is a condition that prevents the body from converting certain fats to ... This gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, which is required to break ...
Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase (MCAD) Deficiency (MCADD) * Sections Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase (MCAD) Deficiency ... encoded search term (Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase (MCAD) Deficiency (MCADD)) and Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase ( ... Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in children with non- ketotic hypoglycemia and low carnitine levels. Pediatr Res ... Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in Saudi Arabia: incidence, genotype, and preventive implications. J Inherit ...
Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase (MCAD) Deficiency (MCADD) * Sections Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase (MCAD) Deficiency ... At least 3 separate acyl-CoA dehydrogenases are known; they are as follows:. *. Long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (Length of ... encoded search term (Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase (MCAD) Deficiency (MCADD)) and Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase ( ... Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in children with non- ketotic hypoglycemia and low carnitine levels. Pediatr Res ...
Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency- (MADD-), also called glutaric aciduria type 2, associated leukodystrophy may be ... Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD), also called glutaric aciduria type II (OMIM #231680) is a genetic defect of ... Oral sodium 3-hydroxybutyrate, a novel adjunct to treatment for multiple acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. J Inherit Metab Dis ... Gautschi, M., Weisstanner, C., Slotboom, J. et al. Highly efficient ketone body treatment in multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase ...
Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase with 3-Thiaoctanoyl-CoA ... Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase with 3-Thiaoctanoyl-CoA. * ... Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, medium-chain specific. A, B, C, D. 396. Sus scrofa. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: ACADM. EC: 1.3.99.3 (PDB ... Crystallographic and molecular orbital studies on the charge-transfer complex of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase with 3- ... The flavoenzyme medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) eliminates the alpha-proton of the substrate analog, 3-thiaoctanoyl- ...
Learn about Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase at online-medical-dictionary.org ... Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase. Synonyms. Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase. Acyl coenzyme A Dehydrogenase. Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase, Medium-Chain. ... Dehydrogenase, Acyl-CoA. Dehydrogenase, Acyl-coenzyme A. Dehydrogenase, Fatty-acyl CoA. Dehydrogenase, Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA. ... Fatty acyl CoA Dehydrogenase. Fatty-acyl CoA Dehydrogenase. MCACA Dehydrogenase. MCACA-Dehydrogenase. Medium Chain Acyl CoA ...
"Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenases" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenases" was a major or ... "Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenases" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: a cause of ophthalmoplegia and multicore myopathy. Neurology. 1999 Jan 15; 52(2 ... Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenases*Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenases. *Acyl CoA Dehydrogenases. *Dehydrogenases, Acyl-CoA ...
What Is Very-Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency?. Very-Long-Chain Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is an ... What Is the Prognosis for an Individual with Very-Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency?. In the past, the severe heart ... How Common Is Very-Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency?. VLCAD deficiency has an estimated incidence of 1 in 30,000 to ... How Is Very-Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency Treated?. Individuals with VLCAD deficiency may be prescribed a ...
Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) Parent Information Star G MCAD Fact Sheet Genetics Home Reference MCAD ...
Some notes on fatal acquired multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) in a two-year-old warmblood stallion and ... Some notes on fatal acquired multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) in a two-year-old warmblood stallion and ...
... (MCAD) is an autosomal recessively inherited disorder of ß-oxidation of fatty ... Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD) is an autosomal recessively inherited disorder of ß-oxidation of fatty ... MCAD deficiency is caused by pathogenic variants in the medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene (ACADM). The most common ...
The SCOP classification for the Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase NM domain-like superfamily including the families contained in it. ... Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase NM domain-like [. 56645] (2) Families: Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, NM (N-terminal and middle) ... Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. 0.0001353. 2.259. --. DIRECT. Enzyme Commission (EC). Isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase. 0.0005316. 2.259. ... Acyl-CoA dehydrogenases are a family of flavoproteins that catalyse the alpha,beta-dehydrogenation of acyl-CoA thioesters to ...
A publicly available article also appearing in PubMed about Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency ... The MCAD enzyme converts medium-chain fatty acyl-CoA into short-chain fatty acyl-CoA and acetyl CoA to provide the body with ... Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is one of the most common fatty acid ß-oxidation disorders. It is an ... Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency (MCADD or MCAD deficiency) is one of the most common mitochondrial fatty ...
The other 2 activities of the protein are 2-enoyl coenzyme A (CoA) hydratase (LCEH) and long-chain 3-ketoacyl CoA thiolase ( ... Long-chain 3-hydroxy acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (LCHAD) is 1 of 3 enzymatic activities that make up the trifunctional ... encoded search term (Long-Chain Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency) and Long-Chain Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency What to ... Scalais E, Bottu J, Wanders RJ, Ferdinandusse S, Waterham HR, De Meirleir L. Familial very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase ...
Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency - ACADM sequencing#. Requires patient informed consent. Sample Reqs ...
Newborn screening information for short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency ... Conditions Short-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCAD) is a condition in ... Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase specializes at breaking down short length fatty acid chains for energy. If you have a ... Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCAD) is estimated to affect one in 40,000 to 100,000 newborns. ...
... a secondary marker for medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency), immunoreactive trypsinogen (a primary marker for cystic ... Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency ... Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Medium/short-chain L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA ...
The enzyme most commonly deficient is medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency ... very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency Very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency Fatty acid ... Other enzyme deficiencies include short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficiency, long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA ... Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency This disorder is one of the most common inherited disorders of metabolism ...
Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. toh_00609. Group_2725. BP0627. −2.0. −3.3. Enoyl-CoA hydratase/isomerase. ... Substrate-CoA ligase. toh_00607. Group_2604. BP0625. −2.3. −3.3. ...
ACYL-COA DEHYDROGENASE, MEDIUM-CHAIN, DEFICIENCY OF; ACADMD. ACYL-COA DEHYDROGENASE, MEDIUM-CHAIN; ACADM. ... ACYL-CoA DEHYDROGENASE, MEDIUM-CHAIN; ACADM. CARNITINE DEFICIENCY SECONDARY TO MEDIUM-CHAIN ACYL-CoA DEHYDROGENASEDEFICIENCY, ... MEDIUM-CHAIN ACYL-CoA DEHYDROGENASE; MCAD; MCADHACYL-CoA DEHYDROGENASE, MEDIUM-CHAIN, DEFICIENCY OF, INCLUDED. ... acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. According to the submitter, biochemical test results for this subject showed decreased enzyme activity ...
Prolonged exercise testing in two children with a mild Multiple Acyl-CoA-Dehydrogenase deficiency. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2005 May ... Lipid-storage myopathy and respiratory insufficiency due to ETFQO mutations in a patient with late-onset multiple acyl-CoA ... ETFDH mutations as a major cause of riboflavin-responsive multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency. Brain. 2007 Aug;130(Pt ... Molecular mechanisms of riboflavin responsiveness in patients with ETF-QO variations and multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation ...
... biochemical abnormalities and pathogenic variants among children with Short/branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SBCAD) ... biochemical indices and genetic variants among children with Short/branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency detected by ...
Keywords: Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, glycolytic reprogramming, N6-methyladenosine, paeonol, proliferation. How to cite this ... ACADM: Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, mRNA: Messenger RNA, YTHDC1: YTH domain containing 1.. Click here to view. ... Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADM) is the key protein responsible for the breakdown of fatty acids in the mitochondria. Abnormal ... Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase.. Click here to view. Discussion. Paeonol, as a flavonoid derivative, is one of the main active ...
Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase fadE1 (EC 1.3.99.-) (Putative acyl-CoA dehydrogenase) 17295914, 18955433 ... MSMEG_4826 MSMEG_4826 Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase fadE1 (EC 1.3.99.-) (Putative acyl-CoA dehydrogenase). Mycobacterium smegmatis ( ...
Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficiency: ACADS* , MetaboSeq , Test Requisition. *Very-long-chain acyl-CoA ... Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency: ACADM , MetaboSeq , Test Requisition. *Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenation ... 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase X (HSD10) deficiency: HSD17B10* , MetaboSeq , Test Requisition. *Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase-9 ... Long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiency: HADHA , HADHB* , MetaboSeq , Test Requisition ...
Short/branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: MedlinePlus Genetics (National Library of Medicine) ... Isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: MedlinePlus Genetics (National Library of Medicine) * Isolated sulfite oxidase ... 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency: MedlinePlus Genetics (National Library of Medicine) * 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA ... Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency: MedlinePlus Genetics (National Library of Medicine) * Primary hyperoxaluria: ...
IPR013786 Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase/oxidase, N-terminal. IPR009100 Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase/oxidase, N-terminal and middle domain ... IPR037069 Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase/oxidase, N-terminal domain superfamily. IPR006091 Acyl-CoA oxidase/dehydrogenase, middle ... Human Disease Modeled: short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Allelic Composition. Genetic Background. Reference. ... IPR009075 Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase/oxidase, C-terminal. ... short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency DOID:0080154. ...
The similarity of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase to a gene from Methylocystis spp. may indicate that this bacterium is the host (see ... including part of an acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase (see Supplementary Fig. 17) and may be present due to recombination ...
MADD - Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency *SCAD - Short-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency ... Isobutyryl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency * FATTY ACID OXIDATION DISORDERS (MS/MS) *MCAD - Medium Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase ... BKT - Mitochondrial Acetoacetyl-CoA Thiolase Deficiency *IBCD - ... Medium Chain Acyl CO-A Dehydrogenase Deficiency (MCAD) 1:15,000 ...
  • Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficiency is a rare genetic condition that prevents the body from converting certain fats (called short-chain fatty acids) into energy. (nih.gov)
  • These genetic changes lead to a shortage (deficiency) of an enzyme known as short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, which is involved in the breakdown of short-chain fatty acids. (nih.gov)
  • When Do Symptoms of Short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency Begin? (nih.gov)
  • Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is a condition that prevents the body from converting certain fats to energy, particularly during periods without food (fasting). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The natural history of medium-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in the Netherlands: clinical presentation and outcome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Dezateux C. Newborn screening for medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: evaluating the effects on outcome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Spectrum of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency detected by newborn screening. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The most common fatty acid oxidation disorder, medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD), has become the focal point for the adoption of tandem mass spectrometry to detect it and related inborn errors of metabolism. (cdc.gov)
  • Despite the increase in screening, understanding of the nat dehydrogenase deficiency" or "tandem mass spectrometry" to ural history of unscreened MCADD remains limited.1,3,4 gether with "newborn screening. (cdc.gov)
  • Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in children with non- ketotic hypoglycemia and low carnitine levels. (medscape.com)
  • Population spectrum of ACADM genotypes correlated to biochemical phenotypes in newborn screening for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Newborn screening for medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in England: prevalence, predictive value and test validity based on 1.5 million screened babies. (medscape.com)
  • Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in Saudi Arabia: incidence, genotype, and preventive implications. (medscape.com)
  • Newborn screening for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: a global perspective. (medscape.com)
  • Medium-chain acyl-coA dehydrogenase deficiency: evaluation of genotype-phenotype correlation in patients detected by newborn screening. (medscape.com)
  • Risk stratification by residual enzyme activity after newborn screening for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehyrogenase deficiency: data from a cohort study. (medscape.com)
  • Abnormal screening in a healthy infant of a mother with undiagnosed medium-chain acyl-coA dehydrogenase deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Newborn screening for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: regional experience and high incidence of carnitine deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: genotype-biochemical phenotype correlations. (medscape.com)
  • Biochemical, molecular, and clinical characteristics of children with short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency detected by newborn screening in California. (nih.gov)
  • Jethva R, Bennett MJ, Vockley J. Short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency. (nih.gov)
  • Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) represents a clinical spectrum in which presentations can be divided into type I (neonatal onset with congenital anomalies), type II (neonatal onset without congenital anomalies), and type III (late onset). (nih.gov)
  • Most infants with short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCADD) identified through newborn screening programs have remained well, and asymptomatic relatives who meet diagnostic criteria are reported. (nih.gov)
  • Very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency (VLCADD) is an inherited disorder of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation with a variable presentation including: cardiomyopathy hypoketotic hypoglycemia liver disease exercise intolerance and rhabdomyolysis. (globalgenes.org)
  • Diagnosis of medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency by stable isotope dilution analysis of urinary acylglycines: retrospective and prospective studies, and comparison of its accuracy to acylcarnitine identification by FAB/mass spectrometry. (syr.edu)
  • Analysis of clinical features, biochemical indices and genetic variants among children with Short/branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency detected by neonatal screening]. (bvsalud.org)
  • To investigate the clinical manifestations, biochemical abnormalities and pathogenic variants among children with Short/branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SBCAD) deficiency detected by neonatal screening . (bvsalud.org)
  • Most infants with very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) identified by newborn screening (NBS) are asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis and remain asymptomatic. (amsterdamumc.org)
  • Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency Fatty acid oxidation disorders are lipid metabolism disorders that are caused by a lack or deficiency of the enzymes needed to break down fats, resulting in delayed mental and physical development. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Core Outcome Sets for Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Phenylketonuria. (nih.gov)
  • 12. Deficiency of a Retinal Dystrophy Protein, Acyl-CoA Binding Domain-containing 5 (ACBD5), Impairs Peroxisomal β-Oxidation of Very-long-chain Fatty Acids. (nih.gov)
  • People with medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) cannot burn fat for energy. (cdc.gov)
  • In his biomedicine lab, CRISPR is being used to research medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD), a rare genetic disease, Zhou told Medscape Medical News . (medscape.com)
  • Anderson DR, Viau K, Botto LD, Pasquali M, Longo N . Clinical and biochemical outcomes of patients with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. (aruplab.com)
  • Parental Experiences of Raising a Child With Medium Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency. (cdc.gov)
  • The medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) is the best known structure of all ACADs, and is the most commonly deficient enzyme within the class that leads to metabolic disorders in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • MCAD can bind to a rather broad range of chain-lengths in the acyl-CoA substrate, however studies show that its specificity tends to target octanoyl-CoA (C8-CoA). (wikipedia.org)
  • acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) protein. (cdc.gov)
  • Researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center have discovered a novel function for the metabolic enzyme medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) in glioblastoma (GBM). (mdanderson.org)
  • Impact of short- and medium-chain organic acids, acylcarnitines, and acyl-CoAs on mitochondrial energy metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • Mutations in nuclear genes encoding for mitochondrial proteins very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) and trifunctional protein (TFP) cause rare autosomal recessive disorders. (nih.gov)
  • Recent advances demonstrate that metformin could exert its glucose-lowering effect by multiple mechanisms, including activation of 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase, decreasing production of cyclic AMP, suppressing mitochondrial complex I of the electron transport chain, targeting glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, and altering the gut microbiome. (frontiersin.org)
  • The mitochondrial enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) plays an important and previously unknown role in blocking a form of cell death. (mdanderson.org)
  • 3. AoxA is a major peroxisomal long chain fatty acyl-CoA oxidase required for beta-oxidation in A. nidulans. (nih.gov)
  • 4. Chlamydomonas carries out fatty acid β-oxidation in ancestral peroxisomes using a bona fide acyl-CoA oxidase. (nih.gov)
  • 8. A novel acyl-CoA oxidase that can oxidize short-chain acyl-CoA in plant peroxisomes. (nih.gov)
  • Main outcome measures were clinical outcome parameters, acyl-CoA dehydrogenase very long chain gene analysis, VLCAD activity, and overall capacity of long-chain fatty acid oxidation (LC-FAO flux) in lymphocytes and cultured skin fibroblasts. (amsterdamumc.org)
  • This gives a total of four FAD molecules and four acyl-CoA substrate binding sites per enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • The acyl-CoA substrate is bound completely within each monomer of the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, which is required to break down (metabolize) a group of fats called medium-chain fatty acids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The enzyme from the parasitic helminth Ascaris suum catalyzes a reductive reaction as part of a fermentation pathway, shuttling reducing power from the electron-transport chain to 2-methyl branched-chain enoyl CoA. (expasy.org)
  • This class of ACAD was demonstrated to form α2β2 heterotetramers, rather than the usual α4 homotetramer, a protein architecture that evolved in order to accommodate a much larger steroid-CoA substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. New insights into the peroxisomal protein inventory: Acyl-CoA oxidases and -dehydrogenases are an ancient feature of peroxisomes. (nih.gov)
  • Carnitine binds acyl residues and helps in their elimination, decreasing the number of acyl residues conjugated with coenzyme A (CoA) and increasing the ratio between free and acylated CoA. (medscape.com)
  • The following reaction is the oxidation of the fatty acid by FAD to afford an α,β-unsaturated fatty acid thioester of Coenzyme A: ACADs can be categorized into three distinct groups based on their specificity for short-, medium-, or long-chain fatty acid acyl-CoA substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most acyl-CoA dehydrogenases are α4 homotetramers, and in two cases (for very long chain fatty acid substrates) they are α2 homodimers. (wikipedia.org)
  • For detailed information about long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, go to the full flat file . (brenda-enzymes.org)
  • Acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACADs) are a class of enzymes that function to catalyze the initial step in each cycle of fatty acid β-oxidation in the mitochondria of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • While different dehydrogenases target fatty acids of varying chain length, all types of ACADs are mechanistically similar. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme's action represents the first step in fatty acid metabolism (the process of breaking long chains of fatty acids into acetyl CoA molecules). (wikipedia.org)
  • This probably allowed for the substrate binding site to open up considerably to accommodate much larger polycyclic-CoA substrates, rather than fatty acids of varying chain lengths. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their action results in the introduction of a trans double-bond between C2 (α) and C3 (β) of the acyl-CoA thioester substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are a total of 4 active sites within the tetramer, each of which contains a single FAD molecule and an acyl-CoA substrate binding site. (wikipedia.org)
  • The recent incorporation of medium chain acyl-CoA dehy death and intellectual disability. (cdc.gov)
  • 13. Novel functions of acyl-CoA thioesterases and acyltransferases as auxiliary enzymes in peroxisomal lipid metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • C6-C10-dicarboxylic aciduria: investigations of a patient with riboflavin responsive multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation defects. (medscape.com)
  • An additional class of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase was discovered that catalyzes α,β-unsaturation reactions with steroid-CoA thioesters in certain types of bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • GCD is an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of glutaryl-CoA to crotonyl-CoA and carbon dioxide in the catabolism of lysine, hydroxylysine, and tryptophan. (nih.gov)
  • The lack of these enzymes leaves the body short of energy and allows breakdown products, such as acyl-CoA, to accumulate. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The acyl-CoA dehydrogenase mechanism proceeds through an E2 elimination. (wikipedia.org)
  • 10. Structure and function of plant acyl-CoA oxidases. (nih.gov)
  • Calvaresi EC, Genzen JR . Evaluating Percentage-Based Reporting of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) Enzymatic Activity. (aruplab.com)