Acyl Carrier Protein: Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.Acyl-Carrier Protein S-Malonyltransferase: This enzyme catalyzes the transacylation of malonate from MALONYL CoA to activated holo-ACP, to generate malonyl-(acyl-carrier protein), which is an elongation substrate in FATTY ACIDS biosynthesis. It is an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of FATTY ACIDS in all BACTERIA.Malonyl Coenzyme A: A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Protein S: The vitamin K-dependent cofactor of activated PROTEIN C. Together with protein C, it inhibits the action of factors VIIIa and Va. A deficiency in protein S; (PROTEIN S DEFICIENCY); can lead to recurrent venous and arterial thrombosis.Pantetheine: An intermediate in the pathway of coenzyme A formation in mammalian liver and some microorganisms.Fatty Acid Synthase, Type II: The form of fatty acid synthase complex found in BACTERIA; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Catalytic steps are like the animal form but the protein structure is different with dissociated enzymes encoded by separate genes. It is a target of some ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS which result in disruption of the CELL MEMBRANE and CELL WALL.3-Oxoacyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Synthase: An enzyme of long-chain fatty acid synthesis, that adds a two-carbon unit from malonyl-(acyl carrier protein) to another molecule of fatty acyl-(acyl carrier protein), giving a beta-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) with the release of carbon dioxide. EC 2.3.1.41.Polyketide Synthases: Large enzyme complexes composed of a number of component enzymes that are found in STREPTOMYCES which biosynthesize MACROLIDES and other polyketides.Fatty Acid Synthases: Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.Transferases (Other Substituted Phosphate Groups): A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.3-Oxoacyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Reductase: A 3-oxoacyl reductase that has specificity for ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN-derived FATTY ACIDS.Coenzyme APantothenic Acid: A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Protein S Deficiency: An autosomal dominant disorder showing decreased levels of plasma protein S antigen or activity, associated with venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. PROTEIN S is a vitamin K-dependent plasma protein that inhibits blood clotting by serving as a cofactor for activated PROTEIN C (also a vitamin K-dependent protein), and the clinical manifestations of its deficiency are virtually identical to those of protein C deficiency. Treatment with heparin for acute thrombotic processes is usually followed by maintenance administration of coumarin drugs for the prevention of recurrent thrombosis. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1511; Wintrobe's Clinical Hematology, 9th ed, p1523)Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Enoyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Reductase (NADH): An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] to trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-[acyl-carrier protein]. It has a preference for acyl groups with a carbon chain length between 4 to 16.Carbon-Sulfur Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-sulfur bond. EC 6.2.Ribosomal Protein S6: A ribosomal protein that may play a role in controlling cell growth and proliferation. It is a major substrate of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES and plays a role in regulating the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNAs that contain an RNA 5' TERMINAL OLIGOPYRIMIDINE SEQUENCE.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Acylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Thiolester HydrolasesTriclosan: A diphenyl ether derivative used in cosmetics and toilet soaps as an antiseptic. It has some bacteriostatic and fungistatic action.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Ribosomal Proteins: Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.Cerulenin: An epoxydodecadienamide isolated from several species, including ACREMONIUM, Acrocylindrum, and Helicoceras. It inhibits the biosynthesis of several lipids by interfering with enzyme function.Saccharopolyspora: A genus of gram-positive bacteria whose spores are round to oval and covered by a sheath.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Apoproteins: The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Acyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Anthraquinones: Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.Coriandrum: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE. The leaves are the source of cilantro and the seeds are the source of coriander, both of which are used in SPICES.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Acyl-Carrier Protein S-Acetyltransferase: A enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL CoA to acyl-carrier protein to form COENZYME A and acetyl-acyl-carrier protein.MalonatesProtein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Thioctic Acid: An octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs so that it is sometimes also called a pentanoic acid in some naming schemes. It is biosynthesized by cleavage of LINOLEIC ACID and is a coenzyme of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX). It is used in DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.Lipid A: Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.Naphthacenes: Polyacenes with four ortho-fused benzene rings in a straight linear arrangement. This group is best known for the subclass called TETRACYCLINES.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Peptide Synthases: Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Acetyl Coenzyme A: Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Ligases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Protein C: A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Mycolic AcidsSulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Complement Inactivator Proteins: Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.Polyketides: Natural compounds containing alternating carbonyl and methylene groups (beta-polyketones), bioenergenetically derived from repeated condensation of acetyl coenzyme A via malonyl coenzyme A, in a process similar to fatty acid synthesis.Biocatalysis: The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Glycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Hydro-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.
(1/41) Polyketide synthase acyl carrier protein (ACP) as a substrate and a catalyst for malonyl ACP biosynthesis.

BACKGROUND: Using an acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) as a starter unit, type II polyketide synthases (PKSs) generate a wide range of polyketide products by successive decarboxylative condensations with the two-carbon donor malonyl (ACP). In vitro experiments have demonstrated that polyketide biosynthesis in reconstituted PKS systems requires the fatty acid synthase (FAS) enzyme malonyl CoA:ACP acyltransferase (FabD) from streptomycetes. It has also been shown that holo-ACPs from a type II PKS can catalyze self-malonylation in the presence of malonyl CoA and negate this FabD requirement. The relative roles of FabD and ACP self-malonylation in PKS biosynthesis in vivo are still not known. RESULTS: We have examined the ACP specificity of the Streptomyces glaucescens FabD and shown that it reacts specifically with monomeric forms of ACP, with comparable k(cat)/K(M) values for ACPs from both type II PKS and FAS systems. Incubations of tetracenomycin ACP (TcmM) with the Escherichia coli FAS ACP (AcpP) unexpectedly revealed that, in addition to the self-malonylation process, TcmM can catalyze the malonylation of AcpP. The k(cat)/K(M) value for the TcmM-catalyzed malonylation of S. glaucescens FAS ACP is two orders of magnitude smaller than that observed for the FabD-catalyzed process. CONCLUSIONS: The ability of a PKS ACP to catalyze malonylation of a FAS ACP is a surprising finding and demonstrates for the first time that PKS ACPs and FabD can catalyze the same reaction. The differences in the catalytic efficiency of these two proteins rationalizes in vitro observations that FabD-independent polyketide biosynthesis proceeds only at high concentrations of a PKS ACP.  (+info)

(2/41) Kinetic analysis of the actinorhodin aromatic polyketide synthase.

Type II polyketide synthases (PKSs) are bacterial multienzyme systems that catalyze the biosynthesis of a broad range of natural products. A core set of subunits, consisting of a ketosynthase, a chain length factor, an acyl carrier protein (ACP) and possibly a malonyl CoA:ACP transacylase (MAT) forms a "minimal" PKS. They generate a poly-beta-ketone backbone of a specified length from malonyl-CoA derived building blocks. Here we (a) report on the kinetic properties of the actinorhodin minimal PKS, and (b) present further data in support of the requirement of the MAT. Kinetic analysis showed that the apoACP is a competitive inhibitor of minimal PKS activity, demonstrating the importance of protein-protein interactions between the polypeptide moiety of the ACP and the remainder of the minimal PKS. In further support of the requirement of MAT for PKS activity, two new findings are presented. First, we observe hyperbolic dependence of PKS activity on MAT concentration, saturating at very low amounts (half-maximal rate at 19.7 +/- 5.1 nM). Since MAT can support PKS activity at less than 1/100 the typical concentration of the ACP and ketosynthase/chain length factor components, it is difficult to rule out the presence of trace quantities of MAT in a PKS reaction mixture. Second, an S97A mutant was constructed at the nucleophilic active site of the MAT. Not only can this mutant protein support PKS activity, it is also covalently labeled by [(14)C]malonyl-CoA, demonstrating that the serine nucleophile (which has been the target of PMSF inhibition in earlier studies) is dispensible for MAT activity in a Type II PKS system.  (+info)

(3/41) Characterization of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa fatty acid biosynthetic gene cluster: purification of acyl carrier protein (ACP) and malonyl-coenzyme A:ACP transacylase (FabD).

A DNA fragment containing the Pseudomonas aeruginosa fabD (encoding malonyl-coenzyme A [CoA]:acyl carrier protein [ACP] transacylase), fabG (encoding beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase), acpP (encoding ACP), and fabF (encoding beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II) genes was cloned and sequenced. This fab gene cluster is delimited by the plsX (encoding a poorly understood enzyme of phospholipid metabolism) and pabC (encoding 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase) genes; the fabF and pabC genes seem to be translationally coupled. The fabH gene (encoding beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III), which in most gram-negative bacteria is located between plsX and fabD, is absent from this gene cluster. A chromosomal temperature-sensitive fabD mutant was obtained by site-directed mutagenesis that resulted in a W258Q change. A chromosomal fabF insertion mutant was generated, and the resulting mutant strain contained substantially reduced levels of cis-vaccenic acid. Multiple attempts aimed at disruption of the chromosomal fabG gene were unsuccessful. We purified FabD as a hexahistidine fusion protein (H6-FabD) and ACP in its native form via an ACP-intein-chitin binding domain fusion protein, using a novel expression and purification scheme that should be applicable to ACP from other bacteria. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization spectroscopy, native polyacrylamide electrophoresis, and amino-terminal sequencing revealed that (i) most of the purified ACP was properly modified with its 4'-phosphopantetheine functional group, (ii) it was not acylated, and (iii) the amino-terminal methionine was removed. In an in vitro system, purified ACP functioned as acyl acceptor and H(6)-FabD exhibited malonyl-CoA:ACP transacylase activity.  (+info)

(4/41) Heterologous expression, purification, reconstitution and kinetic analysis of an extended type II polyketide synthase.

BACKGROUND: Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are bacterial multienzyme systems that synthesize a broad range of natural products. The 'minimal' PKS consists of a ketosynthase, a chain length factor, an acyl carrier protein and a malonyl transferase. Auxiliary components (ketoreductases, aromatases and cyclases are involved in controlling the oxidation level and cyclization of the nascent polyketide chain. We describe the heterologous expression and reconstitution of several auxiliary PKS components including the actinorhodin ketoreductase (act KR), the griseusin aromatase/cyclase (gris ARO/CYC), and the tetracenomycin aromatase/cyclase (tcm ARO/CYC). RESULTS: The polyketide products of reconstituted act and tcm PKSs were identical to those identified in previous in vivo studies. Although stable protein-protein interactions were not detected between minimal and auxiliary PKS components, kinetic analysis revealed that the extended PKS comprised of the act minimal PKS, the act KR and the gris ARO/CYC had a higher turnover number than the act minimal PKS plus the act KR or the act minimal PKS alone. Adding the tcm ARO/CYC to the tcm minimal PKS also increased the overall rate. CONCLUSIONS: Until recently the principal strategy for functional analysis of PKS subunits was through heterologous expression of recombinant PKSs in Streptomyces. Our results corroborate the implicit assumption that the product isolated from whole-cell systems is the dominant product of the PKS. They also suggest that an intermediate is channeled between the various subunits, and pave the way for more detailed structural and mechanistic analysis of these multienzyme systems.  (+info)

(5/41) Fatty acid and lipoic acid biosynthesis in higher plant mitochondria.

Fatty acid and lipoic acid biosynthesis were investigated in plant mitochondria. Although the mitochondria lack acetyl-CoA carboxylase, our experiments reveal that they contain the enzymatic equipment necessary to transform malonate into the two main building units for fatty acid synthesis: malonyl- and acetyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP). We demonstrated, by a new method based on a complementary use of high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, that the soluble mitochondrial fatty-acid synthase produces mainly three predominant acyl-ACPs as follows: octanoyl(C8)-, hexadecanoyl(C16)-, and octadecanoyl(C18)-ACP. Octanoate production is of primary interest since it has been postulated long ago to be a precursor of lipoic acid. By using a recombinant H apoprotein mutant as a potential acceptor for newly synthesized lipoic acid, we were able to detect limited amounts of lipoylated H protein in the presence of malonate, several sulfur donors, and cofactors. Finally, we present a scheme outlining the new biochemical pathway of fatty acid and lipoic acid synthesis in plant mitochondria.  (+info)

(6/41) Biochemical characterization of acyl carrier protein (AcpM) and malonyl-CoA:AcpM transacylase (mtFabD), two major components of Mycobacterium tuberculosis fatty acid synthase II.

Malonyl coenzyme A (CoA)-acyl carrier protein (ACP) transacylase (MCAT) is an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of fatty acids in all bacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. MCAT catalyzes the transacylation of malonate from malonyl-CoA to activated holo-ACP, to generate malonyl-ACP, which is an elongation substrate in fatty acid biosynthesis. To clarify the roles of the mycobacterial acyl carrier protein (AcpM) and MCAT in fatty acid and mycolic acid biosynthesis, we have cloned, expressed, and purified acpM and mtfabD (malonyl-CoA:AcpM transacylase) from M. tuberculosis. According to the culture conditions used, AcpM was produced in Escherichia coli in two or three different forms: apo-AcpM, holo-AcpM, and palmitoylated-AcpM, as revealed by electrospray mass spectrometry. The mtfabD gene encoding a putative MCAT was used to complement a thermosensitive E. coli fabD mutant. Expression and purification of mtFabD resulted in an active enzyme displaying strong MCAT activity in vitro. Enzymatic studies using different ACP substrates established that holo-AcpM constitutes the preferred substrate for mtFabD. In order to provide further insight into the structure-function relationship of mtFabD, different mutant proteins were generated. All mutations (Q9A, R116A, H194A, Q243A, S91T, and S91A) completely abrogated MCAT activity in vitro, thus underlining the importance of these residues in transacylation. The generation and characterization of the AcpM forms and mtFabD opens the way for further studies relating to fatty acid and mycolic acid biosynthesis to be explored in M. tuberculosis. Since a specific type of FabD is found in mycobacterial species, it represents an attractive new drug target waiting to be exploited.  (+info)

(7/41) The Endoplasmic reticulum-associated maize GL8 protein is a component of the acyl-coenzyme A elongase ivolved in the production of cuticular waxes.

The gl8 gene is required for the normal accumulation of cuticular waxes on maize (Zea mays) seedling leaves. The predicted GL8 protein exhibits significant sequence similarity to a class of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of a ketone group to a hydroxyl group. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the recombinant Escherichia coli-expressed GL8 protein were used to investigate the function of this protein in planta. Subcellular fractionation experiments indicate that the GL8 protein is associated with the endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Furthermore, polyclonal antibodies raised against the partially purified leek (Allium porrum) microsomal acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) elongase can react with the E. coli-expressed GL8 protein. In addition, anti-GL8 immunoglobulin G inhibited the in vitro elongation of stearoyl-CoA by leek and maize microsomal acyl-CoA elongase. In combination, these findings indicate that the GL8 protein is a component of the acyl-CoA elongase. In addition, the finding that anti-GL8 immunoglobulin G did not significantly inhibit the 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase, 3-ketoacyl-CoA dehydrase, and (E) 2,3-enoyl-CoA reductase partial reactions of leek or maize acyl-CoA elongase lends further support to our previous hypothesis that the GL8 protein functions as a beta-ketoacyl reductase during the elongation of very long-chain fatty acids required for the production of cuticular waxes.  (+info)

(8/41) Site-specific mutagenesis and domain substitutions in the loading module of the nystatin polyketide synthase, and their effects on nystatin biosynthesis in Streptomyces noursei.

The loading module for the nystatin polyketide synthase (PKS) in Streptomyces noursei is represented by the NysA protein composed of a ketosynthase (KS(S)), acyltransferase, dehydratase, and an acyl carrier protein. The absolute requirement of this protein for initiation of nystatin biosynthesis was demonstrated by the in-frame deletion of the nysA gene in S. noursei. The role of the NysA KS(S) domain, however, remained unclear, since no data on the significance of the "active site" serine (Ser-170) residue in the loading modules of type I PKSs were available. Site-specific mutagenesis of Ser-170 both in the wild-type NysA and in the hybrid loading module containing malonyl-specific acyltransferase domain from the extender module had no effect on nystatin biosynthesis. A second mutation (S413N) of the NysA KS(S) domain was discovered that completely abolished the ability of the hybrids to restore nystatin biosynthesis, presumably by affecting the ability of the resulting proteins to catalyze the required substrate decarboxylation. In contrast, NysA and its Ser-170 mutants bearing the same S413N mutation were able to restore nystatin production to significant levels, probably by using acetyl-CoA as a starter unit. Together, these data suggest that the KS(S) domain of NysA differs from the KS(Q) domains found in the loading modules of several PKS type I systems in that the active site residue is not significant for its activity.  (+info)

*  acyl-carrier-protein) S-malonyltransferase
... acyl carrier protein]malonyltransferase, FabD, malonyl transacylase, malonyl transferase, malonyl-CoA-acyl carrier protein ... acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase. Other names in common use include malonyl coenzyme A-acyl carrier protein ... acyl-carrier-protein] The transfer of malonate to acyl-carrier-protein (ACP) converts the acyl groups into thioester forms ... acyl-carrier-protein] Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are malonyl-CoA and acyl carrier protein, whereas its two ...
*  MCAT (gene)
Malonyltransferase and acyl carrier protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (41): 40067-74. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MCAT gene. The ... where it catalyzes the transfer of a malonyl group from malonyl-CoA to the mitochondrial acyl carrier protein. The encoded ... The human Malonyl CoA-acel carrier protein transacylase in human mitochondria associates with respiratory complex one, such ...
*  Malonyltransferase
... can refer to: (acyl-carrier-protein) S-malonyltransferase Anthocyanin 5-O-glucoside 6'''-O- ...
*  MDCH
... acyl-carrier-protein) S-malonyltransferase, an enzyme. ...
*  FABD
... may refer to: Florida Association of Band Directors (acyl-carrier-protein) S-malonyltransferase, an enzyme National ...
*  Annonacin
These include the acyl carrier protein (ACP), acetyl transferase (AT), ketosynthase (KS), malonyl transferase (MT; which can ... In vitro, annonacin is under study for its potential to affect the protein p21, cultured cancer cells, and the size of tumors ...
*  MCAT (disambiguation)
... acyl-carrier-protein) S-malonyltransferase, an enzyme Moraxella catarrhalis, a Gram-negative bacteria m.c.A.T (born 1961), ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D08)
... acyl-carrier protein s-malonyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.173 --- 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase MeSH ... acyl-carrier-protein) reductase (nadh) MeSH D08.811.682.660.390 --- enoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) reductase (nadph, b-specific) ... acyl-carrier protein s-acetyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.134.060 --- acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050. ... acyl-carrier-protein) synthase MeSH D08.811.913.050.625 --- phosphatidylcholine-sterol O-acyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050. ...
*  List of EC numbers (EC 2)
... acyl-carrier-protein) S-acetyltransferase EC 2.3.1.39: (acyl-carrier-protein) S-malonyltransferase EC 2.3.1.40: acyl-(acyl- ... acyl-carrier-protein) synthase II EC 2.3.1.180: beta-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase III EC 2.3.1.181: lipoyl(octanoyl ... carrier-protein)-phospholipid O-acyltransferase EC 2.3.1.41: 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase EC 2.3.1.42: glycerone- ... ribosomal-protein-alanine N-acetyltransferase EC 2.3.1.129: acyl-(acyl-carrier-protein)-UDP-N-acetylglucosamine O- ...
RCSB PDB 









- 1MLA: THE ESCHERICHIA COLI MALONYL-COA:ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN TRANSACYLASE AT 1.5-ANGSTROMS RESOLUTION....  RCSB PDB - 1MLA: THE ESCHERICHIA COLI MALONYL-COA:ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN TRANSACYLASE AT 1.5-ANGSTROMS RESOLUTION....
... acyl carrier protein transacylase at 1.5-A resolution. Crystal structure of a fatty acid synthase component. ... acyl Carrier Protein] S Malonyltransferase Activity * Transferase Activity * Transferase Activity Transferring Acyl Groups ... Malonyl-Coenzyme A Acyl Carrier Protein; domain 2 Malonyl-Coenzyme A Acyl Carrier Protein, domain 2 ... MALONYL-COENZYME A ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN TRANSACYLASE (1MLA:A) * Catalytic Activity * [ ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/derivedData.do?structureId=1MLA
acyl-carrier-protein) S-malonyltransferase - Wikipedia  acyl-carrier-protein) S-malonyltransferase - Wikipedia
... acyl carrier protein]malonyltransferase, FabD, malonyl transacylase, malonyl transferase, malonyl-CoA-acyl carrier protein ... acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase. Other names in common use include malonyl coenzyme A-acyl carrier protein ... acyl-carrier-protein] The transfer of malonate to acyl-carrier-protein (ACP) converts the acyl groups into thioester forms ... acyl-carrier-protein] Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are malonyl-CoA and acyl carrier protein, whereas its two ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/(acyl-carrier-protein)_S-malonyltransferase
KEGG BRITE: KEGG Modules  KEGG BRITE: KEGG Modules
K00645 fabD; [acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase [EC:2.3.1.39] K00648 fabH; 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase ... K18473 fabY; acetoacetyl-[acyl-carrier protein] synthase [EC:2.3.1.180] M00083 Fatty acid biosynthesis, elongation [PATH: ... K11263 bccA; acetyl-CoA/propionyl-CoA carboxylase, biotin carboxylase, biotin carboxyl carrier protein [EC:6.4.1.2 6.4.1.3 6.3. ... K02160 accB, bccP; acetyl-CoA carboxylase biotin carboxyl carrier protein K01961 accC; acetyl-CoA carboxylase, biotin ...
more infohttp://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/get_htext?ko00002+K11262
KEGG BRITE: Enzymes - Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv  KEGG BRITE: Enzymes - Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv
K00645 fabD; [acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase [EC:2.3.1.39] K00645 fabD; [acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase ... 2.3.1.39 [acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase Rv0649 fabD2; malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase Rv2243 fabD; ... 2.3.1.129 acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]---UDP-N-acetylglucosamine O-acyltransferase 2.3.1.130 galactarate O- ... 2.3.1.38 [acyl-carrier-protein] S-acetyltransferase ... 2.3.1.40 acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]---phospholipid O- ...
more infohttp://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/get_htext?mtu01000+Rv2243
Mcat Prep Courses  Mcat Prep Courses
acyl-carrier-protein) S-malonyltransferase, an enzyme. * Monstercat, a Canadian electronic dance music record label ... Malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MCAT gene. ... where it catalyzes the transfer of a malonyl group from malonyl-CoA to the mitochondrial acyl carrier protein. The encoded ... The human Malonyl CoA-acel carrier protein transacylase in human mitochondria associates with respiratory complex one, such ...
more infohttps://upge.wn.com/?from=mcatprepcourses.com&ads=1&title=Mcat+prep+courses&auto=Mcat+prep+courses&author=system&template=cheetah-photo-search%2Findex.txt&query=Mcat+prep+courses&pagenum=4
MCAT (gene) - Wikipedia  MCAT (gene) - Wikipedia
Malonyltransferase and acyl carrier protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (41): 40067-74. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MCAT gene. The ... where it catalyzes the transfer of a malonyl group from malonyl-CoA to the mitochondrial acyl carrier protein. The encoded ... The human Malonyl CoA-acel carrier protein transacylase in human mitochondria associates with respiratory complex one, such ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MCAT_(gene)
Sequence mining and transcript profiling to explore differentially expressed genes associated with lipid biosynthesis during...  Sequence mining and transcript profiling to explore differentially expressed genes associated with lipid biosynthesis during...
... acyl-carrier-protein] synthase I, II, III; FabD: [acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase; FabG: 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier ... 3-hydroxydecanoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] dehydratase. FabB Fab: F, FabH or KASIII: 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase I ... which is then transacylated by malonyl-CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase (FabD or MCAT,[EC 2.3.1.39]) to the acyl carrier ... Mandal MNA, Santha IM, Lodha ML, Mehta SL: Cloning of acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase gene from Brassica juncea. ...
more infohttps://bmcplantbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2229-12-122
Fatty acid synthase - Wikipedia  Fatty acid synthase - Wikipedia
acyl-carrier-protein S-malonyltransferase activity]. • 3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein dehydratase activity]. • fatty acid ... 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein synthase activity]. • acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein hydrolase activity]. • hydrolase activity. • ... enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein reductase (NADPH, B-specific) activity]. • protein binding. • 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein ... acyl-carrier-protein dehydratase activity]. • protein homodimerization activity. • catalytic activity. • [acyl-carrier-protein ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatty_acid_synthase
malonyl-CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase  malonyl-CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase
EC 2.3.1.39; recommended name: [acylcarrierprotein] S‐malonyltransferase; systematic name: malonyl‐CoA:[acylcarrierprotein ... malonyl-CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase' can also refer to... malonyl‐CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase ... malonyl‐CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase. in Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology ... From: malonyl‐CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase in Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology » ...
more infohttp://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803100129150
Anti-Fatty Acid Synthase antibody (ab99359) | Abcam  Anti-Fatty Acid Synthase antibody (ab99359) | Abcam
Acyl-carrier-protein] S acetyltransferase antibody. *[Acyl-carrier-protein] S malonyltransferase antibody ... This multifunctional protein has 7 catalytic activities and an acyl carrier protein. ... PBS-Tween for 1h to permeabilise the cells and block non-specific protein-protein interactions. The cells were then incubated ... Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex miRNA assays. By ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/fatty-acid-synthase-antibody-ab99359.html
Noca 4198 protein (Nocardioides sp. JS614) - STRING interaction network  Noca 4198 protein (Nocardioides sp. JS614) - STRING interaction network
acyl-carrier-protein) S-malonyltransferase. 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase. 0.487. Noca_1990. Noca_4198. (acyl-carrier-protein ... Edges represent protein-protein associations. associations are meant to be specific and meaningful, i.e. proteins jointly ... Network nodes represent proteins. splice isoforms or post-translational modifications are collapsed, i.e. each node represents ... Proteins whose genes are observed to be correlated in expression, across a large number of experiments. ...
more infohttps://string-db.org/network/196162.Noca_4198
Identifying essential genes in bacterial metabolic networks with machine learning methods | BMC Systems Biology | Full Text  Identifying essential genes in bacterial metabolic networks with machine learning methods | BMC Systems Biology | Full Text
fabD: Acyl carrier protein S-malonyltransferase is a potential target of Mycobacterium bovis BCG [38]. ... fabG: 3-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase is a well-known drug target of E. coli, B. subtilis, and S. aureus [40]. ... Estrada E: Virtual identification of essential proteins within the protein interaction network of yeast. Proteomics. 2006, 6: ... centrality of a node in a network have been successfully applied and supported detecting essential proteins in protein-protein ...
more infohttps://bmcsystbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1752-0509-4-56
Network Portal - Gene PA2968  Network Portal - Gene PA2968
acyl-carrier-protein) S-malonyltransferase. cog/ cog. [acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase activity. go/ molecular_ ... acyl-carrier-protein) S-malonyltransferase. cog/ cog. [acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase activity. go/ molecular_ ... 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase (NCBI). 13, 256. PA2968. fabD. malonyl-CoA-[acyl-carrier-protein] transacylase (NCBI ... 3-oxoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) synthase (NCBI). 165, 256. PA3639. accA. acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha subunit (NCBI). 77, 178 ...
more infohttp://networks.systemsbiology.net/pae/gene/PA2968
FASN - Wicipedia  FASN - Wicipedia
acyl-carrier-protein S-malonyltransferase activity]. • 3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein dehydratase activity]. • fatty acid ... 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein synthase activity]. • acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein hydrolase activity]. • hydrolase activity. • ... enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein reductase (NADPH, B-specific) activity]. • protein binding. • 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein ... acyl-carrier-protein dehydratase activity]. • protein homodimerization activity. • catalytic activity. • [acyl-carrier-protein ...
more infohttps://cy.wikipedia.org/wiki/FASN
FAS1 - Fatty acid synthase subunit beta - Candida albicans (Yeast) - FAS1 gene & protein  FAS1 - Fatty acid synthase subunit beta - Candida albicans (Yeast) - FAS1 gene & protein
... acyl-carrier-protein] acetyltransferase and malonyltransferase, S-acyl fatty acid synthase thioesterase, enoyl-[acyl-carrier- ... protein] reductase, and 3-hydroxypalmitoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] dehydratase. ... acyl-carrier-protein] = CoA + acetyl-[acyl-carrier-protein].. Malonyl-CoA + an [acyl-carrier-protein] = CoA + a malonyl-[acyl- ... acyl-carrier-protein] S-acetyltransferase activity Source: UniProtKB-EC. *[acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase activity ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P34731
TOXC - Putative fatty acid synthase subunit TOXC - Cochliobolus carbonum (Maize leaf spot fungus) - TOXC gene & protein  TOXC - Putative fatty acid synthase subunit TOXC - Cochliobolus carbonum (Maize leaf spot fungus) - TOXC gene & protein
... acyl-carrier protein] acetyltransferase and malonyltransferase, S-acyl fatty acid synthase thioesterase, enoyl-[acyl-carrier- ... protein] reductase, and 3-hydroxypalmitoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] dehydratase. ... This protein contains domains similar to those of a fatty acid synthase beta subunit, namely: [ ... acyl-carrier-protein] = CoA + acetyl-[acyl-carrier-protein].. Malonyl-CoA + an [acyl-carrier-protein] = CoA + a malonyl-[acyl- ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q92215
Noca 4502 protein (Nocardioides sp. JS614) - STRING interaction network  Noca 4502 protein (Nocardioides sp. JS614) - STRING interaction network
acyl-carrier-protein) S-malonyltransferase. 0.919. Noca_0185. Noca_3510. Noca_0185. Noca_3510. Biotin/lipoyl attachment domain- ... Edges represent protein-protein associations. associations are meant to be specific and meaningful, i.e. proteins jointly ... Network nodes represent proteins. splice isoforms or post-translational modifications are collapsed, i.e. each node represents ... Proteins whose genes are observed to be correlated in expression, across a large number of experiments. ...
more infohttps://string-db.org/network/196162.Noca_4502
Bio-crude transcriptomics: Gene discovery and metabolic network reconstruction for the biosynthesis of the terpenome of the...  Bio-crude transcriptomics: Gene discovery and metabolic network reconstruction for the biosynthesis of the terpenome of the...
Contigs were annotated with pathway, ontology, and protein domain identifiers. Manual curation allowed the reconstruction of ... S-malonyltransferase; ACP, acyl carrier protein; FabH, β-ketoacyl:ACP synthase III; FabB, β-ketoacyl:ACP synthase I; FabF, β- ... Malonate from malonyl-CoA is transferred to the acyl carrier protein (ACP1 and ACP2) of the type II FAS by ACP S- ... but without the involvement of acyl carrier proteins [19]. Thus, multiple contigs with moderate to high sequence coverage that ...
more infohttps://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2164-13-576
Identification of candidate genes controlling oil content by combination of genome-wide association and transcriptome analysis...  Identification of candidate genes controlling oil content by combination of genome-wide association and transcriptome analysis...
ACP malonyltransferase, ACP acyl carrier protein, KASI/II/III 3-ketoacyl-ACP synthase I/II/III, KAR ketoacyl-ACP reductase, HAD ... stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD), and acyl-ACP thioesterase A (FATA) were generally lower in the seed tissues ( ... SAD stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase, FATA/B fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase A/B, FAX1 plastid fatty acid export 1, LACS9 ... Proteins of Brassicaceae oilseeds and their potential as a plant protein source. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2011;51:635-77. ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1186%2Fs13068-019-1557-x
FASN Gene - GeneCards | FAS Protein | FAS Antibody  FASN Gene - GeneCards | FAS Protein | FAS Antibody
Protein Coding), Fatty Acid Synthase, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards ... acyl-carrier-protein] S-acetyltransferase activity. IEA. --. GO:0004314. [acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase activity. ... Acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + malonyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] = 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + CO(2) + [acyl-carrier-protein ... An acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + NADP(+) = a trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + NADPH. *FAS_HUMAN,P49327 ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?id=3594&id_type=hgnc&search=3594
  • The growing fatty acid chain is carried between these active sites while attached covalently to the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of an acyl carrier protein (ACP), and is released by the action of a thioesterase (TE) upon reaching a carbon chain length of 16 (palmitic acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • The reaction sequence is carried out by a series of individual soluble proteins that are each encoded by a discrete gene, and the pathway intermediates are shuttled between the enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc. (uniprot.org)
  • Assignment of Homology to Genome Sequences using a Library of Hidden Markov Models that Represent all Proteins of Known Structure. (supfam.org)
  • On the other hand, each enzymatic activity (Condensation reaction, Reduction Reaction, Dehydration reaction) is found as a discrete protein in type II systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Catalyzes the condensation reaction of fatty acid synthesis by the addition to an acyl acceptor of two carbons from malonyl-ACP. (string-db.org)
  • 1. Mock, H.-P., Strack, D. Energetics of uridine 5'-diphosphoglucose-hydroxy-cinnamic acid acyl-glucotransferase reaction. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • By definition, essential proteins of a cellular organism are necessary to live and replicate, and are therefore attractive targets for antimicrobial treatments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Simi Muraleedharana, Aksah Sama, Helen Skaerb and Maneesha S. Inamdara, Networks that link cytoskeletal regulators and diaphragm proteins underpin filtration function in Drosophila nephrocytes, Experimental Cell Research (2017). (jncasr.ac.in)