Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.
This enzyme catalyzes the transacylation of malonate from MALONYL CoA to activated holo-ACP, to generate malonyl-(acyl-carrier protein), which is an elongation substrate in FATTY ACIDS biosynthesis. It is an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of FATTY ACIDS in all BACTERIA.
A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
The vitamin K-dependent cofactor of activated PROTEIN C. Together with protein C, it inhibits the action of factors VIIIa and Va. A deficiency in protein S; (PROTEIN S DEFICIENCY); can lead to recurrent venous and arterial thrombosis.
An intermediate in the pathway of coenzyme A formation in mammalian liver and some microorganisms.
The form of fatty acid synthase complex found in BACTERIA; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Catalytic steps are like the animal form but the protein structure is different with dissociated enzymes encoded by separate genes. It is a target of some ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS which result in disruption of the CELL MEMBRANE and CELL WALL.
An enzyme of long-chain fatty acid synthesis, that adds a two-carbon unit from malonyl-(acyl carrier protein) to another molecule of fatty acyl-(acyl carrier protein), giving a beta-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) with the release of carbon dioxide. EC 2.3.1.41.
Large enzyme complexes composed of a number of component enzymes that are found in STREPTOMYCES which biosynthesize MACROLIDES and other polyketides.
Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.
A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.
A 3-oxoacyl reductase that has specificity for ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN-derived FATTY ACIDS.
A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An autosomal dominant disorder showing decreased levels of plasma protein S antigen or activity, associated with venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. PROTEIN S is a vitamin K-dependent plasma protein that inhibits blood clotting by serving as a cofactor for activated PROTEIN C (also a vitamin K-dependent protein), and the clinical manifestations of its deficiency are virtually identical to those of protein C deficiency. Treatment with heparin for acute thrombotic processes is usually followed by maintenance administration of coumarin drugs for the prevention of recurrent thrombosis. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1511; Wintrobe's Clinical Hematology, 9th ed, p1523)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] to trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-[acyl-carrier protein]. It has a preference for acyl groups with a carbon chain length between 4 to 16.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-sulfur bond. EC 6.2.
A ribosomal protein that may play a role in controlling cell growth and proliferation. It is a major substrate of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES and plays a role in regulating the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNAs that contain an RNA 5' TERMINAL OLIGOPYRIMIDINE SEQUENCE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
A diphenyl ether derivative used in cosmetics and toilet soaps as an antiseptic. It has some bacteriostatic and fungistatic action.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.
An epoxydodecadienamide isolated from several species, including ACREMONIUM, Acrocylindrum, and Helicoceras. It inhibits the biosynthesis of several lipids by interfering with enzyme function.
A genus of gram-positive bacteria whose spores are round to oval and covered by a sheath.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.
A plant genus of the family APIACEAE. The leaves are the source of cilantro and the seeds are the source of coriander, both of which are used in SPICES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
A enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL CoA to acyl-carrier protein to form COENZYME A and acetyl-acyl-carrier protein.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs so that it is sometimes also called a pentanoic acid in some naming schemes. It is biosynthesized by cleavage of LINOLEIC ACID and is a coenzyme of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX). It is used in DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
Polyacenes with four ortho-fused benzene rings in a straight linear arrangement. This group is best known for the subclass called TETRACYCLINES.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.
Natural compounds containing alternating carbonyl and methylene groups (beta-polyketones), bioenergenetically derived from repeated condensation of acetyl coenzyme A via malonyl coenzyme A, in a process similar to fatty acid synthesis.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.

Polyketide synthase acyl carrier protein (ACP) as a substrate and a catalyst for malonyl ACP biosynthesis. (1/41)

BACKGROUND: Using an acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) as a starter unit, type II polyketide synthases (PKSs) generate a wide range of polyketide products by successive decarboxylative condensations with the two-carbon donor malonyl (ACP). In vitro experiments have demonstrated that polyketide biosynthesis in reconstituted PKS systems requires the fatty acid synthase (FAS) enzyme malonyl CoA:ACP acyltransferase (FabD) from streptomycetes. It has also been shown that holo-ACPs from a type II PKS can catalyze self-malonylation in the presence of malonyl CoA and negate this FabD requirement. The relative roles of FabD and ACP self-malonylation in PKS biosynthesis in vivo are still not known. RESULTS: We have examined the ACP specificity of the Streptomyces glaucescens FabD and shown that it reacts specifically with monomeric forms of ACP, with comparable k(cat)/K(M) values for ACPs from both type II PKS and FAS systems. Incubations of tetracenomycin ACP (TcmM) with the Escherichia coli FAS ACP (AcpP) unexpectedly revealed that, in addition to the self-malonylation process, TcmM can catalyze the malonylation of AcpP. The k(cat)/K(M) value for the TcmM-catalyzed malonylation of S. glaucescens FAS ACP is two orders of magnitude smaller than that observed for the FabD-catalyzed process. CONCLUSIONS: The ability of a PKS ACP to catalyze malonylation of a FAS ACP is a surprising finding and demonstrates for the first time that PKS ACPs and FabD can catalyze the same reaction. The differences in the catalytic efficiency of these two proteins rationalizes in vitro observations that FabD-independent polyketide biosynthesis proceeds only at high concentrations of a PKS ACP.  (+info)

Kinetic analysis of the actinorhodin aromatic polyketide synthase. (2/41)

Type II polyketide synthases (PKSs) are bacterial multienzyme systems that catalyze the biosynthesis of a broad range of natural products. A core set of subunits, consisting of a ketosynthase, a chain length factor, an acyl carrier protein (ACP) and possibly a malonyl CoA:ACP transacylase (MAT) forms a "minimal" PKS. They generate a poly-beta-ketone backbone of a specified length from malonyl-CoA derived building blocks. Here we (a) report on the kinetic properties of the actinorhodin minimal PKS, and (b) present further data in support of the requirement of the MAT. Kinetic analysis showed that the apoACP is a competitive inhibitor of minimal PKS activity, demonstrating the importance of protein-protein interactions between the polypeptide moiety of the ACP and the remainder of the minimal PKS. In further support of the requirement of MAT for PKS activity, two new findings are presented. First, we observe hyperbolic dependence of PKS activity on MAT concentration, saturating at very low amounts (half-maximal rate at 19.7 +/- 5.1 nM). Since MAT can support PKS activity at less than 1/100 the typical concentration of the ACP and ketosynthase/chain length factor components, it is difficult to rule out the presence of trace quantities of MAT in a PKS reaction mixture. Second, an S97A mutant was constructed at the nucleophilic active site of the MAT. Not only can this mutant protein support PKS activity, it is also covalently labeled by [(14)C]malonyl-CoA, demonstrating that the serine nucleophile (which has been the target of PMSF inhibition in earlier studies) is dispensible for MAT activity in a Type II PKS system.  (+info)

Characterization of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa fatty acid biosynthetic gene cluster: purification of acyl carrier protein (ACP) and malonyl-coenzyme A:ACP transacylase (FabD). (3/41)

A DNA fragment containing the Pseudomonas aeruginosa fabD (encoding malonyl-coenzyme A [CoA]:acyl carrier protein [ACP] transacylase), fabG (encoding beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase), acpP (encoding ACP), and fabF (encoding beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II) genes was cloned and sequenced. This fab gene cluster is delimited by the plsX (encoding a poorly understood enzyme of phospholipid metabolism) and pabC (encoding 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase) genes; the fabF and pabC genes seem to be translationally coupled. The fabH gene (encoding beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III), which in most gram-negative bacteria is located between plsX and fabD, is absent from this gene cluster. A chromosomal temperature-sensitive fabD mutant was obtained by site-directed mutagenesis that resulted in a W258Q change. A chromosomal fabF insertion mutant was generated, and the resulting mutant strain contained substantially reduced levels of cis-vaccenic acid. Multiple attempts aimed at disruption of the chromosomal fabG gene were unsuccessful. We purified FabD as a hexahistidine fusion protein (H6-FabD) and ACP in its native form via an ACP-intein-chitin binding domain fusion protein, using a novel expression and purification scheme that should be applicable to ACP from other bacteria. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization spectroscopy, native polyacrylamide electrophoresis, and amino-terminal sequencing revealed that (i) most of the purified ACP was properly modified with its 4'-phosphopantetheine functional group, (ii) it was not acylated, and (iii) the amino-terminal methionine was removed. In an in vitro system, purified ACP functioned as acyl acceptor and H(6)-FabD exhibited malonyl-CoA:ACP transacylase activity.  (+info)

Heterologous expression, purification, reconstitution and kinetic analysis of an extended type II polyketide synthase. (4/41)

BACKGROUND: Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are bacterial multienzyme systems that synthesize a broad range of natural products. The 'minimal' PKS consists of a ketosynthase, a chain length factor, an acyl carrier protein and a malonyl transferase. Auxiliary components (ketoreductases, aromatases and cyclases are involved in controlling the oxidation level and cyclization of the nascent polyketide chain. We describe the heterologous expression and reconstitution of several auxiliary PKS components including the actinorhodin ketoreductase (act KR), the griseusin aromatase/cyclase (gris ARO/CYC), and the tetracenomycin aromatase/cyclase (tcm ARO/CYC). RESULTS: The polyketide products of reconstituted act and tcm PKSs were identical to those identified in previous in vivo studies. Although stable protein-protein interactions were not detected between minimal and auxiliary PKS components, kinetic analysis revealed that the extended PKS comprised of the act minimal PKS, the act KR and the gris ARO/CYC had a higher turnover number than the act minimal PKS plus the act KR or the act minimal PKS alone. Adding the tcm ARO/CYC to the tcm minimal PKS also increased the overall rate. CONCLUSIONS: Until recently the principal strategy for functional analysis of PKS subunits was through heterologous expression of recombinant PKSs in Streptomyces. Our results corroborate the implicit assumption that the product isolated from whole-cell systems is the dominant product of the PKS. They also suggest that an intermediate is channeled between the various subunits, and pave the way for more detailed structural and mechanistic analysis of these multienzyme systems.  (+info)

Fatty acid and lipoic acid biosynthesis in higher plant mitochondria. (5/41)

Fatty acid and lipoic acid biosynthesis were investigated in plant mitochondria. Although the mitochondria lack acetyl-CoA carboxylase, our experiments reveal that they contain the enzymatic equipment necessary to transform malonate into the two main building units for fatty acid synthesis: malonyl- and acetyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP). We demonstrated, by a new method based on a complementary use of high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, that the soluble mitochondrial fatty-acid synthase produces mainly three predominant acyl-ACPs as follows: octanoyl(C8)-, hexadecanoyl(C16)-, and octadecanoyl(C18)-ACP. Octanoate production is of primary interest since it has been postulated long ago to be a precursor of lipoic acid. By using a recombinant H apoprotein mutant as a potential acceptor for newly synthesized lipoic acid, we were able to detect limited amounts of lipoylated H protein in the presence of malonate, several sulfur donors, and cofactors. Finally, we present a scheme outlining the new biochemical pathway of fatty acid and lipoic acid synthesis in plant mitochondria.  (+info)

Biochemical characterization of acyl carrier protein (AcpM) and malonyl-CoA:AcpM transacylase (mtFabD), two major components of Mycobacterium tuberculosis fatty acid synthase II. (6/41)

Malonyl coenzyme A (CoA)-acyl carrier protein (ACP) transacylase (MCAT) is an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of fatty acids in all bacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. MCAT catalyzes the transacylation of malonate from malonyl-CoA to activated holo-ACP, to generate malonyl-ACP, which is an elongation substrate in fatty acid biosynthesis. To clarify the roles of the mycobacterial acyl carrier protein (AcpM) and MCAT in fatty acid and mycolic acid biosynthesis, we have cloned, expressed, and purified acpM and mtfabD (malonyl-CoA:AcpM transacylase) from M. tuberculosis. According to the culture conditions used, AcpM was produced in Escherichia coli in two or three different forms: apo-AcpM, holo-AcpM, and palmitoylated-AcpM, as revealed by electrospray mass spectrometry. The mtfabD gene encoding a putative MCAT was used to complement a thermosensitive E. coli fabD mutant. Expression and purification of mtFabD resulted in an active enzyme displaying strong MCAT activity in vitro. Enzymatic studies using different ACP substrates established that holo-AcpM constitutes the preferred substrate for mtFabD. In order to provide further insight into the structure-function relationship of mtFabD, different mutant proteins were generated. All mutations (Q9A, R116A, H194A, Q243A, S91T, and S91A) completely abrogated MCAT activity in vitro, thus underlining the importance of these residues in transacylation. The generation and characterization of the AcpM forms and mtFabD opens the way for further studies relating to fatty acid and mycolic acid biosynthesis to be explored in M. tuberculosis. Since a specific type of FabD is found in mycobacterial species, it represents an attractive new drug target waiting to be exploited.  (+info)

The Endoplasmic reticulum-associated maize GL8 protein is a component of the acyl-coenzyme A elongase ivolved in the production of cuticular waxes. (7/41)

The gl8 gene is required for the normal accumulation of cuticular waxes on maize (Zea mays) seedling leaves. The predicted GL8 protein exhibits significant sequence similarity to a class of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of a ketone group to a hydroxyl group. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the recombinant Escherichia coli-expressed GL8 protein were used to investigate the function of this protein in planta. Subcellular fractionation experiments indicate that the GL8 protein is associated with the endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Furthermore, polyclonal antibodies raised against the partially purified leek (Allium porrum) microsomal acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) elongase can react with the E. coli-expressed GL8 protein. In addition, anti-GL8 immunoglobulin G inhibited the in vitro elongation of stearoyl-CoA by leek and maize microsomal acyl-CoA elongase. In combination, these findings indicate that the GL8 protein is a component of the acyl-CoA elongase. In addition, the finding that anti-GL8 immunoglobulin G did not significantly inhibit the 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase, 3-ketoacyl-CoA dehydrase, and (E) 2,3-enoyl-CoA reductase partial reactions of leek or maize acyl-CoA elongase lends further support to our previous hypothesis that the GL8 protein functions as a beta-ketoacyl reductase during the elongation of very long-chain fatty acids required for the production of cuticular waxes.  (+info)

Site-specific mutagenesis and domain substitutions in the loading module of the nystatin polyketide synthase, and their effects on nystatin biosynthesis in Streptomyces noursei. (8/41)

The loading module for the nystatin polyketide synthase (PKS) in Streptomyces noursei is represented by the NysA protein composed of a ketosynthase (KS(S)), acyltransferase, dehydratase, and an acyl carrier protein. The absolute requirement of this protein for initiation of nystatin biosynthesis was demonstrated by the in-frame deletion of the nysA gene in S. noursei. The role of the NysA KS(S) domain, however, remained unclear, since no data on the significance of the "active site" serine (Ser-170) residue in the loading modules of type I PKSs were available. Site-specific mutagenesis of Ser-170 both in the wild-type NysA and in the hybrid loading module containing malonyl-specific acyltransferase domain from the extender module had no effect on nystatin biosynthesis. A second mutation (S413N) of the NysA KS(S) domain was discovered that completely abolished the ability of the hybrids to restore nystatin biosynthesis, presumably by affecting the ability of the resulting proteins to catalyze the required substrate decarboxylation. In contrast, NysA and its Ser-170 mutants bearing the same S413N mutation were able to restore nystatin production to significant levels, probably by using acetyl-CoA as a starter unit. Together, these data suggest that the KS(S) domain of NysA differs from the KS(Q) domains found in the loading modules of several PKS type I systems in that the active site residue is not significant for its activity.  (+info)

Order Human Malonyl coenzyme A acyl carrier protein transacylase mitochondrial MCAT ELISA Kit 01010947840 at Gentaur Malonyl coenzyme A acyl protein transacylase, mitochondrial (MCAT)
1MLA: The Escherichia coli malonyl-CoA:acyl carrier protein transacylase at 1.5-A resolution. Crystal structure of a fatty acid synthase component.
Rhodococcus erythropolis fabD, acpM, kasA/B, accD6 genes for probable malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase, probable acyl carrier protein, probable beta-ketoacyl-acp synthase, probable acetyl/propinoyl-CoA carboxylase, partial and complete ...
Rhodococcus erythropolis fabD, acpM, kasA/B, accD6 genes for probable malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase, probable acyl carrier protein, probable beta-ketoacyl-acp synthase, probable acetyl/propinoyl-CoA carboxylase, partial and complete ...
A mouse model with compromised mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis has been engineered in order to assess the role of this pathway in mitochondrial function and overall health. Reduction in the expression of mitochondrial malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase, a key enzyme in the pathway encoded by the nuclear Mcat gene, was achieved to varying extents in all examined tissues employing tamoxifen-inducible Cre-lox technology. Although affected mice consumed more food than control animals, they failed to gain weight, were less physically active, suffered from loss of white adipose tissue, reduced muscle strength, kyphosis, alopecia, hypothermia and shortened lifespan. The Mcat-deficient phenotype is attributed primarily to reduced synthesis, in several tissues, of the octanoyl precursors required for the posttranslational lipoylation of pyruvate and a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes, resulting in diminished capacity of the citric acid cycle and disruption of energy metabolism. The presence of
MetabolismFatty acid and phospholipid metabolismBiosynthesismalonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase (TIGR00128; EC 2.3.1.39; HMM-score: 328.4) ...
D-amino acid malonyltransferase (Science: enzyme) From mung beans registry number: EC 2.3.1.- Synonym: 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylate malonyltransferase, d-acc-malonyltransferase, acc n-malonyltransferase ...
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Malonyl Coenzyme A: A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.
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1-amino-2-ethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid: an ethylcyclopropyl amino-acid derived from isoleucine; it may be coupled to coronafacic acid by coronafacate ligase to form coronatine; substrate of malonyltransferase & inhibitor of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid malonyltransferase; RN given refers to cpd without isomeric designation
malonyl-[ACP] + S-adenosyl-L-methionine = malonyl-[ACP] methyl ester + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine Last modified: 2020-05-27. Chemically balanced: yes. ...
Creating your MCAT study guide can be one of the most important but challenging aspects of preparing for the MCAT. The AAMC recommends that the average pre-medical student should spend 300-350 hours preparing for the MCAT across several months. Even with three months to prepare, you will need to put aside a significant amount of study time per week in order to attain a competitive score on the MCAT. This is a week-by-week plan designed to help you achieve this.. [Related: How to study for the MCAT in one month ,]. Before you get started, youll need to gather together your study materials. Here is our recommended list:. ...
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Malonyl-CoA:acyl-carrier protein transacylase (MCAT), encoded by the fabd gene, is a key enzyme in type II fatty-acid biosynthesis. It is responsible for transferring the malonyl group from malonyl-CoA to the holo acyl-carrier protein (ACP). Since the type II system differs from the type I system that mammals use, it has received enormous attention as a possible antibiotic target. In particular, only a single isoform of MCAT has been reported and a continuous coupled enzyme assay has been developed. MCAT from Staphylococcus aureus was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and the protein was purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 1.2 A ° resolution. The crystals belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 41.608, b = 86.717, c = 43.163 A ° , α = γ = 90, β = 106.330 °. The asymmetric unit contains one SaMCAT molecule ...
Crassous PA, Cardinaletti C, Carrieri A, Bruni B, Di Vaira M, Gentili F, Ghelfi F, Giannella M, Paris H, Piergentili A, Quaglia W, Schaak S, Vesprini C, Pigini M (August 2007). Alpha2-adrenoreceptors profile modulation. 3.1 (R)-(+)-m-nitrobiphenyline, a new efficient and alpha2C-subtype selective agonist. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 50 (16): 3964-8. PMID 17630725. doi:10.1021/jm061487a. Cite uses deprecated parameter ...
Whether youre just getting started on your MCAT prep in Golden Gate or youre taking the test tomorrow, weve put together some tips to help raise your score. If you havent registered for the MCAT, youll find the list of MCAT testing centers available in Florida. The MCAT is a computer-based test, and is offered on specific dates in January and April through September as a computer-based test at several testing centers in Florida. Its wise to register early. Once youre registered, check out average scores for schools youre applying to. The MCAT is a very important factor in medical school admissions. You should begin your preparation early, even as soon as you know your test date. Ideally, you will want to take the MCAT only once, but its not uncommon to retake the MCAT. You can take the MCAT three times in one year, but no more than 7 times in your lifetime, and since the exam requires a large investment of time to prepare for, you want to avoid retesting unless you absolutely have to. ...
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Is it true that we do not need to know about reactions that involve alkenes and alkynes? I heard that the MCAT doesnt test on that material anymore...
by ACPM Staff , Aug 24, 2017 , Detox, IV THERAPY, Therapy. WHAT IS A NAD IV? It is a compound with multiple therapeutic benefits in our bodies. NAD+ is a substance that is produced naturally in every cell of our body, however, the process of aging, stress, alcohol, drugs and chronic illness affects the levels of NAD and the ...
Explaination: Explanation: 6*104 = 6000 has only one significant figure. Leading zeros are not significant, for 0.008320 it is 4. Zeros appearing anywhere between two non-zero digits are significant figures, for 4.05*10-2 = 0.00405, it is 3. Trailing zeros in a number containing a decimal point are significant, for 100.0 it is 4 ...
Malonyl chloride 1663-67-8 route of synthesis, Malonyl chloride chemical synthesis methods, Malonyl chloride synthetic routes ect.
Clinical, enzymatic and molecular characterization of nine new patients with malonyl-coenzyme A decarboxylase deficiency Academic Article ...
The first question many people ask is, when should I take the MCAT? The general guideline is to take the MCAT the year before you plan to enter medical school. For example, the class of 2018 should take the MCAT sometime before or during the spring/summer of 2013. Your basic science coursework should be complete by this point.. ...
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The California Low-Emission Vehicle (LEV) standards mandate a reduction in non-methane organic gases (NMOG). With the aim of analyzing NMOG emissions, a comparison was made of the hydrocarbon species found in the exhaust gas when different types of catalyst systems and fuel specifications were used. NMOG emissions are usually measured by removing methane from the total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions and adding aldehyde and ketone emissions. The NMOG level found in this way is thus influenced by the rate of methane in THC emissions. Another important factor in the LEV standards is specific reactivity (SR), indicating the formation potential of ozone, which is one cause of photochemical smog. Specific reactivity is expressed by the amount of ozone generated per unit weight of NMOG emissions, and is affected by the respective proportion of hydrocarbon species in the total NMOG emissions.Focusing on these points, an examination was made of three catalyst systems: a three-way-catalyst (TWC), an ...
UNLABELLED: Inhibition of malonyl-coenzyme A decarboxylase (MCD) shifts metabolism from fatty acid towards glucose oxidation, which has therapeutic potential for obesity and myocardial ischemic injury. However, ~40% of patients with MCD deficiency are diagnosed with cardiomyopathy during infancy. AIM: To clarify the link between MCD deficiency and cardiac dysfunction in early life and to determine the contributing systemic and cardiac metabolic perturbations. METHODS AND RESULTS: MCD knockout mice ((-/-)) exhibited non-Mendelian genotype ratios (31% fewer MCD(-/-)) with deaths clustered around weaning. Immediately prior to weaning (18days) MCD(-/-) mice had lower body weights, elevated body fat, hepatic steatosis and glycogen depletion compared to wild-type littermates. MCD(-/-) plasma was hyperketonemic, hyperlipidemic, had 60% lower lactate levels and markers of cellular damage were elevated. MCD(-/-) hearts exhibited hypertrophy, impaired ejection fraction and were energetically compromised (32%
A page within the free MCAT Learning Program produced by Wisebridge Learning Systems. The topic under discussion here is Polysaccharides - The WikiPremed MCAT Course
A page within the free MCAT Learning Program produced by Wisebridge Learning Systems. The topic under discussion here is Bacterial Capsule - The WikiPremed MCAT Course
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Malonyltransferase and acyl carrier protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (41): 40067-74. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MCAT gene. The ... where it catalyzes the transfer of a malonyl group from malonyl-CoA to the mitochondrial acyl carrier protein. The encoded ... The human Malonyl CoA-acel carrier protein transacylase in human mitochondria associates with respiratory complex one, such ...
These include the acyl carrier protein (ACP), acetyl transferase (AT), ketosynthase (KS), malonyl transferase (MT; which can ...
acyl-carrier-protein S-malonyltransferase activity]. • 3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein dehydratase activity]. • fatty acid ... 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein synthase activity]. • acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein hydrolase activity]. • hydrolase activity. • ... enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein reductase (NADPH, B-specific) activity]. • protein binding. • 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein ... acyl-carrier-protein dehydratase activity]. • protein homodimerization activity. • catalytic activity. • [acyl-carrier-protein ...
... acyl-carrier-protein) S-malonyltransferase, an enzyme This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title MDCH. ...
... acyl-carrier-protein) S-malonyltransferase, an enzyme MCAT (gene), a gene that in humans encodes the enzyme malonyl CoA-acyl ... carrier protein transacylase, mitochondrial Moraxella catarrhalis, a Gram-negative bacteria m.c.A.T (born 1961), Japanese ...
... may refer to: Florida Association of Band Directors (acyl-carrier-protein) S-malonyltransferase, an enzyme National ...
... acyl-carrier protein s-malonyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.173 - 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase MeSH D08.811. ... acyl-carrier-protein) reductase (nadh) MeSH D08.811.682.660.390 - enoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) reductase (nadph, b-specific) ... acyl-carrier protein s-acetyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.134.060 - acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050. ... acyl-carrier-protein) synthase MeSH D08.811.913.050.625 - phosphatidylcholine-sterol O-acyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.646 ...
... can refer to: (acyl-carrier-protein) S-malonyltransferase Anthocyanin 5-O-glucoside 6'''-O- ... malonyltransferase This set index page lists enzyme articles associated with the same name. If an internal link led you here, ...
... acyl carrier protein ⇌ CoA + malonyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] The transfer of malonate to acyl-carrier-protein (ACP) converts the ... acyl carrier protein]malonyltransferase, FabD, malonyl transacylase, malonyl transferase, malonyl-CoA-acyl carrier protein ... acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase. Other names in common use include malonyl coenzyme A-acyl carrier protein ... acyl carrier protein ⇌ CoA + malonyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are malonyl-CoA and acyl ...
... acyl-carrier-protein) S-acetyltransferase EC 2.3.1.39: (acyl-carrier-protein) S-malonyltransferase EC 2.3.1.40: acyl-(acyl- ... acyl-carrier-protein) synthase II EC 2.3.1.180: beta-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase III EC 2.3.1.181: lipoyl(octanoyl ... carrier-protein)-phospholipid O-acyltransferase EC 2.3.1.41: 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase EC 2.3.1.42: glycerone- ... ribosomal-protein-alanine N-acetyltransferase EC 2.3.1.129: acyl-(acyl-carrier-protein)-UDP-N-acetylglucosamine O- ...
"Protein-protein recognition between acyltransferases and acyl carrier proteins in multimodular polyketide synthases". ... Other names of this enzyme class is malonyl-CoA:propanoyl-CoA malonyltransferase (cyclizing). Other names in common use include ... or Acyl Carrier Protein. However, in fatty acid synthesis the original molecules are Acyl-CoA or Malonyl-CoA but poyketide ... The DEBS complex also contains a Loading Domain on module 1 consisting of an acyl carrier protein and an acyltransferase. The ...
acyl-carrier-protein S-malonyltransferase activity]. • 3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein dehydratase activity]. • fatty acid ... 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein synthase activity]. • acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein hydrolase activity]. • hydrolase activity. • ... enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein reductase (NADPH, B-specific) activity]. • protein binding. • 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein ... acyl-carrier-protein dehydratase activity]. • protein homodimerization activity. • catalytic activity. • [acyl-carrier-protein ...
... acyl carrier protein ⇌ CoA + malonyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] The transfer of malonate to acyl-carrier-protein (ACP) converts the ... acyl carrier protein]malonyltransferase, FabD, malonyl transacylase, malonyl transferase, malonyl-CoA-acyl carrier protein ... acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase. Other names in common use include malonyl coenzyme A-acyl carrier protein ... acyl carrier protein ⇌ CoA + malonyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are malonyl-CoA and acyl ...
... (show info) Enzyme Commission (EC). Each enzyme is allocated a four-digit EC number ... Acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase [2.3.1.39]. (5,8). (6,6,3). ... Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP). SCOP classifies evolutionary-related domains into Superfamily level and Family ... Transferring groups other than amino-acyl groups [2.3.1] <202>. (44,55). (48,33,12). ...
Malonyltransferase and acyl carrier protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (41): 40067-74. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MCAT gene. The ... where it catalyzes the transfer of a malonyl group from malonyl-CoA to the mitochondrial acyl carrier protein. The encoded ... The human Malonyl CoA-acel carrier protein transacylase in human mitochondria associates with respiratory complex one, such ...
... acyl carrier protein; MAT, plastidial malonyl-CoA-ACP malonyltransferase; KAS, ketoacyl-ACP synthase; KAR, plastidial ketoacyl- ... to form 1-acyl-G-3-P (LPA) which is mainly catalyzed with the enzyme of acyl-CoA:glycerol-sn-3-phosphate acyl-transferase (GPAT ... The long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase catalyzes fatty acids to acyl-CoA in ER. The acyl-CoA are further elongated or desaturated ... acyl-ACP thioesterase; FATB, acyl-ACP thioesterase; LACS, long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase; FAD2, ER oleate desaturase; FAD3, ER ...
... acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase activity; IEA:UniProtKB-EC. DR Gene3D; 3.40.366.10; -; 1. DR InterPro; IPR001227; Ac ... DE RecName: Full=Malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase {ECO:0000256,PIRNR:PIRNR000446}; DE EC=2.3.1.39 {ECO:0000256, ... DR InterPro; IPR020801; PKS_acyl_transferase. DR Pfam; PF00698; Acyl_transf_1; 1. DR PIRSF; PIRSF000446; Mct; 1. DR SMART; ... DR InterPro; IPR014043; Acyl_transferase. DR InterPro; IPR016035; Acyl_Trfase/lysoPLipase. DR InterPro; IPR024925; Malonyl_CoA- ...
Protein Coding), Malonyl-CoA-Acyl Carrier Protein Transacylase, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, ... acyl carrier protein transacylase(malonyltransferase) (MT), mRNA (B0QY72_HUMAN). *[Acyl-carrier-protein] malonyltransferase ( ... Protein Symbol:. Q8IVS2-FABD_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Malonyl-CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase, mitochondrial. Protein ... Malonyltransferase and acyl carrier protein. (PMID: 12882974) Zhang L … Smith S (The Journal of biological chemistry 2003) 2 3 ...
K00645 fabD; [acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase [EC:2.3.1.39] K00648 fabH; 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase ... K18473 fabY; acetoacetyl-[acyl-carrier protein] synthase [EC:2.3.1.180] M00083 Fatty acid biosynthesis, elongation [PATH: ... K11263 bccA; acetyl-CoA/propionyl-CoA carboxylase, biotin carboxylase, biotin carboxyl carrier protein [EC:6.4.1.2 6.4.1.3 6.3. ... K02160 accB, bccP; acetyl-CoA carboxylase biotin carboxyl carrier protein K01961 accC; acetyl-CoA carboxylase, biotin ...
Protein Coding), Fatty Acid Synthase, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards ... acyl-carrier-protein] S-acetyltransferase activity. IEA. --. GO:0004314. [acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase activity. ... This multifunctional protein has 7 catalytic activities as an acyl carrier protein. *FAS_HUMAN,P49327 ... This multifunctional protein has 7 catalytic activities as an acyl carrier protein. *FAS_HUMAN,P49327 ...
K00645 fabD; [acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase [EC:2.3.1.39] K00645 fabD; [acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase ... 2.3.1.39 [acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase Rv0649 fabD2; malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase Rv2243 fabD; ... 2.3.1.129 acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]---UDP-N-acetylglucosamine O-acyltransferase 2.3.1.130 galactarate O- ... 2.3.1.38 [acyl-carrier-protein] S-acetyltransferase ... 2.3.1.40 acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]---phospholipid O- ...
ACP malonyltransferase, ACP acyl carrier protein, KASI/II/III 3-ketoacyl-ACP synthase I/II/III, KAR ketoacyl-ACP reductase, HAD ... stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD), and acyl-ACP thioesterase A (FATA) were generally lower in the seed tissues ( ... SAD stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase, FATA/B fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase A/B, FAX1 plastid fatty acid export 1, LACS9 ... Proteins of Brassicaceae oilseeds and their potential as a plant protein source. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2011;51:635-77. ...
acyl-carrier-protein S-malonyltransferase activity]. • 3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein dehydratase activity]. • fatty acid ... 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein synthase activity]. • acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein hydrolase activity]. • hydrolase activity. • ... enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein reductase (NADPH, B-specific) activity]. • protein binding. • 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein ... acyl-carrier-protein dehydratase activity]. • protein homodimerization activity. • catalytic activity. • [acyl-carrier-protein ...
... acyl-carrier-protein (ACP)] S-malonyltransferase (FabD, EC:2.3.1.39, e value: 9e−14 to 2e−156), and 4 that were related to 3- ... B) Similarity (, 17%) of BSF putative proteins with known proteins in NR database. (C) Top-hit species distribution of BLAST ... It plays a critical role in the conversion of glycerol 3-phosphate and acyl-CoA to 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. From among ... NCBI non-redundant protein sequences), Gene Ontology (GO), Swiss-Prot (a manually annotated and reviewed protein sequence ...
acyl-carrier-protein) S-malonyltransferase, an enzyme. * Monstercat, a Canadian electronic dance music record label ... Malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MCAT gene. ... where it catalyzes the transfer of a malonyl group from malonyl-CoA to the mitochondrial acyl carrier protein. The encoded ... The human Malonyl CoA-acel carrier protein transacylase in human mitochondria associates with respiratory complex one, such ...
Chicken Malonyl coenzyme A acyl carrier protein transacylase mitochondrial MCAT ELISA Kit - Gentaur.com - Product info ... Malonyl coenzyme A acyl carrier protein transacylase ELISA kit for detection of Chicken Malonyl coenzyme A acyl carrier protein ... Chicken Malonyl coenzyme A acyl carrier protein transacylase mitochondrial MCAT ELISA Kit. Chicken Malonyl coenzyme A acyl ... Long gene name malonyl-CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase Synonyms gene name*malonyl CoA:ACP acyltransferase (mitochondrial) ...
Acyl-carrier-protein] S acetyltransferase antibody. *[Acyl-carrier-protein] S malonyltransferase antibody ... This multifunctional protein has 7 catalytic activities and an acyl carrier protein. ... PBS-Tween for 1h to permeabilise the cells and block non-specific protein-protein interactions. The cells were then incubated ... Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex miRNA assays. By ...
acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase [EC:2.3.1.39]. K00647 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase I [EC:2.3.1.41]. ... medium-chain acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] hydrolase [EC:3.1.2.21]. K01909 long-chain-fatty-acid--[acyl-carrier-protein] ligase [ ... minimal PKS acyl carrier protein. K05939 acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]-phospholipid O-acyltransferase / long-chain-fatty-acid--[ ... BtrI acyl-carrier protein]--L-glutamate ligase [EC:6.2.1.39]. K13563 ribostamycin:4-(gamma-L-glutamylamino)-(S)-2- ...
Contigs were annotated with pathway, ontology, and protein domain identifiers. Manual curation allowed the reconstruction of ... S-malonyltransferase; ACP, acyl carrier protein; FabH, β-ketoacyl:ACP synthase III; FabB, β-ketoacyl:ACP synthase I; FabF, β- ... Malonate from malonyl-CoA is transferred to the acyl carrier protein (ACP1 and ACP2) of the type II FAS by ACP S- ... but without the involvement of acyl carrier proteins [19]. Thus, multiple contigs with moderate to high sequence coverage that ...
... which is converted to malonyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) by S-malonyltransferase (SMT). Malonyl-ACP first reacts with 3-keto ... 2017) Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase mutations uncover an impact of stearic acid in leaf and nodule structure. Plant ... acyl carrier protein (ACP)-hydrolase/thioesterase (ACPTE), SACPD, and FAD2 have been expanded by WGD and/or segmental ... ACPTE, ACP-hydrolase/thioesterase; BCCP, biotin carboxyl carrier protein; EAR, enoyl-ACP reductase; Exp, expanded; FabG, β- ...
acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase activity of MCAT [mitochondrial matrix] Physical Entity ...
Catalysis and mechanism of malonyl transferase activity in type II fatty acid biosynthesis acyl carrier proteins.Mol Biosyst, ( ... transitions in Plasmodium falciparum beta-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein reductase upon co-factor and acyl carrier protein ... Role of the 4-phosphopantetheine group in the stability of the holo form of Plasmodium falciparum acyl carrier protein. , FEBS ... Gupta S, Modak R, Surolia N, Surolia A., Partial molar volumes of acyl carrier proteins are related to their states of ...
... acyl-carrier-protein] synthase I, II, III; FabD: [acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase; FabG: 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier ... 3-hydroxydecanoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] dehydratase. FabB Fab: F, FabH or KASIII: 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase I ... which is then transacylated by malonyl-CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase (FabD or MCAT,[EC 2.3.1.39]) to the acyl carrier ... Mandal MNA, Santha IM, Lodha ML, Mehta SL: Cloning of acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase gene from Brassica juncea. ...
... acyl-carrier-protein] acetyltransferase and malonyltransferase, S-acyl fatty acid synthase thioesterase, enoyl-[acyl-carrier- ... protein] reductase, and 3-hydroxypalmitoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] dehydratase. ... acyl-carrier-protein] = CoA + acetyl-[acyl-carrier-protein].. Malonyl-CoA + an [acyl-carrier-protein] = CoA + a malonyl-[acyl- ... acyl-carrier-protein] S-acetyltransferase activity Source: UniProtKB-EC. *[acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase activity ...
... acyl-carrier protein] acetyltransferase and malonyltransferase, S-acyl fatty acid synthase thioesterase, enoyl-[acyl-carrier- ... protein] reductase, and 3-hydroxypalmitoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] dehydratase. ... This protein contains domains similar to those of a fatty acid synthase beta subunit, namely: [ ... acyl-carrier-protein] = CoA + acetyl-[acyl-carrier-protein].. Malonyl-CoA + an [acyl-carrier-protein] = CoA + a malonyl-[acyl- ...
The glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases plsB, plsC, plsX together with the acyl-carrier-protein S-malonyltransferase (fabD) ... Chlamydia trachomatis scavenges host fatty acids for phospholipid synthesis via an Acyl-Acyl carrier protein synthetase. J. ... Malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase; glmS, glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase; pyrG, CTP synthase; folX ... The authors found activity of RB , EB for 90 proteins and RB , EB for 51 proteins. However, protein abundance is only an ...
EC 2.3.1.39; recommended name: [acylcarrierprotein] S‐malonyltransferase; systematic name: malonyl‐CoA:[acylcarrierprotein ... malonyl-CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase can also refer to... malonyl‐CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase ... malonyl‐CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase. in Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology ... From: malonyl‐CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase in Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology » ...
... acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase) and EC 4.1.1.87 (malonyl-S-ACP decarboxylase). The carboxy group is lost with ... the smallest δ subunit as an acyl-carrier protein. J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 30 (1997) 132-137.. 3. Hoenke, S., Schmid, M. and ... In both enzymes, this is achieved by exchanging malonate with an acetyl group bound to an acyl-carrier protiein (ACP), to form ... This enzyme is a cytosolic protein that is biotin-independent. The other type is a biotin-dependent, Na+-translocating enzyme ...
Catalysis and mechanism of malonyl transferase activity in type II fatty acid biosynthesis acyl carrier proteins.Mol Biosyst, ( ... beta-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein reductase responsible for interactions with Plasmodium falciparum acyl carrier protein, FEBS ... transitions in Plasmodium falciparum beta-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein reductase upon co-factor and acyl carrier protein ... beta-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein reductase responsible for interactions with Plasmodium falciparum acyl carrier protein., ...
Acyl-carrier-protein malonyltransferase Current Synonym true false 74065010 [Acyl-carrier-protein] malonyltransferase Current ... Acyl-carrier-protein malonyltransferase (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Acyl-carrier-protein ...
... acyl-carrier protein] + a malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] = a (Z)-3-oxooctadeca-13-enoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + CO2 + an [acyl ... Systematic name: malonyl-CoA:very-long-chain acyl-CoA malonyltransferase (decarboxylating and thioester-hydrolysing). Comments: ... acyl-carrier protein]. cis-vaccenoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] = (Z)-octadeca-13-enoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]. Systematic name: (Z ... S-acyl carrier protein:malonate acyl carrier protein-SH transferase. Systematic name: acetyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]:malonate S ...
Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Malonyltransferase (Acyl-Carrier-Protein) S-Malonyltransferase Acyl Carrier Protein S Malonyltransferase ... Acyl-carrier protein S-malonyltransferase Entry term(s):. (Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Malonyltransferase. (Acyl-Carrier-Protein) S- ... 2006; (ACYL-CARRIER PROTEIN) MALONYLTRANSFERASE was indexed under ACYLTRANSFERASES 1973-2005, & under CARRIER PROTEINS 1973- ... Malonyl Coenzyme A Acyl Carrier Protein Transacylase Malonyl Coenzyme A Transferase Malonyl Coenzyme A-Acyl Carrier Protein ...
  • Karmodiya K, Surolia N, Analyses of co-operative transitions in Plasmodium falciparum beta-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein reductase upon co-factor and acyl carrier protein binding. (jncasr.ac.in)
  • Kumar G, Parasuraman P, Sharma SK, Banerjee T, Karmodiya K, Surolia N, Surolia A., Discovery of a Rhodanine Class of Compounds as Inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase. (jncasr.ac.in)
  • Karmodiya K, Modak R, Sahoo N, Sajad S, Surolia N, Deciphering the key residues in Plasmodium falciparum beta-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein reductase responsible for interactions with Plasmodium falciparum acyl carrier protein. (jncasr.ac.in)
  • Enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (fabI) plays a determinant role in completing cycles of fatty acid elongation in Escherichia coli. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The role of enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase (E.C. 1.3.1.9), the product of the fabI gene, was investigated in the type II, dissociated, fatty acid synthase system of Escherichia coli. (semanticscholar.org)
  • GO:0004319 (F) enoyl- [acyl-carrier-protein] reductase (NAD. (pku.edu.cn)
  • The individual FAS component enzymes are ac(et)yltransferase (AC), malonyl/acetyl- or malonyl/palmitoyl-transacylase (AT, MPT), ketoacyl synthase (KS) ketoacyl reductase (KR), dehydratase (DH), enoyl reductase (ER), acyl carrier protein (ACP), and thioesterase (TE). (asm.org)
  • Malony-CoA:ACP Transacylase (FabD) is one such individual soluble protein and catalyzes the following reaction: malonyl-CoA + acyl carrier protein ⇌ CoA + malonyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] The transfer of malonate to acyl-carrier-protein (ACP) converts the acyl groups into thioester forms which are characteristic of acyl intermediates in fatty acid synthesis and which are strictly required for the condensation reactions catalyzed by β-ketoacyl-ACP synthetase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malonyl-CoA:ACP Transacylase uses a ping-pong kinetic mechanism with a bound malony ester as the acyl intermediate attached to a serine residue residing within a GHSLG pentapeptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MCAT gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human Malonyl CoA-acel carrier protein transacylase in human mitochondria associates with respiratory complex one, such that it interacts functionally with a mitochondrial malonyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • MCAT (Malonyl-CoA-Acyl Carrier Protein Transacylase) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • malonyl-CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase' can also refer to. (oup.com)
  • In enzymology, a [acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.39) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction malonyl-CoA + acyl carrier protein ⇌ CoA + malonyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are malonyl-CoA and acyl carrier protein, whereas its two products are CoA and malonyl-acyl-carrier-protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The individual enzymes involved in carrying out the reaction of this enzyme complex are EC 2.3.1.187 (acetyl- S -ACP:malonate ACP transferase), EC 2.3.1.39 ([acyl-carrier-protein] S -malonyltransferase) and EC 4.1.1.87 (malonyl- S -ACP decarboxylase). (qmul.ac.uk)
  • GO:0004320 (F) oleoyl- [acyl-carrier-protein] hydrolase act. (pku.edu.cn)
  • The growing fatty acid chain is carried between these active sites while attached covalently to the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of an acyl carrier protein (ACP), and is released by the action of a thioesterase (TE) upon reaching a carbon chain length of 16 (palmitic acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • have devised a procedure to reconstitute E.Coli Fatty Acid Synthase using purified protein components (including FabD) and reported a detailed kinetic analysis of this in-vitro reconstituted system. (wikipedia.org)
  • FabD (Acyl-Carrier-Protein S-Malonyltransferase) is a reasonable target given that a high resolution crystal structure is available. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is malonyl-CoA:[acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme encoded by this gene is a multifunctional protein. (genecards.org)
  • Fatty acid synthase is a multi-enzyme protein that catalyzes fatty acid synthesis . (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme is a cytosolic protein that is biotin-independent. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • This enzyme catalyzes the transacylation of malonate from MALONYL CoA to activated holo-ACP, to generate malonyl-(acyl-carrier protein), which is an elongation substrate in FATTY ACIDS biosynthesis. (bvsalud.org)
  • conversion to malonyl ACC (which is an inactive endproduct) via the enzyme ACC N-malonyltransferase (ACC-NMTase). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Other secreted factors included Christie-Atkins-Munch-Petersen (CAMP) factors, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and several hypothetical proteins, a few of which are unique to P. acnes . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gentaur Molecular :GenWay \ Acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase family. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Product Detail : 10-288-21999F Acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase family. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • We have also other products like : Acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase family. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Among its related pathways are Fatty acid biosynthesis (KEGG) and Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Proteins (SREBP) signalling . (genecards.org)
  • Misra A, Surolia N, Surolia A., Catalysis and mechanism of malonyl transferase activity in type II fatty acid biosynthesis acyl carrier proteins.Mol Biosyst, (2009). (jncasr.ac.in)
  • An Xray crystallographic structure is available for this protein, which is involved in fatty acid biosynthesis. (northwestern.edu)
  • In both enzymes, this is achieved by exchanging malonate with an acetyl group bound to an acyl-carrier protiein (ACP), to form malonyl-ACP and acetate, with subsequent decarboxylation regenerating the acetyl-ACP. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • 2. Byun, H.S. and Kim, Y.S. Subunit organization of bacterial malonate decarboxylases: the smallest δ subunit as an acyl-carrier protein. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Stix R, Lee CJ, Faraldo-Gómez JD, Banerjee A. Structure and Mechanism of DHHC Protein Acyltransferases. (ucdenver.edu)
  • This multifunctional protein has 7 catalytic activities as an acyl carrier protein. (genecards.org)
  • This multifunctional protein has 7 catalytic activities and an acyl carrier protein. (abcam.com)
  • Pidugu LS, Maity K, Ramaswamy K, Surolia N, Suguna K, Analysis of proteins with the 'Hot dog' fold: Prediction of function and identification of catalytic residues of hypothetical proteins , (2009). (jncasr.ac.in)
  • Depending on their origin and biochemical function, multifunctional type I FAS proteins form dimers or hexamers with characteristic organization of their catalytic domains. (asm.org)
  • The reaction sequence is carried out by a series of individual soluble proteins that are each encoded by a discrete gene, and the pathway intermediates are shuttled between the enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • Download DNA or protein sequence, view genomic context and coordinates. (yeastgenome.org)
  • Basic sequence-derived (length, molecular weight, isoelectric point) and experimentally-determined (median abundance, median absolute deviation) protein information. (yeastgenome.org)
  • Click "Protein Details" for further information about the protein such as half-life, abundance, domains, domains shared with other proteins, protein sequence retrieval for various strains, physico-chemical properties, protein modification sites, and external identifiers for the protein. (yeastgenome.org)
  • The encoded protein shows amino acid sequence similarity to N-acetyltransferases. (thermofisher.com)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include [acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase activity . (genecards.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding . (genecards.org)
  • Here, we identified proteins secreted during anaerobic cultivation of a range of skin and clinical P. acnes isolates, spanning the four known phylogenetic groups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The fatty acid synthetic pathway is the principal route for the production of membrane phospholipid acyl chains in bacterial and plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • This has been tested on several proteins at different stages of refinement (bacterial alpha-amylase, cytochrome c', cross-linked insulin and oligopeptide binding protein). (meta.org)
  • Even among archebacteria, which contain exclusively diphytanylglycerol diethers rather than diacylglycerides as membrane lipids, the synthesis of myristic acid for membrane protein acylation was discussed ( 26 , 109 ). (asm.org)
  • Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (sickkids.ca)
  • This study showed that the other expressed AtFLS sequences have tissue- and cell type-specific promoter activities that overlap with those of AtFLS1 and encode proteins that interact with other flavonoid enzymes in yeast two-hybrid assays. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Catalyzes the condensation reaction of fatty acid synthesis by the addition to an acyl acceptor of two carbons from malonyl-ACP. (string-db.org)
  • The encoded protein may be part of a fatty acid synthase complex that is more like the type II prokaryotic and plastid complexes rather than the type I human cytosolic complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • FASN (Fatty Acid Synthase) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • The genome assembly of a haploid strain of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous revealed a genome of 19.50 Megabases with 6385 protein coding genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This protein, isolated using the differential display method to detect tissue-specific genes, is specifically expressed in kidney and liver. (thermofisher.com)
  • Our proteomic investigations have revealed that the P. acnes secretome harbors several proteins likely to play a role in host-tissue degradation and inflammation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • No cofactors are required as 1- O- trans- cinnamoyl-β- D -glucopyranose itself is an "energy-rich" (activated) acyl-donor, comparable to CoA-thioesters. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • 1- O- trans- Cinnamoyl-β- D -gentobiose can also act as the acyl donor, but with much less affinity. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Contigs were annotated with pathway, ontology, and protein domain identifiers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Culture supernatant proteins of P. acnes were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and all Coomassie-stained spots were subsequently identified by MALDI mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). A set of 20 proteins was secreted in the mid-exponential growth phase by the majority of strains tested. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Assignment of Homology to Genome Sequences using a Library of Hidden Markov Models that Represent all Proteins of Known Structure. (cam.ac.uk)
  • On the other hand, each enzymatic activity (Condensation reaction, Reduction Reaction, Dehydration reaction) is found as a discrete protein in type II systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. Mock, H.-P., Strack, D. Energetics of uridine 5'-diphosphoglucose-hydroxy-cinnamic acid acyl-glucotransferase reaction. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • By definition, essential proteins of a cellular organism are necessary to live and replicate, and are therefore attractive targets for antimicrobial treatments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • and Janne Lehtio, Proteogenomics produces comprehensive and highly accurate protein-coding gene annotation in a complete genome assembly of Malassezia sympodialis, Nucleic Acids Research 45 , 2629 - 2643 (2017). (jncasr.ac.in)