Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.
The vitamin K-dependent cofactor of activated PROTEIN C. Together with protein C, it inhibits the action of factors VIIIa and Va. A deficiency in protein S; (PROTEIN S DEFICIENCY); can lead to recurrent venous and arterial thrombosis.
An intermediate in the pathway of coenzyme A formation in mammalian liver and some microorganisms.
The form of fatty acid synthase complex found in BACTERIA; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Catalytic steps are like the animal form but the protein structure is different with dissociated enzymes encoded by separate genes. It is a target of some ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS which result in disruption of the CELL MEMBRANE and CELL WALL.
An enzyme of long-chain fatty acid synthesis, that adds a two-carbon unit from malonyl-(acyl carrier protein) to another molecule of fatty acyl-(acyl carrier protein), giving a beta-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) with the release of carbon dioxide. EC
Large enzyme complexes composed of a number of component enzymes that are found in STREPTOMYCES which biosynthesize MACROLIDES and other polyketides.
This enzyme catalyzes the transacylation of malonate from MALONYL CoA to activated holo-ACP, to generate malonyl-(acyl-carrier protein), which is an elongation substrate in FATTY ACIDS biosynthesis. It is an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of FATTY ACIDS in all BACTERIA.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.
Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.
A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.
A 3-oxoacyl reductase that has specificity for ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN-derived FATTY ACIDS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An autosomal dominant disorder showing decreased levels of plasma protein S antigen or activity, associated with venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. PROTEIN S is a vitamin K-dependent plasma protein that inhibits blood clotting by serving as a cofactor for activated PROTEIN C (also a vitamin K-dependent protein), and the clinical manifestations of its deficiency are virtually identical to those of protein C deficiency. Treatment with heparin for acute thrombotic processes is usually followed by maintenance administration of coumarin drugs for the prevention of recurrent thrombosis. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1511; Wintrobe's Clinical Hematology, 9th ed, p1523)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] to trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-[acyl-carrier protein]. It has a preference for acyl groups with a carbon chain length between 4 to 16.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-sulfur bond. EC 6.2.
A ribosomal protein that may play a role in controlling cell growth and proliferation. It is a major substrate of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES and plays a role in regulating the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNAs that contain an RNA 5' TERMINAL OLIGOPYRIMIDINE SEQUENCE.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A diphenyl ether derivative used in cosmetics and toilet soaps as an antiseptic. It has some bacteriostatic and fungistatic action.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.
An epoxydodecadienamide isolated from several species, including ACREMONIUM, Acrocylindrum, and Helicoceras. It inhibits the biosynthesis of several lipids by interfering with enzyme function.
A genus of gram-positive bacteria whose spores are round to oval and covered by a sheath.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.
A enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL CoA to acyl-carrier protein to form COENZYME A and acetyl-acyl-carrier protein.
A plant genus of the family APIACEAE. The leaves are the source of cilantro and the seeds are the source of coriander, both of which are used in SPICES.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
An octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs so that it is sometimes also called a pentanoic acid in some naming schemes. It is biosynthesized by cleavage of LINOLEIC ACID and is a coenzyme of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX). It is used in DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Polyacenes with four ortho-fused benzene rings in a straight linear arrangement. This group is best known for the subclass called TETRACYCLINES.
A family of histone acetyltransferases that is structurally-related to CREB-BINDING PROTEIN and to E1A-ASSOCIATED P300 PROTEIN. They function as transcriptional coactivators by bridging between DNA-binding TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and the basal transcription machinery. They also modify transcription factors and CHROMATIN through ACETYLATION.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of O-acetylcarnitine from acetyl-CoA plus carnitine. EC
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-SERINE to COENZYME A and O-acetyl-L-serine, using ACETYL-COA as a donor.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa10p catalytic subunit and the Naa15p auxiliary subunit. The structure of this enzyme is conserved between lower and higher eukaryotes. It has specificity for N-terminal SERINE; ALANINE; THREONINE; GLYCINE; VALINE; and CYSTINE residues and acts on nascent peptide chains after the removal of the initiator METHIONINE by METHIONYL AMINOPEPTIDASES.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa50p catalytic subunit, and the Naa10p and Naa15p auxiliary subunits. It has specificity for the N-terminal METHIONINE of peptides where the next amino acid in the chain is hydrophobic.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.
Natural compounds containing alternating carbonyl and methylene groups (beta-polyketones), bioenergenetically derived from repeated condensation of acetyl coenzyme A via malonyl coenzyme A, in a process similar to fatty acid synthesis.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetyltransferase reaction using ACETYL CoA as an acetyl donor and dihydrolipoamide as acceptor to produce COENZYME A (CoA) and S-acetyldihydrolipoamide. It forms the (E2) subunit of the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.
Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.
A soil-dwelling actinomycete with a complex lifecycle involving mycelial growth and spore formation. It is involved in the production of a number of medically important ANTIBIOTICS.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.

Identification of a starter unit acyl-carrier protein transacylase domain in an iterative type I polyketide synthase. (1/8)

Polyketides are a class of natural products that exhibit a wide range of functional and structural diversity. They include antibiotics, immunosuppressants, antifungals, antihypercholesterolemics, and cytotoxins. Polyketide synthases (PKSs) use chemistry similar to fatty acid synthases (FASs), although building block variation and differing extents of reduction of the growing polyketide chain underlie their biosynthetic versatility. In contrast to the well studied sequential modular type I PKSs, less is known about how the iterative type I PKSs carry out and control chain initiation, elongation, folding, and cyclization during polyketide processing. Domain structure analysis of a group of related fungal, nonreducing PKSs has revealed well defined N-terminal domains longer than commonly seen for FASs and modular PKSs. Predicted structure of this domain disclosed a region similar to malonyl-CoA:acyl-carrier protein (ACP) transacylases (MATs). MATs play a key role transferring precursor CoA thioesters from solution onto FASs and PKSs for chain elongation. On the basis of site-directed mutagenesis, radiolabeling, and kinetics experiments carried out with individual domains of the norsolorinic acid PKS, we propose that the N-terminal domain is a starter unit:ACP transacylase (SAT domain) that selects a C(6) fatty acid from a dedicated yeast-like FAS and transfers this unit onto the PKS ACP, leading to the production of the aflatoxin precursor, norsolorinic acid. These findings could indicate a much broader role for SAT domains in starter unit selection among nonreducing iterative, fungal PKSs, and they provide a biochemical rationale for the classical acetyl "starter unit effect."  (+info)

De novo fatty acid synthesis mediated by acyl-carrier protein in Neurospora crassa mitochondria. (2/8)

The acyl-carrier protein (ACP) in Neurospora crassa mitochondria [Brody, S. & Mikolajczyk, S. (1988) Eur. J. Biochem. 173, 353-359] mediated a cerulenin-sensitive, de novo fatty acid synthesis independent of the fatty acid synthetase complex present in the cytoplasm. Incubation of mitochondria with [2-14C]malonate labeled only the ACP as indicated by autoradiography after SDS/PAGE. Under these in vitro conditions ATP was required for the initial acyl-ACP formation, but further elongation required either magnesium or the direct addition of NADPH. Labeled hexanoic (6:0) and caprylic (8:0) acids were detected as intermediates in the pathway, as well as hydroxymyristic acid. All of the intermediates, and the eventual product of the reaction, myristic acid (14:0), were released from the ACP by alkaline treatment. Pulse-chase experiments demonstrated the incorporation on to, and release of label from, the ACP. In vivo labeling of ACP with [2-14C]malonate was also detected and the label was in the form of hydroxymyristic acid. This newly discovered pathway is discussed from the standpoint of its possible role in providing acyl chains for mitochondrial lipids.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of [acyl-carrier-protein] acetyltransferase from Escherichia coli. (3/8)

A multi-step procedure has been developed for the purification of [acyl-carrier-protein] acetyltransferase from Escherichia coli, which allows the production of small amounts of homogeneous enzyme. The subunit Mr was estimated to be 29,000 and the native Mr was estimated to be 61,000, suggesting a homodimeric structure. The catalytic properties of the enzyme are consistent with a Bi Bi Ping Pong mechanism and the existence of an acetyl-enzyme intermediate in the catalytic cycle. The enzyme was inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide and more slowly by iodoacetamide in reactions protected by the substrate, acetyl-CoA. However, the enzyme was apparently only weakly inhibited by the thiol-specific reagent methyl methanethiosulphonate. The nature of the acetyl-enzyme intermediate is discussed in relationship to that found in other similar enzymes from E. coli, yeast and vertebrates.  (+info)

Effect of thiolactomycin on the individual enzymes of the fatty acid synthase system in Escherichia coli. (4/8)

Thiolactomycin, an antibiotic with the structure of (4S)-(2E,5E)-2,4,6-trimethyl-3-hydroxy-2,5,7-octatriene-4-++ +thiolide, selectively inhibits type II fatty acid synthases. The mode of the thiolactomycin action on the fatty acid synthase system of Escherichia coli was investigated. Of the six individual enzymes of the fatty acid synthase system, [acyl-carrier-protein] (ACP) acetyltransferase and 3-oxoacyl-ACP synthase were inhibited by thiolactomycin. On the other hand, the other enzymes were not affected by this antibiotic. The thiolactomycin inhibition of the fatty acid synthase system was reversible. As to ACP acetyltransferase, the inhibition was competitive with respect to ACP and uncompetitive with respect to acetyl-CoA. As to 3-oxoacyl-ACP synthase, the inhibition was competitive with respect to malonyl-ACP and noncompetitive with respect to acetyl-ACP. The thiolactomycin action on the fatty acid synthase system was compared with that of cerulenin.  (+info)

Characterization of the fatty acid synthetase system of Curtobacterium pusillum. (5/8)

Curtobacterium pusillum contains 11-cyclohexylundecanoic acid as a major component of cellular fatty acids. A trace amount of 13-cyclohexyltridecanoic acid is also present. Fatty acids other than omega-cyclohexyl fatty acids present are 13-methyltetradecanoic, 12-methyltetradecanoic, n-pentadecanoic, 14-methylpentadecanoic, 13-methylpentadecanoic, n-hexadecanoic, 15-methylhexadecanoic, 14-methylhexadecanoic, and n-heptadecanoic acids. The fatty acid synthetase system of this bacterium was studied. Various 14C-labeled precursors were added to the growth medium and the incorporation of radioactivity into cellular fatty acids was analyzed. Sodium [14C]acetate and [14C]glucose were incorporated into almost all species of cellular fatty acids, the incorporation into 11-cyclohexylundecanoic acid being predominant. [14C]Isoleucine was incorporated into 12-methyltetradecanoic and 14-methylhexadecanoic acids: [14C]leucine into 13-methyltetradecanoic and 15-methylhexadecanoic acids; and [14C]valine into 14-methylpentadecanoic acid. [14C]-Shikimic acid was incorporated almost exclusively into omega-cyclohexyl fatty acids. The fatty acid synthetase activity of the crude enzyme preparation of C. pusillum was reconstituted on the addition of acyl carrier protein. This synthetase system required NADPH and preferentially utilized cyclohexanecarbonyl-CoA as a primer. The system was also able to use branched- and straight-chain acyl-CoAs with 4 to 6 carbon atoms effectively as primers but was unable to use acetyl-CoA. However, if acetyl acyl carrier protein was used as the priming substrate, the system produced straight-chain fatty acids. The results imply that the specificity of the initial acyl-CoA:acyl carrier protein acyltransferase dictates the structure of fatty acids synthesized and that the enzymes catalyzing the subsequent chain-elongation reactions do not have the same specificity restriction.  (+info)

Biochemical and genetic characterization of an auxotroph of Bacillus subtilis altered in the Acyl-CoA:acyl-carrier-protein transacylase. (6/8)

We have analyzed a mutation of Bacillus subtilis (bfmB) that results in an acyl-CoA:acyl-carrier-protein transacylase with low affinity for branched acyl-CoA substrates; it maps in the acf-hisH region of the chromosome. The aceA mutation, present in the parent of the bfmB mutant, causes a deficiency in pyruvate dehydrogenase and maps in the pycA-pyrA region. Strains carrying the bfmB mutation synthesize branched-chain fatty acids at a rate sufficient for normal growth only if branched acyl-CoA precursors are present in the medium. They grow well if the medium is supplemented with 0.1 mM 2-methylbutyrate, isobutyrate or isovalerate, or with 1.0 mM isoleucine or valine; leucine does not support growth. Growth supported by valine and isoleucine is inhibited by butyrate and other straight short-chain fatty acids at concentrations (0.1 mM) which do not inhibit growth of the standard strain; the inhibition is prevented by short branched fatty acids which are converted to long-chain fatty acids appearing as activity of B. subtilis is controlled by separate enzymatic sites for the acyl-CoA precursors of branched and straight-chain fatty acids. Whether these sites are contained in one or two enzymes is not known.  (+info)

The purification and function of acetyl coenzyme A:acyl carrier protein transacylase. (7/8)

When individual enzyme activities of the fatty acid synthetase (FAS) system were assayed in extracts from five different plant tissues, acetyl-CoA:acyl carrier protein (ACP) transacylase and beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthetases I and II had consistently low specific activities in comparison with the other enzymes of the system. However, two of these extracts synthesized significant levels of medium chain fatty acids (rather than C16 and C18 acid) from [14C]malonyl-CoA; these extracts had elevated levels of acetyl-CoA:ACP transacylase. To explore the role of the acetyl transacylase more carefully, this enzyme was purified some 180-fold from spinach leaf extracts. Varying concentrations of the transacylase were then added either to spinach leaf extracts or to a completely reconstituted FAS system consisting of highly purified enzymes. The results suggested that: (a) acetyl-CoA:ACP transacylase was the enzyme catalyzing the rate-limiting step in the plant FAS system; (b) increasing concentration of this enzyme markedly increased the levels of the medium chain fatty acids, whereas increase of the other enzymes of the FAS system led to increased levels of stearic acid synthesis; and (c) beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthetase I was not involved in the rate-limiting step. It is suggested that modulation of the activity of acetyl-CoA:ACP transacylase may have important implications in the type of fatty acid synthesized, as well as the amount of fatty acids formed.  (+info)

Beta-lactams SB 212047 and SB 216754 are irreversible, time-dependent inhibitors of coenzyme A-independent transacylase. (8/8)

The enzyme coenzyme A-independent transacylase (CoA-IT) has been demonstrated to be the key mediator of arachidonate remodeling, a process that moves arachidonate into 1-ether-containing phospholipids. Blockade of CoA-IT by reversible inhibitors has been shown to block the release of arachidonate in stimulated neutrophils and inhibit the production of eicosanoids and platelet-activating factor. We describe novel inhibitors of CoA-IT activity that contain a beta-lactam nucleus. beta-Lactams were investigated as potential mechanism-based inhibitors of CoA-IT on the basis of the expected formation of an acyl-enzyme intermediate complex. Two beta-lactams, SB 212047 and SB 216754, were shown to be specific, time-dependent inhibitors of CoA-IT activity (IC50 = 6 and 20 microM, respectively, with a 10-min pretreatment time). Extensive washing and dilution could not remove the inhibition, suggesting it was irreversible. In stimulated human monocytes, SB 216754 decreased the production of eicosanoids in a time-dependent manner. In an in vivo model of phorbol ester-induced ear inflammation, SB 216754 was able to inhibit indices of both edema and cell infiltration. Taken together, the results support two hypotheses: 1) CoA-IT activity is important for the production of inflammatory lipid mediators in stimulated cells and in vivo and 2) the mechanism by which CoA-IT acts to transfer arachidonate is through an acyl-enzyme intermediate.  (+info)

Protein S is a vitamin K-dependent protein that is produced in the liver and circulates in the blood. It works by inhibiting the activity of thrombin, a clotting factor that helps to form blood clots. In people with protein S deficiency, there may be an overactivation of thrombin, leading to an increased risk of blood clots forming.

Protein S deficiency can be caused by several factors, including genetic mutations, vitamin K deficiency, and certain medical conditions such as liver disease or cancer. It is usually diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and imaging studies.

Treatment for protein S deficiency typically involves replacing the missing protein with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) or recombinant human protein S. In some cases, medications that inhibit thrombin activity, such as heparins or direct thrombin inhibitors, may also be used to reduce the risk of blood clots forming.

Preventing protein S deficiency involves ensuring adequate intake of vitamin K through dietary sources or supplements, managing underlying medical conditions, and avoiding factors that can increase the risk of bleeding or thrombosis, such as smoking, obesity, and inactivity.

In summary, protein S deficiency is a condition characterized by low levels of protein S, which increases the risk of developing blood clots. It can be caused by several factors and treated with replacement therapy or medications that inhibit thrombin activity. Prevention involves ensuring adequate vitamin K intake and managing underlying medical conditions.

... acyl-carrier-protein] S-acetyltransferase. Other names in common use include acetyl coenzyme A-acyl-carrier-protein ... acyl-carrier-protein] Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA and acyl carrier protein, whereas its two products ... acyl-carrier-protein]acetyltransferase, [ACP]acetyltransferase, and ACAT. This enzyme participates in fatty acid biosynthesis. ... In enzymology, a [acyl-carrier-protein] S-acetyltransferase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible chemical ...
These include the acyl carrier protein (ACP), acetyl transferase (AT), ketosynthase (KS), malonyl transferase (MT; which can ...
CurA contains a unique GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) loading domain and an associated acyl carrier protein (ACP). The ... March 2011). "Tandem acyl carrier proteins in the curacin biosynthetic pathway promote consecutive multienzyme reactions with a ...
... acyl-carrier-protein) S-acetyltransferase) domain, which initiates the process of fatty acid synthesis. Here, acetyltransferase ... acyl-carrier-protein) synthase (ACPS) domain. ACPS attaches the 4′-phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of CoA to the acyl ... Leibundgut M, Jenni S, Frick C, Ban N (April 2007). "Structural basis for substrate delivery by acyl carrier protein in the ... Yeast fatty acyl synthase belongs to the Type I FAS and was the first of Type I FAS to be studied. Yeast fatty acyl synthase, ...
... acyl-carrier protein):UDP-3-O-((3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-alpha-D-glucosamine N-acetyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the ... acyl-carrier protein] The enzyme catalyses a step of lipid A biosynthesis. Bartling CM, Raetz CR (September 2009). "Crystal ... acyl-carrier protein] + UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-alpha-D-glucosamine ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } UDP-2,3-bis ... UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxymyristoyl)glucosamine N-acyltransferase (EC, UDP-3-O-acyl-glucosamine N-acyltransferase, UDP-3-O-(R ...
... acetyltransferase), PT product template), and ACP (acyl carrier protein) complex using malonyl-CoA as a loading molecule. The ...
... acyl-carrier protein s-acetyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.134.060 - acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050. ... acyl-carrier-protein) reductase (nadh) MeSH D08.811.682.660.390 - enoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) reductase (nadph, b-specific) ... serine O-acetyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.170 - acyl-carrier protein s-malonyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.173 - 1- ... acyl-carrier-protein) synthase MeSH D08.811.913.050.625 - phosphatidylcholine-sterol O-acyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.646 ...
... acyl carrier protein (ACP) and thioesterase (TE)). The conventional model for organization of FAS (see the 'head-to-tail' model ... malonyl/acetyltransferase (MAT), and dehydrase (DH)), are separated by a core region of 600 residues from four C-terminal ... "Mechanism of substrate shuttling by the acyl-carrier protein within the fatty acid mega-synthase". Journal of the American ... between these active sites while attached covalently to the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of an acyl carrier protein (ACP ...
... phosphate acetyltransferase, NADH peroxidase,Phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase (PPAT), acyl carrier protein, 3‐ ... faecalis homodimeric repressor protein CylR2. The E. faecalis genome consists of 3.22 million base pairs with 3,113 protein- ... This damage tolerance depends, in part, on the two protein complex RexAB, encoded by the E. faecalis genome, that is employed ... "In search of novel protein drug targets for treatment of Enterococcus faecalis infections". Chemical Biology & Drug Design. ...
Price AC, Choi KH, Heath RJ, Li Z, White SW, Rock CO (March 2001). "Inhibition of beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthases ... Acetyl-CoA+C-Acetyltransferase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Overview of all the ... Mammalian nonspecific lipid-transfer protein (nsL-TP) (also known as sterol carrier protein 2) is a protein which seems to ... or acyl carrier protein (ACP). All thiolases, whether they are biosynthetic or degradative in vivo, preferentially catalyze the ...
... acyl-carrier-protein] S-acetyltransferase EC [acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase EC acyl-[acyl- ... acyl-carrier-protein] synthase II EC β-ketoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase III EC lipoyl(octanoyl) ... acyl carrier protein) synthase I (*) EC meromycolic acid 3-oxoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) synthase II (*) EC 2.3. ... acyl-carrier-protein] synthase (*) EC mycobacterial β-ketoacyl-[acyl carrier protein] synthase III (*) EC ...
... acyl-carrier-protein] dehydratase EC 3-hydroxydecanoyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) dehydratase EC The reaction ... sulfoacetaldehyde acetyltransferase EC cysteine-S-conjugate β-lyase EC 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate ... BtrI acyl-carrier protein] decarboxylase EC carboxynorspermidine decarboxylase EC 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy ...
Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1) gene. Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1 is an acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase enzyme ... "Protein Information: P24752". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). Archived from the original on 14 August ... Ge J, Zhai W, Cheng B, He P, Qi B, Lu H, Zeng Y, Chen X (September 2013). "Insulin induces human acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol ... This disease is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning that carriers of the gene do not show symptoms of the ...
... encoding protein Solute carrier family 25 member 22 SMAP1: small acidic protein SMCO4: encoding protein SMCO4 SMPD1: ... ACAT1: acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1 (acetoacetyl Coenzyme A thiolase) ACRV1: encoding protein Acrosomal protein SP-10 ... fatty acyl-coA reductase 1 FAT3: fat atypical cadherin 3 FHIP: FTS and Hook-interacting protein FNBP4: Formin-binding protein 4 ... encoding protein Uncharacterized protein C11orf16 C11orf49: encoding protein UPF0705 protein C11orf49 C11orf52 encoding protein ...
... holo-CmaA peptidyl-carrier protein ligase EC Medium-chain-fatty-acid-(acyl-carrier-protein) ligase EC ... EC 2.3.1 Aminolevulinic acid synthase EC Choline acetyltransferase EC Category:EC 2.3.2 Factor XIII EC 2.3. ... L-proline-L-prolyl-carrier protein ligase EC D-alanine-D-alanyl-carrier protein ligase EC E1 SAMP- ... acyl-carrier-protein) ligase EC Transferred entry: EC (citrate (pro-3S)-lyase) ligase EC ...
"GNPNAT1 - Glucosamine 6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase - Homo sapiens (Human) - GNPNAT1 gene & protein". ... This end product acts as a carrier of N-Acetylglucosamine, which is the monomeric unit of chitin, a structural polymer that ... since it involves the transfer of a general acyl group with a methyl as the substituent. The systematic name of this enzyme ... glucosamine-phosphate N-acetyltransferase, and glucosamine-6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase. This enzyme is part of the ...
... acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] 4-desaturase EC acyl-lipid ω-(9-4) desaturase EC acyl-CoA 15-desaturase EC ... formate-C-acetyltransferase]-activating enzyme EC Now EC, arsenate reductase (glutaredoxin EC Now ... acyl-CoA 11-(E)-desaturase EC acyl-lipid ω-3 desaturase (cytochrome b5) EC acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] ... acyl-carrier protein] synthase. Now EC, pimeloyl-[acyl-carrier protein] synthase Most entries from here on have no ...
2003). "Structure of Human Carnitine Acetyltransferase: Molecular Basis For Fatty Acyl Transfer". J Biol Chem. 278 (15): 13159- ... is a peripheral inner mitochondrial membrane protein ubiquitously found as a monomeric protein in all tissues that oxidize ... a significant peak at C16 is indicative of generalized CPT II deficiency Genetic testing and carrier testing to confirm ... This gene is composed of 5 exons that encode a protein 658 amino acids in length. To date, sixty disease-causing mutations ...
An auxiliary protein unique to most eukaryotes is the E3 binding protein (E3BP), which serves to bind the E3 subunit to the PDC ... The E2 subunit, or dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase, for both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, is generally composed of three domains ... Rutter, Jared (23 January 2013). "The long and winding road to the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier". Cancer & Metabolism. 1 (1 ... The resulting hemithioacetal undergoes decarboxylation to produce an acyl anion equivalent (see cyanohydrin or aldehyde- ...
The acyl group at the C2 carbon is an acetate unit (as opposed to a fatty acid) whose short length increases the solubility of ... Using lab rats and mice, he found that ionophore A23187 (a mobile ion carrier that allows the passage of Mn2+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ ... Marx F, Binder U, Leiter E, Pócsi I (Feb 2008). "The Penicillium chrysogenum antifungal protein PAF, a promising tool for the ... An acetyl group is then added by LPC acetyltransferase (LPCAT) to produce PAF. Using the de novo pathway, PAF is produced from ...
Acyl-carrier protein S-acetyltransferase Synonymes. (Acyl-carrier-protein) S-acetyltransferase (Acyl-carrier-protein) ... Acyl-carrier-protein) S-acetyltransferase. (Acyl-carrier-protein) acetyltransferase. Acetyl Coenzyme A-acyl carrier protein ... Acyl-carrier protein S-acetyltransferase - Concept préféré Concept UI. M0070591. Terme préféré. ... the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL CoA to acyl-carrier protein to form COENZYME A and acetyl-acyl-carrier protein.. ...
... acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase; FABK, enoyl-acyl-carrier protein reductase II; ARGH, argininosuccinate lyase. b ... acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase; BCoAT, butyryl CoA:acetate CoA transferase. c Pathways involving these 40 KOs in (a), generated ... KOR, 2-oxoglutarate/2-oxoacid ferredoxin oxidoreductase; BUK, butyrate kinase; ENO, enolase; ENR, enoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] ... Then, the protein groups were filtered with the criteria that the protein groups should be present in ≥ 50% in each of the crew ...
Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Acetyltransferase use Acyl-Carrier Protein S-Acetyltransferase (Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Malonyltransferase ... Acyl-Carrier-Protein) S-Acetyltransferase use Acyl-Carrier Protein S-Acetyltransferase (Acyl-Carrier-Protein) S- ... Acyl Carrier Protein) Synthase use 3-Oxoacyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Synthase 3 Oxoacyl Synthetase use 3-Oxoacyl-(Acyl-Carrier- ... 3 Dimensional Homologs, Protein use Structural Homology, Protein 3 Dimensional Homology, Protein use Structural Homology, ...
3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier-protein reductase, and ß-subunit enoyl reductase catalyze the key starting steps of lipids or terpenoid ... The rate-limiting diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase, acetylCoA-citrate lyase, and acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase were ... The employment of both Cas9 protein and Cas mRNA was effective in obtaining strains with URA5 knockout that did not exhibit ... Recombinant proteins (RP) are widely used as biopharmaceuticals, industrial enzymes, or sustainable food source. Yeasts, with ... [acyl-carrier-protein] S-acetyltransferase acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase - - - - - ... ADP-dependent short-chain-acyl-CoA hydrolase acyl-CoA hydrolase 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA thioesterase ... homoserine O-acetyltransferase hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2-isopropylmalate synthase ... 2-hydroxyethyl-ThPP + Enzyme_N6-(lipoyl)lysine <=> [dihydrolipoyllysine-residue_acetyltransferase]_S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysine ...
Kinetic and structural characteristics of the inhibition of enoyl (acyl carrier protein) reductase by triclosan. Biochemistry ... through deletion of a pathway-specific acetyltransferase. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 87, 1633-1638 (2010). ... Antistaphylococcal activities of CG400549, a new bacterial enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI) inhibitor. J. Antimicrob ... Novel erythromycin derivatives with aryl groups tethered to the C-6 position are potent protein synthesis inhibitors and active ...
Capsule biosynthesis protein capA (NCBI ptt file). 120, 264. BC1958. BC1958. 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] reductase (NCBI ... Ribosomal-protein-alanine acetyltransferase (NCBI ptt file). 120, 381. BC2065. BC2065. hypothetical protein (NCBI ptt file). ... hypothetical protein (NCBI ptt file). 284, 434. BC2197. BC2197. Sec-independent protein translocase protein tatA (NCBI ptt file ... hypothetical Cytosolic Protein (NCBI ptt file). 120, 264. BC4023. BC4023. Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (NCBI ptt file). 112, ...
... "protein_coding" "AKI48561","acpD","Listeria monocytogenes","acyl carrier protein phosphodiesterase [Ensembl]. Flavodoxin-like ... "N-acetyltransferase-like protein [Ensembl]. Acetyltransferase (GNAT) domain [InterProScan].","protein_coding" "AGT26858","N559_ ... and lipoyl protein ligase (LPL), Biotin protein ligase, Helix-turn-helix [Interproscan].","protein_coding" "AKI49904","L2625_ ... "protein_coding" "CRN78004","No alias","Pseudomonas aeruginosa","Protein of unknown function, DUF [Ensembl]. Protein of unknown ...
Acyl-carrier protein synthase. ACS. Acetyl-CoA synthetase. AKGDH. 2-Oxogluterate dehydrogenase ... Rhamanosyl-N-acetylglucosamyl-undecaprenyl diphosphate O-acetyltransferase (LPS O16 antigen biosynthesis). OBTFL ...
7. Acyl-CoA-binding protein. General Function:. Protein dimerization activity. Specific Function:. Binds medium- and long-chain ... acyl-CoA esters with very high affinity and may function as an intracellular carrier of acyl-CoA esters. It is also able to ... Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, mitochondrial. General Function:. ... Pyruvate dehydrogenase protein X component, mitochondrial. General Function:. Transferase activity, transferring acyl groups. ...
An enzyme is a protein that catalyzes, or speeds up, a chemical reaction. Enzymes are the focal point of biotechnological ... specific protein-protein interactions may affect the retention of a protein. Elongation factor Tu has a throughput of 45% with ... Matrices for Carrier Binding Inorganic Supports. Controlled Pore Supports. Other Porous Supports. Non-porous supports. Coupling ... It has recently been used for the lysis of a Pseudomonas fluorescents prior to the purification of an aryl acyl hydrolase. ...
3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase II [1] (data from MRSA252). SAUSA300_1124. (fabG). 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) ... acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase [1] (data from MRSA252). SAUSA300_0385. hypothetical protein [1] (data from MRSA252). ... regulatory protein SpoVG [1] (data from MRSA252). SAUSA300_0479. 50S ribosomal protein L25/general stress protein Ctc [1] (data ... 50S ribosomal protein L30 [1] (data from MRSA252). SAUSA300_2074. (rpmE2). 50S ribosomal protein L31 type B [1] (data from ...
Protein-Protein Interactions) PhenoMiner (Quatitative Phenotypes) Gene Annotator OLGA (Gene List Generator) AllianceMine ... acyl-CoA thioesterase 7. involved_in. ISO. (PMID:10578051). BHF-UCL. PMID:10578051. NCBI chrNW_004955486:6,188,102...6,258,230 ... acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1. involved_in. ISO. (PMID:17371050). BHF-UCL. PMID:17371050. NCBI chrNW_004955412:10,350,088... ... mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 1. involved_in. acts_upstream_of_or_within. ISO. (MGI:5428352,PMID:22628558). MGI. PMID:22628558 ...
Complex:holo-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase. *Complex:homoserine kinase. *Complex:IMIDHISTID-CPLX ... Complex:galactoside O-acetyltransferase. *Complex:GALACTURIDYLYLTRANS-CPLX. *Complex:gamma-butyrobetainyl-CoA:carnitine CoA ... Protein complexes, mostly from EcoCyc Todo:many of the ones with all caps names or -CPLX are accessions, not complex names. ...
SIDT2 encoding protein SID1 transmembrane family member 2. *SLC17A6: encoding protein Solute carrier family 17 (vesicular ... ACAT1: acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1 (acetoacetyl Coenzyme A thiolase). *ACRV1: encoding protein Acrosomal protein SP- ... FAR1: fatty acyl-coA reductase 1. *FAT3: fat atypical cadherin 3. *FHIP: FTS and Hook-interacting protein ... C1QTNF4 encoding protein C1q and tumor necrosis factor related protein 4. *C1QTNF5: encoding protein C1q and tumor necrosis ...
Thioesterase : bovin-fasBos taurus (Bovine) oleoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] hydrolase (EC Thyroglobulin : bovin-thyro ... ABHD11-Acetyl_transferase : bovin-q3sz73Bos taurus (Bovine) abhydrolase domain containing 11.. ABHD12-PHARC : bovin-f1mps6Bos ... mgc128884 Protein NDRG2, bovin-ndrg3Bos taurus (Bovine) Protein NDRG3, bovin-q0vck8Bos taurus (Bovine) Uncharacterized protein. ... Palmitoyl-protein_thioesterase : bovin-ppt. Bos taurus palmitoyl-protein thioesterase mRNA, complete cds, bovin-ppt2Bos taurus ...
"Secretory carrier-associated membrane protein 1 OS=Oryza sativa subsp. japonica (sp,q8h5x5,scam1_orysj : 178.0)","protein_ ... ","protein_coding" "MA_10430156g0010","No alias","Picea abies","acyl CoA reductase","protein_coding" "MA_10430886g0020","No ... ","protein_coding" "Zm00001e031935_P004","No alias","Zea mays","lysine acetyltransferase (NSI)","protein_coding" " ... "Protein modification.protein folding and quality control.protein folding catalyst activities.FKBP protein folding catalyst"," ...
Retinal imaging demonstrates reduced capillary density in clinically unimpaired APOE ε4 gene carriers Targeting human Acyl-CoA: ... gene fission and rational gene fusion to discover near-infrared fluorescent protein fragments that report on protein protein ... and Acetyltransferase (MsbB) mutants Influence of donor age on induced pluripotent stem cells Free serum hemoglobin is ... protein diet more effectively reduces hepatic fat than low‐protein diet despite lower autophagy and FGF21 levels Immune- ...
AP71140 Recombinant Escherichia coli (strain K12) 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase 2 16280 10230 7678 4664 2706 0 1903 ... AP71008 Recombinant Phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase 16280 10230 7678 4664 2706 0 1903 E.coli STRHY His-tag Store at -20°C ... AP71318 Recombinant Staphylococcus aureus Malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase 16280 10230 7678 4664 2706 0 1903 E. ... AP71320 Recombinant Staphylococcus aureus (strain COL) 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase 2 16280 10230 7678 4664 2706 0 ...
GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) family protein. F:N-acetyltransferase activity;P:response to abscisic acid stimulus, ... mitochondrial substrate carrier family protein. F:binding;P:transport, mitochondrial transport;C:mitochondrial inner membrane, ... F:oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-CH group of donors, fatty acyl-CoA reductase (alcohol-forming) activity;P: ... protein kinase family protein. F:protein serine/threonine kinase activity, protein tyrosine kinase activity, protein kinase ...
FabF (3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase 2), which catalyses the rate limiting condensation reaction in the fatty acid ... N-terminal (Nt) acetylation is a major protein modification catalyzed by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs). Methionine ... The direct protein extracts had comparable EAI with casein, but the latter had superior ESI values. Protein hydrolysates with ... Practical Application Enzymatic protein hydrolysates can be included in food products to increase the protein content, and as a ...
fatty acid binding protein 2 [Source:H.... FABP7. 2173. FABP7. fatty acid binding protein 7 [Source:H.... ... glucosaminyl (N-acetyl) transferase 1 .... GDAP2. 54834. GDAP2. ganglioside induced differentiation as.... GFOD2. 81577. GFOD2 ... acyl-CoA synthetase long chain family .... ADAMTS1. 9510. ADAMTS1. ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospon.... ... solute carrier family 17 member 5 [Sou.... SOHLH2. 54937. SOHLH2. spermatogenesis and oogenesis specific.... ...
Reduced Folate Carrier Protein D12.776.157.530.937.622 D12.776.543.585.937.743 D23.50.301.500.600.813 D23.50.705.552.600.663 ... Acyl Coenzyme A D3.438.759.646.138.382.300 D3.633.100.759.646.138.382.300 Acylation G2.111.87.19 G2.111.12 G2.149.115.19 G2.607 ... N-Terminal Acetyltransferase D D8.811.913.50.134.407.74 D8.811.913.50.134.415.500.74 NAD D3.438.759.646.138.694 D3.633.100.759. ... ELAV Proteins D12.776.641.520 D12.776.631.520 ELAV-Like Protein 2 D12.776.641.520.500 D12.776.631.520.500 ELAV-Like Protein 3 ...
Strandberg, L.; Veide, A.; Enfors S O. 1987: Production of the hybrid protein staphylococcal protein a escherichia coli beta ... Pourrat, H.; Regerat, F.; Pourrat, A.; Jean, D. 1982: Production of tannase tannin acyl hydrolase ec by a strain of ... Eckenstein, F.; Thoenen, H. 1982: Production of specific anti sera and mono clonal antibodies to choline acetyl transferase ec ... in the sera of pharyngeal streptococcal carried in relation to t types of carrying streptococci and persistency of the carrier ...
  • Identification of a starter unit acyl-carrier protein transacylase domain in an iterative type I polyketide synthase. (
  • protein_coding" "AAC75228","fruA","Escherichia coli","fused fructose-specific PTS enzymes: IIBcomponent/IIC components [Ensembl]. (
  • protein_coding" "AAC75230","fruB","Escherichia coli","fused fructose-specific PTS enzymes: IIA component/HPr component [Ensembl]. (
  • With time, research, and improved protein engineering methods, many enzymes have been genetically modified to be more effective at the desired temperatures, pH, or under other manufacturing conditions typically inhibitory to enzyme activity (e.g. harsh chemicals), making them more suitable and efficient for industrial or home applications. (
  • This book basically deals with principles of industrial enzymology, basis of utilization of soluble and immobilized, enzymes in industrial processes, principles of immobilization of enzymes, enzymes in clinical analysis principles, practical aspects of large-scale protein purification, the applications of enzymes in industry, use of enzymes in the extraction of natural products, data on techniques of enzyme immobilization and bio affinity procedures etc. (
  • AP70858 Recombinant human Transmembrane protein 141 11055 6930 4125 2508 1452 0 1012 E.coli HUMAN GST-tag Store at -20°C, for extended storage, conserve at -20°C or -80°C. Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. (
  • Probe Set ID Ref Seq Protein ID Signal Strength Name Gene Symbol Species Function Swiss-Prot ID Amino Acid Sequence 1367452_at NP_598278 16.52 small ubiquitin-related modifier 2 precursor Sumo2 Rattus norvegicus " Ubiquitin-like protein that can be covalently attached to proteins as a monomer or as a lysine-linked polymer. (
  • This post-translational modification on lysine residues of proteins plays a crucial role in a number of cellular processes such as nuclear transport, DNA replication and repair, mitosis and signal transduction. (
  • HN - 2006(1981) BX - Actin-Capping Proteins MH - Actin Depolymerizing Factors UI - D051339 MN - D5.750.78.730.212 MN - D12.776.220.525.212 MS - A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. (
  • Arp2-3 complex binds WASP PROTEIN and existing ACTIN FILAMENTS, and it nucleates the formation of new branch point filaments. (
  • HN - 2006 BX - Arp2-3 Complex MH - Actin-Related Protein 3 UI - D051378 MN - D5.750.78.730.246.750 MN - D12.776.220.525.246.750 MS - A component of the Arp2-3 complex that is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and that binds ATP. (
  • The ternary complex containing UFD1L, VCP and NPLOC4 binds ubiquitinated proteins and is necessary for the export of misfolded proteins from the ER to the cytoplasm, where they are degraded by the proteasome. (
  • A enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL CoA to acyl-carrier protein to form COENZYME A and acetyl-acyl-carrier protein. (
  • 9/3/2005) TOTAL DESCRIPTORS = 935 MH - 1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase UI - D051103 MN - D8.811.913.50.173 MS - An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl group transfer of ACYL COA to 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to generate 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. (
  • An enzyme is a protein that catalyzes, or speeds up, a chemical reaction. (
  • LysR substrate binding domain, Bacterial regulatory helix-turn-helix protein [Interproscan]. (
  • AN - coordinate IM with ADENOMA (IM) HN - 2006 BX - Corticotroph Adenoma BX - Pituitary Adenoma, ACTH-Secreting BX - Pituitary Corticotropin-Secreting Adenoma MH - Actin Capping Proteins UI - D051344 MN - D5.750.78.730.32 MN - D12.776.220.525.32 MS - Actin capping proteins are cytoskeletal proteins that bind to the ends of ACTIN FILAMENTS to regulate actin polymerization. (
  • HN - 2006(1981) BX - Cofilins MH - Actin-Related Protein 2 UI - D051377 MN - D5.750.78.730.246.500 MN - D12.776.220.525.246.500 MS - A PROFILIN binding domain protein that is part of the Arp2-3 complex. (
  • HN - 2006(1998) MH - Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex UI - D051376 MN - D5.750.78.730.246 MN - D12.776.220.525.246 MS - A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of the CYTOSKELETON. (
  • protein_coding" "AAC73960","hcp","Escherichia coli","hybrid-cluster [4Fe-2S-2O] subunit of anaerobic terminal reductases [Ensembl]. (
  • genome assembly, based on nucleotide similarity to the FAS proteins (tBLASTn) of humans, other mosquitoes and invertebrates. (
  • Polymeric SUMO2 chains are also susceptible to polyubiquitination which functions as a signal for proteasomal degradation of modified proteins (By similarity). (
  • Regulates E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity of RNF19A (By similarity). (
  • Bos mutus (wild yak) abhydrolase domain-containing protein 8 (EC 3. (
  • So CCDS's gene number prediction represents a lower bound on the total number of human protein-coding genes. (
  • AP70865 Recombinant Human Tumor necrosis factor-inducible gene 6 protein 11055 6930 4125 2508 1452 0 1012 E.coli HUMAN GST-tag Store at -20°C, for extended storage, conserve at -20°C or -80°C. Repeated freezing and thawing is not recommended. (
  • Copper resistance protein D [Interproscan]. (
  • Predicted structure of this domain disclosed a region similar to malonyl-CoA:acyl-carrier protein (ACP) transacylases (MATs). (
  • It is expressed at higher levels than ARP2 PROTEIN and does not contain a PROFILIN binding domain. (
  • Coatomer complex is required for budding from Golgi membranes, and is essential for the retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport of dilysine-tagged proteins. (
  • adaptor related protein complex 3 subu. (
  • Protein of unknown function (DUF1158) [Interproscan]. (
  • Protein of unknown function (DUF441) [Interproscan]. (
  • Protein of unknown function (DUF2511) [Interproscan]. (
  • Subretinal vector injections led to nearly complete suppression of endogenous canine RHO RNA, while the human RHO replacement cDNA resulted in up to 30% of normal RHO protein levels. (
  • PcaA, MmaA4, Msh, Fad, Pim, PapA5 and MmpL7 proteins) participating in the biosynthesis of cell wall components with extremely tight and rigid structures are promising targets for new drugs against MTB, which can survive and grow in host macrophages via the aid of its strong cell wall. (
  • the other components constitute the other major biochemical constituents of a cell such as the actual DNA sequence, protein levels, and cellular substructures. (
  • This post-translational modification on lysine residues of proteins plays a crucial role in a number of cellular processes such as nuclear transport, DNA replication and repair, mitosis and signal transduction. (
  • In the absence of full proteomic data (both primary proteins and modified proteins), it is valuable to understand the quantitative relationship between genes, which we will refer to as gene expression networks. (
  • Probe Set ID Ref Seq Protein ID Signal Strength Name Gene Symbol Species Function Swiss-Prot ID Amino Acid Sequence 1367452_at NP_598278 7.9 small ubiquitin-related modifier 2 precursor Sumo2 Rattus norvegicus " Ubiquitin-like protein that can be covalently attached to proteins as a monomer or as a lysine-linked polymer. (
  • RS is related to various mutations on the MECP2 gene, which codes for methyl-CpG binding protein-2 (MECP2). (
  • Icl, AceA and GlcB proteins) are useful targets for the structural design of agents active against both persistent and dormant types of MTB. (
  • We focus specifically on two diseases: very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) and malonyl-CoA synthetase deficiency (acyl-CoA synthetase family member 3 (ACSF3)) deficiency, which are both characterized by alterations in metabolic flexibility. (
  • HN - 2006(1981) BX - Actin-Capping Proteins MH - Actin Depolymerizing Factors UI - D051339 MN - D5.750.78.730.212 MN - D12.776.220.525.212 MS - A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. (
  • Polymeric SUMO2 chains are also susceptible to polyubiquitination which functions as a signal for proteasomal degradation of modified proteins (By similarity). (
  • Regulates E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity of RNF19A (By similarity). (
  • It is expressed at higher levels than ARP2 PROTEIN and does not contain a PROFILIN binding domain. (