Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.
An intermediate in the pathway of coenzyme A formation in mammalian liver and some microorganisms.
The form of fatty acid synthase complex found in BACTERIA; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Catalytic steps are like the animal form but the protein structure is different with dissociated enzymes encoded by separate genes. It is a target of some ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS which result in disruption of the CELL MEMBRANE and CELL WALL.
An enzyme of long-chain fatty acid synthesis, that adds a two-carbon unit from malonyl-(acyl carrier protein) to another molecule of fatty acyl-(acyl carrier protein), giving a beta-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) with the release of carbon dioxide. EC 2.3.1.41.
Large enzyme complexes composed of a number of component enzymes that are found in STREPTOMYCES which biosynthesize MACROLIDES and other polyketides.
This enzyme catalyzes the transacylation of malonate from MALONYL CoA to activated holo-ACP, to generate malonyl-(acyl-carrier protein), which is an elongation substrate in FATTY ACIDS biosynthesis. It is an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of FATTY ACIDS in all BACTERIA.
Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.
A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
A 3-oxoacyl reductase that has specificity for ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN-derived FATTY ACIDS.
A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.
An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] to trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-[acyl-carrier protein]. It has a preference for acyl groups with a carbon chain length between 4 to 16.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-sulfur bond. EC 6.2.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.
A diphenyl ether derivative used in cosmetics and toilet soaps as an antiseptic. It has some bacteriostatic and fungistatic action.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
An epoxydodecadienamide isolated from several species, including ACREMONIUM, Acrocylindrum, and Helicoceras. It inhibits the biosynthesis of several lipids by interfering with enzyme function.
A genus of gram-positive bacteria whose spores are round to oval and covered by a sheath.
The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.
A plant genus of the family APIACEAE. The leaves are the source of cilantro and the seeds are the source of coriander, both of which are used in SPICES.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL CoA to acyl-carrier protein to form COENZYME A and acetyl-acyl-carrier protein.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
An octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs so that it is sometimes also called a pentanoic acid in some naming schemes. It is biosynthesized by cleavage of LINOLEIC ACID and is a coenzyme of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX). It is used in DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
Polyacenes with four ortho-fused benzene rings in a straight linear arrangement. This group is best known for the subclass called TETRACYCLINES.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Natural compounds containing alternating carbonyl and methylene groups (beta-polyketones), bioenergenetically derived from repeated condensation of acetyl coenzyme A via malonyl coenzyme A, in a process similar to fatty acid synthesis.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.
Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.
A soil-dwelling actinomycete with a complex lifecycle involving mycelial growth and spore formation. It is involved in the production of a number of medically important ANTIBIOTICS.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.

Effect of cold shock on lipid A biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Induction At 12 degrees C of an acyltransferase specific for palmitoleoyl-acyl carrier protein. (1/346)

Palmitoleate is not present in lipid A isolated from Escherichia coli grown at 30 degrees C or higher, but it comprises approximately 11% of the fatty acyl chains of lipid A in cells grown at 12 degrees C. The appearance of palmitoleate at 12 degrees C is accompanied by a decline in laurate from approximately 18% to approximately 5.5%. We now report that wild-type E. coli shifted from 30 degrees C to 12 degrees C acquire a novel palmitoleoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP)-dependent acyltransferase that acts on the key lipid A precursor Kdo2-lipid IVA. The palmitoleoyl transferase is induced more than 30-fold upon cold shock, as judged by assaying extracts of cells shifted to 12 degrees C. The induced activity is maximal after 2 h of cold shock, and then gradually declines but does not disappear. Strains harboring an insertion mutation in the lpxL(htrB) gene, which encodes the enzyme that normally transfers laurate from lauroyl-ACP to Kdo2-lipid IVA (Clementz, T., Bednarski, J. J., and Raetz, C. R. H. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 12095-12102) are not defective in the cold-induced palmitoleoyl transferase. Recently, a gene displaying 54% identity and 73% similarity at the protein level to lpxL was found in the genome of E. coli. This lpxL homologue, designated lpxP, encodes the cold shock-induced palmitoleoyl transferase. Extracts of cells containing lpxP on the multicopy plasmid pSK57 exhibit a 10-fold increase in the specific activity of the cold-induced palmitoleoyl transferase compared with cells lacking the plasmid. The elevated specific activity of the palmitoleoyl transferase under conditions of cold shock is attributed to greatly increased levels of lpxP mRNA. The replacement of laurate with palmitoleate in lipid A may reflect the desirability of maintaining the optimal outer membrane fluidity at 12 degrees C.  (+info)

Acyl homoserine-lactone quorum-sensing signal generation. (2/346)

Acyl homoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs) are important intercellular signaling molecules used by many bacteria to monitor their population density in quorum-sensing control of gene expression. These signals are synthesized by members of the LuxI family of proteins. To understand the mechanism of acyl-HSL synthesis we have purified the Pseudomonas aeruginosa RhlI protein and analyzed the kinetics of acyl-HSL synthesis by this enzyme. Purified RhlI catalyzes the synthesis of acyl-HSLs from acyl-acyl carrier proteins and S-adenosylmethionine. An analysis of the patterns of product inhibition indicated that RhlI catalyzes signal synthesis by a sequential, ordered reaction mechanism in which S-adenosylmethionine binds to RhlI as the initial step in the enzymatic mechanism. Because pathogenic bacteria such as P. aeruginosa use acyl-HSL signals to regulate virulence genes, an understanding of the mechanism of signal synthesis and identification of inhibitors of signal synthesis has implications for development of quorum sensing-targeted antivirulence molecules.  (+info)

Aminoacyl-CoAs as probes of condensation domain selectivity in nonribosomal peptide synthesis. (3/346)

In nonribosomal biosynthesis of peptide antibiotics by multimodular synthetases, amino acid monomers are activated by the adenylation domains of the synthetase and loaded onto the adjacent carrier protein domains as thioesters, then the formation of peptide bonds and translocation of the growing chain are effected by the synthetase's condensation domains. Whether the condensation domains have any editing function has been unknown. Synthesis of aminoacyl-coenzyme A (CoA) molecules and direct enzymatic transfer of aminoacyl-phosphopantetheine to the carrier domains allow the adenylation domain editing function to be bypassed. This method was used to demonstrate that the first condensation domain of tyrocidine synthetase shows low selectivity at the donor residue (D-phenylalanine) and higher selectivity at the acceptor residue (L-proline) in the formation of the chain-initiating D-Phe-L-Pro dipeptidyl-enzyme intermediate.  (+info)

The pro1(+) gene from Sordaria macrospora encodes a C6 zinc finger transcription factor required for fruiting body development. (4/346)

During sexual morphogenesis, the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora differentiates into multicellular fruiting bodies called perithecia. Previously it has been shown that this developmental process is under polygenic control. To further understand the molecular mechanisms involved in fruiting body formation, we generated the protoperithecia forming mutant pro1, in which the normal development of protoperithecia into perithecia has been disrupted. We succeeded in isolating a cosmid clone from an indexed cosmid library, which was able to complement the pro1(-) mutation. Deletion analysis, followed by DNA sequencing, subsequently demonstrated that fertility was restored to the pro1 mutant by an open reading frame encoding a 689-amino-acid polypeptide, which we named PRO1. A region from this polypeptide shares significant homology with the DNA-binding domains found in fungal C6 zinc finger transcription factors, such as the GAL4 protein from yeast. However, other typical regions of C6 zinc finger proteins, such as dimerization elements, are absent in PRO1. The involvement of the pro1(+) gene in fruiting body development was further confirmed by trying to complement the mutant phenotype with in vitro mutagenized and truncated versions of the pro1 open reading frame. Southern hybridization experiments also indicated that pro1(+) homologues are present in other sexually propagating filamentous ascomycetes.  (+info)

Kinetic analysis of the actinorhodin aromatic polyketide synthase. (5/346)

Type II polyketide synthases (PKSs) are bacterial multienzyme systems that catalyze the biosynthesis of a broad range of natural products. A core set of subunits, consisting of a ketosynthase, a chain length factor, an acyl carrier protein (ACP) and possibly a malonyl CoA:ACP transacylase (MAT) forms a "minimal" PKS. They generate a poly-beta-ketone backbone of a specified length from malonyl-CoA derived building blocks. Here we (a) report on the kinetic properties of the actinorhodin minimal PKS, and (b) present further data in support of the requirement of the MAT. Kinetic analysis showed that the apoACP is a competitive inhibitor of minimal PKS activity, demonstrating the importance of protein-protein interactions between the polypeptide moiety of the ACP and the remainder of the minimal PKS. In further support of the requirement of MAT for PKS activity, two new findings are presented. First, we observe hyperbolic dependence of PKS activity on MAT concentration, saturating at very low amounts (half-maximal rate at 19.7 +/- 5.1 nM). Since MAT can support PKS activity at less than 1/100 the typical concentration of the ACP and ketosynthase/chain length factor components, it is difficult to rule out the presence of trace quantities of MAT in a PKS reaction mixture. Second, an S97A mutant was constructed at the nucleophilic active site of the MAT. Not only can this mutant protein support PKS activity, it is also covalently labeled by [(14)C]malonyl-CoA, demonstrating that the serine nucleophile (which has been the target of PMSF inhibition in earlier studies) is dispensible for MAT activity in a Type II PKS system.  (+info)

Characterization of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa fatty acid biosynthetic gene cluster: purification of acyl carrier protein (ACP) and malonyl-coenzyme A:ACP transacylase (FabD). (6/346)

A DNA fragment containing the Pseudomonas aeruginosa fabD (encoding malonyl-coenzyme A [CoA]:acyl carrier protein [ACP] transacylase), fabG (encoding beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase), acpP (encoding ACP), and fabF (encoding beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II) genes was cloned and sequenced. This fab gene cluster is delimited by the plsX (encoding a poorly understood enzyme of phospholipid metabolism) and pabC (encoding 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase) genes; the fabF and pabC genes seem to be translationally coupled. The fabH gene (encoding beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III), which in most gram-negative bacteria is located between plsX and fabD, is absent from this gene cluster. A chromosomal temperature-sensitive fabD mutant was obtained by site-directed mutagenesis that resulted in a W258Q change. A chromosomal fabF insertion mutant was generated, and the resulting mutant strain contained substantially reduced levels of cis-vaccenic acid. Multiple attempts aimed at disruption of the chromosomal fabG gene were unsuccessful. We purified FabD as a hexahistidine fusion protein (H6-FabD) and ACP in its native form via an ACP-intein-chitin binding domain fusion protein, using a novel expression and purification scheme that should be applicable to ACP from other bacteria. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization spectroscopy, native polyacrylamide electrophoresis, and amino-terminal sequencing revealed that (i) most of the purified ACP was properly modified with its 4'-phosphopantetheine functional group, (ii) it was not acylated, and (iii) the amino-terminal methionine was removed. In an in vitro system, purified ACP functioned as acyl acceptor and H(6)-FabD exhibited malonyl-CoA:ACP transacylase activity.  (+info)

Heterologous expression, purification, reconstitution and kinetic analysis of an extended type II polyketide synthase. (7/346)

BACKGROUND: Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are bacterial multienzyme systems that synthesize a broad range of natural products. The 'minimal' PKS consists of a ketosynthase, a chain length factor, an acyl carrier protein and a malonyl transferase. Auxiliary components (ketoreductases, aromatases and cyclases are involved in controlling the oxidation level and cyclization of the nascent polyketide chain. We describe the heterologous expression and reconstitution of several auxiliary PKS components including the actinorhodin ketoreductase (act KR), the griseusin aromatase/cyclase (gris ARO/CYC), and the tetracenomycin aromatase/cyclase (tcm ARO/CYC). RESULTS: The polyketide products of reconstituted act and tcm PKSs were identical to those identified in previous in vivo studies. Although stable protein-protein interactions were not detected between minimal and auxiliary PKS components, kinetic analysis revealed that the extended PKS comprised of the act minimal PKS, the act KR and the gris ARO/CYC had a higher turnover number than the act minimal PKS plus the act KR or the act minimal PKS alone. Adding the tcm ARO/CYC to the tcm minimal PKS also increased the overall rate. CONCLUSIONS: Until recently the principal strategy for functional analysis of PKS subunits was through heterologous expression of recombinant PKSs in Streptomyces. Our results corroborate the implicit assumption that the product isolated from whole-cell systems is the dominant product of the PKS. They also suggest that an intermediate is channeled between the various subunits, and pave the way for more detailed structural and mechanistic analysis of these multienzyme systems.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of a gene encoding a cotton palmitoyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase. (8/346)

A cotton genomic clone containing a 17.4-kb DNA segment was found to encompass a palmitoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase (Fat B1) gene. The gene spans 3.6 kb with six exons and five introns, and is apparently the first plant FatB acyl-ACP thioesterase gene to be completely sequenced. The six exons are identical in nucleotide sequence to the open reading frame of the corresponding cDNA, and would encode a preprotein of 413 amino acids. The preprotein can clearly be identified as a FatB acyl-ACP thioesterase from its similarity to the deduced amino acid sequences of other FatB thioesterase preproteins. A 5'-flanking region of 914 bp was sequenced, with the potential TATA basal promoter 324 bp upstream from the ATG initiation codon. The 5'-flanking sequence also has a putative CAAT box and two presumptive basic region helixloop-helix (bHLH) elements with the consensus motif CANNTG (termed an E box), implicated as being a positive regulatory element in seed-specific gene expression.  (+info)

The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Structure-based Analysis of the Molecular Interactions between Acyltransferase and Acyl Carrier Protein in Vicenistatin BiosynthesisStructure-based Analysis of the Molecular Interactions between Acyltransferase and Acyl Carrier Protein in Vicenistatin Biosynthesis ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A mutant of Escherichia coli conditionally defective in the synthesis of holo-[acyl carrier protein]. AU - Polacco, M. L.. AU - Cronan, J. E.. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0019416792&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0019416792&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 7016860. AN - SCOPUS:0019416792. VL - 256. SP - 5750. EP - 5754. JO - Journal of Biological Chemistry. JF - Journal of Biological Chemistry. SN - 0021-9258. IS - 11. ER - ...
2LTE: Solution NMR structure of the specialized acyl carrier protein PA3334 (apo) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium Target PaT415.
Malonate decarboxylase, like citrate lyase, has a unique acyl carrier protein subunit with a prosthetic group derived from, and distinct from, coenzyme A. Members of this protein family are the phosphoribosyl-dephospho-CoA transferase specific to the malonate decarboxylase system. This enzyme can also be designated holo-ACP synthase (2.7.7.61). The corresponding component of the citrate lyase system, CitX, shows little or no sequence similarity to this family ...
9305965] Utilization of enzymatically phosphopantetheinylated acyl carrier proteins and acetyl-acyl carrier proteins by the actinorhodin polyketide synthase. (Biochemistry. , 1997 ...
The spatiotemporal pattern of deposition, final amount, and relative abundance of oleic acid (cis-ω-9 C18:1) and its derivatives in the different lipid fractions of the seed of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) indicates that omega-9 monoenes are synthesized at high rates in this organ. Accordingly, we observed that four Δ9 stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD)-coding genes (FATTY ACID BIOSYNTHESIS2 [FAB2], ACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN5 [AAD5], AAD1, and AAD6) are transcriptionally induced in seeds. We established that the three most highly expressed ones are directly activated by the WRINKLED1 transcription factor. We characterized a collection of 30 simple, double, triple, and quadruple mutants affected in SAD-coding genes and thereby revealed the functions of these desaturases throughout seed development. Production of oleic acid by FAB2 and AAD5 appears to be critical at the onset of embryo morphogenesis. Double homozygous plants from crossing fab2 and aad5 could never be obtained, and further ...
19. 1.Carrier Concept - According to this hypothesis the carrier protein picks up an ion from one side of the membrane and discharges it on the other side. The picking up and discharge of the ion requires energy. Energy is obtained by hydrolysis of ATP. - ATP changes into ADP and energy released is used to change the conformation of the carrier which may be ATPase itself, so that the ion is picked up on one side of the membrane and released on the other. - After discharge of an ion, carrier protein is reprimed to pick up an other ion. The carrier protein may carry one ion inwards and may exchange it with another ion at the inner surface of membrane, so that the other ion is carried by the same carrier outwards. ...
19. 1.Carrier Concept - According to this hypothesis the carrier protein picks up an ion from one side of the membrane and discharges it on the other side. The picking up and discharge of the ion requires energy. Energy is obtained by hydrolysis of ATP. - ATP changes into ADP and energy released is used to change the conformation of the carrier which may be ATPase itself, so that the ion is picked up on one side of the membrane and released on the other. - After discharge of an ion, carrier protein is reprimed to pick up an other ion. The carrier protein may carry one ion inwards and may exchange it with another ion at the inner surface of membrane, so that the other ion is carried by the same carrier outwards. ...
Acpp - Acpp (untagged ORF) - Rat acid phosphatase, prostate (Acpp), transcript variant 1, (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Introduction The majority of deaths from breast cancer are a total result of metastases; nevertheless, small is definitely recognized about the hereditary modifications root their starting point. had been scored by cell keeping track of, circulation cytometry, and scuff and … Continue reading →. ...
Are the levels of steroid hormones in blood and saliva the same? When the various glands manufacture the steroids they are released into the bloodstream bound to carrier proteins. Only a small fraction (1-5%) of a given amount of steroid hormone breaks loose from the carrier protein in the bloodstream and is free to enter [...]. ...
NIB Kimber Tactical Pro II in .45 ACP. |br >|br >|br >|br > MODEL: Tactical Pro II |br >|br > CALIBER: .45 ACP |br >|br > FRAME: A for sale by Sodak Sports on GunsAmerica - 924703810
ACP advocates on behalf on internists and their patients on a number of timely issues. Learn about where ACP stands on the following areas:. ...
The HK45 was developed as a product improvement of the highly regarded USP45, first released in the 1995. The Caliber .45 ACP HK45 includes several user-inspired enhancements including changeable
Author: Doermann, P. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2000; Keywords: Fatty-acid biosynthesis. Acp thioesterases. Higher-plants. Desaturase.|br/|Expression. Thaliana. Genes. Temperature. Resistance.|br/|Plant Sciences in Current Contents(R)/Agricultural, Biology &|br/|Environmental Sciences|br/|Animal & Plant Sciences in Current Contents(R)/Life Sciences.|br/|2000 week 29|br/|Reprint available from: Dormann P. Max Planck Inst Mol Pflanzenphysiol,|br/|D-14476 Golm, Germany, .; Title: Accumulation of palmitate in arabidopsis mediated by the acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase FATB1
Mammalian FAS consists of a homodimer of two identical protein subunits, in which three catalytic domains in the N-terminal section (-ketoacyl synthase (KS), malonyl/acetyltransferase (MAT), and dehydrase (DH)), are separated by a core region of 600 residues from four C-terminal domains (enoyl reductase (ER), -ketoacyl reductase (KR), acyl carrier protein (ACP) and thioesterase (TE)).[16][17] The conventional model for organization of FAS (see the head-to-tail model on the right) is largely based on the observations that the bifunctional reagent 1,3-dibromopropanone (DBP) is able to crosslink the active site cysteine thiol of the KS domain in one FAS monomer with the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of the ACP domain in the other monomer.[18][19] Complementation analysis of FAS dimers carrying different mutations on each monomer has established that the KS and MAT domains can cooperate with the ACP of either monomer.[20][21] and a reinvestigation of the DBP crosslinking experiments revealed ...
The minimal domains of a pks module are an acyltransferase at, ketosynthase ks and acyl carrier protein acp domain, where the at domain loads a coenzyme a-activated dicarboxylic acid extender unit onto the acp domain and the ks domain of the preceding domain catalyzes condensation of the nascent polyketide with the extender unit. So, according to this dictionary, the core difference in the two terms is that adamant applies centrally to resistance to being moved physically or figuratively, while tenacious applies centrally to resistance to being separated from something physically or figuratively. The unions are pressing for a three-year guarantee of job security and an eight percent across-the-board wage hike. The following assertions prove that the mock has come into effect. But 60s and older seniors online dating website truly free just before, rohit murdered and hid vikram and gul hassans daughter. No baggy clothes are permitted in ballet, in cold weather a light blue crossover can be bloch- ...
Rhodococcus erythropolis fabD, acpM, kasA/B, accD6 genes for probable malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase, probable acyl carrier protein, probable beta-ketoacyl-acp synthase, probable acetyl/propinoyl-CoA carboxylase, partial and complete ...
Rhodococcus erythropolis fabD, acpM, kasA/B, accD6 genes for probable malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase, probable acyl carrier protein, probable beta-ketoacyl-acp synthase, probable acetyl/propinoyl-CoA carboxylase, partial and complete ...
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Looking for online definition of Carrier proteins in the Medical Dictionary? Carrier proteins explanation free. What is Carrier proteins? Meaning of Carrier proteins medical term. What does Carrier proteins mean?
Fatty acid biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is initiated by the FabY class of beta-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein synthases ...
Archaea have idiosyncratic cell membranes usually based on phospholipids containing glycerol-1-phosphate linked by ether bonds to isoprenoid lateral chains. Since these phospholipids strongly differ from those of bacteria and eukaryotes, the origin of the archaeal membranes (and by extension, of all cellular membranes) was enigmatic and called for accurate evolutionary studies. In this paper we review some recent phylogenomic studies that have revealed a modified mevalonate pathway for the synthesis of isoprenoid precursors in archaea and suggested that this domain uses an atypical pathway of synthesis of fatty acids devoid of any acyl carrier protein, which is essential for this activity in bacteria and eukaryotes. In addition, we show new or updated phylogenetic analyses of enzymes likely responsible for the isoprenoid chain synthesis from their precursors and the phospholipid synthesis from glycerol phosphate, isoprenoids, and polar head groups. These results support that most of these enzymes can be
Introduction Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) is an essential component of coenzyme A (CoA) and acyl carrier protein (ACP). In both CoA and ACP, a derivative of
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SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for P80923 (ACP_PSESM), Acyl carrier protein. Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (strain ATCC BAA-871 / DC3000)
Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli K-12 mutants lacking both 2-acyl-glycerophosphoethanolamine acyltransferase and acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase activity ...
Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli K-12 mutants lacking both 2-acyl-glycerophosphoethanolamine acyltransferase and acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase activity ...
So a cell membrane has lots of these phospholipids joined together (see diagram below) One set of phospholipds are facing out of the cell, and the other facing inside the wall. This is shown in the picture below. The red balls are the water loving bits (bits to left above), and the yellow tails are the fatty tails. So you can see that vitamin E would fit really nicely into a bilipid membrane. This is because Vitamin E has a more water soluble head, and a fatty tale. Thus they do not need a carrier protein as it can popinto any cell in the body with ease. And this explains why they are needed for cell integrity. Because they will be the major antioxidant in the cell wall. And without this antioxidant the cell would self destruct so to speak. (picture credit ...
RhlA purification and assay.The expression of recombinant RhlA protein with an N-terminal His-tag encoded by plasmid pKZ002 was induced with isopropyl-1-thio-β-d-galactopyranoside (IPTG) in E. coli BL21(DE3). Cells were collected by centrifugation, resuspended in MCAC buffer (20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.9, 500 mM NaCl, 10% glycerol) and lysed with a French press. Soluble proteins were applied to a Ni2+-nitrilotriacetic acid agarose (Qiagen) column and washed with MCAC buffer plus 40 mM imidazole. His-tagged RhlA was eluted with MCAC buffer containing 200 mM imidazole. The fractions containing most of the RhlA protein were pooled, concentrated, and applied to a Superdex S200 column (GE Healthcare) to purify RhlA to homogeneity in a buffer of 20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4, 1 mM dithiothreitol, 50 mM EDTA. Intact MS gave a molecular weight of 34,964, positively identifying the protein as His-tagged RhlA lacking the N-terminal fMet amino acid.. The RhlA activity was determined by measuring the formation of ...
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
Wiggling is free at room temperature. Moving past a difficult energy barrier can be expensive, a little thermal wiggle isnt enough, you need some significant force. If the energy barrier is low enough, a little thermal wiggle might be sufficient. Youve encountered levers (perhaps electrical switches) that contain a spring so that the lever can be on one end-position or the other (say, left or right) but you must push against the spring to move the lever past the middle position before is snaps into the other state with assistance from the spring. This is an analogy for a protein that has a significant transition energy. If the spring breaks, the switch can freely flop between the two states, like a protein with a low transition energy barrier ...
second edition, 2009), ed. by Ajit Varki, Richard D. Cummings, Jeffrey David Esko, Hudson Freeze, Pamela Stanley, Carolyn R. Bertozzi, Gerald W. Hart, and Marilynn E. Etzler (HTML at NIH ...
C. S. McNaughton, A. D. Clarke, V. Kapustin, Y. Shinozuka, S. G. Howell, B. E. Anderson, E. Winstead, J. Dibb, E. Scheuer, R. C. Cohen, P. Wooldridge, A. Perring, L. G. Huey, S. Kim, J. L. Jimenez, E. J. Dunlea, P. F. DeCarlo, P. O. Wennberg, J. D. Crounse, A. J. Weinheimer, and F. ...
Order Human Malonyl coenzyme A acyl carrier protein transacylase mitochondrial MCAT ELISA Kit 01010947840 at Gentaur Malonyl coenzyme A acyl protein transacylase, mitochondrial (MCAT)
In molecular biology, Beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase EC 2.3.1.41, is an enzyme involved in fatty acid synthesis. It results in the formation of acetoacetyl ACP. Beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase is a highly conserved enzyme that is found in almost all life on earth as a domain in fatty acid synthase (FAS). FAS has two types, aptly named type I and II. Type I is found in animals, fungi, and lower eukaryotes. Type II is found in prokaryotes, plastids, and mitochondria. Beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III, perhaps the most well known of this family of enzymes, catalyzes a Claisen condensation between acetyl CoA and malonyl ACP. The image below reveals how CoA fits in the active site as a substrate of synthase III. Beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthases I and II only catalyze acyl-ACP reactions with malonyl ACP. Synthases I and II are capable of producing long-chain acyl-ACPs. Both are efficient up to acyl-ACPs with a 14 carbon chain, at which point synthase II is the more efficient choice for further carbon additions. Type ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Isolation of a cDNA clone encoding an acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase from the mesocarp of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). AU - Abrizah, O. AU - Lazarus, CM. AU - Stobart, AK. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. M3 - Article (Academic Journal). VL - Special Edition. SP - 81. EP - 86. JO - Journal of Oil Palm Research. JF - Journal of Oil Palm Research. SN - 1511-2780. ER - ...
The citrate lyase activation starts with a 3-dephospho-CoA reacting with ATP and a hydrogen ion through a triphosphoribosyl-dephospho-CoA synthase resulting in a adenine and a 2-(5-triphospho-alpha-D-ribosyl)-3-dephospho-CoA. The latter compound in turn reacts with with a citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein through a apo-citrate lyase phosphoribosyl-dephospho-CoA transferase resulting in the release of a pyrophosphate and a hydrogen ion and a holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein.This protein complex can either react with a hydrogen ion and a acetate resulting in the release of a water and an acetyl-holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein. The holo acyl-carrier protein creacts with an ATP and an acetate through a citrate lyase synthase resulting in the release of an AMP, a pyrophosphate and an acetyl-holo citrate lyase acyl-ccarrier protein. The holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein can also interact with an S-acetyl phosphopantethiene resulting in the release of a 4-phosphopantethiene and ...
Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases play an essential role in chain termination during de novo fatty acid synthesis and in the channeling of carbon flux between the two lipid biosynthesis pathways in plants. We have discovered that there are two distinct but related thioesterase gene classes in higher plants, termed FatA and FatB, whose evolutionary divergence appears to be ancient. FatA encodes the already described 18:1-ACP thioesterase. In contrast, FatB representatives encode thioesterases preferring acyl-ACPs having saturated acyl groups. We unexpectedly obtained a 16:0-ACP thioesterase cDNA from Cuphea hookeriana seed, which accumulate predominantly 8:0 and 10:0. The 16:0 thioesterase transcripts were found in non-seed tissues, and expression in transgenic Brassica napus led to the production of a 16:0-rich oil. We present evidence that this type of FatB gene is ancient and ubiquitous in plants and that specialized plant medium-chain thioesterases have evolved independently from ...
The assignment of Cys163 as the active site cysteine is based on several lines of evidence. In a sequence comparison of 42 condensing enzymes of fatty acid and polyketide synthesis, Siggaard‐Andersen (1993) identified one conserved cysteine residue, which in KAS II corresponds to Cys163. In addition, this cysteine residue superimposes with the active site cysteine in thiolase I, Cys125. Covalent modification studies of β‐ketoacyl synthases (Kauppinen et al., 1988; Funabashi et al., 1989) and thiolases (Izbicka‐Dimitrijevio et al., 1982) as well as mutagenesis of this residue in the β‐ketoacyl synthase domain of rat fatty acid synthase (Joshi et al., 1997) and thiolase from Zooglea ramigera (Thompson et al., 1989) support the proposed role of this cysteine as the nucleophile in the catalytic reaction.. At the entrance of the active site pocket, a bulky conserved residue, Phe400, is located. This residue points into the active site pocket and in part blocks access to the nucleophilic ...
The dimeric state of vcFabG in solution correlates with changes in the dimer interface B observed in crystal structures and positive cooperativity in NADPH binding.Although all FabGs with crystal structures in the PDB seem to adopt tetrameric quaternary structures involving the same two sets of dimer interfaces (interfaces A and B) found in vcFabG, the solution oligomerization states of FabGs from different organisms appear to be different. While the buried surface areas in dimer interface A among different FabGs are consistent (∼1,600 Å2), as calculated by PDBePISA (48), it seems that differences in the stability of dimer interface B is likely the major contributor to the presence of different oligomerization states of FabGs in solution. The variety of oligomeric states of different FabG homologs in solution does not correlate with their sequence similarities. For example, ecFabG, which has a sequence identity of 80% with vcFabG, exists in solution as tetramers, unlike vcFabG, while MabA, a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Post-translational acetylation of MbtA modulates mycobacterial siderophore biosynthesis. AU - Vergnolle, Olivia. AU - Xu, Hua. AU - Tufariello, Joann M.. AU - Favrot, Lorenza. AU - Malek, Adel A.. AU - Jacobs, William R.. AU - Blanchard, John S.. PY - 2016/10/14. Y1 - 2016/10/14. N2 - Iron is an essential element for life, but its soluble form is scarce in the environment and is rarer in the human body. Mtb (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) produces two aryl-capped siderophores, mycobactin (MBT) and carboxymycobactin (cMBT), to chelate intracellular iron. The adenylating enzyme MbtA catalyzes the first step of mycobactin biosynthesis in two half-reactions: activation of the salicylic acid as an acyl-adenylate and ligation onto the acyl carrier protein (ACP) domain of MbtB to form covalently salicylated MbtB-ACP. We report the first apo-MbtA structure from Mycobacterium smegmatis at 2.3 Å. We demonstrate here that MbtA activity can be reversibly, posttranslationally regulated by ...
Tuberculosis continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. No new drug has been developed in the past 30 yr. Consequently, there is an urgent need to identify new drug targets in mycobacteria and eventually, develop new drugs. The enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase (ENR) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the key enzymes involved in the type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway of M. tuberculosis. A series of pyrazoles linked with imidazoles were computationally designed and energy minimized. These ligands were investigated for drug like properties by calculating Lipinskis rule of five using molinspiration. These compounds were docked into the active site of ENR (PDB code, 2H7I) using Argus lab docking software which showed good affinity for the enzyme, when compared with the binging energies of standard drug isoniazid (-8.39kcal/mol.) Among all the designed ligands, the ligand 4 showed more binding energy values (-10.17kcal/mol). Further we planned to ...
Beta-Alanine metabolism starts as a product of aspartate metabolism. Aspartate is decarboxylated by aspartate 1-decarboxylase, releasing carbon dioxide and beta-alanine. Beta-Alanine is then metabolized through a pantothenate synthease resulting in pantothenic acid. Pantothenic acid then undergoes phosphorylation through an ATP-driven pantothenate kinase, resulting in D-4-phosphopantothenate. Pantothenate, vitamin B5, is a precursor for synthesis of 4-phosphopantetheine moiety of coenzyme A and acyl carrier protein. Plants and microorganisms can synthesize pantothenate de novo, but animals must obtain it from diet. Enzymes of beta-alanine metabolism are targets for anti-microbial drugs ...
Fatty acid synthetase catalyzes the formation of long-chain fatty acids from acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and NADPH. This multifunctional protein has 7 catalytic activities and an acyl carrier protein.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rapid decrease of RNA level of a novel mouse mitochondria solute carrier protein (Mscp) gene at 4-5 weeks of age. AU - Li, Quan Zhen. AU - Eckenrode, Sarah. AU - Ruan, Qing Guo. AU - Wang, Cong Yi. AU - Shi, Jing Da. AU - McIndoe, Richard A. AU - She, Jin-Xiong. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - We cloned a novel mouse gene that encodes a protein with homology to the mitochondria solute carrier proteins (Mscp). The major full-length Mscp transcript contains 4112 bp of cDNA and a deduced protein of 338 amino acids. The Mscp protein shares 50%, 40%, and 39% sequence identity with the C. elegans hypothetical protein T26089 and the yeast mitochondria carrier proteins MRS3 and MRS4, respectively. It also showed homology with the uncoupling proteins (UCP1, UCP2, and UCP3; 22%, 24%, and 29% identity, respectively). The protein has six trans-membrane domains and three mitochondria energy-transfer protein signature motifs, which ...
In the genetically modified plants the acyl-[ACP] thioesterase gene from Cuphea lanceolata is expressed under the control of its own seed-specific promoter. This enzyme catalyses the the formation of a thioester bond between the acyl carrier protein and the synthesized acyl chain in fatty acid biosynthesis ...
Real-time reaction monitoring based on a combination of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and compact mass spectrometry (CMS) is a simple and quick way for chemists to overcome synthetic challenges and optimize chemical reactions in the modern laboratory. Peptides of pharmaceutical interest can be readily synthesized following a rapid, continuous solution-phase synthesis strategy based on Fmoc protected amino acid building blocks. A simple model for such a reaction is the growing of analogues of the acyl carrier protein (ACP), a component of the fatty acid synthesis pathway.. ...
MetabolismFatty acid and phospholipid metabolismBiosynthesismalonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase (TIGR00128; EC 2.3.1.39; HMM-score: 328.4) ...
ACPP - ACPP (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human acid phosphatase, prostate (ACPP), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Blog on acpS recombinant protein product: The acpS acps (Catalog #MBS1453885) is a Recombinant Protein produced from E Coli or Yeast or Baculovirus...
Paige Bourbina, Mara Shaw, and Kyle Freel Facilitated Diffusion What is Facilitated Diffusion? - A passive transport used for molecules that cannot readily diffuse through cell membranes, even when there is a concentration gradient across the membrane. What Does That Mean? Facilitated Diffusion is the process used for molecules that cannot separate cell membranes on command, even when there is a concentration slope across the membrane. What Are The Steps to Facilitated Diffusion? 1. A molecule bonds to a carrier protein* on one side of the cell membrane. 2. The carrier protein changes shape, shielding the molecule from the interior of the membrane ...
plant antibodies, Arabidopsis antibody, chlamydomonas antibody, physcomitrella antibody, Antibodies for research on plant and algal cell biology, secondary antibody
Biocompare product reviews can cover any kit, reagent, antibody, or piece of equipment you use in your lab and are a great forum for researchers seeking to determine if a particular product will work for them.. All you need is a unique image, protocol information, and some helpful notes or tips on how to best use the product or service.. Not only are reviews a valuable resource for researchers looking to save time and money but all reviews that are accepted for publication earns you an Amazon Gift Card!*. Click Here to Write Your Review for XpressBio. ...
Are you concerned about Air Pollution in your area?. Maybe modelling air pollution will get you the answers you need for this problem.. Thats what I do full-time. Try it.. ...
15260498] The acyltransferase homologue from the initiation module of the R1128 polyketide synthase is an acyl-ACP thioesterase that edits acetyl primer units. (Biochemistry. , 2004 ...
Mootz HD, Finking R, Marahiel MA (2001) 4-phosphopantetheine transfer in primary and secondary metabolism of Bacillus subtilis. J Biol Chem 276:37289-98.[PMID:11489886 ...
Glycine max isolate D227G(F1396) stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SACPD) mRNA, SACPD-A allele, complete cds; chloroplast ...
ACP Internists puzzle feature challenges readers to find clues placed horizontally in rows to reveal an answer written vertically.
Elovson, J.; Vagelos, P. R. (July 1968). "Acyl carrier protein. X. Acyl carrier protein synthetase". J. Biol. Chem. 243 (13): ... Acyl carrier proteins (ACP) (such as ACP synthase and ACP degradation) are also used to produce 4′-phosphopantetheine. This ... Strickland, K. C.; Hoeferlin, L. A.; Oleinik, N. V.; Krupenko, N. I.; Krupenko, S. A. (January 2010). "Acyl carrier protein- ... is also the source of the phosphopantetheine group that is added as a prosthetic group to proteins such as acyl carrier protein ...
Fatty acid synthase Pantothenic acid Elovson J, Vagelos PR (July 1968). "Acyl carrier protein. X. Acyl carrier protein ... is a prosthetic group of several acyl carrier proteins including the acyl carrier proteins (ACP) of fatty acid synthases, ACPs ... the peptidyl carrier proteins (PCP), as well as aryl carrier proteins (ArCP) of nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). It is ... Subsequent to the expression of the apo acyl carrier protein, 4'-phosphopantetheine moiety is attached to a serine residue. The ...
Malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MCAT gene. The ... Malonyltransferase and acyl carrier protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (41): 40067-74. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... where it catalyzes the transfer of a malonyl group from malonyl-CoA to the mitochondrial acyl carrier protein. The encoded ... The human Malonyl CoA-acel carrier protein transacylase in human mitochondria associates with respiratory complex one, such ...
The acyl carrier protein (ACP) binds to the TGS domain of SpoT; this binding is probably influenced by the ratio of unacylated ... Battesti A, Bouveret E (November 2006). "Acyl carrier protein/SpoT interaction, the switch linking SpoT-dependent stress ... Protein domains observed in members of the RSH protein family are separated by hydrolase (HD) functionality and synthetase ( ... January 2022). "AlphaFold Protein Structure Database: massively expanding the structural coverage of protein-sequence space ...
2010). "Acyl carrier protein-specific 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase activates 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase". J ...
Ohlrogge JB, Kuhn DN, Stumpf PK (March 1979). "Subcellular localization of acyl carrier protein in leaf protoplasts of Spinacia ... Proteins can associate to form protein complexes, these often contain a set of proteins with similar functions, such as enzymes ... such as when multiple proteins come together to form protein complexes, or when DNA-binding proteins bind to their targets in ... Protein molecules that do not bind to cell membranes or the cytoskeleton are dissolved in the cytosol. The amount of protein in ...
Price AC, Choi KH, Heath RJ, Li Z, White SW, Rock CO (March 2001). "Inhibition of beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthases ... Mammalian nonspecific lipid-transfer protein (nsL-TP) (also known as sterol carrier protein 2) is a protein which seems to ... or acyl carrier protein (ACP). All thiolases, whether they are biosynthetic or degradative in vivo, preferentially catalyze the ... "Similarity between the amino-terminal portion of mammalian 58-kD sterol carrier protein (SCPx) and Escherichia coli acetyl-CoA ...
The mupirocin pathway also contains several tandem acyl carrier protein doublets or triplets. This may be an adaptation to ... These AT domains are the only domains present on MmpC, while the other three type I PKS proteins contain no AT domains. ... MupE is a single-domain protein that shows sequence similarity to known ER domains and may complete the reaction. It also ... Depletion of isoleucyl-tRNA results in inhibition of protein synthesis. The uncharged form of the tRNA binds to the aminoacyl- ...
... acyl-carrier protein] + a malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] → a 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + CO2 + an [acyl-carrier protein ... acyl-carrier protein] + malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] → (Z)-3-oxooctadec-13-enoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + CO2 + [acyl-carrier ... acyl transferase (MAT/AT), and a phosphopantethienylated acyl carrier protein (ACP) or coenzymeA (CoA). They also both used a ... "BRENDA - Information on EC 2.3.1.41 - beta-ketoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase I". www.brenda-enzymes.org. Retrieved 2016- ...
Cronan, John E. (2014). "The Chain-Flipping Mechanism of ACP (Acyl Carrier Protein)-Dependent enzymes Appears Universal". ...
Abbreviations: ACP - Acyl carrier protein, CoA - Coenzyme A, NADP - Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Note that ... to give a fatty acyl-adenylate, which then reacts with free coenzyme A to give a fatty acyl-CoA molecule. In order for the acyl ... Acyl-carnitine is converted back to acyl-CoA by carnitine palmitoyltransferase II, located on the interior face of the inner ... through specific transport proteins, such as the SLC27 family fatty acid transport protein. Red blood cells do not contain ...
"Protein-protein recognition between acyltransferases and acyl carrier proteins in multimodular polyketide synthases". ... or Acyl Carrier Protein. However, in fatty acid synthesis the original molecules are Acyl-CoA or Malonyl-CoA but poyketide ... The DEBS complex also contains a Loading Domain on module 1 consisting of an acyl carrier protein and an acyltransferase. The ... Each module consists of a minimum of a Ketosynthase (KS), Acyl carrier protein (ACP) site, and acyltransferase (AT), but may ...
A crystal structure is available of the S. albidoflavus [acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase. S. albidoflavus's ACP S-MT ... Certain strains of S. albidoflavus can be used for heterologous protein expression. The Ku homolog is SCF55.25c. It contains an ... S. albidoflavus produces a (putatively) single-domain protein SC9H11.09c which is homologous to the LigD NucDom which is common ... is located in the intergenic region between anti-sigma factor SCO4677 gene and a putative regulatory protein gene SCO4676. ...
... acyl carrier protein). The acyl chain is taken from primary metabolism as a 3-oxoacyl-CoA thioester. The glyceryl-S-ACP and 3- ... Sun, Yuhui; Hong, Hui; Gillies, Fraser; Spencer, Jonathan B.; Leadlay, Peter F. (2008). "Glyceryl-S-Acyl Carrier Protein as an ... The members of the agglomerins differ only in the composition of the acyl chain attached to the tetronate ring. They possess ...
... acyl carrier protein] + CoA + CO2 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA and malonyl-[acyl-carrier-protein], ... acyl-carrier-protein] synthase III (EC 2.3.1.180) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl-CoA + malonyl-[acyl ... β-Ketoacyl-acyl-carrier-protein synthase III is involved in the dissociated (or type II) fatty-acid biosynthesis system that ... Ashek A, Cho SJ (March 2006). "A combined approach of docking and 3D QSAR study of beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase ...
Ghattas, M. A.; Mansour, R. A.; Atatreh, N.; Bryce, R. A., Analysis of Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase Structure and ... Computeraided discovery of antimicrobial agents as potential enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase inhibitors. Tropical Journal ... Ghattas, M. A.; Raslan, N.; Sadeq, A.; Sorkhy, M. A.; Atatreh, N., Druggability analysis and classification of protein tyrosine ... Ghattas, M. A.; Atatreh, N.; Bichenkova, E. V.; Bryce, R. A., Protein tyrosine phosphatases: Ligand interaction analysis and ...
... the smallest δ subunit as an acyl-carrier protein". J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 30: 132-137. Hoenke S, Schmid M, Dimroth P (June ...
"Structural Basis for Substrate Delivery by Acyl Carrier Protein in the Yeast Fatty Acid Synthase". Science. American ... Specifically focusing on various ribosomal complexes involved in co-translational protein processing, folding, and targeting. ... "L23 protein functions as a chaperone docking site on the ribosome". Nature. Springer Science and Business Media LLC. 419 (6903 ... "Trigger factor in complex with the ribosome forms a molecular cradle for nascent proteins". Nature. Springer Science and ...
... I Beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II Beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) ... acyl-carrier-protein) synthase III (FabH)". Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 112 (8): 1613-1622. doi:10.1002/bit.25583. ISSN ... acyl-carrier-protein) synthase III (FabH)". Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 112 (8): 1613-22. doi:10.1002/bit.25583. PMID ... and genetic studies of beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthases I and II of Escherichia coli". Journal of Biological ...
These include the acyl carrier protein (ACP), acetyl transferase (AT), ketosynthase (KS), malonyl transferase (MT; which can ...
... 's acyl carrier protein differs from most ACPs by having a C-terminus extension. This ACP is also used ... and a putative dicarboxylate carrier protein (MatC) in Rhizobium trifolii--cloning, sequencing, and expression of the enzymes ...
... acyl carrier protein (ACP) and thioesterase (TE)). The conventional model for organization of FAS (see the 'head-to-tail' model ... "Mechanism of substrate shuttling by the acyl-carrier protein within the fatty acid mega-synthase". Journal of the American ... between these active sites while attached covalently to the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of an acyl carrier protein (ACP ... gastrointestinal lipase inhibitors Fatty acid synthesis Fatty acid metabolism Fatty acid degradation Enoyl-acyl carrier protein ...
A Battesti; E Bouveret (2006). "Acyl carrier protein/SpoT interaction, the switch linking SpoT-dependent stress response to ... In Escherichia coli, (p)ppGpp production is mediated by the ribosomal protein L11 (rplK resp. relC) and the ribosome-associated ... Translational GTPases involved in protein biosynthesis are also affected by ppGpp, with Initiation Factor 2 (IF2) being the ... proteins, with some having only synthetic, or hydrolytic or both (Rel) activities. During the stringent response, (p)ppGpp ...
An interesting link to an unusual acyl carrier protein". Biopolymers. 93 (9): 811-822. doi:10.1002/bip.21482. hdl:20.500.11820/ ...
"Modular type I polyketide synthase acyl carrier protein domains share a common N-terminally extended fold". Scientific Reports ... They include acyl-carrier domains plus an assortment of enzymatic units that can function in an iterative fashion, repeating ... Since nonribosomal peptide assembly lines use carrier proteins similar to those use in polyketide synthases, convergence of the ... Pigments azaphilones hydroxyanthraquinones naphthoquinones Flavonoids curcumin silymarin daidzein Protein engineering has ...
A starter acyl carrier protein is loaded with malonyl-CoA, and decarboxylated by a ketosynthase (KSQ). The starter unit is then ... Prescopranone and similar compounds are currently being investigated as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibitors for the ...
Examples include malonyl-CoA, acetoacetyl-CoA, propionyl-CoA, cinnamoyl-CoA, and acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesters. ... In addition, thioesters play an important role in the tagging of proteins with ubiquitin, which tags the protein for ... McGrath, N. A.; Raines, R. T. (2011). "Chemoselectivity in chemical biology: Acyl transfer reactions with sulfur and selenium ...
The enzyme EncN catalyzes the ATP-dependent transfer of the benzoate to EncC, the acyl carrier protein. EncC transfers the ...
Plant stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein desaturase (EC 1.14.19.1), an enzyme that catalyzes the introduction of a double bond at ... Shanklin J, Somerville C (March 1991). "Stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein desaturase from higher plants is structurally unrelated ... Acyl-CoA dehydrogenases are enzymes that catalyze formation of a double bond between C2 (α) and C3 (β) of the acyl-CoA ... or/and 33 gram of hemp seed protein a day, can provide all the protein, essential fatty acids, and dietary fiber necessary for ...
Synthase Acyltransferase Domain Structure Suggests a Recognition Mechanism for Its Hydroxymalonyl-Acyl Carrier Protein ...
Allosteric inhibition and activation by Protein-protein interactions (PPI).[28] Indeed, some proteins interact with and ... The hydrogen is used to reduce two molecules of NAD+, a hydrogen carrier, to give NADH + H+ for each triose. ... PFK2 is phosphorylated by protein kinase A. The phosphorylation inactivates PFK2, and another domain on this protein becomes ... Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles.[§ 1] ...
The triglycerides are coated with cholesterol and protein (protein coat) into a compound called a chylomicron. ... Hulbert AJ, Faulks S, Buttemer WA, Else PL (November 2002). "Acyl composition of muscle membranes varies with body size in ... "Small molecular drug transfer across the blood-brain barrier via carrier-mediated transport systems". NeuroRx. 2 (1): 54-62. ... FFAs are always bound to a transport protein, such as albumin.[19] ...
Acyl carrier protein. *Adaptor protein. *Cholesterylester transfer protein. *F-box protein. *GTP-binding protein ... γ proteins.[17] Signaling[edit]. G protein can refer to two distinct families of proteins. Heterotrimeric G proteins, sometimes ... G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside ... Whereas G proteins are activated by G protein-coupled receptors, they are inactivated by RGS proteins (for "Regulator of G ...
... butirosin acyl-carrier protein]-L-glutamate ligase EC 6.2.1.40 4-hydroxybutyrate-CoA ligase ... acyl- carrier -proteine] ligase EC 6.2.1.21 remplacé par EC 6.2.1.30 EC 6.2.1.22 [citrate (pro-3S)-lyase] ligase EC 6.2.1.23 ...
Acetylation of cellular proteins is a well-established phenomenon in the regulation of protein function at the post- ... The conjugate with the acetyl group intact is referred to as the acyl glucuronide; the deacetylated conjugate is the phenolic ... by diffusing from the inner membrane space as a proton carrier back into the mitochondrial matrix, where it ionizes once again ... Protein binding. 80-90%[3]. Metabolism. Liver (CYP2C19 and possibly CYP3A), some is also hydrolysed to salicylate in the gut ...
This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction (3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3- ... acyl-carrier protein] The enzyme catalyses a step of lipid A biosynthesis. Bartling CM, Raetz CR (September 2009). "Crystal ... acyl-carrier protein):UDP-3-O-((3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-alpha-D-glucosamine N-acetyltransferase. ... UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxymyristoyl)glucosamine N-acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.191, UDP-3-O-acyl-glucosamine N-acyltransferase, UDP-3-O-(R ...
The acyl chains in the fatty acids are extended by a cycle of reactions that add the acyl group, reduce it to an alcohol, ... Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined by peptide bonds. Many proteins are enzymes that catalyze ... It also serves as a carrier of phosphate groups in phosphorylation reactions. A vitamin is an organic compound needed in small ... In prokaryotes, these proteins are found in the cell's inner membrane. These proteins use the energy from reduced molecules ...
Solute carrier family, All stub articles, Membrane protein stubs). ... Very long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SLC27A2 gene. The protein encoded by this ... 2002). "Participation of two members of the very long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase family in bile acid synthesis and recycling". J ... "Entrez Gene: SLC27A2 solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 2". Perez VM, Gabell J, Behrens M, Wase N, ...
Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. Solute carrier family GRCh38 ... 2000). "The human liver-specific homolog of very long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase is cholate:CoA ligase". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (21 ... Long-chain fatty acid transport protein 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC27A6 gene. This gene encodes a ... 2005). "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi: ...
S. rimosus's oxytetracycline polyketide synthase acyl carrier protein differs from most ACPs by having a C-terminus extension. ...
It catalyzes the hydrolysis of long chain fatty acyl thioesters of acyl carrier protein or coenzyme A to form free fatty acid ... A defect in acyl-CoA degradation in livers can produce hyperammonemia and hypoglycemia. Barnes EM Jr; Wakil SJ (1968). "Studies ... This led to high levels of fatty acyl-CoA being present in the liver, which shows that a diseased liver cannot regulate the ... Miyazawa S, Furuta S, Hashimoto T (1981). "Induction of a novel long-chain acyl-CoA hydrolase in rat liver by administration of ...
... lipoate-protein ligases A, octanoyl-(acyl carrier protein):protein N-octanoyltransferases, and lipoyl-protein:protein N- ... Octanoyl-(acyl carrier protein):protein N-octanoyltransferases, or octanoyltransferases, are required for lipoic acid ... They transfer octanoate from the acyl carrier protein (ACP), part of fatty acid biosynthesis, to the specific lysine residue of ... Characterized lipoate protein ligases require an additional accessory domain (Pfam PF10437) to adenylate the acyl substrate. ...
... exist bound to special carrier proteins in serum. Ceramide (Cer) can be generated by the breakdown of sphingomyelin (SM) by ... Anandamide is formed via enzymatic release from N-arachidonoyl phosphatidylethanolamine by the N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine ... Sph is also known to interact with protein targets such as the protein kinase H homologue (PKH) and the yeast protein kinase ( ... A specific protein kinase phosphorylates 14-3-3, otherwise known as sphingosine-dependent protein kinase 1 (SDK1), only in the ...
... protein that binds medium- and long-chain acyl-CoA esters with very high affinity and may function as an intracellular carrier ... and the acyl chain is sandwiched between the hydrophobic surfaces of CoA and the protein. Other proteins containing an ACB ... Burton M, Rose TM, Faergeman NJ, Knudsen J (December 2005). "Evolution of the acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP)". Biochem. J. 392 ... In molecular biology, the Acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) is a small (10 Kd) ...
... dodecanoyl-acyl-carrier-protein hydrolase, dodecyl-acyl-carrier protein hydrolase, and dodecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] ... The enzyme dodecanoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] hydrolase (EC 3.1.2.21) catalyzes the reaction a dodecanoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein ... acyl-carrier-protein] hydrolase. Other names in common use include lauryl-acyl-carrier-protein hydrolase, ... acyl-carrier-protein] + dodecanoate This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on thioester ...
Enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, an enzyme which catalyzes an essential step in fatty acid biosynthesis Esercito Nazionale ...
... but his daughters will be carriers of one copy of the mutated gene. A woman who is a carrier of an X-linked recessive disorder ... Examples of this type of disorder are albinism, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell ... On the other hand, hereditary defects in structural proteins (such as osteogenesis imperfecta, Marfan's syndrome and many ... When a couple where one partner or both are affected or carriers of a single-gene disorder wish to have a child, they can do so ...
"A Plasma Protein Network Regulates PM20D1 and N-Acyl Amino Acid Bioactivity". Cell Chem Biol. 27 (9): 1130-1139.e4. doi:10.1016 ... NAGly respiration bioactivity can be also abrogated in the presence of serum albumin, which functions as an NAGly carrier in ... Kim JT, Terrell SM, Li VL, Wei W, Fischer CR, Long JZ (April 2020). "Cooperative enzymatic control of N-acyl amino acids by ... NaGly was shown to be endogenous ligand for the G-protein couple receptor GPR92 along with farnesyl pyrophosphate. In the ...
Universal protein resource accession number Q9UNI1 at UniProt. "Elastase". Worthington Enzyme Manual. Largman C, Brodrick JW, ... it is possible that carriers of the polymorphism may be at greater risk of developing the common skin diseases such as ... followed by a nucleophillic attack that forms an acyl-enzyme intermediate (a pair of electrons from the double bond of the ... In fact, pancreatic elastase is expressed in basal layers of epidermis (at protein level). Hence pancreatic elastase 1 has been ...
The loading module starts out the biosynthetic pathway by tethering to an acyl group of the acyl carrier protein (ACP).This ... Due to its activity against protein phosphatases PP2A and PP4 (IC50 1.5nM and 3.0nM, respectively) which play a vital role in ... Fostriecin is a known potent and selective inhibitor of protein serine/threonine phosphatases, as well as DNA topoisomerase II ... Armstrong SC, Gao W, Lane JR, Ganote CE (January 1998). "Protein phosphatase inhibitors calyculin A and fostriecin protect ...
Portal: Biology (Protein families, Solute carrier family). ... ACR3 of S. cerevisiae is 404 amino acyl residues long and ... These proteins are the ACR3 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also called the ARR3 protein, and the 'ArsB' protein of ... The former yeast protein is present in the plasma membrane and pumps arsenite and antimonite, but not arsenate, tellurite, ... While the nomenclature of the ARC3 ArsB protein overlaps with ArsB of E. coli (ArsB family), it is important to note they are ...
... some lipid-binding proteins are able to insert themselves into membranes and could hypothetically recognize the type of acyl ... A major event in the budding of vesicles, such as transport carriers from the Golgi, is the creation and subsequent narrowing ... anchored proteins: GPI-anchored proteins in liposomes and cells show similar behavior". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Perhaps the different acyl chains can affect the angle of the head-group in the membrane. If this is the case, it suggests that ...
Some of the more common or promising therapies are listed: Dietary restriction E.g., reduction of dietary protein remains a ... While a Mexican study established an overall incidence of 3.4: 1000 live newborns and a carrier detection of 6.8:1000 NBS. ... 2-hydroxyglutaric acidurias Disorders of fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial metabolism Medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A ... the middle of the 20th century the principal treatment for some of the amino acid disorders was restriction of dietary protein ...
The acyl carrier protein of lipid synthesis donates lipoic acid to the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in Escherichia coli and ... Lipoate-protein ligase (EC 2.7.7.63, LplA, lipoate protein ligase, lipoate-protein ligase A, LPL, LPL-B) is an enzyme with ... Lipoate---protein+ligase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology (EC 2.7.7). ... Kim DJ, Kim KH, Lee HH, Lee SJ, Ha JY, Yoon HJ, Suh SW (November 2005). "Crystal structure of lipoate-protein ligase A bound ...
This end product acts as a carrier of N-Acetylglucosamine, which is the monomeric unit of chitin, a structural polymer that ... This proposed 3d structure of the protein shows that the specific parts of the substrates involved in this reaction - the ... since it involves the transfer of a general acyl group with a methyl as the substituent. The systematic name of this enzyme ... The general reaction mechanism postulated for protein N-end acetylation (inspired by lysine acetylation mechanism) with Acetyl- ...
... mercaptoethylamine-pantothenate complex associated with an acyl carrier protein. (Articles lacking sources from December 2009, ...
... which are attached to an acyl carrier protein (ACP) and extend the polyketide by two carbons each. After each successive ... The mode of action of sirolimus is to bind the cytosolic protein FK-binding protein 12 (FKBP12) in a manner similar to ... Each fusion protein also contains additional domains that are brought into proximity when rapamycin induces binding of FRB and ... In this way, rapamycin can be used to control and study protein localization and interactions. "Rapamune- sirolimus solution ...
SCARB2 Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, long chain, deficiency of; 201460; ACADL Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, medium chain, deficiency of; ... HRG Thrombophilia due to protein C deficiency, autosomal dominant; 176860; PROC Thrombophilia due to protein C deficiency, ... RFXANK Micochondrial phosphate carrier deficiency; 610773; SLC25A3 Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II; ... SLITRK1 Trifunctional protein deficiency; 609015; HADHA Trifunctional protein deficiency; 609015; HADHB Trigonocephaly; 190440 ...
4-Phosphopantetheine is a prosthetic group of several acyl carrier proteins including the acyl carrier proteins (ACP) of fatty ... Acyl Carrier Protein at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (Proteins). ... The acyl carrier protein (ACP) is a cofactor of both fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis machinery. It is one of the most ... the peptidyl carrier proteins (PCP), as well as aryl carrier proteins (ArCP) of nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). Cronan ...
Beta ketoacyl acyl carrier protein synthase II (KASII) from Synechocystis sp. ... BETA KETOACYL ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN SYNTHASE II. A. 416. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Mutation(s): 0 EC: 2.3.1.41 (PDB Primary ... Beta ketoacyl acyl carrier protein synthase II (KASII) from Synechocystis sp.. *PDB DOI: 10.2210/pdb1E5M/pdb ... The Crystal Structure of Beta-Ketoacyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Synthase II from Synechocystis Sp. At 1.54 A Resolution and its ...
holo-[acyl-carrier protein]. + H2O. = 4-phosphopantetheine. + apo-[acyl-carrier protein]. Synonyms. ACP phosphodiesterase, ... acyl-carrier-protein] phosphodiesterase. This is an abbreviated version!. For detailed information about [acyl-carrier-protein ... holofatty acid synthetase hydrolase, 4-phosphopantetheine hydrolase, ACP hydrolase, acyl carrier protein phosphodiesterase, ...
Hydroxyacyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Dehydratase (FabZ) from Helicobacter pylori in complex with compound 3m ... 3R)-hydroxymyristoyl-acyl carrier protein dehydratase. A, B, C, D, E, F ... Crystal structure of (3R)-Hydroxyacyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Dehydratase (FabZ) from Helicobacter pylori in complex with compound ... Discovering potent inhibitors against the beta-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein dehydratase (FabZ) of Helicobacter pylori: ...
Information on EC 4.2.1.61 - 3-hydroxypalmitoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] dehydratase. for references in articles please use ...
Has very low activity with substrates not bound to an acyl-carrier protein. ...
The Lotus japonicus acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase FatM is required for mycorrhiza formation and lipid accumulation of ... The Lotus japonicus acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase FatM is required for mycorrhiza formation and lipid accumulation of ... Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases (Fat) are essential components of the plant plastid-localized fatty acid synthase ... by phenotypically analyzing fatm mutant lines and by studying the biochemical function of the recombinant FatM protein. Reduced ...
Acyl-Carrier Protein S-Malonyltransferase*Acyl-Carrier Protein S-Malonyltransferase. *Acyl Carrier Protein S Malonyltransferase ... "Acyl-Carrier Protein S-Malonyltransferase" by people in this website by year, and whether "Acyl-Carrier Protein S- ... "Acyl-Carrier Protein S-Malonyltransferase" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Acyl-Carrier Protein S-Malonyltransferase" by people in Profiles. ...
Acyl carrier proteins (ACP) were purified to homogeneity in the active form from developing seeds of pisa (Actinodaphne hookeri ... Purification and partial characterization of acyl carrier proteins from developing oil seeds of pisa (Actinodaphne hookeri) and ... Purification and partial characterization of acyl carrier proteins from developing oil seeds of pisa (Actinodaphne hookeri) and ... The two isoforms of ACPs from pisa showed nearly the same specific activity of 6,706 and 7,175 pmol per min per mg protein ...
... acyl-carrier-protein] synthase (acpS) datasheet and description hight quality product and Backed by our Guarantee ... acyl-carrier-protein] synthase, holo-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase. ... Mycoplasma gallisepticum Holo-[acyl- -protein] synthase (acpS). Alternative name: Mycoplasma gallisepticum Holo-[acyl-carrier- ... The protein can be with or without a His-Tag or other tag in accordance to customers request, Holo-[acyl-carrier-protein] ...
... acyl-carrier protein] + malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] = 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + CO2 + [acyl-carrier protein]. [EC: ... GO:0004315: 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase activity (Molecular function). Catalysis of the reaction: acyl-[ ...
Inhibition of the Staphylococcus aureus NADPH-dependent enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase by triclosan and hexachlorophene. ... Kinetic and structural characteristics of the inhibition of enoyl (acyl carrier protein) reductase by triclosan. Biochemistry ... attributable to binding to the active site of enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (217,218). ... Hospital outbreak of infections with group a streptococci traced to an asymptomatic anal carrier. N Engl J Med 1969;280:1224--5 ...
TYPE II PKS ACYL-CARRIER PROTEIN - 6SM6 , canSARS ... ANTF (HOLO): TYPE II PKS ACYL-CARRIER PROTEIN EXPRESSION SYSTEM ... Target Protein. Gene. Expression System. Organism. Synonims. Actions. 6SM6_A C6KT68 C6H68_21855. ESCHERICHIA COLI BL21(DE3). ...
Crystal Structure of the Complex Between Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Beta-Ketoacyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Synthase III and Lauroyl ... Musayev, F. et al., Crystal structure of a substrate complex of Mycobacterium tuberculosis beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein ... Crystal Structure of the Complex Between Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Beta-Ketoacyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Synthase III and Lauroyl ...
ACYL-CARRIER-PROTEIN) REDUCTASE (FABG)(F187A) FROM VIBRIO CHOLERAE - 3TZH , canSAR.ai ... Protein families, Compounds, Diseases, Genes, Drugs on the Cancer Drug Discovery Platform , canSAR.ai ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF 3-KETOACYL-(ACYL-CARRIER-PROTEIN) REDUCTASE (FABG)(F187A) FROM VIBRIO CHOLERAE ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF 3-KETOACYL-(ACYL-CARRIER-PROTEIN) REDUCTASE (FABG)(F187A) FROM VIBRIO CHOLERAE ...
In the strain naturally expressing the SprG1 toxin, cytoplasmic proteins are excreted into the medium, but this is not due to ... Such a toxin-driven release of the cytoplasmic proteins may modulate the host inflammatory response that, in turn, could ... Comparison of intracellular proteomes among the strains points to the SprF1 antitoxin as moderately downregulating protein ... for the three proteins (6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine synthase, RibH; 3-hydroxyacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) dehydratase, FabZ; ...
Actinorhodin polyketide synthase acyl carrier proteinS-[2-({N-[(2S)-2-hydroxy-3,3-dimethyl-4-(phosphonooxy)butanoyl]-beta- ... Actinorhodin Polyketide Synthase Acyl Carrier Protein. (Gene symbol: SCO5089). Chemical and Non-standard biopolymers (1 ...
X-RAY STRUCTURE OF ENOYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN REDUCTASE FROM BACILLUS ANTHRACIS WITH TRICLOSAN - 5YCS , canSARS ... X-RAY STRUCTURE OF ENOYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN REDUCTASE FROM BACILLUS ANTHRACIS WITH TRICLOSAN ... X-RAY STRUCTURE OF ENOYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN REDUCTASE FROM BACILLUS ANTHRACIS WITH TRICLOSAN ... Target Protein. Gene. Expression System. Organism. Synonims. Actions. 5YCS_A Q81GI3 FABI, BC_1216. ESCHERICHIA COLI-PICHIA ...
Modification of the fatty acid composition of Escherichia coli by coexpression of a plant acyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase ... Primary structures of the precursor and mature forms of stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase from safflower embryos and ... Engineering Δ 9 -16:0-Acyl Carrier Protein (ACP) Desaturase Specificity Based on Combinatorial Saturation Mutagenesis and ... Combinatorial protein design: strategies for screening protein libraries journal, August 1997 * Zhao, Huimin; Arnold, Frances H ...
... and ASTRAL compendium for protein structure and sequence analysis ... refinement of the nmr structures for acyl carrier protein with ... Compound: acyl-carrier protein. Species: Escherichia coli [TaxId:37762]. Database cross-references and differences (RAF-indexed ... Class: fatty acid synthesis protein. Keywords: fatty acid synthesis protein. Deposited on 1990-07-29, released 1993-04-15. The ... SCOPe: Structural Classification of Proteins - extended. Release 2.08 (updated 2022-09-21, stable release September 2021) ...
Regulation of plant fatty acid biosynthesis-analysis of acyl-coenzyme A and acyl-acyl-carrier-protein substrate pools in ... Post-Beittenmiller, D., Jaworski, J. G., and Ohlrogge, J. B. (1991). In vivo pools of free and acylated acyl carrier proteins ... acyl carrier protein; FFA, free fatty acid; DHAP, dihydroxyacetone phosphate; MAT, malonyl-CoA:ACPtransacylase; PAT, ... Acyl CoA Independent Pathway. In this pathway acyl group is transferred from phospholipids by phospholipid:diacylglycerol ...
AC PS50075; DT NOV-1997 (CREATED); NOV-1997 (DATA UPDATE); JUL-1998 (INF UPDATE). DE Acyl carrier protein phosphopantetheine ... Search with a protein sequence against PROSITE profile library OVERVIEW. PROSITE is a database of protein families and domains ... A list of those entries, ID numbers of PDB together with brief description of the proteins is shown by clicking the cell. From ... If any profiles are found in the database ProfileFinder then looks up the Protein Data Bank entries which share the same motif ...
CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF BETA-KETOACYL-[ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN] SYNTHASE I FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI ... ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN] SYNTHASE I. Oligo-state. homo-dimer. SMTL ID. 1dd8.2. Ligands. -. Polypeptides. BETA-KETOACYL [ACYL ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF BETA-KETOACYL-[ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN] SYNTHASE I FROM ESCHERICHIA COLI; X-RAY DIFFRACTION 2.30 Å SMTL ID. ...
PDB Compounds: (A:) Enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase [NADH]. SCOPe Domain Sequences for d4tzka_:. Sequence; same for both ... Protein Enoyl-ACP reductase [51791] (11 species). *. Species Mycobacterium tuberculosis, TB, gene InhA [TaxId:1773] [51793] (96 ... Class c: Alpha and beta proteins (a/b) [51349] (148 folds). *. Fold c.2: NAD(P)-binding Rossmann-fold domains [51734] (1 ... Family c.2.1.2: Tyrosine-dependent oxidoreductases [51751] (73 proteins). also known as short-chain dehydrogenases and SDR ...
3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] dehydratase / trans-2-decenoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] isomerase [EC:4.2.1.59 5.3.3.14]. ... UDP-3-O-[3-hydroxymyristoyl] N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase / 3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] dehydratase [EC:3.5.1.108 ...
Beta-Ketoacyl-Acyl-Carrier-Protein Synthase I Enzyme, Catalysis, Chemical reaction, Enzyme substrate (biology), Transferase, ...
The structure of (3R)-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein dehydratase (FabZ) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.. Kimber MS, Martin F, Lu ... Proteins. 51(4):562-8.. *Structural basis for specificity switching of the Src SH2 domain.. Kimber MS, Nachman J, Cunningham AM ... We determined structures for all of the shell proteins and most of the enzymes, and shown that the enzymes together comprise an ... The small RbcS-like domains of the β-carboxysome structural protein, CcmM, bind RubisCO at a site distinct from that binding ...
Purification and characterization of the stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase and the acyl-acyl carrier protein ... stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + electron donor + O2 = oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + electron acceptor + H2O ... stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + electron donor + O2 = oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + electron acceptor + H2O ... stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + electron donor + O2 = oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + acceptor + H2O ...
4. Overexpression of 3-ketoacyl-acyl-carrier protein synthase IIIs in plants reduces the rate of lipid synthesis ... A cDNA coding for 3-ketoacyl-acyl-carrier protein (ACP) synthase III (KAS III) from spinach (Spinacia oleracea; So KAS III) was ... protein synthesis; actin; molecular weight; isoelectric point; beta-glucanase; cytoskeleton; protein composition; genetic code ... 8. cDNA clones encoding 1,3-beta-glucanase and a fimbrin-like cytoskeletal protein are induced by Al toxicity in wheat roots ...
  • The Francisella tularensis FabI enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase gene is essential to bacterial viability and is expressed during infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Next, we performed metabolomic analysis on HeLa cells in which the mtFASII pathway was either hypofunctional (through knockdown of mitochondrial acyl carrier protein, ACP) or hyperfunctional (through overexpression of mitochondrial enoyl-CoA reductase, MECR). (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductases (ENRs) are enzymes involved in the final reduction in the bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS II) pathway. (elsevier.com)
  • Functioning as an antimicrobial agent, triclosan blocks the active site of a bacterial enzyme known as enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase enzyme. (sterizen.com)
  • Created page with ' Category:reaction == Reaction RXN-9538 == * direction: ** left-to-right * common-name: ** trans tetradec-2-enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase (nadph, b-specific) ** fa. (genouest.org)
  • This enzyme catalyzes the transacylation of malonate from MALONYL CoA to activated holo-ACP, to generate malonyl-(acyl-carrier protein), which is an elongation substrate in FATTY ACIDS biosynthesis. (ucdenver.edu)
  • In Mycobacterium tuberculosis , holo-ACP (the product of EC 2.7.8.7 , holo-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase) is the preferred substrate [5]. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Compositional properties of Holo-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase (bottom) versus UniprotKB/SwissProt (top). (ucy.ac.cy)
  • beta-Ketoacyl-ACP synthases (KAS) are the condensing enzymes present in the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway and are able to elongate an acyl chain bound to either co-enzyme A (CoA) or acyl carrier protein (ACP) with a two-carbon unit derived from malonyl-ACP. (rcsb.org)
  • Catalysis may only occur when the oxyanion hole is formed through substrate binding, preventing hydrolysis of the acyl-enzyme intermediate. (stanford.edu)
  • En biochimie , une ligase est une enzyme qui catalyse la jonction de deux molécules (en anglais ligation ) par de nouvelles liaisons covalentes avec hydrolyse concomitante de l' ATP ou d'autres molécules similaires. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme, along with EC 2.3.1.38 , [acyl-carrier-protein] S- acetyltransferase, is essential for the initiation of fatty-acid biosynthesis in bacteria. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • 10. Hoenke, S. and Dimroth, P. Formation of catalytically active acetyl- S- malonate decarboxylase requires malonyl-coenzyme A:acyl carrier protein transacylase as auxiliary enzyme. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • GapMind searches the predicted proteins for candidates by using ublast (a fast alternative to protein BLAST) to find similarities to characterized proteins or by using HMMer to find similarities to enzyme models (usually from TIGRFams ). (lbl.gov)
  • Candidates for each step are identified by using ublast (a fast alternative to protein BLAST) against a database of manually-curated proteins (most of which are experimentally characterized) or by using HMMer with enzyme models (usually from TIGRFam ). (lbl.gov)
  • This enzyme, which is found in biotin biosynthetic gene clusters in proteobacteria, firmicutes, green-sulfur bacteria, fusobacterium and bacteroides, carries out an enzymatic step prior to the formation of pimeloyl-CoA, namely O-methylation of the malonyl group preferentially while on acyl carrier protein. (crispr.dk)
  • This protein is found alongside MetX, of the enzyme that acylates homoserine as a first step toward methionine biosynthesis, in many species. (crispr.dk)
  • En biochimie, une lyase est une enzyme qui catalyse la rupture de différentes liaisons chimiques par des moyens autres que l'hydrolyse ou l'oxydation, formant ainsi souvent une nouvelle liaison double ou un nouveau cycle. (dbpedia.org)
  • Instead, the receptor stimulates a G protein, which then stimulates an enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • The prokaryotic riboflavin biosynthesis protein is a bifunctional enzyme found in bacteria that catalyzes the phosphorylation of riboflavin into flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and the …The prokaryotic riboflavin biosynthesis protein is a bifunctional enzyme found in bacteria that catalyzes the phosphorylation of riboflavin into flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and the adenylylation of FMN into flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). (speedweb.shop)
  • Frataxin, a nuclear encoded protein targeted to the mitochondrial matrix, has recently been implicated as an iron chaperone that delivers Fe(II) to the iron-sulfur assembly enzyme ISU. (deepdyve.com)
  • Created page with ' Category:reaction == Reaction RXN-14789 == * direction: ** left-to-right * common-name: ** fatty acyl-coa oxidase ** acyl-coa oxidase * ec-number: ** [http://enzyme.expasy. (genouest.org)
  • The acyl-carrier protein (ACP) requires vitamin B5 in the form of 4'-phosphopantetheine for its activity as a carrier protein in the multi-enzyme complex fatty acid synthase (FAS). (nutri-facts.org)
  • Mitochondrial cardiolipins, especially those with high 18:2 acyl contents, strongly bind many carrier and enzyme proteins that are involved in oxidative phosphorylation, some of which contribute to regulation of State 3 respiration. (cidpusa.org)
  • Maple syrup urine disease is caused by a deficiency of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD) enzyme complex, which catalyses the decarboxylation of the alpha-keto acids of leucine, isoleucine, and valine to their respective branched-chain acyl-CoAs. (medscape.com)
  • Quental et al identified a homozygous 1-bp deletion (117delC) in the BCKDHA gene (this gene codes for the alpha subunit of the BCKD enzyme complex, specifically E1) in Portuguese Gypsies and estimated the carrier frequency for this deletion to be as high as 1.4% (about 1 case per 71 live births). (medscape.com)
  • Malonyl-CoA:ACP transacylase (MAT), the fabD gene product of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), participates in both fatty acid and polyketide synthesis pathways, transferring malonyl groups that are used as extender units in chain growth from malonyl-CoA to pathway-specific acyl carrier proteins (ACPs). (stanford.edu)
  • Genetic engineering of N. oceanica for higher TAG content in nutrient-replete medium was accomplished by overexpressing DGTT5 , a gene encoding the type II acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 5. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Use the search field on the left to search for protein sequences with matching UniprotKB Accession(s)/Entry Name(s) or gene name(s). (ucy.ac.cy)
  • Regulation of ribosomal protein gene expression plays an important role in the balanced synthesis of proteins and RNA in ribosomal biogenesis. (speedweb.shop)
  • Background: The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the STAT protein family. (gardos-channel.com)
  • Kridl, J. C. Modification of Brassica seed oil by antisense expression of a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase gene. (scotshunt.com)
  • Protein acetylation affects the 3-dimensional structure of proteins, potentially altering their function, e.g. the activity of peptide hormones, in gene expression , cell division , and cell signalling (4, 21) . (nutri-facts.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is found exclusively in the mitochondrion, where it catalyzes the transfer of a malonyl group from malonyl-CoA to the mitochondrial acyl carrier protein. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • NAD is required for reactions that transfer energy from macronutrients (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), as well as functions related to genome integrity, gene expression, and communication between and within cells. (wholisticmatters.com)
  • The first analysis was of two gene families with key roles in regulation of oil quality and in particular the accumulation of oleic acid, namely stearoyl ACP desaturases (SAD) and acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases (FAT). (southwales.ac.uk)
  • The small RbcS-like domains of the β-carboxysome structural protein, CcmM, bind RubisCO at a site distinct from that binding the RbcS subunit. (uoguelph.ca)
  • We report the isolation of Vibrio harveyi acyl carrier protein (ACP) and cloning of a 3,973-bp region containing the fabG (encoding 3- ketoacyl-ACP reductase, 25.5 kDa), acpP (encoding ACP, 8.7 kDa), fabF (encoding 3-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II, 43.1 kDa), and pabC (encoding aminodeoxychorismate lyase, 29.9 kDa) genes. (unipr.it)
  • Sulfur Metabolism Sulfur Metabolism - no subcategory Thioredoxin-disulfide reductase Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase protein C (EC 1.6.4. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • A and dale ge (2006) mapping the active sites of escherichia coli malonyl-coa: acyl carrier protein transacylase (fabd) by protein crystallography. (treesidecafe.com)
  • The two isoforms of ACPs from pisa showed nearly the same specific activity of 6,706 and 7,175 pmol per min per mg protein while ground nut ACP showed a specific activity of 3,893 pmol per min per mg protein when assayed using E. coli acyl-ACP synthetase and [1-14C]palmitic acid. (who.int)
  • A non-elongating ketosynthase domain transfers the polyketide chain from the final acyl carrier protein domain of the synthase to a separate carrier protein, and a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase condensation domain condenses it with (1S,3R,4S)-3,4-dihydroxycyclohexane carboxylic acid. (southwales.ac.uk)
  • Darcie H. Long and Craig A. Townsend (2021) Acyl Donor Stringency and Dehydroaminoacyl Intermediates in g-Lactam Formation by a Non-ribosomal Peptide Synthetase. (jhu.edu)
  • conserved hypothetical protein [Ensembl]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • In this exercise we will look for hypothetical proteins found inside clusters of features that routinely occur together on the chromosome. (bv-brc.org)
  • When one simply looks at the genes as they occur on a chromosome, one notices these clusters of functionally-related pegs, and often they suggest clues to the functions of hypothetical proteins. (bv-brc.org)
  • loop_ _audit_author.name _audit_author.pdbx_ordinal 'Crump, M.P.' 1 'Crosby, J.' 2 'Dempsey, C.E.' 3 'Parkinson, J.A.' 4 'Murray, M.' 5 'Hopwood, D.A.' 6 'Simpson, T.J.' 7 # _citation.id primary _citation.title 'Solution structure of the actinorhodin polyketide synthase acyl carrier protein from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). (rcsb.org)
  • In wild-type E. coli , the fatty acid biosynthesis was inhibited by fatty acyl-ACPs in the absence of phospholipids synthesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • autoinducer synthesis protein. (expasy.org)
  • Bacterial fatty acid synthesis in escherichia coli is initiated by the condensation of an acetyl-coa with a malonyl-acyl carrier protein. (treesidecafe.com)
  • Catalyzes the condensation reaction of fatty acid synthesis by the addition to an acyl acceptor of two carbons from malonyl-ACP. (icr.ac.uk)
  • prevented with inhibition of protein or DNA synthesis indicating that newly synthesized OSI-420 cellular components are OSI-420 detrimental to the mutant cells. (immune-source.com)
  • It consists of a C-terminal riboflavin kinase and an N-terminal FMN-adenylyltransferase.The protein synthesis which involves the translation of nucleotide base sequence of mRNA into the language of amino acid sequence may be divided into the following stages for the convenience of understanding. (speedweb.shop)
  • Protein synthesis proper 4. (speedweb.shop)
  • Protein synthesis on ribosomes is considered the main process in cell life. (speedweb.shop)
  • This review is focused on some features of autoregulation of ribosomal protein synthesis in prokaryotes.Mammalian protein biosynthesis share many features with the bacterial process, but some differences are seen. (speedweb.shop)
  • This protein translation lecture explains protein synthesis in prokaryotes and in eukaryotes. (speedweb.shop)
  • A Protein Synthesis in Prokaryotes: The mechanism of protein synthesis has been thoroughly investigated in Escherichia coli. (speedweb.shop)
  • In bacterial cell, the protein synthesis takes place on 70s ribosomes. (speedweb.shop)
  • The process of protein synthesis in E. coli involves the following steps: 1. (speedweb.shop)
  • Protein Synthesis Definition. (speedweb.shop)
  • The process of the creation of proteins is called protein synthesis. (speedweb.shop)
  • The mitochondrial acyl-carrier protein (ACP) functions in the synthesis of fatty acids within the mitochondrial matrix. (uga.edu)
  • The contributors describe the mechanisms by which the agents disrupt cell wall assembly and maintenance, membrane synthesis and integrity, DNA and RNA metabolism, protein synthesis, and the folate cycle. (cshlpress.org)
  • It plays a central role in lipid, amino acid, glucose metabolism , and mitochondrial energy production , as well as in the synthesis of hemoglobin, neurotransmitters, cholesterol and steroid hormones , and other proteins and lipids. (lifeextensioneurope.com)
  • The main function of pantothenic acid is the synthesis of the ubiquitous cofactor called coenzyme A (CoA) and acyl carrier protein. (lifeextensioneurope.com)
  • Pantothenic acid participates in the synthesis of coenzyme A (CoA) and the acyl carrier protein, both of which are essential for the production and degradation of fatty acids as well as many other anabolic and catabolic processes. (wholisticmatters.com)
  • The ACPs are small negatively charged α-helical bundle proteins with a high degree of structural and amino acid similarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ACPs are related in structure and mechanism to the peptidyl carrier proteins (PCP) from nonribosomal peptide synthases. (wikipedia.org)
  • This coupling is mediated by acyl carrier protein synthase (ACPS), a 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4'-Phosphopantetheine is a prosthetic group of several acyl carrier proteins including the acyl carrier proteins (ACP) of fatty acid synthases, ACPs of polyketide synthases, the peptidyl carrier proteins (PCP), as well as aryl carrier proteins (ArCP) of nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Thioesterases remove the fatty acyl moiety from the fatty acyl-acyl carrier proteins (ACPs), releasing them as free fatty acids (FFAs), which can be further used to produce a variety of fatty acid-based biofuels, such as biodiesel, fatty alcohols and alkanes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thioesterases remove the fatty acyl moiety from the fatty acyl-acyl carrier proteins (ACPs), releasing them as free fatty acids (FFAs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Though not a few thioesterases have been reported to be capable of releasing the feedback inhibition of fatty acyl-ACPs, no extensive examination was carried out to test their abilities to produce FFAs in microbial cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Microcompartments have a thin outer shell, and an interior core made of enzymes (and organizing proteins) that produce, and then consume, some sort of volatile and/or toxic intermediate, generally a small aldehyde. (uoguelph.ca)
  • We determined structures for all of the shell proteins and most of the enzymes, and shown that the enzymes together comprise an aminoacetone degradation pathway. (uoguelph.ca)
  • Enzymes possess specific binding sites for substrates, and are usually composed wholly or largely of protein, but RNA that has catalytic activity (ribozyme) is often also regarded as enzymatic. (systemsbiology.net)
  • In both Erwinia tasmaniensis and Trypanosoma cruzi, a protein occurs with 5-histidylcysteine sulfoxide synthase activity, but these two enzymes and most homologs share an additional C-terminal methyltransferase domain. (crispr.dk)
  • These include concentration gradients of small molecules such as calcium , large complexes of enzymes that act together and take part in metabolic pathways , and protein complexes such as proteasomes and carboxysomes that enclose and separate parts of the cytosol. (cloudfront.net)
  • Protein-encoding genes (pegs) that are functionally related (e.g., enzymes from a single pathway or subunits of a transport cassette) tend to cluster on the chromosome. (bv-brc.org)
  • G proteins belong to the larger group of enzymes called GTPases . (wikipedia.org)
  • These include receptor antagonists , neurotransmitters , neurotransmitter reuptake , G protein-coupled receptors , G proteins, second messengers , the enzymes that trigger protein phosphorylation in response to cAMP , and consequent metabolic processes such as glycogenolysis . (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzymes responsible for phosphorylating Acetyl-CoA carboxylase are cAMP-dependent protein kinase and AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK). (biochemden.com)
  • In several Proteobacteria , LuxI-type enzymes catalyze the biosynthesis of acyl-homoserine lactones (AHL) signals using S-adenosyl- L-methionine and either cellular acyl carrier protein (ACP)-coupled fatty acids or CoA-aryl/acyl moieties as progenitors. (boisestate.edu)
  • Here, we analyzed how high temperature alters the main seed storage compounds (lipid and protein) in soybean. (elsevier.com)
  • After treatment, immature seed was sampled, analyzed for lipid and protein contents and for expression of seed storage compounds related genes. (elsevier.com)
  • High temperature during seed filling increased lipid content but decreased protein content, associating with yield reduction. (elsevier.com)
  • Therefore, high temperature during seed filling preferentially accumulates lipid than protein content in seed, although seed yield reduction was associated with lower seed protein content in soybean. (elsevier.com)
  • Dynamics in an unusual acyl carrier protein (ACP) from a ladderane lipid-synthesizing organism. (mpg.de)
  • According to a currently very attractive membrane model - may I have the first slide please - proposed by Singer in modification of the older Danielli membrane structure, the lipid bilayer structure, into which proteins either penetrate partially or totally. (lindau-nobel.org)
  • According to this type of model then, the lipid bilayer provides a liquid mobile matrix into which other molecules, notably the proteins, can float and move about. (lindau-nobel.org)
  • lipid IV(A) from (3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] and UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine: step 2/6. (expasy.org)
  • Acyl carrier protein (ACP) is a small lipid carrier protein involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and in the solubilization of fats to make them metabolically available. (warf.org)
  • class 'Transposon-related functions' [0.875] Evaluation on test data (712 items): ecoli1067 - 3,2,1 Metabolism of small molecules Biosynthesis of cofactors, carriers Acyl carrier protein (ACP) 'acpP' 'acyl carrier protein' ecoli3503 - 3,3,15 Metabolism of small molecules Central intermediary metabolism Pool, multipurpose conversions of intermed. (aber.ac.uk)
  • met'm 'yiaQ' 'probable 3-hexulose 6-phosphate synthase' ecoli22 5,1,4 Extrachromosomal Laterally acquirred elements Transposon-related functions 'insA_1' 'IS1 protein InsA' ecoli4086 - 3,3,15 Metabolism of small molecules Central intermediary metabolism Pool, multipurpose conversions of intermed. (aber.ac.uk)
  • 1 As acyl group metabolism is required for the production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, the central nervous system also needs a steady level of the vitamin. (mysina.ca)
  • Acetyl CoA is produced during metabolism of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. (humandynamics.se)
  • We found that many proteins classified as active in energy metabolism, hormone metabolism, protein, secondary metabolism and stress functional classes showed particular differences between the two rootstocks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although further work is needed to define in detail the role(s) of the proteins and metabolites that characterize WS response, this study, involving the M4 rootstock genotype, highlights that osmotic responses, modulations of C metabolism, mitochondrial functionality and some specific responses to stress occurring in the roots play a primary role in Vitis spp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This perspective focuses on two areas that have yielded new useful information during the last 20 years: (i) structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of contact allergy based on the concept of hapten-protein binding and (ii) mechanistic investigations regarding activation of nonsensitizing compounds to contact allergens by air oxidation or skin metabolism. (cdc.gov)
  • While acetyl CoA can be synthesized via pyruvate or amino acids, it can also be formed by the breakdown of acyl-CoA. (humandynamics.se)
  • You will further uncover a bit about the function of coenzyme A. Acetyl-CoA is a thioester between the acyl group carrier, acetic acid and a thiol, coenzyme A. Acetyl-CoA, as a carrier of acyl groups, is an essential cofactor in the posttranslational acetylation reactions of histone and nonhistone proteins catalyzed by HATs. (humandynamics.se)
  • Malonyl CoA is formed from acetyl CoA by the action mlonico acetyl-CoA carboxylaseand the malonate is transferred to an acyl carrier protein to be added to a fatty acid chain. (phpconnect.me)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Purification and partial characterization of acyl carrier proteins from developing oil seeds of pisa (Actinodaphne hookeri) and ground nut (Arachis hypogaea). (who.int)
  • CoA and its acyl derivates are needed for reaction that generate energy from food (fat, carbohydrates, and proteins) and it is involved in the citric acid cycle. (nutri-facts.org)
  • Escherichia coli apo acyl carrier protein was chosen as a test case because of its high content of negatively charged carboxylates suitable for metal. (treesidecafe.com)
  • The acyl carrier protein (ACP) is a cofactor of both fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thioester intermediates in polyketide assembly are covalently tethered to acyl carrier protein domains of the synthase. (southwales.ac.uk)
  • The acyl carrier protein (ACP) is an indispensable component of both fatty acid and polyketide synthases and is primarily responsible for delivering acyl intermediates to enzymatic partners. (diamond.ac.uk)
  • Understanding the mechanistic details of how proteins recognize, manipulate and modify other molecules requires detailed knowledge of their structures. (uoguelph.ca)
  • this binding was responsive to long-chain fatty acyl-CoA molecules. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Carrier proteins may move molecules against concentration gradients in the presence. (treesidecafe.com)
  • [10] The cytosol consists mostly of water, dissolved ions, small molecules, and large water-soluble molecules (such as proteins). (cloudfront.net)
  • The majority of these non-protein molecules have a molecular mass of less than 300 Da . (cloudfront.net)
  • [3] Signaling molecules bind to a domain of the GPCR located outside the cell, and an intracellular GPCR domain then in turn activates a particular G protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • G proteins are important signal transducing molecules in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • And since lipids, along with protein, are essential membrane components, the structure and biosynthesis of lipids and the role which lipids play in modulating membrane properties have attracted wide attention. (lindau-nobel.org)
  • When exported to the cytosol through the long-chain acyl-CoA synthases pathway to enter the eukaryotic pathway, C16 …Composition of protein groups (PGs) according to taxonomic affiliation to bacterial (blue) and eukaryotic (algae = dark green, fungi = green, various = light green) PGs in non-infected (NI) and aphelid-infected (AI) S. vacuolatus cultures over days post inoculation (DPI). (speedweb.shop)
  • However, the effects of changes in the number of peroxisomes and proteins involved in the peroxisome pathway on the pathogenicity of Botrytis cinerea have rarely been reported. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bacterial microcompartments are large, icosahedral bodied built from tens of thousands of separate protein chains. (uoguelph.ca)
  • Acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are produced by a number of bacterial species and are used by them to regulate the expression of virulence genes in a process known as quorum-sensing. (expasy.org)
  • Platensimycin a specific inhibitor of bacterial beta-ketoacyl-acyl-carrier-protein synthase I/II (FabF/B) is in a clinical trial for resistant strains of FASII is essential [9]. (immune-source.com)
  • This family consists of several bacterial and one archaeal methionine biosynthesis MetW proteins. (crispr.dk)
  • Chaperones and protein foldingchinolinate synthase (nada) - characterization of general biochemical properties (stability conditions, kinetic parameters, polymerization state, fe / s center characterization and inhibitor identification) -the determination of the three-dimensional structure -production and purification of polyclonal antibodies against the protein to be used in …Mammalian protein biosynthesis share many features with the bacterial process, but some differences are seen. (speedweb.shop)
  • isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1, PDB: 4UMX) and two bacterial proteins (LasR-OC12 HSL complex PDB:3IX3, and β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase, PDB:1FJ4). (ajchem-a.com)
  • It is a known fact that cardiolipins play a active role in oxidative phosphorylation mechanisms that regulate Stage 4 respiratory cycle by returning ejected protons across and over bacterial and mitochondrial membrane phospholipids, and that regulates State 3 respiration through the relative contributions of proteins that transport protons, electrons and/or metabolites. (cidpusa.org)
  • 1 It is essential for the formation of coenzyme-A (CoA) and acyl-carrier protein (ACP), two compounds that donate acyl groups. (mysina.ca)
  • In addition, we applied a molecular docking study using the Auto dock Vina program to investigate and understand the interactions and the orientations between the synthesized compounds and binding pocket of the target proteins ' receptors [18-27]. (ajchem-a.com)
  • Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases (Fat) are essential components of the plant plastid-localized fatty acid synthase and determine the chain length of de novo synthesized fatty acids. (uni-koeln.de)
  • The catalytic cysteine and histidine in the plant acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases. (usda.gov)
  • Complementary biophysical, structure-function, and kinetic analysis define the features that facilitate the unusual acyl conjugation with S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). (boisestate.edu)
  • The fatty-acyl substrate is derived from fatty-acid biosynthesis through acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] rather than from fatty-acid degradation through acyl-CoA. (expasy.org)
  • An Unusual Fatty Acyl:Adenylate Ligase (FAAL)-Acyl Carrier Protein (ACP) Didomain in Ambruticin Biosynthesis. (uni-bayreuth.de)
  • The variation in the acyl-carrier (ACP or CoA) specificity might also be connected to this classification and residues involved in ACP binding in structure class 2 can be suggested based on the comparison. (rcsb.org)
  • We also identify the determinant that establishes specificity for the acyl donor and identify residues that are critical for acyl/aryl specificity. (boisestate.edu)
  • Crystal structure of a substrate complex of Mycobacterium tuberculosis beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (FabH) with lauroyl-coenzyme A. J.Mol.Biol. (expasy.org)
  • Preparation and general properties of acetyl coenzyme A and malonyl coenzyme A-acyl carrier protein transacylases. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Here, we characterize FatM from Lotus japonicus by phenotypically analyzing fatm mutant lines and by studying the biochemical function of the recombinant FatM protein. (uni-koeln.de)
  • The therapeutic and biochemical properties of proteins including antibodies can be enhanced by custom chemical functionalization that enables modifications, such as small molecule drug conjugation, PE. (warf.org)
  • The 'AcTesA exhibited a substrate preference towards the C8-C16 acyl groups, with C14:0, C16:1, C12:0 and C8:0 FFAs being the top four components. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The structures of a number of acyl carrier proteins have been solved using various NMR and crystallography techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among other work we have determined shell protein structures, determined the structure of both carbonic anhydrases that are encapsulated, and shown that the mechanism of RubisCO recruitment operates differently than assumed. (uoguelph.ca)
  • methionine biosynthesis protein MetW. (crispr.dk)
  • It consists of biologically significant sites, patterns and profiles that help to reliably identify to which known protein family (if any) a new sequence belongs. (genome.jp)
  • Protein sequence alignment, structure modeling and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that Ser 10 , Gly 48 , Asn 77 , Asp 158 and His 161 residues composed the active centre of 'AcTesA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A variety of proteins involved in peroxisome proliferation and metabolic activity within peroxisomes have been shown to be essential for full virulence of several phytopathogenic fungi. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The systems include a number of modules that can be integrated into existing metabolic en. (warf.org)
  • Purification and Characterization of 2 Acyl Carrier Proteins from Cuphea-Lanceolata Seeds. (mpg.de)
  • protein-(glutamine-N5) methyltransferase, release factor-specific. (crispr.dk)
  • Members of this protein family are HemK (PrmC), a protein once thought to be involved in heme biosynthesis but now recognized to be a protein-glutamine methyltransferase that modifies the peptide chain release factors. (crispr.dk)
  • 6.Liao JL, Pang KL, Pai TW, Hsu PH, Lin JS, Sun KH and Tang SJ (2019) Chimeric 6-methylsalicylic acid synthase with domains of acyl carrier protein and methyltransferase from Pseudallescheria boydii shows novel biosynthetic activity. (ntou.edu.tw)
  • The most common of these are E-3M2H and (RS)-3-hydroxy-3-methlyhexanoic acid (HMHA), which are released through the action of a specific zinc-dependent N -alpha-acyl-glutamine aminoacylase (N-AGA) from Corynebacterium species. (medscape.com)
  • 1E5M: Beta ketoacyl acyl carrier protein synthase II (KASII) from Synechocystis sp. (rcsb.org)
  • Beta ketoacyl acyl carrier protein synthase II (KASII) from Synechocystis sp. (rcsb.org)
  • responsible for chain extension: β-ketoacyl synthase (KS) acyl transferase (AT) product template (PT) and acyl carrier protein (ACP). (healthdisparitiesks.org)
  • Acyl carrier proteins (ACP) were purified to homogeneity in the active form from developing seeds of pisa (Actinodaphne hookeri) which synthesizes exclusively trilaurin and from ground nut (Arachis hypogaea) which synthesizes triacylglycerols containing long chain fatty acids. (who.int)
  • G proteins , also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins , are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular dissection of this process reveals that non-elongating ketosynthase domain-mediated transacylation circumvents the inability of the condensation domain to recognize the acyl carrier protein domain. (southwales.ac.uk)
  • High temperature downregulated genes related to seed storage protein (GmGy1, GmGy2, GmGy4, GmGy5 and Gmβ-conglycinin) and upregulated genes for cysteine and aspartate proteinases. (elsevier.com)
  • It is one of the most abundant proteins in cells of E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • In E. coli, this protein flanks the DNA repair protein MutY, also called micA. (crispr.dk)
  • For detailed information about [acyl-carrier-protein] phosphodiesterase, go to the full flat file . (brenda-enzymes.org)
  • Acyl-Carrier Protein S-Malonyltransferase" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (ucdenver.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Acyl-Carrier Protein S-Malonyltransferase" by people in this website by year, and whether "Acyl-Carrier Protein S-Malonyltransferase" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Acyl-Carrier Protein S-Malonyltransferase" by people in Profiles. (ucdenver.edu)
  • AJ: I am currently investigating introducing unnatural amino acids into protein scaffolds to create new biocatalysts that will be able to catalyse reactions that nature does not carry out, with the idea of being able to use these in cells to create cellular microfactories. (ed.ac.uk)
  • This enabled us to get our first preliminary results showing the incorporation of an unnatural amino acid into an acyl carrier protein. (ed.ac.uk)
  • The covalent alteration of one or more amino acids occurring in proteins, peptides and nascent polypeptides (co-translational, post-translational modifications). (mcw.edu)
  • Amino acids are the building blocks that our bodies use to make proteins. (myvitamintherapy.com)
  • Acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] can also act as acyl donor. (enzyme-database.org)
  • Catalyzes the N-acylation of UDP-3-O-acylglucosamine using 3- hydroxyacyl-ACP as the acyl donor. (string-db.org)
  • Main page main page membrane transport protein membrane protein ion molecule macromolecule protein biological membrane integral. (treesidecafe.com)