Acyl Carrier Protein: Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.Pantetheine: An intermediate in the pathway of coenzyme A formation in mammalian liver and some microorganisms.Fatty Acid Synthase, Type II: The form of fatty acid synthase complex found in BACTERIA; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Catalytic steps are like the animal form but the protein structure is different with dissociated enzymes encoded by separate genes. It is a target of some ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS which result in disruption of the CELL MEMBRANE and CELL WALL.3-Oxoacyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Synthase: An enzyme of long-chain fatty acid synthesis, that adds a two-carbon unit from malonyl-(acyl carrier protein) to another molecule of fatty acyl-(acyl carrier protein), giving a beta-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) with the release of carbon dioxide. EC 2.3.1.41.Polyketide Synthases: Large enzyme complexes composed of a number of component enzymes that are found in STREPTOMYCES which biosynthesize MACROLIDES and other polyketides.Acyl-Carrier Protein S-Malonyltransferase: This enzyme catalyzes the transacylation of malonate from MALONYL CoA to activated holo-ACP, to generate malonyl-(acyl-carrier protein), which is an elongation substrate in FATTY ACIDS biosynthesis. It is an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of FATTY ACIDS in all BACTERIA.Fatty Acid Synthases: Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.Transferases (Other Substituted Phosphate Groups): A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.3-Oxoacyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Reductase: A 3-oxoacyl reductase that has specificity for ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN-derived FATTY ACIDS.Coenzyme APantothenic Acid: A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.Enoyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Reductase (NADH): An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] to trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-[acyl-carrier protein]. It has a preference for acyl groups with a carbon chain length between 4 to 16.Carbon-Sulfur Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-sulfur bond. EC 6.2.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Acylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Thiolester HydrolasesMalonyl Coenzyme A: A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.Triclosan: A diphenyl ether derivative used in cosmetics and toilet soaps as an antiseptic. It has some bacteriostatic and fungistatic action.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Cerulenin: An epoxydodecadienamide isolated from several species, including ACREMONIUM, Acrocylindrum, and Helicoceras. It inhibits the biosynthesis of several lipids by interfering with enzyme function.Saccharopolyspora: A genus of gram-positive bacteria whose spores are round to oval and covered by a sheath.Apoproteins: The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).Acyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Anthraquinones: Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.Coriandrum: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE. The leaves are the source of cilantro and the seeds are the source of coriander, both of which are used in SPICES.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Acyl-Carrier Protein S-Acetyltransferase: A enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL CoA to acyl-carrier protein to form COENZYME A and acetyl-acyl-carrier protein.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.MalonatesThioctic Acid: An octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs so that it is sometimes also called a pentanoic acid in some naming schemes. It is biosynthesized by cleavage of LINOLEIC ACID and is a coenzyme of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX). It is used in DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.Lipid A: Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.Naphthacenes: Polyacenes with four ortho-fused benzene rings in a straight linear arrangement. This group is best known for the subclass called TETRACYCLINES.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Peptide Synthases: Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.Acetyl Coenzyme A: Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Ligases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Mycolic AcidsSulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Polyketides: Natural compounds containing alternating carbonyl and methylene groups (beta-polyketones), bioenergenetically derived from repeated condensation of acetyl coenzyme A via malonyl coenzyme A, in a process similar to fatty acid synthesis.Biocatalysis: The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.Glycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Hydro-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.Glycerophosphates: Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.EstersStreptomyces coelicolor: A soil-dwelling actinomycete with a complex lifecycle involving mycelial growth and spore formation. It is involved in the production of a number of medically important ANTIBIOTICS.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.

Effect of cold shock on lipid A biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Induction At 12 degrees C of an acyltransferase specific for palmitoleoyl-acyl carrier protein. (1/346)

Palmitoleate is not present in lipid A isolated from Escherichia coli grown at 30 degrees C or higher, but it comprises approximately 11% of the fatty acyl chains of lipid A in cells grown at 12 degrees C. The appearance of palmitoleate at 12 degrees C is accompanied by a decline in laurate from approximately 18% to approximately 5.5%. We now report that wild-type E. coli shifted from 30 degrees C to 12 degrees C acquire a novel palmitoleoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP)-dependent acyltransferase that acts on the key lipid A precursor Kdo2-lipid IVA. The palmitoleoyl transferase is induced more than 30-fold upon cold shock, as judged by assaying extracts of cells shifted to 12 degrees C. The induced activity is maximal after 2 h of cold shock, and then gradually declines but does not disappear. Strains harboring an insertion mutation in the lpxL(htrB) gene, which encodes the enzyme that normally transfers laurate from lauroyl-ACP to Kdo2-lipid IVA (Clementz, T., Bednarski, J. J., and Raetz, C. R. H. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 12095-12102) are not defective in the cold-induced palmitoleoyl transferase. Recently, a gene displaying 54% identity and 73% similarity at the protein level to lpxL was found in the genome of E. coli. This lpxL homologue, designated lpxP, encodes the cold shock-induced palmitoleoyl transferase. Extracts of cells containing lpxP on the multicopy plasmid pSK57 exhibit a 10-fold increase in the specific activity of the cold-induced palmitoleoyl transferase compared with cells lacking the plasmid. The elevated specific activity of the palmitoleoyl transferase under conditions of cold shock is attributed to greatly increased levels of lpxP mRNA. The replacement of laurate with palmitoleate in lipid A may reflect the desirability of maintaining the optimal outer membrane fluidity at 12 degrees C.  (+info)

Acyl homoserine-lactone quorum-sensing signal generation. (2/346)

Acyl homoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs) are important intercellular signaling molecules used by many bacteria to monitor their population density in quorum-sensing control of gene expression. These signals are synthesized by members of the LuxI family of proteins. To understand the mechanism of acyl-HSL synthesis we have purified the Pseudomonas aeruginosa RhlI protein and analyzed the kinetics of acyl-HSL synthesis by this enzyme. Purified RhlI catalyzes the synthesis of acyl-HSLs from acyl-acyl carrier proteins and S-adenosylmethionine. An analysis of the patterns of product inhibition indicated that RhlI catalyzes signal synthesis by a sequential, ordered reaction mechanism in which S-adenosylmethionine binds to RhlI as the initial step in the enzymatic mechanism. Because pathogenic bacteria such as P. aeruginosa use acyl-HSL signals to regulate virulence genes, an understanding of the mechanism of signal synthesis and identification of inhibitors of signal synthesis has implications for development of quorum sensing-targeted antivirulence molecules.  (+info)

Aminoacyl-CoAs as probes of condensation domain selectivity in nonribosomal peptide synthesis. (3/346)

In nonribosomal biosynthesis of peptide antibiotics by multimodular synthetases, amino acid monomers are activated by the adenylation domains of the synthetase and loaded onto the adjacent carrier protein domains as thioesters, then the formation of peptide bonds and translocation of the growing chain are effected by the synthetase's condensation domains. Whether the condensation domains have any editing function has been unknown. Synthesis of aminoacyl-coenzyme A (CoA) molecules and direct enzymatic transfer of aminoacyl-phosphopantetheine to the carrier domains allow the adenylation domain editing function to be bypassed. This method was used to demonstrate that the first condensation domain of tyrocidine synthetase shows low selectivity at the donor residue (D-phenylalanine) and higher selectivity at the acceptor residue (L-proline) in the formation of the chain-initiating D-Phe-L-Pro dipeptidyl-enzyme intermediate.  (+info)

The pro1(+) gene from Sordaria macrospora encodes a C6 zinc finger transcription factor required for fruiting body development. (4/346)

During sexual morphogenesis, the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora differentiates into multicellular fruiting bodies called perithecia. Previously it has been shown that this developmental process is under polygenic control. To further understand the molecular mechanisms involved in fruiting body formation, we generated the protoperithecia forming mutant pro1, in which the normal development of protoperithecia into perithecia has been disrupted. We succeeded in isolating a cosmid clone from an indexed cosmid library, which was able to complement the pro1(-) mutation. Deletion analysis, followed by DNA sequencing, subsequently demonstrated that fertility was restored to the pro1 mutant by an open reading frame encoding a 689-amino-acid polypeptide, which we named PRO1. A region from this polypeptide shares significant homology with the DNA-binding domains found in fungal C6 zinc finger transcription factors, such as the GAL4 protein from yeast. However, other typical regions of C6 zinc finger proteins, such as dimerization elements, are absent in PRO1. The involvement of the pro1(+) gene in fruiting body development was further confirmed by trying to complement the mutant phenotype with in vitro mutagenized and truncated versions of the pro1 open reading frame. Southern hybridization experiments also indicated that pro1(+) homologues are present in other sexually propagating filamentous ascomycetes.  (+info)

Kinetic analysis of the actinorhodin aromatic polyketide synthase. (5/346)

Type II polyketide synthases (PKSs) are bacterial multienzyme systems that catalyze the biosynthesis of a broad range of natural products. A core set of subunits, consisting of a ketosynthase, a chain length factor, an acyl carrier protein (ACP) and possibly a malonyl CoA:ACP transacylase (MAT) forms a "minimal" PKS. They generate a poly-beta-ketone backbone of a specified length from malonyl-CoA derived building blocks. Here we (a) report on the kinetic properties of the actinorhodin minimal PKS, and (b) present further data in support of the requirement of the MAT. Kinetic analysis showed that the apoACP is a competitive inhibitor of minimal PKS activity, demonstrating the importance of protein-protein interactions between the polypeptide moiety of the ACP and the remainder of the minimal PKS. In further support of the requirement of MAT for PKS activity, two new findings are presented. First, we observe hyperbolic dependence of PKS activity on MAT concentration, saturating at very low amounts (half-maximal rate at 19.7 +/- 5.1 nM). Since MAT can support PKS activity at less than 1/100 the typical concentration of the ACP and ketosynthase/chain length factor components, it is difficult to rule out the presence of trace quantities of MAT in a PKS reaction mixture. Second, an S97A mutant was constructed at the nucleophilic active site of the MAT. Not only can this mutant protein support PKS activity, it is also covalently labeled by [(14)C]malonyl-CoA, demonstrating that the serine nucleophile (which has been the target of PMSF inhibition in earlier studies) is dispensible for MAT activity in a Type II PKS system.  (+info)

Characterization of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa fatty acid biosynthetic gene cluster: purification of acyl carrier protein (ACP) and malonyl-coenzyme A:ACP transacylase (FabD). (6/346)

A DNA fragment containing the Pseudomonas aeruginosa fabD (encoding malonyl-coenzyme A [CoA]:acyl carrier protein [ACP] transacylase), fabG (encoding beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase), acpP (encoding ACP), and fabF (encoding beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II) genes was cloned and sequenced. This fab gene cluster is delimited by the plsX (encoding a poorly understood enzyme of phospholipid metabolism) and pabC (encoding 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase) genes; the fabF and pabC genes seem to be translationally coupled. The fabH gene (encoding beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III), which in most gram-negative bacteria is located between plsX and fabD, is absent from this gene cluster. A chromosomal temperature-sensitive fabD mutant was obtained by site-directed mutagenesis that resulted in a W258Q change. A chromosomal fabF insertion mutant was generated, and the resulting mutant strain contained substantially reduced levels of cis-vaccenic acid. Multiple attempts aimed at disruption of the chromosomal fabG gene were unsuccessful. We purified FabD as a hexahistidine fusion protein (H6-FabD) and ACP in its native form via an ACP-intein-chitin binding domain fusion protein, using a novel expression and purification scheme that should be applicable to ACP from other bacteria. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization spectroscopy, native polyacrylamide electrophoresis, and amino-terminal sequencing revealed that (i) most of the purified ACP was properly modified with its 4'-phosphopantetheine functional group, (ii) it was not acylated, and (iii) the amino-terminal methionine was removed. In an in vitro system, purified ACP functioned as acyl acceptor and H(6)-FabD exhibited malonyl-CoA:ACP transacylase activity.  (+info)

Heterologous expression, purification, reconstitution and kinetic analysis of an extended type II polyketide synthase. (7/346)

BACKGROUND: Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are bacterial multienzyme systems that synthesize a broad range of natural products. The 'minimal' PKS consists of a ketosynthase, a chain length factor, an acyl carrier protein and a malonyl transferase. Auxiliary components (ketoreductases, aromatases and cyclases are involved in controlling the oxidation level and cyclization of the nascent polyketide chain. We describe the heterologous expression and reconstitution of several auxiliary PKS components including the actinorhodin ketoreductase (act KR), the griseusin aromatase/cyclase (gris ARO/CYC), and the tetracenomycin aromatase/cyclase (tcm ARO/CYC). RESULTS: The polyketide products of reconstituted act and tcm PKSs were identical to those identified in previous in vivo studies. Although stable protein-protein interactions were not detected between minimal and auxiliary PKS components, kinetic analysis revealed that the extended PKS comprised of the act minimal PKS, the act KR and the gris ARO/CYC had a higher turnover number than the act minimal PKS plus the act KR or the act minimal PKS alone. Adding the tcm ARO/CYC to the tcm minimal PKS also increased the overall rate. CONCLUSIONS: Until recently the principal strategy for functional analysis of PKS subunits was through heterologous expression of recombinant PKSs in Streptomyces. Our results corroborate the implicit assumption that the product isolated from whole-cell systems is the dominant product of the PKS. They also suggest that an intermediate is channeled between the various subunits, and pave the way for more detailed structural and mechanistic analysis of these multienzyme systems.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of a gene encoding a cotton palmitoyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase. (8/346)

A cotton genomic clone containing a 17.4-kb DNA segment was found to encompass a palmitoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase (Fat B1) gene. The gene spans 3.6 kb with six exons and five introns, and is apparently the first plant FatB acyl-ACP thioesterase gene to be completely sequenced. The six exons are identical in nucleotide sequence to the open reading frame of the corresponding cDNA, and would encode a preprotein of 413 amino acids. The preprotein can clearly be identified as a FatB acyl-ACP thioesterase from its similarity to the deduced amino acid sequences of other FatB thioesterase preproteins. A 5'-flanking region of 914 bp was sequenced, with the potential TATA basal promoter 324 bp upstream from the ATG initiation codon. The 5'-flanking sequence also has a putative CAAT box and two presumptive basic region helixloop-helix (bHLH) elements with the consensus motif CANNTG (termed an E box), implicated as being a positive regulatory element in seed-specific gene expression.  (+info)

The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Structure-based Analysis of the Molecular Interactions between Acyltransferase and Acyl Carrier Protein in Vicenistatin BiosynthesisStructure-based Analysis of the Molecular Interactions between Acyltransferase and Acyl Carrier Protein in Vicenistatin Biosynthesis ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A mutant of Escherichia coli conditionally defective in the synthesis of holo-[acyl carrier protein]. AU - Polacco, M. L.. AU - Cronan, J. E.. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0019416792&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0019416792&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 7016860. AN - SCOPUS:0019416792. VL - 256. SP - 5750. EP - 5754. JO - Journal of Biological Chemistry. JF - Journal of Biological Chemistry. SN - 0021-9258. IS - 11. ER - ...
2LTE: Solution NMR structure of the specialized acyl carrier protein PA3334 (apo) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium Target PaT415.
Malonate decarboxylase, like citrate lyase, has a unique acyl carrier protein subunit with a prosthetic group derived from, and distinct from, coenzyme A. Members of this protein family are the phosphoribosyl-dephospho-CoA transferase specific to the malonate decarboxylase system. This enzyme can also be designated holo-ACP synthase (2.7.7.61). The corresponding component of the citrate lyase system, CitX, shows little or no sequence similarity to this family ...
9305965] Utilization of enzymatically phosphopantetheinylated acyl carrier proteins and acetyl-acyl carrier proteins by the actinorhodin polyketide synthase. (Biochemistry. , 1997 ...
19. 1.Carrier Concept - According to this hypothesis the carrier protein picks up an ion from one side of the membrane and discharges it on the other side. The picking up and discharge of the ion requires energy. Energy is obtained by hydrolysis of ATP. - ATP changes into ADP and energy released is used to change the conformation of the carrier which may be ATPase itself, so that the ion is picked up on one side of the membrane and released on the other. - After discharge of an ion, carrier protein is reprimed to pick up an other ion. The carrier protein may carry one ion inwards and may exchange it with another ion at the inner surface of membrane, so that the other ion is carried by the same carrier outwards. ...
19. 1.Carrier Concept - According to this hypothesis the carrier protein picks up an ion from one side of the membrane and discharges it on the other side. The picking up and discharge of the ion requires energy. Energy is obtained by hydrolysis of ATP. - ATP changes into ADP and energy released is used to change the conformation of the carrier which may be ATPase itself, so that the ion is picked up on one side of the membrane and released on the other. - After discharge of an ion, carrier protein is reprimed to pick up an other ion. The carrier protein may carry one ion inwards and may exchange it with another ion at the inner surface of membrane, so that the other ion is carried by the same carrier outwards. ...
Acpp - Acpp (untagged ORF) - Rat acid phosphatase, prostate (Acpp), transcript variant 1, (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Introduction The majority of deaths from breast cancer are a total result of metastases; nevertheless, small is definitely recognized about the hereditary modifications root their starting point. had been scored by cell keeping track of, circulation cytometry, and scuff and … Continue reading →. ...
Are the levels of steroid hormones in blood and saliva the same? When the various glands manufacture the steroids they are released into the bloodstream bound to carrier proteins. Only a small fraction (1-5%) of a given amount of steroid hormone breaks loose from the carrier protein in the bloodstream and is free to enter [...]. ...
NIB Kimber Tactical Pro II in .45 ACP. |br >|br >|br >|br > MODEL: Tactical Pro II |br >|br > CALIBER: .45 ACP |br >|br > FRAME: A for sale by Sodak Sports on GunsAmerica - 924703810
ACP advocates on behalf on internists and their patients on a number of timely issues. Learn about where ACP stands on the following areas:. ...
The HK45 was developed as a product improvement of the highly regarded USP45, first released in the 1995. The Caliber .45 ACP HK45 includes several user-inspired enhancements including changeable
Mammalian FAS consists of a homodimer of two identical protein subunits, in which three catalytic domains in the N-terminal section (-ketoacyl synthase (KS), malonyl/acetyltransferase (MAT), and dehydrase (DH)), are separated by a core region of 600 residues from four C-terminal domains (enoyl reductase (ER), -ketoacyl reductase (KR), acyl carrier protein (ACP) and thioesterase (TE)).[16][17] The conventional model for organization of FAS (see the head-to-tail model on the right) is largely based on the observations that the bifunctional reagent 1,3-dibromopropanone (DBP) is able to crosslink the active site cysteine thiol of the KS domain in one FAS monomer with the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of the ACP domain in the other monomer.[18][19] Complementation analysis of FAS dimers carrying different mutations on each monomer has established that the KS and MAT domains can cooperate with the ACP of either monomer.[20][21] and a reinvestigation of the DBP crosslinking experiments revealed ...
The minimal domains of a pks module are an acyltransferase at, ketosynthase ks and acyl carrier protein acp domain, where the at domain loads a coenzyme a-activated dicarboxylic acid extender unit onto the acp domain and the ks domain of the preceding domain catalyzes condensation of the nascent polyketide with the extender unit. So, according to this dictionary, the core difference in the two terms is that adamant applies centrally to resistance to being moved physically or figuratively, while tenacious applies centrally to resistance to being separated from something physically or figuratively. The unions are pressing for a three-year guarantee of job security and an eight percent across-the-board wage hike. The following assertions prove that the mock has come into effect. But 60s and older seniors online dating website truly free just before, rohit murdered and hid vikram and gul hassans daughter. No baggy clothes are permitted in ballet, in cold weather a light blue crossover can be bloch- ...
Rhodococcus erythropolis fabD, acpM, kasA/B, accD6 genes for probable malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase, probable acyl carrier protein, probable beta-ketoacyl-acp synthase, probable acetyl/propinoyl-CoA carboxylase, partial and complete ...
Rhodococcus erythropolis fabD, acpM, kasA/B, accD6 genes for probable malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase, probable acyl carrier protein, probable beta-ketoacyl-acp synthase, probable acetyl/propinoyl-CoA carboxylase, partial and complete ...
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Looking for online definition of Carrier proteins in the Medical Dictionary? Carrier proteins explanation free. What is Carrier proteins? Meaning of Carrier proteins medical term. What does Carrier proteins mean?
Fatty acid biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is initiated by the FabY class of beta-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein synthases ...
Archaea have idiosyncratic cell membranes usually based on phospholipids containing glycerol-1-phosphate linked by ether bonds to isoprenoid lateral chains. Since these phospholipids strongly differ from those of bacteria and eukaryotes, the origin of the archaeal membranes (and by extension, of all cellular membranes) was enigmatic and called for accurate evolutionary studies. In this paper we review some recent phylogenomic studies that have revealed a modified mevalonate pathway for the synthesis of isoprenoid precursors in archaea and suggested that this domain uses an atypical pathway of synthesis of fatty acids devoid of any acyl carrier protein, which is essential for this activity in bacteria and eukaryotes. In addition, we show new or updated phylogenetic analyses of enzymes likely responsible for the isoprenoid chain synthesis from their precursors and the phospholipid synthesis from glycerol phosphate, isoprenoids, and polar head groups. These results support that most of these enzymes can be
Introduction Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) is an essential component of coenzyme A (CoA) and acyl carrier protein (ACP). In both CoA and ACP, a derivative of
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SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for P80923 (ACP_PSESM), Acyl carrier protein. Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (strain ATCC BAA-871 / DC3000)
Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli K-12 mutants lacking both 2-acyl-glycerophosphoethanolamine acyltransferase and acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase activity ...
Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli K-12 mutants lacking both 2-acyl-glycerophosphoethanolamine acyltransferase and acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase activity ...
So a cell membrane has lots of these phospholipids joined together (see diagram below) One set of phospholipds are facing out of the cell, and the other facing inside the wall. This is shown in the picture below. The red balls are the water loving bits (bits to left above), and the yellow tails are the fatty tails. So you can see that vitamin E would fit really nicely into a bilipid membrane. This is because Vitamin E has a more water soluble head, and a fatty tale. Thus they do not need a carrier protein as it can "pop"into any cell in the body with ease. And this explains why they are needed for cell integrity. Because they will be the major antioxidant in the cell wall. And without this antioxidant the cell would self destruct so to speak. (picture credit ...
RhlA purification and assay.The expression of recombinant RhlA protein with an N-terminal His-tag encoded by plasmid pKZ002 was induced with isopropyl-1-thio-β-d-galactopyranoside (IPTG) in E. coli BL21(DE3). Cells were collected by centrifugation, resuspended in MCAC buffer (20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.9, 500 mM NaCl, 10% glycerol) and lysed with a French press. Soluble proteins were applied to a Ni2+-nitrilotriacetic acid agarose (Qiagen) column and washed with MCAC buffer plus 40 mM imidazole. His-tagged RhlA was eluted with MCAC buffer containing 200 mM imidazole. The fractions containing most of the RhlA protein were pooled, concentrated, and applied to a Superdex S200 column (GE Healthcare) to purify RhlA to homogeneity in a buffer of 20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4, 1 mM dithiothreitol, 50 mM EDTA. Intact MS gave a molecular weight of 34,964, positively identifying the protein as His-tagged RhlA lacking the N-terminal fMet amino acid.. The RhlA activity was determined by measuring the formation of ...
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
Wiggling is free at room temperature. Moving past a difficult energy barrier can be expensive, a little thermal wiggle isnt enough, you need some significant force. If the energy barrier is low enough, a little thermal wiggle might be sufficient. Youve encountered levers (perhaps electrical switches) that contain a spring so that the lever can be on one end-position or the other (say, left or right) but you must push against the spring to move the lever past the middle position before is snaps into the other state with assistance from the spring. This is an analogy for a protein that has a significant transition energy. If the spring breaks, the switch can freely flop between the two states, like a protein with a low transition energy barrier ...
second edition, 2009), ed. by Ajit Varki, Richard D. Cummings, Jeffrey David Esko, Hudson Freeze, Pamela Stanley, Carolyn R. Bertozzi, Gerald W. Hart, and Marilynn E. Etzler (HTML at NIH ...
C. S. McNaughton, A. D. Clarke, V. Kapustin, Y. Shinozuka, S. G. Howell, B. E. Anderson, E. Winstead, J. Dibb, E. Scheuer, R. C. Cohen, P. Wooldridge, A. Perring, L. G. Huey, S. Kim, J. L. Jimenez, E. J. Dunlea, P. F. DeCarlo, P. O. Wennberg, J. D. Crounse, A. J. Weinheimer, and F. ...
Order Human Malonyl coenzyme A acyl carrier protein transacylase mitochondrial MCAT ELISA Kit 01010947840 at Gentaur Malonyl coenzyme A acyl protein transacylase, mitochondrial (MCAT)
In molecular biology, Beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase EC 2.3.1.41, is an enzyme involved in fatty acid synthesis. It results in the formation of acetoacetyl ACP. Beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase is a highly conserved enzyme that is found in almost all life on earth as a domain in fatty acid synthase (FAS). FAS has two types, aptly named type I and II. Type I is found in animals, fungi, and "lower eukaryotes." Type II is found in prokaryotes, plastids, and mitochondria. Beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III, perhaps the most well known of this family of enzymes, catalyzes a Claisen condensation between acetyl CoA and malonyl ACP. The image below reveals how CoA fits in the active site as a substrate of synthase III. Beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthases I and II only catalyze acyl-ACP reactions with malonyl ACP. Synthases I and II are capable of producing long-chain acyl-ACPs. Both are efficient up to acyl-ACPs with a 14 carbon chain, at which point synthase II is the more efficient choice for further carbon additions. Type ...
The citrate lyase activation starts with a 3-dephospho-CoA reacting with ATP and a hydrogen ion through a triphosphoribosyl-dephospho-CoA synthase resulting in a adenine and a 2-(5-triphospho-alpha-D-ribosyl)-3-dephospho-CoA. The latter compound in turn reacts with with a citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein through a apo-citrate lyase phosphoribosyl-dephospho-CoA transferase resulting in the release of a pyrophosphate and a hydrogen ion and a holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein.This protein complex can either react with a hydrogen ion and a acetate resulting in the release of a water and an acetyl-holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein. The holo acyl-carrier protein creacts with an ATP and an acetate through a citrate lyase synthase resulting in the release of an AMP, a pyrophosphate and an acetyl-holo citrate lyase acyl-ccarrier protein. The holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein can also interact with an S-acetyl phosphopantethiene resulting in the release of a 4-phosphopantethiene and ...
Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases play an essential role in chain termination during de novo fatty acid synthesis and in the channeling of carbon flux between the two lipid biosynthesis pathways in plants. We have discovered that there are two distinct but related thioesterase gene classes in higher plants, termed FatA and FatB, whose evolutionary divergence appears to be ancient. FatA encodes the already described 18:1-ACP thioesterase. In contrast, FatB representatives encode thioesterases preferring acyl-ACPs having saturated acyl groups. We unexpectedly obtained a 16:0-ACP thioesterase cDNA from Cuphea hookeriana seed, which accumulate predominantly 8:0 and 10:0. The 16:0 thioesterase transcripts were found in non-seed tissues, and expression in transgenic Brassica napus led to the production of a 16:0-rich oil. We present evidence that this type of FatB gene is ancient and ubiquitous in plants and that specialized plant medium-chain thioesterases have evolved independently from ...
The assignment of Cys163 as the active site cysteine is based on several lines of evidence. In a sequence comparison of 42 condensing enzymes of fatty acid and polyketide synthesis, Siggaard‐Andersen (1993) identified one conserved cysteine residue, which in KAS II corresponds to Cys163. In addition, this cysteine residue superimposes with the active site cysteine in thiolase I, Cys125. Covalent modification studies of β‐ketoacyl synthases (Kauppinen et al., 1988; Funabashi et al., 1989) and thiolases (Izbicka‐Dimitrijevio et al., 1982) as well as mutagenesis of this residue in the β‐ketoacyl synthase domain of rat fatty acid synthase (Joshi et al., 1997) and thiolase from Zooglea ramigera (Thompson et al., 1989) support the proposed role of this cysteine as the nucleophile in the catalytic reaction.. At the entrance of the active site pocket, a bulky conserved residue, Phe400, is located. This residue points into the active site pocket and in part blocks access to the nucleophilic ...
The dimeric state of vcFabG in solution correlates with changes in the dimer interface B observed in crystal structures and positive cooperativity in NADPH binding.Although all FabGs with crystal structures in the PDB seem to adopt tetrameric quaternary structures involving the same two sets of dimer interfaces (interfaces A and B) found in vcFabG, the solution oligomerization states of FabGs from different organisms appear to be different. While the buried surface areas in dimer interface A among different FabGs are consistent (∼1,600 Å2), as calculated by PDBePISA (48), it seems that differences in the stability of dimer interface B is likely the major contributor to the presence of different oligomerization states of FabGs in solution. The variety of oligomeric states of different FabG homologs in solution does not correlate with their sequence similarities. For example, ecFabG, which has a sequence identity of 80% with vcFabG, exists in solution as tetramers, unlike vcFabG, while MabA, a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Post-translational acetylation of MbtA modulates mycobacterial siderophore biosynthesis. AU - Vergnolle, Olivia. AU - Xu, Hua. AU - Tufariello, Joann M.. AU - Favrot, Lorenza. AU - Malek, Adel A.. AU - Jacobs, William R.. AU - Blanchard, John S.. PY - 2016/10/14. Y1 - 2016/10/14. N2 - Iron is an essential element for life, but its soluble form is scarce in the environment and is rarer in the human body. Mtb (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) produces two aryl-capped siderophores, mycobactin (MBT) and carboxymycobactin (cMBT), to chelate intracellular iron. The adenylating enzyme MbtA catalyzes the first step of mycobactin biosynthesis in two half-reactions: activation of the salicylic acid as an acyl-adenylate and ligation onto the acyl carrier protein (ACP) domain of MbtB to form covalently salicylated MbtB-ACP. We report the first apo-MbtA structure from Mycobacterium smegmatis at 2.3 Å. We demonstrate here that MbtA activity can be reversibly, posttranslationally regulated by ...
Tuberculosis continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. No new drug has been developed in the past 30 yr. Consequently, there is an urgent need to identify new drug targets in mycobacteria and eventually, develop new drugs. The enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase (ENR) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the key enzymes involved in the type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway of M. tuberculosis. A series of pyrazoles linked with imidazoles were computationally designed and energy minimized. These ligands were investigated for drug like properties by calculating Lipinskis rule of five using molinspiration. These compounds were docked into the active site of ENR (PDB code, 2H7I) using Argus lab docking software which showed good affinity for the enzyme, when compared with the binging energies of standard drug isoniazid (-8.39kcal/mol.) Among all the designed ligands, the ligand 4 showed more binding energy values (-10.17kcal/mol). Further we planned to ...
Beta-Alanine metabolism starts as a product of aspartate metabolism. Aspartate is decarboxylated by aspartate 1-decarboxylase, releasing carbon dioxide and beta-alanine. Beta-Alanine is then metabolized through a pantothenate synthease resulting in pantothenic acid. Pantothenic acid then undergoes phosphorylation through an ATP-driven pantothenate kinase, resulting in D-4-phosphopantothenate. Pantothenate, vitamin B5, is a precursor for synthesis of 4-phosphopantetheine moiety of coenzyme A and acyl carrier protein. Plants and microorganisms can synthesize pantothenate de novo, but animals must obtain it from diet. Enzymes of beta-alanine metabolism are targets for anti-microbial drugs ...
Triclosan is an effective inhibitor for enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase (ENR) in fatty acid biosynthesis. Triclosan-resistant mutants of ENR have emerged. Thus, it is important to detect these triclosan-resistant ...
Fatty acid synthetase catalyzes the formation of long-chain fatty acids from acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and NADPH. This multifunctional protein has 7 catalytic activities and an acyl carrier protein.
In the genetically modified plants the acyl-[ACP] thioesterase gene from Cuphea lanceolata is expressed under the control of its own seed-specific promoter. This enzyme catalyses the the formation of a thioester bond between the acyl carrier protein and the synthesized acyl chain in fatty acid biosynthesis ...
Real-time reaction monitoring based on a combination of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and compact mass spectrometry (CMS) is a simple and quick way for chemists to overcome synthetic challenges and optimize chemical reactions in the modern laboratory. Peptides of pharmaceutical interest can be readily synthesized following a rapid, continuous solution-phase synthesis strategy based on Fmoc protected amino acid building blocks. A simple model for such a reaction is the growing of analogues of the acyl carrier protein (ACP), a component of the fatty acid synthesis pathway.. ...
MetabolismFatty acid and phospholipid metabolismBiosynthesismalonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase (TIGR00128; EC 2.3.1.39; HMM-score: 328.4) ...
ACPP - ACPP (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human acid phosphatase, prostate (ACPP), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Blog on acpS recombinant protein product: The acpS acps (Catalog #MBS1453885) is a Recombinant Protein produced from E Coli or Yeast or Baculovirus...
Paige Bourbina, Mara Shaw, and Kyle Freel Facilitated Diffusion What is Facilitated Diffusion? - A passive transport used for molecules that cannot readily diffuse through cell membranes, even when there is a concentration gradient across the membrane. What Does That Mean? Facilitated Diffusion is the process used for molecules that cannot separate cell membranes on command, even when there is a concentration slope across the membrane. What Are The Steps to Facilitated Diffusion? 1. A molecule bonds to a carrier protein* on one side of the cell membrane. 2. The carrier protein changes shape, shielding the molecule from the interior of the membrane ...
... acyl-carrier-protein] reductase, beta-hydroxyacyl-[acylcarrier-protein] dehydrase, and enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase ... 3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + NADP+ ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + ... Other names in common use include beta-ketoacyl-[acyl-carrier protein](ACP) reductase, beta-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein (ACP ... beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, 3-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein reductase, 3-ketoacyl ACP reductase, NADPH- ...
Elovson J, Vagelos PR (July 1968). "Acyl carrier protein. X. Acyl carrier protein synthetase". J. Biol. Chem. 243 (13): 3603-11 ... Acyl carrier proteins (ACP) (such as ACP synthase and ACP degradation) are also used to produce 4′-phosphopantetheine. This ... Strickland KC, Hoeferlin LA, Oleinik NV, Krupenko NI, Krupenko SA (January 2010). "Acyl carrier protein-specific 4'- ... is also the source of the phosphopantetheine group that is added as a prosthetic group to proteins such as acyl carrier protein ...
... is an essential prosthetic group of acyl carrier protein (ACP) and peptidyl carrier proteins (PCP) and aryl carrier proteins ( ... Fatty acid synthase Pantothenic acid Elovson J, Vagelos PR (July 1968). "Acyl carrier protein. X. Acyl carrier protein ... Strickland KC, Hoeferlin LA, Oleinik NV, Krupenko NI, Krupenko SA (January 2010). "Acyl carrier protein-specific 4'- ...
Malonyl CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MCAT gene. The ... Malonyltransferase and acyl carrier protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (41): 40067-74. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... where it catalyzes the transfer of a malonyl group from malonyl-CoA to the mitochondrial acyl carrier protein. The encoded ... The human Malonyl CoA-acel carrier protein transacylase in human mitochondria associates with respiratory complex one, such ...
3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein synthase activity]. • acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein hydrolase activity]. • hydrolase activity. • ... enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein reductase (NADPH, B-specific) activity]. • protein binding. • 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein ... acyl-carrier-protein dehydratase activity]. • protein homodimerization activity. • catalytic activity. • [acyl-carrier-protein ... acyl-carrier-protein S-malonyltransferase activity]. • 3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein dehydratase activity]. • fatty acid ...
enoyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase (NADPH, B-specific) Ja 1.3.1.20 trans-1,2-dihydrobenzene-1,2-diol dehydrogenase Ja ...
Acyl carrier protein, mitochondrial. Pfam PF00550 20. NDUFA2 / B8. NDUA2_HUMAN. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha ... NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein *NDUFS1 - NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 1, 75kDa (NADH-coenzyme Q ... This electron flow changes the redox state of the protein, inducing conformational changes of the protein which alters the pK ... Assembly factor proteins[31] 47. NDUFAF1c. CIA30_HUMAN. NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex, assembly factor 1. ...
Elovson J, Vagelos PR (1968). „Acyl carrier protein. X. Acyl carrier protein synthetase". J. Biol. Chem. 243 (13): 3603-11. ... Strickland KC, Hoeferlin LA, Oleinik NV, Krupenko NI, Krupenko SA (2010). „Acyl carrier protein-specific 4'-phosphopantetheinyl ... što je acil prenosni protein i formiltetrahidrofolat dehidrogenaza.[6][7] ...
Abbreviations: ACP - Acyl carrier protein, CoA - Coenzyme A, NADP - Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Note that ... to give a fatty acyl-adenylate, which then reacts with free coenzyme A to give a fatty acyl-CoA molecule. In order for the acyl ... Acyl-carnitine is converted back to acyl-CoA by carnitine palmitoyltransferase II, located on the interior face of the inner ... PKC is a multifunctional protein kinase which phosphorylates serine and threonine residues in many target proteins. However PKC ...
The acyl carrier protein (ACP) binds to the TGS domain of SpoT; this binding is probably influenced by the ratio of unacylated ... In E. coli, SpoT protein consists of 693 amino acids. SpoT belongs to the RSH protein family. It is bifunctional, has both ... SpoT is a bacterial protein that hydrolizes alarmones, (p)ppGpp, in the bacterial stringent response. Its hydrolase activity is ...
2010). "Acyl carrier protein-specific 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase activates 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase". J ...
Ohlrogge JB, Kuhn DN, Stumpf PK (March 1979). "Subcellular localization of acyl carrier protein in leaf protoplasts of Spinacia ... Proteins can associate to form protein complexes, these often contain a set of proteins with similar functions, such as enzymes ... such as when multiple proteins come together to form protein complexes, or when DNA-binding proteins bind to their targets in ... Protein molecules that do not bind to cell membranes or the cytoskeleton are dissolved in the cytosol. The amount of protein in ...
Price AC, Choi KH, Heath RJ, Li Z, White SW, Rock CO (March 2001). "Inhibition of beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthases ... Mammalian nonspecific lipid-transfer protein (nsL-TP) (also known as sterol carrier protein 2) is a protein which seems to ... or acyl carrier protein (ACP). All thiolases, whether they are biosynthetic or degradative in vivo, preferentially catalyze the ... "Similarity between the amino-terminal portion of mammalian 58-kD sterol carrier protein (SCPx) and Escherichia coli acetyl-CoA ...
EC 6.2.1.19: Long-chain-fatty-acid--protein ligase. *EC 6.2.1.20: [[Long-chain-fatty-acid--[acyl-carrier-protein] ligase]] ... EC 6.2.1.46: [[L-allo-isoleucine--holo-[CmaA peptidyl-carrier protein] ligase]] ... Category:EC 1.7.7 (with an iron-sulfur protein as acceptor). *Category:EC 1.7.99 (with other acceptors) *Nitrite reductase EC ... Category:EC 1.18 (act on iron-sulfur proteins as donors)Edit. *Category:EC 1.18.6 *Nitrogenase EC 1.18.6.1 ...
The mupirocin pathway also contains several tandem acyl carrier protein doublets or triplets. This may be an adaptation to ... These AT domains are the only domains present on MmpC, while the other three type I PKS proteins contain no AT domains. ... MupE is a single-domain protein that shows sequence similarity to known ER domains and may complete the reaction. It also ... It works by blocking the making of protein by the bacteria which usually results in bacterial death. Mupirocin was initially ...
... may refer to: Vicia faba, a species of bean Faba Mill., a synonym of Vicia L. 3-hydroxyoctanoyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) ...
Abbreviations: ACP - Acyl carrier protein, CoA - Coenzyme A, NADP - Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Note that ... Two DesR-P proteins will dimerize and bind to the DNA promoters of the des gene and recruit RNA polymerase to begin ... Another pathway uses two proteins, DesC and DesB, together to act as a Δ9-desaturase, which inserts a double bond into a ... This system is distinct from the branched-chain fatty acid synthetase that utilizes short-chain acyl-CoA esters as primers. α- ...
... acyl-carrier protein] + a malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] → a 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + CO2 + an [acyl-carrier protein ... acyl-carrier protein] + malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] → (Z)-3-oxooctadec-13-enoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + CO2 + [acyl-carrier ... acyl transferase (MAT/AT), and a phosphopantethienylated acyl carrier protein (ACP) or coenzymeA (CoA). They also both used a ... "BRENDA - Information on EC 2.3.1.41 - beta-ketoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase I". www.brenda-enzymes.org. Retrieved 2016- ...
... to an invariant serine in an acyl carrier protein (ACP), a small protein responsible for acyl group activation in fatty acid ... and characterization of the Escherichia coli holo-acyl carrier protein synthase". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (42): 24658-61. doi: ... The most highly conserved regions of the protein are involved in binding the magnesium ion. Lambalot RH, Walsh CT (October 1995 ... This post-translational modification renders holo-ACP capable of acyl group activation via thioesterification of the cysteamine ...
... the smallest δ subunit as an acyl-carrier protein". J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 30: 132-137. Hoenke, S.; Schmid, M.; Dimroth, P. ( ...
3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase Christensen, Caspar Elo; Kragelund, Birthe B.; von Wettstein-Knowles, Penny; ... acyl-carrier-protein) synthase III (FabH)". Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 112 (8): 1613-1622. doi:10.1002/bit.25583. ISSN ... acyl-carrier-protein) synthase III (FabH)". Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 112 (8): 1613-22. doi:10.1002/bit.25583. PMID ... and genetic studies of beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthases I and II of Escherichia coli". Journal of Biological ...
These include the acyl carrier protein (ACP), acetyl transferase (AT), ketosynthase (KS), malonyl transferase (MT; which can ... In vitro, annonacin is under study for its potential to affect the protein p21, cultured cancer cells, and the size of tumors ...
A Battesti; E Bouveret (2006). "Acyl carrier protein/SpoT interaction, the switch linking SpoT-dependent stress response to ... In Escherichia coli, (p)ppGpp production is mediated by the ribosomal protein L11 (rplK resp. relC) and the ribosome-associated ... Translational GTPases involved in protein biosynthesis are also affected by ppGpp, with Initiation Factor 2 (IF2) being the ... proteins, with some having only synthetic, or hydrolytic or both (Rel) activities. During the stringent response, (p)ppGpp ...
... can refer to: (acyl-carrier-protein) S-malonyltransferase Anthocyanin 5-O-glucoside 6'''-O- ...
An interesting link to an unusual acyl carrier protein". Biopolymers. 93 (9): 811-22. doi:10.1002/bip.21482. PMID 20578000. ...
Atromentin and leucomelone possess antibacterial activity, inhibiting the enzyme enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, ( ... S. pneumoniae resides asymptomatically in healthy carriers typically colonizing the respiratory tract, sinuses, and nasal ... and Maclyn McCarty demonstrated that the transforming factor in Griffith's experiment was not protein, as was widely believed ... pneumoniae is associated with increased resistance to oxidative stress and increased expression of the RecA protein, a key ...
... acyl-carrier-protein] reductase, beta-hydroxyacyl-[acylcarrier-protein] dehydrase, and enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase ... 3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + NADP+ ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + ... Other names in common use include beta-ketoacyl-[acyl-carrier protein](ACP) reductase, beta-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein (ACP ... beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, 3-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein reductase, 3-ketoacyl ACP reductase, NADPH- ...
Order Human Malonyl coenzyme A acyl carrier protein transacylase mitochondrial MCAT ELISA Kit 01010947840 at Gentaur Malonyl ... Malonyl coenzyme A acyl carrier protein transacylase. ELISA kit for detection of. Human Malonyl coenzyme A acyl carrier protein ... Human Malonyl coenzyme A acyl carrier protein transacylase, mitochondrial (MCAT) ELISA Kit. ... Human Malonyl coenzyme A acyl carrier protein transacylase, mitochondrial (MCAT) ELISA Kit ...
Ketoacyl-acyl carrier proteins reductases (FabG) are ubiquitously portrayed enzymes that catalyse the reduced amount of acyl ... Ketoacyl-acyl carrier proteins reductases (FabG) are ubiquitously portrayed enzymes that catalyse. August 28, 2018. Leroy ... Intro Ketoacyl-acyl carrier proteins reductases (FabG; EC 1.1.1.100) are highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed enzymes ... catalysing the reduced amount of the acyl carrier proteins (ACP) linked -ketoacyl substances to -hydroxyacyl-ACP thioesters ...
Pantothenic acid is a water-soluble vitamin, which is a component of coenzyme A (CoA) and acyl-carrier proteins. Pantothenic ...
When found in foods, most pantothenic acid is in the form of CoA or bound to acyl carrier protein (ACP). For the intestinal ... CoA is also required in the formation of acyl carrier protein (ACP),[16] which is required for fatty acid synthesis.[10][17] ... this compound can act as an acyl group carrier to form acetyl-CoA and other related compounds; this is a way to transport ... as well as to in general synthesize and metabolize proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. ...
... enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, which is necessary to build and reproduce cell membranes [61], bacteria that become ...
... is a acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] (CHEBI:16018) ... acyl-carrier-protein] (CHEBI:84648). (R)-3-Hydroxyhexanoyl-[acp] (CHEBI:326) is a (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] ( ... An acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] where the acyl group is substituted at the pro-3R position by a hydroxy group.. ... CHEBI:84648 - (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
... of several acyl carrier proteins involved in pathways of primary and secondary metabolism including the acyl carrier proteins ( ... The acyl carrier protein (ACP) is an important component in both fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis with the growing chain ... and peptidyl carrier proteins (PCP) and aryl carrier proteins (ArCP) of nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). ... Acyl Carrier Protein at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...
putative acyl carrier protein [Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)] putative acyl carrier protein [Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)]. gi ... RefSeq protein See the reference protein sequence for acyl carrier protein (NP_627461.1). ... Transcript/Protein Information [PANTHER Classification System] Transcript/Protein Information. PANTHER Classification System ... The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ...
Holo-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase of Escherichia coli.. Lambalot RH1, Walsh CT. ...
Acyl carrier protein synthases (ACPS) are members of the family of phosphopantethienyl transferases responsible for the ... conversion of the inactive apo-Acyl carrier protein from fatty acid or polyketide biosynthesis into the active holo form ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ...
Toxoplasma gondii apicoplast-targeted acyl carrier protein.. Lunin, V.V., Wernimont, A., Lew, J., Qiu, W., Lin, L., Hassanali, ... Protein Workshop , Ligand Explorer. Global Symmetry: Asymmetric - C1 Global Stoichiometry: Monomer - A1 Find Similar Assemblies ... Toxoplasma gondii apicoplast-targeted acyl carrier protein. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb2QNW/pdb. *Classification: SIGNALING PROTEIN ...
The function of acyl thioesterases in the metabolism of acylcoenzymes A and acyl-acyl carrier proteins. Arch.Biochem.Biophys., ... acylcarrier-protein] dehydrase, and enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase from Spinacea oleracea leaves. Arch.Biochem.Biophys ... Acyl Carrier Protein Fatty Acid Synthetase Lower Specific Activity Incorporated Label Brassica CAMPESTRIS These keywords were ... Barley chloroplasts contain two acyl carrier proteins coded for by different genes. Carlsberg.Res.Commun., 49: 483-492.CrossRef ...
Acyl carrier protein (ACP) shuttles the acyl intermediates between individual pathway enzymes. In this study, we determined the ... Acyl carrier protein (ACP) shuttles the acyl intermediates between individual pathway enzymes. In this study, we determined the ... Structural modification of acyl carrier protein by butyryl group.. Wu, B.N., Zhang, Y.M., Rock, C.O., Zheng, J.J.. (2009) ... Structural modification of acyl carrier protein by butyryl group. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb2K92/pdb ...
3D structures of acyl carrier protein synthase. Acyl carrier protein synthase 3D structures ... The crystal structure of Acyl carrier protein synthase (AcpS) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) was solved at 1.95 Å (3hqj ... three molecules of the acyl carrier protein (ASP). The interactions between B. subtilis AcpS and ACP are predominantly . The B ... Dym O, Albeck S, Peleg Y, Schwarz A, Shakked Z, Burstein Y, Zimhony O. Structure-function analysis of the acyl carrier protein ...
3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase 3. Details. Name. 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase 3. Kind. protein. ... 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase 3. Q9F6D4. Details. Drug Relations. Drug Relations. DrugBank ID. Name. Drug group. ...
Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. Q83PW0. Pimeloyl-[acyl-carrier protein] methyl ester esterase. ECO8A ... Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. Q83PW0. Pimeloyl-[acyl-carrier protein] methyl ester esterase. ECO8A ... Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. Q83PW0. Pimeloyl-[acyl-carrier protein] methyl ester esterase. SERMA ... Pimeloyl-[acyl-carrier protein] methyl ester esteraseUniRule annotation. Manual assertion according to rulesi ...
Catalyzes the reduction of a carbon-carbon double bond in an enoyl moiety that is covalently linked to an acyl carrier protein ... An acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + NAD+ = a trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + NADH. ... Enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase [NADH] FabIAdd BLAST. 261. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance ... Enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase [NADH] FabI (EC:1.3.1.9). Short name: ...
Die Rolle des Fettsäuresynthase Acyl-Carrier-Proteins (FAS-ACP) in der Chinoxalinantibiotika-Biosynthese. [Gernot Schmoock;] ... Die Rolle des Fettsäuresynthase Acyl-Carrier-Proteins (FAS-ACP) in der Chinoxalinantibiotika-Biosynthese. Author:. Gernot ... schema:name "Die Rolle des Fettsäuresynthase Acyl-Carrier-Proteins (FAS-ACP) in der Chinoxalinantibiotika-Biosynthese"@de ;. ... Add tags for "Die Rolle des Fettsäuresynthase Acyl-Carrier-Proteins (FAS-ACP) in der Chinoxalinantibiotika-Biosynthese". Be ...
In order to investigate whether the relative activities of the plastidial acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP):glycerol 3-phosphate ... Role of plastidial acyl-acyl carrier protein: Glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase and acyl-acyl carrier protein hydrolase in ... Role of plastidial acyl-acyl carrier protein: Glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase and acyl-acyl carrier protein hydrolase in ... Purification and characterization of the stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase and the acyl-acyl carrier protein ...
Exhibits a marked preference for [acyl-carrier-protein] derivatives over CoA derivatives as substrates. ...
Central to FA synthesis, the ACP (acyl carrier protein) represents the cofactor protein that covalently binds all fatty acyl ... protein complex. Abbreviations: ACC, acetyl-CoA carboxylase; ACP, acyl carrier protein; ACPS, ACP synthase; EM, electron ... Current understanding of fatty acid biosynthesis and the acyl carrier protein. David I. Chan, Hans J. Vogel ... Current understanding of fatty acid biosynthesis and the acyl carrier protein Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ...
Acyl Carrier Protein) Reductase. Franck E. Dayan, Daneel Ferreira, Yan-Hong Wang, Ikhlas A. Khan, John A. McInroy, Zhiqiang Pan ... Acyl Carrier Protein) Reductase. Franck E. Dayan, Daneel Ferreira, Yan-Hong Wang, Ikhlas A. Khan, John A. McInroy, Zhiqiang Pan ... Lee HH, Moon J, Suh SW (2007) Crystal structure of the Helicobacter pylori enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase in complex with ... A Pathogenic Fungi Diphenyl Ether Phytotoxin Targets Plant Enoyl (Acyl Carrier Protein) Reductase. Franck E. Dayan, Daneel ...
... encoding beta-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein dehydratase and beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase I, respectively, ... and beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase I (FabB).. T T Hoang, H P Schweizer ... and beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase I (FabB). Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal ... cloning and characterization of the fabAB operon encoding beta-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein dehydratase (FabA) and beta- ...
  • Materials and Strategies Cloning, manifestation, and purification The gene encoding FabG (GenBank accession quantity: "type":"entrez-protein","attrs":"text message":"AAM85326.1″,"term_id":"21958563″,"term_text message":"AAM85326.1″AAM85326.1), a minimal molecular pounds FabG of BMS-806 244 proteins, was cloned in to the manifestation vector pMCSG21, solubly over-expressed, and purified while previously described . (lunararchives.com)
  • E05 478 566 350 170 or Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays,E05 478 566 350 170 or Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays,Human proteins, cDNA and human recombinants are used in human reactive ELISA kits and to produce anti-human mono and polyclonal antibodies. (polabo.com)
  • Quickly, the gene encoding BL21(DE3) pLysS cells and indicated in auto-induction press like a fusion proteins including a 6xHis label and a Cigarette etch disease (TEV) protease cleavage site for label removal. (lunararchives.com)
  • The construct produced a mixture of holo-ACP and apo-ACP and two HPLC procedures were developed to separate the two species, This overexpression system allows cost-effective growths of 13 C- and 15 N-labeled protein for structural and other studies on ACP. (elsevier.com)
  • Polacco, ML & Cronan, JE 1981, ' A mutant of Escherichia coli conditionally defective in the synthesis of holo-[acyl carrier protein] ', Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 256, no. 11, pp. 5750-5754. (illinois.edu)
  • Our results also suggest that the MAT does not discriminate against α-substituted acyl-CoA thioesters solely on the basis of substrate size. (elsevier.com)
  • Using acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA as the initiating substrate and building block, respectively, these organisms share a common set of biochemical reactions to extend fatty acyl chains by two carbon atoms per cycle [ 1 - 3 ]. (beds.ac.uk)
  • All of the proteins required to catalyze one cycle of fatty acid synthesis from acetyl-CoA plus malonyl-CoA to butyryl-ACP in vitro were purified. (semanticscholar.org)
  • malonyl-CoA-acyl carri. (oup.com)
  • In fatty acid synthesis, the chain elongation step consists of the condensation of acyl groups, derived from acyl‐ACP or acyl‐CoA with malonyl‐ACP. (embopress.org)
  • The BioC O-methyltransferase catalyzes methyl esterification of malonyl-acyl carrier protein, an essential step in biotin synthesis. (genome.jp)
  • The sequence of ENR is highly conserved within higher plants and a homology model of Arabidopsis ENR was derived from the crystal structure of the protein from Brassica napus . (plantphysiol.org)
  • RNA and protein-blot analysis in Arabidopsis and rapeseed ( Brassica napus ) showed that the endogenous AtFATB1 expression was highest in flowers and lower in leaves. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Custom ELISA Kits, Recombinant Proteins and Antibodies can be designed, manufactured and produced according to the researcher's specifications. (mybiosource.com)
  • The structures of a number of acyl carrier proteins have been solved using various NMR and crystallography techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • To investigate the role of the minor states of an acyl carrier protein, NMR techniques were applied to determine the number of minor states and characterize their structures and kinetics. (nus.edu.sg)
  • The ability to rapidly obtain structures of protein-ligand complexes using X-ray crystallography is central to drug discovery, but the typical cryocooling of samples and the effects of the X-ray beam may distort the observed ligand binding. (iucr.org)
  • X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) have the promise to solve these issues, but methods to rapidly produce structures of protein-ligand complexes at XFELs have not yet been realized. (iucr.org)
  • In order to investigate whether the relative activities of the plastidial acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP):glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.15) and acyl-ACP hydrolase play a role in controlling the acyl flux through the prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathway, we determined these enzymic activities in stroma fractions from 16:3- and 18:3-plants using glycerol 3-phosphate and labelled acyl-ACP as substrates. (springer.com)
  • Douady, D., Dubacq, J.-P. (1987) Purification of acyl-CoA: glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase from pea leaves. (springer.com)
  • section describes the metabolic pathway(s) associated with a protein. (uniprot.org)
  • We have constructed a conditional null mutant of acyl carrier protein, a central component of the FAS II pathway in Toxoplasma gondii . (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, it appears that, in addition to FAS II, apicomplexans also harbor fatty acyl-elongases ( http://toxodb.org , TgTwinScan_3930, 2967, and 6237) and, in the case of Toxoplasma , a FAS I pathway ( 12 ) (TgTwinScan_0460). (pnas.org)
  • The structural studies revealed that attachment of butyryl acyl intermediate to ACP alters the conformation of ACP. (rcsb.org)
  • The activity of the RhlI preparation was substantially lower than the activity of the LuxI or TraI preparations (10 −6 ), thus raising concerns as to whether butyryl-CoA and HSL are relevant substrates for acyl-HSL synthesis by RhlI. (pnas.org)
  • The purification and function of acetyl coenzyme A: acyl carrier protein transactylase. (springer.com)
  • Thus, virulence-related protein secretion is localized in mycobacteria, suggesting new potential therapeutic targets, which are urgently needed. (nih.gov)
  • Luca Picone-Chiodo, who was at high risk of having MCAD (Medium-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase) a genetic condition that affects the metabolism, died at his family home in Huddersfield on October 16, 2009. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Diagnosis of medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency by measurement of cis-4-decenoic acid in dried blood spots. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • FA (fatty acid) synthesis represents a central, conserved process by which acyl chains are produced for utilization in a number of end-products such as biological membranes. (biochemj.org)