Acyl Carrier Protein: Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.Pantetheine: An intermediate in the pathway of coenzyme A formation in mammalian liver and some microorganisms.Fatty Acid Synthase, Type II: The form of fatty acid synthase complex found in BACTERIA; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Catalytic steps are like the animal form but the protein structure is different with dissociated enzymes encoded by separate genes. It is a target of some ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS which result in disruption of the CELL MEMBRANE and CELL WALL.3-Oxoacyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Synthase: An enzyme of long-chain fatty acid synthesis, that adds a two-carbon unit from malonyl-(acyl carrier protein) to another molecule of fatty acyl-(acyl carrier protein), giving a beta-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) with the release of carbon dioxide. EC 2.3.1.41.Polyketide Synthases: Large enzyme complexes composed of a number of component enzymes that are found in STREPTOMYCES which biosynthesize MACROLIDES and other polyketides.Acyl-Carrier Protein S-Malonyltransferase: This enzyme catalyzes the transacylation of malonate from MALONYL CoA to activated holo-ACP, to generate malonyl-(acyl-carrier protein), which is an elongation substrate in FATTY ACIDS biosynthesis. It is an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of FATTY ACIDS in all BACTERIA.Fatty Acid Synthases: Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.Transferases (Other Substituted Phosphate Groups): A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.3-Oxoacyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Reductase: A 3-oxoacyl reductase that has specificity for ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN-derived FATTY ACIDS.Coenzyme APantothenic Acid: A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.Enoyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Reductase (NADH): An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] to trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-[acyl-carrier protein]. It has a preference for acyl groups with a carbon chain length between 4 to 16.Carbon-Sulfur Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-sulfur bond. EC 6.2.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Acylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Thiolester HydrolasesMalonyl Coenzyme A: A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.Triclosan: A diphenyl ether derivative used in cosmetics and toilet soaps as an antiseptic. It has some bacteriostatic and fungistatic action.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Cerulenin: An epoxydodecadienamide isolated from several species, including ACREMONIUM, Acrocylindrum, and Helicoceras. It inhibits the biosynthesis of several lipids by interfering with enzyme function.Saccharopolyspora: A genus of gram-positive bacteria whose spores are round to oval and covered by a sheath.Apoproteins: The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).Acyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Anthraquinones: Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.Coriandrum: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE. The leaves are the source of cilantro and the seeds are the source of coriander, both of which are used in SPICES.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Acyl-Carrier Protein S-Acetyltransferase: A enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL CoA to acyl-carrier protein to form COENZYME A and acetyl-acyl-carrier protein.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.MalonatesThioctic Acid: An octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs so that it is sometimes also called a pentanoic acid in some naming schemes. It is biosynthesized by cleavage of LINOLEIC ACID and is a coenzyme of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX). It is used in DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.Lipid A: Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.Naphthacenes: Polyacenes with four ortho-fused benzene rings in a straight linear arrangement. This group is best known for the subclass called TETRACYCLINES.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Peptide Synthases: Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.Acetyl Coenzyme A: Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Ligases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Mycolic AcidsSulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Polyketides: Natural compounds containing alternating carbonyl and methylene groups (beta-polyketones), bioenergenetically derived from repeated condensation of acetyl coenzyme A via malonyl coenzyme A, in a process similar to fatty acid synthesis.Biocatalysis: The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.Glycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Hydro-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.Glycerophosphates: Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.EstersStreptomyces coelicolor: A soil-dwelling actinomycete with a complex lifecycle involving mycelial growth and spore formation. It is involved in the production of a number of medically important ANTIBIOTICS.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
(1/346) Effect of cold shock on lipid A biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Induction At 12 degrees C of an acyltransferase specific for palmitoleoyl-acyl carrier protein.

Palmitoleate is not present in lipid A isolated from Escherichia coli grown at 30 degrees C or higher, but it comprises approximately 11% of the fatty acyl chains of lipid A in cells grown at 12 degrees C. The appearance of palmitoleate at 12 degrees C is accompanied by a decline in laurate from approximately 18% to approximately 5.5%. We now report that wild-type E. coli shifted from 30 degrees C to 12 degrees C acquire a novel palmitoleoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP)-dependent acyltransferase that acts on the key lipid A precursor Kdo2-lipid IVA. The palmitoleoyl transferase is induced more than 30-fold upon cold shock, as judged by assaying extracts of cells shifted to 12 degrees C. The induced activity is maximal after 2 h of cold shock, and then gradually declines but does not disappear. Strains harboring an insertion mutation in the lpxL(htrB) gene, which encodes the enzyme that normally transfers laurate from lauroyl-ACP to Kdo2-lipid IVA (Clementz, T., Bednarski, J. J., and Raetz, C. R. H. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 12095-12102) are not defective in the cold-induced palmitoleoyl transferase. Recently, a gene displaying 54% identity and 73% similarity at the protein level to lpxL was found in the genome of E. coli. This lpxL homologue, designated lpxP, encodes the cold shock-induced palmitoleoyl transferase. Extracts of cells containing lpxP on the multicopy plasmid pSK57 exhibit a 10-fold increase in the specific activity of the cold-induced palmitoleoyl transferase compared with cells lacking the plasmid. The elevated specific activity of the palmitoleoyl transferase under conditions of cold shock is attributed to greatly increased levels of lpxP mRNA. The replacement of laurate with palmitoleate in lipid A may reflect the desirability of maintaining the optimal outer membrane fluidity at 12 degrees C.  (+info)

(2/346) Acyl homoserine-lactone quorum-sensing signal generation.

Acyl homoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs) are important intercellular signaling molecules used by many bacteria to monitor their population density in quorum-sensing control of gene expression. These signals are synthesized by members of the LuxI family of proteins. To understand the mechanism of acyl-HSL synthesis we have purified the Pseudomonas aeruginosa RhlI protein and analyzed the kinetics of acyl-HSL synthesis by this enzyme. Purified RhlI catalyzes the synthesis of acyl-HSLs from acyl-acyl carrier proteins and S-adenosylmethionine. An analysis of the patterns of product inhibition indicated that RhlI catalyzes signal synthesis by a sequential, ordered reaction mechanism in which S-adenosylmethionine binds to RhlI as the initial step in the enzymatic mechanism. Because pathogenic bacteria such as P. aeruginosa use acyl-HSL signals to regulate virulence genes, an understanding of the mechanism of signal synthesis and identification of inhibitors of signal synthesis has implications for development of quorum sensing-targeted antivirulence molecules.  (+info)

(3/346) Aminoacyl-CoAs as probes of condensation domain selectivity in nonribosomal peptide synthesis.

In nonribosomal biosynthesis of peptide antibiotics by multimodular synthetases, amino acid monomers are activated by the adenylation domains of the synthetase and loaded onto the adjacent carrier protein domains as thioesters, then the formation of peptide bonds and translocation of the growing chain are effected by the synthetase's condensation domains. Whether the condensation domains have any editing function has been unknown. Synthesis of aminoacyl-coenzyme A (CoA) molecules and direct enzymatic transfer of aminoacyl-phosphopantetheine to the carrier domains allow the adenylation domain editing function to be bypassed. This method was used to demonstrate that the first condensation domain of tyrocidine synthetase shows low selectivity at the donor residue (D-phenylalanine) and higher selectivity at the acceptor residue (L-proline) in the formation of the chain-initiating D-Phe-L-Pro dipeptidyl-enzyme intermediate.  (+info)

(4/346) The pro1(+) gene from Sordaria macrospora encodes a C6 zinc finger transcription factor required for fruiting body development.

During sexual morphogenesis, the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora differentiates into multicellular fruiting bodies called perithecia. Previously it has been shown that this developmental process is under polygenic control. To further understand the molecular mechanisms involved in fruiting body formation, we generated the protoperithecia forming mutant pro1, in which the normal development of protoperithecia into perithecia has been disrupted. We succeeded in isolating a cosmid clone from an indexed cosmid library, which was able to complement the pro1(-) mutation. Deletion analysis, followed by DNA sequencing, subsequently demonstrated that fertility was restored to the pro1 mutant by an open reading frame encoding a 689-amino-acid polypeptide, which we named PRO1. A region from this polypeptide shares significant homology with the DNA-binding domains found in fungal C6 zinc finger transcription factors, such as the GAL4 protein from yeast. However, other typical regions of C6 zinc finger proteins, such as dimerization elements, are absent in PRO1. The involvement of the pro1(+) gene in fruiting body development was further confirmed by trying to complement the mutant phenotype with in vitro mutagenized and truncated versions of the pro1 open reading frame. Southern hybridization experiments also indicated that pro1(+) homologues are present in other sexually propagating filamentous ascomycetes.  (+info)

(5/346) Kinetic analysis of the actinorhodin aromatic polyketide synthase.

Type II polyketide synthases (PKSs) are bacterial multienzyme systems that catalyze the biosynthesis of a broad range of natural products. A core set of subunits, consisting of a ketosynthase, a chain length factor, an acyl carrier protein (ACP) and possibly a malonyl CoA:ACP transacylase (MAT) forms a "minimal" PKS. They generate a poly-beta-ketone backbone of a specified length from malonyl-CoA derived building blocks. Here we (a) report on the kinetic properties of the actinorhodin minimal PKS, and (b) present further data in support of the requirement of the MAT. Kinetic analysis showed that the apoACP is a competitive inhibitor of minimal PKS activity, demonstrating the importance of protein-protein interactions between the polypeptide moiety of the ACP and the remainder of the minimal PKS. In further support of the requirement of MAT for PKS activity, two new findings are presented. First, we observe hyperbolic dependence of PKS activity on MAT concentration, saturating at very low amounts (half-maximal rate at 19.7 +/- 5.1 nM). Since MAT can support PKS activity at less than 1/100 the typical concentration of the ACP and ketosynthase/chain length factor components, it is difficult to rule out the presence of trace quantities of MAT in a PKS reaction mixture. Second, an S97A mutant was constructed at the nucleophilic active site of the MAT. Not only can this mutant protein support PKS activity, it is also covalently labeled by [(14)C]malonyl-CoA, demonstrating that the serine nucleophile (which has been the target of PMSF inhibition in earlier studies) is dispensible for MAT activity in a Type II PKS system.  (+info)

(6/346) Characterization of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa fatty acid biosynthetic gene cluster: purification of acyl carrier protein (ACP) and malonyl-coenzyme A:ACP transacylase (FabD).

A DNA fragment containing the Pseudomonas aeruginosa fabD (encoding malonyl-coenzyme A [CoA]:acyl carrier protein [ACP] transacylase), fabG (encoding beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase), acpP (encoding ACP), and fabF (encoding beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II) genes was cloned and sequenced. This fab gene cluster is delimited by the plsX (encoding a poorly understood enzyme of phospholipid metabolism) and pabC (encoding 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase) genes; the fabF and pabC genes seem to be translationally coupled. The fabH gene (encoding beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III), which in most gram-negative bacteria is located between plsX and fabD, is absent from this gene cluster. A chromosomal temperature-sensitive fabD mutant was obtained by site-directed mutagenesis that resulted in a W258Q change. A chromosomal fabF insertion mutant was generated, and the resulting mutant strain contained substantially reduced levels of cis-vaccenic acid. Multiple attempts aimed at disruption of the chromosomal fabG gene were unsuccessful. We purified FabD as a hexahistidine fusion protein (H6-FabD) and ACP in its native form via an ACP-intein-chitin binding domain fusion protein, using a novel expression and purification scheme that should be applicable to ACP from other bacteria. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization spectroscopy, native polyacrylamide electrophoresis, and amino-terminal sequencing revealed that (i) most of the purified ACP was properly modified with its 4'-phosphopantetheine functional group, (ii) it was not acylated, and (iii) the amino-terminal methionine was removed. In an in vitro system, purified ACP functioned as acyl acceptor and H(6)-FabD exhibited malonyl-CoA:ACP transacylase activity.  (+info)

(7/346) Heterologous expression, purification, reconstitution and kinetic analysis of an extended type II polyketide synthase.

BACKGROUND: Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are bacterial multienzyme systems that synthesize a broad range of natural products. The 'minimal' PKS consists of a ketosynthase, a chain length factor, an acyl carrier protein and a malonyl transferase. Auxiliary components (ketoreductases, aromatases and cyclases are involved in controlling the oxidation level and cyclization of the nascent polyketide chain. We describe the heterologous expression and reconstitution of several auxiliary PKS components including the actinorhodin ketoreductase (act KR), the griseusin aromatase/cyclase (gris ARO/CYC), and the tetracenomycin aromatase/cyclase (tcm ARO/CYC). RESULTS: The polyketide products of reconstituted act and tcm PKSs were identical to those identified in previous in vivo studies. Although stable protein-protein interactions were not detected between minimal and auxiliary PKS components, kinetic analysis revealed that the extended PKS comprised of the act minimal PKS, the act KR and the gris ARO/CYC had a higher turnover number than the act minimal PKS plus the act KR or the act minimal PKS alone. Adding the tcm ARO/CYC to the tcm minimal PKS also increased the overall rate. CONCLUSIONS: Until recently the principal strategy for functional analysis of PKS subunits was through heterologous expression of recombinant PKSs in Streptomyces. Our results corroborate the implicit assumption that the product isolated from whole-cell systems is the dominant product of the PKS. They also suggest that an intermediate is channeled between the various subunits, and pave the way for more detailed structural and mechanistic analysis of these multienzyme systems.  (+info)

(8/346) Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of a gene encoding a cotton palmitoyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase.

A cotton genomic clone containing a 17.4-kb DNA segment was found to encompass a palmitoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase (Fat B1) gene. The gene spans 3.6 kb with six exons and five introns, and is apparently the first plant FatB acyl-ACP thioesterase gene to be completely sequenced. The six exons are identical in nucleotide sequence to the open reading frame of the corresponding cDNA, and would encode a preprotein of 413 amino acids. The preprotein can clearly be identified as a FatB acyl-ACP thioesterase from its similarity to the deduced amino acid sequences of other FatB thioesterase preproteins. A 5'-flanking region of 914 bp was sequenced, with the potential TATA basal promoter 324 bp upstream from the ATG initiation codon. The 5'-flanking sequence also has a putative CAAT box and two presumptive basic region helixloop-helix (bHLH) elements with the consensus motif CANNTG (termed an E box), implicated as being a positive regulatory element in seed-specific gene expression.  (+info)

*  Fatty acid metabolism
Abbreviations: ACP - Acyl carrier protein, CoA - Coenzyme A, NADP - Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Note that ... to give a fatty acyl-adenylate, which then reacts with free coenzyme A to give a fatty acyl-CoA molecule. In order for the acyl ... Acyl-carnitine is converted back to acyl-CoA by carnitine palmitoyltransferase II, located on the interior face of the inner ... PKC is a multifunctional protein kinase which phosphorylates serine and threonine residues in many target proteins. However PKC ...
*  Beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase
3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase Christensen, Caspar Elo; Kragelund, Birthe B.; von Wettstein-Knowles, Penny; ... acyl-carrier-protein) synthase III (FabH)". Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 112 (8): 1613-1622. doi:10.1002/bit.25583. ISSN ... acyl-carrier-protein) synthase III (FabH)". Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 112 (8): 1613-22. doi:10.1002/bit.25583. PMID ... and genetic studies of beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthases I and II of Escherichia coli". Journal of Biological ...
*  Fatty acid synthase
... acyl carrier protein (ACP) and thioesterase (TE)). The conventional model for organization of FAS (see the 'head-to-tail' model ... "Mechanism of substrate shuttling by the acyl-carrier protein within the fatty acid mega-synthase". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132 (35): ... between these active sites while attached covalently to the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of an acyl carrier protein (ACP ... gastrointestinal lipase inhibitors Fatty acid synthesis Fatty acid metabolism Fatty acid degradation Enoyl-acyl carrier protein ...
*  Acyl carrier protein
... of several acyl carrier proteins involved in pathways of primary and secondary metabolism including the acyl carrier proteins ( ... The acyl carrier protein (ACP) is an important component in both fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis with the growing chain ... and peptidyl carrier proteins (PCP) and aryl carrier proteins (ArCP) of nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). ... Acyl Carrier Protein at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...
*  acyl-carrier-protein) phosphodiesterase
Vagelos PR, Larrabes AR (1967). "Acyl carrier protein. IX. Acyl carrier protein hydrolase". J. Biol. Chem. 242 (8): 1776-81. ... acyl-carrier-protein] Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are [[holo-[acyl-carrier-protein]]] and H2O, whereas its two ... acyl-carrier-protein] phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.14) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction holo-[acyl-carrier- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is holo-[acyl-carrier-protein] 4'-pantetheine-phosphohydrolase. Other names in common ...
*  Acyl carrier protein synthase
... s (ACPS) are members of the family of phosphopantethienyl transferases responsible for the ... conversion of the inactive apo-Acyl carrier protein from fatty acid or polyketide biosynthesis into the active holo form ...
*  Dodecanoyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) hydrolase
... dodecanoyl-acyl-carrier-protein hydrolase, dodecyl-acyl-carrier protein hydrolase, and dodecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] ... acyl-carrier-protein]]] and H2O, whereas its two products are acyl-carrier-protein and dodecanoate. This enzyme belongs to the ... acyl-carrier-protein] hydrolase. Other names in common use include lauryl-acyl-carrier-protein hydrolase, ... acyl-carrier-protein] + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } [acyl-carrier-protein] + dodecanoate Thus, the two substrates ...
*  Oleoyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) hydrolase
Other names in common use include acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] hydrolase, acyl-ACP-hydrolase, acyl-acyl carrier protein ... The function of acyl thioesterases in the metabolism of acyl-coenzymes A and acyl-acyl carrier proteins". Arch. Biochem. ... acyl-carrier-protein]]] and H2O, whereas its two products are acyl-carrier-protein and oleate. This enzyme belongs to the ... acyl-carrier-protein] hydrolase (EC 3.1.2.14) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction oleoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein ...
*  Holo-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase
Elovson J, Vagelos PR (1968). "Acyl carrier protein. X. Acyl carrier protein synthetase". J. Biol. Chem. 243 (13): 3603-11. ... acyl carrier protein synthetase, holo-ACP synthase, PPTase, AcpS, ACPS, acyl carrier protein synthase, P-pant transferase, and ... acyl-carrier-protein] 4'-pantetheinephosphotransferase. Other names in common use include acyl carrier protein holoprotein ( ... apo-acyl carrier protein ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + holo-acyl carrier protein This ...
*  Crotonoyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) hydratase
... acyl-carrier-protein] hydro-lyase, beta-hydroxybutyryl acyl carrier protein dehydrase, beta-hydroxybutyryl acyl carrier protein ... beta-hydroxybutyryl acyl carrier protein dehydrase, enoyl acyl carrier protein hydrase, crotonyl acyl carrier protein hydratase ... MAJERUS PW, ALBERTS AW, VAGELOS PR (1965). "ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN. 3. AN ENOYL HYDRASE SPECIFIC FOR ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN ... acyl-carrier-protein]]], and two products, [[but-2-enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]]] and H2O. This enzyme belongs to the family of ...
*  acyl-carrier-protein) S-acetyltransferase
... acyl-carrier-protein] Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA and acyl carrier protein, whereas its two products ... acyl-carrier-protein] S-acetyltransferase. Other names in common use include acetyl coenzyme A-acyl-carrier-protein ... acyl-carrier-protein] S-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.38) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl-CoA + [acyl- ... Rangan VS, Smith S (1997). "Alteration of the substrate specificity of the malonyl-CoA/acetyl-CoA:acyl carrier protein S- ...
*  acyl-carrier-protein) S-malonyltransferase
... acyl-carrier-protein] The transfer of malonate to acyl-carrier-protein (ACP) converts the acyl groups into thioester forms ... Other names in common use include malonyl coenzyme A-acyl carrier protein transacylase, [acyl carrier protein] ... acyl-carrier-protein] Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are malonyl-CoA and acyl carrier protein, whereas its two ... acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.39) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction malonyl-CoA + acyl ...
*  Acyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) desaturase
Schultz, D; Suh, M.; Ohlrogge (2000). "Stearoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein and Unusual Acyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Desaturase ... acyl-carrier-protein] + acceptor + 2 H2O The systematic name of this enzyme class is acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein], hydrogen- ... acyl-carrier-protein), reduced acceptor, and O2, whereas its 3 products are oleoyl-(acyl-carrier-protein), acceptor, and H2O. ... acyl-carrier-protein] desaturase (EC 1.14.19.2) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction stearoyl-[acyl-carrier- ...
*  Enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase
Enoyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase (NADPH, A-specific) Enoyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase (NADPH, B-specific) Cis-2- ... Enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (or ENR) (EC 1.3.1.9), is a key enzyme of the type II fatty acid synthesis (FAS) system. ... PMID 15139852 Identification and characterization of inhibitors of bacterial enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase. / Antimicrob ... acyl-carrier protein) reductase from Plasmodium falciparum. / Biochem J. 2004 Aug 1;381(Pt 3):735-41. ...
*  Beta-ketodecanoyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase
... acyl-carrier-protein) synthase (EC 2.3.1.207) is an enzyme with systematic name octanoyl-CoA:malonyl-(acyl-carrier protein) C- ... acyl-carrier protein] ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 3-oxodecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + CoA + CO2 This enzyme is ... Beta-ketodecanoyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
*  3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase
... acyl-carrier-protein] reductase, beta-hydroxyacyl-[acylcarrier-protein] dehydrase, and enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase ... Other names in common use include beta-ketoacyl-[acyl-carrier protein](ACP) reductase, beta-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein (ACP ... acyl-carrier-protein] + NADPH + H+ Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] and ... beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, 3-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein reductase, 3-ketoacyl ACP reductase, NADPH- ...
*  3-hydroxydecanoyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) dehydratase
... acyl-carrier protein] dehydratase, 3-hydroxydecanoyl-acyl carrier protein dehydrase, 3-hydroxydecanoyl-acyl carrier protein ... acyl-carrier-protein] hydro-lyase) is an enzyme with systematic name (3R)-3-hydroxydecanoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) hydro-lyase ... acyl-carrier protein] ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } a trans-dec-2-enoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + H2O (2) a (3R)-3- ... acyl-carrier protein] ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } a cis-dec-3-enoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + H2O This enzyme is ...
*  3-hydroxyoctanoyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) dehydratase
... acyl carrier protein] dehydratase, D-3-hydroxyoctanoyl-acyl carrier protein dehydratase, beta-hydroxyoctanoyl-acyl carrier ... acyl-carrier-protein), and two products, [[oct-2-enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]]] and H2O. This enzyme belongs to the family of ... acyl-carrier-protein] hydro-lyase (oct-2-enoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]-forming). Other names in common use include D-3- ... acyl-carrier-protein] ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } oct-2-enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + H2O Hence, this enzyme has one ...
*  3-hydroxypalmitoyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) dehydratase
... acyl-carrier-protein] hydro-lyase (hexadec-2-enoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]-forming). Other names in common use include D-3- ... acyl-carrier-protein]]], and two products, [[hexadec-2-enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]]] and H2O. This enzyme belongs to the ... acyl-carrier-protein] ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } hexadec-2-enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + H2O Hence, this enzyme has ... acyl-carrier-protein] dehydratase, beta-hydroxypalmitoyl-acyl carrier protein dehydrase, beta-hydroxypalmitoyl thioester ...
*  Pimelyl-(acyl-carrier protein) methyl ester esterase
... acyl-carrier protein) methyl ester esterase (EC 3.1.1.85, BioH) is an enzyme with systematic name pimelyl-(acyl-carrier protein ... acyl-carrier protein] methyl ester + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } pimelyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + methanol This ... Pimelyl-(acyl-carrier protein) methyl ester esterase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... "Purification and characterisation of the BIOH protein from the biotin biosynthetic pathway". FEBS Lett. 513 (2-3): 299-304. doi ...
*  L-glutamyl-(BtrI acyl-carrier protein) decarboxylase
BtrI acyl-carrier protein] ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 4-amino butanoyl-[BtrI acyl-carrier protein] + CO2 This enzyme ... BtrI acyl-carrier protein) decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.95, btrK (gene)) is an enzyme with systematic name L-glutamyl-(BtrI acyl- ... L-glutamyl-(BtrI acyl-carrier protein) decarboxylase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... possible protective-group chemistry in an acyl carrier protein-mediated pathway". Chem. Biol. 12 (6): 665-675. doi:10.1016/j. ...
*  Trans-2-decenoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) isomerase
... acyl-carrier-protein]]], and one product, [[cis-dec-3-enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]]]. This enzyme belongs to the family of ... acyl-carrier-protein] ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } cis-dec-3-enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] Hence, this enzyme has one ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is decenoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] Delta2-trans-Delta3-cis-isomerase. Other names in ... In enzymology, a trans-2-decenoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] isomerase (EC 5.3.3.14) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ...
*  Beta-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase III
... acyl carrier protein] + CoA + CO2 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA and malonyl-[acyl-carrier-protein], ... acyl-carrier-protein] synthase III (EC 2.3.1.180) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl-CoA + malonyl-[acyl ... β-Ketoacyl-acyl-carrier-protein synthase III is involved in the dissociated (or type II) fatty-acid biosynthesis system that ... Ashek A, Cho SJ (March 2006). "A combined approach of docking and 3D QSAR study of beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase ...
*  Beta-ketoacyl-acyl-carrier-protein synthase II
... acyl-carrier-protein] and malonyl-[acyl-carrier-protein], whereas its 3 products are (Z)-3-oxooctadec-13-enoyl-[acyl-carrier- ... acyl-carrier-protein] + malonyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } (Z)-3-oxooctadec-13-enoyl-[acyl- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is (Z)-hexadec-11-enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]:malonyl-[acyl-carrier-pr otein] C- ... carrier-protein] + CO2 + [acyl-carrier-protein] Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are (Z)-hexadec-11-enoyl-[ ...
*  Malonate decarboxylase holo-(acyl-carrier protein) synthase
... acyl-carrier protein] + diphosphate The delta subunit of malonate decarboxylase serves as an acyl-carrier protein (ACP) . ... Malonate decarboxylase holo-(acyl-carrier protein) synthase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ( ... Malonate decarboxylase holo-(acyl-carrier protein) synthase (EC 2.7.7.66, holo ACP synthase, 2'-(5-triphosphoribosyl)-3'- ... acyl-carrier protein] ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } malonate decarboxylase holo-[ ...
*  UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxymyristoyl)glucosamine N-acyltransferase
This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction (3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3- ... acyl-carrier protein] The enzyme catalyses a step of lipid A biosynthesis. Bartling, C.M.; Raetz, C.R. (2009). "Crystal ... acyl-carrier protein):UDP-3-O-((3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-alpha-D-glucosamine N-acetyltransferase. ... Bainbridge, B.W.; Karimi-Naser, L.; Reife, R.; Blethen, F.; Ernst, R.K.; Darveau, R.P. (2008). "Acyl chain specificity of the ...
*  3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase (NADH)
... acyl-carrier-protein] + NADH + H+ Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are [[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]]] and ... acyl-carrier-protein]:NAD+ oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include 3-oxoacyl-[acyl carrier protein] (reduced ... In enzymology, a 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase (NADH) (EC 1.1.1.212) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ... acyl-carrier-protein]]], NADH, and H+. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the ...
3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase - Wikipedia  3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase - Wikipedia
... acyl-carrier-protein] reductase, beta-hydroxyacyl-[acylcarrier-protein] dehydrase, and enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase ... 3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + NADP+ ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + ... Other names in common use include beta-ketoacyl-[acyl-carrier protein](ACP) reductase, beta-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein (ACP ... beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, 3-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein reductase, 3-ketoacyl ACP reductase, NADPH- ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beta-Ketoacyl_ACP_reductase
US6995254B1 - Polynucleotide encoding the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase of Staphylococcus aureus, FAB I 
        -...  US6995254B1 - Polynucleotide encoding the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase of Staphylococcus aureus, FAB I -...
Rock et al., "Preparative Enzymatic Synthetic and Hydrophobic Chromatography of Acyl-Acyl Carrier Protein", The Journal of ... Polynucleotide encoding the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase of Staphylococcus aureus, FAB I Download PDF Info. Publication ... Fab I (previously designated EnvM) functions as an enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase (Bergler, et al, (1994), J. Biol ... US08790043 1996-08-28 1997-01-28 Polynucleotide encoding the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase of Staphylococcus aureus, FAB ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US6995254?oq=U.S.+Patent+No.+4%2C528%2C643
Crystal structure of β‐ketoacyl‐acyl carrier protein synthase II from E.coli reveals the molecular architecture of condensing...  Crystal structure of β‐ketoacyl‐acyl carrier protein synthase II from E.coli reveals the molecular architecture of condensing...
Tsay JT, Oh W, Larson TJ, Jackowski S and Rock CO (1992) Isolation and characterization of the β‐ketoacyl‐acyl carrier protein ... acyl carrier protein] synthase I from Escherichia coli. Protein Peptide Lett, 1, 246-251. ... forming reactions by condensing acyl groups, bound to either acyl carrier protein (ACP) or CoA. They can be part of multienzyme ... Garwin JL, Klages AL and Cronan JE,Jr (1980b) β‐Ketoacyl‐acyl carrier protein synthase II of Escherichia coli. Evidence for ...
more infohttp://emboj.embopress.org/content/17/5/1183
Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for pantothenic acid | European Food Safety Authority  Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for pantothenic acid | European Food Safety Authority
Pantothenic acid is a water-soluble vitamin, which is a component of coenzyme A (CoA) and acyl-carrier proteins. Pantothenic ...
more infohttp://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/3581
Now Heart Support - Now - Pantethine 600Mg   60 Sgels  Now Heart Support - Now - Pantethine 600Mg 60 Sgels
... and the acyl-carrier protein (ACP). CoA and ACP are extensively involved in carbohydrate lipid and amino acid metabolism. In ... and the acyl-carrier protein (ACP). CoA and ACP are extensively involved in carbohydrate lipid and amino acid metabolism. In ...
more infohttp://www.totaldiscountvitamins.com/product/24863/now_heart_support
3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] (CHEBI:84648)  3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] (CHEBI:84648)
... is a acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] (CHEBI:16018) ... acyl-carrier-protein] (CHEBI:84648). (R)-3-Hydroxyhexanoyl-[acp] (CHEBI:326) is a (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] ( ... An acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] where the acyl group is substituted at the pro-3R position by a hydroxy group.. ... CHEBI:84648 - (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:84648
putative acyl carrier protein [Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)] - Protein - NCBI  putative acyl carrier protein [Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)] - Protein - NCBI
putative acyl carrier protein [Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)] putative acyl carrier protein [Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)]. gi ... RefSeq protein See the reference protein sequence for acyl carrier protein (NP_627461.1). ... Transcript/Protein Information [PANTHER Classification System] Transcript/Protein Information. PANTHER Classification System ... The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/4490996
3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] dehydratase FabZ (V6F2A4) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI  3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] dehydratase FabZ (V6F2A4) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/protein/V6F2A4
3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase 3 - DrugBank  3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase 3 - DrugBank
3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase 3. Details. Name. 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase 3. Kind. protein. ... 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase 3. Q9F6D4. Details. Drug Relations. Drug Relations. DrugBank ID. Name. Drug group. ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/bio_entities/BE0002680
The Purification of Acetyl-CoA: Acyl Carrier Protein Transacylase from Brassica campestris Leaves | SpringerLink  The Purification of Acetyl-CoA: Acyl Carrier Protein Transacylase from Brassica campestris Leaves | SpringerLink
The function of acyl thioesterases in the metabolism of acylcoenzymes A and acyl-acyl carrier proteins. Arch.Biochem.Biophys., ... acylcarrier-protein] dehydrase, and enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase from Spinacea oleracea leaves. Arch.Biochem.Biophys ... Acyl Carrier Protein Fatty Acid Synthetase Lower Specific Activity Incorporated Label Brassica CAMPESTRIS These keywords were ... Barley chloroplasts contain two acyl carrier proteins coded for by different genes. Carlsberg.Res.Commun., 49: 483-492.CrossRef ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-5263-1_89
Acyl carrier protein - Wikipedia  Acyl carrier protein - Wikipedia
... of several acyl carrier proteins involved in pathways of primary and secondary metabolism including the acyl carrier proteins ( ... The acyl carrier protein (ACP) is an important component in both fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis with the growing chain ... and peptidyl carrier proteins (PCP) and aryl carrier proteins (ArCP) of nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). ... Acyl Carrier Protein at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acyl_carrier_protein
RCSB PDB 









- 1AFR: STEAROYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN DESATURASE FROM CASTOR SEEDS Literature Report Page  RCSB PDB - 1AFR: STEAROYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN DESATURASE FROM CASTOR SEEDS Literature Report Page
Crystal structure of delta9 stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase from castor seed and its relationship to other di-iron ... DELTA9 STEAROYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN DESATURASE A, B, C..., D, E, FA, B, C, D, E, F. 345 Ricinus communis EC#: 1.14.19.2 IUBMB ... STEAROYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN DESATURASE FROM CASTOR SEEDS. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1afr/pdb ... Interactions are determined by geometric criteria as described in K. Stierand, M. Rarey (2010), Drawing the PDB: Protein-ligand ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/litView.do?structureId=1AFR
RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View 









 - Actinorhodin polyketide synthase acyl carrier protein - Q02054 (ACPX STRCO)  RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Actinorhodin polyketide synthase acyl carrier protein - Q02054 (ACPX STRCO)
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ... The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more ... Data in red indicates combined ranges of Homology Models from SBKB and the Protein Model Portal ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/protein/Q02054
acyl-carrier-protein) phosphodiesterase - Wikipedia  acyl-carrier-protein) phosphodiesterase - Wikipedia
Vagelos PR, Larrabes AR (1967). "Acyl carrier protein. IX. Acyl carrier protein hydrolase". J. Biol. Chem. 242 (8): 1776-81. ... acyl-carrier-protein] Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are [[holo-[acyl-carrier-protein]]] and H2O, whereas its two ... acyl-carrier-protein] phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.14) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction holo-[acyl-carrier- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is holo-[acyl-carrier-protein] 4'-pantetheine-phosphohydrolase. Other names in common ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/(acyl-carrier-protein)_phosphodiesterase
fabI - Enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase [NADH] FabI - Shigella flexneri - fabI gene & protein  fabI - Enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase [NADH] FabI - Shigella flexneri - fabI gene & protein
Catalyzes the reduction of a carbon-carbon double bond in an enoyl moiety that is covalently linked to an acyl carrier protein ... An acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + NAD+ = a trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + NADH. ... Enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase [NADH] FabIAdd BLAST. 261. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance ... Enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase [NADH] FabI (EC:1.3.1.9). Short name: ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P0AEK6
bioH - Pimeloyl-[acyl-carrier protein] methyl ester esterase - Shigella flexneri - bioH gene & protein  bioH - Pimeloyl-[acyl-carrier protein] methyl ester esterase - Shigella flexneri - bioH gene & protein
Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. Q83PW0. Pimeloyl-[acyl-carrier protein] methyl ester esterase. ECO8A ... Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. Q83PW0. Pimeloyl-[acyl-carrier protein] methyl ester esterase. ECO8A ... Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. Q83PW0. Pimeloyl-[acyl-carrier protein] methyl ester esterase. SERMA ... Pimeloyl-[acyl-carrier protein] methyl ester esteraseUniRule annotation. Manual assertion according to rulesi ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q83PW0
KAS II - beta-Ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein  synthetase II | AcronymAttic  KAS II - beta-Ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase II | AcronymAttic
KAS II stands for beta-Ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase II. KAS II is defined as beta-Ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein ... How is beta-Ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase II abbreviated? ... D'Agnolo G, Rosenfeld IS, Vagelos PR: Multiple forms of beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase in Escherichia coli. J ... acyl-carrier-protein--synthetase-II-(KAS%20II).html',KAS II,/a,. Citations. *MLA style: "KAS II." Acronym Attic. 2019. ...
more infohttps://www.acronymattic.com/beta_Ketoacyl_acyl-carrier-protein--synthetase-II-
Current understanding of fatty acid biosynthesis and the acyl carrier protein | Biochemical Journal  Current understanding of fatty acid biosynthesis and the acyl carrier protein | Biochemical Journal
Central to FA synthesis, the ACP (acyl carrier protein) represents the cofactor protein that covalently binds all fatty acyl ... protein complex. Abbreviations: ACC, acetyl-CoA carboxylase; ACP, acyl carrier protein; ACPS, ACP synthase; EM, electron ... Current understanding of fatty acid biosynthesis and the acyl carrier protein. David I. Chan, Hans J. Vogel ... Current understanding of fatty acid biosynthesis and the acyl carrier protein Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/430/1/1
1FJ4: The Structure Of Beta-Ketoacyl-[acyl Carrier Protein] Synthase I In Complex With Thiolactomycin, Implications For Drug...  1FJ4: The Structure Of Beta-Ketoacyl-[acyl Carrier Protein] Synthase I In Complex With Thiolactomycin, Implications For Drug...
ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN] SYNTHASE I4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethyl-5-(2-methyl-buta-1,3-dienyl)-5h-thiophen-2-oneThiolactomycin ... 1FJ4: The Structure Of Beta-Ketoacyl-[acyl Carrier Protein] Synthase I In Complex With Thiolactomycin, Implications For Drug ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Structure/pdb/1FJ4
Second Sphere Effects of O2 Activation in Stearoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Delta9 Desaturase  Second Sphere Effects of O2 Activation in Stearoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Delta9 Desaturase
... Show full item record ... Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein Delta9 desaturase (Delta9D) from Ricinus communis converts stearic acid into monounsaturated ...
more infohttps://minds.wisconsin.edu/handle/1793/37492
  • ATA has the lowest specific activity in comparison with the other enzymes in the system and has been reported as catalyzing the rate-limiting step in the plant fatty acid synthetase (FAS) system: the thioester transfer reaction between acetyl-CoA and acyl carrier protein to form acetyl-ACP. (springer.com)
  • RNA and protein-blot analysis in Arabidopsis and rapeseed ( Brassica napus ) showed that the endogenous AtFATB1 expression was highest in flowers and lower in leaves. (plantphysiol.org)
  • View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the pathway fatty acid biosynthesis and in Lipid metabolism . (uniprot.org)
  • If you cannot find the target and/or product is not available in our catalog, please click here to contact us and request the product or submit your request for custom elisa kit production , custom recombinant protein production or custom antibody production . (mybiosource.com)
  • Custom ELISA Kits, Recombinant Proteins and Antibodies can be designed, manufactured and produced according to the researcher's specifications. (mybiosource.com)
  • It has a preference for acyl derivatives with carbon chain length from 4 to 16. (curehunter.com)
  • The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in protein sequences. (nih.gov)
  • FA (fatty acid) synthesis represents a central, conserved process by which acyl chains are produced for utilization in a number of end-products such as biological membranes. (biochemj.org)
  • Interestingly, although the degree of endogenous BiP3 protein accumulation in the ssi2 mutant was comparable to that in wild‐type plants treated with the ER stress inducer tunicamycin, much less BiP3 transcripts were detected in the ssi2 mutant compared to tunicamycin‐treated wild‐type plants. (deepdyve.com)
  • SAD was significantly more abundantly expressed in high-oil maize than in normal maize, not only at the protein and mRNA levels, but also at the product level. (deepdyve.com)