One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.

Thermoregulation of N-acyl homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing in the soft rot bacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum. (1/173)

The psychrotolerant bacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum produces four N-acyl homoserine lactones under a wide range of temperatures. Their thermoregulation differs from that of the exoenzyme production, described as being under quorum-sensing control. A mechanism involved in this thermoregulation consists of controlling N-acyl homoserine lactones synthase production at a transcriptional level.  (+info)

The plant pathogen Pantoea ananatis produces N-acylhomoserine lactone and causes center rot disease of onion by quorum sensing. (2/173)

A number of gram-negative bacteria have a quorum-sensing system and produce N-acyl-l-homoserine lactone (AHL) that they use them as a quorum-sensing signal molecule. Pantoea ananatis is reported as a common colonist of wheat heads at ripening and causes center rot of onion. In this study, we demonstrated that P. ananatis SK-1 produced two AHLs, N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) and N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL). We cloned the AHL-synthase gene (eanI) and AHL-receptor gene (eanR) and revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence of EanI/EanR showed high identity to those of EsaI/EsaR from P. stewartii. EanR repressed the ean box sequence and the addition of AHLs resulted in derepression of ean box. Inactivation of the chromosomal eanI gene in SK-1 caused disruption of exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis, biofilm formation, and infection of onion leaves, which were recovered by adding exogenous 3-oxo-C6-HSL. These results demonstrated that the quorum-sensing system involved the biosynthesis of EPS, biofilm formation, and infection of onion leaves in P. ananatis SK-1.  (+info)

Theoretical study of molecular determinants involved in signal binding to the TraR protein of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. (3/173)

N-acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) mediated cell-cell communication in bacteria is dependent on the recognition of the cognate signal by its receptor. This interaction allows the receptor-ligand complex to act as a transcriptional activator, controlling the expression of a range of bacterial phenotypes, including virulence factor expression and biofilm formation. One approach to determine the key features of signal- binding is to model the intermolecular interactions between the receptor and ligand using computational-based modeling software (LigandFit). In this communication, we have modeled the crystal structure of the AHL receptor protein TraR and its AHL signal N-(3- oxooctanoyl)-homoserine lactone from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and compared it to the previously reported antagonist behaviour of a number of AHL analogues, in an attempt to determine structural constraints for ligand binding. We conclude that (i) a common conformation of the AHL in the hydrophobic and hydrophilic region exists for ligand-binding, (ii) a tail chain length threshold of 8 carbons is most favourable for ligand-binding affinity, (iii) the positive correlation in the docking studies could be used a virtual screening tool.  (+info)

Production of acyl-homoserine lactone quorum-sensing signals is widespread in gram-negative Methylobacterium. (4/173)

Members of Methylobacterium, referred as pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria, are frequently associated with terrestrial and aquatic plants, tending to form aggregates on the phyllosphere. We report here that the production of autoinducer molecules involved in the cell-to-cell signaling process, which is known as quorum sensing, is common among Methylobacterium species. Several strains of Methylobacterium were tested for their ability to produce N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) signal molecules using different indicators. Most strains of Methylobacterium tested could elicit a positive response in Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring lacZ fused to a gene that is regulated by autoinduction. The synthesis of these compounds was cell-density dependent, and the maximal activity was reached during the late exponential to stationary phases. The bacterial extracts were separated by thin-layer chromatography and bioassayed with A. tumefaciens NT1 (traR, tra::lacZ749). They revealed the production of various patterns of the signal molecules, which are strain dependent. At least two signal molecules could be detected in most of the strains tested, and comparison of their relative mobilities suggested that they are homologs of N-octanoyl-DL-homoserine lactone (C8-HSL) and N-decanoyl-DL-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL).  (+info)

The acyl-homoserine lactone-type quorum-sensing system modulates cell motility and virulence of Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. zeae. (5/173)

Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. zeae is one of the Erwinia chrysanthemi pathovars that infects on both dicotyledons and monocotyledons. However, little is known about the molecular basis and regulatory mechanisms of its virulence. By using a transposon mutagenesis approach, we cloned the genes coding for an E. chrysanthemi pv. zeae synthase of acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing signals (expI(Ecz)) and a cognate response regulator (expR(Ecz)). Chromatography analysis showed that expI(Ecz) encoded production of the AHL signal N-(3-oxo-hexanoyl)-homoserine lactone (OHHL). Null mutation of expI(Ecz) in the E. chrysanthemi pv. zeae strain EC1 abolished AHL production, increased bacterial swimming and swarming motility, disabled formation of multicell aggregates, and attenuated virulence of the pathogen on potato tubers. The mutation also marginally reduced the inhibitory activity of E. chrysanthemi pv. zeae on rice seed germination. The mutant phenotypes were rescued by either exogenous addition of AHL signal or in trans expression of expI(Ecz). These data demonstrate that the AHL-type QS signal plays an essential role in modulation of E. chrysanthemi pv. zeae cell motility and the ability to form multicell aggregates and is involved in regulation of bacterial virulence.  (+info)

Multiple phenotypic alterations caused by a c-type cytochrome maturation ccmC gene mutation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (6/173)

 (+info)

Inter-kingdom signalling: communication between bacteria and their hosts. (7/173)

 (+info)

Characteristics of the LrhA subfamily of transcriptional regulators from Sinorhizobium meliloti. (8/173)

In our previous work, we identified 94 putative genes encoding LysR-type transcriptional regulators from Sinorhizobium meliloti. All of these putative lysR genes were mutagenized using plasmid insertions to determine their phenotypes. Six LysR-type regulators, encoded by mutants SMa1979, SMb20715, SMc00820, SMc04163, SMc03975, and SMc04315, showed similar amino acid sequences (30%) and shared the conserved DNA-binding domain with LrhA, HexA, or DgdR. Phenotype analysis of these gene mutants indicated that the regulators control the swimming behaviors of the bacteria, production of quorum-sensing signals, and secretion of extracellular proteins. These characteristics are very similar to those of LrhA, HexA, and DgdR. Thus, we refer to this group as the LrhA subfamily. Sequence analysis showed that a great number of homologous genes of the LrhA subfamily were distributed in the alpha, beta, and gamma subdivisions of proteobacteria, and a few in actinobacteria. These findings could provide new clues to the roles of the LysR gene family.  (+info)

4-Butyrolactone, also known as gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) or 1,4-butanolide, is a chemical compound with the formula C4H6O2. It is a colorless oily liquid that is used in various industrial and commercial applications, including as an intermediate in the production of other chemicals, as a solvent, and as a flavoring agent.

In the medical field, 4-butyrolactone has been studied for its potential use as a sleep aid and muscle relaxant. However, it is not currently approved by regulatory agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for these uses. It is also known to have abuse potential and can cause intoxication, sedation, and other central nervous system effects when ingested or inhaled.

It's important to note that 4-butyrolactone is not a medication and should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional for approved medical purposes.

Acyl Coenzyme A (often abbreviated as Acetyl-CoA or Acyl-CoA) is a crucial molecule in metabolism, particularly in the breakdown and oxidation of fats and carbohydrates to produce energy. It is a thioester compound that consists of a fatty acid or an acetate group linked to coenzyme A through a sulfur atom.

Acyl CoA plays a central role in several metabolic pathways, including:

1. The citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle): In the mitochondria, Acyl-CoA is formed from the oxidation of fatty acids or the breakdown of certain amino acids. This Acyl-CoA then enters the citric acid cycle to produce high-energy electrons, which are used in the electron transport chain to generate ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the main energy currency of the cell.
2. Beta-oxidation: The breakdown of fatty acids occurs in the mitochondria through a process called beta-oxidation, where Acyl-CoA is sequentially broken down into smaller units, releasing acetyl-CoA, which then enters the citric acid cycle.
3. Ketogenesis: In times of low carbohydrate availability or during prolonged fasting, the liver can produce ketone bodies from acetyl-CoA to supply energy to other organs, such as the brain and heart.
4. Protein synthesis: Acyl-CoA is also involved in the modification of proteins by attaching fatty acid chains to them (a process called acetylation), which can influence protein function and stability.

In summary, Acyl Coenzyme A is a vital molecule in metabolism that connects various pathways related to energy production, fatty acid breakdown, and protein modification.

Acylation is a medical and biological term that refers to the process of introducing an acyl group (-CO-) into a molecule. This process can occur naturally or it can be induced through chemical reactions. In the context of medicine and biology, acylation often occurs during post-translational modifications of proteins, where an acyl group is added to specific amino acid residues, altering the protein's function, stability, or localization.

An example of acylation in medicine is the administration of neuraminidase inhibitors, such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu), for the treatment and prevention of influenza. These drugs work by inhibiting the activity of the viral neuraminidase enzyme, which is essential for the release of newly formed virus particles from infected cells. Oseltamivir is administered orally as an ethyl ester prodrug, which is then hydrolyzed in the body to form the active acylated metabolite that inhibits the viral neuraminidase.

In summary, acylation is a vital process in medicine and biology, with implications for drug design, protein function, and post-translational modifications.

3P The reaction product of ethylene oxide with acyl chlorides in the presence of sodium iodide is a complex iodoethyl ester: ( ... reactions of ethylene oxide with compounds containing active methylene group leads to the formation of butyrolactones: Ethylene ...
Acyl-Butyrolactones 7% * Virulence Factors 6% * Quorum Sensing 6% * Mutagenesis 6% * Multiple Drug Resistance 6% ...
A novel biotechnology based on periphytic biofilms with N-acyl-homoserine-lactones stimulation and lanthanum loading for ...
Acyl-Butyrolactones Medicine & Life Sciences 10% * Glutamine Medicine & Life Sciences 7% * Amino Acid Sequence Medicine & Life ...
Acyl-Butyrolactones. *Administration, Oral. *Alkanes. *Alleles. *Amino Acid Sequence. *Anemia. *Animals. *Anti-Bacterial Agents ...
HN - 2007 MH - Acyl-Butyrolactones UI - D054742 MN - D02.540.232 MS - Cyclic esters of acylated BUTYRIC ACID containing four ... It contains the MESSENGER RNA binding site and two TRANSFER RNA binding sites - one for the incoming AMINO ACYL TRNA (A site) ... HN - 2008 MH - Multiple Acyl Coenzyme A Dehydrogenase Deficiency UI - D054069 MN - C16.320.565.100.614 MN - C18.452.648.100.614 ... A phospholipase that hydrolyzes the acyl group attached to the 1-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES. HN - 2008; use PHOSPHOLIPASES A ...
HN - 2007 MH - Acyl-Butyrolactones UI - D054742 MN - D02.540.232 MS - Cyclic esters of acylated BUTYRIC ACID containing four ... It contains the MESSENGER RNA binding site and two TRANSFER RNA binding sites - one for the incoming AMINO ACYL TRNA (A site) ... HN - 2008 MH - Multiple Acyl Coenzyme A Dehydrogenase Deficiency UI - D054069 MN - C16.320.565.100.614 MN - C18.452.648.100.614 ... A phospholipase that hydrolyzes the acyl group attached to the 1-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES. HN - 2008; use PHOSPHOLIPASES A ...
HN - 2007 MH - Acyl-Butyrolactones UI - D054742 MN - D02.540.232 MS - Cyclic esters of acylated BUTYRIC ACID containing four ... It contains the MESSENGER RNA binding site and two TRANSFER RNA binding sites - one for the incoming AMINO ACYL TRNA (A site) ... HN - 2008 MH - Multiple Acyl Coenzyme A Dehydrogenase Deficiency UI - D054069 MN - C16.320.565.100.614 MN - C18.452.648.100.614 ... A phospholipase that hydrolyzes the acyl group attached to the 1-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES. HN - 2008; use PHOSPHOLIPASES A ...
HN - 2007 MH - Acyl-Butyrolactones UI - D054742 MN - D02.540.232 MS - Cyclic esters of acylated BUTYRIC ACID containing four ... It contains the MESSENGER RNA binding site and two TRANSFER RNA binding sites - one for the incoming AMINO ACYL TRNA (A site) ... HN - 2008 MH - Multiple Acyl Coenzyme A Dehydrogenase Deficiency UI - D054069 MN - C16.320.565.100.614 MN - C18.452.648.100.614 ... A phospholipase that hydrolyzes the acyl group attached to the 1-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES. HN - 2008; use PHOSPHOLIPASES A ...
Lactones, Acyl-Butyryl-Homoserine use Acyl-Butyrolactones Lactones, Acyl-Homoserine use Acyl-Butyrolactones ...
Acyl-Butyrolactones. *Dehydroascorbic Acid. *Macrolides. *Picrotoxin. *Polyketides. *Propiolactone. *Spironolactone. * ...
Acyl-Butyrolactones. Acil-Butirolactonas. Briostatinas. Bryostatins. Brioestatinas. Ciclitóis. Cyclitols. Ciclitoles. Compostos ... Multiple Acyl Coenzyme A Dehydrogenase Deficiency. Deficiencia Múltiple de Acyl Coenzima A Deshidrogenasa. ...
Acyl-Butyrolactones [D02.540.232] * Dehydroascorbic Acid [D02.540.260] * Eplerenone [D02.540.383] * Macrolides [D02.540.505] * ...
Lactones, Acyl-Butyryl-Homoserine use Acyl-Butyrolactones Lactones, Acyl-Homoserine use Acyl-Butyrolactones ...
Lactones, Acyl-Butyryl-Homoserine use Acyl-Butyrolactones Lactones, Acyl-Homoserine use Acyl-Butyrolactones ...
Lactones, Acyl-Butyryl-Homoserine use Acyl-Butyrolactones Lactones, Acyl-Homoserine use Acyl-Butyrolactones ...
Acyl-Butyrolactones Medicine & Life Sciences 44% * Escherichia coli Medicine & Life Sciences 40% ... N2 - Burkholderia mallei has two acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) signal generator-receptor pairs and two additional signal ... AB - Burkholderia mallei has two acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) signal generator-receptor pairs and two additional signal ... Burkholderia mallei has two acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) signal generator-receptor pairs and two additional signal ...
3P The reaction product of ethylene oxide with acyl chlorides in the presence of sodium iodide is a complex iodoethyl ester: ( ... reactions of ethylene oxide with compounds containing active methylene group leads to the formation of butyrolactones: Ethylene ...
Implications for the reductive coupling of acyl-type ketyl radicals with SmI2-H2O. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2016, 14, 9151-9157. [ ... of α-aminocarbonyl substrates in the intermolecular cross-coupling with methyl acrylate to form γ-aminomethyl-γ-butyrolactones ... The process is scalable and the products are easy to isolate because the nitrogen is protected by the acyl group. ...
9. De Novo Synthesis of γ,γ-Disubstituted Butyrolactones through a Visible Light Photocatalytic Arylation-Lactonization ... Direct Photoexcitation of Benzothiazolines: Acyl Radical Generation and Application to Access Heterocycles. ...
In addition, LS-MS/MS analysis showed that deletion of StuA cause decreased synthesis of the major byproduct butyrolactones. To ... In this study, fabZ, annotated as a putative ß-hydroxyacyl-(acyl carrier protein) (ACP) dehydratase gene, was identified by ...
... and it is unable to produce the quorum sensing signaling molecules called acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs). However, it ... Acyl-Butyrolactones* / chemistry Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... SdiA sensing of acyl-homoserine lactones by enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) serotype O157:H7 in the bovine rumen. Sperandio V. ... Furanone and phytol influence metabolic phenotypes regulated by acyl-homoserine lactone in Salmonella Erika Lorena Giraldo ...
Acyl-Butyrolactones Preferred Term Term UI T692986. Date03/06/2007. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2008). ... Acyl-Butyrolactone Acyl-Butyryl-Homoserine Lactone Acyl-Butyryl-Homoserine Lactones Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Acyl-Homoserine ... Acyl-Butyrolactones Preferred Concept UI. M0507378. Registry Number. 0. Scope Note. Cyclic esters of acylated BUTYRIC ACID ... Acyl-Homoserine Lactones Preferred Term Term UI T692987. Date03/06/2007. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2008). ...
Acyl-Butyrolactones Preferred Term Term UI T692986. Date03/06/2007. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2008). ... Acyl-Butyrolactone Acyl-Butyryl-Homoserine Lactone Acyl-Butyryl-Homoserine Lactones Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Acyl-Homoserine ... Acyl-Butyrolactones Preferred Concept UI. M0507378. Registry Number. 0. Scope Note. Cyclic esters of acylated BUTYRIC ACID ... Acyl-Homoserine Lactones Preferred Term Term UI T692987. Date03/06/2007. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2008). ...
Acyl-Butyrolactones 56% * Lactones 47% * Quorum Sensing 46% * Gram-Positive Bacteria 40% ...
Acyclovir Sodium N0000169553 Acyl Carrier Protein N0000170825 Acyl Coenzyme A N0000178793 Acyl-Butyrolactones N0000168143 Acyl- ... S-Acetyltransferase N0000168126 Acyl-Carrier Protein S-Malonyltransferase N0000169071 Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase N0000169066 Acyl- ... Acyl-Carrier Protein) Reductase (NADPH, B-Specific) N0000167924 Enoyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Reductase (NADH) N0000168032 Enoyl ... CoA Dehydrogenase, Long-Chain N0000167932 Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenases N0000169056 Acyl-CoA Oxidase N0000168124 Acyltransferases ...
HN - 2007 MH - Acyl-Butyrolactones UI - D054742 MN - D02.540.232 MS - Cyclic esters of acylated BUTYRIC ACID containing four ... It contains the MESSENGER RNA binding site and two TRANSFER RNA binding sites - one for the incoming AMINO ACYL TRNA (A site) ... HN - 2008 MH - Multiple Acyl Coenzyme A Dehydrogenase Deficiency UI - D054069 MN - C16.320.565.100.614 MN - C18.452.648.100.614 ... A phospholipase that hydrolyzes the acyl group attached to the 1-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES. HN - 2008; use PHOSPHOLIPASES A ...
HN - 2008 MH - Acyl-Butyrolactones UI - D054742 MN - D2.540.232 MS - Cyclic esters of acylated BUTYRIC ACID containing four ... It contains the MESSENGER RNA binding site and two TRANSFER RNA binding sites - one for the incoming AMINO ACYL TRNA (A site) ... HN - 2008 MH - Multiple Acyl Coenzyme A Dehydrogenase Deficiency UI - D054069 MN - C16.320.565.100.614 MN - C18.452.648.100.614 ... A phospholipase that hydrolyzes the acyl group attached to the 1-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES. HN - 2008; use PHOSPHOLIPASES A ...
Acyl-Butyrolactones. Acil-Butirolactonas. Acil-Butirolactonas. Azabicyclo Compounds. Compostos Azabicíclicos. Compuestos de ... Deficiencia Múltiple de Acyl Coenzima A Deshidrogenasa. Trichothiodystrophy Syndromes. Síndromes de Tricotiodistrofia. ... Multiple Acyl Coenzyme A Dehydrogenase Deficiency. Deficiência Múltipla de Acil Coenzima A Desidrogenase. ...
Acyl-Butyrolactones. *Dehydroascorbic Acid. *Macrolides. *Picrotoxin. *Polyketides. *Propiolactone. *Spironolactone. * ...
Lactones, Acyl-Butyryl-Homoserine use Acyl-Butyrolactones Lactones, Acyl-Homoserine use Acyl-Butyrolactones ...
Acyl Carrier Protein Acyl Coenzyme A Acyl-Butyrolactones Acyl-Carrier Protein S-Acetyltransferase Acyl-Carrier Protein S- ... Malonyltransferase Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase, Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenases Acyl-CoA Oxidase Acylation ... Acyl-Carrier Protein) Reductase (NADPH, B-Specific) Enoyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Reductase (NADH) Enoyl-CoA Hydratase Enoyl-CoA ... Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Reductase 3-Oxoacyl-(Acyl-Carrier-Protein) Synthase 3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinases 3- ...
... acyl-butyrolactones 2 aneuploidy 2 anthozoa 2 bacteriophages 2 biofilms 2 brain stem 2 calcium 2 carbonates 2 cognition 2 data ...
MeSH Terms: Acyl Carrier Protein/metabolism; Citrinin/biosynthesis*; Citrinin/chemistry; Fungal Proteins/genetics; Fungal ... ... It has been reported to produce aszonalenine, butyrolactones, citrinin, and gregatins. A. niveus has been cultivated on both ... a putative hydrolase in the citrinin biosynthetic gene cluster, removes ACP-bound acyl intermediates. We propose that it serves ... It has been reported to produce asperphenamate, atrovenetins, butyrolactones, citrinin, and gregatins. A. allahabadii has been ...
Ghosh, A., Basak, A., Chakrabarty, K., Ghosh, B., and Das, G. K. (2014). Ligand-assisted acyl migration in au-catalyzed ... 5-alkadienoic acids leading to gamma-butyrolactones has been reported to occur under catalysis of chiral gold-complexes (Zhou ... 3-acyl shift/[2+2]/hydrolysis cascade reaction of the diynes 87 furnishing a diastereomeric mixture of the polycyclic systems ... Gold-catalyzed stereoselective cycloisomerization of allenoic acids for two types of common natural γ-butyrolactones. Nat. ...
... butyrolactones I (1) and III (2), a meroterpenoid, terretonin (3), and 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)benzaldehyde (4). ... the endocannabinoidome also includes other monoacylglycerols and N-acyl-ethanolamines such as 1-linoleoyl-glycerol (1-LG) and N ... ethanolamine (LEA). By increasing monoacylglycerols and/or N-acyl-ethanolamine levels, endocannabinoid hydrolysis inhibitors ...
Stabilization of conformationally dynamic helices by covalently attached acyl chains. Bilder von der CIPSM-Festveranstaltung im ... α-Methylene-γ-butyrolactones attenuate Staphylococcus aureus virulence by inhibition of transcriptional regulation. ...
  • Burkholderia mallei has two acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) signal generator-receptor pairs and two additional signal receptors, all of which contribute to virulence. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Salmonella is an important foodborne pathogen, and it is unable to produce the quorum sensing signaling molecules called acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs). (nih.gov)