Acyclovir: A GUANOSINE analog that acts as an antimetabolite. Viruses are especially susceptible. Used especially against herpes.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Herpes Simplex: A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)Herpes Genitalis: Infection of the genitals (GENITALIA) with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in either the males or the females.Herpes Zoster: An acute infectious, usually self-limited, disease believed to represent activation of latent varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN) in those who have been rendered partially immune after a previous attack of CHICKENPOX. It involves the SENSORY GANGLIA and their areas of innervation and is characterized by severe neuralgic pain along the distribution of the affected nerve and crops of clustered vesicles over the area. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Herpes Labialis: Herpes simplex, caused by type 1 virus, primarily spread by oral secretions and usually occurring as a concomitant of fever. It may also develop in the absence of fever or prior illness. It commonly involves the facial region, especially the lips and the nares. (Dorland, 27th ed.)Herpesvirus 2, Human: A species of SIMPLEXVIRUS associated with genital infections (HERPES GENITALIS). It is transmitted by sexual intercourse and close personal contact.Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Foscarnet: An antiviral agent used in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. Foscarnet also shows activity against human herpesviruses and HIV.Ganciclovir: An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex: An acute (or rarely chronic) inflammatory process of the brain caused by SIMPLEXVIRUS infections which may be fatal. The majority of infections are caused by human herpesvirus 1 (HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN) and less often by human herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, HUMAN). Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; HALLUCINATIONS; behavioral alterations; APHASIA; hemiparesis; and COMA. Pathologically, the condition is marked by a hemorrhagic necrosis involving the medial and inferior TEMPORAL LOBE and orbital regions of the FRONTAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp751-4)Ointments: Semisolid preparations used topically for protective emollient effects or as a vehicle for local administration of medications. Ointment bases are various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons.Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus: Virus infection of the Gasserian ganglion and its nerve branches characterized by pain and vesicular eruptions with much swelling. Ocular involvement is usually heralded by a vesicle on the tip of the nose. This area is innervated by the nasociliary nerve.Prodrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.GuanineStomatitis, Herpetic: Stomatitis caused by Herpesvirus hominis. It usually occurs as acute herpetic stomatitis (or gingivostomatitis), an oral manifestation of primary herpes simplex seen primarily in children and adolescents.Herpesvirus 3, Human: The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.Keratitis, Dendritic: A form of herpetic keratitis characterized by the formation of small vesicles which break down and coalesce to form recurring dendritic ulcers, characteristically irregular, linear, branching, and ending in knoblike extremities. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Thymidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.Herpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Chickenpox: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). It usually affects children, is spread by direct contact or respiratory route via droplet nuclei, and is characterized by the appearance on the skin and mucous membranes of successive crops of typical pruritic vesicular lesions that are easily broken and become scabbed. Chickenpox is relatively benign in children, but may be complicated by pneumonia and encephalitis in adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Encephalitis, Varicella Zoster: Inflammation of brain tissue caused by infection with the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). This condition is associated with immunocompromised states, including the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME. Pathologically, the virus tends to induce a vasculopathy and infect oligodendrocytes and ependymal cells, leading to CEREBRAL INFARCTION, multifocal regions of demyelination, and periventricular necrosis. Manifestations of varicella encephalitis usually occur 5-7 days after onset of HERPES ZOSTER and include HEADACHE; VOMITING; lethargy; focal neurologic deficits; FEVER; and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch 26, pp29-32; Hum Pathol 1996 Sep;27(9):927-38)Bell Palsy: A syndrome characterized by the acute onset of unilateral FACIAL PARALYSIS which progresses over a 2-5 day period. Weakness of the orbicularis oculi muscle and resulting incomplete eye closure may be associated with corneal injury. Pain behind the ear often precedes the onset of paralysis. This condition may be associated with HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN infection of the facial nerve. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1376)Arabinofuranosyluracil: A pyrimidine nucleoside formed in the body by the deamination of CYTARABINE.Skin Diseases, Viral: Skin diseases caused by viruses.Phosphonoacetic Acid: A simple organophosphorus compound that inhibits DNA polymerase, especially in viruses and is used as an antiviral agent.Idoxuridine: An analog of DEOXYURIDINE that inhibits viral DNA synthesis. The drug is used as an antiviral agent.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Pharmaceutical Vehicles: A carrier or inert medium used as a solvent (or diluent) in which the medicinally active agent is formulated and or administered. (Dictionary of Pharmacy, 1986)Inosine Pranobex: An alkylamino-alcohol complex of inosine used in the treatment of a variety of viral infections. Unlike other antiviral agents, it acts by modifying or stimulating cell-mediated immune processes rather than acting on the virus directly.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Vidarabine: A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.Keratitis, Herpetic: A superficial, epithelial Herpesvirus hominis infection of the cornea, characterized by the presence of small vesicles which may break down and coalesce to form dendritic ulcers (KERATITIS, DENDRITIC). (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
(1/1121) Infectious complications in 126 patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

The effect of an extensive prophylactic antimicrobial regimen was prospectively assessed in 126 patients after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous PBSC. They received ciprofloxacin (500 mg/12 h), acyclovir (200 mg/6 h), and itraconazole (200 mg/12 h) orally until neutrophil recovery. Febrile patients received i.v. imipenem (500 mg/6 h) to which vancomycin and amikacin were added if fever persisted for 2-3 and 5 days, respectively. Amphotericin B lipid complex was further given on day 7 or 8 of fever. Median times for a neutrophil count of >0.5 x 10(9)/l and a platelet count of >20 x 10(9)/l were 9 and 11 days. Severe neutropenia (<0.1 x 10(9)/l) lasted for a median of 5 days in which 72% of febrile episodes and 50% of cases of bacteremia occurred. Gram-positive bacteria were isolated in 30 of 40 episodes of bacteremia, 25 of which were caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Clinical foci were the intravascular catheter in 35 cases, respiratory infection in 11, cellulitis in two, anal abscess in one, and neutropenic enterocolitis in one. The high incidence of febrile episodes (94%) and bacteremias (31%) may be due to the lack of efficacy of antimicrobial prophylaxis and the persistence of a 5-day period of severe neutropenia.  (+info)

(2/1121) B cell lymphoproliferative disorders following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: risk factors, treatment and outcome.

Twenty-six cases of B cell lymphoproliferative disorder (BLPD) were identified among 2395 patients following hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) for which an overall incidence of BLPD was 1.2%. The true incidence was probably higher, since 9/26 of the diagnoses were made at autopsy. No BLPD was observed following autologous HSCT, so risk factor analyses were confined to the 1542 allogeneic HSCT. Factors assessed were HLA-mismatching (> or = 1 antigen), T cell depletion (TCD), presence of acute GvHD (grades II-IV), donor type (related vs unrelated), age of recipient and donor, and underlying disease. Factors found to be statistically significant included patients transplanted for immune deficiency and CML, donor age > or = 18 years, TCD, and HLA-mismatching, with recipients of combined TCD and HLA-mismatched grafts having the highest incidence. Factors found to be statistically significant in a multiple regression analysis were TCD, donor age and immune deficiency, although 7/8 of the patients with immunodeficiencies and BLPD received a TCD graft from a haploidentical parent. The overall mortality was 92% (24/26). One patient had a spontaneous remission, but subsequently died >1 year later of chronic GVHD. Thirteen patients received therapy for BLPD. Three patients received lymphocyte infusions without response. The only patients with responses and longterm survival received alpha interferon (alphaIFN). Of seven patients treated with alphaIFN there were four responses (one partial and three complete). These data demonstrate that alphaIFN can be an effective agent against BLPD following HSCT, if a timely diagnosis is made.  (+info)

(3/1121) Interactions of a nonpeptidic drug, valacyclovir, with the human intestinal peptide transporter (hPEPT1) expressed in a mammalian cell line.

The results of previous work performed in our laboratory using an in situ perfusion technique in rats and rabbit apical brush border membrane vesicles have suggested that the intestinal uptake of valacyclovir (VACV) appears to be mediated by multiple membrane transporters. Using these techniques, it is difficult to characterize the transport kinetics of VACV with each individual transporter in the presence of multiple known or unknown transporters. The purpose of this study was to characterize the interaction of VACV and the human intestinal peptide transporter using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that overexpress the human intestinal peptide transporter (hPEPT1) gene. VACV uptake was significantly greater in CHO cells transfected with hPEPT1 than in cells transfected with only the vector, pcDNA3. The optimum pH for VACV uptake was determined to occur at pH 7.5. Proton cotransport was not observed in hPEPT1/CHO cells, consistent with previously observed results in tissues and Caco-2 cells. VACV uptake was concentration dependent and saturable with a Michaelis-Menten constant and maximum velocity of 1.64 +/- 0.06 mM and 23.34 +/- 0.36 nmol/mg protein/5 min, respectively. A very similar Km value was obtained in hPEPT1/CHO cells and in rat and rabbit tissues and Caco-2 cells, suggesting that hPEPT1 dominates the intestinal transport properties of VACV in vitro. VACV uptake was markedly inhibited by various dipeptides and beta-lactam antibiotics, and Ki values of 12.8 +/- 2.7 and 9.1 +/- 1.2 mM were obtained for Gly-Sar and cefadroxil at pH 7.5, respectively. The present results demonstrate that VACV is a substrate for the human intestinal peptide transporter in hPEPT1/CHO cells and that although transport is pH dependent, proton cotransport is not apparent. Also, the results demonstrate that the hPEPT1/CHO cell system has use in investigating the transport kinetics of drugs with the human intestinal peptide transporter hPEPT1; however, the extrapolation of these transport properties to the in vivo situation requires further investigation.  (+info)

(4/1121) Management of human cytomegalovirus infection and disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection and disease remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality after bone marrow transplantation. HCMV disease, especially pneumonitis, may be treated with ganciclovir and immunoglobulin but even so the outcome is poor with mortality rates of 30-70%. It is therefore imperative to treat HCMV infection before it develops into disease. The aim of this article is to describe the main strategies used to prevent HCMV infection and to improve the survival after CMV disease in bone marrow transplant recipients. INFORMATION SOURCES: In the present review, we examined personal papers in this field and articles published in journals covered by the Science Citation Index and Medline. STATE OF THE ART: Major advances have been made in preventing HCMV infection and disease through two different approaches, both of which reduce HCMV induced morbidity and mortality: In pre-emptive therapy, patients are given ganciclovir when HCMV infection is first identified and this is continued 3-4 months after transplantation; in prophylactic therapy ganciclovir is given to all patients at risk of HCMV disease from engraftment up to 3-4 months post transplantation. Each strategy has advantages and disadvantages and there is no evidence for the superiority of one over the other since the overall survival is the same and the incidence of death from HCMV disease is similar. PERSPECTIVES: The use of more sensitive tests such as HCMV PCR or antigenemia may improve the outcome but probably will not eradicate all HCMV disease. Future possible strategies could include adoptive transfer of CD8+ HCMV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes clones derived from the donor marrow or boosting donor or patient immunity using subunit anti-HCMV vaccines such as gB or pp65.  (+info)

(5/1121) Antiviral therapy for neonatal herpes simplex virus: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

Each year, about 1,600 infants in the United States are infected with neonatal herpes simplex virus. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of antiviral drug therapy (acyclovir) for three forms of herpes simplex virus infection: skin, ear, and mouth (SEM), central nervous system (CNS), and disseminated multiorgan (DIS) disease. Five levels of patient outcomes were examined (normal, mild, moderate, severe, dead). We obtained information on disease occurrence and survival from clinical trials and historical reviews of untreated newborns. We considered approaches for treating all or any of the forms of the disease and compared them with no use of antiviral drugs. The main measure of effectiveness was lives saved, including those of descendants of survivors. Costs were measured from a societal perspective and included direct medical costs, institutional care, and special education. We used a discount rate of 3% and valued dollars at 1995 levels. We also considered the perspective of a managed care organization. From a societal viewpoint relative to no treatment, antiviral therapy for SEM resulted in a gain of 0.8 lives and a cost reduction of $78,601 per case. For the treatment of CNS and DIS disease, antiviral therapy saved more lives but at increased cost, with respective marginal costs per additional life saved of $75,125 and $46,619. From a managed care perspective, antiviral therapy is more cost-effective than from a societal viewpoint because costs of institutional care and special education are not the responsibility of managed care organizations. Development of at-home therapies will further improve the cost-effectiveness of antiviral therapy for neonatal herpes simplex virus infection.  (+info)

(6/1121) Intravenous penciclovir for treatment of herpes simplex infections in immunocompromised patients: results of a multicenter, acyclovir-controlled trial. The Penciclovir Immunocompromised Study Group.

The efficacy and safety of penciclovir (PCV) for the treatment of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in immunocompromised (IC) patients were studied in a double-blind, acyclovir (ACV)-controlled, multicenter study. A total of 342 patients with mucocutaneous HSV infections received 5 mg of PCV per kg every 12 or 8 h (q12h or q8h) or 5 mg of ACV per kg q8h, beginning within 72 h of lesion onset and continuing for up to 7 days. The mean age of the patients was 49 years; 94% were white and 52% were female. The main reasons for their IC states were hematologic disorder (63%) and transplant plus hematologic disorder (16%). Clinical and virological assessments were performed daily during the 7-day treatment and then every other day until lesion healing. The primary efficacy parameter addressed new lesion formation. Secondary end points focused on viral shedding, healing, and pain. Approximately 20% of patients in each treatment group developed new lesions during therapy; thus, equivalence with ACV (defined prospectively) was demonstrated for both q12h and q8h PCV regimens. For all three treatment groups, the median time to the cessation of viral shedding was 4 days and the median time to complete healing was 8 days; there were no statistically significant differences in the rates of complete healing or the cessation of viral shedding when the results for PCV q12h and q8h were compared with those for ACV q8h. In addition, there was no statistically significant difference between PCV q12h or q8h, compared with ACV q8h, for the resolution of pain. PCV was well tolerated, with an adverse event profile comparable to that of ACV. In conclusion, PCV q12h is a well-tolerated and effective therapy for mucocutaneous HSV infection in IC patients and offers a reduced frequency of dosing compared with ACV q8h.  (+info)

(7/1121) Valacyclovir for the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease after renal transplantation. International Valacyclovir Cytomegalovirus Prophylaxis Transplantation Study Group.

BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease is a major complication of organ transplantation. We hypothesized that prophylactic treatment with valacyclovir would reduce the risk of CMV disease. METHODS: A total of 208 CMV-negative recipients of a kidney from a seropositive donor and 408 CMV-positive recipients were randomly assigned to receive either 2 g of valacyclovir or placebo orally four times daily for 90 days after transplantation, with the dose adjusted according to renal function. The primary end point was laboratory-confirmed CMV disease in the first six months after transplantation. RESULTS: Treatment with valacyclovir reduced the incidence or delayed the onset of CMV disease in both the seronegative patients (P<0.001) and the seropositive patients (P=0.03). Among the seronegative patients, the incidence of CMV disease 90 days after transplantation was 45 percent among placebo recipients and 3 percent among valacyclovir recipients. Among the seropositive patients, the respective values were 6 percent and 0 percent. At six months, the incidence of CMV disease was 45 percent among seronegative recipients of placebo and 16 percent among seronegative recipients of valacyclovir; it was 6 percent among seropositive placebo recipients and 1 percent among seropositive valacyclovir recipients. At six months, the rate of biopsy-confirmed acute graft rejection in the seronegative group was 52 percent among placebo recipients and 26 percent among valacyclovir recipients (P=0.001). Treatment with valacyclovir also decreased the rates of CMV viremia and viruria, herpes simplex virus disease, and the use of inpatient medical resources. Hallucinations and confusion were more common with valacyclovir treatment, but these events were not severe or treatment-limiting. The rates of other adverse events were similar among the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Prophylactic treatment with valacyclovir is a safe and effective way to prevent CMV disease after renal transplantation.  (+info)

(8/1121) Long term neurological outcome of herpes encephalitis.

Twenty eight children with herpes simplex encephalitis were followed up for a mean of 5.5 years. Two children died and 26 survived, of whom 16 were left with no neurological sequelae and 10 had persistent neurological sequelae. Mean (SD) Glasgow coma score was significantly lower in the patients with neurological sequelae (7.7 (1.5)) and the patients who died (4.5 (0.7)), compared with the patients without neurological sequelae (11 (1.7)).  (+info)

*  Herpesviral encephalitis
The testing takes several days to perform, and patients with suspected Herpes encephalitis should be treated with acyclovir ... Herpesviral Encephalitis can be treated with high-dose intravenous acyclovir. Without treatment, HSE results in rapid death in ...
*  Herpes zoster ophthalmicus
Systemic aciclovir facilitates the early control of HZO lesions. James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews ... Treatment is usually with antivirals such as aciclovir orally. Topical steroids and cycloplegics for several months. ...
*  Herpes simplex
acyclovir trials in the late 1980s. The lower toxicity and ease of administration over vidarabine has led to acyclovir becoming ... However, acyclovir seems to inhibit antibody response, and newborns on acyclovir antiviral treatment experienced a slower rise ... Acyclovir was the first discovered and is now available in generic. Valacyclovir is also available as a generic and is slightly ... Acyclovir is the recommended antiviral for herpes suppressive therapy during the last months of pregnancy. The use of ...
*  Herpes simplex keratitis
Oral acyclovir is as effective as topical antivirals for treating epithelial keratitis, and it has the advantage of no eye ... Aciclovir ophthalmic ointment and Trifluridine eye drops have similar effectiveness but are more effective than Idoxuridine and ... Valacyclovir, a pro-drug of acyclovir likely to be just as effective for ocular disease, can cause thrombotic thrombocytopenic ... Ganciclovir and brivudine treatments were found to be equally as effective as acyclovir in a systematic review. ...
*  Thymidine kinase
Some antiviral drugs, such as acyclovir (ATC: J05AB01) and ganciclovir (ATC: J05AB06) as well as other nucleoside analogs make ...
*  Aciclovir
... (ACV), also known as acyclovir, is an antiviral medication. It is primarily used for the treatment of herpes simplex ... In those with herpes of the eye, aciclovir may be more effective and safer than idoxuridine. It is not clear if aciclovir eye ... aciclovir may be used. For severe HSV infections (especially disseminated HSV), IV aciclovir may also be used. Studies in mice ... Aciclovir trials show that this agent has no role in preventing HIV transmission, but it can help slow HIV disease progression ...
*  DMOZ - Health: Pharmacy: Drugs and Medications: A: Acyclovir
MedlinePlus Drug Information: Acyclovir Advice for patients on this medication (brand name Zovirax) used to treat herpes ...
*  Amikacin
Such drugs include other aminoglycosides; the antiviral acyclovir; the antifungal amphotericin B; the antibiotics bacitracin, ...
*  Lemelson-MIT Prize
acyclovir (Zovirax), for viral herpes. 1996 Stanley Norman Cohen (Co-recipient, Lemelson-MIT Prize) for the development of ...
*  Idoxuridine
Trifluridine Acyclovir Foscarnet Prusoff, W. H. (1959). "Synthesis and biological activities of iododeoxyuridine, an analog of ...
*  Cidofovir
... has also shown efficacy in the treatment of aciclovir-resistant HSV infections. Cidofovir has also been investigated ... Chilukuri, S; Rosen, T (Apr 2003). "Management of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus". Dermatologic clinics. 21 (2): 311- ... likely due to the abundance of safer alternatives such as aciclovir. Cidofovir shows anti-BK virus activity in a subgroup of ... aciclovir, aminosalicylic acid, etc.) are also withheld. Its active metabolite, cidofovir diphosphate, inhibits viral ...
*  GlaxoSmithKline
Elion GB (1993). "Acyclovir: discovery, mechanism of action, and selectivity". J. Med. Virol. Suppl 1: 2-6. PMID 8245887. ... acyclovir for herpes virus infection, and nelarabine for cancer treatment. Since 2010, GlaxoSmithKline has several times ranked ...
*  Chronic fatigue syndrome treatment
December 1988). "Acyclovir treatment of the chronic fatigue syndrome. Lack of efficacy in a placebo-controlled trial". N. Engl ... A small 1988 RCT compared acyclovir against placebo and found that an equal proportion of patients improved from placebo and ... Nucleosidic class drugs such as acyclovir, valacyclovir and ganciclovir are inhibitors of viral replication during DNA (for DNA ... Three people withdrew from acyclovir treatment due to reversible renal failure. Antidepressants are often prescribed to CFS ...
*  Douglas Jabs
Acyclovir for recurrent herpes simplex virus ocular disease. N Engl J Med 1998;339:340-341. PMID 9682049 Jabs, DA, Rosenbaum JT ...
*  Herpes simplex virus
Studies of vulnerable patient populations have indicated that daily use of antivirals such as aciclovir and valaciclovir can ... "Oral acyclovir suppression and neurodevelopment after neonatal herpes". N. Engl. J. Med. 365 (14): 1284-92. doi:10.1056/ ... the mutations in either the thymidine kinase gene or DNA polymerase gene has caused resistance to aciclovir. However, most of ... "Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of induced acyclovir-resistant clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus type 1". ...
*  Glossitis
Treatment is with systemic aciclovir. Strawberry tongue (also called raspberry tongue), refers to glossitis which manifests ...
*  Hopkins syndrome
Acyclovir, steroids and therapeutic plasma exchange have been tried; one report suggests that the latter is more effective than ...
*  9-Carboxymethoxymethylguanine
Ruiz-Roso, G.; Gomis, A.; Fernández-Lucas, M.; Díaz-Domínguez, M.; Teruel-Briones, J. L.; Quereda, C. (2012). "Acyclovir and ... Patients suffering these symptoms following acyclovir treatment were found to have much higher levels of CMMG than normal, and ... Lindén, T.; Helldén, A. (2013). "Cotard's syndrome as an adverse effect of acyclovir treatment in renal failure". Journal of ... 9-Carboxymethoxymethylguanine (CMMG) is a compound which is known as the principal metabolite of the antiviral drug acyclovir ( ...
*  Mollaret's meningitis
Treatment with acyclovir was successful, indicating that a herpes virus was the cause of his symptoms. Acyclovir is the ... The IHMF recommends that patients with benign recurrent lymphocytic meningitis receive intravenous acyclovir in the amount of ...
*  Tromantadine
Diezel, W.; Michel, G.; Görtelmeyer, R.; Ostheimer, K. E. (April 1993). "Efficacy of tromantadine and aciclovir in the topical ... Its performance is similar to aciclovir. Like rimantadine, amantadine, and adapromine, tromantadine is a derivative of ... "Randomized double-blind trial of tromantadine versus aciclovir in recurrent herpes orofacialis". Arzneimittel-Forschung. 39 (9 ...
*  Pediatric Trials Network
January 2014). "Population pharmacokinetics of intravenous acyclovir in preterm and term infants". The Pediatric Infectious ...
*  Herpes esophagitis
Antivirals such as acyclovir, famciclovir, or valacyclovir may be used. Intravenous acyclovir is reserved for individuals who ... Antiviral prophylaxis such as daily acyclovir in immunocompromised individuals may be considered. ...
*  Ribavirin
Another study found that ribavirin potentiated the antiviral effect of acyclovir. Some interest has been seen in its possible ... Pancheva SN (September 1991). "Potentiating effect of ribavirin on the anti-herpes activity of acyclovir". Antiviral Research. ...
*  Encephalitis
Treatment may include, antiviral medication (such as acyclovir), anticonvulsants, and corticosteroids. Treatment generally ...
*  Lawrence Corey
"A trial of topical acyclovir in genital herpes simplex virus infections." N Engl J Med. 1982 Jun 3;306(22):1313-9. Douglas JM, ... "A double-blind study of oral acyclovir for suppression of recurrences of genital herpes simplex virus infection." N Engl J Med ... with herpes simplex viruses and he headed several landmark studies defining the disease and leading the licensure of acyclovir ... therapy to reduce HIV acquisition and transmission Corey also published landmark papers showing the effectiveness of acyclovir ...
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Although she was an acyclovir naïve patient, a mixed viral population (wild-type and acyclovir-resistant bearing a thymidine- ... Combined foscavir and acyclovir treatment resolved the herpes simplex encephalitis. To our knowledge, this is the first report ... Acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex encephalitis in a patient treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor-α monoclonal antibodies. ... of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex encephalitis in a patient treated with adalimumab. ...
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How to calculate acyclovir dose  How to calculate acyclovir dose
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Acyclovir | Lowest Price Sweden | Доска бесплатных объявлений WantToSell.ru  Acyclovir | Lowest Price Sweden | Доска бесплатных объявлений WantToSell.ru
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Controlled Trial Comparing Vidarabine With Acyclovir In Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection  Controlled Trial Comparing Vidarabine With Acyclovir In Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection
Acyclovir For Acyclovir For Herpes Amazing Just And Easy And Easy Dinners And Sore And Swollen And Swollen Glands And Swollen ... However, acyclovir ointments like petroleum jelly for treating cold weather also can dampen the washcloth and put it under you ... Controlled Trial Comparing Vidarabine With Acyclovir In Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection 10 out of 10 based on 17 ... More resources about controlled trial comparing vidarabine with acyclovir in neonatal herpes simplex virus infection:. *Cold ...
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Exacerbation of Herpes Simplex Encephalitis after Successful Treatment with Acyclovir : Clinical Infectious Diseases - oi  Exacerbation of Herpes Simplex Encephalitis after Successful Treatment with Acyclovir : Clinical Infectious Diseases - oi
The total dose during initial acyclovir therapy was significantly lower in the relapse group than in the control group (P = . ... all were successfully treated with acyclovir, but 7 (26%) had a relapse of encephalitic illness. In 2 of those 7, serial ... all were successfully treated with acyclovir, but 7 (26%) had a relapse of encephalitic illness. In 2 of those 7, serial ... a second course of acyclovir therapy was effective. Coxsackievirus A9 was isolated from CSF of 1 case patient during subsequent ...
more infohttp://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1086/313618
Herpes Simplex Keratitis  Herpes Simplex Keratitis
Systemic Acyclovir or other antiviral agents. *Do not use topical Acyclovir due to to Corneal toxicity ...
more infohttp://www.fpnotebook.com/Eye/Conjunctiva/HrpsSmplxKrts.htm
Global Drugs for Herpes Labialis (Oral Herpes) Market by Manufacturers, Countries, Type and Application, Forecast to 2022 :...  Global Drugs for Herpes Labialis (Oral Herpes) Market by Manufacturers, Countries, Type and Application, Forecast to 2022 :...
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Herpes Zoster  Herpes Zoster
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Отзывы и впечатления от полётов на самолёте, в аэротрубе и прыжков с парашютом | Sky Jumper  Отзывы и впечатления от полётов на самолёте, в аэротрубе и прыжков с парашютом | Sky Jumper
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Aciclovir | SpringerLink  Aciclovir | SpringerLink
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Acyclovir Capsules USP  Acyclovir Capsules USP
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more infohttps://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/archives/fdaDrugInfo.cfm?archiveid=302784
Acyclovir | Define Acyclovir at Dictionary.com  Acyclovir | Define Acyclovir at Dictionary.com
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How fast should Acyclovir work?  How fast should Acyclovir work?
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acyclovir (oral) | Cigna  acyclovir (oral) | Cigna
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DailyMed - ACYCLOVIR - acyclovir ointment  DailyMed - ACYCLOVIR - acyclovir ointment
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more infohttps://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=5adf2205-5493-4e7a-bf50-01f4eb661dd8
Aciclovir - Wikipedia  Aciclovir - Wikipedia
Aciclovir (ACV), also known as acyclovir, is an antiviral medication. It is primarily used for the treatment of herpes simplex ... In those with herpes of the eye, aciclovir may be more effective and safer than idoxuridine. It is not clear if aciclovir eye ... aciclovir may be used. For severe HSV infections (especially disseminated HSV), IV aciclovir may also be used. Studies in mice ... Aciclovir trials show that this agent has no role in preventing HIV transmission, but it can help slow HIV disease progression ...
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Acyclovir - DrugBank  Acyclovir - DrugBank
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more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00787
Acyclovir and Hydrocortisone Information - Drugs.com  Acyclovir and Hydrocortisone Information - Drugs.com
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  • Each gram acyclovir ointment USP, 5% contains 50 mg of acyclovir in a polyethylene glycol (PEG) base. (nih.gov)
  • In 1 of these studies, which included 16 inpatients, the complete ointment or its vehicle were randomly administered in a dose of 1-cm strips (25 mg acyclovir) 4 times a day for 7 days to an intact skin surface area of 4.5 square inches. (nih.gov)
  • Each capsule contains 200 mg of acyclovir and the inactive ingredients: lactose monohydrate, sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium starch glycolate, and magnesium stearate. (nih.gov)
  • Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to acyclovir or any other medicines. (drugs.com)
  • Resistance of HSV and VZV to acyclovir can result from qualitative and quantitative changes in the viral TK and/or DNA polymerase. (nih.gov)
  • While most of the acyclovir-resistant mutants isolated thus far from immunocompromised patients have been found to be TK-deficient mutants, other mutants involving the viral TK gene (TK partial and TK altered) and DNA polymerase have been isolated. (nih.gov)
  • The activated aciclovir works by blocking the action of a viral enzyme called DNA polymerase. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • By blocking the action of DNA polymerase, aciclovir prevents the herpes virus from multiplying. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Aciclovir is recommended by the CDC for treatment of varicella during pregnancy, especially during the second and third trimesters Aciclovir is excreted in the breast milk, therefore it is recommended that caution should be used in breast-feeding women. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aciclovir has also been investigated for the treatment of herpes labialis applied using an iontophoretic device. (drugbank.ca)
  • Using acyclovir with any of the following medicines may cause an increased risk of certain side effects, but using both drugs may be the best treatment for you. (drugs.com)
  • This aciclovir cream is designed for the treatment of herpes simplex infections of the lips (cold sores). (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Patients suffering these symptoms following acyclovir treatment were found to have much higher levels of CMMG than normal, and since this is the first time Cotard delusion has been linked to a drug as a side effect, this discovery may be useful in the study of Cotard delusion and its treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment with the steroid prednisone and the antiviral drug acyclovir 800mg 5 times a day is controversial, with some studies showing to achieve complete recovery in patients if started within the first three days of facial paralysis, with chances of recovery decreasing as treatment was delayed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although acyclovir will not cure herpes simplex, it may help the sores to heal faster and relieve some of the pain and discomfort. (drugs.com)
  • It has inhibitory effects on varicella-zoster virus replication in vitro although no clinical trials have been done to date, likely due to the abundance of safer alternatives such as aciclovir. (wikipedia.org)
  • In one multiple-dose, crossover study in healthy subjects (n = 23), it was shown that increases in plasma acyclovir concentrations were less than dose proportional with increasing dose, as shown in Table 2 . (nih.gov)
  • Weak immune system-acyclovir may not be safe to use in patients with this condition. (drugs.com)