A GUANOSINE analog that acts as an antimetabolite. Viruses are especially susceptible. Used especially against herpes.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
Infection of the genitals (GENITALIA) with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in either the males or the females.
An acute infectious, usually self-limited, disease believed to represent activation of latent varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN) in those who have been rendered partially immune after a previous attack of CHICKENPOX. It involves the SENSORY GANGLIA and their areas of innervation and is characterized by severe neuralgic pain along the distribution of the affected nerve and crops of clustered vesicles over the area. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Herpes simplex, caused by type 1 virus, primarily spread by oral secretions and usually occurring as a concomitant of fever. It may also develop in the absence of fever or prior illness. It commonly involves the facial region, especially the lips and the nares. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
A species of SIMPLEXVIRUS associated with genital infections (HERPES GENITALIS). It is transmitted by sexual intercourse and close personal contact.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
An antiviral agent used in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. Foscarnet also shows activity against human herpesviruses and HIV.
An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.
An acute (or rarely chronic) inflammatory process of the brain caused by SIMPLEXVIRUS infections which may be fatal. The majority of infections are caused by human herpesvirus 1 (HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN) and less often by human herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, HUMAN). Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; HALLUCINATIONS; behavioral alterations; APHASIA; hemiparesis; and COMA. Pathologically, the condition is marked by a hemorrhagic necrosis involving the medial and inferior TEMPORAL LOBE and orbital regions of the FRONTAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp751-4)
Semisolid preparations used topically for protective emollient effects or as a vehicle for local administration of medications. Ointment bases are various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons.
Virus infection of the Gasserian ganglion and its nerve branches characterized by pain and vesicular eruptions with much swelling. Ocular involvement is usually heralded by a vesicle on the tip of the nose. This area is innervated by the nasociliary nerve.
A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.
Guanine is a purine nucleobase, one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA and RNA, involved in forming hydrogen bonds between complementary base pairs in double-stranded DNA molecules.
Stomatitis caused by Herpesvirus hominis. It usually occurs as acute herpetic stomatitis (or gingivostomatitis), an oral manifestation of primary herpes simplex seen primarily in children and adolescents.
The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.
A form of herpetic keratitis characterized by the formation of small vesicles which break down and coalesce to form recurring dendritic ulcers, characteristically irregular, linear, branching, and ending in knoblike extremities. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). It usually affects children, is spread by direct contact or respiratory route via droplet nuclei, and is characterized by the appearance on the skin and mucous membranes of successive crops of typical pruritic vesicular lesions that are easily broken and become scabbed. Chickenpox is relatively benign in children, but may be complicated by pneumonia and encephalitis in adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Inflammation of brain tissue caused by infection with the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). This condition is associated with immunocompromised states, including the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME. Pathologically, the virus tends to induce a vasculopathy and infect oligodendrocytes and ependymal cells, leading to CEREBRAL INFARCTION, multifocal regions of demyelination, and periventricular necrosis. Manifestations of varicella encephalitis usually occur 5-7 days after onset of HERPES ZOSTER and include HEADACHE; VOMITING; lethargy; focal neurologic deficits; FEVER; and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch 26, pp29-32; Hum Pathol 1996 Sep;27(9):927-38)
A syndrome characterized by the acute onset of unilateral FACIAL PARALYSIS which progresses over a 2-5 day period. Weakness of the orbicularis oculi muscle and resulting incomplete eye closure may be associated with corneal injury. Pain behind the ear often precedes the onset of paralysis. This condition may be associated with HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN infection of the facial nerve. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1376)
A pyrimidine nucleoside formed in the body by the deamination of CYTARABINE.
Skin diseases caused by viruses.
A simple organophosphorus compound that inhibits DNA polymerase, especially in viruses and is used as an antiviral agent.
An analog of DEOXYURIDINE that inhibits viral DNA synthesis. The drug is used as an antiviral agent.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
A carrier or inert medium used as a solvent (or diluent) in which the medicinally active agent is formulated and or administered. (Dictionary of Pharmacy, 1986)
An alkylamino-alcohol complex of inosine used in the treatment of a variety of viral infections. Unlike other antiviral agents, it acts by modifying or stimulating cell-mediated immune processes rather than acting on the virus directly.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.
A superficial, epithelial Herpesvirus hominis infection of the cornea, characterized by the presence of small vesicles which may break down and coalesce to form dendritic ulcers (KERATITIS, DENDRITIC). (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)

Infectious complications in 126 patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. (1/1121)

The effect of an extensive prophylactic antimicrobial regimen was prospectively assessed in 126 patients after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous PBSC. They received ciprofloxacin (500 mg/12 h), acyclovir (200 mg/6 h), and itraconazole (200 mg/12 h) orally until neutrophil recovery. Febrile patients received i.v. imipenem (500 mg/6 h) to which vancomycin and amikacin were added if fever persisted for 2-3 and 5 days, respectively. Amphotericin B lipid complex was further given on day 7 or 8 of fever. Median times for a neutrophil count of >0.5 x 10(9)/l and a platelet count of >20 x 10(9)/l were 9 and 11 days. Severe neutropenia (<0.1 x 10(9)/l) lasted for a median of 5 days in which 72% of febrile episodes and 50% of cases of bacteremia occurred. Gram-positive bacteria were isolated in 30 of 40 episodes of bacteremia, 25 of which were caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Clinical foci were the intravascular catheter in 35 cases, respiratory infection in 11, cellulitis in two, anal abscess in one, and neutropenic enterocolitis in one. The high incidence of febrile episodes (94%) and bacteremias (31%) may be due to the lack of efficacy of antimicrobial prophylaxis and the persistence of a 5-day period of severe neutropenia.  (+info)

B cell lymphoproliferative disorders following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: risk factors, treatment and outcome. (2/1121)

Twenty-six cases of B cell lymphoproliferative disorder (BLPD) were identified among 2395 patients following hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) for which an overall incidence of BLPD was 1.2%. The true incidence was probably higher, since 9/26 of the diagnoses were made at autopsy. No BLPD was observed following autologous HSCT, so risk factor analyses were confined to the 1542 allogeneic HSCT. Factors assessed were HLA-mismatching (> or = 1 antigen), T cell depletion (TCD), presence of acute GvHD (grades II-IV), donor type (related vs unrelated), age of recipient and donor, and underlying disease. Factors found to be statistically significant included patients transplanted for immune deficiency and CML, donor age > or = 18 years, TCD, and HLA-mismatching, with recipients of combined TCD and HLA-mismatched grafts having the highest incidence. Factors found to be statistically significant in a multiple regression analysis were TCD, donor age and immune deficiency, although 7/8 of the patients with immunodeficiencies and BLPD received a TCD graft from a haploidentical parent. The overall mortality was 92% (24/26). One patient had a spontaneous remission, but subsequently died >1 year later of chronic GVHD. Thirteen patients received therapy for BLPD. Three patients received lymphocyte infusions without response. The only patients with responses and longterm survival received alpha interferon (alphaIFN). Of seven patients treated with alphaIFN there were four responses (one partial and three complete). These data demonstrate that alphaIFN can be an effective agent against BLPD following HSCT, if a timely diagnosis is made.  (+info)

Interactions of a nonpeptidic drug, valacyclovir, with the human intestinal peptide transporter (hPEPT1) expressed in a mammalian cell line. (3/1121)

The results of previous work performed in our laboratory using an in situ perfusion technique in rats and rabbit apical brush border membrane vesicles have suggested that the intestinal uptake of valacyclovir (VACV) appears to be mediated by multiple membrane transporters. Using these techniques, it is difficult to characterize the transport kinetics of VACV with each individual transporter in the presence of multiple known or unknown transporters. The purpose of this study was to characterize the interaction of VACV and the human intestinal peptide transporter using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that overexpress the human intestinal peptide transporter (hPEPT1) gene. VACV uptake was significantly greater in CHO cells transfected with hPEPT1 than in cells transfected with only the vector, pcDNA3. The optimum pH for VACV uptake was determined to occur at pH 7.5. Proton cotransport was not observed in hPEPT1/CHO cells, consistent with previously observed results in tissues and Caco-2 cells. VACV uptake was concentration dependent and saturable with a Michaelis-Menten constant and maximum velocity of 1.64 +/- 0.06 mM and 23.34 +/- 0.36 nmol/mg protein/5 min, respectively. A very similar Km value was obtained in hPEPT1/CHO cells and in rat and rabbit tissues and Caco-2 cells, suggesting that hPEPT1 dominates the intestinal transport properties of VACV in vitro. VACV uptake was markedly inhibited by various dipeptides and beta-lactam antibiotics, and Ki values of 12.8 +/- 2.7 and 9.1 +/- 1.2 mM were obtained for Gly-Sar and cefadroxil at pH 7.5, respectively. The present results demonstrate that VACV is a substrate for the human intestinal peptide transporter in hPEPT1/CHO cells and that although transport is pH dependent, proton cotransport is not apparent. Also, the results demonstrate that the hPEPT1/CHO cell system has use in investigating the transport kinetics of drugs with the human intestinal peptide transporter hPEPT1; however, the extrapolation of these transport properties to the in vivo situation requires further investigation.  (+info)

Management of human cytomegalovirus infection and disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. (4/1121)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection and disease remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality after bone marrow transplantation. HCMV disease, especially pneumonitis, may be treated with ganciclovir and immunoglobulin but even so the outcome is poor with mortality rates of 30-70%. It is therefore imperative to treat HCMV infection before it develops into disease. The aim of this article is to describe the main strategies used to prevent HCMV infection and to improve the survival after CMV disease in bone marrow transplant recipients. INFORMATION SOURCES: In the present review, we examined personal papers in this field and articles published in journals covered by the Science Citation Index and Medline. STATE OF THE ART: Major advances have been made in preventing HCMV infection and disease through two different approaches, both of which reduce HCMV induced morbidity and mortality: In pre-emptive therapy, patients are given ganciclovir when HCMV infection is first identified and this is continued 3-4 months after transplantation; in prophylactic therapy ganciclovir is given to all patients at risk of HCMV disease from engraftment up to 3-4 months post transplantation. Each strategy has advantages and disadvantages and there is no evidence for the superiority of one over the other since the overall survival is the same and the incidence of death from HCMV disease is similar. PERSPECTIVES: The use of more sensitive tests such as HCMV PCR or antigenemia may improve the outcome but probably will not eradicate all HCMV disease. Future possible strategies could include adoptive transfer of CD8+ HCMV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes clones derived from the donor marrow or boosting donor or patient immunity using subunit anti-HCMV vaccines such as gB or pp65.  (+info)

Antiviral therapy for neonatal herpes simplex virus: a cost-effectiveness analysis. (5/1121)

Each year, about 1,600 infants in the United States are infected with neonatal herpes simplex virus. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of antiviral drug therapy (acyclovir) for three forms of herpes simplex virus infection: skin, ear, and mouth (SEM), central nervous system (CNS), and disseminated multiorgan (DIS) disease. Five levels of patient outcomes were examined (normal, mild, moderate, severe, dead). We obtained information on disease occurrence and survival from clinical trials and historical reviews of untreated newborns. We considered approaches for treating all or any of the forms of the disease and compared them with no use of antiviral drugs. The main measure of effectiveness was lives saved, including those of descendants of survivors. Costs were measured from a societal perspective and included direct medical costs, institutional care, and special education. We used a discount rate of 3% and valued dollars at 1995 levels. We also considered the perspective of a managed care organization. From a societal viewpoint relative to no treatment, antiviral therapy for SEM resulted in a gain of 0.8 lives and a cost reduction of $78,601 per case. For the treatment of CNS and DIS disease, antiviral therapy saved more lives but at increased cost, with respective marginal costs per additional life saved of $75,125 and $46,619. From a managed care perspective, antiviral therapy is more cost-effective than from a societal viewpoint because costs of institutional care and special education are not the responsibility of managed care organizations. Development of at-home therapies will further improve the cost-effectiveness of antiviral therapy for neonatal herpes simplex virus infection.  (+info)

Intravenous penciclovir for treatment of herpes simplex infections in immunocompromised patients: results of a multicenter, acyclovir-controlled trial. The Penciclovir Immunocompromised Study Group. (6/1121)

The efficacy and safety of penciclovir (PCV) for the treatment of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in immunocompromised (IC) patients were studied in a double-blind, acyclovir (ACV)-controlled, multicenter study. A total of 342 patients with mucocutaneous HSV infections received 5 mg of PCV per kg every 12 or 8 h (q12h or q8h) or 5 mg of ACV per kg q8h, beginning within 72 h of lesion onset and continuing for up to 7 days. The mean age of the patients was 49 years; 94% were white and 52% were female. The main reasons for their IC states were hematologic disorder (63%) and transplant plus hematologic disorder (16%). Clinical and virological assessments were performed daily during the 7-day treatment and then every other day until lesion healing. The primary efficacy parameter addressed new lesion formation. Secondary end points focused on viral shedding, healing, and pain. Approximately 20% of patients in each treatment group developed new lesions during therapy; thus, equivalence with ACV (defined prospectively) was demonstrated for both q12h and q8h PCV regimens. For all three treatment groups, the median time to the cessation of viral shedding was 4 days and the median time to complete healing was 8 days; there were no statistically significant differences in the rates of complete healing or the cessation of viral shedding when the results for PCV q12h and q8h were compared with those for ACV q8h. In addition, there was no statistically significant difference between PCV q12h or q8h, compared with ACV q8h, for the resolution of pain. PCV was well tolerated, with an adverse event profile comparable to that of ACV. In conclusion, PCV q12h is a well-tolerated and effective therapy for mucocutaneous HSV infection in IC patients and offers a reduced frequency of dosing compared with ACV q8h.  (+info)

Valacyclovir for the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease after renal transplantation. International Valacyclovir Cytomegalovirus Prophylaxis Transplantation Study Group. (7/1121)

BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease is a major complication of organ transplantation. We hypothesized that prophylactic treatment with valacyclovir would reduce the risk of CMV disease. METHODS: A total of 208 CMV-negative recipients of a kidney from a seropositive donor and 408 CMV-positive recipients were randomly assigned to receive either 2 g of valacyclovir or placebo orally four times daily for 90 days after transplantation, with the dose adjusted according to renal function. The primary end point was laboratory-confirmed CMV disease in the first six months after transplantation. RESULTS: Treatment with valacyclovir reduced the incidence or delayed the onset of CMV disease in both the seronegative patients (P<0.001) and the seropositive patients (P=0.03). Among the seronegative patients, the incidence of CMV disease 90 days after transplantation was 45 percent among placebo recipients and 3 percent among valacyclovir recipients. Among the seropositive patients, the respective values were 6 percent and 0 percent. At six months, the incidence of CMV disease was 45 percent among seronegative recipients of placebo and 16 percent among seronegative recipients of valacyclovir; it was 6 percent among seropositive placebo recipients and 1 percent among seropositive valacyclovir recipients. At six months, the rate of biopsy-confirmed acute graft rejection in the seronegative group was 52 percent among placebo recipients and 26 percent among valacyclovir recipients (P=0.001). Treatment with valacyclovir also decreased the rates of CMV viremia and viruria, herpes simplex virus disease, and the use of inpatient medical resources. Hallucinations and confusion were more common with valacyclovir treatment, but these events were not severe or treatment-limiting. The rates of other adverse events were similar among the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Prophylactic treatment with valacyclovir is a safe and effective way to prevent CMV disease after renal transplantation.  (+info)

Long term neurological outcome of herpes encephalitis. (8/1121)

Twenty eight children with herpes simplex encephalitis were followed up for a mean of 5.5 years. Two children died and 26 survived, of whom 16 were left with no neurological sequelae and 10 had persistent neurological sequelae. Mean (SD) Glasgow coma score was significantly lower in the patients with neurological sequelae (7.7 (1.5)) and the patients who died (4.5 (0.7)), compared with the patients without neurological sequelae (11 (1.7)).  (+info)

Acyclovir is an antiviral medication used for the treatment of infections caused by herpes simplex viruses (HSV) including genital herpes, cold sores, and shingles (varicella-zoster virus). It works by interfering with the replication of the virus's DNA, thereby preventing the virus from multiplying further. Acyclovir is available in various forms such as oral tablets, capsules, creams, and intravenous solutions.

The medical definition of 'Acyclovir' is:

Acyclovir (brand name Zovirax) is a synthetic nucleoside analogue that functions as an antiviral agent, specifically against herpes simplex viruses (HSV) types 1 and 2, varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Acyclovir is converted to its active form, acyclovir triphosphate, by viral thymidine kinase. This activated form then inhibits viral DNA polymerase, preventing further replication of the virus's DNA.

Acyclovir has a relatively low toxicity profile and is generally well-tolerated, although side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and headache can occur. In rare cases, more serious side effects such as kidney damage, seizures, or neurological problems may occur. It is important to take acyclovir exactly as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any unusual symptoms promptly.

Antiviral agents are a class of medications that are designed to treat infections caused by viruses. Unlike antibiotics, which target bacteria, antiviral agents interfere with the replication and infection mechanisms of viruses, either by inhibiting their ability to replicate or by modulating the host's immune response to the virus.

Antiviral agents are used to treat a variety of viral infections, including influenza, herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, hepatitis B and C, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections.

These medications can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the type of viral infection being treated. Some antiviral agents are also used for prophylaxis, or prevention, of certain viral infections.

It is important to note that antiviral agents are not effective against all types of viruses and may have significant side effects. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any antiviral therapy.

Herpes Simplex is a viral infection caused by the Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV). There are two types of HSV: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Both types can cause sores or blisters on the skin or mucous membranes, but HSV-1 is typically associated with oral herpes (cold sores) and HSV-2 is usually linked to genital herpes. However, either type can infect any area of the body. The virus remains in the body for life and can reactivate periodically, causing recurrent outbreaks of lesions or blisters. It is transmitted through direct contact with infected skin or mucous membranes, such as during kissing or sexual activity.

Herpes genitalis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), specifically HSV-2, and occasionally HSV-1. It primarily affects the genital area, but can also involve the anal region, thighs, and buttocks. The infection presents as painful fluid-filled blisters or lesions that may be accompanied by symptoms such as itching, tingling, or burning sensations in the affected area. After the initial outbreak, the virus remains dormant in the body and can reactivate periodically, causing recurrent episodes of genital herpes. It's important to note that while there is no cure for herpes genitalis, antiviral medications can help manage symptoms and reduce transmission risks.

Herpes zoster, also known as shingles, is a viral infection that causes a painful rash. It's caused by the varicella-zoster virus, which also causes chickenpox. After you recover from chickenpox, the virus lies dormant in your nerve cells and can reactivate later in life as herpes zoster.

The hallmark symptom of herpes zoster is a unilateral, vesicular rash that occurs in a dermatomal distribution, which means it follows the path of a specific nerve. The rash usually affects one side of the body and can wrap around either the left or right side of your torso.

Before the rash appears, you may experience symptoms such as pain, tingling, or itching in the area where the rash will develop. Other possible symptoms include fever, headache, fatigue, and muscle weakness. The rash typically scabs over and heals within two to four weeks, but some people may continue to experience pain in the affected area for months or even years after the rash has healed. This is known as postherpetic neuralgia (PHN).

Herpes zoster is most common in older adults and people with weakened immune systems, although anyone who has had chickenpox can develop the condition. It's important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have herpes zoster, as early treatment with antiviral medications can help reduce the severity and duration of the rash and lower your risk of developing complications such as PHN.

Herpes labialis, also known as cold sores or fever blisters, is a common viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). It typically affects the lips, mouth, and surrounding skin. The infection causes small, painful, fluid-filled blisters that can be accompanied by symptoms such as tingling, burning, or itching in the area before the blisters appear. After the blisters break, they leave behind painful ulcers that eventually crust over and heal within 2-3 weeks.

The virus is highly contagious and can spread through direct contact with infected saliva, skin lesions, or objects contaminated with the virus. Once a person becomes infected with HSV-1, the virus remains dormant in the nervous system and can reactivate periodically due to various triggers like stress, fatigue, illness, or sun exposure, leading to recurrent outbreaks of herpes labialis.

Medical Definition of "Herpesvirus 2, Human" (also known as Human Herpesvirus 2 or HHV-2):

Herpesvirus 2, Human is a double-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the Herpesviridae family. It is one of the eight herpesviruses known to infect humans. HHV-2 is the primary cause of genital herpes, a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that affects the mucosal surfaces and skin around the genitals, rectum, or mouth.

The virus is typically transmitted through sexual contact with an infected person, and it can also be spread from mother to child during childbirth if the mother has active genital lesions. After initial infection, HHV-2 establishes latency in the sacral ganglia (a collection of nerve cells at the base of the spine) and may reactivate periodically, leading to recurrent outbreaks of genital herpes.

During both primary and recurrent infections, HHV-2 can cause painful blisters or ulcers on the skin or mucous membranes, as well as flu-like symptoms such as fever, swollen lymph nodes, and body aches. While there is no cure for genital herpes, antiviral medications can help manage symptoms, reduce outbreak frequency, and lower the risk of transmission to sexual partners.

It's important to note that HHV-2 infection can sometimes be asymptomatic or cause mild symptoms that go unnoticed, making it difficult to determine the exact prevalence of the virus in the population. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), an estimated 491 million people worldwide aged 15 years and older have HSV-2 infection, with a higher prevalence in women than men.

Simplexvirus is a genus of viruses in the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. This genus contains two species: Human alphaherpesvirus 1 (also known as HSV-1 or herpes simplex virus type 1) and Human alphaherpesvirus 2 (also known as HSV-2 or herpes simplex virus type 2). These viruses are responsible for causing various medical conditions, most commonly oral and genital herpes. They are characterized by their ability to establish lifelong latency in the nervous system and reactivate periodically to cause recurrent symptoms.

Valine is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through diet. It is a hydrophobic amino acid, with a branched side chain, and is necessary for the growth, repair, and maintenance of tissues in the body. Valine is also important for muscle metabolism, and is often used by athletes as a supplement to enhance physical performance. Like other essential amino acids, valine must be obtained through foods such as meat, fish, dairy products, and legumes.

Foscarnet is an antiviral medication used to treat infections caused by viruses, particularly herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV). It is a pyrophosphate analog that inhibits viral DNA polymerase, preventing the replication of viral DNA.

Foscarnet is indicated for the treatment of severe HSV infections, such as mucocutaneous HSV in immunocompromised patients, and acyclovir-resistant HSV infections. It is also used to treat VZV infections, including shingles and varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection in immunocompromised patients.

Foscarnet is administered intravenously and its use requires careful monitoring of renal function and electrolyte levels due to the potential for nephrotoxicity and electrolyte imbalances. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and headache.

Ganciclovir is an antiviral medication used to prevent and treat cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections, particularly in individuals who have undergone organ transplants or have weakened immune systems due to conditions like HIV/AIDS. It works by inhibiting the replication of the virus, thereby reducing its ability to cause damage to the body's cells and tissues.

The medical definition of Ganciclovir is:

A synthetic nucleoside analogue with antiviral activity against herpesviruses, including cytomegalovirus (CMV). Ganciclovir is converted intracellularly to its active form, ganciclovir triphosphate, which inhibits viral DNA polymerase and subsequently prevents viral replication. It is primarily used for the prevention and treatment of CMV infections in immunocompromised patients, such as those who have undergone organ transplants or have HIV/AIDS. Ganciclovir is available in various formulations, including oral capsules, intravenous solution, and ocular implants.

Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a severe and potentially life-thingening inflammation of the brain caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), most commonly HSV-1. It is a rare but serious condition that can cause significant neurological damage if left untreated.

The infection typically begins in the temporal or frontal lobes of the brain and can spread to other areas, causing symptoms such as headache, fever, seizures, confusion, memory loss, and personality changes. In severe cases, it can lead to coma or death.

Diagnosis of HSE is often made through a combination of clinical presentation, imaging studies (such as MRI), and laboratory tests, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to detect the presence of the virus.

Treatment typically involves antiviral medications, such as acyclovir, which can help reduce the severity of the infection and prevent further neurological damage. In some cases, corticosteroids may also be used to reduce inflammation in the brain. Prompt treatment is critical for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of long-term neurological complications.

An ointment is a semi-solid preparation, typically composed of a mixture of medicinal substance with a base, which is usually greasy or oily. The purpose of the base is to act as a vehicle for the active ingredient and allow it to be applied smoothly and evenly to the skin or mucous membranes.

Ointments are commonly used in dermatology to treat various skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, rashes, burns, and wounds. They can also be used to deliver medication for localized pain relief, muscle relaxation, and anti-inflammatory or antibiotic effects.

The base of an ointment may consist of various ingredients, including petrolatum, lanolin, mineral oil, beeswax, or a combination of these. The choice of the base depends on the desired properties such as consistency, spreadability, and stability, as well as the intended route of administration and the specific therapeutic goals.

Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus (HZO) is a type of herpes zoster (shingles) infection that affects the ophthalmic division (V1) of the trigeminal nerve. It is caused by the varicella-zoster virus, which also causes chickenpox. After a person recovers from chickenpox, the virus remains inactive in the body and can reactivate later as shingles, often many years after the initial infection.

When the virus reactivates and affects the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve, it can cause a painful rash on the forehead, nose, and around one eye. The rash may be accompanied by other symptoms such as headache, fever, and fatigue. In some cases, HZO can also affect the eye itself, causing inflammation, corneal ulcers, and vision loss if left untreated.

It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you suspect you have HZO, as early treatment with antiviral medications can help reduce the severity of symptoms and prevent complications.

A prodrug is a pharmacologically inactive substance that, once administered, is metabolized into a drug that is active. Prodrugs are designed to improve the bioavailability or delivery of a drug, to minimize adverse effects, or to target the drug to specific sites in the body. The conversion of a prodrug to its active form typically occurs through enzymatic reactions in the liver or other tissues.

Prodrugs can offer several advantages over traditional drugs, including:

* Improved absorption: Some drugs have poor bioavailability due to their chemical properties, which make them difficult to absorb from the gastrointestinal tract. Prodrugs can be designed with improved absorption characteristics, allowing for more efficient delivery of the active drug to the body.
* Reduced toxicity: By masking the active drug's chemical structure, prodrugs can reduce its interactions with sensitive tissues and organs, thereby minimizing adverse effects.
* Targeted delivery: Prodrugs can be designed to selectively release the active drug in specific areas of the body, such as tumors or sites of infection, allowing for more precise and effective therapy.

Examples of prodrugs include:

* Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), which is metabolized to salicylic acid in the liver.
* Enalapril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used to treat hypertension and heart failure, which is metabolized to enalaprilat in the liver.
* Codeine, an opioid analgesic, which is metabolized to morphine in the liver by the enzyme CYP2D6.

It's important to note that not all prodrugs are successful, and some may even have unintended consequences. For example, if a patient has a genetic variation that affects the activity of the enzyme responsible for converting the prodrug to its active form, the drug may not be effective or may produce adverse effects. Therefore, it's essential to consider individual genetic factors when prescribing prodrugs.

Guanine is not a medical term per se, but it is a biological molecule that plays a crucial role in the body. Guanine is one of the four nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, along with adenine, cytosine, and thymine (in DNA) or uracil (in RNA). Specifically, guanine pairs with cytosine via hydrogen bonds to form a base pair.

Guanine is a purine derivative, which means it has a double-ring structure. It is formed through the synthesis of simpler molecules in the body and is an essential component of genetic material. Guanine's chemical formula is C5H5N5O.

While guanine itself is not a medical term, abnormalities or mutations in genes that contain guanine nucleotides can lead to various medical conditions, including genetic disorders and cancer.

Herpetic stomatitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation and sores or lesions in the mouth and mucous membranes caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). It is typically caused by HSV-1, which is highly contagious and can be spread through direct contact with an infected person, such as through kissing or sharing utensils.

The symptoms of herpetic stomatitis may include small, painful blisters or ulcers in the mouth, gums, tongue, or roof of the mouth; difficulty swallowing; fever; and swollen lymph nodes. The condition can be painful and make it difficult to eat, drink, or talk.

Herpetic stomatitis is usually self-limiting and will resolve on its own within 1-2 weeks. However, antiviral medications may be prescribed to help reduce the severity and duration of symptoms. It's important to practice good oral hygiene during an outbreak to prevent secondary infections.

It's worth noting that herpes simplex virus can also cause cold sores or fever blisters on the lips and around the mouth, which are similar to the lesions seen in herpetic stomatitis but occur outside of the mouth.

Also known as Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Herpesvirus 3, Human is a species-specific alphaherpesvirus that causes two distinct diseases: chickenpox (varicella) during primary infection and herpes zoster (shingles) upon reactivation of latent infection.

Chickenpox is typically a self-limiting disease characterized by a generalized, pruritic vesicular rash, fever, and malaise. After resolution of the primary infection, VZV remains latent in the sensory ganglia and can reactivate later in life to cause herpes zoster, which is characterized by a unilateral, dermatomal vesicular rash and pain.

Herpesvirus 3, Human is highly contagious and spreads through respiratory droplets or direct contact with the chickenpox rash. Vaccination is available to prevent primary infection and reduce the risk of complications associated with chickenpox and herpes zoster.

Dendritic keratitis is a specific form of keratitis, which is inflammation of the cornea. The term "dendritic" refers to the characteristic appearance of the lesion on the cornea, which resembles a branching tree or a dendrite.

Dendritic keratitis is most commonly caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection, although other infectious and non-infectious etiologies can also produce similar lesions. The condition is characterized by the presence of a branching, dendrite-like ulcer on the corneal epithelium, often accompanied by symptoms such as eye pain, redness, photophobia (sensitivity to light), and tearing.

Treatment for dendritic keratitis typically involves antiviral medications to manage the underlying HSV-1 infection, as well as measures to promote corneal healing and reduce discomfort. It is essential to seek prompt medical attention if you suspect dendritic keratitis, as untreated or improperly managed cases can lead to serious complications, including corneal scarring, vision loss, and potential blindness.

Thymidine kinase (TK) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of thymidine triphosphate (dTMP), a nucleotide required for DNA replication and repair. It catalyzes the phosphorylation of thymidine to thymidine monophosphate (dTMP) by transferring a phosphate group from adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

There are two major isoforms of thymidine kinase in humans: TK1 and TK2. TK1 is primarily found in the cytoplasm of proliferating cells, such as those involved in the cell cycle, while TK2 is located mainly in the mitochondria and is responsible for maintaining the dNTP pool required for mtDNA replication and repair.

Thymidine kinase activity has been used as a marker for cell proliferation, particularly in cancer cells, which often exhibit elevated levels of TK1 due to their high turnover rates. Additionally, measuring TK1 levels can help monitor the effectiveness of certain anticancer therapies that target DNA replication.

Medical Definition of "Herpesvirus 1, Human" (also known as Human Herpesvirus 1 or HHV-1):

Herpesvirus 1, Human is a type of herpesvirus that primarily causes infection in humans. It is also commonly referred to as human herpesvirus 1 (HHV-1) or oral herpes. This virus is highly contagious and can be transmitted through direct contact with infected saliva, skin, or mucous membranes.

After initial infection, the virus typically remains dormant in the body's nerve cells and may reactivate later, causing recurrent symptoms. The most common manifestation of HHV-1 infection is oral herpes, characterized by cold sores or fever blisters around the mouth and lips. In some cases, HHV-1 can also cause other conditions such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) and keratitis (inflammation of the eye's cornea).

There is no cure for HHV-1 infection, but antiviral medications can help manage symptoms and reduce the severity and frequency of recurrent outbreaks.

Oral administration is a route of giving medications or other substances by mouth. This can be in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, pastes, or other forms that can be swallowed. Once ingested, the substance is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream to reach its intended target site in the body. Oral administration is a common and convenient route of medication delivery, but it may not be appropriate for all substances or in certain situations, such as when rapid onset of action is required or when the patient has difficulty swallowing.

Topical administration refers to a route of administering a medication or treatment directly to a specific area of the body, such as the skin, mucous membranes, or eyes. This method allows the drug to be applied directly to the site where it is needed, which can increase its effectiveness and reduce potential side effects compared to systemic administration (taking the medication by mouth or injecting it into a vein or muscle).

Topical medications come in various forms, including creams, ointments, gels, lotions, solutions, sprays, and patches. They may be used to treat localized conditions such as skin infections, rashes, inflammation, or pain, or to deliver medication to the eyes or mucous membranes for local or systemic effects.

When applying topical medications, it is important to follow the instructions carefully to ensure proper absorption and avoid irritation or other adverse reactions. This may include cleaning the area before application, covering the treated area with a dressing, or avoiding exposure to sunlight or water after application, depending on the specific medication and its intended use.

Chickenpox is a highly contagious viral infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus. It is characterized by an itchy, blister-like rash that typically covers the body and can also affect the mouth, eyes, and scalp. The rash progresses through various stages, from red bumps to fluid-filled blisters to scabs, before ultimately healing.

Chickenpox is usually a mild disease in children but can be more severe in adults, pregnant women, and individuals with weakened immune systems. Common symptoms include fever, fatigue, headache, and loss of appetite, which often precede the onset of the rash. The infection typically lasts about 1-2 weeks, and once a person has had chickenpox, they usually develop immunity to future infections.

A vaccine is available to prevent chickenpox, and it is routinely administered to children as part of their childhood vaccination schedule. In some cases, the vaccine may be recommended for adults who have not had chickenpox or been vaccinated previously.

Virus shedding refers to the release of virus particles by an infected individual, who can then transmit the virus to others through various means such as respiratory droplets, fecal matter, or bodily fluids. This occurs when the virus replicates inside the host's cells and is released into the surrounding environment, where it can infect other individuals. The duration of virus shedding varies depending on the specific virus and the individual's immune response. It's important to note that some individuals may shed viruses even before they show symptoms, making infection control measures such as hand hygiene, mask-wearing, and social distancing crucial in preventing the spread of infectious diseases.

A viral plaque assay is a laboratory technique used to measure the infectivity and concentration of viruses in a sample. This method involves infecting a monolayer of cells (usually in a petri dish or multi-well plate) with a known volume of a virus-containing sample, followed by overlaying the cells with a nutrient-agar medium to restrict viral spread and enable individual plaques to form.

After an incubation period that allows for viral replication and cell death, the cells are stained, and clear areas or "plaques" become visible in the monolayer. Each plaque represents a localized region of infected and lysed cells, caused by the progeny of a single infectious virus particle. The number of plaques is then counted, and the viral titer (infectious units per milliliter or PFU/mL) is calculated based on the dilution factor and volume of the original inoculum.

Viral plaque assays are essential for determining viral titers, assessing virus-host interactions, evaluating antiviral agents, and studying viral pathogenesis.

Encephalitis, Varicella Zoster is a type of encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) caused by the varicella-zoster virus, which also causes chickenpox and shingles. It typically occurs in individuals who have previously had chickenpox, and the virus remains dormant in the body and can reactivate later in life as shingles. In some cases, the virus can spread to the brain and cause encephalitis.

Symptoms of Varicella Zoster encephalitis may include fever, headache, confusion, seizures, and changes in consciousness. It is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention and treatment with antiviral medications. Complications can include long-term neurological damage or even death.

It's important to note that not everyone who has shingles will develop encephalitis, but it is a potential complication of the infection. People who are at higher risk for developing Varicella Zoster encephalitis include those with weakened immune systems, such as people undergoing cancer treatment or those with HIV/AIDS.

Bell palsy is a peripheral facial nerve palsy, which means that it is a weakness or paralysis of the facial nerves (cranial nerve VII) that causes sudden asymmetric weakness on one side of the face. The symptoms can vary from mild to severe and may include:

* Sudden weakness or paralysis on one side of the face
* Drooping of the mouth, causing difficulty with smiling, eating, drinking, or speaking
* Inability to close one eye
* Dryness of the eye and mouth
* Changes in taste sensation
* Discomfort around the jaw and behind the ear
* Headache
* Increased sensitivity to sound

The exact cause of Bell palsy is not known, but it is believed to be related to inflammation or swelling of the facial nerve. It may also be associated with viral infections such as herpes simplex virus or HIV. In most cases, Bell palsy resolves on its own within a few weeks to months, although some people may experience residual symptoms such as facial weakness or asymmetry. Treatment typically involves corticosteroids and antiviral medications, which can help reduce inflammation and speed up recovery.

Arabinofuranosyluracil (AraU) is a nucleoside analogue, which means it is a synthetic compound similar to the building blocks of DNA and RNA. AraU is formed by combining the sugar arabinose with the nucleobase uracil. Nucleoside analogues like AraU are often used in cancer chemotherapy and antiviral therapy because they can interfere with the replication of DNA and RNA, disrupting the growth or replication of cancer cells or viruses.

In the context of medical research and treatment, AraU has been studied for its potential use as an anticancer and antiviral agent. However, it is not currently approved for use as a medication in humans. Like many nucleoside analogues, AraU can have toxic effects on normal cells as well as cancerous or virus-infected cells, which limits its usefulness as a therapeutic agent.

Skin diseases of viral origin are conditions that affect the skin caused by viral infections. These infections can lead to various symptoms such as rashes, blisters, papules, and skin lesions. Some common examples of viral skin diseases include:

1. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) infection: This causes cold sores or genital herpes, which are characterized by small, painful blisters on the skin.
2. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection: This causes chickenpox and shingles, which are characterized by itchy, fluid-filled blisters on the skin.
3. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection: This causes warts, which are small, rough growths on the skin.
4. Molluscum contagiosum: This is a viral infection that causes small, raised, and pearly white bumps on the skin.
5. Measles: This is a highly contagious viral disease characterized by fever, cough, runny nose, and a rash that spreads all over the body.
6. Rubella: Also known as German measles, this viral infection causes a red rash on the face and neck that spreads to the rest of the body.

Viral skin diseases can be spread through direct contact with an infected person or contaminated objects, such as towels or bedding. Some viral skin diseases can be prevented through vaccination, while others can be treated with antiviral medications or other therapies.

Phosphonoacetic acid (PAA) is not a naturally occurring substance, but rather a synthetic compound that is used in medical and scientific research. It is a colorless, crystalline solid that is soluble in water.

In a medical context, PAA is an inhibitor of certain enzymes that are involved in the replication of viruses, including HIV. It works by binding to the active site of these enzymes and preventing them from carrying out their normal functions. As a result, PAA has been studied as a potential antiviral agent, although it is not currently used as a medication.

It's important to note that while PAA has shown promise in laboratory studies, its safety and efficacy have not been established in clinical trials, and it is not approved for use as a drug by regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Idoxuridine is an antiviral medication used primarily for the treatment of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections of the eye, such as keratitis or dendritic ulcers. It works by interfering with the DNA replication of the virus, thereby inhibiting its ability to multiply and spread.

Idoxuridine is available as an ophthalmic solution (eye drops) and is typically applied directly to the affected eye every 1-2 hours while awake, for up to 2 weeks. Common side effects include local irritation, stinging, or burning upon application. Prolonged use of idoxuridine may lead to bacterial resistance or corneal toxicity, so it is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using this medication.

It is essential to note that idoxuridine is not commonly used today due to the development of more effective and less toxic antiviral agents for HSV infections.

Viral activation, also known as viral reactivation or virus reactivation, refers to the process in which a latent or dormant virus becomes active and starts to replicate within a host cell. This can occur when the immune system is weakened or compromised, allowing the virus to evade the body's natural defenses and cause disease.

In some cases, viral activation can be triggered by certain environmental factors, such as stress, exposure to UV light, or infection with another virus. Once activated, the virus can cause symptoms similar to those seen during the initial infection, or it may lead to new symptoms depending on the specific virus and the host's immune response.

Examples of viruses that can remain dormant in the body and be reactivated include herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). It is important to note that not all viruses can be reactivated, and some may remain dormant in the body indefinitely without causing any harm.

"Pharmaceutical vehicles" is not a standard term in medical or pharmaceutical sciences. However, I can provide some context based on the phrase's possible meaning. If by "pharmaceutical vehicles," you mean the carriers or delivery systems for drugs or medications, then the definition would be:

Pharmaceutical vehicles refer to various formulations, preparations, or technologies that facilitate and control the administration of a drug or therapeutic agent to its target site in the body. These can include different types of drug delivery systems such as tablets, capsules, liposomes, nanoparticles, transdermal patches, inhalers, injectables, and other innovative drug carrier technologies.

These pharmaceutical vehicles ensure that the active ingredients are safely and effectively transported to their intended site of action within the body, enhancing therapeutic efficacy while minimizing potential side effects.

Inosine pranobex is not a medication with a widely accepted or universally recognized medical definition, as it is known by several different names and its exact mechanism of action is not completely understood. However, it is commonly referred to in medical literature as an immunomodulator, which is a substance that can modify the immune system's response to various stimuli.

Inosine pranobex is also known as Isoprinosine, and its active ingredients are inosine and p-acetamidobenzoate. It has been used off-label in some countries for the treatment of viral infections, including herpes simplex virus and influenza, although its efficacy for these indications is not well established.

Inosine pranobex is thought to work by stimulating the immune system's response to viral infections, enhancing the activity of natural killer cells and increasing the production of interferon, a protein that helps protect cells from viral infection. However, more research is needed to fully understand its mechanisms of action and potential therapeutic uses.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

Vidarabine is an antiviral medication used to treat herpes simplex infections, particularly severe cases such as herpes encephalitis (inflammation of the brain caused by the herpes simplex virus). It works by interfering with the DNA replication of the virus.

In medical terms, vidarabine is a nucleoside analogue that is phosphorylated intracellularly to the active form, vidarabine triphosphate. This compound inhibits viral DNA polymerase and incorporates into viral DNA, causing termination of viral DNA synthesis.

Vidarabine was previously used as an injectable medication but has largely been replaced by more modern antiviral drugs such as acyclovir due to its greater efficacy and lower toxicity.

Herpetic keratitis is a specific type of keratitis (inflammation of the cornea) that is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. It is further divided into two types: dendritic and disciform keratitis. Dendritic keratitis is characterized by the development of branching ulcers on the surface of the cornea, while disciform keratitis involves inflammation and opacity in the stroma (middle layer) of the cornea. Both types of herpetic keratitis can cause symptoms such as eye pain, redness, sensitivity to light, tearing, and blurred vision. If left untreated, herpetic keratitis can lead to serious complications, including blindness.

  • Intravenous aciclovir is effective to treat severe medical conditions caused by different species of the herpes virus family, including severe localized infections of herpes virus, severe genital herpes, chickenpox and herpesviral encephalitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Classified as a Category B drug, the CDC and others have declared that during severe recurrent or first episodes of genital herpes, aciclovir may be used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acyclovir is also sometimes used to prevent outbreaks of genital herpes in people who are infected with the virus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Acyclovir will not cure genital herpes and may not stop the spread of genital herpes to other people. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When acyclovir is used to prevent outbreaks of genital herpes, it is usually taken two to five times a day for up to 12 months. (medlineplus.gov)
  • CDC and others recommend oral acyclovir, oral famciclovir, or oral valacyclovir as drugs of choice for treatment of initial episodes of genital herpes and for episodic treatment or chronic suppressive therapy of recurrent genital herpes. (drugs.com)
  • If you are using acyclovir for treatment of genital herpes, it is important to follow safe sex practices to reduce the risk of giving herpes to your partner, even if there are no symptoms present. (webmd.com)
  • When used for genital herpes, double-blind placebo-controlled studies have showed that orally administered acyclovir significantly reduced the duration of acute infection, pain and new lesion formation, and also the frequency and severity of recurrences in more than 95 per cent of patients. (healthy.net)
  • Acyclovir vs isoprinosine (immunovir) for suppression of recurrent genital herpes simplex infection. (bmj.com)
  • OBJECTIVE--To compare the efficacy and safety of oral acyclovir (400 mg twice daily) with oral isoprinosine (500 mg twice daily) in the suppression of recurrent genital herpes. (bmj.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS--Acyclovir is very effective in suppressing recurrent genital herpes and is clearly superior to isoprinosine which is not clinically useful in the dosage studied. (bmj.com)
  • An overview of the mechanisms of action of and resistance to acyclovir and its major clinical uses will be provided here Acyclovir is an antiviral drug prescribed to treat genital herpes , shingles, and chickenpox. (aclsedu.com)
  • Consult your doctor if pregnant or breastfeeding Acyclovir may also help treat pain associated with an outbreak of genital herpes after the sores heal. (aclsedu.com)
  • Acyclovir injection is used to treat severe infections caused by herpes viruses, including severe forms of genital herpes , shingles, herpes encephalitis (swelling of the brain), and herpes infections in people with other diseases that weaken the immune system. (aclsedu.com)
  • Acyclovir does not protect against the spread of genital herpes. (whatarefor.com)
  • Each gram of white-to-off-white ointment contains 50 mg of acyclovir. (medbroadcast.com)
  • The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the pharmacokinetics of acyclovir (ACV) in skin and plasma after iontophoresis, i.v.-bolus, and ointment administrations in rabbit. (nih.gov)
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  • In people with frequent outbreaks, acyclovir is used to help reduce the number of future episodes.Acyclovir is an antiviral drug. (medicinenet.com)
  • Acyclovir decreases the severity and length of these outbreaks. (medicinenet.com)
  • Of the two prescription drugs approved by the FDA to treat or prevent herpes simplex (HSV) outbreaks (1), acyclovir is more commonly used (2) . (acsh.org)
  • Acyclovir can reduce the frequency and severity of outbreaks, but it does not cure herpes infections. (internationalpharmacy.com)
  • I was given oral Acyclovir for my fever blister outbreaks. (askdocweb.com)
  • Research shows effectiveness of topical aciclovir in both the early and late stages of the outbreak as well as improving methodologically and in terms of statistical certainty from previous studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Topical acyclovir is used to treat the symptoms of herpes simplex virus infections of the skin, mucous membranes, and genitals (sex organs). (mayoclinic.org)
  • Although topical acyclovir will not cure herpes simplex, it may help relieve the pain and discomfort and may help the sores (if any) heal faster. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Topical acyclovir may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Acyclovir topical is used to manage initial episodes of herpes infections. (medbroadcast.com)
  • Applying acyclovir topical to areas when no symptoms are present will not prevent the recurrence of infection. (medbroadcast.com)
  • Apply acyclovir topical only at the first appearance of a herpes infection episode. (medbroadcast.com)
  • Systemic absorption of topical cutaneous acyclovir is negligible. (e-lactancia.org)
  • The aim of this study was to develop a new, rapid and sensitive method for simultaneous determination of aciclovir, three related substances and two preservatives methyl and propyl parahydroxybenzoates present in topical cream. (rsc.org)
  • Although topical acyclovir will not cure herpes simplex, it may help relieve the pain and discomfort and may help the sores (if any) heal faster Acyclovir is a medicine used to treat infections caused by certain viruses. (aclsedu.com)
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  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to acyclovir, valacyclovir (Valtrex), any other medications, or any of the ingredients in acyclovir injection. (epnet.com)
  • Do not use this medication if you are allergic to acyclovir, valacyclovir, or any of the ingredients of the medication. (medbroadcast.com)
  • Aciclovir (ACV), also known as acyclovir, is an antiviral medication. (wikipedia.org)
  • You may receive acyclovir injection in a hospital or you may administer the medication at home. (epnet.com)
  • If you will be receiving acyclovir injection at home, your healthcare provider will show you how to use the medication. (epnet.com)
  • This medication contains 2 ingredients: acyclovir and hydrocortisone. (alberta.ca)
  • Acyclovir is an antiviral medication that works by stopping the growth of the virus. (alberta.ca)
  • What is Acyclovir and what is it used for: Acyclovir, sold under the brand name Zovirax, is an antiviral medication that works by slowing the growth and spread of the herpes virus. (internationalpharmacy.com)
  • It is important to take Acyclovir as directed and to complete the full course of treatment, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished. (internationalpharmacy.com)
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  • It is a sterile, aqueous solution for intravenous infusion, containing 50 mg acyclovir per mL in Water for Injection, USP. (nih.gov)
  • Aciclovir Intravenous Infusion is indicated for the purpose of 1. (healthdirect.gov.au)
  • Acyclovir injection is used to treat herpes simplex encephalitis (brain infection with swelling caused by the herpes virus) and herpes infections in newborn infants. (epnet.com)
  • Intravenous acyclovir is the treatment of choice in biopsy-proven herpes simplex encephalitis in adults, and has also been successful in the treatment of disseminated herpes simplex in pregnancy and herpes neonatorium Can you get herpes from kissing? (aclsedu.com)
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  • Valaciclovir and acyclovir act by inhibiting viral DNA replication, but as of 2016 there was little evidence that they are effective against Epstein-Barr virus, they are expensive, they risk causing resistance to antiviral agents, and (in 1% to 10% of cases) can cause unpleasant side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • This viral enzyme converts acyclovir into acyclovir monophosphate, a nucleotide analogue. (nih.gov)
  • In vitro , acyclovir triphosphate stops replication of herpes viral DNA. (nih.gov)
  • The greater antiviral activity of acyclovir against HSV compared with VZV is due to its more efficient phosphorylation by the viral TK. (nih.gov)
  • Resistance of HSV and VZV to acyclovir can result from qualitative and quantitative changes in the viral TK and/or DNA polymerase. (nih.gov)
  • While most of the acyclovir-resistant mutants isolated thus far from such patients have been found to be TK-deficient mutants, other mutants involving the viral TK gene (TK partial and TK altered) and DNA polymerase have been isolated. (nih.gov)
  • The possibility of viral resistance to acyclovir should be considered in patients who show poor clinical response during therapy. (nih.gov)
  • It can be said that acyclovir "fooled" the polymerase into using it because this subtle structural change makes a big difference in viral DNA synthesis. (acsh.org)
  • This important active substance, aciclovir is the drug of the first choice for treatment of Herpes viral infections. (rsc.org)
  • In a virus-infected cell, a number of sequential, acyclovir mono-triphosphate-acyclovir conversion reactions take place under the influence of viral thymidine kinases. (myphages.com)
  • Involvement of acyclovir triphosphate in the viral DNA strand occurs, after which its synthesis is blocked by competitive inhibition of viral DNA polymerases. (myphages.com)
  • In vivo therapeutically and prophylactically, acyclovir is primarily effective against viral infections caused by herpes simplex. (myphages.com)
  • If you are taking acyclovir for the treatment of chickenpox, it is best to start taking acyclovir as soon as possible after the first sign of the chickenpox rash, usually within one day Acyclovir is used to treat viral infections. (aclsedu.com)
  • Acyclovir is used to treat viral infections. (aclsedu.com)
  • Although she was an acyclovir naïve patient , a mixed viral population (wild-type and acyclovir -resistant bearing a thymidine - kinase mutation ) was identified in the cerebrospinal fluid . (bvsalud.org)
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  • Drugs that do this are called DNA polymerase inhibitors, the most common one being acyclovir. (acsh.org)
  • Acyclovir may interact with certain medications, including other antiviral medications, chemotherapy drugs, and probenecid. (internationalpharmacy.com)
  • Herpes simplex infection is treatable with antiviral drugs, like acyclovir, so there is at least the possibility that treatment with those drugs might also be able to affect the progression to Alzheimer's disease," he said. (medscape.com)
  • Acyclovir belongs to a class of medications known as antivirals. (webmd.com)
  • Acyclovir belongs to the family of medicines called antivirals. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Aciclovir is a nucleoside analogue that mimics guanosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acyclovir is in a class of antiviral medications called synthetic nucleoside analogues. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Acyclovir Sodium Injection is a synthetic nucleoside analogue, active against herpes viruses. (nih.gov)
  • Acyclovir is a synthetic purine nucleoside analogue with in vitro and in vivo inhibitory activity against herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1), 2 (HSV-2) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV). (nih.gov)
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  • The use of aciclovir (sales data Sweden 2019) has been considered to result in insignificant environmental risk. (janusinfo.se)
  • Acyclovir injection may cause side effects. (epnet.com)
  • If you've used Acyclovir, please help others by sharing your experience with side effects. (askdocweb.com)
  • For severe HSV infections (especially disseminated HSV), IV aciclovir may also be used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acyclovir is also sometimes used to treat eczema herpeticum (a skin infection caused by the herpes virus) to treat and prevent herpes infections of the skin, eyes, nose, and mouth in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and to treat oral hairy leukoplakia (condition that causes hairy white or gray-colored patches on the tongue or inside of the cheek). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Acyclovir is used to treat infections caused by certain types of viruses . (medicinenet.com)
  • In addition, in people with a weakened immune system, acyclovir can decrease the risk of the virus spreading to other parts of the body and causing serious infections. (medicinenet.com)
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  • If you stop taking acyclovir too soon or skip doses, your infection may not be completely treated or may become more difficult to treat. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Clinical isolates of HSV and VZV with reduced susceptibility to acyclovir have been recovered from immunocompromised patients, especially with advanced HIV infection. (nih.gov)
  • I have been perscribed aciclovir 200 mg 4x day, for infection in my lower lip so far I am at the end of day 2, I wake with headaches and continue throughout the day and today I have suffered dizzyness and disorientation (forgive my spelling) and I have also noticed a change in the colour of my urine. (askdocweb.com)
  • Depending on the severity of the infection, the maximum dose is 400 mg acyclovir 5 times a day. (myphages.com)
  • Acyclovir will not cure herpes , but it can lessen the symptoms of the infection QUESTION: I've had herpes for over 35 years and taken acyclovir to suppress it for nearly that long. (aclsedu.com)
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  • How to take Acyclovir: Acyclovir is taken orally, usually two to five times daily, with or without food. (internationalpharmacy.com)
  • Read the Patient Information Leaflet if available from your pharmacist before you start using acyclovir and each time you get a refill. (webmd.com)
  • 2020. https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545255/0.0/Acyclovir. (hopkinsguides.com)
  • Oral acyclovir therapy initiated within 24 hours of illness for otherwise healthy children with varicella typically will result in a 1-day reduction of fever and approximately a 15% to 30% reduction in the severity of cutaneous and systemic signs and symptoms. (aap.org)
  • Aciclovir is recommended by the CDC for treatment of varicella during pregnancy, especially during the second and third trimesters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Your symptoms should improve during your treatment with acyclovir. (medlineplus.gov)
  • University of Illinois at Chicago) New research shows that the antiviral activity of the drug -- called phenylbutyrate, or PBA -- was even better when used along with acyclovir, a common HSV-1 treatment. (medworm.com)
  • Although treatment with Acyclovir may reduce symptoms for some people, it is not a cure for chronic fatigue. (askdocweb.com)
  • Acyclovir may be used in the treatment of varicella (chickenpox). (aclsedu.com)
  • It has been shown in limited test studies that the nursing infant is exposed to approximately 0.3 mg/kg/day following oral administration of aciclovir to the mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common adverse drug reactions (≥1% of patients) associated with systemic aciclovir therapy (oral or IV) include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, encephalopathy (with IV use only), injection site reactions (with IV use only) and headache. (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, no significant adverse effects of oral acyclovir therapy in otherwise healthy children have been demonstrated. (aap.org)
  • Recipient(s) will receive an email with a link to 'The Use of Oral Acyclovir in Otherwise Healthy Children With Varicella' and will not need an account to access the content. (aap.org)
  • In patients with severe renal insufficiency, the elimination half-life is 20 hours, and during hemodialysis 5-7 hours (however, the plasma concentration of acyclovir decreases from 60% to baseline. (myphages.com)
  • Acyclovir decreases the severity and duration of these flare-ups. (whatarefor.com)
  • Fass environmental information for Aciclovir Pfizer from Pfizer (downloaded 2022-11-29). (janusinfo.se)
  • It is important to attend regular doctor appointments and report any new or worsening symptoms to your healthcare provider while taking Acyclovir. (internationalpharmacy.com)
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  • The concentration is equivalent to 54.9 mg of acyclovir sodium per mL in Water for Injection, USP. (nih.gov)
  • Acyclovir Sodium Injection contains Sodium Hydroxide, NF as inactive ingredient. (nih.gov)
  • Further dilution of Acyclovir Sodium Injection in an appropriate intravenous solution must be performed before infusion (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Administration ). (nih.gov)
  • Acyclovir sodium is the sodium salt of acyclovir, which is formed in situ , with the molecular formula C 8 H 10 N 5 NaO 3 and a molecular weight of 247.19. (nih.gov)
  • At physiologic pH, acyclovir sodium exists as the unionized form with a molecular weight of 225 and a maximum solubility in water at 37°C of 2.5 mg/mL. (nih.gov)
  • Pennington, NJ, Zydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc. is voluntarily recalling four lots of Acyclovir Sodium Injection, 50 mg/mL, 10 mL and 20 mL vials, to the Hospital/User level after receiving several complaints of crystallization in vials. (medworm.com)
  • WASHINGTON DC, A recall notice published on the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's website states that Zydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc has issued a national recall of its Acyclovir Sodium Injection, 50 mg/mL, 10 mL, and 20 mL vials due to crystallization. (yourlawyer.com)
  • The Elegance of Virology: How Acyclovir Slows Down Herpes. (acsh.org)
  • Aciclovir taken by mouth does not appear to decrease the risk of pain after shingles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rational acyclovir therapy in herpetic eye disease. (bmj.com)
  • Precautions and warnings for Acyclovir: Before taking Acyclovir, inform your doctor if you have any medical conditions, such as kidney disease or a weakened immune system. (internationalpharmacy.com)

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