A condition caused by a brief whole body exposure to more than one sievert dose equivalent of radiation. Acute radiation syndrome is initially characterized by ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; VOMITING; but can progress to hematological, gastrointestinal, neurological, pulmonary, and other major organ dysfunction.
Uncontrolled release of radioactive material from its containment. This either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a radioactive hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.
Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.
Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
A cutaneous inflammatory reaction occurring as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation.
A characteristic symptom complex.
Inflammation of the lung due to harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.
The use of animals as investigational subjects.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.

Expression of phospho-Elk-1 in rat gut after the whole body gamma irradiation. (1/35)

Gastrointestinal form is the second stage of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) with a threshold dose of 8 Gy in man. It represents an absolutely lethal clinical-pathological unit, necro-hemorrhagic enteritis and proctocolitis, with unknown causal therapy. Elk-1 is a protein acting as a transcription factor activating specified genes. The purpose of our study was to examine the expression of phospho-Elk-1 in irradiated jejunum and transversal colon of rats with radiation-induced enterocolitis and to assess the importance of this transcriptional factor as a biodosimetric marker of radiation-induced enteropathy. The laboratory rats were randomly divided into 21 groups, 10 animals per group, and irradiated with whole body gamma-irradiation of 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 Gy. Samples of jejunum and transversal colon were taken 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours later, immunohisto-chemically stained, and the phospho-Elk-1 expression was examined using computer image analysis. A group of 10 sham-irradiated animals was used as control. Significantly increased expression of phospho-Elk-1 in rat jejunum has been found in all time intervals after irradiation by sublethal doses of 1 and 5 Gy, whereas after the irradiation by lethal doses, the expression of phospho-Elk-1 in rat jejunum varied considerably. Significantly increased expression of phospho-Elk-1 in transversal colon has also been found in the first days after irradiation by sublethal doses of 1 and 5 Gy. After irradiation by lethal doses, there was no uniform pattern of the changes in the expression of phospho-Elk-1 in rat transversal colon. The detection of phospho-Elk-1 might be considered as a suitable and very sensitive biodosimetric marker of radiation-induced injury of small and large intestine. According to our knowledge, this is the first study on the phospho-Elk-1 expression in irradiated jejunum and transversal colon in the rat.  (+info)

Transient impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in relatively low-dose of acute radiation syndrome is associated with inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis. (2/35)

Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, which occurs constitutively, is vulnerable to ionizing radiation. In the relatively low-dose exposure of acute radiation syndrome (ARS), the change in the adult hippocampal function is poorly understood. This study analyzed the changes in apoptotic cell death and neurogenesis in the DGs of hippocampi from adult ICR mice with single whole-body gamma-irradiation using the TUNEL method and immunohistochemical markers of neurogenesis, Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX). In addition, the hippocampus-dependent learning and memory tasks after single whole-body gamma-irradiation were examined in order to evaluate the hippocampus-related behavioral dysfunction in the relatively low-dose exposure of ARS. The number of TUNEL-positive apoptotic nuclei in the dentate gyrus (DG) was increased 6-12 h after acute gamma-irradiation (a single dose of 0.5 to 4 Gy). In contrast, the number of Ki-67- and DCX-positive cells began to decrease significantly 6 h postirradiation, reaching its lowest level 24 h after irradiation. The level of Ki-67 and DCX immunoreactivity decreased in a dose-dependent manner within the range of irradiation applied (0-4 Gy). In passive avoidance and object recognition memory test, the mice trained 1 day after acute irradiation (2 Gy) showed significant memory deficits, compared with the sham controls. In conclusion, the pattern of the hippocampus-dependent memory dysfunction is consistent with the change in neurogenesis after acute irradiation. It is suggested that a relatively low dose of ARS in adult ICR mice is sufficiently detrimental to interrupt the functioning of the hippocampus, including learning and memory, possibly through the inhibition of neurogenesis.  (+info)

Dose estimation by chromosome aberration analysis and micronucleus assays in victims accidentally exposed to (60)Co radiation. (3/35)

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The radiation protection and therapy effects of mesenchymal stem cells in mice with acute radiation injury. (4/35)

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Amifostine ameliorates recognition memory defect in acute radiation syndrome caused by relatively low-dose of gamma radiation. (5/35)

This study examined whether amifostine (WR-2721) could attenuate memory impairment and suppress hippocampal neurogenesis in adult mice with the relatively low-dose exposure of acute radiation syndrome (ARS). These were assessed using object recognition memory test, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay, and immunohistochemical markers of neurogenesis [Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX)]. Amifostine treatment (214 mg/kg, i.p.) prior to irradiation significantly attenuated the recognition memory defect in ARS, and markedly blocked the apoptotic death and decrease of Ki-67- and DCX-positive cells in ARS. Therefore, amifostine may attenuate recognition memory defect in a relatively low-dose exposure of ARS in adult mice, possibly by inhibiting a detrimental effect of irradiation on hippocampal neurogenesis.  (+info)

Radiation rescue: mesenchymal stromal cells protect from lethal irradiation. (6/35)

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Radiation injury after a nuclear detonation: medical consequences and the need for scarce resources allocation. (7/35)

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Hematopoietic cell infusion for the treatment of nuclear disaster victims: new data from the Chernobyl accident. (8/35)

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Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS), also known as radiation sickness, is a set of symptoms that occur within 24 hours after exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation. The severity of the syndrome depends on the dose of radiation received and the duration of exposure. It can be caused by accidental exposure or intentional use in nuclear warfare or terrorist activities.

ARS is typically divided into three categories based on the symptoms and affected organs: hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, and neurovascular.

1. Hematopoietic ARS: This type of ARS affects the bone marrow and results in a decrease in white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. Symptoms include fatigue, weakness, fever, infection, and bleeding.
2. Gastrointestinal ARS: This type of ARS affects the gastrointestinal tract and results in nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and dehydration.
3. Neurovascular ARS: This is the most severe form of ARS and affects the central nervous system. Symptoms include confusion, disorientation, seizures, coma, and death.

Treatment for ARS includes supportive care such as fluid replacement, blood transfusions, antibiotics, and medications to manage symptoms. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary. Prevention measures include limiting exposure to ionizing radiation and using appropriate protective equipment when working with radioactive materials.

A "Radioactive Hazard Release" is defined in medical and environmental health terms as an uncontrolled or accidental release of radioactive material into the environment, which can pose significant risks to human health and the ecosystem. This can occur due to various reasons such as nuclear accidents, improper handling or disposal of radioactive sources, or failure of radiation-generating equipment.

The released radioactive materials can contaminate air, water, and soil, leading to both external and internal exposure pathways. External exposure occurs through direct contact with the skin or by inhaling radioactive particles, while internal exposure happens when radioactive substances are ingested or inhaled and become deposited within the body.

The health effects of radioactive hazard release depend on several factors, including the type and amount of radiation released, the duration and intensity of exposure, and the sensitivity of the exposed individuals. Potential health impacts range from mild radiation sickness to severe diseases such as cancer and genetic mutations, depending on the level and length of exposure.

Prompt identification, assessment, and management of radioactive hazard releases are crucial to minimize potential health risks and protect public health.

'Radiation injuries, experimental' is not a widely recognized medical term. However, in the field of radiation biology and medicine, it may refer to the study and understanding of radiation-induced damage using various experimental models (e.g., cell cultures, animal models) before applying this knowledge to human health situations. These experiments aim to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on living organisms' biological processes, tissue responses, and potential therapeutic interventions. The findings from these studies contribute to the development of medical countermeasures, diagnostic tools, and treatment strategies for accidental or intentional radiation exposures in humans.

Radiation injuries refer to the damages that occur to living tissues as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation. These injuries can be acute, occurring soon after exposure to high levels of radiation, or chronic, developing over a longer period after exposure to lower levels of radiation. The severity and type of injury depend on the dose and duration of exposure, as well as the specific tissues affected.

Acute radiation syndrome (ARS), also known as radiation sickness, is the most severe form of acute radiation injury. It can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, fever, and skin burns. In more severe cases, it can lead to neurological damage, hemorrhage, infection, and death.

Chronic radiation injuries, on the other hand, may not appear until months or even years after exposure. They can cause a range of symptoms, including fatigue, weakness, skin changes, cataracts, reduced fertility, and an increased risk of cancer.

Radiation injuries can be treated with supportive care, such as fluids and electrolytes replacement, antibiotics, wound care, and blood transfusions. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or control bleeding. Prevention is the best approach to radiation injuries, which includes limiting exposure through proper protective measures and monitoring radiation levels in the environment.

Whole-Body Irradiation (WBI) is a medical procedure that involves the exposure of the entire body to a controlled dose of ionizing radiation, typically used in the context of radiation therapy for cancer treatment. The purpose of WBI is to destroy cancer cells or suppress the immune system prior to a bone marrow transplant. It can be delivered using various sources of radiation, such as X-rays, gamma rays, or electrons, and is carefully planned and monitored to minimize harm to healthy tissues while maximizing the therapeutic effect on cancer cells. Potential side effects include nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and an increased risk of infection due to decreased white blood cell counts.

Radiation-protective agents, also known as radioprotectors, are substances that help in providing protection against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. They can be used to prevent or reduce damage to biological tissues, including DNA, caused by exposure to radiation. These agents work through various mechanisms such as scavenging free radicals, modulating cellular responses to radiation-induced damage, and enhancing DNA repair processes.

Radiation-protective agents can be categorized into two main groups:

1. Radiosensitizers: These are substances that make cancer cells more sensitive to the effects of radiation therapy, increasing their susceptibility to damage and potentially improving treatment outcomes. However, radiosensitizers do not provide protection to normal tissues against radiation exposure.

2. Radioprotectors: These agents protect both normal and cancerous cells from radiation-induced damage. They can be further divided into two categories: direct and indirect radioprotectors. Direct radioprotectors interact directly with radiation, absorbing or scattering it away from sensitive tissues. Indirect radioprotectors work by neutralizing free radicals and reactive oxygen species generated during radiation exposure, which would otherwise cause damage to cellular structures and DNA.

Examples of radiation-protective agents include antioxidants like vitamins C and E, chemical compounds such as amifostine and cysteamine, and various natural substances found in plants and foods. It is important to note that while some radiation-protective agents have shown promise in preclinical studies, their efficacy and safety in humans require further investigation before they can be widely used in clinical settings.

Radiation dosage, in the context of medical physics, refers to the amount of radiation energy that is absorbed by a material or tissue, usually measured in units of Gray (Gy), where 1 Gy equals an absorption of 1 Joule of radiation energy per kilogram of matter. In the clinical setting, radiation dosage is used to plan and assess the amount of radiation delivered to a patient during treatments such as radiotherapy. It's important to note that the biological impact of radiation also depends on other factors, including the type and energy level of the radiation, as well as the sensitivity of the irradiated tissues or organs.

Medical Definition:

Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) is a standard measurement in toxicology that refers to the estimated amount or dose of a substance, which if ingested, injected, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin by either human or animal, would cause death in 50% of the test population. It is expressed as the mass of a substance per unit of body weight (mg/kg, μg/kg, etc.). LD50 values are often used to compare the toxicity of different substances and help determine safe dosage levels.

A dose-response relationship in radiation refers to the correlation between the amount of radiation exposure (dose) and the biological response or adverse health effects observed in exposed individuals. As the level of radiation dose increases, the severity and frequency of the adverse health effects also tend to increase. This relationship is crucial in understanding the risks associated with various levels of radiation exposure and helps inform radiation protection standards and guidelines.

The effects of ionizing radiation can be categorized into two types: deterministic and stochastic. Deterministic effects have a threshold dose below which no effect is observed, and above this threshold, the severity of the effect increases with higher doses. Examples include radiation-induced cataracts or radiation dermatitis. Stochastic effects, on the other hand, do not have a clear threshold and are based on probability; as the dose increases, so does the likelihood of the adverse health effect occurring, such as an increased risk of cancer.

Understanding the dose-response relationship in radiation exposure is essential for setting limits on occupational and public exposure to ionizing radiation, optimizing radiation protection practices, and developing effective medical countermeasures in case of radiation emergencies.

Radiodermatitis is a cutaneous adverse reaction that occurs as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation. It is characterized by inflammation, erythema, dryness, and desquamation of the skin, which can progress to moist desquamation, ulceration, and necrosis in severe cases. Radiodermatitis typically affects areas of the skin that have received high doses of radiation therapy during cancer treatment. The severity and duration of radiodermatitis depend on factors such as the total dose, fraction size, dose rate, and volume of radiation administered, as well as individual patient characteristics.

A syndrome, in medical terms, is a set of symptoms that collectively indicate or characterize a disease, disorder, or underlying pathological process. It's essentially a collection of signs and/or symptoms that frequently occur together and can suggest a particular cause or condition, even though the exact physiological mechanisms might not be fully understood.

For example, Down syndrome is characterized by specific physical features, cognitive delays, and other developmental issues resulting from an extra copy of chromosome 21. Similarly, metabolic syndromes like diabetes mellitus type 2 involve a group of risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that collectively increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.

It's important to note that a syndrome is not a specific diagnosis; rather, it's a pattern of symptoms that can help guide further diagnostic evaluation and management.

Radiation pneumonitis is a inflammatory reaction in the lung tissue that occurs as a complication of thoracic radiation therapy. It usually develops 1-3 months following the completion of radiation treatment. The symptoms can range from mild to severe and may include cough, shortness of breath, fever, and chest discomfort. In severe cases, it can lead to fibrosis (scarring) of the lung tissue, which can cause permanent lung damage. Radiation pneumonitis is diagnosed through a combination of clinical symptoms, imaging studies such as chest X-ray or CT scan, and sometimes through bronchoscopy with lavage. Treatment typically involves corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and supportive care to manage symptoms.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Gram-negative bacterial infections refer to illnesses or diseases caused by Gram-negative bacteria, which are a group of bacteria that do not retain crystal violet dye during the Gram staining procedure used in microbiology. This characteristic is due to the structure of their cell walls, which contain a thin layer of peptidoglycan and an outer membrane composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), proteins, and phospholipids.

The LPS component of the outer membrane is responsible for the endotoxic properties of Gram-negative bacteria, which can lead to severe inflammatory responses in the host. Common Gram-negative bacterial pathogens include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Proteus mirabilis, among others.

Gram-negative bacterial infections can cause a wide range of clinical syndromes, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, meningitis, and soft tissue infections. The severity of these infections can vary from mild to life-threatening, depending on the patient's immune status, the site of infection, and the virulence of the bacterial strain.

Effective antibiotic therapy is crucial for treating Gram-negative bacterial infections, but the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains has become a significant global health concern. Therefore, accurate diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial stewardship are essential to ensure optimal patient outcomes and prevent further spread of resistance.

Gram-negative bacteria are a type of bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining method, a standard technique used in microbiology to classify and identify different types of bacteria based on their structural differences. This method was developed by Hans Christian Gram in 1884.

The primary characteristic distinguishing Gram-negative bacteria from Gram-positive bacteria is the composition and structure of their cell walls:

1. Cell wall: Gram-negative bacteria have a thin peptidoglycan layer, making it more susceptible to damage and less rigid compared to Gram-positive bacteria.
2. Outer membrane: They possess an additional outer membrane that contains lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are endotoxins that can trigger strong immune responses in humans and animals. The outer membrane also contains proteins, known as porins, which form channels for the passage of molecules into and out of the cell.
3. Periplasm: Between the inner and outer membranes lies a compartment called the periplasm, where various enzymes and other molecules are located.

Some examples of Gram-negative bacteria include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., and Neisseria meningitidis. These bacteria are often associated with various infections, such as urinary tract infections, pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. Due to their complex cell wall structure, Gram-negative bacteria can be more resistant to certain antibiotics, making them a significant concern in healthcare settings.

Ionizing radiation is a type of radiation that carries enough energy to ionize atoms or molecules, which means it can knock electrons out of their orbits and create ions. These charged particles can cause damage to living tissue and DNA, making ionizing radiation dangerous to human health. Examples of ionizing radiation include X-rays, gamma rays, and some forms of subatomic particles such as alpha and beta particles. The amount and duration of exposure to ionizing radiation are important factors in determining the potential health effects, which can range from mild skin irritation to an increased risk of cancer and other diseases.

Animal experimentation, also known as animal testing, refers to the use of non-human animals in scientific research and testing to understand the effects of various substances, treatments, or procedures on living organisms. This practice is performed with the goal of advancing medical and veterinary knowledge, developing new medications, treatments, and surgical techniques, as well as studying basic biological processes and diseases.

In animal experimentation, researchers expose animals to specific conditions, treatments, or substances and then analyze their responses, behaviors, physiological changes, or other outcomes. The selection of animal species for these experiments depends on the research question and the similarities between the animal model and the human or target species under investigation. Commonly used animals include mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, primates, and dogs.

Animal experimentation has been instrumental in numerous scientific breakthroughs and medical advancements throughout history. However, it remains a controversial topic due to ethical concerns regarding the treatment and welfare of animals used in research. Many organizations advocate for the reduction, refinement, or replacement (3Rs) of animal testing, aiming to minimize animal suffering and find alternative methods whenever possible.

In medical terms, the skin is the largest organ of the human body. It consists of two main layers: the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (inner layer), as well as accessory structures like hair follicles, sweat glands, and oil glands. The skin plays a crucial role in protecting us from external factors such as bacteria, viruses, and environmental hazards, while also regulating body temperature and enabling the sense of touch.

... (ARS), also known as radiation sickness or radiation poisoning, is a collection of health effects that ... CDC Radiation Emergencies Acute Radiation Syndrome. 22 April 2019. Archived from the original on 18 May 2019. Retrieved 17 May ... "Time Phases of Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) - Dose >8 Gy". Radiation Emergency Medical Management. Archived from the original ... "Fact sheet on Acute Radiation Syndrome". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 16 July ...
Chapter 2 Acute radiation syndrome Reeves GI. Medical implications of enhanced radiation weapons. Mil Med. 2010 ;175:964-70. ... In addition to infections due to neutropenia, a patient with the Acute Radiation Syndrome will also be at risk for viral, ... Bader JL, Nemhauser J, Chang F, Mashayekhi B, Sczcur M, Knebel A, Hrdina C, Coleman N.Radiation event medical management (REMM ... Exposure to higher doses of radiation is associated with systemic anaerobic infections due to gram negative bacilli and gram ...
In March 2018 the label was extended to use as a countermeasure for acute radiation syndrome. "US Sargramostim label" (PDF). ... FDA approves Leukine for Acute Radiation Syndrome. Retrieved 29 March 2018. (Articles with short description, Short description ... Schmeck HM (1987-11-02). "Radiation Team Sent to Brazil Saves Two With a New Drug". New York Times. Retrieved 2012-06-20. " ... It is also used to treat neutropenia induced by chemotherapy during the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia. Additionally, it ...
They were suffering from acute radiation syndrome. 1955-1957: Internally displaced Rongelapese inhabitants repeatedly request ... on Radiation, Joint Comm". Congress, U. S. At. Energy, 86th Congress, 1st session, Washington, US GPO, 1959. {{cite journal}}: ... page 436.) 9.107 A radiation dose of 700 rads over a period of 96 hours would probably prove fatal in the great majority of ... The population asked the US to move them (several times) from Rongelap following the test due to high radiation levels with no ...
Ten of the adults developed acute radiation syndrome. One exposed 60Co source was retrieved, but the source from the other ... Three weeks later, the worker suffered symptoms typical of acute radiation syndrome (vomiting, loss of hair, fatigue). One ... February 1, 2000 - Samut Prakan radiation accident: The radiation source of an expired teletherapy unit was purchased and ... a 7-year-old girl was treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia with whole brain radiation. The prescriptions were done manually ...
"Acute radiation syndrome and chronic radiation syndrome" (PDF). Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine. 16 (1): 56-9. PMID ... Chronic radiation syndrome (CRS), or chronic radiation enteritis, is a constellation of health effects of radiation that occur ... unlike radiation-induced cancer. It is distinct from acute radiation syndrome, in that it occurs at dose rates low enough to ... Chronic radiation syndrome develops with a speed and severity proportional to the radiation dose received (i.e., it is a ...
There were 28 deaths from acute radiation syndrome. Total doses from the Fukushima I accidents were between 1 and 15 mSv for ... However, background radiation for occupational doses includes radiation that is not measured by radiation dose instruments in ... Background radiation description from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Environmental and Background Radiation FAQ from ... Record radiation levels were found in a house where the effective dose due to ambient radiation fields was 131 mSv (13.1 rem) ...
Young also suffered from acute radiation syndrome, but recovered. By 28 January 1948 Graves, Kline and Perlman sought ... and they are not considered as relevant to acute radiation syndrome as absorbed doses. Recent documents have made various ... He quickly collapsed with acute radiation poisoning and died 25 days later in the Los Alamos base hospital. After World War II ... Graves, who was standing the closest to Slotin, also developed acute radiation sickness and was hospitalized for several weeks ...
Excess radiation exposure may result in acute radiation syndrome or other radiation-induced illnesses, especially in sunny ... "Acute Radiation Syndrome , CDC". 23 October 2020. Archived from the original on 8 June 2019. Retrieved 7 June 2019. "Sun ... Symptoms common to heat illness and the prodromic stage of acute radiation syndrome like nausea, vomiting, fever, weakness/ ... On a minute-by-minute basis, the amount of UV radiation depends on the sun's angle. Ultraviolet radiation is easily determined ...
Radiation Emergency Medical Management. "Time Phases of Acute Radiation Syndrome - Radiation Emergency Medical Management". www ... radiation fibrosis). Pulmonary radiation injury most commonly occurs as a result of radiation therapy administered to treat ... Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a general term for damage to the lungs as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation. ... "Radiation-induced lung injury". Seminars in Radiation Oncology. 13 (3): 333-345. doi:10.1016/S1053-4296(03)00034-1. ISSN 1053- ...
Despite this, there were no deaths caused by acute radiation syndrome. Given the uncertain health effects of low-dose radiation ... No radiation-related deaths or acute diseases have been observed among the workers and general public exposed to radiation from ... among them that this figure was based on an assumption of acute deaths from low radiation doses. There is no known mechanism ... and about 4 people out of 10 can be expected to develop cancer without exposure to radiation. Further, the radiation exposure ...
... may be used to treat acute radiation syndrome. "To reduce radiation-induced bleeding, Nplate stimulates the body's ... Roberts L (5 October 2022). "US splashes $290m on anti-radiation drugs after Putin ups nuclear threats". The Daily Telegraph. ...
Many of them soon began to show symptoms of acute radiation syndrome. They returned to the islands three years later but were ... that the crew members were infected with hepatitis C through blood transfusions during part of their acute radiation syndrome ... but they all soon became ill with the effects of acute radiation sickness. One fisherman died about six months later while ... An 11-year-old boy who was born on Bikini in 1971 died from cancer that was linked to radiation exposure that he received on ...
"Acute Radiation Syndrome: A Fact Sheet for Physicians". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 4 April 2018. Retrieved 7 ... Experiments in radiation biology have found that as the absorbed dose of radiation increases, the number of cells which survive ... Hyperfractionated radiation therapy is given over the same period of time (days or weeks) as standard radiation therapy. ... For many short-term radiation deaths due to what is commonly known as radiation sickness (3 to 30 days after exposure), it is ...
Acute radiation syndrome Nuclear and radiation accidents and incidents International Nuclear Event Scale List of nuclear and ... Ten of the adults developed acute radiation syndrome. One exposed cobalt-60 source was retrieved, but the source from the other ... all three died of radiation injury. February 1, 2000 - Samut Prakan radiation accident: The radiation source of an expired ... The family suffered from acute radiation sickness and later recovered. The source was identified and removed 24 hours after its ...
Experiencing early symptoms of Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS), Pravyk and his men were forced to descend from the roof. ... Following the event, he was hospitalized with acute radiation syndrome and died sixteen days later. He was posthumously awarded ... Radiation damage to his bone marrow had lowered his white blood cell count, leaving him extremely vulnerable to infection, and ... After the initial symptoms of his radiation exposure passed, Pravyk was optimistic, and hoped that he would recover and see his ...
Of the hospitalized workers, 134 exhibited symptoms of acute radiation syndrome, including one disputed case. 28 of the ... combining the deaths of approximately 50 emergency workers who died soon after the accident from acute radiation syndrome, 15 ... of which 134 exhibited symptoms of acute radiation syndrome (ARS). Among those hospitalized, 28 died within the following three ... ISBN 978-0-87371-996-4. Reported thus far are 237 cases of acute radiation sickness and 31 deaths. Mould (2000), p. 29. "The ...
During her work, she got sick with acute radiation syndrome, which lead to her death. Maria Orbeli was buried at the ...
Hempelmann, Louis H.; Lisco, Hermann; Hoffman, Joseph G. (February 1, 1952). "The Acute Radiation Syndrome: A Study of Nine ... In 1967 a student at Jefferson Medical College who wanted to study the effects of radiation on the human body was referred to ... Plutonium is similar to radium in that it is deposited in the bones, where its alpha radiation may cause sarcoma, but while ... Hempelmann then embarked on a series of studies of children who had been given radiation therapy for thymus enlargement. At the ...
High doses can cause visually dramatic radiation burns, and/or rapid fatality through acute radiation syndrome. Controlled ... Ionizing radiation is generally harmful and potentially lethal to living things but can have health benefits in radiation ... but only the radiation type. Various body tissues react to ionising radiation in different ways, so the ICRP has assigned ... of low levels of ionizing radiation. It takes into account the type of radiation and the nature of each organ or tissue being ...
... whereas the same amount of acute external dose would invariably cause an earlier death by acute radiation syndrome. Internal ... In addition to conventional fatalities and acute radiation syndrome fatalities, nine children died of thyroid cancer, and it is ... This contrasts with the deterministic effects of acute radiation syndrome which increase in severity with dose above a ... This effect is responsible for acute radiation syndrome, but these heavily damaged cells cannot become cancerous. Lighter ...
Acute radiation syndrome, by acute whole-body radiation Radiation burns, from radiation to a particular body surface Radiation- ... High doses can cause visually dramatic radiation burns, and/or rapid fatality through acute radiation syndrome. Controlled ... but no cases of acute radiation syndrome- popularized the warnings of occupational health associated with radiation hazards. ... a potential side effect from radiation treatment against hyperthyroidism Chronic radiation syndrome, from long-term radiation. ...
Acute radiation syndrome is a result of irreversible bone marrow damage from high-energy radiation exposure. Due to the ... they provide almost no protection from externally penetrating gamma radiation, which is the cause of acute radiation syndrome ... attenuation to only the most radio-sensitive organs and tissues in efforts to defer the onset of acute radiation syndrome, the ... The detonation of a "dirty bomb" would not cause a nuclear explosion, nor would it release enough radiation to kill or injure a ...
... acute radiation syndrome) Tony Blair, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom; in Edinburgh Michelle Courchesne, Canadian ...
Akimov eventually succumbed to acute radiation syndrome two weeks after the disaster at the age of 33. His family was informed ... during which time they began to experience symptoms of acute radiation syndrome and were sent to the infirmary. Akimov was ... the symptoms of radiation sickness had mostly subsided. His wife visited him in hospital and while aware he might not survive, ... exposed during his work to a lethal dose of 15-20 Gy of radiation.[page needed] He was admitted to Pripyat Hospital but was ...
Intake of very large amounts of radioactive material can cause acute radiation syndrome (ARS) in rare instances. Examples ... In summary, not all radiation is harmful. The radiation can be absorbed through multiple pathways, varying due to the ... The radiation risk proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) predicts that an effective dose ... The most harmful way to absorb radiation is that of absorption because it is almost impossible to control how much will enter ...
Members of the crew suffered from acute radiation syndrome, with Kuboyama Aikichi dying of a related infection six months later ... When the tuna fishermen returned home, they exhibited symptoms of what would later be called acute radiation syndrome. Geiger ... Their catch of tuna and shark was also found to be contaminated with radiation, resulting in two tons of tuna buried at Tsukiji ... Oishi believed that his exposure to radiation caused this tragedy as well. In the mid-1990s, Oishi began to speak publicly at ...
The crew suffered acute radiation syndrome (ARS) for a number of weeks after the Bravo test in March. All recovered except for ... were diagnosed with acute radiation syndrome. The US did not respond to Nishiwaki's letter or to letters from other Japanese ... High levels of radiation were found in the men's hair and nails, and so the hospital was forced to cut off the rest of their ... Radiation sickness symptoms appeared later that day. Due to this, the fishermen called the white ash shi no hai (死の灰, death ash ...
This rumor led to further speculation in the press that the soldiers were suffering from acute radiation syndrome. One Russian ... "Ionizing Radiation Dose Ranges (Rem and Sievert charts)" (PDF). United States Department of Energy. June 2010. Archived (PDF) ... Gill, Victoria (25 February 2022). "Chernobyl: Radiation spike at nuclear plant seized by Russian forces". BBC News. Archived ... Nevertheless, the agency recognised that lack of electricity was likely to deteriorate radiation safety, specifically through ...
He died on 23 November, becoming the first confirmed victim of lethal polonium-210-induced acute radiation syndrome. ... Unlike some other source of radiation, polonium-210 emits very few gamma radiations, but large amounts of alpha particles which ... Both gamma rays and alpha particles are classified as ionizing radiation, which can cause radiation damage. An alpha-emitting ... "Radiation on airliners may be from poisoned spy". CNN. 29 November 2006. Archived from the original on 29 November 2006. ...
Acute radiation syndrome (ARS), also known as radiation sickness or radiation poisoning, is a collection of health effects that ... CDC Radiation Emergencies Acute Radiation Syndrome. 22 April 2019. Archived from the original on 18 May 2019. Retrieved 17 May ... "Time Phases of Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) - Dose >8 Gy". Radiation Emergency Medical Management. Archived from the original ... "Fact sheet on Acute Radiation Syndrome". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 16 July ...
... as a treatment for the pulmonary syndrome of acute radiation syndrome (Lung-ARS) and delayed effects of acute radiation ... Home News BARDA Exercises $6M Option for Aeolus Acute Radiation Syndrome Drug ...
Radiation Research publishes work dealing with radiation effects and related subjects in the areas of physics, chemistry, ... thus inducing acute radiation syndrome. Acute radiation syndrome is caused by depletion of bone marrow cells (hematopoietic ... "Mice Lacking RIP3 Kinase are not Protected from Acute Radiation Syndrome," Radiation Research 189(6), 627-633, (10 April 2018 ... "Mice Lacking RIP3 Kinase are not Protected from Acute Radiation Syndrome," Radiation Research, 189(6), 627-633, (10 April 2018 ...
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About Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS). Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) is an acute illness caused by irradiation of the entire ... for the treatment of Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS).. ARS is an illness that occurs following a high dose of radiation exposure ... The FDAs Orphan Drug Designation is aimed at advancing treatments for rare diseases, including Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS ... FDA Grants Orphan Drug Designation to NeoImmuneTechs NT-I7 for the Treatment of Acute Radiation Syndrome. ...
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... pHep4Os1qqE Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) primarily refers to damage to the hematopoietic system, myeloid system, and ... Pathophysiology Dose response in respect to radiation injury: ARS is the host response against… ... Acute Radiation Syndrome in an Irradiated Minipig Model for Patients with Radiation Exposure. J Radiat Prot Res, 42(3), 146-153 ... Acute Radiation Syndrome in an Irradiated Minipig Model for Patients with Radiation Exposure. J Radiat Prot Res, 42(3), 146-153 ...
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Abacterial cystitis; Radiation cystitis; Chemical cystitis; Urethral syndrome - acute; Bladder pain syndrome; Painful bladder ... Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and related disorders. In: Partin AW, Dmochowski RR, Kavoussi LR, Peters CA, eds. ... Diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: AUA guideline amendment. J Urol. 2015;193(5):1545-1553 ... Diagnosis and Treatment Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (2022). www.auanet.org/guidelines/guidelines/diagnosis-and- ...
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The victims suffered acute radiation syndrome. Their bone marrow stopped functioning. In many cases their bodies could not ... She specializes in radiation detection, internal radiation dose assessment, and radiation safety practices. In the 1990s, she ... What effects did radiation have on the human body? Was it killing people? How? Was there such a thing as a safe dose?. In ... What effects did radiation have on the human body? Was it killing people? How? Was there such a thing as a "safe" dose? ...
The Radiation Emergency Assistance Center Training Site (REAC/TS) maintains a repository of clinical information and data on ... "Patients with Hematopoietic Syndrome of Acute Radiation Syndrome (HS-ARS): Nplate is indicated to increase survival in adults ... Nplate® (Romiplostim) approved for use in Hematopoietic Syndrome of Acute Radiation Syndrome (HS-ARS). The National Institute ... With the January 28, 2021 approval of Nplate® for hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS), the FDA has now granted ...
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"Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) is a collection of health effects that present within 24 hours of exposure to high doses of ...
Advise patients acutely exposed to myelosuppressive doses of radiation (Hematopoietic Subsyndrome of Acute Radiation Syndrome) ... 5.2 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can occur in patients receiving ... Sweets syndrome (acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis), cutaneous vasculitis. *Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute ... Acute Radiation Syndrome: The effectiveness of pegfilgrastim for this use was only studied in animals, because it could not be ...
  • Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) (sometimes known as radiation toxicity or radiation sickness) is an acute illness caused by irradiation of the entire body (or most of the body) by a high dose of penetrating radiation in a very short period of time (usually a matter of minutes). (cdc.gov)
  • Acute radiation syndrome (ARS), also known as radiation sickness or radiation poisoning, is a collection of health effects that are caused by being exposed to high amounts of ionizing radiation in a short period of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • These symptoms are common to many illnesses, and may not, by themselves, indicate acute radiation sickness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the dose of radiation received, individuals develop acute radiation syndrome (ARS, also known as radiation sickness). (therasourceinc.com)
  • A targeted look at the effects of radiation sickness and what measures to take for decontamination and initial treatment. (emra.org)
  • Radiation sickness is damage to your body caused by a large dose of radiation often received over a short period of time (acute). (sparrow.org)
  • Radiation sickness is also called acute radiation syndrome or radiation poisoning. (sparrow.org)
  • Radiation sickness is not caused by common imaging tests that use low-dose radiation, such as X-rays or CT scans. (sparrow.org)
  • Although radiation sickness is serious and often fatal, it's rare. (sparrow.org)
  • Since the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, during World War II, most cases of radiation sickness have occurred after nuclear industrial accidents, such as the 1986 explosion and fire that damaged the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl, Ukraine. (sparrow.org)
  • The severity of signs and symptoms of radiation sickness depends on how much radiation you've absorbed. (sparrow.org)
  • The severity of radiation sickness also depends on how sensitive the affected tissue is. (sparrow.org)
  • The initial signs and symptoms of treatable radiation sickness are usually nausea and vomiting. (sparrow.org)
  • After the first round of signs and symptoms, a person with radiation sickness may have a brief period with no apparent illness, followed by the onset of new, more-serious symptoms. (sparrow.org)
  • An accident or attack that causes radiation sickness would no doubt cause a lot of attention and public concern. (sparrow.org)
  • Radiation sickness is caused by exposure to a high dose of radiation, such as a high dose of radiation received during an industrial accident. (sparrow.org)
  • Radiation sickness occurs when high-energy radiation damages or destroys certain cells in your body. (sparrow.org)
  • The company said it is helping to ramp up supply in Europe of Leukine, a drug to treat acute radiation syndrome (ARS), or radiation sickness from exposure to high dose radiation during a nuclear emergency. (localnews8.com)
  • Symptoms may be local (eg, burns) or systemic (eg, acute radiation sickness). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Patients with severe acute radiation sickness receive reverse isolation, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents, and bone marrow support. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A short-term dose of 1000 mSv (1 Sv) is about the threshold of acute radiation syndrome (sickness). (world-nuclear.org)
  • High levels of exposure can cause acute radiation sickness, a syndrome first recognized by the medical profession after Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (helencaldicott.com)
  • About $56.3 million will go toward five contracts for a variety of drug companies and scientists working on countermeasures for acute radiation syndrome, or radiation sickness. (dotmed.com)
  • In 2020, Jacob and colleagues published data demonstrating the effectiveness of a novel miRNA-based biodosimetry test devised to quickly diagnose radiation sickness based on biomarkers measured through a single drop of blood. (eurekalert.org)
  • o Fractionated doses are often used in radiation therapy. (cdc.gov)
  • It is generally divided into three types: bone marrow, gastrointestinal, and neurovascular syndrome, with bone marrow syndrome occurring at 0.7 to 10 Gy, and neurovascular syndrome occurring at doses that exceed 50 Gy. (wikipedia.org)
  • ARS differs from chronic radiation syndrome, which occurs following prolonged exposures to relatively low doses of radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The speed of symptom onset is related to radiation exposure, with greater doses resulting in a shorter delay in symptom onset. (wikipedia.org)
  • This syndrome often follows absorbed doses of 6-30 grays (600-3,000 rad). (wikipedia.org)
  • This syndrome typically occurs at absorbed doses greater than 30 grays (3,000 rad), though it may occur at doses as low as 10 grays (1,000 rad). (wikipedia.org)
  • These symptoms may occur at radiation doses as low as 0.35 grays (35 rad). (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation can cause lethal injury to normal tissue, thus inducing acute radiation syndrome. (bioone.org)
  • Absorbed and equivalent radiation doses can not be directly converted as the conversion depends on the type of radiation. (convert-me.com)
  • Exposure to high doses of radiation can occur after accidental exposure to radioactive materials, a natural disaster or technical accident at a nuclear facility, or the detonation of a radioactive device or nuclear bomb. (therasourceinc.com)
  • Patients with Hematopoietic Syndrome of Acute Radiation Syndrome (HS-ARS): Nplate is indicated to increase survival in adults and pediatric patients (including term neonates) acutely exposed to myelosuppressive doses of radiation. (orau.gov)
  • Increase survival in patients acutely exposed to myelosuppressive doses of radiation (Hematopoietic Subsyndrome of Acute Radiation Syndrome). (drugs.com)
  • Administer the first dose as soon as possible after suspected or confirmed exposure to myelosuppressive doses of radiation, and a second dose one week after. (drugs.com)
  • Pegfilgrastim is used to reduce the risk of infection in some cancer patients and to increase your chances of surviving after exposure to high doses of radiation that affect your ability to make blood cells. (drugs.com)
  • They are not approved for use in people acutely exposed to myelosuppressive doses of radiation. (drugs.com)
  • Patients receiving high doses of radiation can't produce enough new white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets, which is called myelosuppression. (pharmalive.com)
  • For example, many workers have been harmed as a result of long-term exposure to small doses of radiation on the job while others have suffered radiation poisoning from being exposed to a radiation source after one time. (injurylawservice.com)
  • In 1999 three workers received high doses of radiation in a small Japanese plant preparing fuel for an experimental reactor. (world-nuclear.org)
  • A total of 119 people received a radiation dose over 1 mSv from the accident, but only the three operators' doses were above permissible limits. (world-nuclear.org)
  • If a meltdown occurred at the plant, a large number of people could be exposed to high doses of radiation in this region, one of the most heavily populated in Japan. (helencaldicott.com)
  • When exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation -- such as from a nuclear bomb blast -- fast-reproducing cells in the gut, bone marrow, and lungs can be destroyed, which can in turn lead to internal bleeding, a depressed immune system and death over the following days or even weeks. (dotmed.com)
  • In tests on animals, the substance, which mimics a hormone found in the body and prevents cell death and inflammation, was found to protect against lethal doses of radiation, as well as to speed up wound healing, reduce brain, kidney and heart injuries from trauma or disease, and even improve learning. (dotmed.com)
  • The study aimed to estimate threshold doses and their uncertainties for some human health effects after short-term high dose-rate radiation exposure by quantile technique and the effective dose threshold technique based on distribution functions. (bvsalud.org)
  • The quantile technique provided statistically significant estimates of threshold doses for acute radiation syndrome onset (0.44 ± 0.12 Gy, U = 143%) and lethality (1.84 ± 0.44 Gy, U = 117%) but relative uncertainties were high. (bvsalud.org)
  • Threshold doses estimated for the change in the peripheral blood neutrophil and leukocyte counts during the first days after short-term high dose-rate radiation exposure were not statistically significant. (bvsalud.org)
  • The purpose of this draft guidance is to provide information and recommendations to assist sponsors and other interested parties in the development of drugs to prevent or treat acute radiation syndrome ( ARS ) caused by exposure to ionizing radiation from accidental or deliberate events. (govdelivery.com)
  • But Leukine (whose generic name is sargramostim) is not currently approved for use in Europe to treat acute radiation syndrome. (localnews8.com)
  • A $290 million procurement of the drug Nplate, to treat acute radiation syndrome (ARS), was announced by the US Health and Human Services (HSS). (onecitizenspeaking.com)
  • Identifying and developing effective countermeasures to treat pathologies associated with acute radiation syndrome. (roswellpark.org)
  • In addition to its immunotherapeutic activity, entolimod is among the most powerful experimental radiation countermeasures and shows efficacy in rodents and non-human primates as a prophylactic (radioprotection) and treatment (radiomitigation) modality for normal tissues but importantly not tumors. (roswellpark.org)
  • Unveiling this novel TLR5-neutrophil-MMP-9 axis of radiomitigation has opened new opportunities for developing efficacious countermeasures to treat pathologies associated with ARS following scenarios of accidental radiation disasters or myeloablative chemotherapy in the case of cancer patients. (roswellpark.org)
  • While effective medical countermeasures (MCM) for the hematopoietic-acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS) have been identified and approved by the FDA, development of MCM for DEARE has not yet been successful. (bvsalud.org)
  • Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) and Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML): Monitor patients with breast and lung cancer using UDENYCA in conjunction with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for signs and symptoms of MDS/AML. (drugs.com)
  • NIAID -sponsored studies demonstrated that administration of Nplate®, originally licensed in 2008 for treatment of immune thrombocytopenia, increased platelet counts and improved survival in preclinical models of lethal radiation exposure. (orau.gov)
  • The cause of death was acute radiation syndrome (ARS) resulting from a lethal polonium-210 poison attack. (nationofchange.org)
  • Dr. Brackett recently uncovered that in contrast to radioprotection, neutrophils are essential for the radiomitigative activity of entolimod against lethal acute radiation syndrome (ARS), a major cause of lethality following radiation disasters that manifests as death of hematopoiesis in the bone marrow (BM). (roswellpark.org)
  • The entire body (or a significant portion of it) must have received the dose.3 o Most radiation injuries are local, frequently involving the hands, and these local injuries seldom cause classical signs of ARS. (cdc.gov)
  • Our novel approach of DRCC transplantation may act as a bridging therapy supporting hematopoietic recovery and ameliorating injuries in patients exposed to the harmful effects of radiation. (aaps1921.org)
  • This consensus document was developed by the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group to provide a framework for physicians in internal medicine and the medical subspecialties to evaluate and manage large-scale radiation injuries. (nebraska.edu)
  • In the case of a radiological or nuclear public health emergency, many thousands of people could experience severe injuries from radiation exposure, resulting in immunosuppression and infection, hemorrhage, major morbidities, and even death. (orau.gov)
  • Combined Hydration and Antibiotics with Lisinopril to Mitigate Acute and Delayed High-dose Radiation Injuries to Multiple Organs. (iu.edu)
  • The IAEA in a 2020 publication titled " Medical Management of Radiation Injuries ," referenced sargramostim as a treatment for radiation emergencies in adults. (localnews8.com)
  • Employees suffer injuries on the job that can occur from a number of job-related dangers, such as radiation exposure. (injurylawservice.com)
  • Unfortunately, as the use of radiation products and equipment increases, so does the number of work-related radiation injuries and illnesses. (injurylawservice.com)
  • Although definitive treatment of radiation injuries should involve consultation with specialists, nonspecialists should learn to recognize the distinctive signs of radiation injury and make an initial assessment of severity of exposure. (bvsalud.org)
  • The DelveInsight's Acute Radiation Syndrome market report gives a thorough understanding of the Acute Radiation Syndrome by including details such as disease definition, symptoms, causes, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and Acute Radiation Syndrome treatment. (delveinsight.com)
  • Diagnosis and Treatment Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (2022). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: AUA guideline amendment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The DelveInsight Non-ST Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes (NSTE ACSs) market report gives a thorough understanding of the Non-ST Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes (NSTE ACSs) by including details such as disease definition, symptoms, causes, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. (marketresearch.com)
  • Diagnosis is by history of exposure, symptoms and signs, and sometimes use of radiation detection equipment to localize and identify radionuclide contamination. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a clinical diagnosis made via the exclusion of all other causes. (medscape.com)
  • This article reviews the diagnosis and treatment of acute radiation syndrome. (bvsalud.org)
  • Acute radiation syndrome is caused by depletion of bone marrow cells (hematopoietic syndrome) and irreparable damage to the epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal tract (gastrointestinal syndrome). (bioone.org)
  • ARS is an illness that occurs following a high dose of radiation exposure, leading to severe damage to the bone marrow and the immune system. (nwahomepage.com)
  • For instance, the gastrointestinal system and bone marrow are highly sensitive to radiation. (sparrow.org)
  • Regions of the body most vulnerable to high-energy radiation are cells in the lining of your intestinal tract, including your stomach, and the blood cell-producing cells of bone marrow. (sparrow.org)
  • Myelosuppression happens when radiation damages internal organs, including bone marrow. (pharmalive.com)
  • PLX-RAD will be used for treatment of bone marrow deficiency, genetic diseases, and treatment of acute radiation syndrome. (israel21c.org)
  • Most hospitals in the US maintain some supply of radiation exposure treatment drugs like Leukine, which is a prescription medication and is given by medical professionals to patients, said Dr. Nelson Chao, professor of medicine and immunology and chief of the division of cellular therapy and bone marrow transplant at Duke University. (localnews8.com)
  • Many types of cancer can occur as a result of radiation on the job, such as bone cancer, lung cancer and skin cancer. (injurylawservice.com)
  • Also called HemaMax, a 2008 BARDA-funded study showed it might be able to protect bone marrow from radiation. (dotmed.com)
  • If the substance is radioactive, you may also be exposed to radiation if you are near it. (cdc.gov)
  • Naturally occurring sources of radiation are cosmic radiation from space or radioactive materials in soil or building materials. (cdc.gov)
  • Radioactive fallout poses the greatest threat to people during the first two weeks, by which time it has declined to about 1 percent of its initial radiation level. (lifehacker.com)
  • Radioactive materials are used in the industrial sector, and radiation producing equipment is increasingly used in a number of different industries. (injurylawservice.com)
  • Ionizing radiation is emitted by radioactive elements and by equipment such as x-ray and radiation therapy machines. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Scientists note that exposure to radiation through unintentional contact with radioactive material (e.g., natural environmental or occupational settings) or through intentional release of a radioactive material (e.g., terrorist attack) could lead to serious health problems. (eurekalert.org)
  • medical equipment and consumer products, radiation therapy ` The general population is rarely exposed to radioactive for treating cancer patients, manufacturing plastics, and cobalt unless a person is undergoing radiation therapy. (cdc.gov)
  • Cancer has been shown, however, in animals that breathed is to see if you have been exposed to a large dose of cobalt or when cobalt was placed directly into the muscle or radiation, and the other is to see if radioactive cobalt is in under the skin. (cdc.gov)
  • 4 o The survival rate of patients with this syndrome decreases with increasing dose. (cdc.gov)
  • Acute Radiation Syndrome in an Irradiated Minipig Model for Patients with Radiation Exposure. (capsulehealth.one)
  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): Evaluate patients who develop fever, lung infiltrates, or respiratory distress. (drugs.com)
  • But the injectable medication can also be administered as a life-saving measure for patients exposed to dangerous levels of radiation outside of medical treatment: The drug can increase the chances of survivability if given in the critical 48 to 96 hours after initial exposure to a high dose of radiation from a nuclear blast or nuclear fallout. (localnews8.com)
  • Type 1 burning mouth syndrome (BMS): Patients have no symptoms upon waking, with progression throughout the day. (medscape.com)
  • Type 2 burning mouth syndrome (BMS): Patients have continuous symptoms throughout the day and are frequently asymptomatic at night. (medscape.com)
  • Type 3 burning mouth syndrome (BMS): Patients have intermittent symptoms throughout the day and symptom-free days. (medscape.com)
  • ROCKVILLE, Md , Nov. 20, 2023 /PRNewswire/ -- NeoImmuneTech, Inc. (NIT or "NeoImmuneTech"), a clinical-stage T cell-focused biopharmaceutical company, today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Orphan Drug Designation (ODD) for their investigational drug NT-I7 (efineptakin alfa) (rhIL-7-hyFc) for the treatment of Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS). (nwahomepage.com)
  • Victims of nuclear disasters present with acute radiation syndrome as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation. (aaps1921.org)
  • In an emergency situation, such as a nuclear attack, he said first responders would quickly administer the drug to as many people as possible who've encountered extreme radiation exposure. (localnews8.com)
  • Hopefully that would be within 24 hours," said Chao who is also a member of the Radiation Injury Treatment Network, a national network of medical centers with expertise managing acute radiation syndrome following a mass casualty disaster involving radiological, nuclear, or chemical agents. (localnews8.com)
  • At the point of criticality, the nuclear fission chain reaction became self-sustaining and began to emit intense gamma and neutron radiation, triggering alarms. (world-nuclear.org)
  • The US government has purchased a significant supply of radiation-injury drugs as the Russian president threatened the use of nuclear weapons. (onecitizenspeaking.com)
  • One Medical Hazards Manage- ated with acute chemical or radio-nuclear thyroid cancer mortality of an additional ment Team (HazMaT) has been estab- events. (who.int)
  • The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome in 2002-2003 exacted considerable human and economic costs from countries involved. (cdc.gov)
  • The causal agent of this disease was found to be a coronavirus, and the disease was named severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Delayed Effects of Acute Radiation Exposure in a Murine Model of the H-ARS: Multiple-Organ Injury Consequent to <10 Gy Total Body Irradiation. (iu.edu)
  • Various radiation exposure scenarios (i.e. total body irradiation, total abdominal irradiation, etc.) have been used to investigate ionizing radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury. (bvsalud.org)
  • Effect on intelligence test score of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki: A comparison of the T65DR and DS86 dosimetry systems. (cdc.gov)
  • The aftermaths of Hiroshima and Nagasaki offered a glimpse of the hazards, and a Nobel Prize-winning 1946 study connected x-ray radiation to human mutations. (theverge.com)
  • Transplantation of DRCC after ionizing radiation exposure proved to be the most effective rescue therapy against acute radiation syndrome, as confirmed by 100% of recipients' survival and expedited recovery of the hematopoietic system without developing GVHD. (aaps1921.org)
  • This work is particularly important because of the possible major health consequences of radiation exposure, including cancer and other illnesses," said Jacob, an associate professor in the Department of Radiation Oncology at The Ohio State University College of Medicine and a member of the OSUCCC - James Translational Therapeutics Research Program. (eurekalert.org)
  • Individual radiation dose is assessed by determining the time to onset and severity of nausea and vomiting, decline in absolute lymphocyte count over several hours or days after exposure, and appearance of chromosome aberrations (including dicentrics and ring forms) in peripheral blood lymphocytes. (nebraska.edu)
  • Prognostic biomarkers for acute graft-versus-host disease risk after cyclophosphamide-fludarabine nonmyeloablative allotransplantation. (iu.edu)
  • COLUMBUS, Ohio - Researchers with The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC - James) have entered a federal cooperative agreement, valued up to $9.42 million, that will help them further develop Ohio State's biodosimetry technology to discover noninvasive biomarkers for radiation exposure - work that will have national security applications. (eurekalert.org)
  • Under Jacob's leadership, the OSUCCC - James team will work to develop rapid and accurate radiation biodosimetry solutions to human radiation exposure based on biomarkers that are detectable in skin and hair and that can be collected non-invasively. (eurekalert.org)
  • This new collaborative research effort is aimed at developing a non-invasive method to measure radiation exposure levels rapidly and accurately through biomarkers detectable in skin and hair, which could be especially useful and impactful in military settings. (eurekalert.org)
  • These radiation-induced gastrointestinal severity scoring systems are based on clinical signs and symptoms and gastrointestinal-specific biomarkers (i.e. citrulline, etc. (bvsalud.org)
  • How much you absorb depends on the strength of the radiated energy, the time of your exposures, and the distance between you and the source of radiation. (sparrow.org)
  • Sadly, workplace exposures to ionizing radiation has resulted in leukemia and death. (injurylawservice.com)
  • the full syndrome will usually occur with a dose greater than approximately 0.7 Gy (70 rads) although mild symptoms may occur as low as 0.3 Gy or 30 rads. (cdc.gov)
  • The signs and symptoms of this form of radiation injury include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and abdominal pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amount of time between exposure and when these symptoms develop is a clue to how much radiation a person has absorbed. (sparrow.org)
  • Various attempts to classify burning mouth syndrome (BMS) based on etiology and symptoms have been made. (medscape.com)
  • The Acute Radiation Syndrome market report provides current treatment practices, emerging drugs, Acute Radiation Syndrome market share of the individual therapies, current and forecasted Acute Radiation Syndrome market Size from 2019 to 2032 segmented by seven major markets. (delveinsight.com)
  • The disease epidemiology covered in the report provides historical as well as forecasted Acute Radiation Syndrome epidemiology scenario in the 7MM covering the United States, EU5 countries (Germany, Spain, Italy, France, and the United Kingdom), and Japan from 2019 to 2032. (delveinsight.com)
  • Further Characterization of the Mitigation of Radiation Lethality by Protective Wounding. (iu.edu)
  • Subcutaneous wounding postirradiation reduces radiation lethality in mice. (iu.edu)
  • Depending on the radiation levels will determine the severity of damage. (injurylawservice.com)
  • PURPOSE: Severity scoring systems for ionizing radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury have been used in animal radiation models, human studies involving the use of radiation therapy, and human radiation accidents. (bvsalud.org)
  • This tool provides a triage diagnostic approach to assist first responders to assess individuals suspected of showing gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome severity to guide medical management, hence enhancing medical readiness for managing radiological casualties. (bvsalud.org)
  • Gamma burns from highly penetrating gamma radiation. (capsulehealth.one)
  • In the picture to the left, the normal clothing that the woman was wearing would have been unable to attenuate the gamma radiation and it is likely that any such effect was evenly applied to her entire body. (capsulehealth.one)
  • They collide with the nuclei of stable atoms, resulting in the emission of energetic protons, alpha and beta particles, and gamma radiation. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Gamma radiation and x-rays are electromagnetic radiation (ie, photons) of very short wavelength that can penetrate deeply into tissue (many centimeters). (msdmanuals.com)
  • N-16 has a half-life of only 7 seconds but produces high-energy gamma radiation during decay. (world-nuclear.org)
  • The next task was to install shielding to protect people outside the building from gamma radiation from the fission products in the tank. (world-nuclear.org)
  • The Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) exercised $6 million in additional contract options under its advanced research and development contract with Aeolus Pharmaceuticals for AEOL-10150, a broad-spectrum catalytic antioxidant specifically designed to neutralize reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, as a treatment for the pulmonary syndrome of acute radiation syndrome (Lung-ARS) and delayed effects of acute radiation exposure (DEARE). (genengnews.com)
  • The FDA's Orphan Drug Designation is aimed at advancing treatments for rare diseases, including Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS), which currently has limited treatment options. (nwahomepage.com)
  • The Report also covers current Acute Radiation Syndrome treatment practice/algorithm, market drivers, market barriers and unmet medical needs to curate the best of the opportunities and assesses the underlying potential of the Acute Radiation Syndrome market. (delveinsight.com)
  • It covers the details of conventional and current medical therapies available in the Acute Radiation Syndrome market for the treatment of the condition. (delveinsight.com)
  • It also provides Acute Radiation Syndrome treatment algorithms and guidelines in the United States, Europe, and Japan. (delveinsight.com)
  • Recommendations based on radiation dose and physiologic response are made for treatment of the hematopoietic syndrome. (nebraska.edu)
  • FDA announced availability of a draft guidance for industry, Acute Radiation Syndrome: Developing Drugs for Prevention and Treatment . (govdelivery.com)
  • The Report also covers current Non-ST Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes (NSTE ACSs) treatment practice/algorithm, market drivers, market barriers and unmet medical needs to curate best of the opportunities and assesses the underlying potential of the market. (marketresearch.com)
  • It covers the details of conventional and current medical therapies available in the Non-ST Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes (NSTE ACSs) market for the treatment of the condition. (marketresearch.com)
  • It also provides Non-ST Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes (NSTE ACSs) treatment algorithms and guidelines in the United States, Europe, and Japan. (marketresearch.com)
  • The report provides the details of the marketed product available for Non-ST Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes (NSTE ACSs) treatment. (marketresearch.com)
  • The report provides the details of the emerging therapies under the late and mid-stage of development for Non-ST Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes (NSTE ACSs) treatment. (marketresearch.com)
  • and treatment of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) in conjunction with the US National Institutes of Health's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. (israel21c.org)
  • Amgen did not respond to requests for comment about whether the company is increasing supplies of its acute radiation exposure treatment drugs. (localnews8.com)
  • In addition to the COPD trail, Osiris is also conducting Phase II Prochymal trials for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction and type 1 diabetes. (wtnnews.com)
  • The therapy also is being developed as a potential treatment for acute radiation syndrome. (wtnnews.com)
  • The ambiguous definition of burning mouth syndrome (BMS) makes evaluation of prognosis and treatment difficult. (medscape.com)
  • Systemic administration of entolimod triggers acute inflammation characterized by activation of immunoregulatory signaling pathways in hepatocytes, rapid accumulation of neutrophils and NK cells to the liver, and development of durable CD8+ T cell dependent anti-tumor immunity. (roswellpark.org)
  • Sources of such radiation can occur accidentally or intentionally. (wikipedia.org)
  • External exposure to radiation may occur from natural or man-made sources. (cdc.gov)
  • The amount of radiation absorbed by the body - the absorbed dose - determines how sick you'll be. (sparrow.org)
  • Won't a tiny amount of radiation kill you? (greanvillepost.com)
  • Therefore there is an urgent need to develop new effective therapies of acute radiation syndrome. (aaps1921.org)
  • Each syndrome requires that the tissue showing the syndrome itself be exposed (e.g., gastrointestinal syndrome is not seen if the stomach and intestines are not exposed to radiation). (wikipedia.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: A worksheet tool was developed to prioritize individuals with severe life-threatening gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome, based on the design of the Exposure and Symptom Tool addressing hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome, to rescue individuals from potential gastrointestinal acute radiation syndrome injury. (bvsalud.org)
  • Crystalline cesium iodide and cesium fluoride are used in scintillation counters, which convert energy from ionizing radiation into pulses of visible light for radiation detection and spectroscopy. (cdc.gov)
  • The project expands upon ongoing efforts by OSUCCC - James scientists to develop blood biomarker-based mechanisms for early detection of acute radiation syndromes and delayed effects. (eurekalert.org)
  • When workers are exposed to high amounts of ionizing radiation, they can suffer gastrointestinal problems, destruction of cells, tissue damage, neurological problems, and even death, usually within 24 hours of exposure. (injurylawservice.com)
  • When people are exposed to both microwave and ionizing radiation, they can suffer cataracts, which is when the lens of the eye starts becoming opaque and results in blurred vision. (injurylawservice.com)
  • Survivors of acute radiation exposure suffer from the delayed effects of acute radiation exposure (DEARE), a chronic condition affecting multiple organs, including lung, kidney, heart, gastrointestinal tract, eyes, and brain, and often causing cancer. (bvsalud.org)
  • Neutron or proton radiation produces many of the health effects described herein at lower absorbed dose levels. (cdc.gov)
  • Being able to determine the amount and range of exposure would help clinicians more quickly and accurately mitigate the short- and long-term effects of cumulative radiation exposure," said Jacob. (eurekalert.org)
  • Children are more susceptible than adults to immediate and delayed radiation health effects. (bvsalud.org)
  • Whether this is in the air or settled on the ground, it may expose people to ionizing radiation, and the effect of this is measured in Sieverts, or more typically milliSieverts (mSv). (world-nuclear.org)
  • Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is an idiopathic condition characterized by a continuous burning sensation of the mucosa of the mouth, typically involving the tongue, with or without extension to the lips and oral mucosa. (medscape.com)
  • On March 24, one of Partner Therapeutics international distributors -Tanner Pharma Group - said in a press release that it has partnered with the drugmaker to significantly increase the drug's inventory in Europe in response to the war in Ukraine and the "escalating potential for incidents that could require rapid deployment of medical interventions to treat radiation or chemical exposure. (localnews8.com)
  • Ionizing radiation can also be in the form of particulate radiation, which includes subatomic l charged or neutral particles traveling near the speed of light and therefore with high very high kinetic energy. (medscape.com)
  • When workers are exposed to ionizing radiation, it is possible they can develop leukemia, which is when the body produces abnormal blood cells. (injurylawservice.com)
  • This type of injury is a skin disease that occurs from exposure to ionizing radiation over a prolonged period of time. (injurylawservice.com)
  • Ionizing radiation injures tissues variably, depending on factors such as radiation dose, rate of exposure, type of radiation, and part of the body exposed. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Exposure to ionizing radiation can also be by direct radiation from the plants and fuels themselves, though not released to the environment. (world-nuclear.org)
  • This new research cooperative agreement is organized through the IARPA's Targeted Evaluation of Ionizing Radiation Exposure ( IARPA - TEI-REX ) program and includes four prime awardees, with Jacob serving as principal investigator of the OSU led program, where Battelle Memorial Institute is a sub-awardee. (eurekalert.org)
  • Energy can travel through space in the form of electromagnetic radiation. (medscape.com)
  • Electromagnetic radiation is composed of massless waves of oscillating electric and magnetic fields. (medscape.com)
  • Katherine D. Castle , Andrea R. Daniel , Everett J. Moding , Lixia Luo , Chang-Lung Lee , and David G. Kirsch "Mice Lacking RIP3 Kinase are not Protected from Acute Radiation Syndrome," Radiation Research 189(6), 627-633, (10 April 2018). (bioone.org)
  • Many people would develop acute shortness of breath from lung damage. (helencaldicott.com)
  • Classically, burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is accompanied by gustatory disturbances (dysgeusia, parageusia) and subjective xerostomia. (medscape.com)
  • These findings challenged conventional wisdom that neutrophils are incapable of both migrating to TDLNs and stimulating adaptive immunity and provided the groundwork for further investigating an underappreciated role for neutrophils in the generation of anti-tumor immunity following induction of acute inflammation. (roswellpark.org)
  • With the January 28, 2021 approval of Nplate® for hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS), the FDA has now granted approvals for four products to treat H-ARS, three of which relied on NIAID-supported preclinical data. (orau.gov)
  • Neutron radiation had ceased. (world-nuclear.org)
  • The radiation (neutron and gamma) emanated almost entirely from the tank, not from any dispersed materials. (world-nuclear.org)
  • Conventional trauma and burns resulting from a bomb blast are complicated by the poor wound healing caused by hematopoietic syndrome, increasing mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta burns would be likely all over the body caused by contact with fallout, but thermal burns are often on one side of the body as heat radiation does not penetrate the human body. (capsulehealth.one)
  • Glass will shatter, possibly injuring people, paint will peel, and thermal radiation traveling the speed of light will give exposed skin third-degree burns. (lifehacker.com)