Acute-Phase Reaction: An early local inflammatory reaction to insult or injury that consists of fever, an increase in inflammatory humoral factors, and an increased synthesis by hepatocytes of a number of proteins or glycoproteins usually found in the plasma.Acute-Phase Proteins: Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.Haptoglobins: Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.Serum Amyloid A Protein: An ACUTE PHASE REACTION protein present in low concentrations in normal sera, but found at higher concentrations in sera of older persons and in patients with AMYLOIDOSIS. It is the circulating precusor of amyloid A protein, which is found deposited in AA type AMYLOID FIBRILS.OrosomucoidTurpentine: The concrete oleoresin obtained from Pinus palustris Mill. (Pinaceae) and other species of Pinus. It contains a volatile oil, to which its properties are due, and to which form it is generally used. (Dorland, 28th ed) Turpentine is used as a solvent and an experimental irritant in biomedical research. Turpentine toxicity is of medical interest.alpha 1-Antichymotrypsin: Glycoprotein found in alpha(1)-globulin region in human serum. It inhibits chymotrypsin-like proteinases in vivo and has cytotoxic killer-cell activity in vitro. The protein also has a role as an acute-phase protein and is active in the control of immunologic and inflammatory processes, and as a tumor marker. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Serum Amyloid P-Component: Amyloid P component is a small, non-fibrillar glycoprotein found in normal serum and in all amyloid deposits. It has a pentagonal (pentaxin) structure. It is an acute phase protein, modulates immunologic responses, inhibits ELASTASE, and has been suggested as an indicator of LIVER DISEASE.alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.alpha-Macroglobulins: Glycoproteins with a molecular weight of approximately 620,000 to 680,000. Precipitation by electrophoresis is in the alpha region. They include alpha 1-macroglobulins and alpha 2-macroglobulins. These proteins exhibit trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, thrombin-, and plasmin-binding activity and function as hormonal transporters.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.CeruloplasminMicroscopy, Electrochemical, Scanning: A scanning probe microscopy technique that uses an ultramicroelectrode as the scanning probe that simultaneously records changes in electrochemical potential as it scans thereby creating topographical images with localized electrochemical information.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Early Growth Response Protein 1: An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Vitamin A Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mycoplasma hyosynoviae: A species of gram-negative bacteria isolated from the SYNOVIAL FLUID; LYMPH NODES; and MUCOUS MEMBRANE secretions in diseased SWINE. It causes nonsuppurative ARTHRITIS.Prealbumin: A tetrameric protein, molecular weight between 50,000 and 70,000, consisting of 4 equal chains, and migrating on electrophoresis in 3 fractions more mobile than serum albumin. Its concentration ranges from 7 to 33 per cent in the serum, but levels decrease in liver disease.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Oncostatin M Receptor beta Subunit: An ONCOSTATIN M-specific receptor subunit that combines with CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130 to form the ONCOSTATIN M TYPE II RECEPTOR.Blood Sedimentation: Measurement of rate of settling of erythrocytes in anticoagulated blood.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Albumins: Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Receptors, Interleukin-6: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-6. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES, mitogen-activated B-LYMPHOCYTES, and peripheral MONOCYTES. The receptors are heterodimers of the INTERLEUKIN-6 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Dictyocaulus: Nematodes parasitic in the bronchi of herbivorous animals.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Soot: A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.Cytokine Receptor gp130: A cytokine receptor that acts through the formation of oligomeric complexes of itself with a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mice, Inbred C57BLEndotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Alpha-Globulins: Serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during ELECTROPHORESIS. This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-globulins.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Xerophthalmia: Dryness of the eye surfaces caused by deficiency of tears or conjunctival secretions. It may be associated with vitamin A deficiency, trauma, or any condition in which the eyelids do not close completely.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Carbocysteine: A compound formed when iodoacetic acid reacts with sulfhydryl groups in proteins. It has been used as an anti-infective nasal spray with mucolytic and expectorant action.Early Growth Response Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that are induced by GROWTH FACTORS and contain a highly conserved DNA-binding domain composed of three ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Protein Array Analysis: Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Actinobacillus Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus ACTINOBACILLUS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Housing, AnimalCell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Lipocalins: A diverse family of extracellular proteins that bind to small hydrophobic molecules. They were originally characterized as transport proteins, however they may have additional roles such as taking part in the formation of macromolecular complexes with other proteins and binding to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.Complement C4: A glycoprotein that is important in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C4 is cleaved by the activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C4A and COMPLEMENT C4B.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Irritants: Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Cogan Syndrome: A condition consisting of inflammatory eye disease usually presenting as interstitial KERATITIS, vestibuloauditory dysfunction, and large- to medium-vessel vasculitis.Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacillus-shaped bacteria that has been isolated from pneumonic lesions and blood. It produces pneumonia with accompanying fibrinous pleuritis in swine.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Night Blindness: Failure or imperfection of vision at night or in dim light, with good vision only on bright days. (Dorland, 27th ed)Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Familial Mediterranean Fever: A group of HEREDITARY AUTOINFLAMMATION DISEASES, characterized by recurrent fever, abdominal pain, headache, rash, PLEURISY; and ARTHRITIS. ORCHITIS; benign MENINGITIS; and AMYLOIDOSIS may also occur. Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in marenostrin gene result in autosomal recessive transmission; simple heterozygous, autosomal dominant form of the disease.Cachexia: General ill health, malnutrition, and weight loss, usually associated with chronic disease.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88: An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Mice, Inbred BALB CBacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins: A group of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES which activate critical signaling cascades in double strand breaks, APOPTOSIS, and GENOTOXIC STRESS such as ionizing ultraviolet A light, thereby acting as a DNA damage sensor. These proteins play a role in a wide range of signaling mechanisms in cell cycle control.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Chagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome: An acute, febrile, mucocutaneous condition accompanied by swelling of cervical lymph nodes in infants and young children. The principal symptoms are fever, congestion of the ocular conjunctivae, reddening of the lips and oral cavity, protuberance of tongue papillae, and edema or erythema of the extremities.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded: Interruptions in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA, across both strands adjacently.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Early Growth Response Protein 3: An early growth response transcription factor that is essential for the development of MUSCLE SPINDLES.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
SAA1 is a major acute-phase protein mainly produced by hepatocytes in response to infection, tissue injury and malignancy. When ... "Entrez Gene: SAA1 serum amyloid A1". Gabay C, Kushner I (Feb 1999). "Acute-phase proteins and other systemic responses to ... Jensen LE, Whitehead AS (Sep 1998). "Regulation of serum amyloid A protein expression during the acute-phase response". The ... During the acute-phase response, elevated levels of SAA1 in the plasma displaces ApoA-I and becomes a major apolipoprotein of ...
2003). "STAP-2/BKS, an adaptor/docking protein, modulates STAT3 activation in acute-phase response through its YXXQ motif". J. ... The encoded protein possesses domains and several tyrosine phosphorylation sites characteristic of adaptor proteins that ... Signal-transducing adaptor protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the STAP2 gene. This gene encodes the substrate ... 2007). "Signal-transducing adaptor protein-2 regulates integrin-mediated T cell adhesion through protein degradation of focal ...
In response to stress or acute phase induction, a soluble form of this protein is produced by alternative splicing. IL 1 ... cytosolic adaptor proteins (such as MyD88 adaptor protein) and insect and nematode Toll. Each of these groups is involved ... Components of signalization pathway of IL-1R which are involved in cellular response to IL-1 also mediate responses to other ... Proteins of this family play important role in host defence, injury and stress. There are four main groups of TIR domain- ...
Late-phase response[edit]. After the chemical mediators of the acute response subside, late-phase responses can often occur due ... The harmful proteins are those that do not break down due to the strong bonds of the protein. IgE antibodies bind to a receptor ... The pathophysiology of allergic responses can be divided into two phases. The first is an acute response that occurs ... Acute response[edit]. Degranulation process in allergy.. 1 - antigen. 2 - IgE antibody. 3 - FcεRI receptor. 4 - preformed ...
Acute-phase serum amyloid A proteins (A-SAAs) are secreted during the acute phase of inflammation. These proteins have several ... an acute-phase serum amyloid A protein gene (SAA2)". Genomics. 16 (2): 447-54. doi:10.1006/geno.1993.1209. PMID 7686132. de ... Zhang N; Ahsan MH; Purchio AF; West DB (2005). "Serum amyloid A-luciferase transgenic mice: response to sepsis, acute arthritis ... Serum amyloid A (SAA) is also an acute phase marker that responds rapidly. Similar to CRP, levels of acute-phase SAA increase ...
"Nopp140 is a mediator of the protein kinase A signaling pathway that activates the acute phase response alpha1-acid ... with the pocket proteins pRb, p107 and p130". Oncogene. 20 (39): 5533-7. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1204823. PMID 11571651. Chiu CM, ... Nucleolar phosphoprotein p130 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NOLC1 gene. Nucleolar phosphoprotein p130 has been ... Li D, Meier UT, Dobrowolska G, Krebs EG (1997). "Specific interaction between casein kinase 2 and the nucleolar protein Nopp140 ...
C-reactive protein is expressed during acute phase response to tissue injury or inflammation in mammals. The protein resembles ... Proteins of the pentraxin family are involved in acute immunological responses. They are a class of pattern recognition ... The concentration of this plasma protein is altered by sex steroids and stimuli that elicit an acute phase response. Pentraxin ... C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid P component protein (SAP), and female protein (FP). PTX3 (or TSG-14) protein is a ...
2006 Endoplasmic reticulum stress activates cleavage of CREBH to induce the acute phase response. Cell 124(3):587-599. ... 1998 A stress response pathway from the endoplasmic reticulum to the nucleus requires a novel bifunctional protein kinase/ ... 1989 Increased synthesis of secreted proteins induces expression of glucose-regulated proteins in Chinese hamster ovary cells. ... 2001 Translational control is required for the unfolded protein response and in vivo glucose homeostasis. Molecular Cell 7(6): ...
As ferritin is also an acute-phase reactant, it is often elevated in the course of disease. A normal C-reactive protein can be ... Ong DS, Wang L, Zhu Y, Ho B, Ding JL (2005). "The response of ferritin to LPS and acute phase of Pseudomonas infection". ... Yano M, Nagai K, Morimoto K, Miyamoto H (June 2006). "Shematrin: a family of glycine-rich structural proteins in the shell of ... Beck G, Ellis TW, Habicht GS, Schluter SF, Marchalonis JJ (January 2002). "Evolution of the acute phase response: iron release ...
Late-phase responseEdit. After the chemical mediators of the acute response subside, late-phase responses can often occur due ... The harmful proteins are those that do not break down due to the strong bonds of the protein. IgE antibodies bind to a receptor ... The pathophysiology of allergic responses can be divided into two phases. The first is an acute response that occurs ... Late-phase responses seen in asthma are slightly different from those seen in other allergic responses, although they are still ...
... storage and distribution of glucose Synthesis of acute phase proteins Via JAK /STAT /APRE (acute phase response element) ... ROS also interacts with ERK pathway that leads to activation of Ras, MEK and MEK-like proteins. These proteins activate protein ... "Hepatic acute phase proteins - Regulation by IL-6- and IL-1-type cytokines involving STAT3 and its crosstalk with NF-κB- ... acute phase independent) Via Smads /HAMP Hepcidin expression Regulate lipid metabolism Via LXR /LXRE (LXR response element) ...
C-reactive protein is one of the plasma proteins known as acute phase proteins (proteins whose plasma concentrations increase ( ... IL6 is involved in the regulation of the acute phase response to injury and infection may act as both an anti-inflammatory ... Anemia: children with acute anemia caused by medical conditions other than sickle cell anemia with hemoglobin below 5.5 g/dL. ... The level of CRP can rise as high as 1000-fold in response to inflammation. Other conditions that can cause marked changes in ...
... stimulating the acute phase response, leading to an increase in C-reactive protein and a number of other mediators. It also ... For instance, NF-κB enhances the transcription of C-FLIP, Bcl-2, and cIAP1 / cIAP2, inhibitory proteins that interfere with ... To study whether acute exercise induces a true anti-inflammatory response, a model of 'low grade inflammation' was established ... This study provides some evidence that acute exercise may inhibit TNF production. TNF promotes the inflammatory response, which ...
Human SAP has 51% sequence homology with C-reactive protein (CRP), a classical acute phase response plasma protein, and is a ... These conditions are characterised by the ordered aggregation of normal globular proteins and peptides into insoluble fibres ... The serum amyloid P component (SAP) is the identical serum form of amyloid P component (AP), a 25kDa pentameric protein first ... This association is utilised in the routine clinical diagnostic technique of SAP scintigraphy whereby radio-labelled protein is ...
... behaves as an acute phase response protein, as the blood levels of PTX3, low in normal conditions (about 25 ng/mL in the ... "Relationship of TSG-14 protein to the pentraxin family of major acute phase proteins". J. Immunol. 153 (8): 3700-7. PMID ... Pentraxin-related protein PTX3 also known as TNF-inducible gene 14 protein (TSG-14) is a protein that in humans is encoded by ... is a novel member of the pentaxin family of acute phase proteins". J. Immunol. 150 (5): 1804-12. PMID 7679696. Alles VV, ...
... induce acute phase proteins, modulate antigen-antibody responses, participate in the regulation of bone cell proliferation and ... The human IL-11 gene, consisting of 5 exons and 4 introns, is located on chromosome 19, and encodes a 23 kDa protein. IL-11 is ... Interleukin 11 (IL-11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL11 gene. IL-11 is a multifunctional cytokine first ... Interleukin 11 is manufactured using recombinant DNA technology and is marketed as a protein therapeutic called oprelvekin, for ...
Beta-2 comprises C3 (Complement protein 3). It is raised in the acute phase response. Depression of C3 occurs in autoimmune ... The net charge on a protein is based on the sum charge of its amino acids, and the pH of the buffer. Proteins are applied to a ... As a positive acute phase reactant, AAT is increased in acute inflammation. Bence Jones protein may bind to and retard the ... These bands fuse and intensify in early inflammation due to an increase in alpha-1 antichymotrypsin, an acute phase protein. ...
... pentameric protein found in blood plasma, whose levels rise in response to inflammation. It is an acute-phase protein of ... It is a member of the pentraxin family of proteins. It is not related to C-peptide (insulin) or protein C (blood coagulation). ... acute phase erythrocyte sedimentation rate C-reactive protein C-reactive protein GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000132693 - ... This acute phase response occurs as a result of a rise in the concentration of IL-6, which is produced by macrophages as well ...
The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the acute-phase immunologic response to gram-negative bacterial infections. ... This protein is part of a family of structurally and functionally related proteins, including BPI, plasma cholesteryl ester ... Lipopolysaccharide binding protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LBP gene. LBP is a soluble acute-phase protein ... Studies in mice suggest that the encoded protein is necessary for the rapid acute-phase response to LPS but not for the ...
Beta-2 comprises C3 (complement protein 3). It is raised in the acute phase response. Depression of C3 occurs in autoimmune ... Serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP or SPE) is a laboratory test that examines specific proteins in the blood called globulins. ... These bands fuse and intensify in early inflammation due to an increase in alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, an acute phase protein. ... Increased beta-1 protein due to LDL elevation occurs in hypercholesterolemia. Decreased beta-1 protein occurs in acute or ...
It is produced in the liver as a response to infection, and is part of many other factors termed acute phase proteins. ... Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), also called mannose-binding protein or mannan-binding protein (MBP), is a lectin that is ... "Acute-phase responsiveness of mannose-binding lectin in community-acquired pneumonia is highly dependent upon MBL2 genotypes". ... the MASP protein functions to cleave the blood protein C4 into C4a and C4b. The C4b fragments can then bind to the surface of ...
... negative acute-phase proteins) in response to inflammation. This response is called the acute-phase reaction (also called acute ... Acute-phase proteins (APPs) are a class of proteins whose plasma concentrations increase (positive acute-phase proteins) or ... phase response). The terms acute-phase protein and acute-phase reactant (APR) are often used synonymously, although some APRs ... Increased acute-phase proteins from the liver may also contribute to the promotion of sepsis. Positive acute-phase proteins ...
During acute phase inflammatory response, DBP levels tend to increase. DBP has several functions. More precisely, domain III ... In molecular biology, Vitamin D binding protein domain III protein domain is predominantly found in Vitamin D binding proteins ... It is required for formation of an actin 'clamp', allowing the protein to bind to actin. This protein is a member of the ... Domain (amino acids 373 to 403). This protein is found ubiquitously in vivo in significant quantities and can be detected in ...
The inflammation response during both the acute and chronic phase of the disease results in part from interactions between the ... The virus consists of four nonstructural proteins and three structural proteins. The structural proteins are the capsid and two ... Akhrymuk I, Kulemzin SV, Frolova EI (July 2012). "Evasion of the innate immune response: the Old World alphavirus nsP2 protein ... All the 25 people participated in this phase 1 trial developed strong immune responses. As of 2015, a phase 2 trial was planned ...
After the chemical mediators of the acute response subside, late-phase responses can often occur due to the migration of other ... egg white protein) Ovoglobulin (egg white protein) Ovomucin (egg white protein) Ovomucoid (egg white protein) Ovotransferrin ( ... such as proteins in the foods we eat. Why some proteins trigger allergic reactions while others do not is not entirely clear, ... The pathophysiology of allergic responses can be divided into two phases. The first is an acute response that occurs ...
... s (APPs) are a class of proteins whose plasma concentrations increase (positive acute-phase proteins) or decrease (negative acute-phase proteins) in response to inflammation. This response is called the acute-phase reaction (also called acute-phase response). The terms acute-phase protein and acute-phase reactant (APR) are often used synonymously, although some APRs are (strictly speaking) polypeptides rather than proteins. In response to injury, local ...
... (SAA1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SAA1 gene. SAA1 is a major acute-phase protein mainly produced by hepatocytes in response to infection, tissue injury and malignancy. When released into blood circulation, SAA1 is present as an apolipoprotein associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL). SAA1 is a major precursor of amyloid A (AA), the deposit of which leads to inflammatory amyloidosis. The gene coding for human SAA1 is one of the 4 SAA genes mapped to a region in the short arm on Chromosome 15. Two of these genes, SAA1 and SAA2, are inducible during acute-phase response, whereas SAA3 is a pseudogene in humans and SAA4 is constitutively expressed in a variety of tissues and cells. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are found in SAA1 in both ...
Serum amyloid A protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SAA2 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000134339 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". Steel DM, Sellar GC, Uhlar CM, Simon S, DeBeer FC, Whitehead AS (Jul 1993). "A constitutively expressed serum amyloid A protein gene (SAA4) is closely linked to, and shares structural similarities with, an acute-phase serum amyloid A protein gene (SAA2)". Genomics. 16 (2): 447-54. doi:10.1006/geno.1993.1209. PMID 7686132. "Entrez Gene: SAA2 Serum amyloid A2". Betts JC, Edbrooke MR, Thakker RV, Woo P (1991). "The human acute-phase serum amyloid A gene family: structure, evolution and expression in hepatoma cells". Scand. J. Immunol. 34 (4): 471-82. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3083.1991.tb01570.x. PMID 1656519. Zimlichman S, Danon A, Nathan I, et al. ...
кДНК STAT3 была впервые клонирована в 1994 году под именем APRF (англ. acute-phase response factor)[2]. В 1996 году была открыта укороченная изоформа мРНК STAT3, которая образуется в результате альтернативного сплайсинга. В этой мРНК отсутствует фрагмент длиной около 50 нуклеотидов, соответствующая изоформа белка называется STAT3β и является негативным регулятором транскрипции[3].. Полноразмерный белок STAT3α состоит из 770 аминокислотных остатков и имеет молекулярную массу около 92 кДа. Изоформа STAT3β имеет молекулярную массу около 80 кДа[4].. STAT3 имеет типичную для всех STAT-белков ...
앞서 언급하였듯이 빛은 일주간 생체 리듬에 가장 큰 영향을 주는 자이트게버이다. 대체로 동물들은 외부의 영향을 받지 않고 자체 내에서 생기는 리듬을 유지하는데 이를 자유가동(free-running)이라고 한다. 지하에서 평생을 보내는 장님쥐(Spalax sp.)와 같은 포유류도 빛에 의한 외부 자극이 완전히 없는 것으로 보이는 상태에서도 체내의 시계를 유지할 수 있다. 그들은 형상을 구성하는 눈은 없지만 빛수용기는 여전히 기능을 하고 있기 때문에 주기가 나타나는 것으로 보인다. [14] 일반적으로 자유가동을 하는 대부분의 유기체들은 기본적으로 유사한 위상 반응 곡선 (phase response curve, PRC)을 갖는다. 일주기 생체 리듬의 주기가 정확히 24시간이 아니기 때문에 빛이 주어지지 않은 상태에서는 위상의 변화가 일어나면서 그 다음 날의 활동 리듬이 앞당겨지거나 혹은 ...
... s (APPs) are a class of proteins whose plasma concentrations increase (positive acute-phase proteins) or decrease (negative acute-phase proteins) in response to inflammation. This response is called the acute-phase reaction (also called acute-phase response). The terms acute-phase protein and acute-phase reactant (APR) are often used synonymously, although some APRs are (strictly speaking) polypeptides rather than proteins. In response to injury, local ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LBP gene.[5][6] LBP is a soluble acute-phase protein that binds to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (or LPS) to elicit immune responses by presenting the LPS to important cell surface pattern recognition receptors called CD14 and TLR4.[7] The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the acute-phase immunologic response to gram-negative bacterial infections. Gram-negative bacteria contain a glycolipid, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), on their outer cell wall. Together with bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (BPI), the encoded protein binds LPS and interacts with the CD14 receptor, probably playing a role in regulating LPS-dependent monocyte responses. Studies in mice suggest that the ...
... (LCN2), also known as oncogene 24p3 or neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LCN2 gene. NGAL is involved in innate immunity by sequestrating iron that in turn limits bacterial growth. It is expressed in neutrophils and in low levels in the kidney, prostate, and epithelia of the respiratory and alimentary tracts. NGAL is used as a biomarker of kidney injury. The binding of NGAL to bacterial siderophores is important in the innate immune response to bacterial infection. Upon encountering invading bacteria the toll-like receptors on immune cells stimulate the synthesis and secretion of NGAL. Secreted NGAL then limits bacterial growth by sequestering iron-containing siderophores. Lipocalin-2 binds, next to bacterial siderophores, also to the mammalian siderophore 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHBA). This complex ensures that excess free iron does not accumulate in the cytoplasm. Mammalian cells lacking 2,5-DHBA ...
... (SAA1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SAA1 gene. SAA1 is a major acute-phase protein mainly produced by hepatocytes in response to infection, tissue injury and malignancy. When released into blood circulation, SAA1 is present as an apolipoprotein associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL). SAA1 is a major precursor of amyloid A (AA), the deposit of which leads to inflammatory amyloidosis. The gene coding for human SAA1 is one of the 4 SAA genes mapped to a region in the short arm on Chromosome 15. Two of these genes, SAA1 and SAA2, are inducible during acute-phase response, whereas SAA3 is a pseudogene in humans and SAA4 is constitutively expressed in a variety of tissues and cells. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are found in SAA1 in both ...
... (cluster of differentiation 14), also known as CD14, is a human gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the innate immune system. CD14 exists in two forms, one anchored to the membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol tail (mCD14), the other a soluble form (sCD14). Soluble CD14 either appears after shedding of mCD14 (48 kDa) or is directly secreted from intracellular vesicles (56 kDa). The x-ray crystal structure of human CD14 (4GLP.pdb) reveals a monomeric, bent solenoid structure containing a hydrophobic amino-terminal pocket. CD14 was the first described pattern recognition receptor. CD14 acts as a co-receptor (along with the Toll-like receptor TLR 4 and MD-2) for the detection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). CD14 can bind LPS only in the presence of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP). Although LPS is considered its main ligand, CD14 also recognizes other pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as lipoteichoic acid. CD14 is ...
Serum amyloid A protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SAA2 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000134339 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". Steel DM, Sellar GC, Uhlar CM, Simon S, DeBeer FC, Whitehead AS (Jul 1993). "A constitutively expressed serum amyloid A protein gene (SAA4) is closely linked to, and shares structural similarities with, an acute-phase serum amyloid A protein gene (SAA2)". Genomics. 16 (2): 447-54. doi:10.1006/geno.1993.1209. PMID 7686132. "Entrez Gene: SAA2 Serum amyloid A2". Betts JC, Edbrooke MR, Thakker RV, Woo P (1991). "The human acute-phase serum amyloid A gene family: structure, evolution and expression in hepatoma cells". Scand. J. Immunol. 34 (4): 471-82. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3083.1991.tb01570.x. PMID 1656519. Zimlichman S, Danon A, Nathan I, et al. ...
... (ORM) or alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (α1AGp,[1] AGP or AAG) is an acute phase (acute phase protein) plasma alpha-globulin glycoprotein and is modulated by two polymorphic genes. It is synthesized primarily in hepatocytes and has a normal plasma concentration between 0.6-1.2 mg/mL (1-3% plasma protein).[2] Plasma levels are affected by pregnancy, burns, certain drugs, and certain diseases, particularly HIV.[2] The only established function of ORM is to act as a carrier of basic and neutrally charged lipophilic compounds. In medicine, it is known as the primary carrier of basic (positively charged) drugs (whereas albumin carries acidic (negatively charged) and neutral drugs), steroids, and protease inhibitors.[2][3] Aging causes a small decrease in plasma albumin levels; if anything, there is a small ...
In gram-negative sepsis, free LPS attaches to a circulating LPS-binding protein, and the complex then binds to the CD14 receptor on monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils. Engagement of CD14 (even at doses as minute as 10 pg/mL) results in intracellular signaling via an associated "Toll-like receptor" protein 4 (TLR-4). This signaling results in the activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB), which leads to transcription of a number of genes that trigger a proinflammatory response. It was the result of significant activation of mononuclear cells and synthesis of effector cytokines. It also results in profound activation of mononuclear cells and the production of potent effector cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α. TLR-mediated activation helps to trigger the innate immune system to efficiently eradicate invading microbes, but the cytokines they produce also act on endothelial cells. There, they have a variety of effects, including reduced synthesis of ...
Acute-Phase Proteins/physiology*. *Acute-Phase Reaction/physiopathology*. *C-Reactive Protein/analysis ... Acute-phase proteins and other systemic responses to inflammation.. Gabay C1, Kushner I. ... Acute-Phase Proteins/analysis. * ... C-Reactive Protein. Grant support. *AG 02467/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ ...
Protein Separation. Proteins from the plasma sample were isolated by 50% isopropanol precipitation. Proteins from the pellet ... Plasma Proteome Dynamics: Analysis of Lipoproteins and Acute Phase Response Proteins with 2H2O Metabolic Labeling. Ling Li, ... We applied this technique to measure the synthesis rates of several plasma lipoproteins and acute phase response proteins in ... In this study, we mainly concentrated on several plasma acute phase response proteins and lipoproteins and evaluated the ...
"Effects of low-protein diets on acute phase proteins and heat shock protein 70 responses, and growth performance in broiler ... Effects of low-protein diets on acute phase proteins and heat shock protein 70 responses, and... Zulkifli, I;Akmal, A F; ... Effects of low-protein diets on acute phase proteins and heat shock protein 70 responses, and growth performance in broiler ... Effects of low-protein diets on acute phase proteins and heat shock protein 70 responses, and growth performance in broiler ...
To determine whether ischemia-reperfusion injury causes this acute-phase response, we studied the temporal relation between ... does not itself stimulate an appreciable acute-phase response. ... Elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with ... Acute-Phase Reaction, Aged, Angina Pectoris, Variant, Angina, Unstable, Blood Proteins, Electrocardiography, Ambulatory, ... Plasma protein acute-phase response in unstable angina is not induced by ischemic injury. ...
6 supporting the notion that the acute phase response is a continuum and not an all or none response. ... Sialic acid is found in association with many acute phase proteins and in one prospective study was a powerful predictor of ... The major acute phase reactants: C-reactive protein, serum amyloid P component and serum amyloid A protein. Immunol Today 1994 ... C Reactive protein is the major acute phase protein in humans. In unchallenged subjects concentrations are usually low, rising ...
Innate immunity and inflammatory response; Acute phase proteins; cytokines and chemokines.. Andrey Komissarov PhD ... The topics covered in this course include protein purification, protein characterization, binding studies and proteomics. 53 ... Proteins and Nucleic Acids; BIOT 5421 (BTC 555)  Student Seminar; BIOT 5101 (BTC 556)  Advanced Techniques in Protein ... X-ray diffraction of proteins and nucleic acids; HPLC of proteins. Course may span two summer sessions. Corequisite BTC 558L ( ...
... serum-protein, haptoglobin, disease, stress, infection, markers, lairage, Acute phase proteins, Transport, Pig, Welfare, ... "Characterisation of the pig acute phase protein response to road transport",. abstract = "The acute phase protein (APP) ... N2 - The acute phase protein (APP) response was evaluated after prolonged transportation of pigs under commercial conditions. ... AB - The acute phase protein (APP) response was evaluated after prolonged transportation of pigs under commercial conditions. ...
Acute-phase response: These proteins, collectively called acute-phase proteins, bind to bacteria and, by doing so, activate ... The acute-phase proteins act similarly to antibodies but are more democratic-that is, they do not distinguish between pathogens ... Other articles where Acute-phase protein is discussed: immune system: ... In immune system: Acute-phase response. These proteins, collectively called acute-phase proteins, bind to bacteria and, by ...
... submissions for various types of assays for C Reactive Protein (CRP). ... CRP is one of the cytokine-induced "acute-phase" proteins [ ] whose blood levels rise during a general, unspecific response to ... You should explain that CRP is an "acute phase" protein and rises non-specifically in response to inflammation. You should also ... The Acute Phase Response: General aspects. Baillieress Clinical Rheumatology 1994; 8:513-530. ...
Beta-2 comprises C3 (complement protein 3). It is raised in the acute phase response. Depression of C3 occurs in autoimmune ... Serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP or SPE) is a laboratory test that examines specific proteins in the blood called globulins. ... These bands fuse and intensify in early inflammation due to an increase in alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, an acute phase protein. ... Increased beta-1 protein due to LDL elevation occurs in hypercholesterolemia. Decreased beta-1 protein occurs in acute or ...
The pathogenesis of CLA is a slow process, and produces a chronic rather than an acute disease state. Acute phase proteins (APP ... An extended response was found for AGP which occurred at a point when the infection was likely to have been transforming from ... an acute to a chronic phase. The results suggest that AGP could have a role as a marker for chronic conditions in sheep. ... are produced by the liver and released into the circulation in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines. The concentration of Hp ...
Acute-phase proteins and other systemic responses to inflammation. N Engl J Med 1999;340:448-454pmid:9971870. ... Control of the acute phase response. Serum C-reactive protein kinetics after acute myocardial infarction. J Clin Invest 1978;61 ... Particulate air pollution is associated with an acute phase response in men; results from the MONICA-Augsburg Study. Eur Heart ... The Study to Understand the Genetics of the Acute Response to Metformin and Glipizide in Humans (SUGAR-MGH) ...
Objective The objective of this study is to examine the diurnal variability of C-reactive protein (CRP) in obstructive sleep ... C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase response protein implicated in broad range of cardiovascular diseases [4]. Through ... Schwedler SB et al (2006) C-reactive protein: a family of proteins to regulate cardiovascular function. Am J Kidney Dis 47(2): ... Baumann H, Gauldie J (1994) The acute phase response. Immunol Today 15(2):74-80CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Transferrins are iron binding transport proteins which can bind two Fe(3+) ions in association with the binding of an anion, ... acute-phase response Source: RGD ,p>Inferred from Expression Pattern,/p> ,p>Covers cases where the annotation is inferred from ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. P12346. P24627. B9VPZ5. J7K1V4. A0A0A0UDY6. ... section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes ...
Heterodimerizes with ARNT; heterodimer binds to core DNA sequence 5-TACGTG-3 within the hypoxia response element (HRE) of ... Interaction with redox regulatory protein APEX seems to activate CTAD and potentiates activation by NCOA1 and CREBBP. Involved ... and other genes whose protein products increase oxygen delivery or facilitate metabolic adaptation to hypoxia. Plays an ... Functions as a master transcriptional regulator of the adaptive response to hypoxia. Under hypoxic conditions, activates the ...
Other treatments induced rises of ~50%. Our results suggested that viral challenge strongly enhances serum acute phase proteins ... Effect of virulent newcastle disease virus before and after vaccination on serum acute phase protein response in Cobb broilers. ... Effect of virulent newcastle disease virus before and after vaccination on serum acute phase protein response in Cobb broilers ... to determine serum acute phase protein response. Four groups of 50 broilers each were given live vaccine at 22 days age (1), ...
The acute-phase response proteins, such as haptoglobin (HP), transferrine (TRf), α1-antitrypsin, complement protein 3 (C3), ... The aim of this study is to examine the levels of acute-phase response proteins and whether these levels are influenced by ... because it seems that in perimenopause the hormonal changes are accompanied by changes of acute-phase response proteins. ... The lack of association between acute-phase proteins and depressive mood mentioned in this study does not support previous ...
Two distinct proteins bound this element in vitro: a heat-stable, constitutively present, hepatic nuclear protein that gave ... T1 - An inducible 50-kilodalton NFκB-like protein and a constitutive protein both bind the acute-phase response element of the ... An inducible 50-kilodalton NFκB-like protein and a constitutive protein both bind the acute-phase response element of the ... An inducible 50-kilodalton NFκB-like protein and a constitutive protein both bind the acute-phase response element of the ...
... and acute phase protein response. Calves grazed with their dams until the end of the grazing season when they were housed in a ... Acute phase proteins. There were no effects (P , 0.05) of treatment or treatment × sampling time interactions for plasma ... Previous studies have shown that weaning induces an acute phase protein response in beef calves [9, 55, 56], whereas in the ... Acute phase protein response (fibrinogen and haptoglobin). Blood collected into vacutainer tubes containing lithium heparin (8 ...
The objective of this work was to study the acute phase proteins (APP) responses after coinfection of piglets with H1N1 swine ... Haptoglobin (Hp) was significantly elevated from 3 dpi to the end of study, while pig major acute phase protein (Pig-MAP) from ... The concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) increased significantly at 1 dpi as compared to control pigs, and remained ... Swine influenza is generally characterized by acute onset of fever and respiratory symptoms. The most frequent complications of ...
Protein Coding), C-Reactive Protein, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards ... Consequently, the level of this protein in plasma increases greatly during acute phase response to tissue injury, infection, or ... C-reactive protein,acute phase reactant,pentaxin (pentraxin) family,bacterial catabolite activator protein *CRP ... Protein Symbol:. P02741-CRP_HUMAN. Recommended name:. C-reactive protein. Protein Accession:. P02741. Secondary Accessions: * ...
Protein Coding), CD163 Molecule, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The ... Acute phase-regulated receptor involved in clearance and endocytosis of hemoglobin/haptoglobin complexes by macrophages and may ... CD163: a regulated hemoglobin scavenger receptor with a role in the anti-inflammatory response. (PMID: 15478309) Moestrup SK … ... Protein Symbol:. Q86VB7-C163A_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Scavenger receptor cysteine-rich type 1 protein M130 Protein Accession: ...
This book offers a comprehensive study of C-reactive protein (CRP) belonging to the pentraxin family, including a brief history ... Acute-Phase Proteins and Responses and Their Application in Clinical Chemistry Waliza Ansar, Shyamasree Ghosh ... It also discusses the role of innate immunity and acute phase response (APR) and their key mediators in the host body in ... This book offers a comprehensive study of C-reactive protein (CRP) belonging to the pentraxin family, including a brief history ...
The Plasma Proteins, Their Fundamental and Clinical Aspects. After I read through the Japanese edition, I was impressed by its ... Plasma Protein Changes in Acute Phase Responses. Kawai, Tadashi, M. D.. Pages 257-266 ... Clinical Aspects of The Plasma Proteins. Authors. * Tadashi Kawai Copyright. 1973. Publisher. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg ... "The Plasma Proteins, Their Fundamental and Clinical Aspects." After I read through the Japanese edition, I was impressed by its ...
Ab173066 is a protein fragment produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in SDS-PAGE, HPLC. Abcam provides free ... Buy our Recombinant Human STAT3 protein (BSA and azide free). ... Acute Phase Response Factor. *Acute-phase response factor. * ... Recombinant Human STAT3 protein (BSA and azide free). See all STAT3 proteins and peptides. ... Binds to the interleukin-6 (IL-6)-responsive elements identified in the promoters of various acute-phase protein genes. ...
  • The rat angiotensinogen gene is induced in the course of the hepatic acute-phase response. (utmb.edu)
  • We thus provide direct evidence for involvement of NFκB or a similar factor in the hepatic acute-phase response and discuss the potential role of the presence of a constitutive nuclear factor binding the same cis element. (utmb.edu)
  • Moreover, I/R elicited an acute phase response, as reflected by elevated serum AGP and serum amyloid P (SAP) levels after 24 hours, and increased hepatic acute phase protein mRNA levels after 18 hours of renal reperfusion. (ahajournals.org)
  • Increased hepatic production begins within 4-5 h of a stimulatory event, leading to increased serum concentrations that are a reflection of both protein production and peripheral catabolism. (uoguelph.ca)
  • Exclusion criteria will be: American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score above II, diabetes mellitus, pregnancy, renal or hepatic failure, gastroesophageal reflux, morbid obesity (BMI above 40 kg/m2,acute cholecystitis, use of corticosteroids up to 6 months previously, use of any prokinetic drug up to 6 weeks, and any noncompliance or violation on the assigned protocol of preoperative fasting. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It functions as an acute phase-regulated receptor involved in the clearance and endocytosis of hemoglobin/haptoglobin complexes by macrophages, and may thereby protect tissues from free hemoglobin-mediated oxidative damage. (genecards.org)
  • Anti-apoptotic factors may act directly by interfering with death receptor activation or indirectly by triggering an intracellular response perturbing apoptotic signaling cascades. (mcponline.org)
  • Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) proteins are transcription factors activated in response to cytokine, growth factor, or hormone receptor signaling. (novusbio.com)
  • Together with bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (BPI), the encoded protein binds LPS and interacts with the CD14 receptor, probably playing a role in regulating LPS-dependent monocyte responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein has been shown to interact with CD14 , TLR2 , TLR4 and the co-receptor MD-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fibronectin is a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein containing about 5% carbohydrate that binds to membrane spanning receptor proteins called integrins . (bionity.com)
  • β-Adrenergic Receptors and G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase-2 in Alzheimer's Disease: A New Paradigm for Prognosis and Therapy? (iospress.com)
  • In particular, the G protein coupled receptor kinase 2, responsible for β-AR desensitization and downregulation, mediates amyloid-induced β-AR dysfunction in neurons, and its levels in circulating lymphocytes of AD patients are increased and inversely correlated with patient's cognitive status. (iospress.com)
  • The objective of this work was to study the acute phase proteins (APP) responses after coinfection of piglets with H1N1 swine influenza virus (SwH1N1) and Pasteurella multocida (Pm) in order to identify whether the individual APP response correlate with disease severity and whether APP could be used as markers of the health status of coinfected pigs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is of particular interest because decreased insulin sensitivity has been linked to incident type 2 diabetes ( 8 ), as well as increased levels of inflammatory proteins ( 9 , 10 ) and markers of hemostasis ( 11 , 12 ) and fibrinolysis ( 11 , 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 2016). However, there is a dearth of information on the physiological stress response to heat exposure in chickens fed low-CP diets. (deepdyve.com)
  • 2012) demonstrated that low-CP diets with prebiotics supplementation had a negligible effect on physiological stress response (as measured by heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratios, and blood levels of corticosterone and glucose) in broiler chickens housed at a high stocking density. (deepdyve.com)
  • Because these thermal effects have such major consequences for cellular function, organisms typically manifest extensive evolutionary adaptations that establish distinct thermal optima and limits for physiological function, as well as capacities for altering the phenotype in response to changes in temperature that occur during the lifetime of an organism, e.g. on time scales from minutes to seasons. (biologists.org)
  • 1 Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), the physiological inhibitor of fibrinolysis, is an acute-phase protein that impairs fibrinolysis. (ahajournals.org)
  • This protein is produced whenever an inflammatory process is initiated in the body and under normal physiological conditions, such as everyday stress, pregnancy, and aging. (ift.org)
  • Positive acute-phase proteins serve (part of the innate immune system) different physiological functions for the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our data demonstrate that chronically elevated brain CRH levels produce marked changes in basal (largely CRH regulated) physiological and behavioral processes accompanied by aberrant responses to an acute challenge. (jneurosci.org)
  • Transferrins are iron binding transport proteins which can bind two Fe 3+ ions in association with the binding of an anion, usually bicarbonate. (uniprot.org)
  • Sixteen, spring-born, single suckled, castrated male calves of Limousin × Holstein-Friesian and Simmental × Holstein-Friesian dams respectively, were used to investigate the effect of weaning on total leukocyte and differential counts, neutrophil functional activity, lymphocyte immunophenotypes, and acute phase protein response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Compared with men in the bottom third of baseline measurements of C reactive protein, men in the top third had an odds ratio for coronary heart disease of 2.13 (95% confidence interval 1.38 to 3.28) after age, town, smoking, vascular risk factors, and indicators of socioeconomic status were adjusted for. (bmj.com)
  • 2 6 A variety of mechanisms by which C reactive protein might directly promote vascular disease have been proposed, 7 but none is proved. (bmj.com)
  • Abcam's STAT3 (pY705) and STAT3 (Total) in vitro SimpleStep ELISA™ (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is designed for the semi-quantitative measurement of STAT3 (pY705) and Total STAT3 protein in Human cells. (abcam.com)
  • Coactivators such as CREB-binding protein are required for the transcriptional activation by STAT3. (thermofisher.com)
  • The STAT3 protein is active in tissues throughout the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the skeletal system, the STAT3 protein is involved in the formation of specialized cells that build and break down bone tissue. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most of the mutations involved in this condition change single amino acids in the STAT3 protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A shortage of functioning STAT3 protein prevents cells from reacting to signals that trigger allergic reactions, which explains why people with AD-HIES do not have an increased risk of allergies, despite having high levels of IgE. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Recently we demonstrated that the steady state 2 H labeling of most intracellular amino acids was achieved within 45 min of an intraperitoneal bolus of 2 H 2 O, suggesting that the transfer of amino acids to the polypeptide chain is the rate-limiting step in protein biosynthesis ( 12 , 17 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Protocol A: Two-step protocol: intracellular (cytoplasmic) proteins and Protocol B: One-step protocol: intracellular (nuclear) proteins cannot be used. (thermofisher.com)
  • Chloroquine inhibits intracellular degradation but not secretion of Alzheimer B/A4 amyloid precursor protein. (acnp.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The normal levels of CRP in variant angina, despite a significantly larger number of ischemic episodes and greater total ischemic burden, and the failure of CRP values to increase in unstable angina indicate that transient myocardial ischemia, within the range of duration observed, does not itself stimulate an appreciable acute-phase response. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Protein turnover studies have traditionally relied on precursor-product relationships and involved the administration of isotopically labeled amino acid ( 4 ). (mcponline.org)
  • In addition to the inconvenience of long term administration of amino acid tracers and difficulties in determining the true precursor labeling, these methods are hampered by low isotopic labeling of protein products and difficulties with data interpretation related to determining the precursor-product labeling ratio. (mcponline.org)
  • Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC), 1 originally developed for quantitative analysis of proteins ( 7 ), is consequently applied in pulse chase labeling experiments for steady state protein turnover measurements ( 8 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Thus, reduction of dietary protein in heat-stressed chickens with adequate fortification of several essential amino acids (EAA) may improve performance (Waldroup et al. (deepdyve.com)
  • The net charge on a protein is based on the sum charge of its amino acids, and the pH of the buffer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whey protein contains a high level of essential amino acids especially branched-chain amino acids. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Changes in temperature affect the fluidity of lipid membranes, the conformational mobilities and activities of proteins, and the stability of DNA duplexes ( Hochachka and Somero, 2002 ). (biologists.org)