An early local inflammatory reaction to insult or injury that consists of fever, an increase in inflammatory humoral factors, and an increased synthesis by hepatocytes of a number of proteins or glycoproteins usually found in the plasma.
Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
An ACUTE PHASE REACTION protein present in low concentrations in normal sera, but found at higher concentrations in sera of older persons and in patients with AMYLOIDOSIS. It is the circulating precusor of amyloid A protein, which is found deposited in AA type AMYLOID FIBRILS.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.
Orosomucoid, also known as alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, is an acute phase protein involved in the immune response, functioning as a pattern recognition receptor and having the ability to bind various ligands including drugs and hormones.
The concrete oleoresin obtained from Pinus palustris Mill. (Pinaceae) and other species of Pinus. It contains a volatile oil, to which its properties are due, and to which form it is generally used. (Dorland, 28th ed) Turpentine is used as a solvent and an experimental irritant in biomedical research. Turpentine toxicity is of medical interest.

Acute-phase responses in transgenic mice with CNS overexpression of IL-1 receptor antagonist. (1/655)

The interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) is an endogenous antagonist that blocks the effects of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1alpha and IL-1beta by occupying the type I IL-1 receptor. Here we describe transgenic mice with astrocyte-directed overexpression of the human secreted IL-1ra (hsIL-1ra) under the control of the murine glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter. Two GFAP-hsIL-1ra strains have been generated and characterized further: GILRA2 and GILRA4. These strains show a brain-specific expression of the hsIL-1ra at the mRNA and protein levels. The hsIL-1ra protein was approximated to approximately 50 ng/brain in cytosolic fractions of whole brain homogenates, with no differences between male and female mice or between the two strains. Furthermore, the protein is secreted, inasmuch as the concentration of hsIL-1ra in the cerebrospinal fluid was 13 (GILRA2) to 28 (GILRA4) times higher in the transgenic mice than in the control animals. To characterize the transgenic phenotype, GILRA mice and nontransgenic controls were injected with recombinant human IL-1beta (central injection) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, peripheral injection). The febrile response elicited by IL-1beta (50 ng/mouse icv) was abolished in hsIL-1ra-overexpressing animals, suggesting that the central IL-1 receptors were occupied by antagonist. The peripheral LPS injection (25 micrograms/kg ip) triggered a fever in overexpressing and control animals. Moreover, no differences were found in LPS-induced (100 and 1,000 micrograms/kg ip; 1 and 6 h after injection) IL-1beta and IL-6 serum levels between GILRA and wild-type mice. On the basis of these results, we suggest that binding of central IL-1 to central IL-1 receptors is not important in LPS-induced fever or LPS-induced IL-1beta and IL-6 plasma levels.  (+info)

Expression of serum amyloid A protein in the absence of the acute phase response does not reduce HDL cholesterol or apoA-I levels in human apoA-I transgenic mice. (2/655)

Plasma concentrations of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and its major apolipoprotein (apo)A-I are significantly decreased in inflammatory states. Plasma levels of the serum amyloid A (SAA) protein increase markedly during the acute phase response and are elevated in many chronic inflammatory states. Because SAA is associated with HDL and has been shown to be capable of displacing apoA-I from HDL in vitro, it is believed that expression of SAA is the primary cause of the reduced HDL cholesterol and apoA-I in inflammatory states. In order to directly test this hypothesis, we constructed recombinant adenoviruses expressing the murine SAA and human SAA1 genes (the major acute phase SAA proteins in both species). These recombinant adenoviruses were injected intravenously into wild-type and human apoA-I transgenic mice and the effects of SAA expression on HDL cholesterol and apoA-I were compared with mice injected with a control adenovirus. Plasma levels of SAA were comparable to those seen in the acute phase response in mice and humans. However, despite high plasma levels of murine or human SAA, no significant changes in HDL cholesterol or apoA-I levels were observed. SAA was found associated with HDL but did not specifically alter the cholesterol or human apoA-I distribution among lipoproteins. In summary, high plasma levels of SAA in the absence of a generalized acute phase response did not result in reduction of HDL cholesterol or apoA-I in mice, suggesting that there are components of the acute phase response other than SAA expression that may directly influence HDL metabolism.  (+info)

C-reactive protein and outcome after ischemic stroke. (3/655)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Elevated concentrations of the acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP) predict ischemic cardiac events in both hospital- and population-based studies and may signify a role for inflammation in the destabilization of cardiovascular disease. We examined the relationship between CRP and outcome after acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: This was a subgroup analysis from a prospective observational study based in a University Hospital Acute Stroke Unit serving a population of approximately 260 000. Survival time and cause of death for up to 4 years after the index stroke were determined and related to CRP concentration within 72 hours of stroke and known prognostic variables by a Cox proportional hazards regression model. RESULTS: Ischemic stroke was diagnosed in 228 of 283 consecutive admissions. Median follow-up was 959 days. Geometric mean CRP concentration was 10.1 mg/L. Survival in those with CRP >10.1 mg/L was significantly worse than in those with CRP 10.1 mg/L and 63% of deaths in those with CRP +info)

Fish oil-enriched nutritional supplement attenuates progression of the acute-phase response in weight-losing patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. (4/655)

The presence of an acute-phase protein response (APPR) has been suggested to shorten survival and contribute to weight loss in patients with pancreatic cancer. Fatty acids derived from fish oil have been shown to alter proinflammatory cytokine production and acute-phase protein synthesis in vitro. The present study was designed to determine the effects of a fish oil-enriched nutritional supplement on the concentrations of a range of individual acute-phase proteins (APP) in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. In a sequential series, 18 patients with pancreatic cancer received the supplement (providing 2 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 1 g docosahexaenoic acid/d) for 3 wk while another 18 received full supportive care alone. Six healthy subjects served as additional controls. Acute-phase proteins were measured before and after the 3-wk intervention period in cancer patients. At baseline, albumin, transferrin and pre-albumin were significantly reduced and fibrinogen, haptoglobin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, alpha-1-antitrypsin, ceruloplasmin and C-reactive protein (CRP) were significantly elevated in the cancer patients compared with healthy controls, reflecting their roles as negative and positive acute phase proteins, respectively. In the supplemented cancer group, the only significant change in APP concentrations over the 4-wk study period was an increase in transferrin. In the control cancer group there were further significant reductions in albumin, transferrin and pre-albumin, and a significant increase in CRP concentration. These results suggest that many positive and negative APP are altered in advanced pancreatic cancer. The APPR tends to progress in untreated patients but may be stabilized by the administration of a fish oil-enriched nutritional supplement. This may have implications for reducing wasting in such patients.  (+info)

SAA-only HDL formed during the acute phase response in apoA-I+/+ and apoA-I-/- mice. (5/655)

Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute phase protein of unknown function that is involved in systemic amyloidosis and may also be involved in atherogenesis. The precise role of SAA in these processes has not been established. SAA circulates in plasma bound to high density lipoprotein-3 (HDL3). The pathway for the production of SAA-containing HDL is not known. To test whether apolipoprotein (apo)A-I-HDL is required in the production of SAA-HDL, we analyzed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced changes in apoA-I+/+ and apoA-I-/- mice. In apoA-I+/+ mice, after injection of LPS, remodeling of HDL occurred: total cholesterol increased and apoA-I decreased slightly and shifted to lighter density. Dense (density of HDL3) but large (size of HDL2 ) SAA-containing particles were formed. Upon fast phase liquid chromatography fractionation of plasma, >90% of SAA eluted with HDL that was enriched in cholesterol and phospholipid and shifted "leftward" to larger particles. Non-denaturing immunoprecipitation with anti-mouse apoA-I precipitated all of the apoA-I but not all of the SAA, confirming the presence of SAA-HDL devoid of apoA-I. In the apoA-I-/- mice, which normally have very low plasma lipid levels, LPS injection resulted in significantly increased total and HDL cholesterol. Greater than 90% of the SAA was lipid associated and was found on dense but large, spherical HDL particles essentially devoid of other apolipoproteins.We conclude that serum amyloid A (SAA) is able to sequester lipid, forming dense but large HDL particles with or without apoA-I or other apolipoproteins. The capacity to isolate lipoprotein particles containing SAA as the predominant or only apolipoprotein provides an important system to further explore the biological function of SAA.  (+info)

Association of fatigue with an acute phase response in sarcoidosis. (6/655)

The pathophysiological explanation for fatigue, one of the most common symptoms in sarcoidosis, still has to be elucidated. It was hypothesized that the presence of fatigue is associated with an acute phase response in sarcoidosis. A cross-sectional study was performed in 38 sarcoidosis patients. Resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured in the fasting state by indirect calorimetry using a ventilated hood and adjusted for fat-free mass (FFM). Patients with fatigue (n=25) also suffered more frequently from other symptoms, such as exercise intolerance (p=0.01), the need for sleep (p=0.02) and weight loss (p=0.01), compared to those without fatigue (n=13). However, no relationship was found between fatigue and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (sACE) or lung function impairment. Patients with fatigue had higher levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) (11.4+/-6.8 microg x mL(-1), p<0.0001) and REE adjusted for FFM (33.0+/-3.7 kcal x kg FFM(-1), p<0.003) compared to those without fatigue (3.2+/-2.2 mg x mL(-1); 29.2+/-2.8 kcal x kg FF(-1)). Furthermore, REE/FFM was significantly related to CRP (r=0.54, p=0.001). This study confirms the presence of an acute phase response as indicated by metabolic derangements and a moderate increase in C-reactive protein levels in sarcoidosis, particularly in those patients with constitutional symptoms. Future studies should focus on the clinical relevance and therapeutic implications of these findings.  (+info)

Regulation of Spi 2.1 and 2.2 gene expression after turpentine inflammation: discordant responses to IL-6. (7/655)

The rat serine protease inhibitor (Spi) 2 gene family includes both positive (Spi 2.2) and negative (Spi 2.1) acute phase reactants, facilitating modeling of regulation of hepatic acute phase response (APR). To examine the role of signal transducer and activation of transcription (STAT) proteins in the divergent regulation of these model genes after induction of APR, we evaluated the proximal promoters of the genes, focusing on STAT binding sites contained in these promoter elements. Induction of APR by turpentine injection includes activation of a STAT3 complex that can bind to a gamma-activated sequence (GAS) in the Spi 2.2 gene promoter, although the Spi 2.2 GAS site can bind STAT1 or STAT5 as well. To create an in vitro model of APR, primary hepatocytes were treated with combinations of cytokines and hormones to mimic the hormonal milieu of the whole animal after APR induction. Incubation of primary rat hepatocytes with interleukin (IL)-6, a critical APR cytokine, leads to activation of STAT3 and a 28-fold induction of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter construct containing the -319 to +85 region of the Spi 2.2 promoter. This suggests the turpentine-induced increase of Spi 2.2 is mediated primarily by IL-6. In contrast, although turpentine treatment reduces Spi 2.1 mRNA in vivo and IL-6 does not increase Spi 2.1 mRNA in primary rat hepatocytes, treatment of hepatocytes with IL-6 results in a 5. 4-fold induction of Spi 2.1 promoter activity mediated through the paired GAS elements in this promoter. Differential regulation of Spi 2.1 and 2.2 genes is due in part to differences in the promoters of these genes at the GAS sites. IL-6 alone fails to reproduce the pattern of rat Spi 2 gene expression that results from turpentine-induced inflammation.  (+info)

Association of polymorphism in glutathione S-transferase loci with susceptibility and outcome in rheumatoid arthritis: comparison with the shared epitope. (8/655)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether glutathione S-transferase GSTM1, GSTM3, GSTT1, and GSTP1 genotypes influence susceptibility or outcome in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: 277 RA patients were compared with 577 controls to examine any associations between GST genotypes and susceptibility to RA. The effect of genotypes on outcome (Larsen and functional scores) and time integrated acute phase responses (erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C reactive protein) was assessed in 122 patients with disease duration of 5-10 years. GST and HLA-DRB1 genotypes were determined using polymerase chain reaction based assays. Data were analysed using multiple regression analysis with correction for age, sex, disease duration, and the DRB1 associated shared epitope (SE) and rheumatoid factor (RF) positivity where appropriate. RESULTS: The GSTM1*A/*B genotype was less common in RA cases (3 of 276) than in controls (22 of 591) (exact p = 0.047), though significance was lost when adjustment was made for multiple comparisons. The Larsen score was higher (p = 0.039) in the GSTM1 null patients (89.9) than those with other GSTM1 genotypes (74.7), and this was independent of the SE. Again, correction for multiple testing resulted in loss of significance. The difference in Larsen scores between patients homozygous or negative for the SE (87.9 v 74.3) was similar to that between GSTM1 null and non-null patients. No associations between GSTM3 or GSTT1 genotypes and disease markers were identified although the association between GSTP1*B/*B and Larsen score approached significance (p = 0.096). CONCLUSION: It is proposed that certain GSTs may influence susceptibility and radiological progression in RA and that this is independent of the effect of the HLA-DRB1 associated SE. The mechanism for this effect is presumed to be because of differences in the ability of various GST enzymes to utilise the cytotoxic products of oxidant stress. Although significance was lost after correction for multiple testing, the data indicate that further studies may be of value in RA to determine the influence of the GST and other genes involved in cellular protection against oxidative stress.  (+info)

The acute-phase reaction is a complex series of physiological responses that occur in response to tissue injury, infection, or stress. It is characterized by the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) from activated immune cells, including macrophages and neutrophils.

These cytokines trigger a range of systemic effects, including fever, increased heart rate and respiratory rate, decreased appetite, and changes in white blood cell count. They also stimulate the production of acute-phase proteins (APPs) by the liver, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and serum amyloid A.

The acute-phase reaction is an important part of the body's immune response to injury or infection, helping to promote healing and fight off pathogens. However, excessive or prolonged activation of the acute-phase reaction can contribute to the development of chronic inflammatory conditions and diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, and cancer.

Acute-phase proteins (APPs) are a group of plasma proteins whose concentrations change in response to various inflammatory conditions, such as infection, trauma, or tissue damage. They play crucial roles in the body's defense mechanisms and help mediate the innate immune response during the acute phase of an injury or illness.

There are several types of APPs, including:

1. C-reactive protein (CRP): Produced by the liver, CRP is one of the most sensitive markers of inflammation and increases rapidly in response to various stimuli, such as bacterial infections or tissue damage.
2. Serum amyloid A (SAA): Another liver-derived protein, SAA is involved in lipid metabolism and immune regulation. Its concentration rises quickly during the acute phase of inflammation.
3. Fibrinogen: A coagulation factor produced by the liver, fibrinogen plays a vital role in blood clotting and wound healing. Its levels increase during inflammation.
4. Haptoglobin: This protein binds free hemoglobin released from red blood cells, preventing oxidative damage to tissues. Its concentration rises during the acute phase of inflammation.
5. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT): A protease inhibitor produced by the liver, AAT helps regulate the activity of enzymes involved in tissue breakdown and repair. Its levels increase during inflammation to protect tissues from excessive proteolysis.
6. Ceruloplasmin: This copper-containing protein is involved in iron metabolism and antioxidant defense. Its concentration rises during the acute phase of inflammation.
7. Ferritin: A protein responsible for storing iron, ferritin levels increase during inflammation as part of the body's response to infection or tissue damage.

These proteins have diagnostic and prognostic value in various clinical settings, such as monitoring disease activity, assessing treatment responses, and predicting outcomes in patients with infectious, autoimmune, or inflammatory conditions.

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a protein produced by the liver in response to inflammation or infection in the body. It is named after its ability to bind to the C-polysaccharide of pneumococcus, a type of bacteria. CRP levels can be measured with a simple blood test and are often used as a marker of inflammation or infection. Elevated CRP levels may indicate a variety of conditions, including infections, tissue damage, and chronic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. However, it is important to note that CRP is not specific to any particular condition, so additional tests are usually needed to make a definitive diagnosis.

Serum Amyloid A (SAA) protein is an acute phase protein produced primarily in the liver, although it can also be produced by other cells in response to inflammation. It is a member of the apolipoprotein family and is found in high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in the blood. SAA protein levels increase rapidly during the acute phase response to infection, trauma, or tissue damage, making it a useful biomarker for inflammation.

In addition to its role as an acute phase protein, SAA has been implicated in several disease processes, including atherosclerosis and amyloidosis. In amyloidosis, SAA can form insoluble fibrils that deposit in various tissues, leading to organ dysfunction. There are four subtypes of SAA in humans (SAA1, SAA2, SAA3, and SAA4), with SAA1 and SAA2 being the most responsive to inflammatory stimuli.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Haptoglobins are proteins found in the blood that bind to free hemoglobin, which is released when red blood cells break down. The resulting complex is then removed from the bloodstream by the liver, preventing the loss of iron and potential kidney damage caused by the breakdown products of hemoglobin. Haptoglobins are produced in the liver and their levels can be measured to help diagnose various medical conditions such as hemolytic anemia, liver disease, and inflammation.

Orosomucoid, also known as α-1-acid glycoprotein or AAG, is a protein found in human plasma. It's a member of the acute phase proteins, which are produced in higher amounts during inflammation and infection. Orosomucoid has a molecular weight of approximately 41-43 kDa and is composed of a single polypeptide chain with five N-linked glycosylation sites. It plays a role in protecting tissues from various harmful substances, such as proteases and oxidants, by binding to them and preventing their interaction with cells. Additionally, orosomucoid has been studied as a potential biomarker for several diseases due to its altered levels during inflammation and cancer.

Turpentine, also known as oil of turpentine, is not a medical term itself but a substance that has been used in some traditional medical preparations. It is a volatile essential oil obtained by the distillation of resin from live trees, mainly pines.

Medically, it has been used as a counterirritant and rubefacient (a substance that causes redness of the skin and increases blood flow) in liniments and plasters. However, its use in modern medicine is not very common due to potential toxicity and irritation. It's important to note that turpentine should not be ingested or used topically without proper medical supervision.

Hepatocyte and immune system: acute phase reaction as a contribution to early defence mechanisms. ... Hepatocyte and immune system: acute phase reaction as a contribution to early defence mechanisms. ...
Hepatocytes undergoing acute phase responses require exogenous IL-6. Journal Articles * IL6 and the acute phase reaction ... The acute phase response of the liver in inflammation. Journal Articles * The acute-phase protein response in parasite ... Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome and the Acute Phase Response Journal Articles * Reassessment of HIV-1 Acute Phase Infectivity: ... Induction of the Acute-Phase Reaction Increases Heparin-Binding Proteins in Plasma Journal Articles ...
Acute-Phase Reaction* * Aged * COVID-19 / blood* * COVID-19 / rehabilitation * Female * Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products ... Prolonged elevation of D-dimer levels in convalescent COVID-19 patients is independent of the acute phase response J Thromb ... Background: Persistent fatigue, breathlessness, and reduced exercise tolerance have been reported following acute COVID-19 ... Although immuno-thrombosis has been implicated in acute COVID-19 pathogenesis, the biological mechanisms underpinning long ...
This response is called the acute-phase reaction (also called acute-phase response). The acute-phase reaction ... Acute-phase proteins (APPs) are a class of proteins whose concentrations in blood plasma either increase (positive acute-phase ... The terms acute-phase protein and acute-phase reactant (APR) are often used synonymously, although some APRs are (strictly ... acute-phase reactants. Increased acute-phase proteins from the liver may also contribute to the promotion of sepsis. TNF-α, IL- ...
Acute Phase Reaction Zoledronic acid injection was associated with signs and symptoms of a transient acute phase reaction that ... Acute Phase Reaction The signs and symptoms of acute phase reaction occurred in Study 1 following zoledronic acid injection ... Acute Phase Reaction Zoledronic acid injection was associated with signs and symptoms of an acute phase reaction: myalgia (17.1 ... Acute Phase Reaction The signs and symptoms of acute phase reaction (influenza-like illness, pyrexia, myalgia, arthralgia, and ...
The acute phase is marked by an abrupt rise in the secretion of so-called stress hormones with an associated increase in ... The acute phase is marked by an abrupt rise in the secretion of so-called stress hormones with an associated increase in ... Acute-Phase Reaction / physiopathology * Adaptation, Physiological* * Animals * Hormones / physiology * Humans * Mitochondria ... Third, this effect on mitochondria might be the consequence of acute-phase changes in hormones and inflammatory mediators. ...
A postinflammatory pigment alteration may follow the acute phase of this phototoxic reaction. This alteration occurs primarily ... A type I reaction occurs in the absence of oxygen, whereas a type II reaction occurs in the presence of oxygen. These ... Dupilumab-Associated Lymphoid Reactions Require Caution * Adolescents With Atopic Dermatitis More Likely to Have Experienced ... Only light that is absorbed into the skin can cause a photochemical reaction. Within the light spectra, UV-A (320-400 nm) is ...
ASSOCIATED WITH Acute-Phase Reaction; Kidney Reperfusion Injury; allergic contact dermatitis (ortholog); FOUND IN plasma ... Acute-Phase Reaction IEP. 6484138. mRNA:increased expression:liver (rat). RGD. allergic contact dermatitis ISO. RGD:1323827. ... Melanocortin receptors in rat liver cells: change of gene expression and intracellular localization during acute-phase response ... PPARA protein promotes the reaction [pirinixic acid results in decreased expression of MC1R mRNA]. CTD. PMID:17950772. ...
Polymerase chain reaction amplification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA from the patients acute-phase blood sample. Amplified ... Polymerase chain reaction amplification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA from the patients acute-phase blood sample. Amplified ... in the acute-phase blood specimen (Figure) (12). No nucleic acids were amplified with primers specific for E. chaffeensis HE1 ... Thrombocytopenia-a common finding in the initial phase of tick-borne encephalitis. Infection. 1995;23:203-6. DOIPubMedGoogle ...
Acute-Phase Reaction 01/2008. 1. Inflammation 01/2008. 1. Pancreatic Neoplasms (Pancreatic Cancer) 01/2008. ...
induces acute phase reaction IL-7. stromal cells of the red marrow and thymus. involved in B, T, and NK cell survival, ... small amounts induce acute phase reaction, large amounts induce fever. IL-2. TH1-cells. stimulates growth and differentiation ... Activates STAT1 and STAT3 and increases production of acute phase proteins such as serum amyloid A, Alpha 1-antichymotrypsin ...
Treatment and therapies for acute phases of allergic reactions. This can be done by management of your dosha. Management of ... Few of the reactions even cause stomach ulcers. The most dangerous outcome can be death due to anaphylactic shock. It is a rare ... There are several outcomes of an allergic reaction ranging from flu-like symptoms, redness or blister development on the skin, ... These substances are called allergens and the response of your body is called the allergic reaction. ...
Background: Tissues respond to injury by releasing acute phase reaction (APR) proteins which regulate inflammation and ... The Acute Phase Reactant Orosomucoid-1 Is a Bimodal Regulator of Angiogenesis with Time- and Context-Dependent Inhibitory and ... Among the genes upregulated in wounded tissues are tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) and the acute phase reactant orosomucoid- ... Gene expression studies show that aortic angiogenesis is preceded by an immune reaction with overexpression of Toll-like ...
... a method for absolute quantification of equine acute phase proteins using concatenated peptide standards and selected reaction ... Acute exercise does not induce an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters. Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift › ... The acute phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA) as a marker of inflammation in horses. Jacobsen, Stine & Andersen, P. H., 2007, I ... Acute phase response to surgery of varying intensity in horses: a preliminary study. Jacobsen, Stine, Nielsen, J. V., Kjelgaard ...
It can also be used to differentiate between acute phase reactions (elevated serum level) and estrogen effects (normal or ... AGP is a sensitive acute phase reactant and its concentration can increase by a factor of 3 within 24-48 hours when ... The determination is used in the assessment of the activity of acute and recurring inflammations as well as of tumors with cell ... increases during such reactions. Moderate and isolated increases occur when glomerular filtration is inhibited in the early ...
Acute phase reactions (e.g., illness, inflammation) can falsely decrease protein S in vivo, and it is a common cause of low ... which becomes elevated during acute phase reactions. C4b-binding protein binds to protein S, thus reducing the amount of free ... fibrinogen is an acute phase reactant and possibly an indicator of chronic inflammation associated with atherosclerosis. ... Platelet GP IIIa PIA and GP Ib variable number tandem repeat polymorphism and markers of platelet activation in acute stroke. ...
Relationship between gastro-intestinal complaints and endotoxaemia, cytokine release and the acute-phase reaction during and ...
In the acute phase of reaction, astrocytes also reexpress intermediate filaments significant for glial precursors-nestin and ... which change their phenotype in reaction to the acute brain injury or excitotoxic lesion, used formerly as an animal model of ... The reaction of astrocytes to any damage of the CNS parenchyma in a sense of their conversion into the reactive intensely GFAP- ... During acute CNS injury, reactive gliosis develops within two days and reaches its maximum 1-2 weeks following the insult, ...
This corresponds to the "elicitation phase" of the acute reaction, leading to Th2 local inflammation and clinical symptoms ( ... Those reactions may occur alone or in combination. The more severe allergic reaction, called "anaphylactic shock", can be life ... This reproducible immune reaction results from an impaired induction of oral tolerance, i.e., a suppressive immune process at ... But foodborne NP may also impact the elicitation phase of allergy. Indeed, using the rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 (a cell ...
... investigation indicates that diphtheria-tetanus-poliomyelitis-typhoid vaccination could induce a sustained acute-phase reaction ... whole-body amino acid fluxes and acute-phase protein synthesis were determined. ... Interleukin-17D produced by alveolar epithelial type II cells alleviates LPS-induced acute lung injury via the Nrf2 pathway ... Myeloid cell-specific deletion of epidermal growth factor receptor aggravates acute cardiac injury ...
"These tau changes could be very meaningful, or they could be some type of acute phase reaction in an operative setting," he ... Systemic inflammation induces acute working memory deficits in the primed brain: relevance for delirium. Neurobiol Aging. 2012 ... A clinical investigator in the area of delirium (acute confusion), over the past 20 years, Marcantonio has conducted a series ... Xenon for protection from acute neurological injury. Mervyn Maze from the University of California, San Francisco, described ...
Acute lung injury (ALI), a common cause of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units, results from either direct intra- ... of the cytokines involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that plays a role in the acute phase reaction. ... Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), or acute lung injury (ALI), is a common and devastating syndrome contributing to ... The reaction was performed at 42 °C for 1 h. For further PCR amplification, an aliquot (1:10) of the RT product was adjusted to ...
Acute Phase Reactions: Symptoms consistent with acute phase reaction have been reported with bisphosphonate use. The overall ... Acute Phase Reactions: Symptoms consistent with acute phase reaction have been reported with bisphosphonate use. The overall ... These incidence rates are based on reporting of any of 33 acute phase reaction-like symptoms within 5 days of the first dose. ... These incidence rates are based on reporting of any of 33 acute phase reaction-like symptoms within 3 days of the first dose ...
CpG-DNA upregulates the major acute-phase proteins SAA and SAP.. The acute-phase response is an immediate reaction of the host ... bacterial genomic DNA also induces the acute-phase response in LPS-resistant C3H/Hej mice. The induction of the major acute- ... CpG-DNA upregulates the major acute-phase proteins SAA and SAP. Schmidt, U., Wagner, H., Miethke, T. Cell. Microbiol. (1999) [ ... We show here that oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing a CpG motif rapidly induce the major murine acute-phase proteins in ...
... caused aggravation of LPS-induced inflammatory reaction and an increase of Srebp-1c relative to PPARα. Our results argue in ... caused aggravation of LPS-induced inflammatory reaction and an increase of Srebp-1c relative to PPAR. Our results argue in ... The translation product of Srebp-1c mRNA is involved in increasing cholesterol biosynthesis as part of an acute phase reaction ... Reactions were assessed by measuring TNFα and TGFβ in supernatants of cells for which mRNA expressions for Srebp-1c and PPARα ...
... markers of acute-phase reaction, and (3) immune gene expression of rumen and ileum tissues of Holstein calves. Forty eight ... and markers of acute-phase reaction (CRP and SAA2), especially during critical periods like weaning. ... boulardii CNCM I-1079 and Lactobacillus acidophilus BT1386 influence innate immune response and serum levels of acute-phase ... boulardii CNCM I-1079 and Lactobacillus acidophilus BT1386 influence innate immune response and serum levels of acute-phase ...
Closely monitor patients for signs and symptoms of acute hypersensitivity reactions, particularly during the early phases of ... The most serious adverse reactions are systemic hypersensitivity reactions, including bronchospastic reactions and/or ... Table 5: Pharmacokinetic Parameter Estimates for BeneFIX at Baseline (Cross-over phase) and Month 6 (Follow-up phase) in ... Parameters at Initial Visit (Cross-over phase), n = 24 Mean ± SD. Parameters at Month 6 (Follow-up phase), n = 23 Mean ± SD. ...
... identify and react to allergic reactions in their patients. ... an acute response and a late phase response. The acute phase ... These only treat the acute phases of an allergic reaction, and are not for the chronic treatment of allergy (Wikipedia, 2008). ... The antibody associated with allergic reactions is called IgE (Haith, 2005).. There are two phases of an allergic reaction, ... These reactions are mediated by IgG and IgM and are the ones that cause transfusion reactions and many of the drug reactions. ...

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