Dictionaries, MedicalAcute-Phase Reaction: An early local inflammatory reaction to insult or injury that consists of fever, an increase in inflammatory humoral factors, and an increased synthesis by hepatocytes of a number of proteins or glycoproteins usually found in the plasma.Acute-Phase Proteins: Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dictionaries, ChemicalTerminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Diphosphonates: Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.Mud Therapy: The therapeutic use of mud in packs or baths taking advantage of the absorptive qualities of the mud. It has been used for rheumatism and skin problems.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Bone Density Conservation Agents: Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Ibotenic Acid: A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Hyaluronic Acid: A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.Kainic Acid: (2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.Etidronic Acid: A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.Bone Density Conservation Agents: Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Alendronate: A nonhormonal medication for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. This drug builds healthy bone, restoring some of the bone loss as a result of osteoporosis.Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal: Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.Diphosphonates: Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Prenylation: Attachment of isoprenoids (TERPENES) to other compounds, especially PROTEINS and FLAVONOIDS.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Bone Diseases, MetabolicBone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Chronic, non-specific inflammation of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Etiology may be genetic or environmental. This term includes CROHN DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS.Colitis, Ulcerative: Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.Crohn Disease: A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.Ileitis: Inflammation of any segment of the ILEUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE.Colitis: Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Mesalamine: An anti-inflammatory agent, structurally related to the SALICYLATES, which is active in INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE. It is considered to be the active moiety of SULPHASALAZINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)Gastrointestinal Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.Dextran Sulfate: Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.Dystocia: Slow or difficult OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Maternal Death: The death of the female parent.Diphosphonates: Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.Parturition: The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.Botulinum Toxins, Type A: A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Nucleoside Deaminases: Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleosides with the elimination of ammonia.Adenosine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.Botulinum Toxins: Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.Neuromuscular Agents: Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.Clostridium botulinum: A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.Botulism: A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Muscle Spasticity: A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)Ethylene Dibromide: An effective soil fumigant, insecticide, and nematocide. In humans, it causes severe burning of skin and irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Prolonged inhalation may cause liver necrosis. It is also used in gasoline. Members of this group have caused liver and lung cancers in rodents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), 1,2-dibromoethane may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen.Trichothecenes: Usually 12,13-epoxytrichothecenes, produced by Fusaria, Stachybotrys, Trichoderma and other fungi, and some higher plants. They may contaminate food or feed grains, induce emesis and hemorrhage in lungs and brain, and damage bone marrow due to protein and DNA synthesis inhibition.Fusarium: A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.Mycotoxins: Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.Zearalenone: (S-(E))-3,4,5,6,8,10-Hexahydro-14,16-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1H-2-benzoxacyclotetradecin-1,7(8H)-dione. One of a group of compounds known under the general designation of resorcylic acid lactones. Cis, trans, dextro and levo forms have been isolated from the fungus Gibberella zeae (formerly Fusarium graminearum). They have estrogenic activity, cause toxicity in livestock as feed contaminant, and have been used as anabolic or estrogen substitutes.T-2 Toxin: A potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by several species of the genus FUSARIUM. It elicits a severe inflammatory reaction in animals and has teratogenic effects.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)Gibberella: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Hypocreaceae, order Hypocreales including several pathogens of grains and cereals. It is also the source of plant growth regulators such as gibberellin and gibberellic acid.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
(1/655) Acute-phase responses in transgenic mice with CNS overexpression of IL-1 receptor antagonist.

The interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) is an endogenous antagonist that blocks the effects of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1alpha and IL-1beta by occupying the type I IL-1 receptor. Here we describe transgenic mice with astrocyte-directed overexpression of the human secreted IL-1ra (hsIL-1ra) under the control of the murine glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter. Two GFAP-hsIL-1ra strains have been generated and characterized further: GILRA2 and GILRA4. These strains show a brain-specific expression of the hsIL-1ra at the mRNA and protein levels. The hsIL-1ra protein was approximated to approximately 50 ng/brain in cytosolic fractions of whole brain homogenates, with no differences between male and female mice or between the two strains. Furthermore, the protein is secreted, inasmuch as the concentration of hsIL-1ra in the cerebrospinal fluid was 13 (GILRA2) to 28 (GILRA4) times higher in the transgenic mice than in the control animals. To characterize the transgenic phenotype, GILRA mice and nontransgenic controls were injected with recombinant human IL-1beta (central injection) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, peripheral injection). The febrile response elicited by IL-1beta (50 ng/mouse icv) was abolished in hsIL-1ra-overexpressing animals, suggesting that the central IL-1 receptors were occupied by antagonist. The peripheral LPS injection (25 micrograms/kg ip) triggered a fever in overexpressing and control animals. Moreover, no differences were found in LPS-induced (100 and 1,000 micrograms/kg ip; 1 and 6 h after injection) IL-1beta and IL-6 serum levels between GILRA and wild-type mice. On the basis of these results, we suggest that binding of central IL-1 to central IL-1 receptors is not important in LPS-induced fever or LPS-induced IL-1beta and IL-6 plasma levels.  (+info)

(2/655) Expression of serum amyloid A protein in the absence of the acute phase response does not reduce HDL cholesterol or apoA-I levels in human apoA-I transgenic mice.

Plasma concentrations of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and its major apolipoprotein (apo)A-I are significantly decreased in inflammatory states. Plasma levels of the serum amyloid A (SAA) protein increase markedly during the acute phase response and are elevated in many chronic inflammatory states. Because SAA is associated with HDL and has been shown to be capable of displacing apoA-I from HDL in vitro, it is believed that expression of SAA is the primary cause of the reduced HDL cholesterol and apoA-I in inflammatory states. In order to directly test this hypothesis, we constructed recombinant adenoviruses expressing the murine SAA and human SAA1 genes (the major acute phase SAA proteins in both species). These recombinant adenoviruses were injected intravenously into wild-type and human apoA-I transgenic mice and the effects of SAA expression on HDL cholesterol and apoA-I were compared with mice injected with a control adenovirus. Plasma levels of SAA were comparable to those seen in the acute phase response in mice and humans. However, despite high plasma levels of murine or human SAA, no significant changes in HDL cholesterol or apoA-I levels were observed. SAA was found associated with HDL but did not specifically alter the cholesterol or human apoA-I distribution among lipoproteins. In summary, high plasma levels of SAA in the absence of a generalized acute phase response did not result in reduction of HDL cholesterol or apoA-I in mice, suggesting that there are components of the acute phase response other than SAA expression that may directly influence HDL metabolism.  (+info)

(3/655) C-reactive protein and outcome after ischemic stroke.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Elevated concentrations of the acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP) predict ischemic cardiac events in both hospital- and population-based studies and may signify a role for inflammation in the destabilization of cardiovascular disease. We examined the relationship between CRP and outcome after acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: This was a subgroup analysis from a prospective observational study based in a University Hospital Acute Stroke Unit serving a population of approximately 260 000. Survival time and cause of death for up to 4 years after the index stroke were determined and related to CRP concentration within 72 hours of stroke and known prognostic variables by a Cox proportional hazards regression model. RESULTS: Ischemic stroke was diagnosed in 228 of 283 consecutive admissions. Median follow-up was 959 days. Geometric mean CRP concentration was 10.1 mg/L. Survival in those with CRP >10.1 mg/L was significantly worse than in those with CRP 10.1 mg/L and 63% of deaths in those with CRP +info)

(4/655) Fish oil-enriched nutritional supplement attenuates progression of the acute-phase response in weight-losing patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.

The presence of an acute-phase protein response (APPR) has been suggested to shorten survival and contribute to weight loss in patients with pancreatic cancer. Fatty acids derived from fish oil have been shown to alter proinflammatory cytokine production and acute-phase protein synthesis in vitro. The present study was designed to determine the effects of a fish oil-enriched nutritional supplement on the concentrations of a range of individual acute-phase proteins (APP) in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. In a sequential series, 18 patients with pancreatic cancer received the supplement (providing 2 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 1 g docosahexaenoic acid/d) for 3 wk while another 18 received full supportive care alone. Six healthy subjects served as additional controls. Acute-phase proteins were measured before and after the 3-wk intervention period in cancer patients. At baseline, albumin, transferrin and pre-albumin were significantly reduced and fibrinogen, haptoglobin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, alpha-1-antitrypsin, ceruloplasmin and C-reactive protein (CRP) were significantly elevated in the cancer patients compared with healthy controls, reflecting their roles as negative and positive acute phase proteins, respectively. In the supplemented cancer group, the only significant change in APP concentrations over the 4-wk study period was an increase in transferrin. In the control cancer group there were further significant reductions in albumin, transferrin and pre-albumin, and a significant increase in CRP concentration. These results suggest that many positive and negative APP are altered in advanced pancreatic cancer. The APPR tends to progress in untreated patients but may be stabilized by the administration of a fish oil-enriched nutritional supplement. This may have implications for reducing wasting in such patients.  (+info)

(5/655) SAA-only HDL formed during the acute phase response in apoA-I+/+ and apoA-I-/- mice.

Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute phase protein of unknown function that is involved in systemic amyloidosis and may also be involved in atherogenesis. The precise role of SAA in these processes has not been established. SAA circulates in plasma bound to high density lipoprotein-3 (HDL3). The pathway for the production of SAA-containing HDL is not known. To test whether apolipoprotein (apo)A-I-HDL is required in the production of SAA-HDL, we analyzed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced changes in apoA-I+/+ and apoA-I-/- mice. In apoA-I+/+ mice, after injection of LPS, remodeling of HDL occurred: total cholesterol increased and apoA-I decreased slightly and shifted to lighter density. Dense (density of HDL3) but large (size of HDL2 ) SAA-containing particles were formed. Upon fast phase liquid chromatography fractionation of plasma, >90% of SAA eluted with HDL that was enriched in cholesterol and phospholipid and shifted "leftward" to larger particles. Non-denaturing immunoprecipitation with anti-mouse apoA-I precipitated all of the apoA-I but not all of the SAA, confirming the presence of SAA-HDL devoid of apoA-I. In the apoA-I-/- mice, which normally have very low plasma lipid levels, LPS injection resulted in significantly increased total and HDL cholesterol. Greater than 90% of the SAA was lipid associated and was found on dense but large, spherical HDL particles essentially devoid of other apolipoproteins.We conclude that serum amyloid A (SAA) is able to sequester lipid, forming dense but large HDL particles with or without apoA-I or other apolipoproteins. The capacity to isolate lipoprotein particles containing SAA as the predominant or only apolipoprotein provides an important system to further explore the biological function of SAA.  (+info)

(6/655) Association of fatigue with an acute phase response in sarcoidosis.

The pathophysiological explanation for fatigue, one of the most common symptoms in sarcoidosis, still has to be elucidated. It was hypothesized that the presence of fatigue is associated with an acute phase response in sarcoidosis. A cross-sectional study was performed in 38 sarcoidosis patients. Resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured in the fasting state by indirect calorimetry using a ventilated hood and adjusted for fat-free mass (FFM). Patients with fatigue (n=25) also suffered more frequently from other symptoms, such as exercise intolerance (p=0.01), the need for sleep (p=0.02) and weight loss (p=0.01), compared to those without fatigue (n=13). However, no relationship was found between fatigue and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (sACE) or lung function impairment. Patients with fatigue had higher levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) (11.4+/-6.8 microg x mL(-1), p<0.0001) and REE adjusted for FFM (33.0+/-3.7 kcal x kg FFM(-1), p<0.003) compared to those without fatigue (3.2+/-2.2 mg x mL(-1); 29.2+/-2.8 kcal x kg FF(-1)). Furthermore, REE/FFM was significantly related to CRP (r=0.54, p=0.001). This study confirms the presence of an acute phase response as indicated by metabolic derangements and a moderate increase in C-reactive protein levels in sarcoidosis, particularly in those patients with constitutional symptoms. Future studies should focus on the clinical relevance and therapeutic implications of these findings.  (+info)

(7/655) Regulation of Spi 2.1 and 2.2 gene expression after turpentine inflammation: discordant responses to IL-6.

The rat serine protease inhibitor (Spi) 2 gene family includes both positive (Spi 2.2) and negative (Spi 2.1) acute phase reactants, facilitating modeling of regulation of hepatic acute phase response (APR). To examine the role of signal transducer and activation of transcription (STAT) proteins in the divergent regulation of these model genes after induction of APR, we evaluated the proximal promoters of the genes, focusing on STAT binding sites contained in these promoter elements. Induction of APR by turpentine injection includes activation of a STAT3 complex that can bind to a gamma-activated sequence (GAS) in the Spi 2.2 gene promoter, although the Spi 2.2 GAS site can bind STAT1 or STAT5 as well. To create an in vitro model of APR, primary hepatocytes were treated with combinations of cytokines and hormones to mimic the hormonal milieu of the whole animal after APR induction. Incubation of primary rat hepatocytes with interleukin (IL)-6, a critical APR cytokine, leads to activation of STAT3 and a 28-fold induction of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter construct containing the -319 to +85 region of the Spi 2.2 promoter. This suggests the turpentine-induced increase of Spi 2.2 is mediated primarily by IL-6. In contrast, although turpentine treatment reduces Spi 2.1 mRNA in vivo and IL-6 does not increase Spi 2.1 mRNA in primary rat hepatocytes, treatment of hepatocytes with IL-6 results in a 5. 4-fold induction of Spi 2.1 promoter activity mediated through the paired GAS elements in this promoter. Differential regulation of Spi 2.1 and 2.2 genes is due in part to differences in the promoters of these genes at the GAS sites. IL-6 alone fails to reproduce the pattern of rat Spi 2 gene expression that results from turpentine-induced inflammation.  (+info)

(8/655) Association of polymorphism in glutathione S-transferase loci with susceptibility and outcome in rheumatoid arthritis: comparison with the shared epitope.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether glutathione S-transferase GSTM1, GSTM3, GSTT1, and GSTP1 genotypes influence susceptibility or outcome in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: 277 RA patients were compared with 577 controls to examine any associations between GST genotypes and susceptibility to RA. The effect of genotypes on outcome (Larsen and functional scores) and time integrated acute phase responses (erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C reactive protein) was assessed in 122 patients with disease duration of 5-10 years. GST and HLA-DRB1 genotypes were determined using polymerase chain reaction based assays. Data were analysed using multiple regression analysis with correction for age, sex, disease duration, and the DRB1 associated shared epitope (SE) and rheumatoid factor (RF) positivity where appropriate. RESULTS: The GSTM1*A/*B genotype was less common in RA cases (3 of 276) than in controls (22 of 591) (exact p = 0.047), though significance was lost when adjustment was made for multiple comparisons. The Larsen score was higher (p = 0.039) in the GSTM1 null patients (89.9) than those with other GSTM1 genotypes (74.7), and this was independent of the SE. Again, correction for multiple testing resulted in loss of significance. The difference in Larsen scores between patients homozygous or negative for the SE (87.9 v 74.3) was similar to that between GSTM1 null and non-null patients. No associations between GSTM3 or GSTT1 genotypes and disease markers were identified although the association between GSTP1*B/*B and Larsen score approached significance (p = 0.096). CONCLUSION: It is proposed that certain GSTs may influence susceptibility and radiological progression in RA and that this is independent of the effect of the HLA-DRB1 associated SE. The mechanism for this effect is presumed to be because of differences in the ability of various GST enzymes to utilise the cytotoxic products of oxidant stress. Although significance was lost after correction for multiple testing, the data indicate that further studies may be of value in RA to determine the influence of the GST and other genes involved in cellular protection against oxidative stress.  (+info)

*  Acute-phase protein
This response is called the acute-phase reaction (also called acute-phase response). The terms acute-phase protein and acute- ... Increased acute-phase proteins from the liver may also contribute to the promotion of sepsis. Positive acute-phase proteins ... Acute-phase proteins (APPs) are a class of proteins whose plasma concentrations increase (positive acute-phase proteins) or ... ISBN 0-7817-9543-5. ISBN 978-0-7817-9543-2. Page 182 1. J. S. Inflammation and Acute Phase Proteins in Haemostasis. Acute Phase ...
*  Postpericardiotomy syndrome
Cytokines help stimulate the acute phase reaction in response to inflammation. Colchicine inhibits macrophage production of TNF ...
*  Oncostatin M
... effect on the acute phase reaction". Z Ernahrungswiss. 37 Suppl 1: 43-9. PMID 9558728. Schieven GL, Kallestad JC, Brown TJ, ... OSM can regulate the expression of acute phase proteins. OSM regulates the expression of various protease and protease ... "Differential activation of acute phase response factor/STAT3 and STAT1 via the cytoplasmic domain of the interleukin 6 signal ...
*  Tadamitsu Kishimoto
He identified IL-6 as a hepatocyte stimulating factor which induces acute phase reactions. He prepared a monoclonal anti-IL-6 ... withdrawal phase III trial. Lancet 371(9617):998-1006, 2008 Kishimoto, T. Interleukin-6: From basic science to medicine, 40 ...
*  Reptilase time
Van Cott EM, Smith EY, Galanakis DK (August 2002). "Elevated fibrinogen in an acute phase reaction prolongs the reptilase time ...
*  Ferritin
A normal C-reactive protein can be used to exclude elevated ferritin caused by acute phase reactions.[citation needed] ... Ong DS, Wang L, Zhu Y, Ho B, Ding JL (2005). "The response of ferritin to LPS and acute phase of Pseudomonas infection". ... If ferritin is high, there is iron in excess or else there is an acute inflammatory reaction in which ferritin is mobilized ... Beck G, Ellis TW, Habicht GS, Schluter SF, Marchalonis JJ (January 2002). "Evolution of the acute phase response: iron release ...
*  Galiella rufa
... acute phase reactions, and hematopoiesis. Researchers are interested in the potential of small-molecule inhibitors (such as the ...
*  Systemic inflammatory response syndrome
Fever and an increased white blood cell count are features of the acute-phase reaction, while an increased heart rate is often ... The complications of SIRS include: Acute lung injury Acute kidney injury Shock Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome http:// ... Patients with SIRS and acute organ dysfunction may be termed "severe SIRS." Note: ...
*  Alpha-1 antitrypsin
In the acute phase reaction, a further elevation is required to "limit" the damage caused by activated neutrophil granulocytes ... Kushner, Mackiewicz A (1993). The acute phase response: an overview. Acute-phase glycoproteins: molecular biology, biochemistry ... but the concentration can rise manyfold upon acute inflammation. When the blood contains inadequate amounts of A1AT or ...
*  Thrombocytosis
... are elevated in these clinical states as part of the acute phase reaction. High platelet counts can occur in patients with ... particularly when it is a secondary reaction), it can predispose to thrombosis in some patients. Thrombocytosis can be ...
*  APR
... a resonant absorption effect used in magnetic resonance spectroscopy Acute phase reaction, a reaction due to the presence of ... guideline Accreditation in Public Relations Acute phase reactant, a class of proteins Adleman-Pomerance-Rumely primality test ...
*  Iron supplement
Because one of the functions of elevated ferritin (an acute phase reaction protein) in acute infections is thought to be to ... Replacement of iron stores is seldom such an emergency situation that it cannot wait for any such acute infection to be treated ... "2016 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure". European Heart Journal. 37: 2129-2200 ... has an occurrence of allergic reactions of less than 1 in 1000. A common side effect is taste changes, especially a metallic ...
*  Psychoneuroimmunology
Systemic inflammatory reaction results in stimulation of four major programs: the acute-phase reaction sickness behavior the ... They included studies of acute laboratory stressors (e.g. a speech task), short-term naturalistic stressors (e.g. medical ... Selye describes three stages of adaptation, including an initial brief alarm reaction, followed by a prolonged period of ... Like the stress response, the inflammatory reaction is crucial for survival. ...
*  Tumor necrosis factor alpha
... involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction. It is produced chiefly by ... stimulating the acute phase response, leading to an increase in C-reactive protein and a number of other mediators. It also ... To study whether acute exercise induces a true anti-inflammatory response, a model of 'low grade inflammation' was established ... This study provides some evidence that acute exercise may inhibit TNF production. TNF promotes the inflammatory response, which ...
*  Phospholipase A2
Increase in phospholipase A2 activity is an acute-phase reaction that rises during inflammation, which is also seen to be ... "Group X phospholipase A2 is released during sperm acrosome reaction and controls fertility outcome in mice". The Journal of ... and has been shown to promote vascular inflammation correlating with coronary events in coronary artery disease and acute ... "Secretory phospholipase A₂ pathway during pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome: a preliminary study". Pediatric ...
*  Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
C-reactive protein is an acute phase protein produced by the liver during an inflammatory reaction. Since C-reactive protein ... In some parts of the world the test continues to be referred to as Biernacki's Reaction (Polish: odczyn Biernackiego, OB). In ... Jens Georg Hansen; Henrik Schmidt; Jorn Rosborg; Elisabeth Lund (22 July 1995). "Predicting acute maxillary sinusitis in a ... both tests for ESR and CRP were found to be independently associated with a diagnosis of acute maxillary sinusitis so in some ...
*  Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme
... the amount of StAR available to transfer cholesterol to the inner membrane limits how fast the reaction can go (the acute phase ... This is the first reaction in the process of steroidogenesis in all mammalian tissues that specialize in the production of ... This step is mediated primarily by the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR or STARD1). Upon stimulation of a cell to ... A study of the steroidogenic capacity of the adrenal cortex in infants with acute respiratory disease demonstrated that indeed ...
*  Acute stress reaction
It can thus be thought of as the acute phase of PTSD. The DSM-IV specifies that ASD must be accompanied by the presence of ... Acute stress reaction (ASR) may develop into delayed stress reaction (better known as PTSD) if stress is not correctly managed ... Acute stress reaction (also called acute stress disorder, psychological shock, mental shock, or simply shock) is a ... A study of rescue personnel after exposure to a traumatic event showed no gender difference in acute stress reaction. Acute ...
*  Acute retinal necrosis
... herpetic phase is characterized by when viral particles infiltrate the retina and vitreous causing an inflammatory reaction. ... ARN presentation in individuals can be characterized by two separate phases as listed below. The acute ... "Acute Retinal Necrosis - Ophthalmology". www.aaojournal.org. Retrieved 2015-10-27. "Acute Retinal Necrosis: Background, ... exposing a patient to antiviral agents in the earlier phases of the outbreak tend to decrease the duration of the active phase ...
*  Wuchereria bancrofti
This can occur for years until the inflammatory reaction rises again. In the inflammatory (acute) phase, the antigens from the ... Microfilariae are not normally present in this phase. A key feature of this phase is scar formation from affected tissue areas ... A polymerase chain reaction test can also be performed to detect a minute fraction, as little as 1 pg, of filarial DNA. Some ... The asymptomatic phase usually consists of high microfilaremia infection, and individuals show no symptoms of being infected. ...
*  List of MeSH codes (C23)
... acute-phase reaction MeSH C23.550.470.251 --- foreign-body reaction MeSH C23.550.470.448 --- neurogenic inflammation MeSH ... acute MeSH C23.888.646.100.600 --- colic MeSH C23.888.646.130 --- arthralgia MeSH C23.888.646.130.700 --- shoulder pain MeSH ... acute MeSH C23.888.821.030.500 --- colic MeSH C23.888.821.061 --- aerophagy MeSH C23.888.821.108 --- anorexia MeSH C23.888. ... acute disease MeSH C23.550.291.250 --- catastrophic illness MeSH C23.550.291.500 --- chronic disease MeSH C23.550.291.562 --- ...
*  Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction
... "oliguric phase"). About 20 deaths occur annually in the US due to AHTR. Acute hemolytic, immune mediated (fatal)-1 per 250,000- ... An acute hemolytic transfusion reaction (AHTR) is a type of transfusion reaction that is associated with hemolysis. It occurs ... Acute hemolytic transfusion reactions are divided into two types. The most common cause of this reaction is ABO blood groups ... "Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction caused by anti-Coa". Immunohematology. 17 (2): 45-9. PMID 15373591. Hoffbrand, A. V.; P.A. ...
*  Acute severe asthma
Inflammation in asthma is characterized by an influx of eosinophils during the early-phase reaction and a mixed cellular ... Acute severe asthma is an acute exacerbation of asthma that does not respond to standard treatments of bronchodilators ( ... Very severe acute asthma (termed "near-fatal" as there is an immediate risk to life) is characterised by a peak flow of less ... The peak expiratory flow can be measured at the bedside; in acute severe asthma the flow is less than 50% a person's normal or ...
*  Biological timeline of radiation poisoning
... skin lesions that begin to appear as the acute phase of radiation dermatitis begins to resolve. Radiation recall reactions ... Wagner, L. K.; McNeese, M. D.; Marx, M. V.; Siegel, E. L. (1999). "Severe skin reactions from interventional fluoroscopy: case ...
*  Food allergy
This phase can either subside or progress into a "late-phase reaction" which can substantially prolong the symptoms of a ... After the chemical mediators of the acute response subside, late-phase responses can often occur due to the migration of other ... The pathophysiology of allergic responses can be divided into two phases. The first is an acute response that occurs ... The reaction is usually seen 2-24 hours after the original reaction. Cytokines from mast cells may also play a role in the ...
*  Norovirus
Ligocyte announced in 2007 that it was working on a vaccine and had started phase 1 trials. The company has since been taken ... The norovirus was originally named the "Norwalk agent" after Norwalk, Ohio, in the United States, where an outbreak of acute ... Specific diagnosis of norovirus is routinely made by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays or quantitative PCR assays, which ... As of 2011[update], a monovalent nasal vaccine had completed phase I/II trials, while bivalent intramuscular and nasal vaccines ...
Routine exercise alters measures of immunity and the acute phase reaction.  - PubMed - NCBI  Routine exercise alters measures of immunity and the acute phase reaction. - PubMed - NCBI
Routine exercise alters measures of immunity and the acute phase reaction.. Horn PL1, West NP, Pyne DB, Koerbin G, Lehtinen SJ ... More than 10 % of observed acute phase reactant values (for C3, haptoglobin and ferritin) were also below the low end of the ... This information would be useful for clinicians interpreting blood tests assessing inflammatory, immune and acute phase ... Samples were analysed for 20 cellular and non-cellular biomarkers which included 11 immunological and 9 acute phase reactants. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25344053
Acute-phase reaction | definition of Acute-phase reaction by Medical dictionary  Acute-phase reaction | definition of Acute-phase reaction by Medical dictionary
What is Acute-phase reaction? Meaning of Acute-phase reaction medical term. What does Acute-phase reaction mean? ... Looking for online definition of Acute-phase reaction in the Medical Dictionary? Acute-phase reaction explanation free. ... acute phase protein. (redirected from Acute-phase reaction). Also found in: Encyclopedia. acute phase protein. plasma proteins ... Acute-phase reaction , definition of Acute-phase reaction by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary. ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Acute-phase+reaction
Acute phase reaction | definition of acute phase reaction by Medical dictionary  Acute phase reaction | definition of acute phase reaction by Medical dictionary
What is acute phase reaction? Meaning of acute phase reaction medical term. What does acute phase reaction mean? ... Looking for online definition of acute phase reaction in the Medical Dictionary? acute phase reaction explanation free. ... Synonym(s): acute phase response. acute phase reaction. The release of physiologically active proteins by the liver into the ... Acute phase reaction , definition of acute phase reaction by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary. ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/acute+phase+reaction
KAKEN - Research Projects | Serum alpha 1-microglobulin variations in acute reaction phase (KAKENHI-PROJECT-05671929)  KAKEN - Research Projects | Serum alpha 1-microglobulin variations in acute reaction phase (KAKENHI-PROJECT-05671929)
2) alpha1-microglobulin clinically proved to be a positive acute phase reactant. Serum value was ellvated postoperatively ... that have so far made it impossible to define this protein as a acute phase reactant. Futrher fundamental study is under way to ... In the process of the present study, a precise assay for SAA was developed using a latex agglutination reaction.. 4) Mechanisms ... elucidate precise mechanisms of alpha1-m reaction at the liver.. For clinical significance, total measurement of this protein ...
more infohttps://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-05671929/
Lipoprotein(a), Ferritin, and Albumin in Acute Phase Reaction Predicts Severity and Mortality of Acute Ischemic Stroke in North...  Lipoprotein(a), Ferritin, and Albumin in Acute Phase Reaction Predicts Severity and Mortality of Acute Ischemic Stroke in North...
Lipoprotein(a), Ferritin, and Albumin in Acute Phase Reaction Predicts Severity and Mortality of Acute Ischemic Stroke in North ... In our study, Lp(a) acted as an acute phase reactant while albumin acted as a negative acute phase reactant. There was no ... We studied the behavior of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], ferritin, and albumin as acute phase reactants and their roles in the ... METHODS: We recruited 100 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke and 120 controls. Blood samples were drawn on days 1 ...
more infohttp://albumin.althotas.com/publications/lipoprotein-a-ferritin-and-albumin-in-acute-phase-reaction-predicts-severity-and-mortality-of-acute-ischemic-stroke-in-north-indian-patients
Practice Quiz Unit 2 Flashcards by Danielle Eves | Brainscape  Practice Quiz Unit 2 Flashcards by Danielle Eves | Brainscape
Associated with acute phase reaction. Tumor Necrosis Factor, TNF 7 Arachadonic acid + cyclooxygenase = ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/practice-quiz-unit-2-3291417/packs/5198227
Zoledronic Acid Injection Concentrate - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses  Zoledronic Acid Injection Concentrate - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses
Includes: indications, dosage, adverse reactions, pharmacology and more. ... Acute Phase Reaction. Within three days after Zoledronic Acid Injection administration, an acute phase reaction has been ... Acute Phase Reaction. Within three days after Zoledronic Acid Injection administration, an acute phase reaction has been ... Injection Site Reactions. Local reactions at the infusion site, such as redness or swelling, were observed infrequently. In ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/pro/zoledronic-acid-injection-concentrate.html
Confusion in the Elderly After Colon Surgery - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov  Confusion in the Elderly After Colon Surgery - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Acute-Phase Reaction. Pathologic Processes. Neurobehavioral Manifestations. Neurologic Manifestations. Nervous System Diseases ... Iatrogenic psychotic depressive reaction in hypertensive patients. Am J Psychiatry. 1971 Apr;127(10):1416-7. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01623297?recr=Open&cond=%22General+Surgery%22&rank=13
DailyMed - ZOLEDRONIC ACID- zoledronic acid injection, solution, concentrate  DailyMed - ZOLEDRONIC ACID- zoledronic acid injection, solution, concentrate
Acute Phase Reaction Within three days after zoledronic acid injection administration, an acute phase reaction has been ... Acute Phase Reaction Within three days after zoledronic acid injection administration, an acute phase reaction has been ... Injection Site Reactions Local reactions at the infusion site, such as redness or swelling, were observed infrequently. In most ... Hypersensitivity Reactions There have been rare reports of allergic reaction with intravenous zoledronic acid including ...
more infohttps://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=00a5bd5a-e5ee-4bad-b510-a4d4485485c8
Variáveis hemodinâmicas, gasométricas e imunomoleculares em pacientes submetidos...  Variáveis hemodinâmicas, gasométricas e imunomoleculares em pacientes submetidos...
Acute-phase reaction. Cytokines. Inflammation. Methylene blue. Myocardial revascularization. Prospective studies. Resumo em ...
more infohttp://www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/5/5156/tde-04042007-134346/pt-br.php
Free Laboratory Science Flashcards about Hematology Tests 3-4  Free Laboratory Science Flashcards about Hematology Tests 3-4
any condition that leads to increased protein: hepatic necrosis; acute-phase reaction; sideroblastic anemia; hemochromatosis. ... PNH; MAHA; DIC; Drug reaction in G6PD; transfusion reaction; Hereditary spherocytosis; H. eliptocytosis; H. pyropoikilocytosis ... acute or chronic renal failure. How is HUS caused?. bacterial infection releases toxins into blood stream; toxins cause release ... IDA; Acute or chronic inflammatory disorders; treatment of other anemias (iron gets used up making more cells); hemorrhage or ...
more infohttps://www.studystack.com/flashcard-283669
DailyMed - ACTONEL- risedronate sodium tablet, film coated  DailyMed - ACTONEL- risedronate sodium tablet, film coated
Acute Phase Reactions: Symptoms consistent with acute phase reaction have been reported with bisphosphonate use. The overall ... Acute Phase Reactions: Symptoms consistent with acute phase reaction have been reported with bisphosphonate use. The overall ... These incidence rates are based on reporting of any of 33 acute phase reaction-like symptoms within 5 days of the first dose. ... These incidence rates are based on reporting of any of 33 acute phase reaction-like symptoms within 3 days of the first dose ...
more infohttps://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=24ed00e0-25e2-49a8-97fc-66c1b417dc0b
Diagnostic Approach to Polyarticular Joint Pain - - American Family Physician  Diagnostic Approach to Polyarticular Joint Pain - - American Family Physician
Because chronic arthritides may present abruptly, they need to be considered in patients who present with acute polyarticular ... Viral infections, crystal-induced arthritis, and serum sickness reactions are common causes of acute, self-limited ... Acute-phase reaction, vasculitis, infection. Leukopenia. SLE, RA, Felty's syndrome, Sjögren's syndrome, human parvovirus B19 ... For example, the acute stage of Lyme disease may include polyarticular arthralgias, whereas the chronic phase may include ...
more infohttps://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0915/p1151.html
Co-activator SRC-1 is dispensable for transcriptional control by STAT3 | Biochemical Journal  Co-activator SRC-1 is dispensable for transcriptional control by STAT3 | Biochemical Journal
acute-phase reaction. interleukin-6 (IL-6). signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) ... and STAT3-mediated physiological responses such as myeloma cell survival and acute-phase protein induction. In fact, silencing ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/420/1/123
Adverse Reactions and Drug-Drug Interactions in the Management of Women with Postmenopausal Osteoporosis | SpringerLink  Adverse Reactions and Drug-Drug Interactions in the Management of Women with Postmenopausal Osteoporosis | SpringerLink
Acute-Phase Reactions. Acute-phase reactions have been reported with alendronate, ibandronate, and zoledronic acid [9, 10, 12] ... 6.2% in the placebo group, less so after second infusion) [25, 26]. Acute-phase reactions are generally mild to moderate in ... Bisphosphonates are associated with gastrointestinal effects, musculoskeletal pain, and acute-phase reactions, as well as, very ... though there may be some overlap with acute-phase reactions (see below). It can be difficult to manage, especially if severe [7 ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00223-011-9499-8
Risedronate (Professional Patient Advice) - Drugs.com  Risedronate (Professional Patient Advice) - Drugs.com
Includes: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, interactions, adverse reactions and more. ... Hypersensitivity: Acute phase reaction-like symptoms (≤8%; includes fever, influenza-like illness) ... Signs of a significant reaction like wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or ... 1%, postmarketing, and/or case reports: Abnormal hepatic function tests, angioedema, bullous skin reaction, cough, esophageal ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/ppa/risedronate.html
Short-acting Beta Agonist  Short-acting Beta Agonist
Treats only acute phase reaction. *Regular use associated with increased mortality. *Terbutaline may be more risk than other ... Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Nocturnal Leg Cramp Drowning Genetic Determinants of Drug Response Acute Bronchitis Chronic ... Acute Coronary Syndrome risk in those with CAD risk. *Au (2002) Chest 121:846-51 [PubMed] ... Acute Chest Syndrome Asthma Evaluation Moderate Persistent Asthma Severe Persistent Asthma Status Asthmaticus Chronic ...
more infohttps://fpnotebook.com/Lung/Pharm/ShrtActngBtAgnst.htm
Short-acting Beta Agonist  Short-acting Beta Agonist
Treats only acute phase reaction. *Regular use associated with increased mortality. *Terbutaline may be more risk than other ... Acute Coronary Syndrome risk in those with CAD risk. *Au (2002) Chest 121:846-51 [PubMed] ...
more infohttps://fpnotebook.com/legacy/Lung/Pharm/ShrtActngBtAgnst.htm
  • Because chronic arthritides may present abruptly, they need to be considered in patients who present with acute polyarticular joint pain. (aafp.org)
  • Functional involvement of COX-1 is indicated by the observation that central, but not systemic, pretreatment with the selective COX-1 inhibitor SC-560 attenuated the early phase of LPS-induced increases in adrenocorticotropin and corticosterone secretion. (jneurosci.org)
  • In the process of the present study, a precise assay for SAA was developed using a latex agglutination reaction. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The aim of this review is to explore the risk of adverse drug reactions and drug-drug interactions with treatments for postmenopausal osteoporosis. (springer.com)