Dictionaries, MedicalAcute-Phase Reaction: An early local inflammatory reaction to insult or injury that consists of fever, an increase in inflammatory humoral factors, and an increased synthesis by hepatocytes of a number of proteins or glycoproteins usually found in the plasma.Acute-Phase Proteins: Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dictionaries, ChemicalTerminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Annexins: Family of calcium- and phospholipid-binding proteins which are structurally related and exhibit immunological cross-reactivity. Each member contains four homologous 70-kDa repeats. The annexins are differentially distributed in vertebrate tissues (and lower eukaryotes) and appear to be involved in MEMBRANE FUSION and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Annexin A4: Protein of the annexin family originally isolated from the electric organ of the electric ray Torpedo marmorata. It has been found in a wide range of mammalian tissue where it is localized to the apical membrane of polarized EPITHELIAL CELLS.Annexin A2: A member of the annexin family that is a substrate for a tyrosine kinase, ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). Annexin A2 occurs as a 36-KDa monomer and in a 90-KDa complex containing two subunits of annexin A2 and two subunits of S100 FAMILY PROTEIN P11. The monomeric form of annexin A2 was formerly referred to as calpactin I heavy chain.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Annexin A1: Protein of the annexin family exhibiting lipid interaction and steroid-inducibility.Diphosphonates: Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.Mud Therapy: The therapeutic use of mud in packs or baths taking advantage of the absorptive qualities of the mud. It has been used for rheumatism and skin problems.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Bone Density Conservation Agents: Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Ibotenic Acid: A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Salivary Gland Calculi: Calculi occurring in a salivary gland. Most salivary gland calculi occur in the submandibular gland, but can also occur in the parotid gland and in the sublingual and minor salivary glands.Allergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Non-Receptor: A subcategory of protein tyrosine phosphatases that occur in the CYTOPLASM. Many of the proteins in this category play a role in intracellular signal transduction.Arthropod Venoms: Venoms from animals of the phylum Arthropoda. Those most investigated are from scorpions and spiders of the class Arachnidae and from ant, bee, and wasp families of the Insecta order Hymenoptera. The venoms contain protein toxins, enzymes, and other bioactive substances and may be lethal to man.Etidronic Acid: A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.Alendronate: A nonhormonal medication for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. This drug builds healthy bone, restoring some of the bone loss as a result of osteoporosis.Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal: Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Prenylation: Attachment of isoprenoids (TERPENES) to other compounds, especially PROTEINS and FLAVONOIDS.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Anesthesia, Epidural: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Botulinum Toxins, Type A: A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Nucleoside Deaminases: Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleosides with the elimination of ammonia.Adenosine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.Botulinum Toxins: Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.Neuromuscular Agents: Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.Clostridium botulinum: A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.Botulism: A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)Trichothecenes: Usually 12,13-epoxytrichothecenes, produced by Fusaria, Stachybotrys, Trichoderma and other fungi, and some higher plants. They may contaminate food or feed grains, induce emesis and hemorrhage in lungs and brain, and damage bone marrow due to protein and DNA synthesis inhibition.Fusarium: A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.Mycotoxins: Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.Zearalenone: (S-(E))-3,4,5,6,8,10-Hexahydro-14,16-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1H-2-benzoxacyclotetradecin-1,7(8H)-dione. One of a group of compounds known under the general designation of resorcylic acid lactones. Cis, trans, dextro and levo forms have been isolated from the fungus Gibberella zeae (formerly Fusarium graminearum). They have estrogenic activity, cause toxicity in livestock as feed contaminant, and have been used as anabolic or estrogen substitutes.T-2 Toxin: A potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by several species of the genus FUSARIUM. It elicits a severe inflammatory reaction in animals and has teratogenic effects.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.

Acute-phase responses in transgenic mice with CNS overexpression of IL-1 receptor antagonist. (1/655)

The interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) is an endogenous antagonist that blocks the effects of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1alpha and IL-1beta by occupying the type I IL-1 receptor. Here we describe transgenic mice with astrocyte-directed overexpression of the human secreted IL-1ra (hsIL-1ra) under the control of the murine glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter. Two GFAP-hsIL-1ra strains have been generated and characterized further: GILRA2 and GILRA4. These strains show a brain-specific expression of the hsIL-1ra at the mRNA and protein levels. The hsIL-1ra protein was approximated to approximately 50 ng/brain in cytosolic fractions of whole brain homogenates, with no differences between male and female mice or between the two strains. Furthermore, the protein is secreted, inasmuch as the concentration of hsIL-1ra in the cerebrospinal fluid was 13 (GILRA2) to 28 (GILRA4) times higher in the transgenic mice than in the control animals. To characterize the transgenic phenotype, GILRA mice and nontransgenic controls were injected with recombinant human IL-1beta (central injection) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, peripheral injection). The febrile response elicited by IL-1beta (50 ng/mouse icv) was abolished in hsIL-1ra-overexpressing animals, suggesting that the central IL-1 receptors were occupied by antagonist. The peripheral LPS injection (25 micrograms/kg ip) triggered a fever in overexpressing and control animals. Moreover, no differences were found in LPS-induced (100 and 1,000 micrograms/kg ip; 1 and 6 h after injection) IL-1beta and IL-6 serum levels between GILRA and wild-type mice. On the basis of these results, we suggest that binding of central IL-1 to central IL-1 receptors is not important in LPS-induced fever or LPS-induced IL-1beta and IL-6 plasma levels.  (+info)

Expression of serum amyloid A protein in the absence of the acute phase response does not reduce HDL cholesterol or apoA-I levels in human apoA-I transgenic mice. (2/655)

Plasma concentrations of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and its major apolipoprotein (apo)A-I are significantly decreased in inflammatory states. Plasma levels of the serum amyloid A (SAA) protein increase markedly during the acute phase response and are elevated in many chronic inflammatory states. Because SAA is associated with HDL and has been shown to be capable of displacing apoA-I from HDL in vitro, it is believed that expression of SAA is the primary cause of the reduced HDL cholesterol and apoA-I in inflammatory states. In order to directly test this hypothesis, we constructed recombinant adenoviruses expressing the murine SAA and human SAA1 genes (the major acute phase SAA proteins in both species). These recombinant adenoviruses were injected intravenously into wild-type and human apoA-I transgenic mice and the effects of SAA expression on HDL cholesterol and apoA-I were compared with mice injected with a control adenovirus. Plasma levels of SAA were comparable to those seen in the acute phase response in mice and humans. However, despite high plasma levels of murine or human SAA, no significant changes in HDL cholesterol or apoA-I levels were observed. SAA was found associated with HDL but did not specifically alter the cholesterol or human apoA-I distribution among lipoproteins. In summary, high plasma levels of SAA in the absence of a generalized acute phase response did not result in reduction of HDL cholesterol or apoA-I in mice, suggesting that there are components of the acute phase response other than SAA expression that may directly influence HDL metabolism.  (+info)

C-reactive protein and outcome after ischemic stroke. (3/655)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Elevated concentrations of the acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP) predict ischemic cardiac events in both hospital- and population-based studies and may signify a role for inflammation in the destabilization of cardiovascular disease. We examined the relationship between CRP and outcome after acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: This was a subgroup analysis from a prospective observational study based in a University Hospital Acute Stroke Unit serving a population of approximately 260 000. Survival time and cause of death for up to 4 years after the index stroke were determined and related to CRP concentration within 72 hours of stroke and known prognostic variables by a Cox proportional hazards regression model. RESULTS: Ischemic stroke was diagnosed in 228 of 283 consecutive admissions. Median follow-up was 959 days. Geometric mean CRP concentration was 10.1 mg/L. Survival in those with CRP >10.1 mg/L was significantly worse than in those with CRP 10.1 mg/L and 63% of deaths in those with CRP +info)

Fish oil-enriched nutritional supplement attenuates progression of the acute-phase response in weight-losing patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. (4/655)

The presence of an acute-phase protein response (APPR) has been suggested to shorten survival and contribute to weight loss in patients with pancreatic cancer. Fatty acids derived from fish oil have been shown to alter proinflammatory cytokine production and acute-phase protein synthesis in vitro. The present study was designed to determine the effects of a fish oil-enriched nutritional supplement on the concentrations of a range of individual acute-phase proteins (APP) in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. In a sequential series, 18 patients with pancreatic cancer received the supplement (providing 2 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 1 g docosahexaenoic acid/d) for 3 wk while another 18 received full supportive care alone. Six healthy subjects served as additional controls. Acute-phase proteins were measured before and after the 3-wk intervention period in cancer patients. At baseline, albumin, transferrin and pre-albumin were significantly reduced and fibrinogen, haptoglobin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, alpha-1-antitrypsin, ceruloplasmin and C-reactive protein (CRP) were significantly elevated in the cancer patients compared with healthy controls, reflecting their roles as negative and positive acute phase proteins, respectively. In the supplemented cancer group, the only significant change in APP concentrations over the 4-wk study period was an increase in transferrin. In the control cancer group there were further significant reductions in albumin, transferrin and pre-albumin, and a significant increase in CRP concentration. These results suggest that many positive and negative APP are altered in advanced pancreatic cancer. The APPR tends to progress in untreated patients but may be stabilized by the administration of a fish oil-enriched nutritional supplement. This may have implications for reducing wasting in such patients.  (+info)

SAA-only HDL formed during the acute phase response in apoA-I+/+ and apoA-I-/- mice. (5/655)

Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute phase protein of unknown function that is involved in systemic amyloidosis and may also be involved in atherogenesis. The precise role of SAA in these processes has not been established. SAA circulates in plasma bound to high density lipoprotein-3 (HDL3). The pathway for the production of SAA-containing HDL is not known. To test whether apolipoprotein (apo)A-I-HDL is required in the production of SAA-HDL, we analyzed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced changes in apoA-I+/+ and apoA-I-/- mice. In apoA-I+/+ mice, after injection of LPS, remodeling of HDL occurred: total cholesterol increased and apoA-I decreased slightly and shifted to lighter density. Dense (density of HDL3) but large (size of HDL2 ) SAA-containing particles were formed. Upon fast phase liquid chromatography fractionation of plasma, >90% of SAA eluted with HDL that was enriched in cholesterol and phospholipid and shifted "leftward" to larger particles. Non-denaturing immunoprecipitation with anti-mouse apoA-I precipitated all of the apoA-I but not all of the SAA, confirming the presence of SAA-HDL devoid of apoA-I. In the apoA-I-/- mice, which normally have very low plasma lipid levels, LPS injection resulted in significantly increased total and HDL cholesterol. Greater than 90% of the SAA was lipid associated and was found on dense but large, spherical HDL particles essentially devoid of other apolipoproteins.We conclude that serum amyloid A (SAA) is able to sequester lipid, forming dense but large HDL particles with or without apoA-I or other apolipoproteins. The capacity to isolate lipoprotein particles containing SAA as the predominant or only apolipoprotein provides an important system to further explore the biological function of SAA.  (+info)

Association of fatigue with an acute phase response in sarcoidosis. (6/655)

The pathophysiological explanation for fatigue, one of the most common symptoms in sarcoidosis, still has to be elucidated. It was hypothesized that the presence of fatigue is associated with an acute phase response in sarcoidosis. A cross-sectional study was performed in 38 sarcoidosis patients. Resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured in the fasting state by indirect calorimetry using a ventilated hood and adjusted for fat-free mass (FFM). Patients with fatigue (n=25) also suffered more frequently from other symptoms, such as exercise intolerance (p=0.01), the need for sleep (p=0.02) and weight loss (p=0.01), compared to those without fatigue (n=13). However, no relationship was found between fatigue and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (sACE) or lung function impairment. Patients with fatigue had higher levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) (11.4+/-6.8 microg x mL(-1), p<0.0001) and REE adjusted for FFM (33.0+/-3.7 kcal x kg FFM(-1), p<0.003) compared to those without fatigue (3.2+/-2.2 mg x mL(-1); 29.2+/-2.8 kcal x kg FF(-1)). Furthermore, REE/FFM was significantly related to CRP (r=0.54, p=0.001). This study confirms the presence of an acute phase response as indicated by metabolic derangements and a moderate increase in C-reactive protein levels in sarcoidosis, particularly in those patients with constitutional symptoms. Future studies should focus on the clinical relevance and therapeutic implications of these findings.  (+info)

Regulation of Spi 2.1 and 2.2 gene expression after turpentine inflammation: discordant responses to IL-6. (7/655)

The rat serine protease inhibitor (Spi) 2 gene family includes both positive (Spi 2.2) and negative (Spi 2.1) acute phase reactants, facilitating modeling of regulation of hepatic acute phase response (APR). To examine the role of signal transducer and activation of transcription (STAT) proteins in the divergent regulation of these model genes after induction of APR, we evaluated the proximal promoters of the genes, focusing on STAT binding sites contained in these promoter elements. Induction of APR by turpentine injection includes activation of a STAT3 complex that can bind to a gamma-activated sequence (GAS) in the Spi 2.2 gene promoter, although the Spi 2.2 GAS site can bind STAT1 or STAT5 as well. To create an in vitro model of APR, primary hepatocytes were treated with combinations of cytokines and hormones to mimic the hormonal milieu of the whole animal after APR induction. Incubation of primary rat hepatocytes with interleukin (IL)-6, a critical APR cytokine, leads to activation of STAT3 and a 28-fold induction of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter construct containing the -319 to +85 region of the Spi 2.2 promoter. This suggests the turpentine-induced increase of Spi 2.2 is mediated primarily by IL-6. In contrast, although turpentine treatment reduces Spi 2.1 mRNA in vivo and IL-6 does not increase Spi 2.1 mRNA in primary rat hepatocytes, treatment of hepatocytes with IL-6 results in a 5. 4-fold induction of Spi 2.1 promoter activity mediated through the paired GAS elements in this promoter. Differential regulation of Spi 2.1 and 2.2 genes is due in part to differences in the promoters of these genes at the GAS sites. IL-6 alone fails to reproduce the pattern of rat Spi 2 gene expression that results from turpentine-induced inflammation.  (+info)

Association of polymorphism in glutathione S-transferase loci with susceptibility and outcome in rheumatoid arthritis: comparison with the shared epitope. (8/655)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether glutathione S-transferase GSTM1, GSTM3, GSTT1, and GSTP1 genotypes influence susceptibility or outcome in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: 277 RA patients were compared with 577 controls to examine any associations between GST genotypes and susceptibility to RA. The effect of genotypes on outcome (Larsen and functional scores) and time integrated acute phase responses (erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C reactive protein) was assessed in 122 patients with disease duration of 5-10 years. GST and HLA-DRB1 genotypes were determined using polymerase chain reaction based assays. Data were analysed using multiple regression analysis with correction for age, sex, disease duration, and the DRB1 associated shared epitope (SE) and rheumatoid factor (RF) positivity where appropriate. RESULTS: The GSTM1*A/*B genotype was less common in RA cases (3 of 276) than in controls (22 of 591) (exact p = 0.047), though significance was lost when adjustment was made for multiple comparisons. The Larsen score was higher (p = 0.039) in the GSTM1 null patients (89.9) than those with other GSTM1 genotypes (74.7), and this was independent of the SE. Again, correction for multiple testing resulted in loss of significance. The difference in Larsen scores between patients homozygous or negative for the SE (87.9 v 74.3) was similar to that between GSTM1 null and non-null patients. No associations between GSTM3 or GSTT1 genotypes and disease markers were identified although the association between GSTP1*B/*B and Larsen score approached significance (p = 0.096). CONCLUSION: It is proposed that certain GSTs may influence susceptibility and radiological progression in RA and that this is independent of the effect of the HLA-DRB1 associated SE. The mechanism for this effect is presumed to be because of differences in the ability of various GST enzymes to utilise the cytotoxic products of oxidant stress. Although significance was lost after correction for multiple testing, the data indicate that further studies may be of value in RA to determine the influence of the GST and other genes involved in cellular protection against oxidative stress.  (+info)

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of animals down-regulates the expression of hepatic genes involved in a broad variety of physiological processes, collectively known as the negative hepatic acute phase response (APR). Retinoid X receptor α (RXRα), the most highly expressed RXR isoform in liver, plays a central role in regulating bile acid, cholesterol, fatty acid, steroid and xenobiotic metabolism and homeostasis. Many of the genes regulated by RXRα are repressed during the negative hepatic APR, although the underlying mechanism is not known. We hypothesized that inflammation-induced alteration of the subcellular location of RXRα was a common mechanism underlying the negative hepatic APR. Nuclear RXRα protein levels were significantly reduced (~50%) within 1-2 hours after low-dose LPS treatment and remained so for at least 16 hours. RXRα was never detected in cytosolic extracts from saline-treated mice, yet was rapidly and profoundly detectable in the cytosol from 1 hour, to at least 4 hours,
The acute phase response is an evolutionarily conserved reaction in which physiological stress triggers the liver to remodel the blood proteome. Although thought to be involved in immune defense, the net biological effect of the acute phase response remains unknown. As the acute phase response is stimulated by diverse cytokines that activate either NF-κB or STAT3, we hypothesized that it could be eliminated by hepatocyte-specific interruption of both transcription factors. Here, we report that the elimination in mice of both NF-κB p65 (RelA) and STAT3, but neither alone, abrogated all acute phase responses measured. The failure to respond was consistent across multiple different infectious, inflammatory, and noxious stimuli, including pneumococcal pneumonia. When the effects of infection were analyzed in detail, pneumococcal pneumonia was found to alter the expression of over a thousand transcripts in the liver. This outcome was inhibited by the combined loss of RelA and STAT3. Moreover, this ...
Hjorth, J. , Jensen, N. R. , Lohse, C. , Notholt, J. , Skov, H. and Restelli, G. (1991): Gas phase reactions of interest in night time trophospheric chemistry , Proc EUROTRAC Symp 90 (P Borrell et al, eds ...
SI}} {{CMG}} ==Overview== Interleukins are a group of [[cytokine]]s (secreted signaling molecules) that were first seen to be expressed by [[white blood cell]]s ([[leukocyte]]s, hence the -leukin) as a means of communication (inter-). The name is something of a relic though (the term was coined by Dr. Paetkau, University of Victoria); it has since been found that interleukins are produced by a wide variety of bodily cells. The function of the [[immune system]] depends in a large part on interleukins, and [[rare disease,rare]] deficiencies of a number of them have been described, all featuring [[autoimmune disease]]s or [[immune deficiency]]. ==List== A list of interleukins: {, class="wikitable" , Name ,, Source ,, Function ,- , [[Interleukin 1,IL-1]] ,, [[macrophage]]s ,, small amounts induce [[acute phase protein,acute phase reaction]], large amounts induce [[fever]]. ,- , [[Interleukin 2,IL-2]] ,, [[T helper cell,TH1-cells]] ,, stimulates growth and ...
Tumor necrosis factor is a cytokine involved in systemic inflammation and is a member of a group of cytokines that all stimulate the acute phase reaction. TNF is mainly secreted by macrophages.
Excess or ill-timed proteolytic events have, of necessity, to be restrained. Therefore, there are partner proteinase inhibitors to most of the known mammalian e...
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details ...
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Binding Protein (LBP) is a type 1 acute phase protein that is constitutively produced by the liver and rapidly upregulated during the acute phase response.
Tracks advances in the application of phase response (PR) analysis to the study of electrically excitable cells Focuses on applications of PR analysis in
CRP Antigen. C reactive protein (CRP), also known as PTX1, is encoded by a gene that belongs to the pentaxin family. This protein is involved in several host defense related functions. For instance, CRP has the ability to recognize foreign pathogens and damaged host cells and to initiate their elimination by interacting with the bloods humoral and cellular effector systems. Consequently, the level of this protein in plasma increases greatly during the acute phase response to tissue injury, infection, or other inflammatory stimuli.. [Provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]. ...
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the pentaxin family. It is involved in several host defense related functions based on its ability to recognize foreign pathogens and damaged cells of the host and to initiate their elimination by interacting with humoral and cellular effector systems in the blood. Consequently, the level of this protein in plasma increases greatly during acute phase response to tissue injury, infection, or other inflammatory stimuli. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009] ...
A slide show for web form projects.; Author: MortezaKeshavarz; Updated: 6 Apr 2013; Section: Client side scripting; Chapter: Web Development; Updated: 6 Apr 2013
Looking for online definition of acute phase reaction in the Medical Dictionary? acute phase reaction explanation free. What is acute phase reaction? Meaning of acute phase reaction medical term. What does acute phase reaction mean?
Acute-phase proteins (APPs) are a class of proteins whose plasma concentrations increase (positive acute-phase proteins) or decrease (negative acute-phase proteins) in response to inflammation. This response is called the acute-phase reaction (also called acute-phase response). The terms acute-phase protein and acute-phase reactant (APR) are often used synonymously, although some APRs are (strictly speaking) polypeptides rather than proteins. In response to injury, local inflammatory cells (neutrophil granulocytes and macrophages) secrete a number of cytokines into the bloodstream, most notable of which are the interleukins IL1, IL6 and IL8, and TNFα. The liver responds by producing a large number of acute-phase reactants. At the same time, the production of a number of other proteins is reduced; these proteins are, therefore, referred to as "negative" acute-phase reactants. Increased acute-phase proteins from the liver may also contribute to the promotion of sepsis. Positive acute-phase ...
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding protein (LBP) is an acute phase protein with the ability to bind and transfer LPS of Gram-negative bacteria. This soluble pattern recognition molecule represents an important defense principle of the host. Regulation of the hepatic acute phase response and its termination are important mechanisms for limiting systemic inflammatory activity of the host. Here were analyze the cooperation of Interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and Dexamethasone (Dex) at LBP expression in the hepatoma cell lines HuH-7 and Hep G2. The major inducer of LBP expression is IL-6. Within the LBP promoter numerously highly consensus binding sites such as AP-1, C/EBP-beta? and STAT3 are present, that confer transcriptional activity as shown by truncation and mutation experiments. Additionally, activate NF-kappaB sites activated by IL-1 were detected at the LBP promoter. By mutation experiments of the promoter furthermore were found differentially active glucocorticoid response elements (GREs). The ...
The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and extra-cellular matrix (ECM) are essential to maintain a functional interaction between the glomerular podocytes and the fenestrated endothelial cells in the formation of the slit diaphragm for the filtration of blood. Dysregulation of ECM homeostasis can cause Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Despite this central role, alterations in ECM composition during FSGS have not been analyzed in detail yet. Here, we characterized the ECM proteome changes in miR-193a-overexpressing mice, which suffer from FSGS due to suppression of Wilms’ tumor 1 (WT1). By mass spectrometry we identified a massive activation of the acute phase response, especially the complement and fibrinogen pathways. Several protease inhibitors (ITIH1, SERPINA1, SERPINA3) were also strongly increased. Complementary analysis of RNA expression data from both miR-193a mice and human FSGS patients identified additional candidate genes also mainly involved in the acute phase response. In
An ACUTE PHASE REACTION protein present in low concentrations in normal sera, but found at higher concentrations in sera of older persons and in patients with AMYLOIDOSIS. It is the circulating precusor of amyloid A protein, which is found deposited in AA type AMYLOID FIBRILS ...
Most tissue-damaging processes such as infections, inflammatory diseases and malignant neoplasms are associated with a major acute phase response of the C-reactive protein (CRP) and other acute reactants e.g. AAT, AAGP, C3C, C4 HAPT. The CRP response frequently precedes clinical symptoms, including fever. In normal healthy individuals CRP is a trace protein with a range up to 5 mg/L. After onset of an acute phase response the serum CRP concentration rises rapidly and extensively. Levels of up to thousand times the normal value are associated with severe stimuli such as myocardial infarction, major trauma, surgery or malignant neoplasm. CRP has a half-life of only a few hours, making it an ideal tool for clinical monitoring ...
Interleukin 1 (IL-1) plays an important role in host defense mechanisms by increasing body temperature, inducing the synthesis of a variety of lymphokines and hepatic acute phase proteins and acting as a chemoattractant for lymphocytes. However, in some microenvironments such as injured tissue or joint spaces, elevated IL-1 levels may contribute to pathologic processes, for example, proliferation and fibrosis of tissue involved in pannus formation as well as degradation of matrix and abnormal tissue architecture. To investigate potential mechanisms that may lead to excessive production of IL-1, we have examined the ability of IL-1 to participate in an amplification event by inducing its own gene expression leading to synthesis of biologically active IL-1. When injected into rabbits, recombinant human IL-1-alpha induced biphasic fevers, and during the second temperature elevation 3 hr later, a circulating pyrogenic material was detected by passive transfer of plasma to other rabbits. Induction of ...
... Acute-phase proteins are a class of proteins whose plasma concentrations increase (positive acute phase proteins) or decrease (negative
Turpentine in the Nose:. Use with caution and learn from my experience. I have used the turpentine in my sinus for sometime now. I slightly dilute it with water in the palm of my hand and standing up I snuff it into my sinus. It clears out any mucus and I believe it is even caring for the brain because evidently it penetrates the blood brain barrier; Therefore the biofilm melting property is quite health promoting.. Caution: I suspected Cytomegelo Virus (a herpes which can lead to Kaposis Sarcoma ( it is considered incurable due to the biofilm coating)) I am interested in mechanizing a cure.. While lying down on my side I chose to snuff a single drop of the diamond G turpentine into my nostril. If it had not been so painful, it would have been comical. The turpentine entered my sinus but also the sinus above my eye.. Instantly; The mucus drainage was profound! Sneezing violent. Entire area around my eye was bright red as well as the eye. The deep cleansing produced sinus pain and some swelling ...
BENESHT Trading Company started its commercial activity in 1392 regarding the purchase and sale of raw turpentine juice. The company is headquartered in Tehran and has offices in the western provinces of Iran to purchase the harvested crop. The company is the largest trading company currently with 300 employees in various sectors including purchasing, sales, accounting, warehousing, transportation … and having extensive relationships with more than 10,000 workers in the field of raw turpentine juice extraction. They are working and buying and exporting a huge amount of harvested raw turpentine juice (about 60%). From the very beginning of the activity, in order to eliminate intermediaries and access to the harvesters of the crop, he put extensive cooperation with the workers who harvested raw turpentine juice at the top of his agenda. For centuries, local workers have struggled to harvest. Prior to 1392, due to the lack of a reliable and well-known shopping center, these workers offered their ...
When an immune response occurs from challenge by a pathogen, a systemic acute phase or inflammatory response results that is considered to be the foundation of non-specific immunity. Antibody titers that arise as a result of the humoral response are not a direct burden on the animals pool of nutrients and are therefore nutritionally inconsequential. It is therefore the systemic acute phase response that has nutritional consequences for the animal. It is this response that is associated with a shift in nutrients use away from skeletal muscle accretion and towards hepatic secretion of acute phase proteins as well as cellular and macromolecule turnover (Klasing, 1998).. There is no question that a well-nourished bird is more immunologically competent and better able to cope with disease challenges than a poorly nourished bird. A change in feed intake leads to a change in nutrient and energy intake. The development and maturation of the immune system of young poultry fed nutritionally deficient ...
I cant yet leave the subject of the PRC, even if it is a bit technical. Not all researchers say that we have a long dead zone mid-day in regard to our response to bright light. The figure above shows the phase response of melatonin in the blood to light…
Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is an acute-phase protein.: Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) levels are elevated in the blood of patients w
This work is focused on determining the rate controlling mechanisms of decarburisation of iron-carbon droplets with gas mixtures containing up to 10% oxygen at 1723 K. The results indicate that the decarburisation rate is limited by the transport of oxygen in the bulk gas to the melt surface. The work also shows the absence of any significant resistance to decarburisation from interfacial chemical kinetics or gas phase reactions. Phosphorus in the melt shows no influence on the rate of decarburisation. Chromium has no significant effect on the decarburisation rate ...
Increased levels of differentially regulated trout protein 1 (DRTP1) mRNA transcripts have been reported in fish after activation of the acute phase response. While the function of the DRTP1 protein still remains to be ...
Torturing turpentine, I thought that would be a fabulous name for a novel, likely autobiographical. I spend a great deal of time torturing turpentine which I must admit is a far better choice than actually drinking it. Dont drink the blue kool-aid, people. Its a term that comes from endless political debates, especially on the…
STAT3 antibody (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (acute-phase response factor)) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-STAT3 pAb (GTX50709) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Objective: We aimed to determine the potential value of maternal serum levels of acute phase reactants in the prediction of preterm delivery in women with ...
Apr 29 20:00:33 ,Iowan, #startmeeting Apr 29 20:00:48 ,Iowan, Clocks are going off behind me - must be time to start Apr 29 20:00:51 ,Iowan, PRESENT Apr 29 20:01:09 * Chazz throws a present at Iowan Apr 29 20:01:19 * Iowan misses Apr 29 20:01:32 ,Chazz, D: Apr 29 20:01:52 * Chazz gently tosses a present at Iowan! :p Apr 29 20:02:22 * Iowan ducks after the first one missed Apr 29 20:02:42 ,Iowan, Anyone else? Apr 29 20:03:06 ,Infl8ableSoulm8, Im srta here. Apr 29 20:03:11 ,Infl8ableSoulm8, with an o Apr 29 20:04:28 ,Iowan, gringochapin joined a bit ago... or the machine did... Apr 29 20:05:45 ,Iowan, Off to the agenda, then. Apr 29 20:05:45 ,gringochapin, Im here. Just got distracted chatting in #hamradio Apr 29 20:06:26 ,Iowan, I should go there sometime - its been years since my xmitter was warm. Apr 29 20:07:07 ,Iowan, Meeting frequency... is weekly good, or should we back off a bit? Apr 29 20:07:27 ,Chazz, I vote we meet only when we actually have something to meet about. Apr 29 20:07:28 ...
void apr_random_init(apr_random_t *g, apr_pool_t *p, apr_crypto_hash_t *pool_hash, apr_crypto_hash_t *key_hash, apr_crypto_hash_t *prng_hash ...
An article about application users and their perception.; Author: Bamaco2; Updated: 16 Apr 2004; Section: Programming Tips; Chapter: General Programming; Updated: 16 Apr 2004
Thanks girls, today is a much happier, lighter day, Im so relieved even though he has more ahead, right now he is cancer free. He was like a different man last night!! Frankie is happy today too!! 70885 - page 59
Looking for online definition of Acute phase reactant in the Medical Dictionary? Acute phase reactant explanation free. What is Acute phase reactant? Meaning of Acute phase reactant medical term. What does Acute phase reactant mean?
Low serum selenium has been associated with lower CD4 counts and greater mortality among HIV-1-seropositive individuals, but most studies have not controlled for serum albumin and the presence of an acute phase response. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate relationships between serum selenium concentrations and CD4 count, plasma viral load, serum albumin, and acute phase response markers among 400 HIV-1-seropositive women. In univariate analyses, lower CD4 count, higher plasma viral load, lower albumin, and the presence of an acute phase response were each significantly associated with lower serum selenium concentrations. In multivariate analyses including all four of these covariates, only albumin remained significantly associated with serum selenium. For each 0.1 g/dl increase in serum albumin, serum selenium increased by 0.8 μg/l (p < 0.001). Women with an acute phase response also had lower serum selenium (by 5.6 μg/l, p = 0.06). Serum selenium was independently associated with serum
Results There were 42 female and 31 male patients with an age range of 18-54 years. In the comparison of laboratory parameters of the patients with or without the components of BDCAF, no significant relation could be found between headache, erythema nodosum, superficial thrombophlebitis, skin pustules, GIS and eye involvement and acute phase response parameters. However, we found significantly higher levels of ferritin in patients with arthritis and higher levels of fibrinogen in patients both with arthralgia and arthritis versus without joint involvement (p=0,01; p=0,030 and p=0,000; respectively). Also Hp levels in patients with genital ulceration and arthritis (p=0,005 and p=0,002) and Cp levels in patients with oral ulceration and arthritis were found to be higher compared to patients without these involvements (p=0,01 and p=0,001). Prealbumin as a negative acute phase reactant was determined as significantly lower in patients with joint involvement than the patients without it (p=0,023). ...
Kaori Maeda, Luke O. Schoeniger, Masahiko Shimada, Richard A. Winchurch, Timothy G. Buchman, James L. Robotham; Regulation of Acute Phase Gene Expression Following Surgery and Endotoxin Administration in the Anesthetized Pig. Anesthesiology 1993;79(6):1324-1337. Download citation file:. ...
1. It has been suggested that the physiological consequences of strenuous exercise are analogous to those of the acute-phase response.. 2. In 70 male and 20 female competitive distance runners, a marked, but transient, neutrophil leucocytosis occurred immediately after these athletes completed a standard (42 km) marathon race. Concomitant significant increases were noted in the plasma cortisol levels, creatine kinase activity, C-reactive protein level, total protein level and albumin level (P ,0.01).. 3. The plasma fibrinogen, C-reactive protein and total protein concentrations were markedly increased both 24 h and 48 h after exercise (P ,0.01). The serum haptoglobin level was significantly decreased after exercise (P ,0.01), and increased 48 h later (P ,0.05). There was no change in the serum iron level, total iron-binding capacity, per cent saturation of transferrin and serum ferritin level.. 4. A significant increase in interleukin-1-type activity was demonstrated immediately and 24 h after ...
L~..Lary IUeurotroph~cPactor: Pharmacokrnetics m-d Acute-Phase Response in Rat Falk Dittrich, Hans Thoenen, and Michael Sendtnet Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) supports the survival of motoneurons in vitro and in vivo. Recombinant CNTF is an investigational drug for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We determined the pharmacokinetics of radioiodinated CNTF after intravenous injection into rats. CNTF shows a biphasic clearance with an initial plasma half-life of 2.9 minutes and is removed from the circulation by the liver. No accumulation of radioactivity was detectable in nerve tissue or skeletal muscle after intravenous injection of 0.1 pg and 0.5 pg of CNTF. Radioactive degradation products accumulate in the skin. Liver cells express specific binding proteins for CNTF, and the incorporation and degradation of intravenously injected CNTF by the liver may occur after association of CNTF with the soluble CNTF receptor cu in the circulation. Probably a9 a consequence of its ...
You may also wish to search for items by Bierbaum, V. and Bierbaum. 57 matching references were found. Bierbaum, V.M.; DePuy, C.H.; Shapiro, R.J., Gas phase reactions of anions with nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1977, 99, 5800. [all data] DePuy, C.H.; Bierbaum, V.M.; Schmitt, R.J.; Shapiro, R.H., Gas phase oxidation and reduction reactions with C6H7-, HNO-, and HO2-, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1978, 100, 2970. [all data] Schmitt, R.J.; Bierbaum, V.M.; DePuy, C.H., Gas phase reactions of carbanions with triplet and singlet molecular oxygen, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1979, 101, 6443. [all data] DePuy, C.H.; Bierbaum, V.M.; Flippin, L.A.; Brabowski, J.J.; King, G.K.; Schmidt, R.J.; Sullivan, S.A., Gas phase reactions of anions with substituted silanes, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1980, 102, 5012. [all data] Bierbaum, V.M.; Schmidt, R.J.; DePuy, C.H.; Mead, R.H.; Schulz, P.A.; Lineberger, W.C., Reactions of carbanions with triplet and singlet molecular oxygen, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1981, 103, 6262. [all ...
The serum protein 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), also known as orosomucoid, is normally referred to as an archetypical positive acute phase protein. as analyzed by 2-D electrophoresis. This MAb was utilized to build up an immunoassay (ELISA) for quantification of AGP in pig serum samples. The adult serum concentrations of pig AGP had been in the number of 1C3 mg/ml in several regular pig breeds although it was low in G?ttingen and Ossabaw minipigs (in the 0.3 to 0.6 mg/ml vary) and higher in young (2C5 times old) regular pigs (mean: 6.6 mg/ml). Amazingly, pig AGP was discovered to Betanin work as a poor acute phase proteins during a selection of experimental infections and aseptic irritation with significant decreases in serum focus and in hepatic ORM1 expression through the acute stage response. To your understanding this is actually the first explanation in virtually any species of AGP being truly a negative severe phase protein. Launch Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), also referred to as ...
Turpentine or Turpentine oil is a liquid derived from the distillation of pine tree species and has industrial and pharmaceutical uses. Their organic matter is
The host inflammatory response against infections is characterized by the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute-phase proteins, driving both innate and adaptive arms of the immune response. Distinct patterns of circulating cytokines and acute-phase responses have proven indispensable for guiding the diagnosis and management of infectious diseases. This review discusses the profiles of acute-phase proteins and circulating cytokines encountered in viral and bacterial infections. We also propose a model in which the inflammatory response to viral (IL-18/ferritin) and bacterial (IL-6/CRP) infections presents with specific plasma patterns of immune biomarkers ...
C-reactive protein is a serum acute-phase reactant that increases several thousand-fold in concentration during inflammation in most mammals. However, mouse C-reactive protein is considered to be a minor acute-phase reactant, since its blood level increases only from approx. 0.1 to 1-2 micrograms/ml. A mouse genomic clone of approximately 5 kb was obtained to determine the molecular basis for the regulation of the expression of mouse C-reactive protein. Several cis-acting elements in the 5′ flanking region that potentially regulate transcription were identified: two glucocorticoid-responsive elements, two CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein C (C/EBP) consensus elements that are required for the interleukin-1 responsiveness of some acute-phase reactant genes, an interleukin-6-responsive element, two hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 (HNF-1) elements and a single heat-shock element. Transfection of the hepatoma cell line Hep 3B.2 with a pCAT expression vector containing the 5′ flanking sequence from ...
IndianOils cross-country network of crude Oil and product pipelines is spread over 10,000 Km. The Corporation handles the largest network of petrol and diesel stations in the country.
The principal aim of this study was to improve the laboratory diagnosis of inflammation in farmed red deer, primarily through the investigation of blood cells and inflammatory proteins in a variety of inflammatory conditions. The objectives were: 1) To establish solidly based reference values for haematological parameters and certain acute phase proteins, including fibrinogen, that may be useful in detecting and assessing infection in red deer. 2) To investigate various factors that might affect the results for these parameters, such information being essential for correct interpretation of test results. 3) To investigate aspects of the acute phase response in red deer. 4) To investigate changes in the above parameters in deer in a selection of infections. 5) To explore the observed responses in terms of possible functions of the components by reference to the literature. Despite a lower content of myeloperoxidase in deer leucocytes, automated leucocyte differential equipment (Technicon H6000/C) ...
Diabetes mellitus is one of public health problem in world. Type 2 diabetes millitus (T2DM) which resistance cell to insulin. more inflammation occur in Patients with T2DM because of elevation of inflammatory marker like C3, C4 & hsCRP. This study was aimed to detect the level of acute phase reactant proteins (C3 , C4 and hsCRP) in T2DM patients. Blood samples were collected from 60 patients with T2DM and control group was included 30 healthy donors. C3, C4 & hsCRP levels were estimated for all samples. Samples were grouped according to complications of patients. The results showed that there was a significant increase in C3 level for patients with T2DM (199.0 mg/dl) compared to control group (135.4 mg /dl) while C4 level for T2DM (27.25 mg/dl) showed no significant change compared to control group( 30.04mg/dl). C3 level of patients under heart disease (199.6 mg/dl ), patients under thyroid disease (230.4 mg/dl) and patients without any disease (188.1 mg/dl) recorded significant elevation
CRP is an acute-phase plasma protein that increases during systemic inflammation. CRP is produced primarily in the liver and is regulated by proinflammatory cytokines, especially IL-6. In turn, we have shown here that CRP induces the release of IL-6 by PBMC and purified CD14+ monocytes, envisioning a feed-forward loop between CRP and IL-6. CRP levels in blood are normally very low and difficult to detect in healthy individuals, but increase rapidly with inflammation. Increased CRP concentrations have been reported in many diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, inflammatory bowel diseases, arthritis, and many cancers. With respect to the CRP association with cancer (45), the robust association described between circulating levels of CRP and cancer risk suggest alternative possibilities: (i) elevated CRP might have a causal role in carcinogenesis, (ii) elevated CRP levels might be the result of an underlying cancer, and (iii) a third factor, such as chronic inflammation, might ...
Figure 1- The components of the innate immune system. Sentinel cells such as the macrophage detect potential environmental threats from infection, chemicals, and foods by PRRs that activate signaling pathways and release proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α). Known PRRs include TLR-4, which senses bacterial LPS and the receptor for AGEs. Cytokines stimulate acute-phase protein production from the liver and also act on the brain to release adrenocorticotrophic hormone (and thereby cortisol from the adrenal gland) and activate the sympathetic nervous system with the release of catecholamines. Psychological stress can cause an acute-phase response via innervation of cytokine-producing cells and via activation of the sympathetic nervous system and adrenergic receptors on macrophages. Central cytokine-induced "sickness behavior" includes lethargy, sleep changes, and depression. The innate immune system also controls the adaptive (acquired) immune system via costimulatory molecule expression ...
Cytokines help stimulate the acute phase reaction in response to inflammation. Colchicine inhibits macrophage production of TNF ...
... effect on the acute phase reaction". Z Ernahrungswiss. 37 Suppl 1: 43-9. PMID 9558728. Schieven GL, Kallestad JC, Brown TJ, ... OSM can regulate the expression of acute phase proteins. OSM regulates the expression of various protease and protease ... "Differential activation of acute phase response factor/STAT3 and STAT1 via the cytoplasmic domain of the interleukin 6 signal ...
He identified IL-6 as a hepatocyte stimulating factor which induces acute phase reactions. He prepared a monoclonal anti-IL-6 ... withdrawal phase III trial. Lancet 371(9617):998-1006, 2008 Kishimoto, T. Interleukin-6: From basic science to medicine, 40 ...
C-reactive protein is an acute phase protein produced by the liver during an inflammatory reaction. Since C-reactive protein ... In some parts of the world the test continues to be referred to as Biernacki's Reaction (Polish: odczyn Biernackiego, OB). In ... Jens Georg Hansen; Henrik Schmidt; Jorn Rosborg; Elisabeth Lund (22 July 1995). "Predicting acute maxillary sinusitis in a ... both tests for ESR and CRP were found to be independently associated with a diagnosis of acute maxillary sinusitis so in some ...
Van Cott EM, Smith EY, Galanakis DK (August 2002). "Elevated fibrinogen in an acute phase reaction prolongs the reptilase time ...
A normal C-reactive protein can be used to exclude elevated ferritin caused by acute phase reactions.[citation needed] ... Ong DS, Wang L, Zhu Y, Ho B, Ding JL (2005). "The response of ferritin to LPS and acute phase of Pseudomonas infection". ... If ferritin is high, there is iron in excess or else there is an acute inflammatory reaction in which ferritin is mobilized ... Beck G, Ellis TW, Habicht GS, Schluter SF, Marchalonis JJ (January 2002). "Evolution of the acute phase response: iron release ...
... of prednisolone and a protein-deficient diet on plasma albumin and fibrinogen in a turpentine-induced acute-phase reaction in ... "Hepatocyte growth factor: a regenerative drug for acute hepatitis and liver cirrhosis". Division of Molecular Regenerative ...
HANSON , D.A. MEIRA .,ACUTE-PHASE REACTIONS, INCLUDING CYTOKINES, IN PATIENTS BITTEN BY BOTHROPS AND CROTALUS SNAKES IN BRAZIL. ...
In the acute phase reaction, a further elevation is required to "limit" the damage caused by activated neutrophil granulocytes ... Kushner, Mackiewicz A (1993). The acute phase response: an overview. Acute-phase glycoproteins: molecular biology, biochemistry ... but the concentration can rise manyfold upon acute inflammation. When the blood contains inadequate amounts of A1AT or ...
... acute phase reactions, and hematopoiesis. Researchers are interested in the potential of small-molecule inhibitors (such as the ...
Fever and an increased white blood cell count are features of the acute-phase reaction, while an increased heart rate is often ... The complications of SIRS include: Acute lung injury Acute kidney injury Shock Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome http:// ... Patients with SIRS and acute organ dysfunction may be termed "severe SIRS." Note: ...
... the amount of StAR available to transfer cholesterol to the inner membrane limits how fast the reaction can go (the acute phase ... This is the first reaction in the process of steroidogenesis in all mammalian tissues that specialize in the production of ... This step is mediated primarily by the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR or STARD1). Upon stimulation of a cell to ... A study of the steroidogenic capacity of the adrenal cortex in infants with acute respiratory disease demonstrated that indeed ...
... are elevated in these clinical states as part of the acute phase reaction. High platelet counts can occur in patients with ... particularly when it is a secondary reaction), it can predispose to thrombosis in some patients. Thrombocytosis can be ...
... a resonant absorption effect used in magnetic resonance spectroscopy Acute phase reaction, a reaction due to the presence of ... guideline Accreditation in Public Relations Acute phase reactant, a class of proteins Adleman-Pomerance-Rumely primality test ...
Because one of the functions of elevated ferritin (an acute phase reaction protein) in acute infections is thought to be to ... Replacement of iron stores is seldom such an emergency situation that it cannot wait for any such acute infection to be treated ... "2016 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure". European Heart Journal. 37: 2129-2200 ... has an occurrence of allergic reactions of less than 1 in 1000. A common side effect is taste changes, especially a metallic ...
Systemic inflammatory reaction results in stimulation of four major programs: the acute-phase reaction sickness behavior the ... They included studies of acute laboratory stressors (e.g. a speech task), short-term naturalistic stressors (e.g. medical ... Selye describes three stages of adaptation, including an initial brief alarm reaction, followed by a prolonged period of ... Like the stress response, the inflammatory reaction is crucial for survival. ...
... involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction. It is produced chiefly by ... stimulating the acute phase response, leading to an increase in C-reactive protein and a number of other mediators. It also ... To study whether acute exercise induces a true anti-inflammatory response, a model of 'low grade inflammation' was established ... This study provides some evidence that acute exercise may inhibit TNF production. TNF promotes the inflammatory response, which ...
Increase in phospholipase A2 activity is an acute-phase reaction that rises during inflammation, which is also seen to be ... "Group X phospholipase A2 is released during sperm acrosome reaction and controls fertility outcome in mice". The Journal of ... and has been shown to promote vascular inflammation correlating with coronary events in coronary artery disease and acute ... "Secretory phospholipase A₂ pathway during pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome: a preliminary study". Pediatric ...
This can occur for years until the inflammatory reaction rises again. In the inflammatory (acute) phase, the antigens from the ... Microfilariae are not normally present in this phase. A key feature of this phase is scar formation from affected tissue areas ... A polymerase chain reaction test can also be performed to detect a minute fraction, as little as 1 pg, of filarial DNA. Some ... The asymptomatic phase usually consists of high microfilaremia infection, and individuals show no symptoms of being infected. ...
This response is called the acute-phase reaction (also called acute-phase response). The terms acute-phase protein and acute- ... Increased acute-phase proteins from the liver may also contribute to the promotion of sepsis. Positive acute-phase proteins ... Acute-phase proteins (APPs) are a class of proteins whose plasma concentrations increase (positive acute-phase proteins) or ... ISBN 0-7817-9543-5. ISBN 978-0-7817-9543-2. Page 182 1. J. S. Inflammation and Acute Phase Proteins in Haemostasis. Acute Phase ...
It can thus be thought of as the acute phase of PTSD. The DSM-IV specifies that ASD must be accompanied by the presence of ... Acute stress reaction (ASR) may develop into delayed stress reaction (better known as PTSD) if stress is not correctly managed ... Acute stress reaction (also called acute stress disorder, psychological shock, mental shock, or simply shock) is a ... A study of rescue personnel after exposure to a traumatic event showed no gender difference in acute stress reaction. Acute ...
... herpetic phase is characterized by when viral particles infiltrate the retina and vitreous causing an inflammatory reaction. ... ARN presentation in individuals can be characterized by two separate phases as listed below. The acute ... "Acute Retinal Necrosis - Ophthalmology". www.aaojournal.org. Retrieved 2015-10-27. "Acute Retinal Necrosis: Background, ... exposing a patient to antiviral agents in the earlier phases of the outbreak tend to decrease the duration of the active phase ...
... "oliguric phase"). About 20 deaths occur annually in the US due to AHTR. Acute hemolytic, immune mediated (fatal)-1 per 250,000- ... An acute hemolytic transfusion reaction (AHTR) is a type of transfusion reaction that is associated with hemolysis. It occurs ... Acute hemolytic transfusion reactions are divided into two types. The most common cause of this reaction is ABO blood groups ... "Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction caused by anti-Coa". Immunohematology. 17 (2): 45-9. PMID 15373591. Hoffbrand, A. V.; P.A. ...
Late-phase response[edit]. After the chemical mediators of the acute response subside, late-phase responses can often occur due ... This phase can either subside or progress into a "late-phase reaction" which can substantially prolong the symptoms of a ... The reaction is usually seen 2-24 hours after the original reaction.[41] Cytokines from mast cells may also play a role in the ... Skin tests cannot predict if a reaction would occur or what kind of reaction might occur if a person ingests that particular ...
Acute-phase reaction/Fever. *Vasodilation. *Increased vascular permeability. *Exudate. *Leukocyte extravasation. *Chemotaxis ... The most common causes of acute bacterial conjunctivitis are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus ... Acute conjunctivitis is most frequently found in infants, school-age children and the elderly.[12] The most common cause of ... "Acute Bacterial Conjunctivitis - Eye Disorders - Merck Manuals Professional Edition". Merck Manuals Professional Edition. ...
Allergic Sensitization - There is an acute response (early stages) and a late-phase response (later stages). In the early ... Tests that are commonly used place potential allergens on the skin of the patient and looking for a reaction to look for an ... IgE circulates around and binds to receptors of cells leading to an acute inflammatory response.[13] In this case, ...
Routine exercise alters measures of immunity and the acute phase reaction.. Horn PL1, West NP, Pyne DB, Koerbin G, Lehtinen SJ ... More than 10 % of observed acute phase reactant values (for C3, haptoglobin and ferritin) were also below the low end of the ... This information would be useful for clinicians interpreting blood tests assessing inflammatory, immune and acute phase ... Samples were analysed for 20 cellular and non-cellular biomarkers which included 11 immunological and 9 acute phase reactants. ...
Encyclopedia , Acute phase reaction. Acute phase proteins are a class of proteins that are synthetized in the liver in response ... Because the acute phase response is relatively non-specific, the value of measuring acute-phase protein concentrations is to ... This response is called the acute phase reaction.. In response to injury, local inflammatory cells (neutrophil granulocytes and ... TNFα is a member of a group of other cytokines that all stimulate the acute phase reaction. ...
What is Acute-phase reaction? Meaning of Acute-phase reaction medical term. What does Acute-phase reaction mean? ... Looking for online definition of Acute-phase reaction in the Medical Dictionary? Acute-phase reaction explanation free. ... acute phase protein. (redirected from Acute-phase reaction). Also found in: Encyclopedia. acute phase protein. plasma proteins ... Acute-phase reaction , definition of Acute-phase reaction by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary. ...
What is acute phase reaction? Meaning of acute phase reaction medical term. What does acute phase reaction mean? ... Looking for online definition of acute phase reaction in the Medical Dictionary? acute phase reaction explanation free. ... Synonym(s): acute phase response. acute phase reaction. The release of physiologically active proteins by the liver into the ... Acute phase reaction , definition of acute phase reaction by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary. ...
2) alpha1-microglobulin clinically proved to be a positive acute phase reactant. Serum value was ellvated postoperatively ... that have so far made it impossible to define this protein as a acute phase reactant. Futrher fundamental study is under way to ... In the process of the present study, a precise assay for SAA was developed using a latex agglutination reaction.. 4) Mechanisms ... elucidate precise mechanisms of alpha1-m reaction at the liver.. For clinical significance, total measurement of this protein ...
The aim of this study was the development of a quantitative assay that could support future studies of a panel of acute phase ... QconCAT; acute phase proteins; equine; quantotypic peptides; selected reaction monitoring; validation; veterinary proteomics; ... The aim of this study was the development of a quantitative assay that could support future studies of a panel of acute phase ... a Method for Absolute Quantification of Equine Acute Phase Proteins Using Concatenated Peptide Standards and Selected Reaction ...
Shimizu, H. ; Mitomo, K. ; Yamamoto, K. / Regulation of mouse serum amyloid A3 gene expression during acute phase reaction. In ... Shimizu, H, Mitomo, K & Yamamoto, K 1992, Regulation of mouse serum amyloid A3 gene expression during acute phase reaction., ... Regulation of mouse serum amyloid A3 gene expression during acute phase reaction. / Shimizu, H.; Mitomo, K.; Yamamoto, K. ... Regulation of mouse serum amyloid A3 gene expression during acute phase reaction. Folia histochemica et cytobiologica / Polish ...
ACUTE-PHASE REACTION. The defense reaction of an organism to infectious or toxic agents, which helps to restrict organ damage ... FASEB J. 17, 253-255 (2003). Reveals aberrant inflammatory reactions and an elevated resistance to glucocorticoid treatment in ... Tomas, A., Futter, C. & Moss, S. E. Annexin 11 is required for midbody formation and completion of the terminal phase of ... through the cytokine-induced production of protective acute-phase proteins such as complement-reactive and serum-amyloid ...
Cysteine-type cathepsins promote the effector phase of acute cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions Johannes ... Cysteine-type cathepsins promote the effector phase of acute cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Theranostics ... Conclusion: Cathepsin B is actively involved in the effector phase of acute cutaneous DTHR. Thus, topically applied cathepsin B ... Compared with wild-type mice, Ctsb-/- mice exhibited an enhanced ear swelling response during acute DTHR despite a lack of ...
Acute Phase Reaction. Within three days after Zometa administration, an acute phase reaction has been reported in patients, ... Acute Phase Reaction. Within three days after Zometa administration, an acute phase reaction has been reported, with symptoms ... Injection Site Reactions. Local reactions at the infusion site, such as redness or swelling, were observed infrequently. In ... Hypersensitivity Reactions. There have been rare reports of allergic reaction with intravenous zoledronic acid including ...
Includes: indications, dosage, adverse reactions, pharmacology and more. ... Acute Phase Reaction. Within three days after Zoledronic Acid Injection administration, an acute phase reaction has been ... Acute Phase Reaction. Within three days after Zoledronic Acid Injection administration, an acute phase reaction has been ... Injection Site Reactions. Local reactions at the infusion site, such as redness or swelling, were observed infrequently. In ...
Acute-Phase Reaction. Pathologic Processes. Neurobehavioral Manifestations. Neurologic Manifestations. Nervous System Diseases ... Iatrogenic psychotic depressive reaction in hypertensive patients. Am J Psychiatry. 1971 Apr;127(10):1416-7. ...
Lipoprotein(a), Ferritin, and Albumin in Acute Phase Reaction Predicts Severity and Mortality of Acute Ischemic Stroke in North ... In our study, Lp(a) acted as an acute phase reactant while albumin acted as a negative acute phase reactant. There was no ... We studied the behavior of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], ferritin, and albumin as acute phase reactants and their roles in the ... METHODS: We recruited 100 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke and 120 controls. Blood samples were drawn on days 1 ...
Monitoring the acute phase response in non-immediate allergic drug reactions. Mayorga, Cristobalina; Pena, Rebeca R; Blanca- ... Nonimmediate hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media. Gómez, Enrique; Ariza, Adriana; Blanca-López, Natalia; ... Hypersensitivity reactions to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: from phenotyping to genotyping. Blanca-López, Natalia; ... Hypersensitivity reactions to quinolones. Blanca-López, Natalia; Andreu, Inmaculada; Torres Jaén, Maria J. ...
Acute Phase Reaction Within three days after zoledronic acid injection administration, an acute phase reaction has been ... Acute Phase Reaction Within three days after zoledronic acid injection administration, an acute phase reaction has been ... Injection Site Reactions Local reactions at the infusion site, such as redness or swelling, were observed infrequently. In most ... Hypersensitivity Reactions There have been rare reports of allergic reaction with intravenous zoledronic acid including ...
HIV replication follows a well-defined pattern during the acute phase of the infection in humans. After reaching a peak during ... Acute-Phase Reaction / immunology * Acute-Phase Reaction / virology * Animals * CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / pathology ... HIV Replication Is Not Controlled by CD8+ T Cells during the Acute Phase of the Infection in Humanized Mice PLoS One. 2015 Sep ... HIV replication follows a well-defined pattern during the acute phase of the infection in humans. After reaching a peak during ...
Includes: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, interactions, adverse reactions and more. ... Hypersensitivity: Acute phase reaction-like symptoms (≤8%; includes fever, influenza-like illness) ... Signs of a significant reaction like wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or ... 1%, postmarketing, and/or case reports: Abnormal hepatic function tests, angioedema, bullous skin reaction, cough, esophageal ...
Because chronic arthritides may present abruptly, they need to be considered in patients who present with acute polyarticular ... Viral infections, crystal-induced arthritis, and serum sickness reactions are common causes of acute, self-limited ... Acute-phase reaction, vasculitis, infection. Leukopenia. SLE, RA, Feltys syndrome, Sjögrens syndrome, human parvovirus B19 ... For example, the acute stage of Lyme disease may include polyarticular arthralgias, whereas the chronic phase may include ...
Acute-Phase Reactions. Acute-phase reactions have been reported with alendronate, ibandronate, and zoledronic acid [9, 10, 12] ... 6.2% in the placebo group, less so after second infusion) [25, 26]. Acute-phase reactions are generally mild to moderate in ... Bisphosphonates are associated with gastrointestinal effects, musculoskeletal pain, and acute-phase reactions, as well as, very ... though there may be some overlap with acute-phase reactions (see below). It can be difficult to manage, especially if severe [7 ...
Acute-phase reaction. Cytokines. Inflammation. Methylene blue. Myocardial revascularization. Prospective studies. Resumo em ...
any condition that leads to increased protein: hepatic necrosis; acute-phase reaction; sideroblastic anemia; hemochromatosis. ... PNH; MAHA; DIC; Drug reaction in G6PD; transfusion reaction; Hereditary spherocytosis; H. eliptocytosis; H. pyropoikilocytosis ... acute or chronic renal failure. How is HUS caused?. bacterial infection releases toxins into blood stream; toxins cause release ... IDA; Acute or chronic inflammatory disorders; treatment of other anemias (iron gets used up making more cells); hemorrhage or ...
Acute phase response. A reaction of the haemopoietic and Adenosine. Nucleoside, of importance in energy homeo- hepatic systems ... 8. 8 Acute phase response result of damage caused by free radicals. Examples Acute physiology, age, chronic health evaluation, ... w phase 2: plateau due to calcium entry. See also, Muscle contraction w phase 3: repolarisation. w phase 4: resting membrane ... and lack of negative inotropism make it an attractive alterna- Serum levels of acute phase proteins (e.g. C-reactive pro- tive ...
Acute Phase Reactions: Symptoms consistent with acute phase reaction have been reported with bisphosphonate use. The overall ... Acute Phase Reactions: Symptoms consistent with acute phase reaction have been reported with bisphosphonate use. The overall ... These incidence rates are based on reporting of any of 33 acute phase reaction-like symptoms within 5 days of the first dose. ... These incidence rates are based on reporting of any of 33 acute phase reaction-like symptoms within 3 days of the first dose ...
Associated with acute phase reaction. Tumor Necrosis Factor, TNF 7 Arachadonic acid + cyclooxygenase = ...
Treats only acute phase reaction. *Regular use associated with increased mortality. *Terbutaline may be more risk than other ... Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Nocturnal Leg Cramp Drowning Genetic Determinants of Drug Response Acute Bronchitis Chronic ... Acute Coronary Syndrome risk in those with CAD risk. *Au (2002) Chest 121:846-51 [PubMed] ... Acute Chest Syndrome Asthma Evaluation Moderate Persistent Asthma Severe Persistent Asthma Status Asthmaticus Chronic ...
  • Here, we uncovered the role of cysteine-type cathepsins in the effector phase of T cell-driven cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions (DTHR) and the implication of this role on therapeutic cathepsin B-specific inhibition. (thno.org)
  • Futrher fundamental study is under way to elucidate precise mechanisms of alpha1-m reaction at the liver. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The acute phase response is an evolutionarily conserved reaction in which physiological stress triggers the liver to remodel the blood proteome. (jci.org)
  • Thus, we conclude that RelA and STAT3 are essential for stress-induced transcriptional remodeling in the liver and the subsequent activation of the acute phase response, whose functional role includes compartmentalization of local infection. (jci.org)
  • Liver disease associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has been studied intensively in recent decades. (aappublications.org)
  • Elevated fibrinogen in an acute phase reaction prolongs the reptilase time but typically not the thrombin time. (medscape.com)
  • 1 , 2 Healthy mice infused with unfractionated human fibrinogen and subjected to FeCl 3 -mediated carotid artery injury have a shortened time to vessel occlusion and increased resistance of thrombi to acute thrombolysis, suggesting that elevated fibrinogen independently contributes to thrombosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Levels of Fibrinogen, Ferritin, Haptoglobin, Alpha-1-antitrypsin, Caeruloplasmin, Factor VIII, von Willebrand factor, Complement CH50 or CH100 and Complement components C3 and C4 may be increased in an acute phase response and mask a true deficiency state, if present. (edu.au)
  • COX-2 induction is readily demonstrable in ECs and/or PVCs after such challenges, and its expression correlates with several acute phase endpoints across a range of experimental conditions. (jneurosci.org)
  • Lipoprotein(a), Ferritin, and Albumin in Acute Phase Reaction Predicts Severity and Mortality of Acute Ischemic Stroke in North Indian Patients. (althotas.com)
  • METHODS: We recruited 100 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke and 120 controls. (althotas.com)
  • Because chronic arthritides may present abruptly, they need to be considered in patients who present with acute polyarticular joint pain. (aafp.org)
  • The percentage of patients who withdrew from the study due to adverse reactions was 9.1% in the Atelvia 35 mg once-a-week group and 8.1% in the risedronate sodium immediate-release 5 mg daily group. (rxlist.com)
  • Data from Europe are limited to the reports on coinfections with TBE virus and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) in patients with acute meningitis ( 3 - 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Underdiagnosis of WD is highly likely, especially during the asymptomatic phase and in patients with atypical presentations. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Physicians should therefore be alert to any signs or symptoms signaling a possible esophageal reaction and patients should be instructed to discontinue ACTONEL and seek medical attention if they develop dysphagia, odynophagia, retrosternal pain or new or worsening heartburn. (bioportfolio.com)
  • MethodsForty patients with respiratory and/or neurological symptoms following acute fire smoke inhalation had pulmonary function tests and blood gas analyses performed on admission, at discharge, and after 3 months. (uio.no)
  • The spread of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus in 2009 led to a pandemic associated with a large number of patients developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which resulted in an exceptionally increased ECMO case load. (lww.com)
  • Data on the characteristics of COVID-19 patients dying in Italy highlight ARDS as acute condition (reasonably leading to the exitus) observed in 96.5% of patients. (lww.com)
  • 17 Afibrinogenemic patients have elevated markers of coagulation activation and experience acute thrombosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Overall, TBI patients seemed to present a wider range of behavioral reactions to pain than other adult populations. (neuroskills.com)
  • 21, 22 Increased concentrations of interleukin 6 (IL-6), the major cytokine responsible for the acute phase response, are common in unstable patients and also correlate closely with prognosis. (bmj.com)
  • We present the MR imaging findings in two patients who presented acutely and review the features of the disease and of other acute alcohol-related disorders. (ajnr.org)
  • Cryofibrinogen may also be present in patients with an acute phase reaction, but this finding has no diagnostic value. (edu.au)
  • Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. (rxlist.com)
  • To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Heritage Pharmaceuticals Inc. at 1-866-901-DRUG (3784) or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch . (nih.gov)
  • The aim of this review is to explore the risk of adverse drug reactions and drug-drug interactions with treatments for postmenopausal osteoporosis. (springer.com)
  • We reviewed evidence for adverse reactions from regulatory documents, randomized controlled trials, pharmacovigilance surveys, and case series. (springer.com)
  • The solidity of the evidence base depends on the frequency of the reaction, and causality is not always easy to establish for the very rare adverse reactions. (springer.com)
  • Osteoporosis treatments are generally safe and well tolerated, though they are associated with a few very rare serious adverse reactions. (springer.com)
  • Upper Gastrointestinal Adverse Reactions can occur. (nih.gov)
  • To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Allergan at 1-800-678-1605 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. (nih.gov)
  • The incidence of serious adverse reactions was 6.5% in the Atelvia 35 mg once-a-week group and 7.2% in the risedronate sodium immediate-release 5 mg daily group. (rxlist.com)
  • Thousands of parents report and demonstrate with home videos that their children were normal and responsive until suffering an adverse vaccine reaction. (whale.to)
  • We report a patient with febrile illness and epidemiologic and clinical findings consistent with human granulocytic ehrlichiosis and tickborne encephalitis, in whom infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum was demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction and seroconversion. (cdc.gov)
  • Noninvasive in vivo optical imaging revealed strong cysteine-type cathepsin activity in inflamed ears and draining lymph nodes in acute and chronic cutaneous DTHR. (thno.org)
  • Topically applied cathepsin B inhibitors significantly reduced ear swelling in acute but not chronic DTHR. (thno.org)
  • Because pro- and anti-inflammatory processes are crucial in the different phases of wound healing, it is conceivable that disturbances of the immune system interfere with tissue homeostasis and wound healing after the manifestation of ulcers and lead to the chronic, nonhealing wounds that are characteristic of diabetic foot syndrome. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction (hives, difficult breathing, swelling in your face or throat) or a severe skin reaction (fever, sore throat, burning in your eyes, skin pain, red or purple skin rash that spreads and causes blistering and peeling). (rxlist.com)
  • The patient with acute rheumatic fever with whatever manifestations should be given a therapeutic course of antibiotic to eradicate residual streptococci which may be difficult to isolate. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Aspirin and steroids are the two anti-inflammatory agents of choice for treatment of acute rheumatic fever. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Aspirin exerts no specific effect on lesion of acute rheumatic process at any site but produces excellent symptomatic relief of arthritis and fever. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • In the horizontal aspect, he listed 6 stages of pathological development, three "Humoral" phases and three "Cellular" phases. (townsendletter.com)
  • In the early "humoral" phases of pathology, the principle of regulation is excretion of pathogens and all harmful elements. (townsendletter.com)
  • Moreover, this interruption of the acute phase response increased mortality and exacerbated bacterial dissemination during pneumonia, possibly as a result of acute humoral enhancement of macrophage opsonophagocytosis, which was impaired in the mutant mice. (jci.org)
  • Strikingly, resolution of the viral peak was equally observed in mice with or without CD8(+) T cells, showing that CD8(+) T cells were not involved in viral control in the early phase of the infection. (nih.gov)
  • Our results strongly suggest that viral replication during the acute phase of the infection in humanized mice is mainly constrained by the number of available targets in lymphoid tissues rather than by CD8(+) T cells. (nih.gov)
  • Coronary thrombosis is now widely recognised as a major cause of sudden cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction, and unstable angina pectoris. (bmj.com)
  • After the healing phase is complete, which may take up to six months, the healing cap is removed and replaced by a gingiva former for final healing and formation of the soft tissue. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The transient APR is the immediate set of inflammatory reactions that is thought to serve as a first-line response of unspecific immune defence to counteract tissue injury and bacterial or fungal infections. (rupress.org)
  • The coronavirus disease 2019 ( COVID-19 ) is an infectious disease caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). (lww.com)
  • Our results reveal a central role of a hepatocyte-specific, gp130-dependent acute phase reaction for plaque development in a murine model of atherosclerosis, and further implicate IL6ST as a genetic susceptibility factor for CAD and MI in humans. (rupress.org)
  • There is not yet proven evidence that steroids reduce incidence and severity of residual rheumatic heart disease but there is definite impression that death during acute attack of carditis is prevented. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • The pathogenesis and clinical implications of the hematological and blood-biochemical changes elicited by acute exercise in Standardbred trotters in the present study warrant further investigation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The influence of endogenous intoxication on the clinical picture of various forms of acute stenosinglaryngotracheitis in the children]. (nih.gov)
  • Functional involvement of COX-1 is indicated by the observation that central, but not systemic, pretreatment with the selective COX-1 inhibitor SC-560 attenuated the early phase of LPS-induced increases in adrenocorticotropin and corticosterone secretion. (jneurosci.org)
  • Emphasis is given to the central role of transcription factor NF-kB in the complex mechanism of the inflammatory reaction and to the effects of compounds such as heparin and glycosaminoglycans, phosphodiesterase inhibitors and protease inhibitors whose role as anti-inflammatory agent has only recently been recognized. (mendeley.com)
  • Packed, irradiated, leukocyte-depleted RBCs with hematocrit 0.60 were transfused 10 mL/kg whenever the hemoglobin level was below 100 g/L during induction, consolidation, and delayed intensification phases of therapy (during the first 6-12 months of therapy). (aappublications.org)
  • The analgesic activity of amantadine administered intraperitoneally was more pronounced in the case of acute thermal pain in mice compared to hemantane, and only amantadine had a significant analgesic effect on the acute early phase of formalin pain in rats induced by the effect of the algogen on the primary sensory afferents. (scirp.org)
  • The observed acute increase in hemoglobin levels and decreases in haptoglobin and iron levels may have been caused by exercise-induced hemolysis, which indicates that horses might experience a condition similar to athlete's anemia in humans. (biomedsearch.com)