Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.
Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.
An early local inflammatory reaction to insult or injury that consists of fever, an increase in inflammatory humoral factors, and an increased synthesis by hepatocytes of a number of proteins or glycoproteins usually found in the plasma.
Orosomucoid, also known as alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, is an acute phase protein involved in the immune response, functioning as a pattern recognition receptor and having the ability to bind various ligands including drugs and hormones.
An ACUTE PHASE REACTION protein present in low concentrations in normal sera, but found at higher concentrations in sera of older persons and in patients with AMYLOIDOSIS. It is the circulating precusor of amyloid A protein, which is found deposited in AA type AMYLOID FIBRILS.
Glycoprotein found in alpha(1)-globulin region in human serum. It inhibits chymotrypsin-like proteinases in vivo and has cytotoxic killer-cell activity in vitro. The protein also has a role as an acute-phase protein and is active in the control of immunologic and inflammatory processes, and as a tumor marker. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
The concrete oleoresin obtained from Pinus palustris Mill. (Pinaceae) and other species of Pinus. It contains a volatile oil, to which its properties are due, and to which form it is generally used. (Dorland, 28th ed) Turpentine is used as a solvent and an experimental irritant in biomedical research. Turpentine toxicity is of medical interest.
Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
Amyloid P component is a small, non-fibrillar glycoprotein found in normal serum and in all amyloid deposits. It has a pentagonal (pentaxin) structure. It is an acute phase protein, modulates immunologic responses, inhibits ELASTASE, and has been suggested as an indicator of LIVER DISEASE.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.
A species of gram-negative bacteria isolated from the SYNOVIAL FLUID; LYMPH NODES; and MUCOUS MEMBRANE secretions in diseased SWINE. It causes nonsuppurative ARTHRITIS.
Glycoproteins with a molecular weight of approximately 620,000 to 680,000. Precipitation by electrophoresis is in the alpha region. They include alpha 1-macroglobulins and alpha 2-macroglobulins. These proteins exhibit trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, thrombin-, and plasmin-binding activity and function as hormonal transporters.
Ceruloplasmin is a blue copper-containing protein primarily synthesized in the liver, functioning as a ferroxidase enzyme involved in iron homeostasis and contributing to copper transportation in the body.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Nematodes parasitic in the bronchi of herbivorous animals.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during ELECTROPHORESIS. This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-globulins.
Dryness of the eye surfaces caused by deficiency of tears or conjunctival secretions. It may be associated with vitamin A deficiency, trauma, or any condition in which the eyelids do not close completely.
Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.
A tetrameric protein, molecular weight between 50,000 and 70,000, consisting of 4 equal chains, and migrating on electrophoresis in 3 fractions more mobile than serum albumin. Its concentration ranges from 7 to 33 per cent in the serum, but levels decrease in liver disease.
Infections with bacteria of the genus ACTINOBACILLUS.
'Housing, Animal' refers to the physical structure or environment designed and constructed to provide shelter, protection, and specific living conditions for various domestic or captive animals, meeting their biological and behavioral needs while ensuring their welfare and well-being.
Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.
A diverse family of extracellular proteins that bind to small hydrophobic molecules. They were originally characterized as transport proteins, however they may have additional roles such as taking part in the formation of macromolecular complexes with other proteins and binding to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.
A glycoprotein that is important in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C4 is cleaved by the activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C4A and COMPLEMENT C4B.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacillus-shaped bacteria that has been isolated from pneumonic lesions and blood. It produces pneumonia with accompanying fibrinous pleuritis in swine.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Failure or imperfection of vision at night or in dim light, with good vision only on bright days. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)
Measurement of rate of settling of erythrocytes in anticoagulated blood.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A cytokine receptor that acts through the formation of oligomeric complexes of itself with a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-6. They are present on T-LYMPHOCYTES, mitogen-activated B-LYMPHOCYTES, and peripheral MONOCYTES. The receptors are heterodimers of the INTERLEUKIN-6 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.
An acute, febrile, mucocutaneous condition accompanied by swelling of cervical lymph nodes in infants and young children. The principal symptoms are fever, congestion of the ocular conjunctivae, reddening of the lips and oral cavity, protuberance of tongue papillae, and edema or erythema of the extremities.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.

Predominant immunoglobulin A response to phase II antigen of Coxiella burnetii in acute Q fever. (1/1561)

Diagnosis of acute Q fever is usually confirmed by serology, on the basis of anti-phase II antigen immunoglobulin M (IgM) titers of >/=1:50 and IgG titers of >/=1:200. Phase I antibodies, especially IgG and IgA, are predominant in chronic forms of the disease. However, between January 1982 and June 1998, we observed anti-phase II antigen IgA titers of >/=1:200 as the sole or main antibody response in 10 of 1,034 (0.96%) patients with acute Q fever for whom information was available. In order to determine whether specific epidemiological or clinical factors were associated with these serological profiles, we conducted a retrospective case-control study that included completion of a standardized questionnaire, which was given to 40 matched controls who also suffered from acute Q fever. The mean age of patients with elevated phase II IgA titers was significantly higher than that usually observed for patients with acute Q fever (P = 0.026); the patients were also more likely than controls to live in rural areas (P = 0.026) and to have increased levels of transaminase in blood (P = 0.03). Elevated IgA titers are usually associated with chronic Q fever and are directed mainly at phase I antigens. Although the significance of our findings is unexplained, we herein emphasize the fact that IgA antibodies are not specific for chronic forms of Q fever and that they may occasionally be observed in patients with acute disease. Moreover, as such antibody profiles may not be determined by most laboratories, which test only for total antibody titers to phase I and II antigens, the three isotype-specific Ig titers should be determined as the first step in diagnosing Q fever.  (+info)

The STAT3-independent signaling pathway by glycoprotein 130 in hepatic cells. (2/1561)

Interleukin (IL)-6 is a major regulator of hepatic acute-phase plasma protein (APP) genes. The membrane-proximal 133-amino acid cytoplasmic domain of glycoprotein (gp) 130, containing one copy of the Box3 motif, is sufficient to transmit a productive signal to endogenous APP genes in rat hepatoma H-35 cells. In contrast, a mutant gp130 domain lacking the Box3 motif activates Janus kinases to a normal level but fails to activate signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and to up-regulate a number of APP genes, including thiostatin, fibrinogen, hemopexin, and haptoglobin. However, in the absence of Box3, gp130 still stimulates the expression of alpha2-macroglobulin and synergizes with IL-1 to up-regulate alpha1-acid glycoprotein. The Box3 motif is not required for activation of the SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 or the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), nor is the immediate induction of egr-1 and junB significantly altered. Surprisingly, gp130 without any functional Box3 stimulates prolonged activation of MAPK, leading to an extended period of up-regulation of egr-1 and to an extracellularly regulated kinase-mediated reduction in the IL-6-stimulated production of thiostatin. IL-6 reduces proliferation of H-35 cells through signaling by the Box3. In addition, cells expressing Box3-deficient gp130 showed distinct morphologic changes upon receptor activation. Taken together, these results indicate that Box3-derived and Box3-independent signals cooperate in the control of hepatic APP genes and that Box3 may be involved in the modulation of MAPK activity in gp130 signaling.  (+info)

Lipopolysaccharide stimulates HepG2 human hepatoma cells in the presence of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein via CD14. (3/1561)

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP), an opsonin for activation of macrophages by bacterial LPS, is synthesized in hepatocytes and is known to be an acute phase protein. Recently, cytokine-induced production of LBP was reported to increase 10-fold in hepatocytes isolated from LPS-treated rats, compared with those from normal rats. However, the mechanism by which the LPS treatment enhances the effect of cytokines remains to be clarified. In the present study, we examined whether LPS alone or an LPS/LBP complex directly stimulates the hepatocytes, leading to acceleration of the cytokine-induced LBP production. HepG2 cells (a human hepatoma cell line) were shown to express CD14, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored LPS receptor, by both RT/PCR and flow cytometric analyses. An LPS/LBP complex was an effective stimulator for LBP and CD14 production in HepG2 cells, but stimulation of the cells with either LPS or LBP alone did not significantly accelerate the production of these proteins. The findings were confirmed by semiquantitative RT/PCR analysis of mRNA levels of LBP and CD14 in HepG2 cells after stimulation with LPS alone and an LPS/LBP complex. In addition, two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to CD14 (3C10 and MEM-18) inhibited LPS/LBP-induced cellular responses of HepG2 cells. Furthermore, prestimulation of HepG2 cells with LPS/LBP augmented cytokine-induced production and gene expression of LBP and CD14. All these findings suggest that an LPS/LBP complex, but not free LPS, stimulates HepG2 cells via CD14 leading to increased basal and cytokine-induced LBP and CD14 production.  (+info)

Heme and acute inflammation role in vivo of heme in the hepatic expression of positive acute-phase reactants in rats. (4/1561)

Acute-phase protein synthesis in the liver during inflammation is regulated via cytokines and glucocorticoids. Using quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analysis and immunoassay, we explored, in the rat, the response of the acute-phase protein, alpha-2 macroglobulin (A2M), after systemic inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or localized inflammation induced by turpentine oil (TO). The results indicate that synthesis of A2M is higher following TO-induced inflammation than LPS-induced inflammation and is not correlated with interleukin (IL)-6 or glucocorticoid levels. We studied the putative role of heme in this differential A2M expression following localized vs. systemic inflammation; addition of heme during LPS-induced inflammation can boost the expression of A2M, whereas blocking heme synthesis (by succinyl acetone) or enhancing its consumption in parallel biosynthetic pathways (cytochrome P450 induction by phenobarbital) decreases A2M expression. This decrease was abolished by exogenous heme supplementation. Finally, we demonstrate that heme supplementation is also able to increase the A2M response in female rats to a level similar to that in male rats providing a new insight into the puzzling sexual dimorphism observed previously during localized inflammation. We propose that heme should be considered a new regulatory element in controlling liver A2M expression during inflammation.  (+info)

Endotoxin interactions with lipopolysaccharide-responsive cells. (5/1561)

Recent work has identified two proteins that work together to enable many cell types to respond to endotoxin. These two proteins, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding protein (LBP) and CD14, also participate in cellular internalization of endotoxin, which may occur independently of cellular activation. Current work with antibodies to LBP and CD14 as well as "knockout" mice in the context of LPS-initiated endotoxic shock suggests that inhibition of this pathway could be therapeutically useful. These observations point to the need to identify new molecules that mediate LPS-initiated transmembrane signaling and internalization of LPS-protein complexes.  (+info)

Lipopolysaccharide-coated erythrocytes activate human neutrophils via CD14 while subsequent binding is through CD11b/CD18. (6/1561)

Interaction of LPS with monocytes and neutrophils is known to occur via CD14 and is strongly enhanced by LPS-binding protein (LBP). Integrins as well as CD14 play a role in the interaction of erythrocytes (E) coated with LPS or whole Gram-negative bacteria with phagocytes. We reasoned that the density of LPS on a particle is an important determinant in these interactions. Therefore, E were coated with different concentrations of LPS (ELPS). The binding of these ELPS to neutrophils was evaluated by flow cytometry. Simultaneously, we measured fMLP receptor expression to evaluate neutrophil activation. ELPS only bound to neutrophils in the presence of LBP. Blocking CD14 inhibited both activation and binding, whereas blocking complement (C) receptor 3 (CR3) inhibited binding but not activation. TNF activation restored ELPS binding in CD14-blocked cells but not in cells in which CR3 was blocked. Salmonella minnesota did bind to neutrophils independent of CR3 or CD14. The addition of LBP enhanced binding twofold, and this surplus was dependent upon CD14 but not on CR3. We conclude that ELPS interact with neutrophils via CD14, initially giving rise to cell activation; subsequently, binding is solely mediated by activated CR3.  (+info)

Membrane-anchored forms of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein do not mediate cellular responses to LPS independently of CD14. (7/1561)

Inflammatory responses of myeloid cells to LPS are mediated through CD14, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored receptor that binds LPS. Since CD14 does not traverse the plasma membrane and alternatively anchored forms of CD14 still enable LPS-induced cellular activation, the precise role of CD14 in mediating these responses remains unknown. To address this, we created a transmembrane and a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored form of LPS-binding protein (LBP), a component of serum that binds and transfers LPS to other molecules. Stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) fibroblast and U373 astrocytoma cell lines expressing membrane-anchored LBP (mLBP), as well as separate CHO and U373 cell lines expressing membrane CD14 (mCD14), were subsequently generated. Under serum-free conditions, CHO and U373 cells expressing mCD14 responded to as little as 0.1 ng/ml of LPS, as measured by NF-kappaB activation as well as ICAM and IL-6 production. Conversely, the vector control and mLBP-expressing cell lines did not respond under serum-free conditions even in the presence of more than 100 ng/ml of LPS. All the cell lines exhibited responses to less than 1 ng/ml of LPS in the presence of the soluble form of CD14, demonstrating that they are still capable of LPS-induced activation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that mLBP, a protein that brings LPS to the cell surface, does not mediate cellular responses to LPS independently of CD14. These findings suggest that CD14 performs a more specific role in mediating responses to LPS than that of simply bringing LPS to the cell surface.  (+info)

Blood concentrations of pancreatitis associated protein in neonates: relevance to neonatal screening for cystic fibrosis. (8/1561)

AIM: To determine whether pancreatitis associated protein (PAP) is a marker for cystic fibrosis which could be used in neonatal screening for the disease. METHODS: PAP was assayed on screening cards from 202,807 neonates. Babies with PAP > or = 15 ng/ml, or > or = 11.5 ng/ml and immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) > or = 700 ng/ml were recalled for clinical examination, sweat testing, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene analysis. RESULTS: Median PAP value was 2.8 ng/ml. Forty four cases of cystic fibrosis were recorded. Recalled neonates (n = 398) included only 11 carriers. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that PAP above 8.0 ng/ml would select 0.76% of babies, including all those with cystic fibrosis, except for one with meconium ileus and two with mild CFTR mutations. Screening 27,146 babies with both PAP and IRT showed that only 0.12% had PAP > 8.0 ng/ml and IRT > 700 ng/ml, including all cases of cystic fibrosis. CONCLUSION: PAP is increased in most neonates with cystic fibrosis and could be used for CF screening. Its combination with IRT looks promising.  (+info)

Acute-phase proteins (APPs) are a group of plasma proteins whose concentrations change in response to various inflammatory conditions, such as infection, trauma, or tissue damage. They play crucial roles in the body's defense mechanisms and help mediate the innate immune response during the acute phase of an injury or illness.

There are several types of APPs, including:

1. C-reactive protein (CRP): Produced by the liver, CRP is one of the most sensitive markers of inflammation and increases rapidly in response to various stimuli, such as bacterial infections or tissue damage.
2. Serum amyloid A (SAA): Another liver-derived protein, SAA is involved in lipid metabolism and immune regulation. Its concentration rises quickly during the acute phase of inflammation.
3. Fibrinogen: A coagulation factor produced by the liver, fibrinogen plays a vital role in blood clotting and wound healing. Its levels increase during inflammation.
4. Haptoglobin: This protein binds free hemoglobin released from red blood cells, preventing oxidative damage to tissues. Its concentration rises during the acute phase of inflammation.
5. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT): A protease inhibitor produced by the liver, AAT helps regulate the activity of enzymes involved in tissue breakdown and repair. Its levels increase during inflammation to protect tissues from excessive proteolysis.
6. Ceruloplasmin: This copper-containing protein is involved in iron metabolism and antioxidant defense. Its concentration rises during the acute phase of inflammation.
7. Ferritin: A protein responsible for storing iron, ferritin levels increase during inflammation as part of the body's response to infection or tissue damage.

These proteins have diagnostic and prognostic value in various clinical settings, such as monitoring disease activity, assessing treatment responses, and predicting outcomes in patients with infectious, autoimmune, or inflammatory conditions.

Haptoglobins are proteins found in the blood that bind to free hemoglobin, which is released when red blood cells break down. The resulting complex is then removed from the bloodstream by the liver, preventing the loss of iron and potential kidney damage caused by the breakdown products of hemoglobin. Haptoglobins are produced in the liver and their levels can be measured to help diagnose various medical conditions such as hemolytic anemia, liver disease, and inflammation.

The acute-phase reaction is a complex series of physiological responses that occur in response to tissue injury, infection, or stress. It is characterized by the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) from activated immune cells, including macrophages and neutrophils.

These cytokines trigger a range of systemic effects, including fever, increased heart rate and respiratory rate, decreased appetite, and changes in white blood cell count. They also stimulate the production of acute-phase proteins (APPs) by the liver, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and serum amyloid A.

The acute-phase reaction is an important part of the body's immune response to injury or infection, helping to promote healing and fight off pathogens. However, excessive or prolonged activation of the acute-phase reaction can contribute to the development of chronic inflammatory conditions and diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, and cancer.

Orosomucoid, also known as α-1-acid glycoprotein or AAG, is a protein found in human plasma. It's a member of the acute phase proteins, which are produced in higher amounts during inflammation and infection. Orosomucoid has a molecular weight of approximately 41-43 kDa and is composed of a single polypeptide chain with five N-linked glycosylation sites. It plays a role in protecting tissues from various harmful substances, such as proteases and oxidants, by binding to them and preventing their interaction with cells. Additionally, orosomucoid has been studied as a potential biomarker for several diseases due to its altered levels during inflammation and cancer.

Serum Amyloid A (SAA) protein is an acute phase protein produced primarily in the liver, although it can also be produced by other cells in response to inflammation. It is a member of the apolipoprotein family and is found in high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in the blood. SAA protein levels increase rapidly during the acute phase response to infection, trauma, or tissue damage, making it a useful biomarker for inflammation.

In addition to its role as an acute phase protein, SAA has been implicated in several disease processes, including atherosclerosis and amyloidosis. In amyloidosis, SAA can form insoluble fibrils that deposit in various tissues, leading to organ dysfunction. There are four subtypes of SAA in humans (SAA1, SAA2, SAA3, and SAA4), with SAA1 and SAA2 being the most responsive to inflammatory stimuli.

Alpha 1-Antichymotrypsin (ACT), also known as Serpin A1, is a protein found in the blood that belongs to the serine protease inhibitor family. It functions to regulate enzymes that break down other proteins in the body. ACT helps to prevent excessive and potentially harmful proteolytic activity, which can contribute to tissue damage and inflammation.

Deficiency or dysfunction of alpha 1-Antichymotrypsin has been associated with several medical conditions, including:

1. Alpha 1-Antichymotrypsin Deficiency: A rare genetic disorder characterized by low levels of ACT in the blood, which can lead to increased risk of developing lung and liver diseases.
2. Alzheimer's Disease: Increased levels of ACT have been found in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer's disease, suggesting a possible role in the pathogenesis of this neurodegenerative disorder.
3. Cancer: Elevated levels of ACT have been observed in various types of cancer, including lung, breast, and prostate cancers, potentially contributing to tumor growth and metastasis.
4. Inflammatory and immune-mediated disorders: Increased ACT levels are associated with several inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and vasculitis, suggesting its involvement in the regulation of the immune response.
5. Cardiovascular diseases: Elevated ACT levels have been linked to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction (heart attack).

Understanding the role of alpha 1-Antichymotrypsin in various physiological and pathological processes can provide valuable insights into disease mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets.

Turpentine, also known as oil of turpentine, is not a medical term itself but a substance that has been used in some traditional medical preparations. It is a volatile essential oil obtained by the distillation of resin from live trees, mainly pines.

Medically, it has been used as a counterirritant and rubefacient (a substance that causes redness of the skin and increases blood flow) in liniments and plasters. However, its use in modern medicine is not very common due to potential toxicity and irritation. It's important to note that turpentine should not be ingested or used topically without proper medical supervision.

Alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT, or α1-antiproteinase, A1AP) is a protein that is primarily produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream. It belongs to a group of proteins called serine protease inhibitors, which help regulate inflammation and protect tissues from damage caused by enzymes involved in the immune response.

Alpha 1-antitrypsin is particularly important for protecting the lungs from damage caused by neutrophil elastase, an enzyme released by white blood cells called neutrophils during inflammation. In the lungs, AAT binds to and inhibits neutrophil elastase, preventing it from degrading the extracellular matrix and damaging lung tissue.

Deficiency in alpha 1-antitrypsin can lead to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and liver disease. The most common cause of AAT deficiency is a genetic mutation that results in abnormal folding and accumulation of the protein within liver cells, leading to reduced levels of functional AAT in the bloodstream. This condition is called alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) and can be inherited in an autosomal codominant manner. Individuals with severe AATD may require augmentation therapy with intravenous infusions of purified human AAT to help prevent lung damage.

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a protein produced by the liver in response to inflammation or infection in the body. It is named after its ability to bind to the C-polysaccharide of pneumococcus, a type of bacteria. CRP levels can be measured with a simple blood test and are often used as a marker of inflammation or infection. Elevated CRP levels may indicate a variety of conditions, including infections, tissue damage, and chronic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. However, it is important to note that CRP is not specific to any particular condition, so additional tests are usually needed to make a definitive diagnosis.

Serum Amyloid P-component (SAP) is a protein that is normally present in the blood and other bodily fluids. It is a part of the larger family of pentraxin proteins, which are involved in the innate immune response, meaning they provide immediate defense against foreign invaders without needing to adapt over time. SAP plays a role in inflammation, immune complex clearance, and complement activation.

In the context of amyloidosis, SAP binds to misfolded proteins called amyloid fibrils, which can deposit in various tissues and organs, leading to their dysfunction and failure. The accumulation of these amyloid fibrils with SAP is a hallmark of systemic amyloidosis.

It's important to note that while SAP plays a role in the pathogenesis of amyloidosis, it is not directly responsible for causing the disease. Instead, its presence can serve as a useful marker for diagnosing and monitoring the progression of amyloidosis.

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine, a type of protein that plays a crucial role in communication between cells, especially in the immune system. It is produced by various cells including T-cells, B-cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells in response to infection, injury, or inflammation.

IL-6 has diverse effects on different cell types. In the immune system, it stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-cells into plasma cells that produce antibodies. It also promotes the activation and survival of T-cells. Moreover, IL-6 plays a role in fever induction by acting on the hypothalamus to raise body temperature during an immune response.

In addition to its functions in the immune system, IL-6 has been implicated in various physiological processes such as hematopoiesis (the formation of blood cells), bone metabolism, and neural development. However, abnormal levels of IL-6 have also been associated with several diseases, including autoimmune disorders, chronic inflammation, and cancer.

Fibrinogen is a soluble protein present in plasma, synthesized by the liver. It plays an essential role in blood coagulation. When an injury occurs, fibrinogen gets converted into insoluble fibrin by the action of thrombin, forming a fibrin clot that helps to stop bleeding from the injured site. Therefore, fibrinogen is crucial for hemostasis, which is the process of stopping bleeding and starting the healing process after an injury.

Mycoplasma hyosynoviae is a species of bacteria that belongs to the class Mollicutes and the genus Mycoplasma. It is a common cause of joint inflammation (synovitis) in pigs, particularly in grower and finisher animals. The bacteria are able to colonize and infect the synovial membrane of joints, leading to arthritis and lameness.

Mycoplasma hyosynoviae is a small, pleomorphic organism that lacks a cell wall, which makes it resistant to many antibiotics that target the cell wall. It is typically spread through direct contact between pigs and can also be transmitted through contaminated feed, water, and equipment.

Clinical signs of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae infection in pigs include lameness, stiffness, swelling, and pain in the affected joints. The bacteria can also cause respiratory symptoms, such as coughing and sneezing, and may contribute to the development of secondary bacterial infections.

Prevention and control measures for Mycoplasma hyosynoviae infection include good biosecurity practices, such as keeping facilities clean and well-ventilated, reducing stocking density, and implementing all-in/all-out pig flow systems. Vaccination may also be an effective strategy for preventing and controlling the spread of the bacteria in pig populations.

Alpha-macroglobulins are a type of large protein molecule found in blood plasma, which play a crucial role in the human body's immune system. They are called "macro" globulins because of their large size, and "alpha" refers to their electrophoretic mobility, which is a laboratory technique used to separate proteins based on their electrical charge.

Alpha-macroglobulins function as protease inhibitors, which means they help regulate the activity of enzymes called proteases that can break down other proteins in the body. By inhibiting these proteases, alpha-macroglobulins help protect tissues and organs from excessive protein degradation and also help maintain the balance of various biological processes.

One of the most well-known alpha-macroglobulins is alpha-1-antitrypsin, which helps protect the lungs from damage caused by inflammation and protease activity. Deficiencies in this protein have been linked to lung diseases such as emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Overall, alpha-macroglobulins are an essential component of the human immune system and play a critical role in maintaining homeostasis and preventing excessive tissue damage.

Ceruloplasmin is a protein found in blood plasma that binds and transports copper ions. It plays a crucial role in copper metabolism, including the oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron, which is necessary for the incorporation of iron into transferrin, another protein responsible for transporting iron throughout the body. Ceruloplasmin also acts as an antioxidant by scavenging free radicals and has been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease and Wilson's disease, a genetic disorder characterized by abnormal copper accumulation in various organs.

Blood proteins, also known as serum proteins, are a group of complex molecules present in the blood that are essential for various physiological functions. These proteins include albumin, globulins (alpha, beta, and gamma), and fibrinogen. They play crucial roles in maintaining oncotic pressure, transporting hormones, enzymes, vitamins, and minerals, providing immune defense, and contributing to blood clotting.

Albumin is the most abundant protein in the blood, accounting for about 60% of the total protein mass. It functions as a transporter of various substances, such as hormones, fatty acids, and drugs, and helps maintain oncotic pressure, which is essential for fluid balance between the blood vessels and surrounding tissues.

Globulins are divided into three main categories: alpha, beta, and gamma globulins. Alpha and beta globulins consist of transport proteins like lipoproteins, hormone-binding proteins, and enzymes. Gamma globulins, also known as immunoglobulins or antibodies, are essential for the immune system's defense against pathogens.

Fibrinogen is a protein involved in blood clotting. When an injury occurs, fibrinogen is converted into fibrin, which forms a mesh to trap platelets and form a clot, preventing excessive bleeding.

Abnormal levels of these proteins can indicate various medical conditions, such as liver or kidney disease, malnutrition, infections, inflammation, or autoimmune disorders. Blood protein levels are typically measured through laboratory tests like serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) and immunoelectrophoresis (IEP).

'Dictyocaulus' is a genus of parasitic roundworms that belong to the family Trichostrongylidae. These nematodes are known to infect the respiratory tracts of various mammals, including ruminants such as cattle, sheep, and goats. The two most common species that affect livestock are Dictyocaulus viviparus, which causes parasitic bronchitis or "hoose" in cattle, and Dictyocaulus filaria, which leads to verminous pneumonia in sheep and goats.

The life cycle of Dictyocaulus spp. involves the ingestion of infective larvae through contaminated pasture, followed by migration to the lungs where they mature into adults and reproduce. The resulting eggs are coughed up, swallowed, and passed in the feces, continuing the life cycle.

Clinical signs of Dictyocaulus infection include coughing, nasal discharge, difficulty breathing, weight loss, and decreased milk production in affected animals. Prevention strategies typically involve pasture management, anthelmintic treatment, and strategic deworming programs to reduce the parasite's environmental burden and minimize disease transmission.

Inflammation is a complex biological response of tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is characterized by the following signs: rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), calor (heat), dolor (pain), and functio laesa (loss of function). The process involves the activation of the immune system, recruitment of white blood cells, and release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to the elimination of the injurious stimuli and initiation of the healing process. However, uncontrolled or chronic inflammation can also lead to tissue damage and diseases.

Serum albumin is the most abundant protein in human blood plasma, synthesized by the liver. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the oncotic pressure or colloid osmotic pressure of blood, which helps to regulate the fluid balance between the intravascular and extravascular spaces.

Serum albumin has a molecular weight of around 66 kDa and is composed of a single polypeptide chain. It contains several binding sites for various endogenous and exogenous substances, such as bilirubin, fatty acids, hormones, and drugs, facilitating their transport throughout the body. Additionally, albumin possesses antioxidant properties, protecting against oxidative damage.

Albumin levels in the blood are often used as a clinical indicator of liver function, nutritional status, and overall health. Low serum albumin levels may suggest liver disease, malnutrition, inflammation, or kidney dysfunction.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a type of cytokine, which are proteins that play a crucial role in cell signaling. Specifically, IL-1 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is involved in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses in the body. It is produced by various cells, including monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, in response to infection or injury.

IL-1 exists in two forms, IL-1α and IL-1β, which have similar biological activities but are encoded by different genes. Both forms of IL-1 bind to the same receptor, IL-1R, and activate intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the production of other cytokines, chemokines, and inflammatory mediators.

IL-1 has a wide range of biological effects, including fever induction, activation of immune cells, regulation of hematopoiesis (the formation of blood cells), and modulation of bone metabolism. Dysregulation of IL-1 production or activity has been implicated in various inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, gout, and inflammatory bowel disease. Therefore, IL-1 is an important target for the development of therapies aimed at modulating the immune response and reducing inflammation.

Alpha-globulins are a group of proteins present in blood plasma, which are classified based on their electrophoretic mobility. They migrate between albumin and beta-globulins during electrophoresis. Alpha-globulins include several proteins, such as alpha-1 antitrypsin, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, and haptoglobin. These proteins play various roles in the body, including transporting and regulating other molecules, participating in immune responses, and maintaining oncotic pressure in blood vessels.

Xerophthalmia is a medical condition characterized by dryness of the conjunctiva and cornea due to vitamin A deficiency. It can lead to eye damage, including night blindness (nyctalopia) and, if left untreated, potentially irreversible blindness. Xerophthalmia is often associated with malnutrition and affects children in low-income countries disproportionately.

Protein array analysis is a high-throughput technology used to detect and measure the presence and activity of specific proteins in biological samples. This technique utilizes arrays or chips containing various capture agents, such as antibodies or aptamers, that are designed to bind to specific target proteins. The sample is then added to the array, allowing the target proteins to bind to their corresponding capture agents. After washing away unbound materials, a detection system is used to identify and quantify the bound proteins. This method can be used for various applications, including protein-protein interaction studies, biomarker discovery, and drug development. The results of protein array analysis provide valuable information about the expression levels, post-translational modifications, and functional states of proteins in complex biological systems.

Prealbumin, also known as transthyretin, is a protein produced primarily in the liver and circulates in the blood. It plays a role in transporting thyroid hormones and vitamin A throughout the body. Prealbumin levels are often used as an indicator of nutritional status and liver function. Low prealbumin levels may suggest malnutrition or inflammation, while increased levels can be seen in certain conditions like hyperthyroidism. It is important to note that prealbumin levels should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and laboratory tests for a more accurate assessment of a patient's health status.

Actinobacillus infections are caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Actinobacillus, which are gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, and non-motile rods. These bacteria can cause a variety of infections in humans and animals, including respiratory tract infections, wound infections, and septicemia.

The most common species that causes infection in humans is Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, which is associated with periodontal disease, endocarditis, and soft tissue infections. Other species such as A. suis, A. lignieresii, and A. equuli can cause infections in animals and occasionally in humans, particularly those who have close contact with animals.

Symptoms of Actinobacillus infections depend on the site of infection and may include fever, chills, swelling, redness, pain, and purulent discharge. Diagnosis is typically made through culture and identification of the bacteria from clinical samples such as blood, wound secretions, or respiratory specimens. Treatment usually involves antibiotics that are effective against gram-negative bacteria, such as aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, or third-generation cephalosporins. In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to drain abscesses or remove infected tissue.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Housing, Animal" is not a standard term in medical terminology. Medical terminology typically relates to the human body, diseases, treatments, and healthcare practices. "Housing, Animal" would be more related to veterinary medicine or animal care fields, which pertain to the accommodation and environment provided for animals. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I'd be happy to help!

Albumins are a type of protein found in various biological fluids, including blood plasma. The most well-known albumin is serum albumin, which is produced by the liver and is the most abundant protein in blood plasma. Serum albumin plays several important roles in the body, such as maintaining oncotic pressure (which helps to regulate fluid balance in the body), transporting various substances (such as hormones, fatty acids, and drugs), and acting as an antioxidant.

Albumins are soluble in water and have a molecular weight ranging from 65,000 to 69,000 daltons. They are composed of a single polypeptide chain that contains approximately 585 amino acid residues. The structure of albumin is characterized by a high proportion of alpha-helices and beta-sheets, which give it a stable, folded conformation.

In addition to their role in human physiology, albumins are also used as diagnostic markers in medicine. For example, low serum albumin levels may indicate liver disease, malnutrition, or inflammation, while high levels may be seen in dehydration or certain types of kidney disease. Albumins may also be used as a replacement therapy in patients with severe protein loss, such as those with nephrotic syndrome or burn injuries.

Lipocalins are a family of small, mostly secreted proteins characterized by their ability to bind and transport small hydrophobic molecules, including lipids, steroids, retinoids, and odorants. They share a conserved tertiary structure consisting of a beta-barrel core with an internal ligand-binding pocket. Lipocalins are involved in various biological processes such as cell signaling, immune response, and metabolic regulation. Some well-known members of this family include tear lipocalin (TLSP), retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), and odorant-binding proteins (OBPs).

Complement C3 is a protein that plays a central role in the complement system, which is a part of the immune system that helps to clear pathogens and damaged cells from the body. Complement C3 can be activated through three different pathways: the classical pathway, the lectin pathway, and the alternative pathway. Once activated, it breaks down into two fragments, C3a and C3b.

C3a is an anaphylatoxin that helps to recruit immune cells to the site of infection or injury, while C3b plays a role in opsonization, which is the process of coating pathogens or damaged cells with proteins to make them more recognizable to the immune system. Additionally, C3b can also activate the membrane attack complex (MAC), which forms a pore in the membrane of target cells leading to their lysis or destruction.

In summary, Complement C3 is an important protein in the complement system that helps to identify and eliminate pathogens and damaged cells from the body through various mechanisms.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

A biological marker, often referred to as a biomarker, is a measurable indicator that reflects the presence or severity of a disease state, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be found in various materials such as blood, tissues, or bodily fluids, and they can take many forms, including molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological measurements.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, biomarkers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Diagnosis: Biomarkers can help diagnose a disease by indicating the presence or absence of a particular condition. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker used to detect prostate cancer.
2. Monitoring: Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression or regression of a disease over time. For instance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are monitored in diabetes patients to assess long-term blood glucose control.
3. Predicting: Biomarkers can help predict the likelihood of developing a particular disease or the risk of a negative outcome. For example, the presence of certain genetic mutations can indicate an increased risk for breast cancer.
4. Response to treatment: Biomarkers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific treatment by measuring changes in the biomarker levels before and after the intervention. This is particularly useful in personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their unique biomarker profiles.

It's important to note that for a biomarker to be considered clinically valid and useful, it must undergo rigorous validation through well-designed studies, including demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance.

Transferrin is a glycoprotein that plays a crucial role in the transport and homeostasis of iron in the body. It's produced mainly in the liver and has the ability to bind two ferric (Fe3+) ions in its N-lobe and C-lobe, thus creating transferrin saturation.

This protein is essential for delivering iron to cells while preventing the harmful effects of free iron, which can catalyze the formation of reactive oxygen species through Fenton reactions. Transferrin interacts with specific transferrin receptors on the surface of cells, particularly in erythroid precursors and brain endothelial cells, to facilitate iron uptake via receptor-mediated endocytosis.

In addition to its role in iron transport, transferrin also has antimicrobial properties due to its ability to sequester free iron, making it less available for bacterial growth and survival. Transferrin levels can be used as a clinical marker of iron status, with decreased levels indicating iron deficiency anemia and increased levels potentially signaling inflammation or liver disease.

Complement C4 is a protein that plays a crucial role in the complement system, which is a part of the immune system that helps to clear pathogens and damaged cells from the body. Complement C4 is involved in the early stages of the complement activation cascade, where it helps to identify and tag foreign or abnormal cells for destruction by other components of the immune system.

Specifically, Complement C4 can be cleaved into two smaller proteins, C4a and C4b, during the complement activation process. C4b then binds to the surface of the target cell and helps to initiate the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC), which creates a pore in the cell membrane and leads to lysis or destruction of the target cell.

Deficiencies or mutations in the Complement C4 gene can lead to various immune disorders, including certain forms of autoimmune diseases and susceptibility to certain infections.

'Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that primarily affects the respiratory system of pigs, causing a disease known as porcine pleuropneumonia. This disease is associated with severe respiratory signs, including coughing, difficulty breathing, and high fever, and can lead to significant economic losses in the swine industry.

The bacterium is typically transmitted through direct contact with infected pigs or contaminated fomites, and it can also be spread through aerosolized droplets. Once inside the host, 'Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae' produces a number of virulence factors that allow it to evade the immune system and cause tissue damage.

Effective control and prevention strategies for porcine pleuropneumonia include vaccination, biosecurity measures, and antibiotic treatment. However, antibiotic resistance is an emerging concern in the management of this disease, highlighting the need for continued research and development of new control strategies.

Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine, a type of small signaling protein involved in immune response and inflammation. It is primarily produced by activated macrophages, although other cell types such as T-cells, natural killer cells, and mast cells can also produce it.

TNF-α plays a crucial role in the body's defense against infection and tissue injury by mediating inflammatory responses, activating immune cells, and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in certain types of cells. It does this by binding to its receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, which are found on the surface of many cell types.

In addition to its role in the immune response, TNF-α has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis, as well as cancer, where it can promote tumor growth and metastasis.

Therapeutic agents that target TNF-α, such as infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept, have been developed to treat these conditions. However, these drugs can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects, so their use must be carefully monitored.

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are large molecules found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. They consist of a hydrophilic polysaccharide called the O-antigen, a core oligosaccharide, and a lipid portion known as Lipid A. The Lipid A component is responsible for the endotoxic activity of LPS, which can trigger a powerful immune response in animals, including humans. This response can lead to symptoms such as fever, inflammation, and septic shock, especially when large amounts of LPS are introduced into the bloodstream.

Swine diseases refer to a wide range of infectious and non-infectious conditions that affect pigs. These diseases can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, or environmental factors. Some common swine diseases include:

1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS): a viral disease that causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory problems in piglets and grower pigs.
2. Classical Swine Fever (CSF): also known as hog cholera, is a highly contagious viral disease that affects pigs of all ages.
3. Porcine Circovirus Disease (PCVD): a group of diseases caused by porcine circoviruses, including Porcine CircoVirus Associated Disease (PCVAD) and Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS).
4. Swine Influenza: a respiratory disease caused by type A influenza viruses that can infect pigs and humans.
5. Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae: a bacterial disease that causes pneumonia in pigs.
6. Actinobacillus Pleuropneumoniae: a bacterial disease that causes severe pneumonia in pigs.
7. Salmonella: a group of bacteria that can cause food poisoning in humans and a variety of diseases in pigs, including septicemia, meningitis, and abortion.
8. Brachyspira Hyodysenteriae: a bacterial disease that causes dysentery in pigs.
9. Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae: a bacterial disease that causes erysipelas in pigs.
10. External and internal parasites, such as lice, mites, worms, and flukes, can also cause diseases in swine.

Prevention and control of swine diseases rely on good biosecurity practices, vaccination programs, proper nutrition, and management practices. Regular veterinary check-ups and monitoring are essential to detect and treat diseases early.

Night blindness, also known as nyctalopia, is a visual impairment characterized by the inability to see well in low light or darkness. It's not an eye condition itself but rather a symptom of various underlying eye disorders, most commonly vitamin A deficiency and retinal diseases like retinitis pigmentosa.

In a healthy eye, a molecule called rhodopsin is present in the rods (special light-sensitive cells in our eyes responsible for vision in low light conditions). This rhodopsin requires sufficient amounts of vitamin A to function properly. When there's a deficiency of vitamin A or damage to the rods, the ability to see in dim light gets affected, leading to night blindness.

People with night blindness often have difficulty adjusting to changes in light levels, such as when entering a dark room from bright sunlight. They may also experience trouble seeing stars at night, driving at dusk or dawn, and navigating in poorly lit areas. If you suspect night blindness, it's essential to consult an eye care professional for proper diagnosis and treatment of the underlying cause.

Cytokines are a broad and diverse category of small signaling proteins that are secreted by various cells, including immune cells, in response to different stimuli. They play crucial roles in regulating the immune response, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and cellular communication.

Cytokines mediate their effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, which triggers intracellular signaling pathways that ultimately result in changes in gene expression, cell behavior, and function. Some key functions of cytokines include:

1. Regulating the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of immune cells such as T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages.
2. Coordinating the inflammatory response by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or tissue damage and modulating their effector functions.
3. Regulating hematopoiesis, the process of blood cell formation in the bone marrow, by controlling the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
4. Modulating the development and function of the nervous system, including neuroinflammation, neuroprotection, and neuroregeneration.

Cytokines can be classified into several categories based on their structure, function, or cellular origin. Some common types of cytokines include interleukins (ILs), interferons (IFNs), tumor necrosis factors (TNFs), chemokines, colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), and transforming growth factors (TGFs). Dysregulation of cytokine production and signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a condition that occurs when there is a lack of vitamin A in the diet. This essential fat-soluble vitamin plays crucial roles in vision, growth, cell division, reproduction, and immune system regulation.

In its severe form, VAD leads to xerophthalmia, which includes night blindness (nyctalopia) and keratomalacia - a sight-threatening condition characterized by dryness of the conjunctiva and cornea, with eventual ulceration and perforation. Other symptoms of VAD may include Bitot's spots (foamy, triangular, white spots on the conjunctiva), follicular hyperkeratosis (goose bump-like bumps on the skin), and increased susceptibility to infections due to impaired immune function.

Vitamin A deficiency is most prevalent in developing countries where diets are often low in animal source foods and high in plant-based foods with low bioavailability of vitamin A. It primarily affects children aged 6 months to 5 years, pregnant women, and lactating mothers. Prevention strategies include dietary diversification, food fortification, and supplementation programs.

Blood sedimentation, also known as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), is a medical test that measures the rate at which red blood cells settle at the bottom of a tube of unclotted blood over a specific period of time. The test is used to detect and monitor inflammation in the body.

During an acute inflammatory response, certain proteins in the blood, such as fibrinogen, increase in concentration. These proteins cause red blood cells to stick together and form rouleaux (stacks of disc-shaped cells). As a result, the red blood cells settle more quickly, leading to a higher ESR.

The ESR test is a non-specific test, meaning that it does not identify the specific cause of inflammation. However, it can be used as an indicator of underlying conditions such as infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The test is also used to monitor the effectiveness of treatment for these conditions.

The ESR test is usually performed by drawing a sample of blood into a special tube and allowing it to sit undisturbed for one hour. The distance that the red blood cells have settled is then measured and recorded as the ESR. Normal values for ESR vary depending on age and gender, with higher values indicating greater inflammation.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

STAT3 (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3) is a transcription factor protein that plays a crucial role in signal transduction and gene regulation. It is activated through phosphorylation by various cytokines and growth factors, which leads to its dimerization, nuclear translocation, and binding to specific DNA sequences. Once bound to the DNA, STAT3 regulates the expression of target genes involved in various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, and angiogenesis. Dysregulation of STAT3 has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and inflammatory conditions.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Cytokine receptor gp130 is a protein that is a component of several cytokine receptors, including those for interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-11, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), oncostatin M (OSM), cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1), and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). It is a transmembrane protein that plays an important role in signal transduction and activation of various cellular responses, such as immune response, cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis.

The gp130 receptor forms a complex with other cytokine-specific receptors when a ligand binds to them. This interaction leads to the activation of intracellular signaling pathways, including the JAK/STAT (Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription) pathway, which ultimately regulates gene expression and cellular responses.

Mutations in the gp130 receptor have been associated with various diseases, such as primary immunodeficiency, leukemia, and solid tumors. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of gp130 is crucial for developing new therapeutic strategies to target cytokine-mediated signaling pathways in disease treatment.

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that bind to and interact with the cytokine interleukin-6. IL-6 is a signaling molecule involved in various physiological processes, including immune response, inflammation, and hematopoiesis.

The IL-6 receptor complex consists of two main components: an 80 kDa ligand-binding alpha chain (IL-6Rα) and a signal-transducing beta chain (gp130). The IL-6Rα is responsible for binding to IL-6, while gp130 is shared by several cytokine receptors and activates downstream signaling pathways.

IL-6 receptors can be found on a variety of cell types, including hepatocytes, immune cells, and endothelial cells. The binding of IL-6 to its receptor initiates a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to the regulation of gene expression and various cellular responses, such as the production of acute phase proteins in the liver, the activation of immune cells, and the induction of fever.

Dysregulation of IL-6 signaling has been implicated in several diseases, including autoimmune disorders, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, targeting IL-6 receptors with therapeutic agents has emerged as a promising strategy for treating these conditions.

Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication, which is a synthetic version of a natural hormone produced by the adrenal glands. It is often used to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system in a variety of medical conditions, including allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and certain skin conditions.

Dexamethasone works by binding to specific receptors in cells, which triggers a range of anti-inflammatory effects. These include reducing the production of chemicals that cause inflammation, suppressing the activity of immune cells, and stabilizing cell membranes.

In addition to its anti-inflammatory effects, dexamethasone can also be used to treat other medical conditions, such as certain types of cancer, brain swelling, and adrenal insufficiency. It is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, liquids, creams, and injectable solutions.

Like all medications, dexamethasone can have side effects, particularly if used for long periods of time or at high doses. These may include mood changes, increased appetite, weight gain, acne, thinning skin, easy bruising, and an increased risk of infections. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking dexamethasone to minimize the risk of side effects.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults. It originates from the hepatocytes, which are the main functional cells of the liver. This type of cancer is often associated with chronic liver diseases such as cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B or C virus infection, alcohol abuse, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and aflatoxin exposure.

The symptoms of HCC can vary but may include unexplained weight loss, lack of appetite, abdominal pain or swelling, jaundice, and fatigue. The diagnosis of HCC typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, as well as blood tests to measure alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. Treatment options for Hepatocellular carcinoma depend on the stage and extent of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and liver function. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or liver transplantation.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Interleukins (ILs) are a group of naturally occurring proteins that are important in the immune system. They are produced by various cells, including immune cells like lymphocytes and macrophages, and they help regulate the immune response by facilitating communication between different types of cells. Interleukins can have both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects, depending on the specific interleukin and the context in which it is produced. They play a role in various biological processes, including the development of immune responses, inflammation, and hematopoiesis (the formation of blood cells).

There are many different interleukins that have been identified, and they are numbered according to the order in which they were discovered. For example, IL-1, IL-2, IL-3, etc. Each interleukin has a specific set of functions and targets certain types of cells. Dysregulation of interleukins has been implicated in various diseases, including autoimmune disorders, infections, and cancer.

Endotoxins are toxic substances that are associated with the cell walls of certain types of bacteria. They are released when the bacterial cells die or divide, and can cause a variety of harmful effects in humans and animals. Endotoxins are made up of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are complex molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide component.

Endotoxins are particularly associated with gram-negative bacteria, which have a distinctive cell wall structure that includes an outer membrane containing LPS. These toxins can cause fever, inflammation, and other symptoms when they enter the bloodstream or other tissues of the body. They are also known to play a role in the development of sepsis, a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by a severe immune response to infection.

Endotoxins are resistant to heat, acid, and many disinfectants, making them difficult to eliminate from contaminated environments. They can also be found in a variety of settings, including hospitals, industrial facilities, and agricultural operations, where they can pose a risk to human health.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

A leukocyte count, also known as a white blood cell (WBC) count, is a laboratory test that measures the number of leukocytes in a sample of blood. Leukocytes are a vital part of the body's immune system and help fight infection and inflammation. A high or low leukocyte count may indicate an underlying medical condition, such as an infection, inflammation, or a bone marrow disorder. The normal range for a leukocyte count in adults is typically between 4,500 and 11,000 cells per microliter (mcL) of blood. However, the normal range can vary slightly depending on the laboratory and the individual's age and sex.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Cattle diseases are a range of health conditions that affect cattle, which include but are not limited to:

1. Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD): Also known as "shipping fever," BRD is a common respiratory illness in feedlot cattle that can be caused by several viruses and bacteria.
2. Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD): A viral disease that can cause a variety of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, and reproductive issues.
3. Johne's Disease: A chronic wasting disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It primarily affects the intestines and can cause severe diarrhea and weight loss.
4. Digital Dermatitis: Also known as "hairy heel warts," this is a highly contagious skin disease that affects the feet of cattle, causing lameness and decreased productivity.
5. Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK): Also known as "pinkeye," IBK is a common and contagious eye infection in cattle that can cause blindness if left untreated.
6. Salmonella: A group of bacteria that can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in cattle, including diarrhea, dehydration, and septicemia.
7. Leptospirosis: A bacterial disease that can cause a wide range of symptoms in cattle, including abortion, stillbirths, and kidney damage.
8. Blackleg: A highly fatal bacterial disease that causes rapid death in young cattle. It is caused by Clostridium chauvoei and vaccination is recommended for prevention.
9. Anthrax: A serious infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Cattle can become infected by ingesting spores found in contaminated soil, feed or water.
10. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hooved animals, including cattle. It is characterized by fever and blisters on the feet, mouth, and teats. FMD is not a threat to human health but can have serious economic consequences for the livestock industry.

It's important to note that many of these diseases can be prevented or controlled through good management practices, such as vaccination, biosecurity measures, and proper nutrition. Regular veterinary care and monitoring are also crucial for early detection and treatment of any potential health issues in your herd.

Inflammation mediators are substances that are released by the body in response to injury or infection, which contribute to the inflammatory response. These mediators include various chemical factors such as cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and histamine, among others. They play a crucial role in regulating the inflammatory process by attracting immune cells to the site of injury or infection, increasing blood flow to the area, and promoting the repair and healing of damaged tissues. However, an overactive or chronic inflammatory response can also contribute to the development of various diseases and conditions, such as autoimmune disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Nonparametric statistics is a branch of statistics that does not rely on assumptions about the distribution of variables in the population from which the sample is drawn. In contrast to parametric methods, nonparametric techniques make fewer assumptions about the data and are therefore more flexible in their application. Nonparametric tests are often used when the data do not meet the assumptions required for parametric tests, such as normality or equal variances.

Nonparametric statistical methods include tests such as the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (also known as the Mann-Whitney U test) for comparing two independent groups, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for comparing two related groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparing more than two independent groups. These tests use the ranks of the data rather than the actual values to make comparisons, which allows them to be used with ordinal or continuous data that do not meet the assumptions of parametric tests.

Overall, nonparametric statistics provide a useful set of tools for analyzing data in situations where the assumptions of parametric methods are not met, and can help researchers draw valid conclusions from their data even when the data are not normally distributed or have other characteristics that violate the assumptions of parametric tests.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Hepatocytes are the predominant type of cells in the liver, accounting for about 80% of its cytoplasmic mass. They play a key role in protein synthesis, protein storage, transformation of carbohydrates, synthesis of cholesterol, bile salts and phospholipids, detoxification, modification, and excretion of exogenous and endogenous substances, initiation of formation and secretion of bile, and enzyme production. Hepatocytes are essential for the maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease that primarily affects the joints. It is characterized by persistent inflammation, synovial hyperplasia, and subsequent damage to the articular cartilage and bone. The immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own tissues, specifically targeting the synovial membrane lining the joint capsule. This results in swelling, pain, warmth, and stiffness in affected joints, often most severely in the hands and feet.

RA can also have extra-articular manifestations, affecting other organs such as the lungs, heart, skin, eyes, and blood vessels. The exact cause of RA remains unknown, but it is believed to involve a complex interplay between genetic susceptibility and environmental triggers. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial in managing rheumatoid arthritis to prevent joint damage, disability, and systemic complications.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

Monocytes are a type of white blood cell that are part of the immune system. They are large cells with a round or oval shape and a nucleus that is typically indented or horseshoe-shaped. Monocytes are produced in the bone marrow and then circulate in the bloodstream, where they can differentiate into other types of immune cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells.

Monocytes play an important role in the body's defense against infection and tissue damage. They are able to engulf and digest foreign particles, microorganisms, and dead or damaged cells, which helps to clear them from the body. Monocytes also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help to coordinate the immune response.

Elevated levels of monocytes in the bloodstream can be a sign of an ongoing infection, inflammation, or other medical conditions such as cancer or autoimmune disorders.

Glycosylation is the enzymatic process of adding a sugar group, or glycan, to a protein, lipid, or other organic molecule. This post-translational modification plays a crucial role in modulating various biological functions, such as protein stability, trafficking, and ligand binding. The structure and composition of the attached glycans can significantly influence the functional properties of the modified molecule, contributing to cell-cell recognition, signal transduction, and immune response regulation. Abnormal glycosylation patterns have been implicated in several disease states, including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to an infection injures its own tissues and organs. It is characterized by a whole-body inflammatory state (systemic inflammation) that can lead to blood clotting issues, tissue damage, and multiple organ failure.

Sepsis happens when an infection you already have triggers a chain reaction throughout your body. Infections that lead to sepsis most often start in the lungs, urinary tract, skin, or gastrointestinal tract.

Sepsis is a medical emergency. If you suspect sepsis, seek immediate medical attention. Early recognition and treatment of sepsis are crucial to improve outcomes. Treatment usually involves antibiotics, intravenous fluids, and may require oxygen, medication to raise blood pressure, and corticosteroids. In severe cases, surgery may be required to clear the infection.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

Liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the liver that can be benign or malignant. Benign liver neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors that do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant liver neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade and destroy surrounding tissue and spread to other organs.

Liver neoplasms can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or secondary, meaning they have metastasized (spread) to the liver from another part of the body. Primary liver neoplasms can be further classified into different types based on their cell of origin and behavior, including hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and hepatic hemangioma.

The diagnosis of liver neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging studies, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and biopsy to confirm the type and stage of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type and extent of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or liver transplantation.

Membrane glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. They are integral components of biological membranes, spanning the lipid bilayer and playing crucial roles in various cellular processes.

The glycosylation of these proteins occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus during protein folding and trafficking. The attached glycans can vary in structure, length, and composition, which contributes to the diversity of membrane glycoproteins.

Membrane glycoproteins can be classified into two main types based on their orientation within the lipid bilayer:

1. Type I (N-linked): These glycoproteins have a single transmembrane domain and an extracellular N-terminus, where the oligosaccharides are predominantly attached via asparagine residues (Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequon).
2. Type II (C-linked): These glycoproteins possess two transmembrane domains and an intracellular C-terminus, with the oligosaccharides linked to tryptophan residues via a mannose moiety.

Membrane glycoproteins are involved in various cellular functions, such as:

* Cell adhesion and recognition
* Receptor-mediated signal transduction
* Enzymatic catalysis
* Transport of molecules across membranes
* Cell-cell communication
* Immunological responses

Some examples of membrane glycoproteins include cell surface receptors (e.g., growth factor receptors, cytokine receptors), adhesion molecules (e.g., integrins, cadherins), and transporters (e.g., ion channels, ABC transporters).

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Carrier proteins, also known as transport proteins, are a type of protein that facilitates the movement of molecules across cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and active transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, and other molecules from one side of the membrane to the other, against their concentration gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Carrier proteins have a specific binding site for the molecule they transport, and undergo conformational changes upon binding, which allows them to move the molecule across the membrane. Once the molecule has been transported, the carrier protein returns to its original conformation, ready to bind and transport another molecule.

Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ions and other molecules inside and outside of cells, and are essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and nutrient uptake.

Proteins are complex, large molecules that play critical roles in the body's functions. They are made up of amino acids, which are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs. They are essential for the growth, repair, and maintenance of body tissues, and they play a crucial role in many biological processes, including metabolism, immune response, and cellular signaling. Proteins can be classified into different types based on their structure and function, such as enzymes, hormones, antibodies, and structural proteins. They are found in various foods, especially animal-derived products like meat, dairy, and eggs, as well as plant-based sources like beans, nuts, and grains.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Reference values, also known as reference ranges or reference intervals, are the set of values that are considered normal or typical for a particular population or group of people. These values are often used in laboratory tests to help interpret test results and determine whether a patient's value falls within the expected range.

The process of establishing reference values typically involves measuring a particular biomarker or parameter in a large, healthy population and then calculating the mean and standard deviation of the measurements. Based on these statistics, a range is established that includes a certain percentage of the population (often 95%) and excludes extreme outliers.

It's important to note that reference values can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, race, and other demographic characteristics. Therefore, it's essential to use reference values that are specific to the relevant population when interpreting laboratory test results. Additionally, reference values may change over time due to advances in measurement technology or changes in the population being studied.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell that are part of the immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream where they circulate and are able to move quickly to sites of infection or inflammation in the body. Neutrophils are capable of engulfing and destroying bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances through a process called phagocytosis. They are also involved in the release of inflammatory mediators, which can contribute to tissue damage in some cases. Neutrophils are characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm, which contain enzymes and other proteins that help them carry out their immune functions.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Promoter regions in genetics refer to specific DNA sequences located near the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as binding sites for RNA polymerase and various transcription factors that regulate the initiation of gene transcription. These regulatory elements help control the rate of transcription and, therefore, the level of gene expression. Promoter regions can be composed of different types of sequences, such as the TATA box and CAAT box, and their organization and composition can vary between different genes and species.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

DNA-binding proteins are a type of protein that have the ability to bind to DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the genetic material of organisms. These proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as regulation of gene expression, DNA replication, repair and recombination.

The binding of DNA-binding proteins to specific DNA sequences is mediated by non-covalent interactions, including electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces. The specificity of binding is determined by the recognition of particular nucleotide sequences or structural features of the DNA molecule.

DNA-binding proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, such as transcription factors, histones, and restriction enzymes. Transcription factors are a major class of DNA-binding proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region of genes and recruiting other proteins to modulate transcription. Histones are DNA-binding proteins that package DNA into nucleosomes, the basic unit of chromatin structure. Restriction enzymes are DNA-binding proteins that recognize and cleave specific DNA sequences, and are widely used in molecular biology research and biotechnology applications.

Proteomics is the large-scale study and analysis of proteins, including their structures, functions, interactions, modifications, and abundance, in a given cell, tissue, or organism. It involves the identification and quantification of all expressed proteins in a biological sample, as well as the characterization of post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and functional pathways. Proteomics can provide valuable insights into various biological processes, diseases, and drug responses, and has applications in basic research, biomedicine, and clinical diagnostics. The field combines various techniques from molecular biology, chemistry, physics, and bioinformatics to study proteins at a systems level.

Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a tropical parasitic disease caused by the protozoan *Trypanosoma cruzi*. It is primarily transmitted to humans through the feces of triatomine bugs (also called "kissing bugs"), which defecate on the skin of people while they are sleeping. The disease can also be spread through contaminated food or drink, during blood transfusions, from mother to baby during pregnancy or childbirth, and through organ transplantation.

The acute phase of Chagas disease can cause symptoms such as fever, fatigue, body aches, headache, rash, loss of appetite, diarrhea, and vomiting. However, many people do not experience any symptoms during the acute phase. After several weeks or months, most people enter the chronic phase of the disease, which can last for decades or even a lifetime. During this phase, many people do not have any symptoms, but about 20-30% of infected individuals will develop serious cardiac or digestive complications, such as heart failure, arrhythmias, or difficulty swallowing.

Chagas disease is primarily found in Latin America, where it is estimated that around 6-7 million people are infected with the parasite. However, due to increased travel and migration, cases of Chagas disease have been reported in other parts of the world, including North America, Europe, and Asia. There is no vaccine for Chagas disease, but medications are available to treat the infection during the acute phase and to manage symptoms during the chronic phase.

Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome is also known as Kawasaki Disease. It is a type of vasculitis that primarily affects young children, usually those under the age of 5. The disease is named after Dr. Tomisaku Kawasaki, who first described it in Japan in 1967.

The condition is characterized by inflammation of the mucous membranes (mucosa), skin (cutaneous), and lymph nodes. The symptoms typically include fever, rash, red eyes, swollen lips and tongue, strawberry tongue, and swollen lymph nodes in the neck. In addition, children with Kawasaki disease may also experience joint pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.

In severe cases, Kawasaki disease can lead to complications such as coronary artery aneurysms, which can increase the risk of heart attacks and other cardiovascular problems. The exact cause of Kawasaki disease is unknown, but it is thought to be triggered by an infection or other environmental factor in genetically susceptible children. Treatment typically involves administering high doses of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and aspirin to reduce inflammation and prevent complications.

The proteome is the entire set of proteins produced or present in an organism, system, organ, or cell at a certain time under specific conditions. It is a dynamic collection of protein species that changes over time, responding to various internal and external stimuli such as disease, stress, or environmental factors. The study of the proteome, known as proteomics, involves the identification and quantification of these protein components and their post-translational modifications, providing valuable insights into biological processes, functional pathways, and disease mechanisms.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis. It's transmitted to humans and other mammals through the feces of triatomine bugs, often called "kissing bugs." The parasite can also be spread through contaminated food, drink, or from mother to baby during pregnancy or birth.

The life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi involves two main forms: the infective metacyclic trypomastigote that is found in the bug's feces and the replicative intracellular amastigote that resides within host cells. The metacyclic trypomastigotes enter the host through mucous membranes or skin lesions, where they invade various types of cells and differentiate into amastigotes. These amastigotes multiply by binary fission and then differentiate back into trypomastigotes, which are released into the bloodstream when the host cell ruptures. The circulating trypomastigotes can then infect other cells or be taken up by another triatomine bug during a blood meal, continuing the life cycle.

Clinical manifestations of Chagas disease range from an acute phase with non-specific symptoms like fever, swelling, and fatigue to a chronic phase characterized by cardiac and gastrointestinal complications, which can develop decades after the initial infection. Early detection and treatment of Chagas disease are crucial for preventing long-term health consequences.

A neoplasm is a tumor or growth that is formed by an abnormal and excessive proliferation of cells, which can be benign or malignant. Neoplasm proteins are therefore any proteins that are expressed or produced in these neoplastic cells. These proteins can play various roles in the development, progression, and maintenance of neoplasms.

Some neoplasm proteins may contribute to the uncontrolled cell growth and division seen in cancer, such as oncogenic proteins that promote cell cycle progression or inhibit apoptosis (programmed cell death). Others may help the neoplastic cells evade the immune system, allowing them to proliferate undetected. Still others may be involved in angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels that supply the tumor with nutrients and oxygen.

Neoplasm proteins can also serve as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, or treatment response. For example, the presence or level of certain neoplasm proteins in biological samples such as blood or tissue may indicate the presence of a specific type of cancer, help predict the likelihood of cancer recurrence, or suggest whether a particular therapy will be effective.

Overall, understanding the roles and behaviors of neoplasm proteins can provide valuable insights into the biology of cancer and inform the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

... Acute-Phase+Proteins at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical ... Acute-phase proteins (APPs) are a class of proteins whose concentrations in blood plasma either increase (positive acute-phase ... This response is called the acute-phase reaction (also called acute-phase response). The acute-phase reaction ... these proteins are, therefore, referred to as "negative" acute-phase reactants. Increased acute-phase proteins from the liver ...
... in contrast to other acute phase proteins, e.g., C-reactive protein, which increase in case of acute inflammation). ... Transferrin is an acute phase protein and is seen to decrease in inflammation, cancers, and certain diseases ( ... Jain S, Gautam V, Naseem S (January 2011). "Acute-phase proteins: As diagnostic tool". Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences ... "Reference distributions for the negative acute-phase serum proteins, albumin, transferrin and transthyretin: a practical, ...
Mary R, Veinberg F, Couderc R (2003). "[Acute meningitidis, acute phase proteins and procalcitonin]". Annales de Biologie ... "Assessment of the prognostic value of certain acute-phase proteins and procalcitonin in the prognosis of acute pancreatitis". ... It is therefore often classed as an acute phase reactant. The induction period for procalcitonin ranges from 4-12 hours with a ... PCT serves a marker to help differentiate acute respiratory illness such as infection from an acute cardiovascular concern. It ...
Acute phase proteins are markers of inflammation. Autoantibodies are usually absent or very low, so instead of being given in ... "C-reactive protein". GPnotebook. 2730 Serum C-Reactive Protein values in Diabetics with Periodontal Disease Archived 2008-12-20 ... Derived from mass values using molar mass of 314.46 g/mol Bhattacharya Sudhindra Mohan (July/August 2005) Mid-luteal phase ... Included here are also related binding proteins, like ferritin and transferrin for iron, and ceruloplasmin for copper. Note: ...
"Amyloidosis Overview". Centre for Amyloidosis and Acute Phase Proteins. University College London. 22 May 2018. Retrieved 27 ...
... also is characterized by high systemic levels of acute-phase proteins. In acute inflammation, these proteins prove ... Acute appendicitis Acute dermatitis Acute infective meningitis Acute tonsillitis Anaphylatoxin Anti-inflammatories Essential ... Mantovani A, Garlanda C (February 2023). Longo DL (ed.). "Humoral Innate Immunity and Acute-Phase Proteins". The New England ... This means acute inflammation can be broadly divided into a vascular phase that occurs first, followed by a cellular phase ...
... (SAA1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SAA1 gene. SAA1 is a major acute-phase protein mainly ... Zimlichman S, Danon A, Nathan I, Mozes G, Shainkin-Kestenbaum R (Aug 1990). "Serum amyloid A, an acute phase protein, inhibits ... "Entrez Gene: SAA1 serum amyloid A1". Gabay C, Kushner I (Feb 1999). "Acute-phase proteins and other systemic responses to ... Malle E, Sodin-Semrl S, Kovacevic A (Jan 2009). "Serum amyloid A: an acute-phase protein involved in tumour pathogenesis". ...
Response elements to fatty acids, acute phase proteins, serum. and to the immune factor NF-κB were also observed. The presence ... It has a high degree of homology to plasma retinol-binding protein and other members of the alpha 2 microglobulin protein ... Protein Engineering. 10 (6): 621-5. doi:10.1093/protein/10.6.621. PMID 9278274. Zeng C, Spielman AI, Vowels BR, Leyden JJ, ... ApoD mRNA and protein increases in the ipsilateral region of hippocampus as early as 2 days post-lesion (DPL), remains high for ...
OSM can regulate the expression of acute phase proteins. OSM regulates the expression of various protease and protease ... Of the proteins recruited to type I cytokine receptors STAT proteins remain the best studied. Homodimerisation of gp130 has ... "Differential activation of acute phase response factor/STAT3 and STAT1 via the cytoplasmic domain of the interleukin 6 signal ... effect on the acute phase reaction". Z Ernahrungswiss. 37 Suppl 1: 43-9. PMID 9558728. Schieven GL, Kallestad JC, Brown TJ, ...
C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein. Therefore, it is a better marker for acute phase reaction than ESR. While ... mediates suppression of C-reactive protein: Explanation for muted C-reactive protein response in lupus flares?". Arthritis & ... Arik N, Bedir A, Günaydin M, Adam B, Halefi I (October 2000). "Do erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels ... ESR begins to rise at 24 to 48 hours after the onset of acute self-limited inflammation, decreases slowly as inflammation ...
This gene encodes a key acute phase plasma protein. Because of its increase due to acute inflammation, this protein is ... "Acute phase protein alpha 1-acid glycoprotein interacts with plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and stabilizes its ... sequence homology with other human acute phase protein genes". Nucleic Acids Res. 13 (11): 3941-52. doi:10.1093/nar/13.11.3941 ... classified as an acute-phase reactant. The specific function of this protein has not yet been determined; however, it may be ...
1993). "Ciliary neurotrophic factor induces acute-phase protein expression in hepatocytes". FEBS Lett. 314 (3): 280-4. doi: ... "Ciliary neurotrophic factor induces acute-phase protein expression in hepatocytes". FEBS Lett. 314 (3): 280-4. doi:10.1016/0014 ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CNTF gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... Phase III clinical trials for the drug against obesity were conducted in 2003 by Axokine's maker, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, ...
Schooltink H, Stoyan T, Roeb E, Heinrich PC, Rose-John S (Dec 1992). "Ciliary neurotrophic factor induces acute-phase protein ... Schooltink H, Stoyan T, Roeb E, Heinrich PC, Rose-John S (1992). "Ciliary neurotrophic factor induces acute-phase protein ... PTH-related protein receptor gene". Endocrinology. 140 (2): 925-32. doi:10.1210/endo.140.2.6573. PMID 9927325. IL6R+protein,+ ... The IL6 receptor is a protein complex consisting of an IL-6 receptor subunit (IL6R) and interleukin 6 signal transducer ...
Ceruloplasmin is an acute phase protein synthesized in the liver. It is the carrier of the copper ion. Its level is increased ... In acute viral hepatitis, the GGT levels can peak at 2nd and 3rd week of illness, and remained elevated at 6 weeks of illness. ... Albumin is a protein made specifically by the liver, and can be measured cheaply and easily. It is the main constituent of ... In acute appendicitis, total bilirubin can rise from 20.52 μmol/L to 143 μmol/L. In pregnant women, the total bilirubin level ...
1990). "Serum amyloid A, an acute phase protein, inhibits platelet activation". J. Lab. Clin. Med. 116 (2): 180-6. PMID 1697614 ... Ancsin JB, Kisilevsky R (1997). "Characterization of high affinity binding between laminin and the acute-phase protein, serum ... an acute-phase serum amyloid A protein gene (SAA2)". Genomics. 16 (2): 447-54. doi:10.1006/geno.1993.1209. PMID 7686132. " ... "Entrez Gene: SAA2 Serum amyloid A2". Betts JC, Edbrooke MR, Thakker RV, Woo P (1991). "The human acute-phase serum amyloid A ...
Many acute-phase proteins of inflammation are involved in the coagulation system. In addition, pathogenic bacteria may secrete ... Thrombomodulin binds these proteins in such a way that it activates Protein C. The activated form, along with protein S and a ... as well as Protein S, Protein C and Protein Z. In adding the gamma-carboxyl group to glutamate residues on the immature ... Protein C is activated in a sequence that starts with Protein C and thrombin binding to a cell surface protein thrombomodulin. ...
Disulfide groups stabilize the tertiary structures of proteins. Transferrins are iron binding proteins and acute phase ... Protein articles without symbol, Blood proteins, Storage proteins, Avian proteins). ... Consequently, structurally this protein differs from its serum counterpart because of its glycosylation pattern. These proteins ... Egg white albumen is composed of multiple proteins, of which ovotransferrin is the most heat reliable. It has a molecular ...
... diarrhoea and acute phase proteins in naturally infected dairy calves". Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 41: 10-6. doi: ...
Heavy infections with Eimeria zuernii in calves can produce more of the acute phase proteins haptoglobin and serum amyloid A ... Lassen, B.; Bangoura, B.; Lepik, T.; Orro, T. (2015). "Systemic acute phase proteins response in calves experimentally infected ... diarrhoea and acute phase proteins in naturally infected dairy calves". Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 41: 10-6. doi: ...
This test utilises the acute phase proteins (C-Reactive Protein and Haptoglobin). In combination with basic clinical symptoms, ... Selting KA, Sharp CR, Ringold R, Knouse J (December 2015). "Serum thymidine kinase 1 and C-reactive protein as biomarkers for ... Hypercalcemia in these cases is caused by secretion of parathyroid hormone-related protein. Multicentric lymphoma presents as ...
April 2012). "Acute phase proteins in the diagnosis and prediction of cirrhosis associated bacterial infections". Liver ... It is also used as a validated survival predictor of cirrhosis, alcoholic hepatitis, acute liver failure, and acute hepatitis. ... Protein uptake is encouraged. The underlying cause may also need to be identified and treated. Causes include alcohol use, ... A low protein diet is recommended with gastrointestinal bleeding. Rifaximin is administered if mental state does not improve in ...
"Relationship of TSG-14 protein to the pentraxin family of major acute phase proteins". Journal of Immunology. 153 (8): 3700-7. ... PTX3 behaves as an acute phase response protein, as the blood levels of PTX3, low in normal conditions (about 25 ng/mL in the ... Pentraxin-related protein PTX3 also known as TNF-inducible gene 14 protein (TSG-14) is a protein that in humans is encoded by ... is a novel member of the pentaxin family of acute phase proteins". Journal of Immunology. 150 (5): 1804-12. PMID 7679696. Alles ...
January 2020). "Measurement of Organ-Specific and Acute-Phase Blood Protein Levels in Early Lyme Disease" (PDF). Journal of ... Peptidoglycan recognition protein Peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 Peptidoglycan recognition protein 3 Peptidoglycan ... peptidoglycan recognition protein 1), PGLYRP2 (peptidoglycan recognition protein 2), PGLYRP3 (peptidoglycan recognition protein ... "Peptidoglycan recognition proteins are a new class of human bactericidal proteins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 281 (9 ...
Since those are Acute-phase proteins, a positive Rivalta's test may be suggestive of inflammation. To perform this test, a ... An estimate of the concentration of protein in such fluids can narrow the differential diagnosis and assist the clinician in ... Using a pH 4.0 acetic acid solution, 8 types of proteins were identified in Rivalta reaction-positive turbid precipitates: C- ... Not only the high protein content, but high concentrations of fibrinogen and inflammatory mediators lead to a positive reaction ...
It is theorized that, because of this, haptoglobin has evolved into an acute-phase protein. HP has a protective influence on ... As haptoglobin is an acute-phase protein, any inflammatory process (infection, injury, allergy, etc.) may increase the levels ... The chains originate from a common precursor protein, which is proteolytically cleaved during protein synthesis. Hp exists in ... Haptoglobin (abbreviated as Hp) is the protein that in humans is encoded by the HP gene. In blood plasma, haptoglobin binds ...
Structural relationship of kininogens with major acute phase protein and alpha 1-cysteine proteinase inhibitor". The Journal of ... It is also a precursor protein for bradykinin. Low-molecular-weight-kininogen (LK) is mainly a precursor protein for kallidin. ... T-kininogen (TK) is only found in rats and a protein whose function is still being researched. TK is believed to be a ... Kininogens are precursor proteins for kinins, biologically active polypeptides involved in blood coagulation, vasodilation, ...
"Complex of soluble human IL-6-receptor/IL-6 up-regulates expression of acute-phase proteins". The Journal of Immunology. 149 (6 ... The Hyper-IL-6 protein has also been used to explore the physiologic role of Interleukin-6 trans-signaling in vivo. It turned ... Hyper-IL-6 is a fusion protein of the four-helical cytokine Interleukin-6 and the soluble Interleukin-6 receptor which are ... The complex of Interleukin-6 and the Interleukin-6 receptor associate with a second receptor protein called gp130, which ...
Acute-phase serum amyloid A proteins (A-SAAs) are secreted during the acute phase of inflammation. These proteins have several ... Serum amyloid A (SAA) is also an acute phase marker that responds rapidly. Similar to CRP, levels of acute-phase SAA increase ... an acute-phase serum amyloid A protein gene (SAA2)". Genomics. 16 (2): 447-54. doi:10.1006/geno.1993.1209. PMID 7686132. de ... acute phase SAAs). These proteins are produced predominantly by the liver. ...
The presence or increased concentrations of acute phase proteins, particularly fibrinogen, results in enhanced erythrocyte ... Rouleaux formation takes place only in suspensions of RBC containing high-molecular, fibrilar proteins or polymers in the ... Erythrocyte aggregation is determined by both suspending phase (blood plasma) and cellular properties. Surface properties of ... suspending medium (often Dextran-2000 in-vitro). The most important protein causing rouleaux formation in plasma is fibrinogen ...
C-reactive protein is expressed during the acute phase response to tissue injury or inflammation in mammals. The protein ... Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an acute phase protein whose levels rise during severe infections in humans. In case of central nervous ... The concentration of this plasma protein is altered by sex steroids and stimuli that elicit an acute phase response. Pentraxin ... They are known as classical acute phase proteins (APP), known for over a century. Pentraxins are characterised by calcium ...
... Acute-Phase+Proteins at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical ... Acute-phase proteins (APPs) are a class of proteins whose concentrations in blood plasma either increase (positive acute-phase ... This response is called the acute-phase reaction (also called acute-phase response). The acute-phase reaction ... these proteins are, therefore, referred to as "negative" acute-phase reactants. Increased acute-phase proteins from the liver ...
The quantification of acute-phase inflammation proteins is a crucial aspect of diagnosing and monitoring various inflammatory ... C-reactive protein (CRP) - a Key Marker of Acute-Phase Inflammation. The quantification of acute-phase inflammation proteins is ... C-reactive protein (CRP) - a Key Marker of Acute-Phase Inflammation*Understanding the Role of C-reactive protein (CRP) ... Understanding the Role of C-reactive protein (CRP). C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase reactant produced by the liver ...
Development of a method for absolute quantification of equine acute phase proteins using concatenated peptide standards and ... Development of a method for absolute quantification of equine acute phase proteins using concatenated peptide standards and ... Development of a method for absolute quantification of equine acute phase proteins using concatenated peptide standards and ... Development of a method for absolute quantification of equine acute phase proteins using concatenated peptide standards and ...
Acute-Phase Proteins / metabolism * Animals * Bile Ducts / surgery * Biomarkers / metabolism * Blotting, Western ... Aims: In this study, we wanted to analyse the expression and regulation of LCN2 in models of acute and chronic experimental ... Induction of lipocalin-2 expression in acute and chronic experimental liver injury moderated by pro-inflammatory cytokines ... but little is known about the expression of LCN2 in acute and chronic liver injury. ...
It is one of a group of proteins, called acute phase reactants that go up in response to ... It is one of a group of proteins, called acute phase reactants that go up in response to ... C-reactive protein (CRP) is produced by the liver. The level of CRP rises when there is inflammation in the body. ... C-reactive protein (CRP) is produced by the liver. The level of CRP rises when there is inflammation in the body. ...
UCL Centre for Amyloidosis & Acute Phase Proteins. Pentraxin Therapeutics Ltd, a UCL spin-off company, and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK ... Acute Phase Proteins, which includes the UK National Amyloidosis Centre. "We then combined CPHPC treatment with an antibody ... Amyloidosis is a disease caused by the build-up of abnormal proteins (amyloids) in body tissues, which leads to organ failure. ...
Acute phase proteins in cattle: discrimination between acute and chronic inflammation. Vet. Rec., v.144, p.437-441, 1999.), the ... Acute phase proteins in cattle: discrimination between acute and chronic inflammation. Vet. Rec., v.144, p.437-441, 1999. ... Sci., v.93, p.928-935, 2012.), measurement of acute phase proteins - APPs (Wolfger et al., 2015WOLFGER, B.; SCHWARTZKOPF- ... TÓTHOVÁ, C.; NAGY, O.; NAGYOVÁ, V.; KOVÁČ, G. Changes in the concentrations of acute phase proteins in calves during the first ...
Platelets are acute-phase reactants; therefore, they increase in response to various stimuli, including systemic infections, ... Reactive and clonal thrombocytosis: proinflammatory and hematopoietic cytokines and acute phase proteins. South Med J. 2001 Apr ... Platelets are acute-phase reactants; therefore, platelet counts increase in response to various stimuli, including systemic ... 6, 7, 8, 9] Elevated levels of IL-1, IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and ...
Categories: Acute-Phase Proteins Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein synthesized in the liver. It is involved in the activation of complement, ... HS C-Reactive Protein (mg/L). English Text: High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) (mg/L). Target: Both males and females ... HS C-Reactive Protein Comment Code. English Text: High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Comment Code. Target: Both males ... High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (P_HSCRP). Data File: P_HSCRP.xpt. First Published: August 2021. Last Revised: NA. ...
In exchange, serum acute phase proteins (e.g. C-reactive protein, serum amyloid P) and accompanying liver gene expression were ... We evaluated serum proteins and blood cell gene expression of biomarkers related to potential cardiovascular effects. ... At 4hr, a marked systemic inflammatory response was evidenced by increased inflammatory serum proteins (e.g. IL-6, CXCL1) and ... At 24hr, inflammatory serum proteins and blood cell gene expression had returned to baseline and the systemic tissue response ...
Ferritin L is the sole serum ferritin constituent and a positive hepatic acute-phase protein. Shock. 2013;39:520-6. DOIPubMed ...
The phagocyte activation markers S100A12 and myeloid-related proteins 8/14 (MRP8/14) were compared as well as the acute phase ... and the acute phase reactant high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP). The neutrophil activation marker S100A12 (EN-RAGE; ... However, the acute phase reactant hsCRP seems to provide some independent additional information on later flares. This may be ... Phagocyte-specific S100 proteins and high-sensitivity C reactive protein as biomarkers for a risk-adapted treatment to maintain ...
... reduced expression of tight junction proteins and influenced cytokine production in the intestine, implicating that the use of ... reduced expression of tight junction proteins and influenced cytokine production in the intestine, implicating that the use of ... 2009). Rapid and widely disseminated acute phase protein response after experimental bacterial infection of pigs. Veterinary ... alters expression of cytokine and tight junction proteins, and activates mitogen-activated protein kinases in pigs1. J. Anim. ...
Lastly, carotenoid supplementation led to lower levels of an acute phase protein (haptoglobin) than seen in unsupplemented ... Mechanisms of disease: acute-phase proteins and other systemic responses to inflammation ... an acute phase protein) 24 h after inducing an APR. Among supplemented individuals, those with higher blood carotenoid levels ... an acute phase protein released during the APR, than unsupplemented chicks (Koutsos et al., 2006). However, carotenoid ...
Acute-phase proteins and systemic inflammation enhance the synthesis of proteins that can bind to heparin, such as PF-4 ( ... Furthermore, as fibrinogen is an acute-phase protein, excessive inflammation leads to markedly increased fibrinogen levels, as ... An 80.6% decrease in acute venous insufficiency cases, and a 67.21% increase in acute arterial ischemia were found compared to ... COVID-19 is an acute respiratory infection caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome virus SARS-CoV-2. Risk factors, such ...
C-reactive protein (CRP) is a non-specific acute phase protein produced in the liver [13] . CRP, an important serum marker of ... In acute phase response, CRP levels can raise up to 1000-fold compared to normal within a few hours and be quite stable in the ... Train Driver, Occupational Stress, Angiotensin, C-Reactive Protein, Interleukin-8, Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha ... Strang, F. and Schunkert, H. (2014) C-Reactive Protein and Coronary Heart Disease: All Said-Is Not It? Mediators of ...
Hepcidin is an acute-phase reactant protein [52] that is induced by interleukin (IL)-6 during inflammation [53]. IL-6 levels ... Hepcidin, a putative mediator of anaemia of inflammation, is a type II acute-phase protein. Blood 2003; 101: 2461-2463. ... Nonetheless, Rhodes et al. [5] found no correlation between hepcidin levels and IL-6 or C-reactive protein in IPAH patients, ... Lack of the bone morphogenetic protein BMP6 induces massive iron overload. Nat Genet 2009; 41: 478-481. ...
Involvement of the acute phase protein alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein in nonspecific resistance to a lethal Gram-negative infection ... Protection of zinc against tumor necrosis factor-induced lethal inflammation depends on heat shock protein 70 and allows safe ...
Schenk S, Muser J, Vollmer G, Chiquet-Ehrismann R: Tenascin-C in serum: an acute-phase protein or a carcinoma marker?. Int J ... The neutrophil protein S100A12 is associated with a comprehensive ultrasonographic synovitis score in a longitudinal study of ... The registration details of the controlled trials as are follows: Full title of study: A Phase II, Randomized Multi-Centre, ... Its expression in adults is restricted to sites of tissue injury, particularly during phases of inflammation and active tissue ...
BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase serum protein produced by the liver. High plasma levels of CRP have been ... Journal Article 2011; 32(Suppl 2): 21-23 PubMed PMID: 22101877 Keywords: Adult, C-Reactive Protein:analysis, Czech Republic: ...
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are used as a stress biomarker in several studies as well as other stress biomarker, but the ... The stress of weaning influences serum levels of acute-phase proteins, iron-binding proteins, inflammatory cytokines, cortisol ... 1997) Effects of psychological stress on serum immunoglobulin, complement and acute phase protein concentrations in normal ... stabilizing unfolded proteins, assisting with refolding of denatured proteins and preventing protein aggregation [12]. Tissues ...
My screen was a C-Reactive protein, an acute-phase reactant, an Anti-CCP to check for rheumatoid arthritis because he did have ... Its infarction of body organs, bone, liver, spleen, lungs and this is an opioid based therapy, I would say acute sickle cell ... Clinical Recommendations for Adenovirus Testing and Reporting of Children with Acute Hepatitis of Unknown Etiology ... What Im talking about is the publication in the Journal of Neurological Sciences about marijuana use and acute Ischemic stroke ...
An acute-phase marker, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), may be measured with ferritin to assist in interpretation (elevated ... Ferritin is an acute-phase reactant and will be falsely elevated during states of liver disease, infection, inflammation, and ... CRP indicates an underlying process that may be causing a falsely elevated ferritin due to acute-phase reaction). Other iron ... Wet, or edematous, beriberi is characterized by cardiac failure and, although a chronic disease, may have an acute presentation ...
PubMed:Effect of Calendula officinalis Flower Extract on Acute Phase Proteins, Antioxidant Defense Mechanism and Granuloma ...
CD14 binds lipopolysaccharide molecule in a reaction catalyzed by lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), an acute phase ... lipopolysaccharide binding opsonin receptor activity protein binding peptidoglycan receptor activity lipoteichoic acid binding ... Protein Aliases: CD 14; CD14; cd14 monocyte; LPSR antibody; Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14; Monocyte differentiation ... serum protein. The soluble sCD14 can discriminate slight structural differences between lipopolysaccharides and is important ...
... response there is a variation in the concentrations of certain proteins present in plasma called acute phase proteins. Most of ... response there is a variation in the concentrations of certain proteins present in plasma called acute phase proteins. Most of ... response there is a variation in the concentrations of certain proteins present in plasma called acute phase proteins. Most of ... response there is a variation in the concentrations of certain proteins present in plasma called acute phase proteins. Most of ...
L. E. Jensen and A. S. Whitehead, "Regulation of serum amyloid A protein expression during the acute-phase response," ... For example, there is a decrease in both angiotensin I and II receptors in the kidneys of offspring born to low-protein- ... J. S. Yudkin, C. D. A. Stehouwer, J. J. Emeis, and S. W. Coppack, "C-reactive protein in healthy subjects: associations with ... Maternal malnutrition has been shown to cause alterations in the gene and protein expression in many of the components of this ...
... signs and symptoms of acute inflammation including suppression of fever and of acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein ... IMBRUVICA works by blocking a specific protein called Brutons tyrosine kinase (BTK).1 The BTK protein transmits important ... Acute PE in Hemodynamically Unstable Patients/Patients Who Require Thrombolysis or Pulmonary Embolectomy: Initiation of XARELTO ... Open-label, Multicenter, Phase 1b Study of Daratumumab in Combination with Pomalidomide and Dexamethasone in Patients with at ...
  • Acute-phase proteins (APPs) are a class of proteins whose concentrations in blood plasma either increase (positive acute-phase proteins) or decrease (negative acute-phase proteins) in response to inflammation. (
  • citation needed] "Negative" acute-phase proteins decrease in inflammation. (
  • The decrease of such proteins may be used as markers of inflammation. (
  • citation needed] Measurement of acute-phase proteins, especially C-reactive protein, is a useful marker of inflammation in both medical and veterinary clinical pathology. (
  • The quantification of acute-phase inflammation proteins is a crucial aspect of diagnosing and monitoring various inflammatory conditions. (
  • In this article, we will explore the significance of CRP in acute-phase inflammation and discuss in detail the applications and benefits of NMR spectrometry in its quantification. (
  • C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase reactant produced by the liver in response to inflammation, infection, or tissue damage. (
  • During an acute-phase inflammatory response, CRP levels in the bloodstream rise rapidly, making it a sensitive biomarker to gauge the severity of inflammation. (
  • By harnessing the power of NMR to quantify CRP, researchers and clinicians can gain deeper insights into the complex mechanisms of acute-phase inflammation. (
  • C-reactive protein (CRP) serves as a vital marker for acute-phase inflammation, and its quantification plays a significant role in various clinical and research applications. (
  • It is one of a group of proteins, called acute phase reactants that go up in response to inflammation. (
  • These proteins are produced by white blood cells during inflammation. (
  • Possible stimuli of the observed high levels of hepcidin in IPAH include dysfunctional bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II signalling and inflammation. (
  • Its expression in adults is restricted to sites of tissue injury, particularly during phases of inflammation and active tissue remodelling. (
  • Éadaoin W. Griffin, Donal T. Skelly, Carol L. Murray, Colm Cunningham (2013) Cyclooxygenase-1 dependent prostaglandins mediate susceptibility to systemic inflammation-induced acute cognitive dysfunction. (
  • Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. (
  • C-reactive protein (CRP) is a protein produced by the liver and released into the blood during the acute phase of inflammation. (
  • Blood was collected in 680 children (aged 6-35 mo) and indicators of iron status [(hemoglobin (Hb), zinc protoporphyrin (ZP), ferritin, transferrin receptor (TfR), and TfR/ferritin index)] and subclinical inflammation [(the acute phase proteins (APP) C-reactive protein (CRP), and -1-acid glycoprotein (AGP)] were determined. (
  • CRP levels increase within 10 h of the onset of acute inflammation and normalize rapidly, usually within 1 wk (6), whereas AGP levels begin to increase 24 h after the onset of inflammation but remain elevated well into convalescence (4). (
  • Order a C-reactive protein level to detect acute-phase inflammation. (
  • The liver responds by producing many acute-phase reactants. (
  • these proteins are, therefore, referred to as "negative" acute-phase reactants. (
  • The levels of acute phase reactants increase in response to certain inflammatory proteins called cytokines. (
  • The terms acute-phase protein and acute-phase reactant (APR) are often used synonymously, although some APRs are (strictly speaking) polypeptides rather than proteins. (
  • This is due to the ESR being largely dependent on the elevation of fibrinogen, an acute phase reactant with a half-life of approximately one week. (
  • We hypothesized that blood cell gene expression and serum protein analysis will provide insight into the relationship between CNT-induced lung and cardiovascular effects. (
  • We evaluated serum proteins and blood cell gene expression of biomarkers related to potential cardiovascular effects. (
  • At 4hr, a marked systemic inflammatory response was evidenced by increased inflammatory serum proteins (e.g. (
  • At 24hr, inflammatory serum proteins and blood cell gene expression had returned to baseline and the systemic tissue response had diminished. (
  • In exchange, serum acute phase proteins (e.g. (
  • C-reactive protein, serum amyloid P) and accompanying liver gene expression were increased. (
  • Furthermore, at both 4 and 24hr increased serum levels of the prothrombotic protein plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were found. (
  • CD14 binds lipopolysaccharide molecule in a reaction catalyzed by lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), an acute phase serum protein. (
  • CRP -- an acute phase serum protein - is a surrogate for the pro-inflammatory interleukin IL-6. (
  • Hs CRP appears within one to two days of acute myocardial infarction, peaks at 3 days and becomes negative after seven days. (
  • Hs CRP correlates with peak CKMB following acute myocardial infarction. (
  • CRP may remain high for at least three months following acute myocardial infarction. (
  • Do not test for myoglobin or creatine kinase-MB in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction . (
  • Increases in CRP concentration are non-specific and should be used in conjunction with traditional clinical laboratory evaluation of acute coronary syndromes. (
  • [ 3 ] High CRP levels augur a worse prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndromes. (
  • hs-CRP can be ordered for patients with some established risk factors of coronary heart disease to determine strategy for prevention of cardiovascular events and for follow-up of patients with acute coronary syndromes. (
  • Increased acute-phase proteins from the liver may also contribute to the promotion of sepsis. (
  • While the production of C3 (a complement factor) increases in the liver, the plasma concentration often lowers because of an increased turn-over, therefore it is often seen as a negative acute-phase protein. (
  • LCN2 has recently emerged as an important modulator of cellular homeostasis in several organs, i.e. heart, lung and kidney, but little is known about the expression of LCN2 in acute and chronic liver injury. (
  • In this study, we wanted to analyse the expression and regulation of LCN2 in models of acute and chronic experimental liver injury. (
  • C-reactive protein (CRP) is produced by the liver. (
  • C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein synthesized in the liver. (
  • [ 2 ] It is a member of pentraxin family of proteins and is synthesized by liver. (
  • 8) Concomitant chronic disease such as chronic renal failure (CKD), nephrotic syndrome, acute or chronic liver disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), decompensated ischemic heart disease, hypertensive encephalopathy, cerebrovascular disease (CVA), diabetes mellitus with metabolic decompensation, arterial insufficiency acute peripheral and complications in other organs such as kidney (Kinmestiel - Wilson, Necrotizing papillitis). (
  • For example, in active systemic lupus erythematosus, one may find a raised ESR but normal C-reactive protein. (
  • Here we test how carotenoids affect the acute phase response (APR), an intense rapid systemic response characterized by fever, sickness behavior and production of acute phase proteins, which serves to reduce pathogen persistence. (
  • Edel Hennessy, Shane Gormley, Ana Belen Lopez-Rodriguez, Caoimhe Murray, Carol Murray and Colm Cunningham (2017) Systemic TNF-a produces acute cognitive dysfunction and exaggerated sickness behavior when superimposed upon progressive neurodegeneration. (
  • The process of protein glycation increases in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines and is characterized by the binding of one or more monosaccharides (such as GlcNAc, GalNAC and Neu5Ac, among others) to the amino acid chain of the protein. (
  • W. Griffin, Colm Cunningham (2015) Astrocytes are primed by chronic neurodegeneration to produce exaggerated chemokine and cell infiltration responses to acute stimulation with the cytokines IL-1β and TNF-a. (
  • With ongoing advancements in NMR technology, the quantification of CRP using this method is poised for further advancements, contributing to the understanding and management of acute-phase inflammatory conditions. (
  • The concentrations of angiotensin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were determined. (
  • During the inflammatory response there is a variation in the concentrations of certain proteins present in plasma called acute phase proteins. (
  • Involvement of the acute phase protein alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein in nonspecific resistance to a lethal Gram-negative infection. (
  • A more sensitive CRP test, called a high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) assay, is available to determine a person's risk for heart disease. (
  • The physiological role of decreased synthesis of such proteins is generally to save amino acids for producing "positive" acute-phase proteins more efficiently. (
  • We found that, relative to unsupplemented controls, carotenoid-supplemented birds exhibited less severe reductions in feeding and activity, smaller increases in body temperature and lower circulating levels of haptoglobin (an acute phase protein) 24 h after inducing an APR. (
  • This response is called the acute-phase reaction (also called acute-phase response). (
  • The acute-phase reaction characteristically involves fever, acceleration of peripheral leukocytes, circulating neutrophils and their precursors. (
  • Its activity is further regulated through interactions with the soluble binding protein, IL-22BP, which shares sequence similarity with an extracellular region of IL-22R1 (sIL-22R1). (
  • In 11 high-altitude residents with chronic mountain sickness, progressive iron deficiency produced by staged venesection of 2 L blood also increased pulmonary artery systolic pressure, although no acute effect of iron replacement was detected. (
  • Do not test for protein C, protein S, or antithrombin levels during an active clotting event to diagnose a hereditary deficiency because these tests are not analytically accurate during an active clotting event. (
  • Do not test for amylase in cases of suspected acute pancreatitis . (
  • In patients with acute coronary disease, CRP level predicts mortality and cardiac complications. (
  • This protein presented an important relation with diarrhea and performance of the calves, opening perspectives on its utilization as a biomarker of diseases. (
  • Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are used as a stress biomarker in several studies as well as other stress biomarker, but the influence of different rearing environment on HSPs expression with other stress biomarker in cattle is unclear. (
  • Subsequently, it has been reported that an infusion of iron prevented the increased acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstrictive response normally induced by pre-exposure to hypoxia (∼10% oxygen) for 8 h, whereas infusion of desferrioxamine exacerbated hypoxic pulmonary vasoreactivity [ 9 ]. (
  • Similarly, iron infusion attenuated the pulmonary hypertensive response to hypoxia in healthy volunteers on acute ascent to 4,340 m altitude [ 10 ]. (
  • Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers. (
  • As for instance, in a patient with a monoclonal protein without any evidence of infection, ESR may be high (in 100) but CRP will be normal. (
  • Shibata M, Hikino Y, Matsumoto K, Yamamoto N (2014) Influence of Housing Density and Grazing on Heat Shock Protein 27 Expression in Skeletal Muscle of Beef Cattle. (
  • Our previous study shows that decrease in expression of heat shock protein (HSP) 27 occurred in grazed cattle by skeletal muscle proteome analysis [ 8 ]. (
  • Enhances the production of acute phase proteins in HepG2 cells and promotes Th17 cells to trasmigrate through the blood-brain barrier in multiple sclerosis. (
  • Among different types of treatments for patients with colon cancer, novel protein-based therapeutic strategies are considered. (
  • Conclusion: Human AAT is an acute phase protein with a broad-protease inhibitory and immunomodulatory activities used as a therapeutic for emphysema patients with inherited AAT deficiency. (
  • Among these proteins, C-reactive protein (CRP) stands out as one of the most reliable and widely used markers. (
  • Amyloidosis is a disease caused by the build-up of abnormal proteins (amyloids) in body tissues, which leads to organ failure. (
  • Acute phase proteins as predictors of disease activity in tropical infections : visceral leishmaniasis and tuberculosis / Kevin Monique Ajilong Wasunna. (
  • In contrast, C-reactive protein (with a half-life of 6-8 hours) rises rapidly and can quickly return to within the normal range if treatment is employed. (
  • Results from the International, Randomized Phase 3 Study of Ibrutinib Versus Chlorambucil in Patients 65 Years and Older with Treatment-Naïve CLL/SLL (RESONATE-2TM). (
  • Ibrutinib vs Temsirolimus: Results From a Phase 3, International, Randomized, Open-Label, Multicenter Study in Patients With Previously Treated Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL). (
  • Combination Treatment with the Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Ibrutinib and Carfilzomib in Patients with Relapsed or Relapsed and Refractory Multiple Myeloma: Initial Results from a Multicenter Phase 1/2b Study. (
  • Ibrutinib Plus Rituximab in Treatment-Naïve Patients with Follicular Lymphoma: Results from a Multicenter, Phase 2 Study. (
  • Retention of amyloidogenic protein remains a key factor in patients on dialysis. (
  • Durante la respuesta inflamatoria se produce una variación en las concentraciones de ciertas proteínas presentes en plasma llamadas proteínas de fase aguda. (
  • AIM: To explore the effect of human plasma alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) protein in the chemically induced mouse model of colorectal cancer. (
  • Expressions of the HSP 27 gene and its protein in the GR group were decreased in the longissimus lumborum and ST muscles compared with those in the CT group at the end of grazing. (
  • Positive acute-phase proteins serve (as part of the innate immune system) different physiological functions within the immune system. (
  • These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. (
  • An image depicting C-reactive protein can be seen below. (
  • Not to mention being notoriously hard to practice with long-term human caloric restricters inadequately restricting protein and ultimately failing at reproducing some of the cellular signaling changes that seem to be important: namely, reductions in an important growth factor known as IGF-1. (
  • Retention and accumulation of this type of amyloid protein is presumed to be the main pathogenic process underlying beta-2m amyloidosis. (
  • However, the concentration of total proteins was higher in CG (201.2 ± 100 mg/dl) than TG (155.0 ± 95 mg/dl). (