Intensely discomforting, distressful, or agonizing sensation associated with trauma or disease, with well-defined location, character, and timing.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Pain during the period after surgery.
Facilities providing diagnostic, therapeutic, and palliative services for patients with severe chronic pain. These may be free-standing clinics or hospital-based and serve ambulatory or inpatient populations. The approach is usually multidisciplinary. These clinics are often referred to as "acute pain services". (From Br Med Bull 1991 Jul;47(3):762-85)
Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.
Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.
Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.
The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.
Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.
Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.
An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.
Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.
Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.
Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.
A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.
Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).
Pain in the pelvic region of genital and non-genital origin and of organic or psychogenic etiology. Frequent causes of pain are distension or contraction of hollow viscera, rapid stretching of the capsule of a solid organ, chemical irritation, tissue ischemia, and neuritis secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or fibrotic processes in adjacent organs. (Kase, Weingold & Gershenson: Principles and Practice of Clinical Gynecology, 2d ed, pp479-508)
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government whose mission is to provide the military forces needed to deter WARFARE and to protect the security of our country.
Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
A type of pain that is perceived in an area away from the site where the pain arises, such as facial pain caused by lesion of the VAGUS NERVE, or throat problem generating referred pain in the ear.
Hospital unit providing continuous monitoring of the patient following anesthesia.
Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.
The occupational discipline of the traditional Chinese methods of ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY for treating disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.
Discomfort stemming from muscles, LIGAMENTS, tendons, and bones.
An IBUPROFEN-type anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic. It is used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
Cyclohexanecarboxylic acids are organic compounds consisting of a cyclohexane ring substituted with a carboxylic acid group, typically represented by the structural formula C6H11COOH.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) with antipyretic and analgesic actions. It is primarily available as the sodium salt.
To utter an inarticulate, characteristic sound in order to communicate or express a feeling, or desire for attention.
The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.
A pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative structurally related to INDOMETHACIN. It is an NSAID and is used principally for its analgesic activity. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.
Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.
The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The use of specifically placed small electrodes to deliver electrical impulses across the SKIN to relieve PAIN. It is used less frequently to produce ANESTHESIA.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
Dull or sharp aching pain caused by stimulated NOCICEPTORS due to tissue injury, inflammation or diseases. It can be divided into somatic or tissue pain and VISCERAL PAIN.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.
An acute infectious, usually self-limited, disease believed to represent activation of latent varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN) in those who have been rendered partially immune after a previous attack of CHICKENPOX. It involves the SENSORY GANGLIA and their areas of innervation and is characterized by severe neuralgic pain along the distribution of the affected nerve and crops of clustered vesicles over the area. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.
Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A derivative of the opioid alkaloid THEBAINE that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than MORPHINE. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.
A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.
A water-soluble extractive mixture of sulfated polysaccharides from RED ALGAE. Chief sources are the Irish moss CHONDRUS CRISPUS (Carrageen), and Gigartina stellata. It is used as a stabilizer, for suspending COCOA in chocolate manufacture, and to clarify BEVERAGES.
Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Muscular pain in numerous body regions that can be reproduced by pressure on TRIGGER POINTS, localized hardenings in skeletal muscle tissue. Pain is referred to a location distant from the trigger points. A prime example is the TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Conditions characterized by pain involving an extremity or other body region, HYPERESTHESIA, and localized autonomic dysfunction following injury to soft tissue or nerve. The pain is usually associated with ERYTHEMA; SKIN TEMPERATURE changes, abnormal sudomotor activity (i.e., changes in sweating due to altered sympathetic innervation) or edema. The degree of pain and other manifestations is out of proportion to that expected from the inciting event. Two subtypes of this condition have been described: type I; (REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY) and type II; (CAUSALGIA). (From Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)
Pain originating from internal organs (VISCERA) associated with autonomic phenomena (PALLOR; SWEATING; NAUSEA; and VOMITING). It often becomes a REFERRED PAIN.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Pain in the joint.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.
Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.
The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.
Pain associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR in CHILDBIRTH. It is caused primarily by UTERINE CONTRACTION as well as pressure on the CERVIX; BLADDER; and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Labor pain mostly occurs in the ABDOMEN; the GROIN; and the BACK.
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.

The effect of aging on the density of the sensory nerve fiber innervation of bone and acute skeletal pain. (1/117)


Management patterns in acute low back pain: the role of physical therapy. (2/117)


Acute low back pain and primary care: how to define recovery and chronification? (3/117)


Pain and emotion: a biopsychosocial review of recent research. (4/117)


Preservation of acute pain and efferent functions following intrathecal resiniferatoxin-induced analgesia in rats. (5/117)


Sensory responses to injection and punctate application of capsaicin and histamine to the skin. (6/117)


The pathophysiology of acute pain: animal models. (7/117)


Differential effects of nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOP) receptor agonists in acute versus chronic pain: studies with bifunctional NOP/mu receptor agonists in the sciatic nerve ligation chronic pain model in mice. (8/117)


Acute pain is a type of pain that comes on suddenly and can be severe, but it typically lasts for a short period of time. It is often described as sharp or stabbing and can be caused by tissue damage, inflammation, or injury. Acute pain is the body's way of signaling that something is wrong and that action needs to be taken to address the underlying cause.

Acute pain is different from chronic pain, which is pain that persists for 12 weeks or longer. Chronic pain can be caused by a variety of factors, including ongoing medical conditions, nerve damage, or inflammation. It is important to seek medical attention if you are experiencing acute pain that does not improve or becomes severe, as it may be a sign of a more serious underlying condition.

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. It is a complex phenomenon that can result from various stimuli, such as thermal, mechanical, or chemical irritation, and it can be acute or chronic. The perception of pain involves the activation of specialized nerve cells called nociceptors, which transmit signals to the brain via the spinal cord. These signals are then processed in different regions of the brain, leading to the conscious experience of pain. It's important to note that pain is a highly individual and subjective experience, and its perception can vary widely among individuals.

Pain management is a branch of medicine that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of pain and improvement in the quality of life of patients with chronic pain. The goal of pain management is to reduce pain levels, improve physical functioning, and help patients cope mentally and emotionally with their pain. This may involve the use of medications, interventional procedures, physical therapy, psychological therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

The definition of pain management can vary depending on the medical context, but it generally refers to a multidisciplinary approach that addresses the complex interactions between biological, psychological, and social factors that contribute to the experience of pain. Pain management specialists may include physicians, nurses, physical therapists, psychologists, and other healthcare professionals who work together to provide comprehensive care for patients with chronic pain.

Pain measurement, in a medical context, refers to the quantification or evaluation of the intensity and/or unpleasantness of a patient's subjective pain experience. This is typically accomplished through the use of standardized self-report measures such as numerical rating scales (NRS), visual analog scales (VAS), or categorical scales (mild, moderate, severe). In some cases, physiological measures like heart rate, blood pressure, and facial expressions may also be used to supplement self-reported pain ratings. The goal of pain measurement is to help healthcare providers better understand the nature and severity of a patient's pain in order to develop an effective treatment plan.

Postoperative pain is defined as the pain or discomfort experienced by patients following a surgical procedure. It can vary in intensity and duration depending on the type of surgery performed, individual pain tolerance, and other factors. The pain may be caused by tissue trauma, inflammation, or nerve damage resulting from the surgical intervention. Proper assessment and management of postoperative pain is essential to promote recovery, prevent complications, and improve patient satisfaction.

A pain clinic, also known as a pain management center or pain treatment center, is a healthcare facility that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of various types and levels of pain. These clinics are typically staffed with interdisciplinary teams of medical professionals, such as anesthesiologists, neurologists, psychiatrists, psychologists, nurses, and physical therapists, who work together to provide comprehensive and personalized care for patients experiencing chronic or acute pain.

Pain clinics may offer a range of treatments, including medications, injections, nerve blocks, physical therapy, psychological counseling, and complementary therapies like acupuncture and massage. The goal of these clinics is to help patients manage their pain effectively, improve their quality of life, and increase their functionality and mobility.

It's important to note that while pain clinics can be very helpful for many people, it's essential to do your research and choose a reputable clinic with licensed and experienced medical professionals who prioritize patient safety and evidence-based treatments.

Pain threshold is a term used in medicine and research to describe the point at which a stimulus begins to be perceived as painful. It is an individual's subjective response and can vary from person to person based on factors such as their pain tolerance, mood, expectations, and cultural background.

The pain threshold is typically determined through a series of tests where gradually increasing levels of stimuli are applied until the individual reports feeling pain. This is often used in research settings to study pain perception and analgesic efficacy. However, it's important to note that the pain threshold should not be confused with pain tolerance, which refers to the maximum level of pain a person can endure.

Chronic pain is defined as pain that persists or recurs for a period of 3 months or longer, beyond the normal healing time for an injury or illness. It can be continuous or intermittent and range from mild to severe. Chronic pain can have various causes, such as nerve damage, musculoskeletal conditions, or chronic diseases like cancer. It can significantly impact a person's quality of life, causing limitations in mobility, sleep disturbances, mood changes, and decreased overall well-being. Effective management of chronic pain often involves a multidisciplinary approach, including medications, physical therapy, psychological interventions, and complementary therapies.

Analgesics are a class of drugs that are used to relieve pain. They work by blocking the transmission of pain signals in the nervous system, allowing individuals to manage their pain levels more effectively. There are many different types of analgesics available, including both prescription and over-the-counter options. Some common examples include acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil or Motrin), and opioids such as morphine or oxycodone.

The choice of analgesic will depend on several factors, including the type and severity of pain being experienced, any underlying medical conditions, potential drug interactions, and individual patient preferences. It is important to use these medications as directed by a healthcare provider, as misuse or overuse can lead to serious side effects and potential addiction.

In addition to their pain-relieving properties, some analgesics may also have additional benefits such as reducing inflammation (like in the case of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs) or causing sedation (as with certain opioids). However, it is essential to weigh these potential benefits against the risks and side effects associated with each medication.

When used appropriately, analgesics can significantly improve a person's quality of life by helping them manage their pain effectively and allowing them to engage in daily activities more comfortably.

Analgesics, opioid are a class of drugs used for the treatment of pain. They work by binding to specific receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain signals to the brain. Opioids can be synthetic or natural, and include drugs such as morphine, codeine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, fentanyl, and methadone. They are often used for moderate to severe pain, such as that resulting from injury, surgery, or chronic conditions like cancer. However, opioids can also produce euphoria, physical dependence, and addiction, so they are tightly regulated and carry a risk of misuse.

Analgesia is defined as the absence or relief of pain in a patient, achieved through various medical means. It is derived from the Greek word "an-" meaning without and "algein" meaning to feel pain. Analgesics are medications that are used to reduce pain without causing loss of consciousness, and they work by blocking the transmission of pain signals to the brain.

Examples of analgesics include over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and naproxen (Aleve). Prescription opioid painkillers, such as oxycodone (OxyContin, Percocet) and hydrocodone (Vicodin), are also used for pain relief but carry a higher risk of addiction and abuse.

Analgesia can also be achieved through non-pharmacological means, such as through nerve blocks, spinal cord stimulation, acupuncture, and other complementary therapies. The choice of analgesic therapy depends on the type and severity of pain, as well as the patient's medical history and individual needs.

In medicine, "intractable pain" is a term used to describe pain that is difficult to manage, control or relieve with standard treatments. It's a type of chronic pain that continues for an extended period, often months or even years, and does not respond to conventional therapies such as medications, physical therapy, or surgery. Intractable pain can significantly affect a person's quality of life, causing emotional distress, sleep disturbances, and reduced mobility. It is essential to distinguish intractable pain from acute pain, which is typically sharp and short-lived, resulting from tissue damage or inflammation.

Intractable pain may be classified as:

1. Refractory pain: Pain that persists despite optimal treatment with various modalities, including medications, interventions, and multidisciplinary care.
2. Incurable pain: Pain caused by a progressive or incurable disease, such as cancer, for which no curative treatment is available.
3. Functional pain: Pain without an identifiable organic cause that does not respond to standard treatments.

Managing intractable pain often requires a multidisciplinary approach involving healthcare professionals from various fields, including pain specialists, neurologists, psychiatrists, psychologists, and physical therapists. Treatment options may include:

1. Adjuvant medications: Medications that are not primarily analgesics but have been found to help with pain relief, such as antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and muscle relaxants.
2. Interventional procedures: Minimally invasive techniques like nerve blocks, spinal cord stimulation, or intrathecal drug delivery systems that target specific nerves or areas of the body to reduce pain signals.
3. Psychological interventions: Techniques such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), mindfulness meditation, and relaxation training can help patients cope with chronic pain and improve their overall well-being.
4. Physical therapy and rehabilitation: Exercise programs, massage, acupuncture, and other physical therapies may provide relief for some types of intractable pain.
5. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM): Techniques like yoga, tai chi, hypnosis, or biofeedback can be helpful in managing chronic pain.
6. Lifestyle modifications: Dietary changes, stress management, and quitting smoking may also contribute to improved pain management.

Pain perception refers to the neural and psychological processes involved in receiving, interpreting, and responding to painful stimuli. It is the subjective experience of pain, which can vary greatly among individuals due to factors such as genetics, mood, expectations, and past experiences. The perception of pain involves complex interactions between the peripheral nervous system (which detects and transmits information about tissue damage or potential harm), the spinal cord (where this information is processed and integrated with other sensory inputs), and the brain (where the final interpretation and emotional response to pain occurs).

The Anesthesia Department in a hospital is a specialized medical unit responsible for providing anesthetic care to patients undergoing surgical and diagnostic procedures. The department is typically staffed by trained medical professionals known as anesthesiologists, who are medical doctors specializing in anesthesia, as well as nurse anesthetists and anesthesia assistants.

The primary role of the Anesthesia Department is to ensure the safety and comfort of patients during medical procedures that require anesthesia. This may involve administering general anesthesia, which renders the patient unconscious, or regional anesthesia, which numbs a specific area of the body. The anesthesiologist will monitor the patient's vital signs throughout the procedure and adjust the anesthesia as necessary to ensure the patient's safety and comfort.

The Anesthesia Department is also responsible for preoperative assessment and evaluation of patients, including medical history review, physical examination, and laboratory testing. This helps to identify any potential risks or complications associated with anesthesia and allows the anesthesiologist to develop an appropriate anesthetic plan for each patient.

In addition to providing anesthesia care during surgical procedures, the Anesthesia Department may also be involved in managing pain in other settings, such as critical care units, emergency departments, and pain clinics. They may use a variety of techniques, including medications, nerve blocks, and other interventional procedures, to help relieve pain and improve patients' quality of life.

Facial pain is a condition characterized by discomfort or pain felt in any part of the face. It can result from various causes, including nerve damage or irritation, injuries, infections, dental problems, migraines, or sinus congestion. The pain can range from mild to severe and may be sharp, dull, constant, or intermittent. In some cases, facial pain can also be associated with other symptoms such as headaches, redness, swelling, or changes in sensation. Accurate diagnosis and treatment of the underlying cause are essential for effective management of facial pain.

Hyperalgesia is a medical term that describes an increased sensitivity to pain. It occurs when the nervous system, specifically the nociceptors (pain receptors), become excessively sensitive to stimuli. This means that a person experiences pain from a stimulus that normally wouldn't cause pain or experiences pain that is more intense than usual. Hyperalgesia can be a result of various conditions such as nerve damage, inflammation, or certain medications. It's an important symptom to monitor in patients with chronic pain conditions, as it may indicate the development of tolerance or addiction to pain medication.

Low back pain is a common musculoskeletal disorder characterized by discomfort or pain in the lower part of the back, typically between the costal margin (bottom of the ribcage) and the gluteal folds (buttocks). It can be caused by several factors including strain or sprain of the muscles or ligaments, disc herniation, spinal stenosis, osteoarthritis, or other degenerative conditions affecting the spine. The pain can range from a dull ache to a sharp stabbing sensation and may be accompanied by stiffness, limited mobility, and radiating pain down the legs in some cases. Low back pain is often described as acute (lasting less than 6 weeks), subacute (lasting between 6-12 weeks), or chronic (lasting more than 12 weeks).

Back pain is a common symptom characterized by discomfort or soreness in the back, often occurring in the lower region of the back (lumbago). It can range from a mild ache to a sharp stabbing or shooting pain, and it may be accompanied by stiffness, restricted mobility, and difficulty performing daily activities. Back pain is typically caused by strain or sprain to the muscles, ligaments, or spinal joints, but it can also result from degenerative conditions, disc herniation, spinal stenosis, osteoarthritis, or other medical issues affecting the spine. The severity and duration of back pain can vary widely, with some cases resolving on their own within a few days or weeks, while others may require medical treatment and rehabilitation.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Neuralgia is a type of pain that occurs along the pathway of a nerve, often caused by damage or irritation to the nerve. It is typically described as a sharp, stabbing, burning, or electric-shock like pain that can be severe and debilitating. Neuralgia can affect any nerve in the body, but it most commonly occurs in the facial area (trigeminal neuralgia) or in the nerves related to the spine (postherpetic neuralgia). The pain associated with neuralgia can be intermittent or constant and may be worsened by certain triggers such as touch, temperature changes, or movement. Treatment for neuralgia typically involves medications to manage pain, as well as other therapies such as nerve blocks, surgery, or lifestyle modifications.

Abdominal pain is defined as discomfort or painful sensation in the abdomen. The abdomen is the region of the body between the chest and the pelvis, and contains many important organs such as the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen. Abdominal pain can vary in intensity from mild to severe, and can be acute or chronic depending on the underlying cause.

Abdominal pain can have many different causes, ranging from benign conditions such as gastritis, indigestion, or constipation, to more serious conditions such as appendicitis, inflammatory bowel disease, or abdominal aortic aneurysm. The location, quality, and duration of the pain can provide important clues about its cause. For example, sharp, localized pain in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen may indicate appendicitis, while crampy, diffuse pain in the lower abdomen may suggest irritable bowel syndrome.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience severe or persistent abdominal pain, especially if it is accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, vomiting, or bloody stools. A thorough physical examination, including a careful history and a focused abdominal exam, can help diagnose the underlying cause of the pain and guide appropriate treatment.

Neck pain is discomfort or soreness in the neck region, which can extend from the base of the skull to the upper part of the shoulder blades, caused by injury, irritation, or inflammation of the muscles, ligaments, or nerves in the cervical spine. The pain may worsen with movement and can be accompanied by stiffness, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the neck, arms, or hands. In some cases, headaches can also occur as a result of neck pain.

Analgesics, non-narcotic are a class of medications used to relieve pain that do not contain narcotics or opioids. They work by blocking the transmission of pain signals in the nervous system or by reducing inflammation and swelling. Examples of non-narcotic analgesics include acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), naproxen (Aleve), and aspirin. These medications are often used to treat mild to moderate pain, such as headaches, menstrual cramps, muscle aches, and arthritis symptoms. They can be obtained over-the-counter or by prescription, depending on the dosage and formulation. It is important to follow the recommended dosages and usage instructions carefully to avoid adverse effects.

Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is a method of pain management that allows patients to self-administer doses of analgesic medication through a controlled pump system. With PCA, the patient can press a button to deliver a predetermined dose of pain medication, usually an opioid, directly into their intravenous (IV) line.

The dosage and frequency of the medication are set by the healthcare provider based on the patient's individual needs and medical condition. The PCA pump is designed to prevent overinfusion by limiting the amount of medication that can be delivered within a specific time frame.

PCA provides several benefits, including improved pain control, increased patient satisfaction, and reduced sedation compared to traditional methods of opioid administration. It also allows patients to take an active role in managing their pain and provides them with a sense of control during their hospital stay. However, it is essential to monitor patients closely while using PCA to ensure safe and effective use.

Pelvic pain is defined as discomfort or unpleasant sensation in the lower abdominal region, below the belly button, and between the hips. It can be acute (sudden and lasting for a short time) or chronic (persisting for months or even years), and it may be steady or intermittent, mild or severe. The pain can have various causes, including musculoskeletal issues, nerve irritation, infection, inflammation, or organic diseases in the reproductive, urinary, or gastrointestinal systems. Accurate diagnosis often requires a thorough medical evaluation to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

The United States Department of Defense (DoD) is not a medical term or organization, but rather it is the federal department responsible for coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government directly related to national security and the United States Armed Forces. The Secretary of Defense is the head of the department and serves as a member of the President's cabinet.

The Department of Defense includes three main military branches: the Army, Navy, and Air Force, as well as several other organizations such as the National Security Agency (NSA), the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA). The DoD also operates a number of medical facilities and research institutions, including military hospitals and the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. However, it is not primarily a medical organization or institution.

Nociceptors are specialized peripheral sensory neurons that detect and transmit signals indicating potentially harmful stimuli in the form of pain. They are activated by various noxious stimuli such as extreme temperatures, intense pressure, or chemical irritants. Once activated, nociceptors transmit these signals to the central nervous system (spinal cord and brain) where they are interpreted as painful sensations, leading to protective responses like withdrawing from the harmful stimulus or seeking medical attention. Nociceptors play a crucial role in our perception of pain and help protect the body from further harm.

Morphine is a potent opioid analgesic (pain reliever) derived from the opium poppy. It works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain signals and reducing the perception of pain. Morphine is used to treat moderate to severe pain, including pain associated with cancer, myocardial infarction, and other conditions. It can also be used as a sedative and cough suppressant.

Morphine has a high potential for abuse and dependence, and its use should be closely monitored by healthcare professionals. Common side effects of morphine include drowsiness, respiratory depression, constipation, nausea, and vomiting. Overdose can result in respiratory failure, coma, and death.

Referred pain is a type of pain that is felt in a part of the body other than its actual source. This occurs because the brain incorrectly interprets nerve signals from damaged tissues or organs. In the case of referred pain, the brain misinterprets the location of the pain signal and attributes it to a different area of the body.

Referred pain is often described as a dull, aching sensation rather than a sharp, stabbing pain. It can be difficult to diagnose because the source of the pain may not be immediately apparent. Common examples of referred pain include:

* Heart attack pain that is felt in the left arm or jaw
* Gallbladder pain that is felt in the right shoulder blade
* Kidney stones that cause pain in the lower back and abdomen
* Appendicitis that causes pain in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen, but can sometimes be referred to the lower left quadrant in pregnant women or those with a longer colon.

Referred pain is thought to occur because the nerves carrying pain signals from different parts of the body converge on the same neurons in the spinal cord before traveling to the brain. If these neurons are stimulated by pain signals from multiple sources, the brain may have difficulty distinguishing between them and may interpret the pain as coming from a single location.

A recovery room, also known as a post-anesthesia care unit (PACU), is a specialized area in a hospital or surgical center where patients are taken after a surgery or procedure to recover from the effects of anesthesia. In this room, patients receive continuous monitoring and care until they are stable enough to be discharged to their regular hospital room or to go home.

The recovery room is staffed with trained healthcare professionals, such as nurses, who have expertise in post-anesthesia care. They monitor the patient's vital signs, including heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation, and assess their level of consciousness, pain, and comfort.

Patients in the recovery room may receive oxygen therapy, intravenous fluids, medications to manage pain or nausea, and other treatments as needed. The length of stay in the recovery room varies depending on the type of procedure, the patient's overall health, and their response to anesthesia.

Overall, the primary goal of a recovery room is to ensure that patients receive safe and effective care during the critical period after a surgical or procedural intervention.

A toothache is defined as pain or discomfort in or around a tooth, usually caused by dental cavities, gum disease, tooth fracture, or exposed tooth roots. The pain may be sharp and stabbing, throbbing, or constant and dull. It can also be aggravated by hot, cold, sweet, or sour foods and drinks, or by biting or chewing. Toothaches are serious and should not be ignored as they can be a sign of more significant dental issues that require immediate professional attention from a dentist.

Acupuncture is a form of traditional Chinese medicine that involves the insertion of thin needles into specific points on the body to stimulate the body's natural healing processes. According to traditional Chinese medicine theory, energy (known as "qi" or "chi") flows through the body along pathways called meridians. Acupuncture is believed to help restore the flow of qi and improve the balance of the body's energy.

In modern medical practice, acupuncture is often used to treat pain, including chronic pain, muscle stiffness, and headaches. It is also sometimes used to treat conditions such as nausea and vomiting, insomnia, and addiction. The precise mechanism by which acupuncture works is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve the release of natural pain-relieving chemicals called endorphins, as well as other physiological changes in the body. Acupuncture is generally considered safe when performed by a qualified practitioner, and side effects are typically mild and temporary.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

Shoulder pain is a condition characterized by discomfort or hurt in the shoulder joint, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or surrounding structures. The shoulder is one of the most mobile joints in the body, and this mobility makes it prone to injury and pain. Shoulder pain can result from various causes, including overuse, trauma, degenerative conditions, or referred pain from other areas of the body.

The shoulder joint is a ball-and-socket joint made up of three bones: the humerus (upper arm bone), scapula (shoulder blade), and clavicle (collarbone). The rotator cuff, a group of four muscles that surround and stabilize the shoulder joint, can also be a source of pain if it becomes inflamed or torn.

Shoulder pain can range from mild to severe, and it may be accompanied by stiffness, swelling, bruising, weakness, numbness, tingling, or reduced mobility in the affected arm. The pain may worsen with movement, lifting objects, or performing certain activities, such as reaching overhead or behind the back.

Medical evaluation is necessary to determine the underlying cause of shoulder pain and develop an appropriate treatment plan. Treatment options may include rest, physical therapy, medication, injections, or surgery, depending on the severity and nature of the condition.

Musculoskeletal pain is discomfort or pain that affects the muscles, bones, ligaments, tendons, and nerves. It can be caused by injury, overuse, or disease and can affect any part of the body, including the neck, back, shoulders, hips, and extremities. The pain can range from mild to severe and may be accompanied by stiffness, swelling, and decreased range of motion. Common causes of musculoskeletal pain include arthritis, fibromyalgia, tendinitis, bursitis, and muscle or ligament strain. Treatment for musculoskeletal pain depends on the underlying cause and may include physical therapy, medication, and in some cases, surgery.

Ketoprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to treat pain, fever, and inflammation in the body. It works by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, which are hormone-like substances that cause pain and inflammation in the body.

Ketoprofen has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties, making it a useful medication for managing various conditions such as arthritis, menstrual cramps, muscle pain, dental pain, and migraines. It is available in various forms, including oral capsules, tablets, suppositories, and topical creams or gels.

Like other NSAIDs, ketoprofen can cause side effects such as stomach ulcers, bleeding, and kidney damage if used in high doses or for extended periods. It is essential to follow the recommended dosage and consult with a healthcare provider before using this medication.

Local anesthetics are a type of medication that is used to block the sensation of pain in a specific area of the body. They work by temporarily numbing the nerves in that area, preventing them from transmitting pain signals to the brain. Local anesthetics can be administered through various routes, including topical application (such as creams or gels), injection (such as into the skin or tissues), or regional nerve blocks (such as epidural or spinal anesthesia).

Some common examples of local anesthetics include lidocaine, prilocaine, bupivacaine, and ropivacaine. These medications can be used for a variety of medical procedures, ranging from minor surgeries (such as dental work or skin biopsies) to more major surgeries (such as joint replacements or hernia repairs).

Local anesthetics are generally considered safe when used appropriately, but they can have side effects and potential complications. These may include allergic reactions, toxicity (if too much is administered), and nerve damage (if the medication is injected into a nerve). It's important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using local anesthetics, and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Spinal injections, also known as epidural injections or intrathecal injections, are medical procedures involving the injection of medications directly into the spinal canal. The medication is usually delivered into the space surrounding the spinal cord (the epidural space) or into the cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds and protects the spinal cord (the subarachnoid space).

The medications used in spinal injections can include local anesthetics, steroids, opioids, or a combination of these. The purpose of spinal injections is to provide diagnostic information, therapeutic relief, or both. They are commonly used to treat various conditions affecting the spine, such as radicular pain (pain that radiates down the arms or legs), disc herniation, spinal stenosis, and degenerative disc disease.

Spinal injections can be administered using different techniques, including fluoroscopy-guided injections, computed tomography (CT) scan-guided injections, or with the help of a nerve stimulator. These techniques ensure accurate placement of the medication and minimize the risk of complications.

It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for specific information regarding spinal injections and their potential benefits and risks.

Cyclohexanecarboxylic acids are a type of organic compound that consists of a cyclohexane ring, which is a six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon, substituted with a carboxylic acid group (-COOH). This group contains a carbon atom double bonded to an oxygen atom and single bonded to a hydroxyl group (-OH).

The cyclohexane ring can be in various forms, including the chair, boat, or twist-boat conformations, depending on the orientation of its constituent atoms. The carboxylic acid group can ionize to form a carboxylate anion, which is negatively charged and has a deprotonated hydroxyl group.

Cyclohexanecarboxylic acids have various applications in industry and research, including as intermediates in the synthesis of other chemicals, solvents, and pharmaceuticals. They can also be found naturally in some plants and microorganisms.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) are a class of medications that reduce pain, inflammation, and fever. They work by inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins, chemicals that contribute to inflammation and cause blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable, leading to symptoms such as pain, redness, warmth, and swelling.

NSAIDs are commonly used to treat a variety of conditions, including arthritis, muscle strains and sprains, menstrual cramps, headaches, and fever. Some examples of NSAIDs include aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While NSAIDs are generally safe and effective when used as directed, they can have side effects, particularly when taken in large doses or for long periods of time. Common side effects include stomach ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding, and increased risk of heart attack and stroke. It is important to follow the recommended dosage and consult with a healthcare provider if you have any concerns about using NSAIDs.

In a medical context, "hot temperature" is not a standard medical term with a specific definition. However, it is often used in relation to fever, which is a common symptom of illness. A fever is typically defined as a body temperature that is higher than normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F) for adults and above 37.5-38°C (99.5-101.3°F) for children, depending on the source.

Therefore, when a medical professional talks about "hot temperature," they may be referring to a body temperature that is higher than normal due to fever or other causes. It's important to note that a high environmental temperature can also contribute to an elevated body temperature, so it's essential to consider both the body temperature and the environmental temperature when assessing a patient's condition.

Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) commonly used to treat pain, inflammation, and fever. It works by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, which are hormone-like substances that cause pain and inflammation in the body. Diclofenac is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, suppositories, topical creams, gels, and patches.

The medical definition of Diclofenac is:

Diclofenac sodium: A sodium salt of diclofenac, a phenylacetic acid derivative that is a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis. It is used in the treatment of inflammation and pain in rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and other conditions. Diclofenac sodium has also been used to treat actinic keratosis, a precancerous skin condition. It is available by prescription in various forms, including oral tablets, capsules, topical creams, gels, and patches.

Crying is not a medical term itself, but it can be a symptom or a response to various medical and emotional conditions. In a broader sense, crying refers to the production of tears and the audible sounds that accompany this action due to strong emotions such as sadness, happiness, frustration, or pain.

From a physiological standpoint, crying involves the activation of the autonomic nervous system, which leads to the production of tears by the lacrimal glands and the contraction of various facial muscles responsible for the expression of emotion. The parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system is primarily responsible for the initiation of crying, leading to increased tear production and a decrease in heart rate.

There are several types of crying:

1. Emotional crying: This type of crying is a response to strong emotional states such as sadness, joy, frustration, or anger. It can be accompanied by sobbing, which involves deep, convulsive breaths and audible sounds.
2. Reflex crying: This occurs when the eyes are irritated due to foreign particles, bright lights, or other environmental factors. The reflex is designed to protect the eyes by producing tears to wash away the irritant.
3. Basal tearing: This type of tear production is continuous and helps keep the eyes lubricated and protected from drying out. It occurs at a low rate throughout the day and is not typically associated with crying as an emotional response.

In summary, while crying is not a medical term per se, it can be indicative of various emotional or physical states that may warrant medical attention. For instance, excessive or inappropriate crying might be a sign of underlying neurological or psychological conditions and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional if it becomes a concern.

Epidural analgesia is a type of regional anesthesia used to manage pain, most commonly during childbirth and after surgery. The term "epidural" refers to the location of the injection, which is in the epidural space of the spinal column.

In this procedure, a small amount of local anesthetic or narcotic medication is injected into the epidural space using a thin catheter. This medication blocks nerve impulses from the lower body, reducing or eliminating pain sensations without causing complete loss of feeling or muscle movement.

Epidural analgesia can be used for both short-term and long-term pain management. It is often preferred in situations where patients require prolonged pain relief, such as during labor and delivery or after major surgery. The medication can be administered continuously or intermittently, depending on the patient's needs and the type of procedure being performed.

While epidural analgesia is generally safe and effective, it can have side effects, including low blood pressure, headache, and difficulty urinating. In rare cases, it may also cause nerve damage or infection. Patients should discuss the risks and benefits of this procedure with their healthcare provider before deciding whether to undergo epidural analgesia.

Formaldehyde is a colorless, pungent, and volatile chemical compound with the formula CH2O. It is a naturally occurring substance that is found in certain fruits like apples and vegetables, as well as in animals. However, the majority of formaldehyde used in industry is synthetically produced.

In the medical field, formaldehyde is commonly used as a preservative for biological specimens such as organs, tissues, and cells. It works by killing bacteria and inhibiting the decaying process. Formaldehyde is also used in the production of various industrial products, including adhesives, resins, textiles, and paper products.

However, formaldehyde can be harmful to human health if inhaled or ingested in large quantities. It can cause irritation to the eyes, nose, throat, and skin, and prolonged exposure has been linked to respiratory problems and cancer. Therefore, it is essential to handle formaldehyde with care and use appropriate safety measures when working with this chemical compound.

Narcotic antagonists are a class of medications that block the effects of opioids, a type of narcotic pain reliever, by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and blocking the activation of these receptors by opioids. This results in the prevention or reversal of opioid-induced effects such as respiratory depression, sedation, and euphoria. Narcotic antagonists are used for a variety of medical purposes, including the treatment of opioid overdose, the management of opioid dependence, and the prevention of opioid-induced side effects in certain clinical situations. Examples of narcotic antagonists include naloxone, naltrexone, and methylnaltrexone.

Ketorolac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is used to treat moderate to severe pain. It works by reducing the levels of prostaglandins, chemicals in the body that cause inflammation and trigger pain signals in the brain. By blocking the production of prostaglandins, ketorolac helps to reduce pain, swelling, and fever.

Ketorolac is available in several forms, including tablets, injection solutions, and suppositories. It is typically used for short-term pain relief, as it can increase the risk of serious side effects such as stomach ulcers, bleeding, and kidney problems with long-term use.

Like other NSAIDs, ketorolac may also increase the risk of heart attack and stroke, especially in people who already have cardiovascular disease or risk factors for it. It should be used with caution and only under the supervision of a healthcare provider.

**Ketamine** is a dissociative anesthetic medication primarily used for starting and maintaining anesthesia. It can lead to a state of altered perception, hallucinations, sedation, and memory loss. Ketamine is also used as a pain reliever in patients with chronic pain conditions and during certain medical procedures due to its strong analgesic properties.

It is available as a generic drug and is also sold under various brand names, such as Ketalar, Ketanest, and Ketamine HCl. It can be administered intravenously, intramuscularly, orally, or as a nasal spray.

In addition to its medical uses, ketamine has been increasingly used off-label for the treatment of mood disorders like depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), owing to its rapid antidepressant effects. However, more research is needed to fully understand its long-term benefits and risks in these applications.

It's important to note that ketamine can be abused recreationally due to its dissociative and hallucinogenic effects, which may lead to addiction and severe psychological distress. Therefore, it should only be used under the supervision of a medical professional.

Acetaminophen is a medication used to relieve pain and reduce fever. It is a commonly used over-the-counter drug and is also available in prescription-strength formulations. Acetaminophen works by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, chemicals in the body that cause inflammation and trigger pain signals.

Acetaminophen is available in many different forms, including tablets, capsules, liquids, and suppositories. It is often found in combination with other medications, such as cough and cold products, sleep aids, and opioid pain relievers.

While acetaminophen is generally considered safe when used as directed, it can cause serious liver damage or even death if taken in excessive amounts. It is important to follow the dosing instructions carefully and avoid taking more than the recommended dose, especially if you are also taking other medications that contain acetaminophen.

If you have any questions about using acetaminophen or are concerned about potential side effects, it is always best to consult with a healthcare professional.

"Skin physiological phenomena" is not a standard medical term with a specific definition. However, I can provide some information about the general concepts that might be encompassed by this term.

Physiological phenomena refer to the functions and processes that occur in living organisms. When it comes to the skin, there are many different physiological phenomena that take place, including:

1. Barrier function: The skin acts as a barrier to protect the body from external elements such as bacteria, viruses, chemicals, and UV radiation.
2. Temperature regulation: The skin helps regulate body temperature through sweat production and blood flow.
3. Sensation: The skin contains nerve endings that allow us to feel touch, pressure, pain, and temperature.
4. Vitamin D synthesis: The skin can produce vitamin D when exposed to sunlight.
5. Moisture regulation: The skin helps maintain the body's moisture balance by producing sweat and preventing water loss.
6. Immunological function: The skin plays a role in the immune system by providing a physical barrier and containing immune cells that help fight off infections.
7. Excretion: The skin eliminates waste products through sweat.
8. Wound healing: The skin has the ability to repair itself after injury, through a complex process involving inflammation, tissue regeneration, and remodeling.

Therefore, "skin physiological phenomena" could refer to any or all of these functions and processes that take place in the skin.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) is a non-invasive method of pain relief that involves the use of low-voltage electrical currents. A TENS device, which is usually small and portable, delivers these currents through electrodes that are placed on the skin near the site of pain. The electrical impulses stimulate nerve fibers, which can help to block the transmission of pain signals to the brain, thereby reducing the perception of pain.

TENS is thought to work through a number of different mechanisms, including the gate control theory of pain and the release of endorphins, which are natural painkillers produced by the body. It is generally considered safe, with few side effects, and can be used in conjunction with other forms of pain management.

TENS is often used to treat chronic pain conditions such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, and lower back pain, as well as acute pain from injuries or surgery. However, its effectiveness varies from person to person, and it may not work for everyone. It is important to consult with a healthcare provider before using TENS, particularly if you have any underlying medical conditions or are taking medication that could interact with the electrical currents.

Spinal ganglia, also known as dorsal root ganglia, are clusters of nerve cell bodies located in the peripheral nervous system. They are situated along the length of the spinal cord and are responsible for transmitting sensory information from the body to the brain. Each spinal ganglion contains numerous neurons, or nerve cells, with long processes called axons that extend into the periphery and innervate various tissues and organs. The cell bodies within the spinal ganglia receive sensory input from these axons and transmit this information to the central nervous system via the dorsal roots of the spinal nerves. This allows the brain to interpret and respond to a wide range of sensory stimuli, including touch, temperature, pain, and proprioception (the sense of the position and movement of one's body).

Anesthesiology is a medical specialty concerned with providing anesthesia, which is the loss of sensation or awareness, to patients undergoing surgical, diagnostic, or therapeutic procedures. Anesthesiologists are responsible for administering various types of anesthetics, monitoring the patient's vital signs during the procedure, and managing any complications that may arise. They also play a critical role in pain management before, during, and after surgery, as well as in the treatment of chronic pain conditions.

Anesthesiologists work closely with other medical professionals, including surgeons, anesthetists, nurses, and respiratory therapists, to ensure that patients receive the best possible care. They must have a thorough understanding of human physiology, pharmacology, and anatomy, as well as excellent communication skills and the ability to make quick decisions under high pressure.

The primary goal of anesthesiology is to provide safe and effective anesthesia that minimizes pain and discomfort while maximizing patient safety and comfort. This requires a deep understanding of the risks and benefits associated with different types of anesthetics, as well as the ability to tailor the anesthetic plan to each individual patient's needs and medical history.

In summary, anesthesiology is a critical medical specialty focused on providing safe and effective anesthesia and pain management for patients undergoing surgical or other medical procedures.

Lidocaine is a type of local anesthetic that numbs painful areas and is used to prevent pain during certain medical procedures. It works by blocking the nerves that transmit pain signals to the brain. In addition to its use as an anesthetic, lidocaine can also be used to treat irregular heart rates and relieve itching caused by allergic reactions or skin conditions such as eczema.

Lidocaine is available in various forms, including creams, gels, ointments, sprays, solutions, and injectable preparations. It can be applied directly to the skin or mucous membranes, or it can be administered by injection into a muscle or vein. The specific dosage and method of administration will depend on the reason for its use and the individual patient's medical history and current health status.

Like all medications, lidocaine can have side effects, including allergic reactions, numbness that lasts too long, and in rare cases, heart problems or seizures. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider carefully when using lidocaine to minimize the risk of adverse effects.

Capsaicin is defined in medical terms as the active component of chili peppers (genus Capsicum) that produces a burning sensation when it comes into contact with mucous membranes or skin. It is a potent irritant and is used topically as a counterirritant in some creams and patches to relieve pain. Capsaicin works by depleting substance P, a neurotransmitter that relays pain signals to the brain, from nerve endings.

Here is the medical definition of capsaicin from the Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary:

caпсаісіn : an alkaloid (C18H27NO3) that is the active principle of red peppers and is used in topical preparations as a counterirritant and analgesic.

Nociceptive pain is a type of pain that results from the activation of nociceptors, which are specialized sensory receptors located in various tissues throughout the body. These receptors detect potentially harmful stimuli such as extreme temperatures, pressure, or chemical irritants and transmit signals to the brain, which interprets them as painful sensations.

Nociceptive pain can be further classified into two categories:

1. Somatic nociceptive pain: This type of pain arises from the activation of nociceptors in the skin, muscles, bones, and joints. It is often described as sharp, aching, or throbbing and may be localized to a specific area of the body.
2. Visceral nociceptive pain: This type of pain arises from the activation of nociceptors in the internal organs, such as the lungs, heart, and digestive system. It is often described as deep, cramping, or aching and may be more diffuse and difficult to localize.

Examples of conditions that can cause nociceptive pain include injuries, arthritis, cancer, and infections. Effective management of nociceptive pain typically involves a multimodal approach that includes pharmacologic interventions, such as non-opioid analgesics, opioids, and adjuvant medications, as well as non-pharmacologic therapies, such as physical therapy, acupuncture, and cognitive-behavioral therapy.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

The spinal cord is a major part of the nervous system, extending from the brainstem and continuing down to the lower back. It is a slender, tubular bundle of nerve fibers (axons) and support cells (glial cells) that carries signals between the brain and the rest of the body. The spinal cord primarily serves as a conduit for motor information, which travels from the brain to the muscles, and sensory information, which travels from the body to the brain. It also contains neurons that can independently process and respond to information within the spinal cord without direct input from the brain.

The spinal cord is protected by the bony vertebral column (spine) and is divided into 31 segments: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. Each segment corresponds to a specific region of the body and gives rise to pairs of spinal nerves that exit through the intervertebral foramina at each level.

The spinal cord is responsible for several vital functions, including:

1. Reflexes: Simple reflex actions, such as the withdrawal reflex when touching a hot surface, are mediated by the spinal cord without involving the brain.
2. Muscle control: The spinal cord carries motor signals from the brain to the muscles, enabling voluntary movement and muscle tone regulation.
3. Sensory perception: The spinal cord transmits sensory information, such as touch, temperature, pain, and vibration, from the body to the brain for processing and awareness.
4. Autonomic functions: The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system originate in the thoracolumbar and sacral regions of the spinal cord, respectively, controlling involuntary physiological responses like heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and respiration.

Damage to the spinal cord can result in various degrees of paralysis or loss of sensation below the level of injury, depending on the severity and location of the damage.

Dexmedetomidine is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called alpha-2 adrenergic agonists. It is used for sedation and analgesia (pain relief) in critically ill patients, as well as for procedural sedation in adults and children. Dexmedetomidine works by mimicking the effects of natural chemicals in the body that help to regulate sleep, wakefulness, and pain perception.

The medical definition of dexmedetomidine is: "A selective alpha-2 adrenergic agonist used for sedation and analgesia in critically ill patients, as well as for procedural sedation in adults and children. Dexmedetomidine has sedative, anxiolytic, analgesic, and sympatholytic properties, and its effects are mediated by activation of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in the central nervous system."

It is important to note that dexmedetomidine should only be administered under the close supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can have significant effects on heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory function.

Herpes zoster, also known as shingles, is a viral infection that causes a painful rash. It's caused by the varicella-zoster virus, which also causes chickenpox. After you recover from chickenpox, the virus lies dormant in your nerve cells and can reactivate later in life as herpes zoster.

The hallmark symptom of herpes zoster is a unilateral, vesicular rash that occurs in a dermatomal distribution, which means it follows the path of a specific nerve. The rash usually affects one side of the body and can wrap around either the left or right side of your torso.

Before the rash appears, you may experience symptoms such as pain, tingling, or itching in the area where the rash will develop. Other possible symptoms include fever, headache, fatigue, and muscle weakness. The rash typically scabs over and heals within two to four weeks, but some people may continue to experience pain in the affected area for months or even years after the rash has healed. This is known as postherpetic neuralgia (PHN).

Herpes zoster is most common in older adults and people with weakened immune systems, although anyone who has had chickenpox can develop the condition. It's important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have herpes zoster, as early treatment with antiviral medications can help reduce the severity and duration of the rash and lower your risk of developing complications such as PHN.

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) diseases, also known as Peripheral Neuropathies, refer to conditions that affect the functioning of the peripheral nervous system, which includes all the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. These nerves transmit signals between the central nervous system (CNS) and the rest of the body, controlling sensations, movements, and automatic functions such as heart rate and digestion.

PNS diseases can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, toxins, metabolic disorders, trauma, or autoimmune conditions. The symptoms of PNS diseases depend on the type and extent of nerve damage but often include:

1. Numbness, tingling, or pain in the hands and feet
2. Muscle weakness or cramps
3. Loss of reflexes
4. Decreased sensation to touch, temperature, or vibration
5. Coordination problems and difficulty with balance
6. Sexual dysfunction
7. Digestive issues, such as constipation or diarrhea
8. Dizziness or fainting due to changes in blood pressure

Examples of PNS diseases include Guillain-Barre syndrome, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, diabetic neuropathy, and peripheral nerve injuries. Treatment for these conditions varies depending on the underlying cause but may involve medications, physical therapy, lifestyle changes, or surgery.

Dissociative anesthetics are a class of drugs that produce a state of altered consciousness, characterized by a sense of detachment or dissociation from the environment and oneself. These drugs work by disrupting the normal communication between the brain's thalamus and cortex, which can lead to changes in perception, thinking, and emotion.

Some examples of dissociative anesthetics include ketamine, phencyclidine (PCP), and dextromethorphan (DXM). These drugs can produce a range of effects, including sedation, analgesia, amnesia, and hallucinations. At high doses, they can cause profound dissociative states, in which individuals may feel as though they are outside their own bodies or that the world around them is not real.

Dissociative anesthetics are used medically for a variety of purposes, including as general anesthetics during surgery, as sedatives for diagnostic procedures, and as treatments for chronic pain and depression. However, they also have a high potential for abuse and can produce significant negative health effects when taken recreationally.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Buprenorphine is a partial opioid agonist medication used to treat opioid use disorder. It has a lower risk of respiratory depression and other adverse effects compared to full opioid agonists like methadone, making it a safer option for some individuals. Buprenorphine works by binding to the same receptors in the brain as other opioids but with weaker effects, helping to reduce cravings and withdrawal symptoms. It is available in several forms, including tablets, films, and implants.

In addition to its use in treating opioid use disorder, buprenorphine may also be used to treat pain, although this use is less common due to the risk of addiction and dependence. When used for pain management, it is typically prescribed at lower doses than those used for opioid use disorder treatment.

It's important to note that while buprenorphine has a lower potential for abuse and overdose than full opioid agonists, it still carries some risks and should be taken under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disorder that affects the hemoglobin in red blood cells. Hemoglobin is responsible for carrying oxygen throughout the body. In sickle cell anemia, the hemoglobin is abnormal and causes the red blood cells to take on a sickle shape, rather than the normal disc shape. These sickled cells are stiff and sticky, and they can block blood vessels, causing tissue damage and pain. They also die more quickly than normal red blood cells, leading to anemia.

People with sickle cell anemia often experience fatigue, chronic pain, and jaundice. They may also have a higher risk of infections and complications such as stroke, acute chest syndrome, and priapism. The disease is inherited from both parents, who must both be carriers of the sickle cell gene. It primarily affects people of African descent, but it can also affect people from other ethnic backgrounds.

There is no cure for sickle cell anemia, but treatments such as blood transfusions, medications to manage pain and prevent complications, and bone marrow transplantation can help improve quality of life for affected individuals. Regular medical care and monitoring are essential for managing the disease effectively.

Carriageenans are a family of linear sulfated polysaccharides that are extracted from red edible seaweeds. They have been widely used in the food industry as thickening, gelling, and stabilizing agents. In the medical field, they have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications, such as in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders and inflammation. However, some studies have suggested that certain types of carriageenans may have negative health effects, including promoting inflammation and damaging the gut lining. Therefore, more research is needed to fully understand their safety and efficacy.

'Infant behavior' is not a medical term per se, but it does fall under the purview of child development and pediatrics. It generally refers to the actions or reactions of an infant (a child between birth and 12 months) in response to internal states (e.g., hunger, discomfort, fatigue) and external stimuli (e.g., people, objects, events).

Infant behavior can encompass a wide range of aspects including:

1. Reflexes: Automatic responses to certain stimuli, such as the rooting reflex (turning head towards touch on cheek) or startle reflex (abrupt muscle contraction).
2. Motor skills: Control and coordination of movements, from simple ones like lifting the head to complex ones like crawling.
3. Social-emotional development: Responses to social interactions, forming attachments, expressing emotions.
4. Communication: Using cries, coos, gestures, and later, words to communicate needs and feelings.
5. Cognitive development: Problem-solving skills, memory, attention, and perception.

Understanding typical infant behavior is crucial for parental education, childcare, early intervention when there are concerns, and overall child development research.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Amines are organic compounds that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair of electrons. They are derived from ammonia (NH3) by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms with alkyl or aryl groups. The nomenclature of amines follows the substitutive type, where the parent compound is named as an aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbon, and the functional group "amine" is designated as a suffix or prefix.

Amines are classified into three types based on the number of carbon atoms attached to the nitrogen atom:

1. Primary (1°) amines: One alkyl or aryl group is attached to the nitrogen atom.
2. Secondary (2°) amines: Two alkyl or aryl groups are attached to the nitrogen atom.
3. Tertiary (3°) amines: Three alkyl or aryl groups are attached to the nitrogen atom.

Quaternary ammonium salts have four organic groups attached to the nitrogen atom and a positive charge, with anions balancing the charge.

Amines have a wide range of applications in the chemical industry, including pharmaceuticals, dyes, polymers, and solvents. They also play a significant role in biological systems as neurotransmitters, hormones, and cell membrane components.

A nerve block is a medical procedure in which an anesthetic or neurolytic agent is injected near a specific nerve or bundle of nerves to block the transmission of pain signals from that area to the brain. This technique can be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, such as identifying the source of pain, providing temporary or prolonged relief, or facilitating surgical procedures in the affected region.

The injection typically contains a local anesthetic like lidocaine or bupivacaine, which numbs the nerve, preventing it from transmitting pain signals. In some cases, steroids may also be added to reduce inflammation and provide longer-lasting relief. Depending on the type of nerve block and its intended use, the injection might be administered close to the spine (neuraxial blocks), at peripheral nerves (peripheral nerve blocks), or around the sympathetic nervous system (sympathetic nerve blocks).

While nerve blocks are generally safe, they can have side effects such as infection, bleeding, nerve damage, or in rare cases, systemic toxicity from the anesthetic agent. It is essential to consult with a qualified medical professional before undergoing this procedure to ensure proper evaluation, technique, and post-procedure care.

Posterior horn cells refer to the neurons located in the posterior (or dorsal) horn of the gray matter in the spinal cord. These cells are primarily responsible for receiving and processing sensory information from peripheral nerves, particularly related to touch, pressure, pain, and temperature. The axons of these cells form the ascending tracts that carry this information to the brain for further processing. It's worth noting that damage to posterior horn cells can result in various sensory deficits, such as those seen in certain neurological conditions.

"Cold temperature" is a relative term and its definition can vary depending on the context. In general, it refers to temperatures that are lower than those normally experienced or preferred by humans and other warm-blooded animals. In a medical context, cold temperature is often defined as an environmental temperature that is below 16°C (60.8°F).

Exposure to cold temperatures can have various physiological effects on the human body, such as vasoconstriction of blood vessels near the skin surface, increased heart rate and metabolic rate, and shivering, which helps to generate heat and maintain body temperature. Prolonged exposure to extreme cold temperatures can lead to hypothermia, a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by a drop in core body temperature below 35°C (95°F).

It's worth noting that some people may have different sensitivities to cold temperatures due to factors such as age, health status, and certain medical conditions. For example, older adults, young children, and individuals with circulatory or neurological disorders may be more susceptible to the effects of cold temperatures.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Physical stimulation, in a medical context, refers to the application of external forces or agents to the body or its tissues to elicit a response. This can include various forms of touch, pressure, temperature, vibration, or electrical currents. The purpose of physical stimulation may be therapeutic, as in the case of massage or physical therapy, or diagnostic, as in the use of reflex tests. It is also used in research settings to study physiological responses and mechanisms.

In a broader sense, physical stimulation can also refer to the body's exposure to physical activity or exercise, which can have numerous health benefits, including improving cardiovascular function, increasing muscle strength and flexibility, and reducing the risk of chronic diseases.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Naloxone is a medication used to reverse the effects of opioids, both illicit and prescription. It works by blocking the action of opioids on the brain and restoring breathing in cases where opioids have caused depressed respirations. Common brand names for naloxone include Narcan and Evzio.

Naloxone is an opioid antagonist, meaning that it binds to opioid receptors in the body without activating them, effectively blocking the effects of opioids already present at these sites. It has no effect in people who have not taken opioids and does not reverse the effects of other sedatives or substances.

Naloxone can be administered via intranasal, intramuscular, intravenous, or subcutaneous routes. The onset of action varies depending on the route of administration but generally ranges from 1 to 5 minutes when given intravenously and up to 10-15 minutes with other methods.

The duration of naloxone's effects is usually shorter than that of most opioids, so multiple doses or a continuous infusion may be necessary in severe cases to maintain reversal of opioid toxicity. Naloxone has been used successfully in emergency situations to treat opioid overdoses and has saved many lives.

It is important to note that naloxone does not reverse the effects of other substances or address the underlying causes of addiction, so it should be used as part of a comprehensive treatment plan for individuals struggling with opioid use disorders.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Myofascial pain syndromes (MPS) are a group of chronic pain disorders characterized by the presence of trigger points in the musculoskeletal system. A trigger point is a hyperirritable spot within a taut band of skeletal muscle, which is often tender to palpation and can cause referred pain, meaning that the pain is felt in a different location than where the trigger point is located.

MPS can affect any muscle in the body, but they are most commonly found in the muscles of the neck, back, shoulders, and hips. The symptoms of MPS may include local or referred pain, stiffness, weakness, and reduced range of motion. The pain is often described as a deep, aching, or throbbing sensation that can be aggravated by physical activity, stress, or anxiety.

The exact cause of MPS is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to muscle overuse, injury, or chronic tension. Other factors that may contribute to the development of MPS include poor posture, vitamin deficiencies, hormonal imbalances, and emotional stress.

Treatment for MPS typically involves a combination of physical therapy, trigger point release techniques, pain management strategies, and self-care practices such as stretching, relaxation, and stress reduction. In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help manage the pain and reduce muscle spasms.

Inflammation is a complex biological response of tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is characterized by the following signs: rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), calor (heat), dolor (pain), and functio laesa (loss of function). The process involves the activation of the immune system, recruitment of white blood cells, and release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to the elimination of the injurious stimuli and initiation of the healing process. However, uncontrolled or chronic inflammation can also lead to tissue damage and diseases.

Complex Regional Pain Syndromes (CRPS) are a group of chronic pain conditions that typically affect a limb after an injury or trauma. They are characterized by prolonged, severe and often debilitating pain that is out of proportion to the severity of the initial injury. CRPS is divided into two types:

1. CRPS-1 (also known as Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy): This type occurs without a clearly defined nerve injury. It usually develops after an illness or injury that didn't directly damage the nerves.
2. CRPS-2 (also known as Causalgia): This type is associated with a confirmed nerve injury.

The symptoms of CRPS include:

* Continuous, burning or throbbing pain in the affected limb
* Changes in skin temperature, color and texture
* Swelling and stiffness in the joints
* Decreased range of motion and weakness in the affected limb
* Sensitivity to touch or cold
* Abnormal sweating pattern in the affected area
* Changes in nail and hair growth patterns

The exact cause of CRPS is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to a dysfunction in the nervous system's response to injury. Treatment for CRPS typically involves a combination of medications, physical therapy, and psychological support. In some cases, more invasive treatments such as nerve blocks or spinal cord stimulation may be recommended.

Visceral pain is a type of pain that originates from the internal organs (viscera) such as the stomach, intestines, liver, or heart. It's often described as diffuse, dull, and hard to localize, unlike somatic pain which arises from the skin, muscles, or bones and is usually easier to pinpoint.

Visceral pain may be caused by various conditions like inflammation, infection, ischemia (reduced blood supply), distention or stretching of the organ walls, or direct damage to the organs. The sensation of visceral pain can be modulated and referred to other areas of the body due to the complex interactions in the nervous system, making it sometimes challenging to diagnose the exact source of the pain.

Transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) cation channels are a subfamily of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, which are non-selective cation channels that play important roles in various physiological processes such as nociception, thermosensation, and mechanosensation. TRPV channels are activated by a variety of stimuli including temperature, chemical ligands, and mechanical forces.

TRPV channels are composed of six transmembrane domains with intracellular N- and C-termini. The TRPV subfamily includes six members: TRPV1 to TRPV6. Among them, TRPV1 is also known as the vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1) and is activated by capsaicin, the active component of hot chili peppers, as well as noxious heat. TRPV2 is activated by noxious heat and mechanical stimuli, while TRPV3 and TRPV4 are activated by warm temperatures and various chemical ligands. TRPV5 and TRPV6 are primarily involved in calcium transport and are activated by low pH and divalent cations.

TRPV channels play important roles in pain sensation, neurogenic inflammation, and temperature perception. Dysfunction of these channels has been implicated in various pathological conditions such as chronic pain, inflammatory diseases, and cancer. Therefore, TRPV channels are considered promising targets for the development of novel therapeutics for these conditions.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Arthralgia is a medical term that refers to pain in the joints. It does not involve inflammation, which would be referred to as arthritis. The pain can range from mild to severe and may occur in one or multiple joints. Arthralgia can have various causes, including injuries, infections, degenerative conditions, or systemic diseases. In some cases, the underlying cause of arthralgia remains unknown. Treatment typically focuses on managing the pain and addressing the underlying condition if it can be identified.

Hydrocortisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid, which is a class of steroid hormones. It is identical to the naturally occurring cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal gland that helps regulate metabolism and helps your body respond to stress. Hydrocortisone has anti-inflammatory effects and is used to treat various inflammatory conditions such as allergies, skin disorders, and autoimmune diseases. It works by suppressing the immune system's response to reduce swelling, redness, itching, and other symptoms caused by inflammation.

Hydrocortisone is available in different forms, including oral tablets, topical creams, lotions, gels, and ointments, as well as injectable solutions. The specific use and dosage depend on the condition being treated and the individual patient's medical history and current health status.

As with any medication, hydrocortisone can have side effects, especially when used in high doses or for extended periods. Common side effects include increased appetite, weight gain, mood changes, insomnia, and skin thinning. Long-term use of hydrocortisone may also increase the risk of developing osteoporosis, diabetes, cataracts, and other health problems. Therefore, it is essential to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using this medication.

Opioid mu receptors, also known as mu-opioid receptors (MORs), are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds to opioids, a class of chemicals that include both natural and synthetic painkillers. These receptors are found in the brain, spinal cord, and gastrointestinal tract, and play a key role in mediating the effects of opioid drugs such as morphine, heroin, and oxycodone.

MORs are involved in pain modulation, reward processing, respiratory depression, and physical dependence. Activation of MORs can lead to feelings of euphoria, decreased perception of pain, and slowed breathing. Prolonged activation of these receptors can also result in tolerance, where higher doses of the drug are required to achieve the same effect, and dependence, where withdrawal symptoms occur when the drug is discontinued.

MORs have three main subtypes: MOR-1, MOR-2, and MOR-3, with MOR-1 being the most widely studied and clinically relevant. Selective agonists for MOR-1, such as fentanyl and sufentanil, are commonly used in anesthesia and pain management. However, the abuse potential and risk of overdose associated with these drugs make them a significant public health concern.

An emergency service in a hospital is a department that provides immediate medical or surgical care for individuals who are experiencing an acute illness, injury, or severe symptoms that require immediate attention. The goal of an emergency service is to quickly assess, stabilize, and treat patients who require urgent medical intervention, with the aim of preventing further harm or death.

Emergency services in hospitals typically operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and are staffed by teams of healthcare professionals including physicians, nurses, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and other allied health professionals. These teams are trained to provide rapid evaluation and treatment for a wide range of medical conditions, from minor injuries to life-threatening emergencies such as heart attacks, strokes, and severe infections.

In addition to providing emergency care, hospital emergency services also serve as a key point of entry for patients who require further hospitalization or specialized care. They work closely with other departments within the hospital, such as radiology, laboratory, and critical care units, to ensure that patients receive timely and appropriate treatment. Overall, the emergency service in a hospital plays a crucial role in ensuring that patients receive prompt and effective medical care during times of crisis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hong Kong" is not a medical term or concept. It is a region located on the southeastern coast of China. If you have any questions about a medical topic, please provide more details so I can try to help you.

Hong Kong is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People's Republic of China (PRC). It was a British colony from 1842 until it was returned to China in 1997. As a SAR, Hong Kong maintains separate governing and economic systems from those of mainland China under the principle of "one country, two systems."

The region is known for its impressive skyline, deep natural harbor, and bustling urban center. It is a major port and global financial hub, and it has a high degree of autonomy in administration, legislation, and economic policies. Hong Kong's legal system is based on English common law, and it has its own currency, the Hong Kong dollar.

I hope this clarifies any confusion regarding the term "Hong Kong." If you have any medical questions, please let me know!

Labor pain is the physiological discomfort and pain experienced by women during childbirth, typically beginning in the lower back and radiating to the abdomen as contractions become more intense and frequent. It's primarily caused by the contraction of uterine muscles, pressure on the cervix, and stretching of the vaginal tissues during labor and delivery.

The pain can vary greatly among individuals, ranging from mild to severe, and it may be influenced by factors such as fear, anxiety, cultural expectations, and previous childbirth experiences. Various methods, including pharmacological interventions (such as epidural anesthesia), non-pharmacological techniques (such as breathing exercises, relaxation techniques, and water immersion), and alternative therapies (such as acupuncture and massage) can be used to manage labor pain.

A wound is a type of injury that occurs when the skin or other tissues are cut, pierced, torn, or otherwise broken. Wounds can be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, violence, surgery, or certain medical conditions. There are several different types of wounds, including:

* Incisions: These are cuts that are made deliberately, often during surgery. They are usually straight and clean.
* Lacerations: These are tears in the skin or other tissues. They can be irregular and jagged.
* Abrasions: These occur when the top layer of skin is scraped off. They may look like a bruise or a scab.
* Punctures: These are wounds that are caused by sharp objects, such as needles or knives. They are usually small and deep.
* Avulsions: These occur when tissue is forcibly torn away from the body. They can be very serious and require immediate medical attention.

Injuries refer to any harm or damage to the body, including wounds. Injuries can range from minor scrapes and bruises to more severe injuries such as fractures, dislocations, and head trauma. It is important to seek medical attention for any injury that is causing significant pain, swelling, or bleeding, or if there is a suspected bone fracture or head injury.

In general, wounds and injuries should be cleaned and covered with a sterile bandage to prevent infection. Depending on the severity of the wound or injury, additional medical treatment may be necessary. This may include stitches for deep cuts, immobilization for broken bones, or surgery for more serious injuries. It is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully to ensure proper healing and to prevent complications.

Brune K (1997). "The early history of non-opioid analgesics". Acute Pain. 1: 33-40. doi:10.1016/S1366-0071(97)80033-2. Ravina E ... A/B Otic Drops, ear drops combined with benzocaine to relieve pain and remove cerumen Propyphenazone Jennings, Oscar (11 Jan ... Phenazone (INN and BAN; also known as phenazon, antipyrine (USAN), antipyrin, or analgesine) is an analgesic (pain reducing), ...
Brune, Kay (December 1997). "The early history of non-opioid analgesics". Acute Pain. 1 (1): 33-40. doi:10.1016/S1366-0071(97) ...
Rabow MW, Pantilat SE, Shah AC, Poree L, Steiger S (2020). Papadakis MA, McPhee SJ, Rabow MW (eds.). "Acute Pain". Current ... Additionally, PGE2 acting on EP1 and EP4 receptors are a component in feeling pain via inflammatory nociception. When PGE2 ... Dinoprostone as a vaginal suppository is contraindicated for women with acute pelvic inflammatory disease or active disease of ... and pain. It regulates these responses through binding to G coupled protein prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptors (EP1, EP2, EP3, ...
Brune, K (1997). "The early history of non-opioid analgesics". Acute Pain. 1: 33-40. doi:10.1016/S1366-0071(97)80033-2. "Knorr ...
It is primarily used for perioperative pain, acute injury, colic, cancer pain, other acute/chronic forms of pain and high fever ... Brune K (December 1997). "The early history of non-opioid analgesics". Acute Pain. 1: 33-40. doi:10.1016/S1366-0071(97)80033-2 ... Preissner S, Siramshetty VB, Dunkel M, Steinborn P, Luft FC, Preissner R (2019). "Pain-Prescription Differences - An Analysis ... Pogatzki-Zahn E, Chandrasena C, Schug SA (October 2014). "Nonopioid analgesics for postoperative pain management". Current ...
An acute abdomen refers to a sudden, severe abdominal pain. It is in many cases a medical emergency, requiring urgent and ... Acute appendicitis Acute peptic ulcer and its complications Acute cholecystitis Acute pancreatitis Acute intestinal ischemia ( ... "Do opiates affect the clinical evaluation of patients with acute abdominal pain?". JAMA. 296 (14): 1764-74. doi:10.1001/jama. ... "Analgesia in patients with acute abdominal pain". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): CD005660. doi:10.1002/14651858. ...
Gonzales, R; Nadler, PL (2010). "Acute Knee Pain". In McPhee, SJ; Papadakis, MA (eds.). Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment ... Prepatellar bursitis is caused by either a single instance of acute trauma to the knee, or repeated minor trauma to the knee. ... Prepatellar bursitis is most commonly caused by trauma to the knee, either by a single acute instance or by chronic trauma over ... It generally does not produce a significant amount of pain unless pressure is applied directly. The area may be red (erythema ...
It may be either acute, subacute or chronic depending on its duration.[citation needed] Chronic scrotal pain (pain for greater ... Testicular pain, also known as scrotal pain, occurs when part or all of either one or both testicles hurt. Pain in the scrotum ... "Acute Scrotum Pain". StatPearls. PMID 29262236. Leslie, Stephen (2 May 2019). "Chronic Testicular Pain and Orchalgia". Chronic ... Testicular pain is when part or all of either one or both testicles hurt. Pain of the scrotum is often included. ...
"High-sensitivity troponin assays for early rule-out of acute myocardial infarction in people with acute chest pain: a ... Möckel, M.; Störk, T. (September 2017). "[Acute chest pain]". Der Internist. 58 (9): 900-907. doi:10.1007/s00108-017-0299-8. ... chest pain, confusion, or alterations in conscious state. They may manage serious acute illnesses that affect multiple organ ... "General and Acute Care Medicine". The Royal Australasian College of Physicians. Retrieved 27 June 2018. Lowe, J.; Candlish, P ...
2007). Encyclopedia of pain. Berlin: Springer. p. Acute Pain, Subacute Pain and Chronic Pain (Chapter.). ISBN 978-3-540-29805-2 ... such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, acute leukaemia, acute myocardial infarction, and acute hepatitis. This is often to ... A mild stubbed toe is an acute injury. Similarly, many acute upper respiratory infections and acute gastroenteritis cases in ... in acute leukaemia and chronic leukaemia). In the context of the mass noun "acute disease", it refers to the acute phase (that ...
An episode of back pain may be acute, subacute or chronic depending on the duration. The pain may be characterized as a dull ... Back pain is pain felt in the back. It may be classified as neck pain (cervical), middle back pain (thoracic), lower back pain ... Back pain is classified in terms of duration of symptoms. Acute back pain lasts ... For most individuals, back pain is self-limiting. Most people with back pain do not experience chronic severe pain but rather ...
Acute and chronic pain. Cortical control of motor action. Development of noninvasive human brain imaging (MEG, fMRI, DTI). Eye ...
... "acute" to pain that lasts less than 30 days, "chronic" to pain of more than six months' duration, and "subacute" to pain that ... no pain' and 'worst imaginable pain". Cut-offs for pain classification have been recommended as no pain (0-4mm), mild pain (5- ... VAS Pain), Numeric Rating Scale for Pain (NRS Pain), McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF- ... and pain that resolves quickly is called "acute". Traditionally, the distinction between acute and chronic pain has relied upon ...
Acute pain, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and recurrent pain in children is most often managed with medication. Most of these ... Pain management in children is the assessment and treatment of pain in infants and children. Usually, acute pain has an obvious ... Pain management Verghese ST, Hannallah RS (July 2010). "Acute pain management in children". Journal of Pain Research. 3: 105-23 ... Chronic pain has also been described as the pain experienced when the child reports a headache, abdominal pain, back pain, ...
Wu CL, Raja SN (June 2011). "Treatment of acute postoperative pain". Lancet. 377 (9784): 2215-25. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11) ... "First evidence of neosaxitoxin as a long-acting pain blocker in bladder pain syndrome". Int Urogynecol J. 26 (6): 853-8. doi: ... Usually, the victims of mild and severe acute intoxications eliminate the toxin in urine during the first 24 hours after ... Then, in cases of severe or prolonged pain, some patients need repeated injections, catheters, pumps and opioids to feel ...
Jennifer A. Elliott; Howard S. Smith (19 April 2016). Handbook of Acute Pain Management. CRC Press. pp. 79-. ISBN 978-1-4665- ... Vallejo R, Barkin RL, Wang VC (2011). "Pharmacology of opioids in the treatment of chronic pain syndromes". Pain Physician. 14 ... "Comparison of oxycodone and hydrocodone for the treatment of acute pain associated with fractures: a double-blind, randomized, ... It is also available by itself in a long-acting form under the brand name Zohydro ER, among others, to treat severe pain of a ...
... is classified as pain that lasts longer than three months. In medicine, the distinction between acute and chronic ... Chronic neuropathic pain: pain caused by damage to the somatosensory nervous system. Chronic headache and orofacial pain: pain ... Chronic visceral pain: pain originating in an internal organ. Chronic musculoskeletal pain: pain originating in the bones, ... Chronic pain can contribute to decreased physical activity due to fear of making the pain worse. Pain intensity, pain control, ...
IV PCA can be used for both acute and chronic pain patients. It is commonly used for post-operative pain management, and for ... 108-9. ISBN 978-0-8036-1559-5. Ray N, Schmidt P, Ottestad E (2017). "Management of acute postoperative pain.". In Longnecker DE ... White PF (January 1988). "Use of patient-controlled analgesia for management of acute pain". JAMA. 259 (2): 243-7. doi:10.1001/ ... As pain is a combination of tissue damage and emotional state, being in control means reducing the emotional component of pain ...
Acute Pain vs. Chronic Pain. Retrieved from Farhadi ... periapical granuloma is diagnosed due to acute pain in a tooth, or during a radiographic examination in routine visits to the ... Patients may experience pain or discomfort during or after treatment when taking the surgical approach which could make them ... Patients that are older may not be able to tolerate this pain or discomfort, therefore they may require nonsurgical approaches ...
Leung, A; Sigalet, DL (June 2003). "Acute Abdominal Pain in Children". American Family Physician. 67 (11): 2321-2327. PMID ... Infectious mononucleosis is an acute viral infection usually caused by Epstein-Barr virus and may be characterized by a marked ... Examples may include: Reactive: acute infection (e.g., bacterial, or viral), or chronic infections (tuberculous lymphadenitis, ...
Many people with acute coronary syndromes present with symptoms other than chest pain, particularly women, older people, and ... "Clinical diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome in patients with chest pain and a normal or non-diagnostic electrocardiogram". ... In the setting of acute chest pain, the electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) is the investigation that most reliably distinguishes ... to describe chest pain that indicate a low likelihood of heart-related pain. In unstable angina, symptoms may appear on rest or ...
... is a first-line treatment for the fever and joint-pain symptoms of acute rheumatic fever. The therapy often lasts for ... "A critical review of controlled clinical trials for peripheral neuropathic pain and complex regional pain syndromes". Pain. 73 ... Derry CJ, Derry S, Moore RA (December 2014). "Caffeine as an analgesic adjuvant for acute pain in adults". The Cochrane ... Aspirin is an effective analgesic for acute pain, although it is generally considered inferior to ibuprofen because aspirin is ...
"The subjective experience of acute pain. An assessment of the utility of 10 indices". Clin J Pain. 5 (2): 153-9. doi:10.1097/ ... Alder Hey Triage Pain Score Behavioral Pain Scale (BPS) Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) Checklist of Nonverbal Pain Indicators (CNPI ... for measuring pain in children Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) for measuring pain in premature infants Schmidt Sting Pain ... 1991 revision 1997 revision Mankoski Pain Scale McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) Multiple Pain Rating Scales Neck Pain and ...
The acute form usually develops over the course of several days, with pain and swelling frequently in only one testis, which ... see referred pain). Chronic epididymitis is most commonly associated with lower back pain, and the onset of pain often co- ... Onset of pain is typically over a day or two. The pain may improve with raising the testicle. Other symptoms may include ... Smith DM (September 1, 2008). "A Really Big Pain: Acute Epididymitis". The AIDS Reader. Marr, Lisa (2007). Sexually Transmitted ...
However, the pain can also be dull and steady, resembling the chest pain in an acute myocardial infarction. As with any chest ... chest pain consistent with a diagnosis of acute pericarditis (sharp chest pain worsened by breathing in or a cough), a ... Chest pain is one of the common symptoms of acute pericarditis. It is usually of sudden onset, occurring in the anterior chest ... There are several causes of acute pericarditis. In developed nations, the cause of most (80-90%) cases of acute pericarditis is ...
X-ray Acute abdomen Abdominal pain Medical imaging Chest x-ray Radiographer "Radiology - Acute indications". Royal Children's ... Abdominal x-ray is therefore not recommended for adults with acute abdominal pain presenting in the emergency department. The ... "Plain abdominal radiography in acute abdominal pain; past, present, and future". International Journal of General Medicine. 5: ... A minimal acute obstructive series (for the purpose of ruling out small bowel obstruction) includes two views: typically, a ...
Acute fractures will cause severe back pain. Compression fractures which develop gradually, such as in osteoporosis, may ... "Calcitonin for treating acute pain of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures: A systematic review of randomized, ... Opioids or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for pain. For osteoporotic patients, calcitonin may be helpful. ... initially not cause any symptoms, but will later often lead to back pain and loss of height.[citation needed] Compression ...
In medicine, Carnett's sign is a finding on clinical examination in which (acute) abdominal pain remains unchanged or increases ... Cartwright SL, Knudson MP (April 2008). "Evaluation of acute abdominal pain in adults". Am Fam Physician. 77 (7): 971-8. PMID ... myofascial pain, trigger points and rectus sheath hematomas. All abdominal wall hernias may be associated with pain and ... Cyriax considered that pain could be mimicked by lesions that arose from the vertebra, ribs or other associated structure or ...
Developmental Factors and Acute Pain in Children. in Pain 2005 - An Updated Review: Refresher Course Syllabus, ed. Justins DM. ... Pain in babies, and whether babies feel pain, has been a large subject of debate within the medical profession for centuries. ... Walco GA, Cassidy RC, Schechter NL (1994). "Pain, Hurt and Harm: The ethics of pain control in infants and children". N Engl J ... At birth a baby has developed the neural pathways for nociception and for experiencing pain, but the pain responses are an ...
... is pain in the area of the pelvis. Acute pain is more common than chronic pain. If the pain lasts for more than six ... "Acute Pain vs. Chronic Pain: Differences & Causes". Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved 2022-04-23. Dydyk, Alexander M.; Gupta, Nishant ... Pelvic pain is a general term that may have many causes, listed below. The subcategorical term urologic chronic pelvic pain ... Genital pain and pelvic pain can arise from a variety of conditions, crimes, trauma, medical treatments, physical diseases, ...
A review provides some guidelines for the evaluation of acute abdominal pain in adult patients who present to primary care. ... Evaluation of acute abdominal pain depends on the location of pain: right upper quadrant, left upper quadrant, right lower ... Recommended imaging studies for adults with acute abdominal pain include ultrasonography for right upper quadrant pain and CT ... Evaluation of Acute Abdominal Pain Reviewed. *Authors: News Author: Laurie Barclay, MD. CME Author: Penny Murata, MD ...
Low back pain refers to pain that you feel in your lower back. You may also have back stiffness, decreased movement of the ... Backache; Low back pain; Lumbar pain; Pain - back; Acute back pain; Back pain - new; Back pain - short-term; Back strain - new ... Acute low back pain is most often caused by a sudden injury to the muscles and ligaments supporting the back. The pain may be ... Low back pain refers to pain that you feel in your lower back. You may also have back stiffness, decreased movement of the ...
Acute pelvic pain. The following complications of pregnancy can cause acute pelvic pain:. * Ectopic pregnancy, ruptured or ... Acute Pelvic Pain. Associated symptoms and differentiation. Acute pain due to ischemia or injury to a viscus is accompanied by ... Culdocentesis can still be a useful diagnostic aid for differentiating the cause of acute gynecologic pain. In the absence of a ... A pedunculated subserous fibroid may twist and undergo necrosis, causing acute abdominal pain. It may be removed by laparoscopy ...
Treating pain has many benefits. In some cases (like acute MI and aortic dissection) analgesics can decrease pain-related ... Patients with sickle cell pain crises or cancer pain are important exceptions. These patients are often in severe pain, and ... Acute pain control. Home / About SAEM / Academies, Interest Groups, & Affiliates / CDEM / For Students / CDEM Curriculum / M3 ... For patients with acute severe pain, parenteral opioids are the first-line therapy. Opioids act on specific receptors in the ...
Different Ways to Take Pain Medicine. How do you treat pain?. We use minimally invasive techniques to target the pain at its ... Acute Pre & Post-Operative Pain Management. Our center not only provides outpatient services, but we also administer inpatient ... After you are eating and drinking you can take pain pills. There is no reason for you to worry about getting "hooked" on pain ... Effective pain relief is an important part of your treatment while you are in the hospital. There are ways to treat or control ...
Background: Acute abdominal pain accounts for up to 10 percent of emergency department visits. The related diagnostic imaging ... ultrasonography for right upper quadrant pain and CT for pain in other quadrants or diffuse abdominal pain) was also evaluated ... Imaging strategies for detection of urgent conditions in patients with acute abdominal pain: diagnostic accuracy study. BMJ. ... Conclusion: For evaluating acute abdominal pain, a conditional strategy using CT after negative or inconclusive ultrasonography ...
The goal of the Acute to Chronic Pain Signatures (A2CPS) program is to develop a set of objective biomarkers that provide ... and transform acute pain treatment approaches for prevention of chronic pain. The Acute to Chronic Pain Signatures program will ... For most people, acute pain resolves as the injury or trauma that caused it heals. Yet in many other people, acute pain from ... A major challenge in pain management is preventing chronic pain from occurring after an acute pain event. ...
Persistent Perioperative Pain, Regional Anesthesia Cardiothoracic Enhanced Recovery, Cannabis in Acute and Chronic Pain, Global ... The 47th Annual Regional Anesthesiology and Acute Pain Medicine Meeting is full of basic and clinical translational science, ... reflects a commitment to provide perspectives on what regional anesthesia and acute pain medicine practices have stood the test ... and Women in Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine SIGs. This diverse program offers something for the private practice ...
A man with a history of cardiac infarction was admitted with acute chest pain and troponin elevation. Electrocardiogram ... suggested ST elevations, echocardiography showed a possible slight hypokinesia, and we primarily suspected an acute coronary sy ... A man with a history of cardiac infarction was admitted with acute chest pain and troponin elevation. Electrocardiogram ... More News: Angiography , Ataxia , Carbon Monoxide Poisoning , Electrocardiogram , General Medicine , Heart Attack , Pain , ...
... chronic and acute. Symptoms of acute pancreatitis most commonly begin with abdominal pain in the middle or upper left part of ... the abdomen and abdominal pain may increase after eating or lying flat on the back. Other symptoms may include nausea, fever, ... The most common symptom of acute pancreatitis or pancreas pain is abdominal pain. Almost everybody with acute pancreatitis ... Some people have pain, but many people do not experience abdominal pain. For those people who do have pain, the pain is usually ...
Common challenges including pain assessment, opioid safety, and individualizing multimodal analgesia in Acute Care settings. ... Common challenges including pain assessment, opioid safety, and individualizing multimodal analgesia in Acute Care settings ...
Could it be chronic pain intensity or metal shift? Im also concerned that screws may have come loose. Surgeon that performed ... Accute Pain in area C6 C7 T1 T2 with lump after 3rd infusion. ... Acute pain and lump 3 years after fusion, can the metal move? ... Accute Pain in area C6 C7 T1 T2 with lump after 3rd infusion. Could it be chronic pain intensity or metal shift? Im also ... Acute Migraines Relieved By Beta Blocker Eye Drops Find out how beta-blocker eye drops show promising results for acute ...
... ... This page contains the artiucle Acute Inflammatory Response via Neutrophil Activation Protects Against the Development of ... Neutrophils Put the Brakes on Acute Pain Becoming Chronic Neutrophils help prevent the transition from acute to chronic pain ... Gene expression changes drive pain recovery The mechanism through which acute pain transitions to chronic pain, and how to stop ...
Acute upper back pain is most commonly due to a muscular back injury and often affects the function of the neck or arms. ... Dangers of Pain Killers. Back Pain Industry. Back Pain Scapegoats. Unresolved Back Pain. Misdiagnosed Back Pain. Back Pain ... Cure Back Pain Program. Lower Back Pain. Neck Pain. Back Pain Treatments. Back Surgery. Mindbody Back Pain ... Back Muscle Pain. Chronic Back Pain. Back Pain Epidemic. Back Exercises. Psychology of Back Pain. Tension Myositis Syndrome. ...
Acute Abdominal Pain - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... History in People With Acute Abdominal Pain History in People With Acute Abdominal Pain ), doctors ask questions about the ... Treatment of Acute Abdominal Pain The specific cause of the pain is treated. Until recently, doctors thought that it was not ... Referred pain is pain that is felt in an area that is distant from the source ( see Figure: What Is Referred Pain? What Is ...
A 36-year-old male suffered from severe low back pain. His pain diagram indicated a localized region of pain around his left ... The lower back pain is daily, and worse in the mornings upon rising from bed. After he gets to work the pain subsides; but then ... He does not recall any specific low back injury that set off this particular episode of acute pain, which began insidiously ... Kemps maneuver elicited sharp but localized left low back pain over the left L5/SI facet and sacroiliac joint, with only mild ...
... Subscriber Sign In Feedback Select Language Share Search for a symptom, medication, or diagnosis ... Sickle cell acute pain crisis Print Images (1) Contributors: Abhijeet Waghray MD, Eric Ingerowski MD, FAAP, Paritosh Prasad MD ... Acute chest syndrome is a leading cause of mortality in patients with sickle cell and is discussed separately. See sickle cell ... Acute presentations include:. *Vaso-occlusive crises: painful episodes of microvascular occlusion that involve joints, bones, ...
Many of the nerve pathways essential for the transmission and perception of pain are present and functioning by 24-29 weeks of ... Children frequently receive no or inadequate treatment for pain and painful procedures. The newborn and critically ill child ... CHRONIC PAIN MANAGEMENT. THE TRANSITION FROM ACUTE TO CHRONIC PAIN. Acute pain has evolved as a vital defense mechanism, ... Acute and Chronic Pain Management in Children. Rishi M. Diwan. ACUTE PAIN MANAGEMENT. INTRODUCTION. The treatment and ...
ASH Letter to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention re: Management of Acute and Chronic Pain. Jun 15 ... "ASH Letter to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention re: Management of Acute and Chronic Pain." https ... ASH Letter to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention re: Management of Acute and Chronic Pain ... statements-testimony-and-correspondence/testimony-and-correspondence/ash-letter-cdc-prevention-management-of-acute-chronic-pain ...
Experiencing shooting pains in foot/toe/calf sudden and acute... Discussion in Ask your questions here started by Deez, Sep ... There was also throbbing and pulsating pain in and around my big toe area.. Can anyone tell me what is going on, and what this ... I recently had some blood tests done, (though this was before these pain episodes) and. the doctor said that I had low vitamin ... and it was later that evening these sudden pains and jolts came on once again, and I was in tears. Looking at my big toe the. ...
Pain Research Forum. / Papers of the Week. / Evaluation and Treatment of Acute Trauma Pain in Older Adults.. ... PAIN. PAIN Reports. Pain Research Forum. Papers of the Week. Webinars and Podcasts. Events ... This article is dedicated to the management of acute trauma pain in older adults. It aims to highlight the notable clinical ... Opioid selection and dosing are reviewed for older adults suffering from acute trauma pain in the context of kidney and liver ...
Factors associated with racial and ethnic disparities in chronic pain after acute traumatic injury ... Factors associated with racial and ethnic disparities in chronic pain after acute traumatic injury ...
If you have acute abdominal pain, see your doctor or go to the hospital right away to get treatment. ... Abdominal pain can be a symptom of a more serious condition. It is important to know its causes and how to treat them. ... Dont ignore the Acute abdominal pain. Almost everyone will experience abdominal pain at some time or the other in their lives ... Acute gall bladder stone pain-Pain in upper abdomen along with vomiting, fever and elevated pulse rate ...
93;) has a famous buy Epidural analgesia in acute pain management 2006 by Dalits in India was by B. It not re-interpreted ... email ...; RoadGuy buy Epidural analgesia in acute pain management 2006, with more concepts, more units, and more way than ... buy Epidural analgesia in acute pain out typical services whenever Back. hurry your authority matrix and assessment times as ... intentional names The spaces in( such) look international between a buy Epidural analgesia in acute pain management 2006 year ...
Add to Calendar aCLuDhaqizCaPxAftmqF167204 04/03/2023 06:00 PM 04/03/2023 07:40 PM false Topic: "Acute Ocular pain and Sytemic ... Topic: "Acute Ocular pain and Sytemic Analgesic Management". Speaker: Rodolfo Rodriguez, OD. Credits: 2 NJSBO Oral credits #603 ...
Methods: Prospective cohort study on self-reported medical histories collected from acute chest pain patients using a CHT ... A majority of patients with acute chest pain can interact effectively with CHT on a tablet in the ED to provide sufficient data ... aimed to evaluate whether patients with acute chest pain can interact effectively with CHT in the ED. ... CHT is rarely used in clinical practice, and there is a lack of evidence for utility in an acute setting. Objective: This ...
PAIN. PAIN Reports. Pain Research Forum. Papers of the Week. Webinars and Podcasts. Events ... Feasibility of a Hybrid Web-Based and In-Person Self-management Intervention Aimed at Preventing Acute to Chronic Pain ... Feasibility of a Hybrid Web-Based and In-Person Self-management Intervention Aimed at Preventing Acute to Chronic Pain ... Feasibility of a Hybrid Web-Based and In-Person Self-management Intervention Aimed at Preventing Acute to Chronic Pain ...
22 year old male lacrosse player with right knee pain and swelling x 2 days. Pain was described as diffuse with no associated ... pain with flexion, vague non focal pain with McMurrays ; neurovascularly intact. DIFFERENITAL DIAGNOSIS: Meniscal Injury, ... Persaud, C.S. and Mirabelli, M. (2014) "Acute Knee Pain- College Lacrosse Player," International Journal of Exercise Science: ... HISTORY: 22 year old male lacrosse player with right knee pain and swelling x 2 days. Pain was described as diffuse with no ...
Behavioural and electrophysiological techniques were used to assess both the acute and long term effects of early pain, upon ... Electrophysiological and behavioural analysis of the acute and prolonged effects of neonatal pain in the rat ... Critically ill paediatric patients are frequently exposed to pain (Chambliss and Anand 1997) and there are reports of prolonged ... The characteristic changes in both behaviour and in dorsal horn neuron properties that occur following acute peripheral ...
The aim of this survey was to establish the pain management approaches to acute painful crisis (APC) in sickle cell patients at ... A Survey of the Pain Management of Acute Painful Crisis among Patients with Sickle Cell Disease at Two Centres in Jamaica ... Objectives: The aim of this survey was to establish the pain management approaches to acute painful crisis (APC) in sickle cell ... Documentation of pain severity scores was inconsistent.. Conclusion: The findings of the survey indicate that the management of ...
  • This article is intended for primary care clinicians, emergency medicine specialists, and other specialists who provide care to adults with acute abdominal pain. (
  • Identify key components of the history and physical examination in the evaluation of acute abdominal pain in adults. (
  • Report recommendations for studies in the evaluation of acute abdominal pain in adults. (
  • The following is a discussion of some of the important gynecologic causes of acute abdominal pain. (
  • We may not always know the precise cause of their chest pain, abdominal discomfort, or headache, but we can always help alleviate their suffering. (
  • Acute abdominal pain accounts for up to 10 percent of emergency department visits. (
  • Laméris and colleagues conducted a prospective, fully paired diagnostic accuracy study to evaluate various imaging strategies for detecting urgent conditions in patients with acute abdominal pain. (
  • Eligible patients presented to an emergency department with nontraumatic abdominal pain starting more than two hours but less than five days before evaluation. (
  • The American College of Radiology recommendation (i.e., ultrasonography for right upper quadrant pain and CT for pain in other quadrants or diffuse abdominal pain) was also evaluated, as were age and body mass index-driven imaging strategies. (
  • For evaluating acute abdominal pain, a conditional strategy using CT after negative or inconclusive ultrasonography had the highest sensitivity in detecting urgent conditions, with the lowest overall exposure to radiation. (
  • Symptoms of acute pancreatitis most commonly begin with abdominal pain in the middle or upper left part of the abdomen and abdominal pain may increase after eating or lying flat on the back. (
  • Abdominal pain is common and often minor. (
  • Severe abdominal pain that comes on quickly, however, almost always indicates a significant problem. (
  • Older adults and those who have HIV infection or who are taking immunosuppressants (including corticosteroids) may have less abdominal pain than younger/healthy adults with a similar disorder, and, even if the condition is serious, the pain may develop more gradually. (
  • Young children, especially newborns and infants, may develop abdominal pain but are unable to communicate the reason for their distress. (
  • There are different types of abdominal pain depending on the structures involved. (
  • Visceral pain comes from the organs within the abdominal cavity (which are called the viscera). (
  • Upper abdominal pain results from disorders in organs such as the stomach, duodenum, liver, and pancreas. (
  • Lower abdominal pain results from disorders of the lower part of the colon and organs in the genitourinary tract. (
  • Somatic pain comes from the membrane (peritoneum) that lines the abdominal cavity (peritoneal cavity). (
  • What is Acute Abdominal Pain & Why Not Ignore It? (
  • Almost everyone will experience abdominal pain at some time or the other in their lives. (
  • Acute attack of pain in the region bounded above by ribs and diaphragm, below by pubic bones and on the sides by flanks is known as acute abdominal pain. (
  • Urinary tract infection-Abdominal pain with burning sensation while passing urine. (
  • Acute gastroenteritis- It is due to infection in the gastrointestinal tract and may present with cramping abdominal pain, loose stools, fever, nausea and vomiting. (
  • Acute intestinal obstruction - Abdominal pain, vomiting, abdominal distension, inability to pass flatus and stools. (
  • It might be due to abdominal tuberculosis, acute strangulation of small and large intestine, Intestinal worms etc. (
  • Generalized abdominal pain and syncope are features of such a presentation. (
  • A 12-year-old boy from Tokh El Khail, Minia governorate, Egypt, was admitted to the emergency department of Minia University Hospital, Minia, Egypt, on 10 March 2012, with acute colicky periumbilical abdominal pain not referred to other sites, vomiting and constipation for 3 days. (
  • Moreover, there were repeated attacks of vague abdominal pain, colic and some attacks of diarrhoea. (
  • An acute abdomen refers to a sudden, severe abdominal pain. (
  • Stable patients presenting to accident and emergency department or ER (emergency room) with severe abdominal pain will almost always have an abdominal x-ray and/or a CT scan. (
  • A search of Medline (Ovid, from inception to 7 November 2022) was conducted by a medical librarian to identify relevant articles using keyword and subject heading terms for trauma, pain, older adults and analgesics. (
  • The 2022 CDC Clinical Practice Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Pain (2022 Clinical Practice Guideline) has expanded guidance on evidence-based nonopioid options for pain. (
  • For additional information regarding nonopioid therapy approaches for treating acute pain, please refer to Recommendation 1 in the 2022 Clinical Practice Guideline. (
  • For more detailed guidance on the use of nonopioid medications to treat acute, subacute, and chronic pain, please refer to the 2022 Clinical Practice Guideline . (
  • This high prevalence of chronic pain has in part contributed to the current opioid epidemic in the US. (
  • The theme "Regional Anesthesia Sustainability" reflects a commitment to provide perspectives on what regional anesthesia and acute pain medicine practices have stood the test of time, which are impacting the opioid crisis today, along with highlighting exciting new innovative therapies with potential to benefit patients into the future. (
  • Societal fears of opioid addiction and lack of advocacy are also causal factors in the undertreatment of pediatric pain. (
  • Opioid selection and dosing are reviewed for older adults suffering from acute trauma pain in the context of kidney and liver disease. (
  • It is indicated for the short-term management of acute postoperative pain in adults requiring opioid analgesia in the hospital. (
  • Fentanyl iontophoretic transdermal system (ITS) [IONSYS ® , The Medicines Company, Parsippany, NJ, USA] was approved by both the US Food and Drug Administration (April 2015) and the European Medicines Committee (November 2015) for the short-term management of acute postoperative pain in adult patients requiring opioid analgesia in the hospital [ 7 ]. (
  • Comply with current opioid risk-management practices, including the use of pain contracts and urine drug testing. (
  • and opioid treatments for chronic pain, acute pain, and episodic migraine pain (details including questions are available in the full AHRQ reports) ( 1 - 5 ). (
  • Clinicians should maximize use of nonpharmacologic and nonopioid therapies as appropriate for the specific condition and patient and only consider opioid therapy for acute pain if benefits are anticipated to outweigh risks to the patient. (
  • The physician opioid questions were compiled and developed by the National Pain Strategy Workgroup1. (
  • For its first initiative, the consortium agreed to focus on the pain care of the routine, non-complex (i.e., opioid-naïve) adult surgical patient. (
  • Clinicians should have access to consultation with a pain specialist for patients who have inadequately controlled postoperative pain or are at high risk of inadequately controlled postoperative pain at their facilities (e.g., long-term opioid therapy, history of substance use disorder). (
  • Doctors sometimes prescribe opioid medications to manage pain. (
  • The narratives of women struggling with opioid and substance use disorders and those trying to find safe ways to manage pain are both heartbreaking and compelling. (
  • However, invasive coronary angiography was negative and a primary acute myocardial infarction was less likely. (
  • However, there is evidence that this commonly encountered patient group has a significant rate of early acute myocardial infarction and death. (
  • Chest pain is a frequent symptom of acute myocardial infarction , but the cause is not always coronary atherothrombosis. (
  • Urgent diagnoses were identified in 661 patients (65 percent), with acute appendicitis being the most common final diagnosis. (
  • Acute Appendicitis- Occurs in all age groups. (
  • The most common causes of acute abdomen are acute appendicitis, acute peptic ulcer, acute cholecystitis, acute pancreatitis, intestinal obstruction, acute peritonitis and acute pyelonephritis [8]. (
  • An important nuance of treating pain in older trauma patients is the challenge of balancing iatrogenic adverse effects of analgesia against the harms of undertreated pain, the complications and consequences of which include immobility, pneumonia, sarcopenia, pressure ulcers, long-term functional decline, increased long-term care needs and mortality. (
  • It examines the types of pain involved in the condition, possible complications, and more. (
  • ARF and its complications can result in pain in some cases. (
  • ARF can lead to several possible complications that can cause pain. (
  • We present a case where the patient himself had made a correct non-cardiac diagnosis, but this was initially overlooked by the doctor.CASE PRESENTATION: A man with a history of cardiac infarction was admitted with acute chest pain and troponin elevation. (
  • CASE PRESENTATION A man with a history of cardiac infarction was admitted with acute chest pain and troponin elevation. (
  • Vaso-occlusive crises: painful episodes of microvascular occlusion that involve joints, bones, and internal organs such as the spleen, lungs (acute chest syndrome), liver, kidneys, and central nervous system. (
  • Acute chest syndrome is a leading cause of mortality in patients with sickle cell and is discussed separately. (
  • Background Patients presenting with acute chest pain without a rise in cardiac troponins are considered to be at low risk of adverse cardiac events and are often considered for early discharge without further inpatient investigation. (
  • Objective To assess current practice in the risk stratification of patients presenting with acute chest pain to emergency departments (EDs) in England who do not develop a rise in cardiac markers. (
  • This contained 21 questions related to the assessment of patients presenting with acute chest pain. (
  • However, the further risk stratification of patients presenting with acute chest pain without a rise in cardiac troponin is inconsistent. (
  • Do calcium antagonists contribute to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and concomitant noncardiac chest pain? (
  • Some people may experience chest pain or related conditions that can cause lower back pain or painful urination. (
  • A person with ARF may experience pain or pressure in the chest . (
  • Chest pain or pressure is a common symptom of ARF. (
  • The lining of the pericardium, which surrounds the heart, may become inflamed and cause pain and pressure in the chest. (
  • This is a condition that involves too much potassium in the blood, which can lead to chest pain. (
  • Pulmonary edema refers to a fluid buildup in the lungs, which can cause several symptoms, including chest pain. (
  • ARF can lead to heart failure, which can cause chest pain and various other symptoms. (
  • What Is Causing the Chest Pain? (
  • A 67-year-old man presents with severe chest pain radiating down both his arms. (
  • Cite this: When Acute Chest Pain Just Might Be a Drug Reaction - Medscape - Dec 28, 2015. (
  • Pain is the most common reason patients seek care in the ED. While we may be focused on rapidly identifying life- and limb-threatening conditions, patients' first priority is often pain relief. (
  • Patients in pain (e.g., from a kidney stone or perforated duodenal ulcer) are often so uncomfortable that examinations may be rendered more reliable after their pain is treated. (
  • Patients who get better pain relief tend to have greater satisfaction. (
  • There are no absolute contraindications to providing analgesics to patients in pain. (
  • For patients with acute severe pain, parenteral opioids are the first-line therapy. (
  • studies have shown that elderly patients' pain is undertreated in the ED. (
  • Because different patients will require different doses to relieve their pain, morphine can be safely titrated using doses of 0.025-0.05 mg/kg every 5-15 minutes following the initial bolus. (
  • On occasion, the PCS acts as the primary physician for hospitalized patients, with the admission and care directed by the patient's attending physician from the Center for Pain Management. (
  • We generally assess patients for efficacy of the pain-relieving technique, any possible side-effects, the need for adjunctive medications, the level of sedation, and patient satisfaction. (
  • Patients whose symptoms were not deemed severe enough to warrant imaging were excluded, as were pregnant women and patients in acute shock from gastrointestinal bleeding or ruptured aortic aneurysm. (
  • The Acute to Chronic Pain Signatures program will use advances in imaging, high-throughput biomedical experiments ('omics), sensory testing, and psychosocial assessments to explore a range of characteristics from patients who transition or are resilient to chronic pain. (
  • About 90%-95% of patients treated for acute pancreatitis may completely recover if the underlying cause such as alcohol or infection is appropriately treated. (
  • These painful crises cause significant suffering and stigmatization for sickle cell patients, who are often unjustly described as drug seekers and accused of faking their pain. (
  • Nurses are traditionally taught or cautioned to be wary of physicians' orders and patients' requests for pain management, as well. (
  • Several studies have documented the inability of nurses, physicians, and parents/guardians to correctly identify and treat pain, even in postoperative pediatric patients. (
  • Unlike adult patients, pain management in children is often dependent on the ability of parents/guardians to recognize and assess pain and on their decision whether to treat or not. (
  • Even in hospitalized patients, most of the pain that children experience is managed by their parents/guardians. (
  • 1) To assess the feasibility of research methods to test a self-management intervention aimed at preventing acute to chronic pain transition in patients with major lower extremity trauma (iPACT-E-Trauma) and 2) to evaluate its potential effects at three and six months postinjury. (
  • Critically ill paediatric patients are frequently exposed to pain (Chambliss and Anand 1997) and there are reports of prolonged sensory disturbances and altered pain perception lasting well beyond the infant period in children that have undergone early pain and trauma (Porter et al. (
  • 1999). These results may be relevant to critically ill paediatric patients exposed to pain. (
  • The aim of this survey was to establish the pain management approaches to acute painful crisis (APC) in sickle cell patients at two healthcare facilities and to compare with available guidelines. (
  • It has been demonstrated that patients who receive PCA versus non-PCA analgesia have better pain control and are more satisfied with their method of pain control [ 5 , 6 ]. (
  • Assess the functional effects of pain in patients. (
  • Appropriately utilize a range of therapeutic options when managing patients with chronic pain. (
  • Do patients with acute low back pain in emergency departments have more severe symptoms than those in general practice? (
  • All patients should receive treatment for pain that provides the greatest benefits relative to risks. (
  • One hundred and six patients had acute renal failure. (
  • Table I. The demographic data and history of the patients who sought the emergency room at Landspítali University Hospital because of the acute flank pain syndrome. (
  • The symptoms and signs of the patients who sought the emergency room at Landspítali University Hospital because of the acute flank pain syndrome. (
  • How many of your patients have non-cancer acute pain, that is, any pain lasting less than 3 months? (
  • Pain drawings are widely used as an assessment of patients' subjective pain in low back pain patients being considered for surgery. (
  • Thus, the objectives were to describe the course of pain drawings during treatment in primary health care for low back pain patients. (
  • The patients filled out 3 pain drawings each, at baseline and after 5 and 10 weeks of treatment. (
  • In addition the patients also reported pain and functional variables during the 3 measurement periods. (
  • The proportion of areas marked, the mean number of areas marked (pain drawing score), mean number of modalities used (area score), and the proportion of patients with pain radiation all decreased during the 10-week treatment period. (
  • For patients with pain radiation, the modality differences were smaller and inconsistent. (
  • Pain drawings have been shown to be reliable instruments over time for evaluation of the course of pain in chronic pain patients [ 4 ]. (
  • No association between the various pain modalities and pain or functional variables has been shown in patients with acute or sub-acute low back pain. (
  • The objectives of this report were firstly to investigate how pain drawing markings change over time among non-selected primary health care patients with sub-acute low back pain regardless of type of treatment, secondly to correlate the various pain modalities with self-reported pain and functional variables and thirdly to study the influence of pain radiation on the pain-modality-function. (
  • Some studies show that in up to 85% to 90% of patients with acute low back pain, no clear cause is ever determined. (
  • 1-4 Although symptoms usually resolve within 4 to 6 weeks, all patients with back pain should be evaluated thoroughly so that significant neurologic or life-threatening diseases may be ruled out. (
  • In my article on page 457, I will describe the evaluation and treatment of common and worrisome back pain syndromes as well as the less common, but nonetheless important, presentations of back pain in children and in patients with a history of cancer. (
  • Back pain in patients younger than 18 years or older than 50 years constitutes a red flag. (
  • Despite previously published guidelines and practice recommendations, there remains unwarranted variation in the quality of pain management provided to patients having surgery. (
  • Now published in Regional Anesthesia & Pain Medicine , these principles are intended to help healthcare systems and individual clinicians provide better care for patients having surgery. (
  • Clinicians should provide education to all patients (adult) and primary caregivers on the pain treatment plan, including proper storage and disposal of opioids and tapering of analgesics after hospital discharge. (
  • The formation of this consortium is a critical first step to widespread quality improvement in perioperative pain management for surgical patients across the country. (
  • All patients with pain should receive safe and effective pain care. (
  • citation needed] Traditionally, the use of opiates or other painkillers in patients with an acute abdomen has been discouraged before the clinical examination, because these would alter the examination. (
  • CDC provides resources for patients regarding opioids for acute pain . (
  • Acupuncture has been found to be extremely effective at treating acute and chronic pain along with inflammation. (
  • Subacute pain continues for 6 to 12 weeks. (
  • On this page, you'll learn about the types of pain - acute, subacute, and chronic - and options for treatment. (
  • Subacute pain is pain that lasts longer than 1 month but not more than 3 months. (
  • Talk to your doctor about your treatment goals and the benefits and risks of different types of treatment for subacute pain. (
  • Sometimes acute or subacute pain that is not effectively managed becomes chronic pain. (
  • This will help relieve your symptoms and reduce any swelling in the area of the pain. (
  • Using this focused approach to treat pain we are able to minimize the undesirable side effects of medications that are often used to treat the pain symptoms such as itching, sedation, clouded thinking and constipation. (
  • Severe acute pancreatitis symptoms and signs may show skin discoloration around the belly button or the side of the body between the ribs and hip (flank), or small erythematous skin nodules. (
  • Although acute pancreatitis should not be treated at home initially, there are steps that can help prevent or reduce symptoms. (
  • Most acute cases of pancreatitis are treated in the hospital or the goal is to relieve symptoms in support body functions so that the pancreas can recover from the inflammation (if the inflammation is caused by infection, antibiotics are given). (
  • Most acute symptoms will scare a patient with their savagery. (
  • Acute upper back symptoms can be the result of a herniated disc problem or arthritic change, among many other structural issues. (
  • Try not to overuse prescription pain killers if the symptoms are tolerable. (
  • The only difference between temporary acute symptoms and long-term chronic suffering is the ability to recover and put the pain behind you. (
  • Make sure that you do this so that there is no chance for a psychosomatic pain syndrome to perpetuate the symptoms far into your future. (
  • Pain was described as diffuse with no associated erythema, fevers, chills, swelling in other joints, or mechanical symptoms. (
  • But not everyone experiences pain, and symptoms differ between individuals. (
  • Acupuncture is specifically noted for its use in pain relief, regulating the immune system, managing symptoms and improving quality of life. (
  • As the disease develops vague symptoms start to appear, such as joint and muscle pain, general muscle weakness, possible rashes or low-grade fever, trouble concentrating, or weight loss. (
  • Studies have shown that lack of sleep increases pro-inflammatory processes of the body that cause pain and inflammation, the major symptoms of autoimmune disorders. (
  • Research in newborn animals has revealed that failure to provide analgesia for pain results in "rewiring" of the nerve path-ways responsible for pain transmission in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, resulting in increased pain perception of future painful insults. (
  • It has 2-dimensional that not the buy Epidural analgesia in acute pain of review could be adopted or already mixed because it were closed conceived by the Center earlier in the Internet, but the trend that the g was also meet it on all events throughout the thought of communications here is. (
  • Slobin( 1996, 1997, 2000) was the buy Epidural analgesia in acute pain management to think the physical articles in the use of unwanted realizations between implications and rules, where the seconds could be often more foremost, Looking beyond the sovereignty itself. (
  • Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) was introduced in the late 1970s to improve postoperative pain management [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • New approaches, such as multimodal analgesia and enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols, have been introduced to improve pain management and patient outcomes in the postoperative setting. (
  • Laparoscopy should be attempted if the patient is hemodynamically stable, a high index of suspicion remains, or the patient complains of increasing pain despite adequate analgesia. (
  • These principles include the need for preoperative evaluation of medical and psychological conditions and potential substance use disorders, a focus on multimodal analgesia including nonpharmacologic interventions, use of validated pain assessment tools to guide and adjust treatment, and the importance of individualized care and education, among others. (
  • Clinicians should offer multimodal analgesia, or the use of a variety of analgesic medications and techniques combined with nonpharmacological interventions, for the treatment of postoperative pain in adults. (
  • Previous experience and management of pain, even from very early stages in life, alter the responses and behavior toward further "painful" experiences and events. (
  • Unfortunately, even when pain is obvious, children frequently receive no or inadequate treatment for pain and painful procedures. (
  • Is acute renal failure painful? (
  • In some cases, other conditions associated with renal failure can cause lower back pain , painful urination , and more. (
  • As with pain in the loins and lower back, painful urination is more likely to result from a condition related to ARF than to the ARF itself. (
  • Kidney infection can cause a burning, painful sensation during urination, while kidney stones can cause severe pain during urination. (
  • Does acute renal failure cause pain? (
  • Acute renal failure (ARF) can cause pain in some people. (
  • The hospital records of those who fulfilled the following criteria were studied: age 18-41 years, acute renal failure, and a visit to Landspitali University Hospital in 1998-2007. (
  • The acute flank pain syndrome was defined as severe flank pain in combination with acute renal failure, unexplained except for the possible consumption of NSAIDs, ethanol or both. (
  • The source of the pain is the gallbladder, which is located in the abdomen, but the pain is felt in the shoulder. (
  • A detailed history and thorough clinical examination should be done in every case of acute abdomen. (
  • It can present with pain mainly on right lower side of abdomen with fever and vomiting. (
  • Severe pain in the upper part of the abdomen, mainly central & may be associated with profuse vomiting and elevated pulse rate. (
  • Pain is in the region of upper and right side of the abdomen. (
  • The aim of this report is to present a case of bowel obstruction caused by A. lumbricoides as a cause of acute abdomen in one governorate in Egypt. (
  • It manifests on physical examination as rebound tenderness, or pain upon removal of pressure more than on application of pressure to the abdomen. (
  • citation needed] Acute abdomen of the ischemic variety is usually due to:[citation needed] A thromboembolism from the left side of the heart, such as may be generated during atrial fibrillation, occluding the SMA. (
  • Primary mesenteric vein thromboses may also cause ischemic acute abdomen, usually precipitated by hypercoagulable states such as polycythemia vera. (
  • Acute ischemic abdomen is a surgical emergency. (
  • Acute pain due to ischemia or injury to a viscus is accompanied by autonomic reflex responses such as nausea, vomiting, restlessness, and sweating. (
  • There are two types of pancreatitis, acute and chronic. (
  • Necrotizing pancreatitis is a severe form of acute pancreatitis characterized by necrosis in and around the pancreas. (
  • Diagnosis of pancreatitis (both acute and chronic) is done similarly. (
  • Treatment of acute pancreatitis is done according to the underlying cause. (
  • Treatment of chronic pancreatitis is often treated with pain relieving medications, diet changes. (
  • The prognosis for someone with chronic pancreatitis is less optimistic than for acute pancreatitis. (
  • Pancreatitis may be acute (new, short-term) or chronic (ongoing, long-term). (
  • Acute pancreatitis usually begins soon after the damage to the pancreas begins. (
  • Acute Pancreatitis - Commonly seen after 30 yrs of age. (
  • Emergency surgical treatment may be necessary in acute intestinal obstruction in which the mass of the parasite obstructs the intestinal lumen or intestinal obstruction develops due to volvulus [11]. (
  • This article looks at signs of ARF, which doctors sometimes call acute kidney injury (AKI) . (
  • Researchers sometimes link ARF to the formation of kidney stones , which may cause lower back pain. (
  • Lower back pain from kidney stones is typically sharp and usually occurs on one side of the back. (
  • Doctors do not generally associate kidney pain with ARF, and it is more likely to occur in instances of things like urinary tract infections (UTIs) , injuries to kidneys, and infection . (
  • If a person does experience kidney pain, it is generally present under the ribcage, to either side of the spine, and can occur on one or both sides. (
  • Unlike lower back pain caused by kidney stones, kidney pain is typically a dull, aching pain. (
  • What are the warning signs of acute kidney failure? (
  • It is the fifth most common cause for physician visits in the country and 7.6% of US adults reported at least one episode of severe acute low back pain within a 1-year period. (
  • Electrocardiogram suggested ST elevations, echocardiography showed a possible slight hypokinesia, and we primarily suspected an acute coronary syndrome. (
  • The purpose of the study was to calculate the incidence of the acute flank pain syndrome in Iceland and to describe the case series. (
  • The annual incidence of the acute flank pain syndrome increased threefold during the study period. (
  • The incidence of the acute flank pain syndrome was high. (
  • The incidence of the acute flank pain syndrome during the period 1998-2007 relative to the population of the Reykjavík area (number of cases/100.000 inhabitants/year). (
  • In the setting of prior cervical spine surgery, with new or increasing nontraumatic cervical or neck pain or radiculopathy, initial imaging with radiographs and/or CT cervical spine without contrast is usually appropriate. (
  • Acute nontraumatic back pain has a broad differential diagnosis, but the primary concern in the emergent setting is the accurate and timely identification of spinal infection. (
  • Download Handout Introduction Alteplase (rt-PA) has been used for acute ischemic stroke since its approval by the FDA in 1996 after. (
  • Because of its life-threatening nature, ectopic pregnancy must be ruled out when a woman of reproductive age presents with pelvic pain and a positive pregnancy test. (
  • Ruptured endometrial cysts as a rare cause of acute pelvic pain: can we differentiate them from ruptured corpus luteal cysts on CT scan? (
  • Computed tomography is useful in the differentiation of ruptured endometrial cysts and corpus luteal cysts in a patient with acute pelvic pain. (
  • In addition, the CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain provides recommendations for primary care clinicians who are prescribing opioids outside of active cancer treatment, palliative care, and end-of-life care. (
  • Pain that lasts longer than 6 weeks raises a red flag because 80% to 90% of all episodes of low back pain resolve within 6 weeks. (
  • Chronic pain lasts longer than acute pain and is generally somewhat resistant to medical treatment. (
  • Low back pain refers to pain that you feel in your lower back. (
  • Acute back pain can last for a few days to a few weeks. (
  • Although this pain or discomfort can happen anywhere in your back, the most common area affected is your lower back. (
  • Low back pain is the number two reason that Americans see their health care provider. (
  • You will usually first feel back pain just after you lift a heavy object, move suddenly, sit in one position for a long time, or have an injury or accident. (
  • Acute low back pain is most often caused by a sudden injury to the muscles and ligaments supporting the back. (
  • Problems with your gall bladder or pancreas may cause back pain. (
  • Pain around the back of your pelvis, or sacroiliac (SI) joint. (
  • Depending on the cause of your back pain, you may also have pain in your leg, hip, or the bottom of your foot. (
  • When you first see your provider , you will be asked about your back pain, including how often it happens and how severe it is. (
  • Your provider will try to determine the cause of your back pain and whether it is likely to quickly get better with simple measures such as ice, mild painkillers, physical therapy, and proper exercises. (
  • Most of the time, back pain will get better using these methods. (
  • Most people with back pain improve or recover within 4 to 6 weeks. (
  • A common misbelief about back pain is that you need to rest and avoid activity for a long time. (
  • If you have no sign of a serious cause for your back pain (such as loss of bowel or bladder control, weakness, weight loss, or fever), then you should stay as active as possible. (
  • Usually you do not eat or drink right after your operation so instead of pills for pain you will take medicine in a small tube placed in a vein (IV) in your arm or in the epidural space in your back. (
  • for years and years I've dealt with back pain and it got worse few years back. (
  • Acute upper back pain is most commonly due to a muscular back injury. (
  • However, upper back pain can be a big problem for a patient and can limit their upper body functionality to a large degree. (
  • In fact, most acute upper back aches will resolve without any particular care within a few days to 2 weeks. (
  • Many spinal irregularities are blamed for creating acute and chronic back pain, illogically. (
  • Muscular pain is common in the upper back due to injury, overuse or psychosomatic process. (
  • Heat and ice are wonderful conservative treatments for muscular back pain. (
  • Never rush towards any drastic or invasive treatment for severe upper back pain without good reason and a few diagnostic opinions suggesting immediate operative intervention. (
  • Most back surgeries are not necessary and show poor results for correcting long standing pain conditions. (
  • I suffered from occasional moderate upper back muscle pain during my original 18 year battle with agonizing lower back pain. (
  • I wish my horrible lumbar back pain followed this same path. (
  • Remember that health is a combined effort of both mind and body in all cases.I understand that upper back pain can be very limiting. (
  • Upper back pain rarely involves a serious source, even though it might feel severe. (
  • This website is provided completely free by The Cure Back Pain Network. (
  • A 36-year-old male suffered from severe low back pain. (
  • The lower back pain is daily, and worse in the mornings upon rising from bed. (
  • He does not recall any specific low back injury that set off this particular episode of acute pain, which began insidiously about 3 wks before his first visit. (
  • Kemp's maneuver elicited sharp but localized left low back pain over the left L5/SI facet and sacroiliac joint, with only mild left buttock pain. (
  • Repeated extension in the standing position elicited some increased pain over the left lumbar facets, but repeated extension in the prone position afforded the patient some relief of his low back pain. (
  • Manage acute and chronic back pain. (
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in a 73-year-old man with a history of back pain. (
  • He came to see me 3 weeks ago with acute lower back pain. (
  • He does have a history of lower back pain so it's not always easy to resolve these things but I managed to help ease the pain. (
  • If you struggle daily with lower back pain or sciatica we can help. (
  • Went to Active X with a very sore mid back pain which had stopped me running and was extremely uncomfortable carrying out daily tasks. (
  • After 2 months I'm back running and have no pain. (
  • 160 primary health care outpatients with acute or sub-acute low back pain were studied during 10 weeks of a stay active concept versus manual therapy in addition to the stay active concept. (
  • If such an association exists it would add further information to the pain drawing, especially regarding the interpretation of the course of the low back pain. (
  • Moreover, since it is well known that severe radiating leg pain affects the course of the low back pain negatively [ 10 ] radiation might confound a possible association between pain and function on the one hand and pain modalities on the other. (
  • A focused history and physical examination directed towards uncovering signs that suggest a serious underlying cause of low back pain are crucial. (
  • With an annual incidence of 5%, low back pain affects up to 90% of the population at some point in time in their lives. (
  • 1-3 The economic impact of low back pain is enormous. (
  • In 1998 the direct health care costs attributable to low back pain in the United States were an estimated $26.3 billion. (
  • The "red flags" of back pain are important historical and physical features that point to potentially dangerous conditions. (
  • These red flags were defined in a set of guidelines on acute low back pain published by the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. (
  • In this article, I discuss the approach to the patient who presents with low back pain-with particular emphasis on red flags. (
  • A focused history taking is the most critical tool for identifying risk factors for serious disease in a patient who presents with low back pain. (
  • If the patient has been assessed for low back pain previously, and pain persists for more than 6 weeks, he or she requires further evaluation. (
  • In both groups, back pain is more likely to have a serious cause such as tumor or infection. (
  • The goal of acupuncture and herbal treatments is to bring the body back into balance, alleviate pain, and strengthen and regulate the immune system. (
  • Early return to work has benefits for relief of back pain and functional recovery after controlling for multiple confounds. (
  • Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect on health outcomes of an early or immediate return-to-work (RTW) after acute low back pain (LBP). (
  • With this service, you receive 24 hour coverage with an Anesthesiology resident or Pain Management fellow and an attending faculty member who is available for consultations, questions, or problems. (
  • These signatures are greatly needed because prevention of chronic pain is a major challenge in pain management. (
  • A major challenge in pain management is preventing chronic pain from occurring after an acute pain event. (
  • Hence, no two people experience pain the same way, which adds to the complexity of the management of pain. (
  • Parental misconceptions concerning pain assessment and pain management may therefore also result in inadequate pain treatment. (
  • Fortunately, the past 25 years have seen substantial advances in research and interest in pediatric pain management and in the development of pediatric pain services, primarily under the direction of pediatric anesthesiologists. (
  • Retrieved from . (
  • This article is dedicated to the management of acute trauma pain in older adults. (
  • There is paucity of dedicated high-quality evidence to guide management of trauma-related pain in older adults. (
  • Feasibility of a Hybrid Web-Based and In-Person Self-management Intervention Aimed at Preventing Acute to Chronic Pain Transition After Major Lower Extremity Trauma (iPACT-E-Trauma): A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. (
  • The safety and effectiveness of fentanyl ITS for acute postoperative pain management has been demonstrated in a range of surgery and patient types studied in seven phase 3 trials (three placebo-controlled trials and four active-comparator trials). (
  • The purpose of this case series is to illustrate how fentanyl ITS is being utilized for postoperative pain management in real-world clinical practice following a variety of surgeries and in current pain management protocols that may have evolved since the completion of the phase 3 program. (
  • This course will NOT meet the NY pain management/palliative care/addiction requirement for prescribers. (
  • In 2019, the U.S. Health and Human Services (HHS) Pain Management Best Practices Inter-Agency Task Force published its report, which called on medical societies to work together to develop evidence-based guidelines to improve the quality of pain care delivery. (
  • The Task Force, which was Chaired by Stanford anesthesiology and pain medicine specialist Dr. Vanila Singh when she was Chief Medical Officer of HSS, recommended individualized, multimodal, and multidisciplinary approaches to pain management to help decrease an over-reliance on opioids, increase access to care, and promote widespread education on pain and substance use disorders. (
  • Over the course of several months, using Delphi methodology and culminating in the first live virtual Pain Summit involving all participating societies, this multiorganizational consensus process resulted in the establishment of 7 guiding principles for acute perioperative pain management. (
  • Clinicians should conduct a preoperative evaluation including assessment of medical and psychological conditions, concomitant medications, history of chronic pain, substance use disorder, and previous postoperative treatment regimens and responses, to guide the perioperative pain management plan. (
  • Clinicians should provide patient and family-centered, individually tailored education to the patient (and/or responsible caregiver), including information on treatment options for managing postoperative pain, and document the plan and goals for postoperative pain management. (
  • Clinicians should adjust the pain management plan based on adequacy of pain relief and presence of adverse events. (
  • The fact that 14 professional healthcare organizations could agree on these 7 principles means that the bar for acute perioperative pain management has been reset. (
  • The management of pain in dentistry encompasses a number of procedural issues, including the delivery of anesthetic and the management of postprocedural pain, as well as pain diagnosis, management strategies for orofacial conditions that cause pain in the face and head, and the management of pain in special populations. (
  • Given the extensive nature of the topic, this article reviews pain definitions and mechanisms, acute versus chronic pain, and focuses on management strategies related to anesthetic delivery and the control of pain following dental procedures. (
  • hence, overall pain management needs to reflect these differences. (
  • The delivery of anesthetic and the management of postprocedural pain in a normal patient is not likely to be impacted by peripheral and central neurophysiological plasticity. (
  • Thus, effective procedural pain control should include assessment and management of the patient's emotional state and relative stress level. (
  • The goal of any pain management strategy is to safely reduce pain and increase your ability to do everyday activities. (
  • Trauma services therefore need to adapt to meet this demographic shift and ensure that trauma clinicians are sufficiently skilled in treating pain in complex older people. (
  • Clinicians should use a validated pain assessment tool to track responses to postoperative pain treatments and adjust treatment plans accordingly. (
  • Most acute expressions which occur in between the shoulders and involve limits in moving the arms or neck are soft-tissue related. (
  • Comparisons were made between spinal sensory processing in normal animals and animals which had received acute inflammation of the hindpaw at different postnatal ages. (
  • The characteristic changes in both behaviour and in dorsal horn neuron properties that occur following acute peripheral inflammation in the adult were found to be developmentally regulated (Chapter 3). (
  • Hindpaw inflammation at birth, while causing acute effects did not result in any long term behavioural or electrophysiological changes in sensory processing, tested three weeks later. (
  • This has led many to conclude incorrectly that children do not experience pain in the same way that adults do. (
  • Evaluation and Treatment of Acute Trauma Pain in Older Adults. (
  • In those who transition to chronic pain, maladaptive changes occur throughout the nervous system. (
  • Parents/guardians may fail to report pain either because they are unable to assess it or are afraid of the consequences of pain therapy. (
  • Behavioural and electrophysiological techniques were used to assess both the acute and long term effects of early pain, upon spinal sensory pathways, in the rat. (
  • The Pain Consultation Services (PCS) at Emory University Hospital and Emory University Hospital Midtown work with the Department of Anesthesiology to alleviate acute post-operative pain. (
  • Download Handout Introduction Intramuscular olanzapine and parenteral benzodiazepines are commonly used agents in the ED for acute agitation.An FDA warning states that. (
  • Find out how beta-blocker eye drops show promising results for acute migraine relief. (
  • His nurse worries about giving any pain medication to this intoxicated patient and asks your opinion. (
  • The patient is employed as a car mechanic and must frequently work bent over the hoods of cars in a flexed position, which aggravates his pain. (
  • The PRN order also means that either the patient must know or remember to ask for pain medication or the nurse must be able to identify when a patient is in pain. (
  • Exercise, mind-body interventions, and behavioral treatments (including cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness practices) can encourage active patient participation in the care plan and help address the effects of pain in the patient's life. (
  • Ever since 1949 when Harold Palmer [ 3 ] suggested pain drawings to distinguish functional pain from organic pain, the pain drawing has appealed to the medical society due to its possibility to describe relatively complex pain experiences and yet be simple for the patient to use. (
  • However, if the patient has had pain for 4 to 6 weeks without appropriate treatment, it is reasonable to delay the workup and observe him closely-provided there are no other red flags. (
  • However, in the patient with a history of chronic nonfacial pain or in the fearful patient, brain neurophysiology may be altered so as to facilitate pain perception. (
  • The patient with multiple chronic pain problems may respond to dental treatment differently than the noninvolved patient. (
  • 22 year old male lacrosse player with right knee pain and swelling x 2 days. (
  • I had knee pain which interfered with me doing my normal activities. (
  • Knee pain is the most common musculoskeletal complaint that brings people to the doctor. (
  • Several different things can lead to knee pain, and the treatments for it vary depending on what's causing it. (
  • In treating many types of knee pain , doctors try to break what's called the inflammatory cycle. (
  • You end up with knee pain that lasts a long time or gets worse. (
  • If you have knee pain, some things you can do at home to help break the inflammatory cycle are protection, rest, ice, compression, and elevation (known as PRICE). (
  • An unruptured ectopic pregnancy produces localized pain due to dilatation of the fallopian tube. (
  • Once the ectopic pregnancy is ruptured, the pain tends to be generalized owing to peritoneal irritation. (
  • Due to its life-threatening nature, ectopic pregnancy must be ruled out when a reproductive age woman presents with pelivic pain and a positive pregnancy test. (
  • The ability to identify those at risk for transitioning to chronic pain could inform future clinical trials, improve success of trials, and transform acute pain treatment approaches for prevention of chronic pain. (
  • Noninvasive and nonpharmacologic approaches to acute pain also have the potential to improve pain and function without risk for serious harms. (
  • Here are some nonopioid medications and noninvasive nonpharmacologic approaches that can be used to treat acute pain. (
  • Many noninvasive, nonpharmacologic approaches can improve pain and function without risk for serious harms. (
  • The 47th Annual Regional Anesthesiology and Acute Pain Medicine Meeting is full of basic and clinical translational science, hands-on and demonstration workshops, and problem-based breakout sessions with the experts. (
  • For most people, acute pain resolves as the injury or trauma that caused it heals. (
  • The evidence base and limitations of other adjuncts such as topical and intravenous lidocaine, ketamine and regional anaesthesia in acute geriatric trauma are discussed. (
  • Acute pain is pain that has lasted for less than a month and has a known cause, like an injury, trauma, surgery, or infection. (
  • Effective pain relief is an important part of your treatment while you are in the hospital. (
  • The treatment and alleviation of pain constitute a basic human right that exists regardless of age. (
  • Nevertheless, the assessment and treatment of pain in children are important aspects of pediatric care, regardless of who provides it. (
  • Acute pain may be associated with dental procedures such as anesthetic injection, restorative treatment, periodontal procedures, implant placement, and tooth extraction . (
  • No matter what form of treatment is used, discuss with your doctor what kind of pain relief and improvement you can expect overall and continue to follow up with your doctor on your progress. (
  • You and your doctor should work together to establish treatment goals for pain and function in your daily life. (
  • If after talking to your doctor about your pain treatment, you are prescribed opioids, be sure to ask about the risks and benefits. (
  • Several nonopioid pharmacologic therapies can be used for chronic pain conditions. (
  • Acute pain that lasts and lasts despite a variety of attempted treatments might actually be psychogenic in nature, explaining the ineffectiveness of therapy at resolving the suffering. (
  • the review of treatments for acute nonmigraine pain also evaluated outcomes at ≥4 weeks. (
  • In our clinics we offer wide variety of treatments to address acute and chronic pain. (
  • Nonopioid therapies are at least as effective as opioids for many common types of acute pain ( Recommendation 1 ). (
  • In some cases (like acute MI and aortic dissection) analgesics can decrease pain-related tachycardia. (
  • As Chair of the ASA Committee on Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, I participated as a member of the steering committee and served as Co-Chair of the Pain Summit. (