Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Hepatitis B, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Hepatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.Hepatitis A: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Interferon-alpha: One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Ribavirin: A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Hepatitis Antibodies: Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Hepatitis E: Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 220.127.116.11.Hepatitis, Autoimmune: A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.Hepatitis E virus: A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).Hepatitis, Viral, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.Hepatitis, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.Hepatitis A Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS A ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Hepatitis D: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Hepatitis Viruses: Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.Hepatitis Delta Virus: A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.Lamivudine: A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.Hepatitis A Virus, Human: A strain of HEPATITIS A VIRUS which causes hepatitis in humans. The virus replicates in hepatocytes and is presumed to reach the intestine via the bile duct. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route.Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Hepatitis C Antigens: Antigens of the virions of HEPACIVIRUS, their surface, core, or other associated antigens.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Hepatitis D, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS in conjunction with HEPATITIS B VIRUS and lasting six months or more.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Murine hepatitis virus: A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Hepatovirus: A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Hepatitis A Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS A VIRUS such as the human hepatitis A virus (HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HUMAN).Hepatitis delta Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Hepatitis, Alcoholic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Hepatitis Antigens: Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Hepatitis B Virus, Duck: A DNA virus that closely resembles human hepatitis B virus. It has been recovered from naturally infected ducks.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Interferons: Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.Hepatitis B Virus, Woodchuck: An ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS causing chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in woodchucks. It closely resembles the human hepatitis B virus.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 18.104.22.168.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Marmota: A genus of Sciuridae consisting of 14 species. They are shortlegged, burrowing rodents which hibernate in winter.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Jaundice: A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.Cryoglobulinemia: A condition characterized by the presence of abnormal quantities of CRYOGLOBULINS in the blood. Upon cold exposure, these abnormal proteins precipitate into the microvasculature leading to restricted blood flow in the exposed areas.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Flaviviridae: A family of RNA viruses, many of which cause disease in humans and domestic animals. There are three genera FLAVIVIRUS; PESTIVIRUS; and HEPACIVIRUS, as well as several unassigned species.Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Blood DonorsEgypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Liver Failure: Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.GuanineDrug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Replicon: Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.DucksEnzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Blood Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Arabinofuranosyluracil: A pyrimidine nucleoside formed in the body by the deamination of CYTARABINE.Elasticity Imaging Techniques: Non-invasive imaging methods based on the mechanical response of an object to a vibrational or impulsive force. It is used for determining the viscoelastic properties of tissue, and thereby differentiating soft from hard inclusions in tissue such as microcalcifications, and some cancer lesions. Most techniques use ultrasound to create the images - eliciting the response with an ultrasonic radiation force and/or recording displacements of the tissue by Doppler ultrasonography.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Drug-Induced Liver Injury, Chronic: Liver disease lasting six months or more, caused by an adverse drug effect. The adverse effect may result from a direct toxic effect of a drug or metabolite, or an idiosyncratic response to a drug or metabolite.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Infectious Disease Medicine: A branch of internal medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of INFECTIOUS DISEASES.Gene Products, pol: Retroviral proteins coded by the pol gene. They are usually synthesized as a protein precursor (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into final products that include reverse transcriptase, endonuclease/integrase, and viral protease. Sometimes they are synthesized as a gag-pol fusion protein (FUSION PROTEINS, GAG-POL). pol is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.Glycyrrhizic Acid: A widely used anti-inflammatory agent isolated from the licorice root. It is metabolized to GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID, which inhibits 11-BETA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES and other enzymes involved in the metabolism of CORTICOSTEROIDS. Therefore, glycyrrhizic acid, which is the main and sweet component of licorice, has been investigated for its ability to cause hypermineralocorticoidism with sodium retention and potassium loss, edema, increased blood pressure, as well as depression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.RomaniaHepadnaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the HEPADNAVIRIDAE.Hepatitis, Infectious Canine: A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.DNA Virus InfectionsCryoglobulins: Abnormal immunoglobulins, especially IGG or IGM, that precipitate spontaneously when SERUM is cooled below 37 degrees Celsius. It is characteristic of CRYOGLOBULINEMIA.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)HLA-DP alpha-Chains: Transmembrane proteins that form the alpha subunits of the HLA-DP antigens.PyrimidinonesAmantadine: An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Hepadnaviridae: A family of hepatotropic DNA viruses which contains double-stranded DNA genomes and causes hepatitis in humans and animals. There are two genera: AVIHEPADNAVIRUS and ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS. Hepadnaviruses include HEPATITIS B VIRUS, duck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, DUCK), heron hepatitis B virus, ground squirrel hepatitis virus, and woodchuck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK).Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Hemophilia A: The classic hemophilia resulting from a deficiency of factor VIII. It is an inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Hepatitis Virus, Duck: Unassigned species, in the family PICORNAVIRIDAE, causing high mortality in ducklings 3 days to 3 weeks old.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Flaviviridae Infections: Infections with viruses of the family FLAVIVIRIDAE.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.TaiwanSiderosis: A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of iron in the mining dust or welding fumes.BrazilDrug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Torque teno virus: A species of non-enveloped DNA virus in the genus ANELLOVIRUS, associated with BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS; and HEPATITIS. However, no etiological role has been found for TTV in hepatitis.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Interferon Type I: Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).Hepatic Encephalopathy: A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Serum: The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.Phlebotomy: The techniques used to draw blood from a vein for diagnostic purposes or for treatment of certain blood disorders such as erythrocytosis, hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, and porphyria cutanea tarda.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Tattooing: The indelible marking of TISSUES, primarily SKIN, by pricking it with NEEDLES to imbed various COLORING AGENTS. Tattooing of the CORNEA is done to colorize LEUKOMA spots.Protein PrecursorsGenetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Tupaia: A genus of tree shrews of the family TUPAIIDAE which consists of about 12 species. One of the most frequently encountered species is T. glis. Members of this genus inhabit rain forests and secondary growth areas in southeast Asia.Iron Overload: An excessive accumulation of iron in the body due to a greater than normal absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract or from parenteral injection. This may arise from idiopathic hemochromatosis, excessive iron intake, chronic alcoholism, certain types of refractory anemia, or transfusional hemosiderosis. (From Churchill's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1989)PakistanPrognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.ItalySuperinfection: A frequent complication of drug therapy for microbial infection. It may result from opportunistic colonization following immunosuppression by the primary pathogen and can be influenced by the time interval between infections, microbial physiology, or host resistance. Experimental challenge and in vitro models are sometimes used in virulence and infectivity studies.Remission, Spontaneous: A spontaneous diminution or abatement of a disease over time, without formal treatment.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Portal System: A system of vessels in which blood, after passing through one capillary bed, is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation. It pertains especially to the hepatic portal system.Silymarin: A mixture of flavonoids extracted from seeds of the MILK THISTLE, Silybum marianum. It consists primarily of silybin and its isomers, silicristin and silidianin. Silymarin displays antioxidant and membrane stabilizing activity. It protects various tissues and organs against chemical injury, and shows potential as an antihepatoxic agent.Prisons: Penal institutions, or places of confinement for war prisoners.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Pessayre D, Larrey D (April 1988). "Acute and chronic drug-induced hepatitis". Baillière's Clinical Gastroenterology. 2 (2): ... Acute pancreatitis (very rare) A case associating acute pancreatitis and mixed hepatitis after three weeks of treatment. In ... there was a case associating acute pancreatitis and mixed hepatitis, after three weeks of treatment. Lazaros and colleagues at ... Amineptine-induced hepatitis, which is sometimes preceded by a rash, is believed to be due to an allergic reaction. It resolves ...
Chronic hepatitis B. Visudyne (verteporfin). Age-related macular degeneration (wet form). Voltaren (diclofenac). Acute pain, ... Chronic myelogenous leukemia (first-line treatment). 998. 2012. 39%. NICE formulary approval, January 2012 ... Chronic iron overload. 870. 2012. 2%. Manufactured as tablets for oral suspension; tablets for oral use are marketed under ... Chronic iron overload. Deferasirox tablets for oral use-a new formulation of Exjade (which comes in tablets for oral suspension ...
"Levofloxacin-induced acute fulminant hepatic failure in a patient with chronic hepatitis B infection". Ann Pharmacother. 39 (10 ... In the U.S. ofloxacin is approved for the treatment of bacterial infections such as: Acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic ... Events that may occur in acute overdose are rare, and include renal failure and seizure. Susceptible groups of patients, such ... Current advise for the management of an acute overdose of ofloxacin is emptying of the stomach, along with close observation, ...
It is widely applied to treat acute and chronic hepatitis ( and Li and Li, 2013). However, the mechanisms whereby THSWD is of ... observation of Peach Kernel and Carthamus Four Substances Decoction modified treating 120 patients with chronic hepatitis by ... of Peach Kernel and Carthamus Four Substances Decoction combining interferon on hepatic fibrosis patients infected by hepatitis ...
... is used to treat the following diseases: Hepatitis (acute and chronic), toxic hepatitis, medicinal and alcoholic ... Essentiale medications are indicated for the treatment of fatty degeneration of the liver, hepatitis (including toxic hepatitis ... The spectrum of Essential phospholipids' activity in chronic degenerative liver diseases is illustrated by the following ... chronic pancreatitis, gastric and duodenum ulcer); Toxicosis of pregnancy (edema, proteinuria and blood pressure disorders); ...
"Chronic Hepatitis After Hepatitis E Virus Infection in a Patient With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Taking Rituximab" (PDF). Retrieved ... Hepatitis E infection is normally an acute infection, suggesting the drug in combination with lymphoma may have weakened the ... Rituximab has been reported as a possible cofactor in a chronic Hepatitis E infection in a person with lymphoma. ... Cardiac arrest Cytokine release syndrome Tumor lysis syndrome, causing acute renal failure Infections Hepatitis B reactivation ...
... jaundice can be caused by acute or chronic hepatitis, hepatotoxicity, cirrhosis, drug-induced hepatitis and alcoholic liver ... Levels 5-10× tend to indicate viral hepatitis. Levels less than 5× normal tend to indicate drug toxicity. Acute hepatitis will ... Low levels of albumin tend to indicate a chronic condition, while it is normal in hepatitis and cholestasis. ... On the other hand, if ALT is higher than AST, this is indicative of hepatitis. Levels of ALT and AST are not well correlated to ...
Chronic (rather than acute) infection with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus is the main cause of liver cancer. Globally, ... and do not become chronic (see Hepatitis A, Hepatitis E). Hepatitis D virus is a "satellite" of hepatitis B virus (can only ... Most transplants are done for chronic liver diseases leading to cirrhosis, such as chronic hepatitis C, alcoholism, autoimmune ... Schweitzer A, Horn J, Mikolajczyk RT, Krause G, Ott JJ (2015). "Estimations of worldwide prevalence of chronic hepatitis B ...
Michael Houghton (virologist)
"Detection of antibody to hepatitis C virus in prospectively followed transfusion recipients with acute and chronic non-A, non-B ... He also co-discovered the Hepatitis D genome in 1986. The discovery of Hepatitis C led to the rapid development of diagnostic ... "Detection of antibody to hepatitis C virus in patients with various chronic liver diseases". Hepatology. 10: 581. doi:10.1002/ ... "Anti-hepatitis C antibodies and non-A, non-B post-transfusion hepatitis in the Netherlands". Lancet. 334: 297-298. doi:10.1016/ ...
Hepatitis refers to inflammation of liver tissue, and may be acute or chronic. Infectious viral hepatitis, such as hepatitis A ... or due to acute or chronic alcohol abuse or as a side-effect of ERCP. Other forms of pancreatitis include chronic and ... In the acute setting, this may be a cause of hepatic encephalopathy and hepatorenal syndrome. Other causes of chronic liver ... Acute liver disease rarely results in pain, but may result in jaundice. Infectious liver disease may cause a fever. Chronic ...
National Intelligence Assessments on Infectious Diseases
Up to 33% of prospective conscripts are deemed unfit for service owing to the effects of prior drug use (chronic hepatitis or ... Acute lower respiratory infections-including pneumonia and influenza-as well as diarrheal diseases and measles, appear to have ... Some 4 million Americans are chronic carriers of the hepatitis C virus, a significant cause of liver cancer and cirrhosis. The ... hepatitis C, and Nipah virus, for which no cures are available. Of the seven biggest killers worldwide, TB, malaria, hepatitis ...
... severe acute respiratory syndrome, and lung infections in critically ill patients., and for chronic hepatitis B. It has been ... Wu X, Jia J, You H (2015). "Thymosin alpha-1 treatment in chronic hepatitis B". Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy. 15: 129- ... Clinical trials suggest it may be useful in septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, peritonitis, acute ... As of 2009[update] Thymosin α1 is approved in 35 under-developed or developing countries for the treatment of Hepatitis B and C ...
HLA A1-B8 haplotype
... the association of A1 with autoimmune hepatitis with no anti-viral antibody was stronger than with chronic active hepatitis ... Underlying this move was the HLA A1-B8-DR3-DQ2 haplotype, a haplotype that is in acute linkage disequilibrium in the European ... Vogten AJ, Shorter RG, Opelz G (June 1979). "HLA and cell-mediated immunity in HBsAg negative chronic active hepatitis". Gut. ... Freudenberg J, Baumann H, Arnold W, Berger J, Büschenfelde KH (1977). "HLA in different forms of chronic active hepatitis. A ...
Stuart C. Ray
"Johns Hopkins Team Finds 'Ancestral' Hepatitis-C Virus at Root of Evolution in Acute and Chronic Infections. AScribe, June 9, ... "High-programmed death-1 levels on hepatitis C virus-specific T cells during acute infection are associated with viral ... "Selection pressure from neutralizing antibodies drives sequence evolution during acute infection with hepatitis C virus". ... "Hepatitis C: The Insidious Spread Of A Killer Virus" Newsweek, Geoffrey Cowley, April 22, 2002. "The Insidious Spread of a ...
Long-term effects of alcohol consumption
... hepatitis, and pancreatitis in both its chronic and acute forms. A study concluded, "Mild to moderate alcohol consumption is ... Chronic alcohol abuse can cause fatty liver, cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis. Treatment options are limited and consist of ... Alcohol abuse is a leading cause of both acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis. Alcoholic pancreatitis can result in ... ISBN 978-0-471-79462-2. Merle A. Carter & Edward Bernstein (2005). "Acute and Chronic Alcohol Intoxication". In Elizabeth ...
Chronic active hepatitis has caused cirrhosis of the liver in most by the time they develop symptoms. While most people with ... About 5% of all people are diagnosed only when they develop fulminant acute liver failure, often in the context of a hemolytic ... this damage eventually leads to chronic active hepatitis, fibrosis (deposition of connective tissue) and cirrhosis. The liver ... Alkaline phosphatase levels are relatively low in those with Wilson's-related acute liver failure. If there are neurological ...
... chronic active hepatitis, and hepatic necrosis, occur rarely. The onset of chronic active hepatitis may be insidious, and ... The pulmonary toxicity caused by nitrofurantoin can be categorized into acute, subacute, and chronic pulmonary reactions. The ... Amit, G; Cohen, P; Ackerman, Z (Mar 2002). "Nitrofurantoin-induced chronic active hepatitis". The Israel Medical Association ... Acute reactions have been estimated to occur in about one in 5000 women who take the drug. These reactions usually develop 3-8 ...
PEGylated interferon alpha for use in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C and hepatitis B (Hoffmann-La Roche, 2001) ... PEGylated L-asparaginase for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in patients who are hypersensitive to the native ... PEGylated interferon alpha for use in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C and hepatitis B (Schering-Plough/Enzon, 2000) ... PEGylated naloxol for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation in adults patients with chronic non-cancer pain (un- ...
Hepatitis C is caused by an RNA virus. In 80% of people infected, the disease is chronic, and without treatment, they are ... Significance of HBV DNA by PCR over serological markers of HBV in acute and chronic patients. Indian Journal of Medical ... However, some viruses including those that cause AIDS and viral hepatitis evade these immune responses and result in chronic ... Bertoletti A, Gehring A. Immune response and tolerance during chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatology Research. 2007;37 ...
Pre-existing acute or chronic liver dysfunction or family history of severe liver inflammation (hepatitis), particularly ... Vasudev K, Mead A, Macritchie K, Young AH (2012). "Valproate in acute mania: is our practice evidence based?". Int J Health ... Bond DJ, Lam RW, Yatham LN (2010). "Divalproex sodium versus placebo in the treatment of acute bipolar depression: a systematic ... Supplemental L-carnitine is indicated in patients having an acute overdose and also prophylactically in high risk patients. ...
... chronic myelogenous leukemia), certain solid tumors (including Kaposi's sarcoma), genital warts and chronic hepatitis C ... for acute promyelocytic leukemia Xeloda (capecitabine) for breast and colorectal cancer Xenical (orlistat) for obesity Zelboraf ... for hepatitis B and C Pulmozyme (dornase alfa) for the improvement of pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis Soriatane/ ... for B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (and other hematological malignancies), non-Hodgkin lymphomas and rheumatoid arthritis ...
Azzam HS, Goertz C, Fritts M, Jonas WB (2007). "Natural products and chronic hepatitis C virus". Liver Int. 27 (1): 17-25. doi: ... such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Lactoferrin and lactoferricin inhibit in vitro growth of Trichophyton ... Beside interacting with the cell membrane, lactoferrin also directly binds to viral particles, such as the hepatitis viruses. ... hepatitis C virus, hantaviruses, rotaviruses, poliovirus type 1, human respiratory syncytial virus, murine leukemia viruses and ...
Acute hepatitis can sometimes resolve on its own, progress to chronic hepatitis, or rarely result in acute liver failure. Over ... The spectrum of drug-induced liver injury varies from acute hepatitis to chronic hepatitis to acute liver failure. Toxins and ... When hepatitis is continued for more than six months it is termed chronic hepatitis. Chronic hepatitis is often asymptomatic ... resulting in symptoms of acute hepatitis with increased serum IgE (though chronic hepatitis is possible with chronic infections ...
Hepatitis C is caused by an RNA virus. In 80% of people infected, the disease is chronic, and without treatment, they are ... Significance of HBV DNA by PCR over serological markers of HBV in acute and chronic patients. Indian Journal of Medical ... The treatment of chronic carriers of the hepatitis B virus by using a similar strategy using lamivudine has been developed. ... Hepatitis viruses can develop into a chronic viral infection that leads to liver cancer. Infection by human T-lymphotropic ...
... or superimposed on chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis B carrier state (superinfection). Both superinfection and coinfection with ... These complications include a greater likelihood of experiencing liver failure in acute infections and a rapid progression to ... GB virus C Hepatitis A Hepatitis B, Hepatitis B Virus Hepatitis C, Hepatitis C Virus Hepatitis E, Hepatitis E Virus Makino S, ... Hepatitis D (hepatitis delta) is a disease caused by the hepatitis D virus (HDV), a small spherical enveloped virusoid. This is ...
... virus infection may be either acute (self-limiting) or chronic (long-standing). Persons with self-limiting ... Acute infection with hepatitis B virus is associated with acute viral hepatitis, an illness that begins with general ill-health ... "Predictive factors for reactivation of hepatitis B following hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion in chronic hepatitis B". ... Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver. It can cause both acute and ...
... and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic ... Hepatitis E is a viral hepatitis (liver inflammation) caused by infection with a virus called hepatitis E virus. It is one of ... Hepatitis E occasionally develops into an acute, severe liver disease, and is fatal in about 2% of all cases. Clinically, it is ... The hepatitis E virus causes around 20 million infections a year. These result in around three million acute illnesses and as ...
... risk of death from acute liver failure following HAV infection increases with age and when the person has underlying chronic ... Acute hepatitis A resulted in 11,200 deaths in 2015. World Hepatitis Day occurs each year on July 28 to bring awareness to ... Acute hepatitis A resulted in 11,200 deaths in 2015. Developed countries have low circulating levels of hepatovirus A, while ... IgM antibody is only present in the blood following an acute hepatitis A infection. It is detectable from 1-2 weeks after the ...
What are symptoms of acute and chronic hepatitis C?
... whether its acute or chronic. when you do notice symptoms, they could include fever, nausea and vomiting, flu-like symptoms, ... there arent any obvious signs of hepatitis c, ... Chronic," "Hepatitis C, Acute," "Overview of Chronic Hepatitis ... Merck Manual: "Hepatitis C, Chronic," "Hepatitis C, Acute," "Overview of Chronic Hepatitis." ... What are symptoms of acute and chronic hepatitis C?. ANSWER Often, there arent any obvious signs of hepatitis C, whether its ...
Acute or Chronic? - Forum on Hepatitis and HIV Coinfection - TheBody.com
What you need to do next is to have your doctor run a test called hepatitis B core antibody IgG. Only the IgM was performed and ... Okay then it says Hep B Surface AG Positive AB NEGATIVE HEP A IGM NEGATIVE HEP B CORE IGM NEGATIVE HEP C AB NEGATIVE HEP BE AG ... Ask the Experts > Forum on Hepatitis and HIV Coinfection > Q & A Acute or Chronic?. May 14, 2006 Hi I am pregnant and very ... The person who is handling my case told me today that I am a lifetime carrier (acute) of Hep B.But how can you be a lifetime ...
Vital Signs: Newly Reported Acute and Chronic Hepatitis C Cases ― United States, 2009-2018 | MMWR
New report shows hepatitis C is increasing dramatically in the United States, especially among younger adults. ... New report shows hepatitis C is increasing dramatically in the United States, especially among younger adults. ... acute hepatitis C), followed in some cases by chronic infection (chronic hepatitis C). Persons with acute hepatitis C are ... wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/hepatitis-c-acute.. § The 2016 CSTE definition for confirmed chronic hepatitis C is available at ...
A Case of Acute Autoimmune Hepatitis Superimposed on Chronic Hepatitis B Infection
... Vanessa Sostre,1 Hiren G. Patel,2 Abdalla ... T. Laskus and J. Slusarczyk, "Autoimmune chronic active hepatitis developing after acute type B hepatitis," Digestive Diseases ... We present a case of a young male who was diagnosed with acute autoimmune hepatitis superimposed on existent chronic HBV ... M. Pawlowska and W. Halota, "Acute liver failure caused by concurrent autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis B in a 16-year old ...
Am I Chronic or Acute HepaB carrier? - Forum on Hepatitis and HIV Coinfection - TheBody.com
Likely chronic but you should have repeat testing in about six months to confirm. In the meantime, you should also request ... Ask the Experts > Forum on Hepatitis and HIV Coinfection > Q & A Am I Chronic or Acute HepaB carrier?. May 6, 2012 I just ... testing for aids and hep c. Is a twinrix booster needed if I have adequate antibodies?. ... Likely chronic but you should have repeat testing in about six months to confirm. In the meantime, you should also request ...
Acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in renal transplant patients.
to evaluate the prevalence of acute exacerbation in HBV-infected renal transplant patients and its association with the time ... CONCLUSIONS: acute exacerbation was a frequent and severe event in HBV-infected renal transplant patients. Prophylactic/ ... 15362599 - Acute renal failure following ingestion of manganese-containing fertilizer.. 16804849 - Adenovirus infections in ... AIMS: to evaluate the prevalence of acute exacerbation in HBV-infected renal transplant patients and its association with the ...
Tenofovir Versus Lamivudine for Patients of Chronic Hepatitis B With Severe Acute Exacerbation - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials...
Tenofovir Versus Lamivudine for Patients of Chronic Hepatitis B With Severe Acute Exacerbation (HBSAE). The safety and ... Tenofovir Versus Lamivudine for Patients of Chronic Hepatitis B With Severe Acute Exacerbation ... Tenofovir Versus Lamivudine for Patients of Chronic Hepatitis B With Severe Acute Exacerbation ... After entering immune clearance, 10-30% of patients of chronic HBV develop acute exacerbation (AE) , some are mild but some ...
'Acute-on-chronic' zatajenje jetre uzrokovano hepatitis E virusnom infekcijom - transplantirati ili...
Hepatitis E virusna (HEV) infekcija zarazna je bolest s rastućom stopom pojavnosti diljem svijeta. U razvijenim zemljama, ... "Hepatitis E Induced "Acute-On-Chronic" Liver Failure - Do We Transplant or Not?." Infektološki glasnik, vol. 39, br. 1, 2019, ... "Hepatitis E Induced "Acute-On-Chronic" Liver Failure - Do We Transplant or Not?." Infektološki glasnik 39, br. 1 (2019): 28-30 ... 2019). Hepatitis E Induced "Acute-On-Chronic" Liver Failure - Do We Transplant or Not?, Infektološki glasnik, 39(1), str. 28- ...
A study of the evolution of specific and non-specific immune complexes in acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. - PubMed -...
A study of the evolution of specific and non-specific immune complexes in acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis.. Leyva A1, ... but complexes containing HBsAg were always found in chronic hepatitis. ... was found between the absence of ICs and the disappearance of HBsAg in patients who had recovered from acute hepatitis B, ...
Influential factors of prognosis in lamivudine treatment for patients with acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure - Sun -...
Tenofovir in Chronic Hepatitis B with Severe Acute Exacerbation, Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology, 2017, 8, 6, e104 ... lamivudine in chronic hepatitis B patients with severe acute exacerbation and hepatic decompensation, Journal of Hepatology, ... Wei-Lun Tsai, Wei-Chi Sun, Jin-Shiung Cheng, Chronic Hepatitis B with Spontaneous Severe Acute Exacerbation, International ... Man-Fung Yuen, Anti-viral therapy in hepatitis B virus reactivation with acute-on-chronic liver failure, Hepatology ...
Characterization of the Circulating Microbiome in Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure Associated with Hepatitis B by Wei Wu, Ruihong...
Patients with hepatitis B-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HB-ACLF) may have an increased circulating microbial burden. ... Aims: Patients with hepatitis B-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HB-ACLF) may have an increased circulating microbial ... Characterization of the Circulating Microbiome in Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure Associated with Hepatitis B. 39 Pages Posted: ... Characterization of the Circulating Microbiome in Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure Associated with Hepatitis B (January 12, 2018 ...
Tenofovir Versus Lamivudine for Patients of Chronic Hepatitis B With Severe Acute Exacerbation - Full Text View -...
Hepatitis B. Hepatitis B, Chronic. Hepatitis. Liver Diseases. Digestive System Diseases. Hepatitis, Viral, Human. Virus ... Tenofovir Versus Lamivudine for Patients of Chronic Hepatitis B With Severe Acute Exacerbation (HBSAE). The safety and ... Tenofovir Versus Lamivudine for Patients of Chronic Hepatitis B With Severe Acute Exacerbation. ... MedlinePlus related topics: Hepatitis Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Drug Information available for: Lamivudine Tenofovir Tenofovir ...
JCI - Acute exacerbations of chronic type B hepatitis are accompanied by increased T cell responses to hepatitis B core and e...
Acute exacerbations of chronic type B hepatitis are accompanied by increased T cell responses to hepatitis B core and e ... and natural hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) were examined in 22 HBeAg-positive patients with chronic type B hepatitis and 17 ... These findings imply that HBcAg/HBeAg-specific T cells play an important role in the exacerbations of chronic hepatitis B and ... Implications for hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion.. S L Tsai, P J Chen, M Y Lai, P M Yang, J L Sung, J H Huang, L H Hwang, ...
Acute vs. chronic hepatitis | MDedge Infectious Disease
In patients with acute hepatitis, which form of the infection is more common? ... Rates of acute otitis media & upper respiratory infections. Take Quiz. ACIP Guidelines: Adult immunization schedule. Take Quiz ... ACIP recommendations: Prophylaxis for hepatitis A infection. Take Quiz. Updated Recommendations: Tuberculosis testing. Take ...
Perforin and Fas/Fas ligand-mediated cytotoxicity in acute and chronic woodchuck viral hepatitis. - PubMed - NCBI
Perforin and Fas/Fas ligand-mediated cytotoxicity in acute and chronic woodchuck viral hepatitis.. Hodgson PD1, Grant MD, ... Comparative analysis showed that peripheral lymphoid cells from acute WHV hepatitis, but not those from chronic WHV infection, ... Perforin and Fas/Fas ligand-mediated cytotoxicity in acute and chronic woodchuck viral hepatitis ... Perforin and Fas/Fas ligand-mediated cytotoxicity in acute and chronic woodchuck viral hepatitis ...
Acute ulcerative colitis during successful interferon/ribavirin treatment for chronic hepatitis | Gut
A case of acute phase ulcerative colitis like colitis developed by the interferon-beta therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Nippon ... chronic hepatitis. A 54 year old man was treated with pegylated interferon alpha 2a 180 μg weekly and ribavirin 1000 mg daily ... Baid S, Tolkoff-Rubin N, Saidman S, et al. Acute humoral rejection in hepatitis C-infected renal transplant recipients ... developed by the treatment with interferon for chronic hepatitis C. Nippon Shokakibyo Gakkay Zasshi2001;98:399-404. ...
Cellular immune response to hepatitis B virus-encoded antigens in acute and chronic hepatitis B virus infection. | The Journal...
Cellular immune response to hepatitis B virus-encoded antigens in acute and chronic hepatitis B virus infection.. C Ferrari, A ... Cellular immune response to hepatitis B virus-encoded antigens in acute and chronic hepatitis B virus infection. ... Cellular immune response to hepatitis B virus-encoded antigens in acute and chronic hepatitis B virus infection. ... Cellular immune response to hepatitis B virus-encoded antigens in acute and chronic hepatitis B virus infection. ...
Acute hepatitis C virus infection assessment among chronic hemodialysis patients in the Southwest Parana State, Brazil
Home » Acute hepatitis C virus infection assessment among chronic hemodialysis patients in the Southwest Parana State, Brazil ... Acute hepatitis C virus infection assessment among chronic hemodialysis patients in the Southwest Parana State, Brazil. ... Background: Chronic hemodialysis patients are at higher risk for acquiring hepatitis C virus (HCV). The prevalence varies among ... The aim of this study was analyze the follow up of newly acquired acute hepatitis C cases, during the period from January 2002 ...
What is Hepatitis? Symptoms of Acute and Chronic Hepatitis | Healthhype.com
Symptoms of Acute and Chronic Hepatitis. Posted by Dr. Chris. What is Hepatitis?. Hepatitis is the term for inflammation of the ... Symptoms of Chronic Hepatitis. Chronic hepatitis may be virtually asymptomatic apart from a few generalized (non-specific) ... Symptoms such as jaundice that are common in acute hepatitis are rarely seen in chronic cases except when there is advanced ... Symptoms of Acute Hepatitis. The first signs and symptoms of hepatitis may mainly involve the gastrointestinal system like ...
Efficient acute and chronic infection of stem cell-derived hepatocytes by hepatitis C virus. | OnMedica
Efficient acute and chronic infection of stem cell-derived hepatocytes by hepatitis C virus.. ... immune responses and resulted in HCV clearance.This authentic human cell model is well suited to examine acute and chronic host ... Addition of ruxolitinib, a JAK/STAT inhibitor, permitted chronic infection and raised p100 infectious virus titres to 1105 FFU/ ...
Metabolism of Renin Activity in Three Canine Models: Isolated Liver, Acute Hepatic Necrosis and Chronic Toxic Hepatitis |...
Metabolism of Renin Activity in Three Canine Models: Isolated Liver, Acute Hepatic Necrosis and Chronic Toxic Hepatitis. ... Metabolism of Renin Activity in Three Canine Models: Isolated Liver, Acute Hepatic Necrosis and Chronic Toxic Hepatitis ... Metabolism of Renin Activity in Three Canine Models: Isolated Liver, Acute Hepatic Necrosis and Chronic Toxic Hepatitis ... Metabolism of Renin Activity in Three Canine Models: Isolated Liver, Acute Hepatic Necrosis and Chronic Toxic Hepatitis ...
Randomized Controlled Trial of Tenofovir in Patients of Reactivation of Hepatitis B Presenting as Acute on Chronic Liver Failure
... abrupt reappearance or rise of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in th ... Reactivation of hepatitis B is a well-characterized syndrome ... Spontaneous reactivation of chronic hepatitis B presenting as to acute-on-chronic liver failure ... Reactivation of chronic hepatitis B characterized by rise in ALT level >5 times upper. limit of normal along with HBV DNA level ... Reduces Morbidity and Mortality in Patients With Spontaneous Reactivation of Hepatitis B Presenting as Acute-on-chronic Liver ...
Influence of genotypes and precore mutations on fulminant or chronic outcome of acute hepatitis B virus infection
... ... The outcome of acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is variable, influenced by host and viral factors. From 1982 through ... 4%,P< .0001) than those with acute self-limited hepatitis (n = 261). Precore (G1896A) and core-promoter (A1762T/G1764A) ... mutations were more frequent in patients with fulminant than acute self-limited hepatitis (53% vs. 9% and 50% vs. 17%,P< .0001 ...
Characterization of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Envelope Diversification from Acute to Chronic Infection within a Sexually...
Adaptive immune responses in acute and chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Nature 436:946-952. doi:10.1038/nature04079. ... Characterization of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Envelope Diversification from Acute to Chronic Infection within a Sexually ... Characterization of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Envelope Diversification from Acute to Chronic Infection within a Sexually ... Characterization of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Envelope Diversification from Acute to Chronic Infection within a Sexually ...
Diagnosis of acute and chronic hepatitis C - UCL Discovery
Diagnosis of acute and chronic hepatitis C. Keywords:. CHRONIC HEPATITIS, diagnosis, HEPAT, Hepatitis, Hepatitis C, VIRAL- ... Diagnosis of acute and chronic hepatitis C. In: Zuckerman, AJ and Thomas, HC, (eds.) Viral Hepatitis. (pp. 319-338). John Wiley ... HEPATITIS. UCL classification:. UCL , School of Life and Medical Sciences. UCL , School of Life and Medical Sciences , Faculty ...
WHO EMRO | Cellular immune response in acute hepatitis B leading to chronic carrier state | Volume 3, issue 2 | EMHJ volume 3,...
The chronic cases revealed a highly significant decrease in interleukin-2R expression but their low interferon-g values were ... The acute cases recorded the highest interleukin-2R and interferon-g values. Lymphocyte blastogenesis assay in response to ... different mitogens and antigens produced two groups: responders (acute cases) and nonresponders (chronic cases). The responders ... among jaundiced patients revealed significant changes in T-helper and T-suppressor cells among chronic HBV cases from the acute ...
RePub, Erasmus University Repository: The frequency of acute kidney injury in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus...
The frequency of acute kidney injury in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection treated with sofosbuvir-based ... The frequency of acute kidney injury in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection treated with sofosbuvir-based ... Aim: To assess the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with no renal contraindications for SOF-based treatment. ...
Po Gon Ning (bao gan ning) -Herbal Formula that Helps in Fighting Acute and Chronic Hepatitis, Hepatic Fibrosis.
Good for for acute and chronic hepatitis, fatty liver, hepatocirrhosis, elevated transaminase levels. ... Main indications: Use for acute and chronic hepatitis. Helpful in in fighting hepatic fibrosis.* ... acute hepatitis chronic hepatitis fatty liver hepatitis hepatocirrhosis migratory hepatitis Find Similar Products by Category. ...
Is Hepatitis B Contagious? Acute vs. Chronic Hepatitis B Infection
Chronic Hepatitis B Infection virus is one of the biggest enemies of the liver. It causes infections can cause severe ... Acute vs. Chronic Hepatitis B. Hepatitis B can develop into one of two types of infections, either acute or chronic. When ... also known as chronic hepatitis B.. Your risk of developing the chronic or acute form of hepatitis B depends largely on your ... Is Hepatitis B Contagious? Healthy Living Is Hepatitis B Contagious? The hepatitis virus is one of the livers greatest enemies ...
Geographic distribution and characteristics of genotype A hepatitis B virus infection in acute and chronic hepatitis B patients...
Genotype A HBV is associated with an increased risk of HBV progression to chronic infection after acute hepatitis B (AHB) in ... and virologic characteristics of genotype A AHB and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in Japan. METHODS Five hundred seventy AHB ... RESULTS Hepatitis B virus genotype A was the predominant genotype for AHB between 2005 and 2010. Phylogenetic analysis showed ... BACKGROUND AND AIMS The prevalence of sexually transmitted acute infections of the genotype A hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been ...
SevereKidneyOccurInfectionViralHepatocellularInflammation2018AntiviralHBsAgAntibodyTypes of HepatitisAsymptomaticCases of acute hepatitis2016Develop chronic hepatitisComplicationsGenotypeImmuneAdultsPrevalenceSymptoms of hepatitisInfected blood transfusionsAutoimmuneAntigensDiagnosisType of hepatitisACLFCirrhosis of thFulminant hepatitisPrevent hepatitisTreatmentVirusesRenalCenters for DiseasInfectious DiseaseMorbidity and mortaHigh risk for hepatitisLiver damagePatients with fulminantExacerbations of chronicPeople with acute hepatitisFibrosisIncubation period of hepatitisLonger than 6 monthsExacerbationNauseaHBeAg
- Infectious canine hepatitis (ICH) is a worldwide, contagious disease of dogs with signs that vary from a slight fever and congestion of the mucous membranes to severe depression, marked decrease in the number of circulating white blood cells (leukocytes) in the blood, and prolonged bleeding time. (dogforums.com)
- Only the IgM was performed and that is positive only in "acute" or recent infection. (thebody.com)
- 50% of cases will progress to chronic infection, which can be life-threatening. (cdc.gov)
- HCV can cause an acute infection (acute hepatitis C), followed in some cases by chronic infection (chronic hepatitis C). Persons with acute hepatitis C are typically asymptomatic or have only a mild clinical illness. (cdc.gov)
- Because HCV infection is most often asymptomatic, only 55.6% of these adults reported having ever been told that they had hepatitis C during 2013-2016 ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
- Autoimmune hepatitis has been associated with chronic HCV infection, but there are only few cases reported of HBV infection as a possible trigger. (hindawi.com)
- We present a case of a young male who was diagnosed with acute autoimmune hepatitis superimposed on existent chronic HBV infection. (hindawi.com)
- Only blood work that came back positive was for chronic HBV infection and elevated immunoglobulin G (IgG) level 1937 mg/dL. (hindawi.com)
- Acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in renal transplant patients. (biomedsearch.com)
- In Taiwan, 15% of general population had hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, HBV is the leading cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in Taiwan. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Patients with hepatitis A, C, D or HIV infection, drug or alcoholic liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, under immuno-suppressive agents use, or previous use of anti-HBV agents are excluded. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global health issue, and the prognosis of patients with HBV-associated acute-on-chronic hepatic failure (ACLF) is extremely poor. (wiley.com)
- In patients with acute hepatitis, which form of the infection is more common? (mdedge.com)
- Freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from woodchucks with newly acquired woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) infection (n = 6), with chronic WHV hepatitis (n = 9), and from healthy animals (n = 11) were used as effector cells. (nih.gov)
- Comparative analysis showed that peripheral lymphoid cells from acute WHV hepatitis, but not those from chronic WHV infection, are more cytotoxic and that this increase seems to be entirely due to activation of perforin-mediated killing. (nih.gov)
- The data indicate that acute infection in woodchucks is associated with the augmented capacity of lymphoid cells to elicit perforin-dependent killing, but in chronic infection, independent of the severity of liver disease and duration of chronicity, these cells have the same or lower cytotoxic potential as PBMC from healthy controls. (nih.gov)
- These findings suggest a role for non-specific cellular immunity, presumably natural killer (NK) cells, in the control of early WHV infection and in the progression of chronic hepatitis. (nih.gov)
- Cellular immune response to hepatitis B virus-encoded antigens in acute and chronic hepatitis B virus infection. (jimmunol.org)
- The proliferative response of PBMC to hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope, core, and e Ag was analyzed prospectively in 21 patients with acute self-limited HBV infection and compared with the response of patients with chronic HBV infection and different levels of HBV replication (i.e., hepatitis e Ag (HBeAg)- or anti-HBe-positive) and liver damage (i.e., chronic active hepatitis or chronic asymptomatic carriers). (jimmunol.org)
- 4) T cell sensitization to HBV envelope Ag in acute and chronic HBV infection is usually undetectable and when measurable is expressed transiently and at low levels. (jimmunol.org)
- Patients with ALT elevations were monitored for possible acute hepatitis C. Results: During this period, 32 new cases were identified with acute hepatitis C virus infection. (ebscohost.com)
- The Prevalence and Incidence of Hepatitis C Virus Infection among Dialysis Patients in The. (ebscohost.com)
- HCV infection in hemodialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, hepatitis C being the most common liver disease in hemodialysis patients. (ebscohost.com)
- Reports on the cost-effectiveness of a serological-based screening strategy than biochemical-based screening in the diagnosis of de novo hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among patients undergoing hemodialysis, according to a study. (ebscohost.com)
- Occult hepatitis C virus infection in Iranian hemodialysis patients. (ebscohost.com)
- Background: Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is defined as the presence of HCVRNA in liver or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in the absence of detectable hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV) or HCV-RNA in the serum. (ebscohost.com)
- Efficient acute and chronic infection of stem cell-derived hepatocytes by hepatitis C virus. (onmedica.com)
- Addition of ruxolitinib, a JAK/STAT inhibitor, permitted chronic infection and raised p100 infectious virus titres to 1105 FFU/mL. (onmedica.com)
- Withdrawal of ruxolitinib restored innate immune responses and resulted in HCV clearance.This authentic human cell model is well suited to examine acute and chronic host-HCV interactions, particularly IFN-triggered antiviral effector functions and mechanisms of innate immune control of HCV infection. (onmedica.com)
- The outcome of acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is variable, influenced by host and viral factors. (ovid.com)
- From 1982 through 2004, 301 patients with acute HBV infection entered a multi-center cross-sectional study in Japan. (ovid.com)
- Viral genetic diversity was low during acute infection and increased upon progression to chronicity but subsequently fluctuated during chronic infection, caused by the alternate detection of distinct coexisting lineages. (asm.org)
- Viral hepatitis is a cause of considerable morbidity and mortality in the human population both from acute infection and the chronic sequelae which include, with at least two types of infection, chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis and primary liver cancer. (who.int)
- Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a problem of immense dimension with over 200 million people being infected worldwide . (who.int)
- The major features of immunological interest in HBV infection are: that a proportion of those exposed to the virus become chronically infected, and that once chronic infection is established, most will gradually eliminate the nucleocapsid antigen from the liver, while the envelope antigens continue to be expressed. (who.int)
- Hepatitis B can cause a potentially fatal infection if left untreated. (findatopdoc.com)
- The hepatitis B infection can spread when people come in direct contact with the blood, open sore, or other body fluids of an infected person. (findatopdoc.com)
- The good news is once you've had a hepatitis B infection, your body gains immunity to the virus for the better part of your life. (findatopdoc.com)
- When people get infected by the hepatitis B virus, they first contract the acute form of the infection, also referred to as the new infection. (findatopdoc.com)
- However, for some adults, the infection is not fully treated even with long-term medications, causing a more severe form of the infection, also known as chronic hepatitis B. (findatopdoc.com)
- The risk of developing a chronic hepatitis B infection is greater when the person is younger. (findatopdoc.com)
- Infants infected with hepatitis B are more likely to develop a chronic infection. (findatopdoc.com)
- Children between the ages one and five years old have a 50 percent chance of developing a chronic hepatitis B infection. (findatopdoc.com)
- Pregnant women with compromised immunity levels could contract the hepatitis B infection without knowing it. (findatopdoc.com)
- According to statistics, about 25 percent of Americans living with the chronic form of hepatitis B acquired the infection early in their childhood. (findatopdoc.com)
- The person infected with the hepatitis B virus could pass on the infection to other people without feeling any specific symptoms. (findatopdoc.com)
- Hepatitis is a chronic infection. (findatopdoc.com)
- Geographic distribution and characteristics of genotype A hepatitis B virus infection in acute and chronic hepatitis B patients in Japan. (semanticscholar.org)
- Genotype A HBV is associated with an increased risk of HBV progression to chronic infection after acute hepatitis B (AHB) in adults. (semanticscholar.org)
- A 79-year-old Woman with Acute Hepatitis B Caused by the Infection of Subgenotype D1 Hepatitis B Virus in Japan: A Case Study. (semanticscholar.org)
- Risk factors for long-term persistence of serum hepatitis B surface antigen following acute hepatitis B virus infection in Japanese adults. (semanticscholar.org)
- Distribution of hepatitis B virus genotypes among patients with chronic infection in Japan shifting toward an increase of genotype A. (semanticscholar.org)
- Hepatitis C is a viral infection that affects the liver. (epainassist.com)
- Hepatitis C is a liver infection that is caused by the hepatitis C virus. (epainassist.com)
- Nearly 85 percent of all people who have hepatitis C will go on to develop the chronic form of the infection. (epainassist.com)
- If you get a positive HCV RNA blood test after waiting for six months, then this means that you have chronic hepatitis C infection. (epainassist.com)
- He developed tingling, numbness, and weakness of his upper and lower extremities with acute neurological deficits after five weeks of a combination therapy with PEG-interferon α2a and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection. (biomedcentral.com)
- To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second case of severe AIDP related to PEG-IFNα2a, which developed at week five of IFNα2a therapy initiated for hepatitis C virus infection and where the gradual reintroduction of IFN was safe and without any residual neuromuscular deficits. (biomedcentral.com)
- Although acute hepatitis C often leads to a more severe form of infection known as chronic hepatitis C, this is not always the case. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- [ 1 ] Additionally, acute infection with HBV and HCV can lead to chronic infection. (medscape.com)
- Acute infection with a hepatitis virus may result in conditions ranging from subclinical disease to self-limited symptomatic disease to fulminant hepatic failure. (medscape.com)
- Acute HBV infection is generally considered resolved once an individual has developed antibodies to the hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) and has cleared hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) from their serum. (medscape.com)
- HBV infection is considered to have progressed to chronic infection when HBsAg, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), and high titers of hepatitis B viral DNA are found to persist in the serum for longer than 6 months. (medscape.com)
- The likelihood of progressing to chronic hepatitis B infection varies with the age at the time of infection. (medscape.com)
- however only 1-5% of individuals infected with HBV as adults develop chronic hepatitis B infection. (medscape.com)
- Chronic hepatitis C infection is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). (healthline.com)
- Acute hepatitis C develops after initial infection. (healthline.com)
- The only way to confirm a hepatitis C infection is through a blood test. (healthline.com)
- According to a study published in Gastroenterology , approximately 45 percent of all liver transplants in the United States are done on people with chronic hepatitis C infection that has progressed to cirrhosis. (healthline.com)
- Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains a major global health burden. (semanticscholar.org)
- Personalized treatment approaches for HCV infection should consider individual risk profiles to avoid both under- and over-treatment - which will remain important also in upcoming era of interferon-free treatment of hepatitis C. (semanticscholar.org)
- A local experience of treatment response in chronic hepatitis C infection. (semanticscholar.org)
- and chronic HCV infection. (ucl.ac.uk)
- CD8(+) T cell responses to a panel of 13 HCV T cell peptide epitopes were studied using Elispot assays of IFN-gamma production and chromium release cytotoxicity assays, Responses of seven patients with resolved acute HCV infection were compared with those of 14 chronically infected patients. (ucl.ac.uk)
- The majority (71%) of patients with resolved acute infection tested positive to 42% of relevant peptides compared with the minority (28%) of patients with chronic hepatitis C (P=0.03) who responded to only 8% of relevant peptides (P=0.0009). (ucl.ac.uk)
- In contrast, HCV-specific IFN-gamma production was detected in 86% of patients with either resolved or chronic infection in response to 42% and 35%, respectively, of relevant peptides tested (not significant), In patients with chronic infection the magnitude of the HCV-specific IFN-gamma production was inversely correlated to viral load (R-2=0.52: P=0.042). (ucl.ac.uk)
- If you've just been diagnosed with hepatitis B after a routine blood test or following a blood donation , you may be feeling overwhelmed with information about this complicated infection and references to acute or chronic hepatitis B. (hepb.org)
- With no opposition from our immune systems, a hepatitis B infection can continue for years. (hepb.org)
- When a hepatitis B infection lasts longer than six months, it is considered a chronic or long-term infection. (hepb.org)
- Immunization with the hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG), if available, within 12 to 24 hours of birth can break this mother-to-child infection cycle, but the birth vaccine dose and often HBIG is not always available around the world. (hepb.org)
- What is an acute infection ? (hepb.org)
- This short-term infection is called acute hepatitis B. (hepb.org)
- To determine if you have an acute or chronic infection, you must be tested for hepatitis B over a six-month period. (hepb.org)
- If you test positive for HBsAg for longer than six months, it means you have a chronic hepatitis B infection. (hepb.org)
- But, if you no longer test positive (or "reactive") for HBsAg after six months and you develop hepatitis B surface antibodies (HBsAb), then you have cleared hepatitis B after an "acute" infection. (hepb.org)
- If you are a healthy adult and are newly or acutely infected, know that your chances are good that the hepatitis B infection will go away on its own. (hepb.org)
- A person with a new hepatitis B infection may not have any symptoms , or they may not be very notable. (hepb.org)
- If you have a new or acute infection, even these drastic symptoms may not necessarily mean that you need any form of treatment, but you will need to be monitored with additional tests to make sure your liver is safe. (hepb.org)
- Hepatitis E is inflammation of the liver caused by infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV). (wikipedia.org)
- While usually lasting weeks and then resolving, in people with weakened immune systems -particularly in people who have had solid organ transplant-hepatitis E may cause a chronic infection . (wikipedia.org)
- Infection with hepatitis E virus can also lead to problems in other organs. (wikipedia.org)
- As an initial assessment, CDC partnered with the Michigan Department of Community Health (MDCH) and an urban health-care system in southeastern Michigan to evaluate the completeness of reporting (including case status, demographic, and risk factor information) of cases of chronic HBV and HCV infection among persons who were enrolled in a multicenter chronic hepatitis cohort study ( 2 ) to the MDCH viral hepatitis registry. (cdc.gov)
- As part of an ongoing, multicenter, chronic hepatitis cohort study, investigators compiled clinical data from patients suspected to have chronic HBV or chronic HCV infection at any time during 2006-2008 and who resided in Michigan and sought care within the health-care network, which was comprised of several hospitals and clinics serving approximately 1 million Michigan residents ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
- As of 2011, this health-care network had been documented by MDCH as a reporting institution for approximately 8% of all state reports of chronic HBV infection and 6% of all reports of chronic HCV infection since the advent of MDSS. (cdc.gov)
- About 2.7-3.9 million people in the U.S. currently live with chronic hepatitis C infection. (onhealth.com)
- Many people who have hepatitis C don't know they have it because the virus may not produce symptoms until decades after infection. (onhealth.com)
- A person who has hepatitis C infection, but isn't exhibiting any symptoms can still pass the virus on to others. (onhealth.com)
- Acute hepatitis C infection refers to symptoms that appear within 6 months of newly acquiring the virus. (onhealth.com)
- After this, the body either clears the virus or goes on to develop chronic infection. (onhealth.com)
- Chronic hepatitis C infection refers to long-lasting infection. (onhealth.com)
- Hepatitis C infection is diagnosed with several blood tests. (onhealth.com)
- The results of this test can help doctors determine whether hepatitis C infection is current or not. (onhealth.com)
- When someone has confirmed hepatitis C infection, the doctor will order more tests to assess the degree of liver damage. (onhealth.com)
- For this reason, the doctor will order a test to determine the genotype(s) of the hepatitis C infection to help determine the course of treatment. (onhealth.com)
- Iman A. Abou Shady , Delta virus infection among acute and chronic hepatitis patients in Egypt, J. Egypt. (who.int)
- Hepatitis D is a viral infection that causes liver inflammation and damage. (nih.gov)
- The hepatitis D virus is unusual because it can only infect you when you also have a hepatitis B virus infection. (nih.gov)
- In this way, hepatitis D is a double infection. (nih.gov)
- The hepatitis D virus can cause an acute or chronic infection, or both. (nih.gov)
- Acute hepatitis D is a short-term infection. (nih.gov)
- Although acute liver failure is uncommon, hepatitis D and B infections are more likely to lead to acute liver failure than hepatitis B infection alone. (nih.gov)
- Hepatitis E typically causes acute, or short-term, infection. (nih.gov)
- Blood tests can detect antibodies to the hepatitis E virus and show whether you have hepatitis E. The virus can also be detected in blood and in stool samples taken during acute hepatitis E infection. (nih.gov)
- Screening of blood reduces but does not eliminate the risk of hepatitis B virus [HBV] infection in multi-transfused thalassaemia patients. (who.int)
- Some people are diagnosed with hepatitis C when the infection is in the acute phase (meaning they are diagnosed within the first six months after infection with the virus). (catie.ca)
- Current treatment guidelines in Canada focus on treatment for chronic hepatitis C infection (a hepatitis C infection that lasts for more than six months). (catie.ca)
- The treatment guidelines recommend that treatment of acute hepatitis C infection be assessed on an individualized basis. (catie.ca)
- In many cases, a person has to progress to chronic hepatitis C infection before they can receive public or private drug coverage for hepatitis C treatments. (catie.ca)
- Hepatitis B is a potentially serious form of liver inflammation due to infection by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). (thefreedictionary.com)
- In its chronic form, HBV infection may destroy the liver through a scarring process, called cirrhosis , or it may lead to cancer of the liver. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Because carriers represent a constant threat of transmitting the infection, the risk of hepatitis B is always highest where there are many carriers. (thefreedictionary.com)
- In contrast, no more than 5% of infected teenagers and adults develop chronic infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Compared to patients with hepatitis A or C, those with HBV infection are less able to continue their usual activities and require more time resting in bed. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the hepatitis D virus (previously called the Delta agent). (medlineplus.gov)
- It causes symptoms only in people who also have hepatitis B infection. (medlineplus.gov)
- People with an acute HDV infection most often get better over 2 to 3 weeks. (medlineplus.gov)
- Detect and treat hepatitis B infection as soon as possible to help prevent hepatitis D. (medlineplus.gov)
- Adults who are at high risk for hepatitis B infection and all children should get this vaccine. (medlineplus.gov)
- Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major health problem with an estimated of 350 million infection globally. (medscape.com)
- Terms and Abbreviations Used in This Publication Acute hepatitis C Newly acquired symptomatic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. (cdc.gov)
- detectable in persons with acute, chronic, and resolved infection. (cdc.gov)
- infants will not begin the vaccine series until 6 weeks of age, creating a window for exposure to hepatitis B . Greater than 95% of babies infected with hepatitis B will go on to develop chronic hepatitis B infections, leaving them susceptible to a future hepatitis D infection. (tripdatabase.com)
- After joint replacement the risk of infection and other complications increase in patients with hepatitis and HIV within 30 to. (mdedge.com)
- Hepatitis B infection is transmitted through sexual contact, contact with contaminated blood (for example, through shared needles used for illicit, intravenous drugs ), and from mother to child. (medicinenet.com)
- Serologic (blood) markers specifically for hepatitis B virus are used to diagnose hepatitis B viral infection. (medicinenet.com)
- In the United States, most adults who get hepatitis B are able to clear the virus and cure themselves of infection. (medicinenet.com)
- The remaining adults with acute hepatitis B go on to develop chronic hepatitis B. Those who acquire the infection in childhood are much more likely to have chronic infection. (medicinenet.com)
- Approximately 15% to 25% of people with chronic infection will die prematurely as a result of the infection. (medicinenet.com)
- Progression of chronic hepatitis B viral infection occurs insidiously (subtly and gradually), usually over several decades. (medicinenet.com)
- The course is determined primarily by the age at which the hepatitis B viral infection is acquired and the interaction between the virus and the body's immune system. (medicinenet.com)
- Liver transplantation should be considered for patients with impending liver failure due to acute (initial) infection or advanced cirrhosis. (medicinenet.com)
- Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major health problem, especially in Asia. (kowsarpub.com)
- The clinical outcomes of HBV infection are extremely variable and includes self-resolving acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis B carriers, acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma ( 1 ). (kowsarpub.com)
- HBV-related ACLF (HBV-ACLF) is an increasingly recognized syndrome corresponding to an acute and severe exacerbation of liver function in patients with chronic HBV infection. (kowsarpub.com)
- Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasing in the United States and around the world today. (1stholistic.com)
- HCV infection is the most common chronic bloodborne infection in the United States. (1stholistic.com)
- Many studies suggest that in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection regulate T (Treg) cells and interlukin-17-producing T help cells (Th17) are mutually antagonistic in the immune response. (biomedcentral.com)
- This study is aimed to reveal the cell differentiation environment and the significance of Treg and Th17 balance in the development of acute and chronic HBV infection. (biomedcentral.com)
- Ten patients with acute HBV infection (AHB) and forty-eight patients with chronic HBV infection, including 12 asymptomatic HBV carriers (HBV carriers), 18 chronic hepatitis B patients (CHB) and 18 acute-on-chronic HBV-related liver failure (ACHBLF) were enrolled. (biomedcentral.com)
- 0.001) and Th17 frequency(r = −0.49, p = 0.0003) negatively correlated with plasma HBV DNA load in patients with chronic HBV infection. (biomedcentral.com)
- Th17 cells are involved in acute and chronic HBV infection, especially in AHB and ACHBLF. (biomedcentral.com)
- Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can cause acute and chronic infection. (biomedcentral.com)
- Chronic infection is closely related with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- More than 2 billion people have been infected with HBV globally and there are still approximately 350 million chronic HBV infection victims or HBV carriers [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- In chronic renal patients, hepatitis C virus infection is often difficult to evaluate. (biomedcentral.com)
- In order to assess Hepatitis B Virus genotype (g) and subgenotype (sg) implications in the course of infection, 234 HBsAg positive patients in different infection stages were characterized (66 acute infections, 63 HBeAg positive chronic infections and 105 anti-HBe positive chronic infections). (bvsalud.org)
- The 70 percent of people whose bodies are unable to fight off the hepatitis C virus during the first six months of infection enter the chronic phase (long-term infection). (ucsd.edu)
- Chronic phase is diagnosed after the infection is identified on at least two different hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA tests. (ucsd.edu)
- But for most people, an acute infection leads to chronic infection. (medlineplus.gov)
- If you have acute hepatitis C, your health care provider may wait to see if your infection becomes chronic before starting treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
- The study will enroll patients who are in the early stages of chronic HCV infection to determine the therapy's ability to decrease and potentially eliminate HCV viral load, measure HCV specific immune responses and durability of these immune responses, and evaluate safety and tolerability. (cnbc.com)
- It results from infection with the hepatitis C virus, which is spread primarily through contact with the blood of an infected person. (cnbc.com)
- Acute hepatitis C virus infection is a short-term illness that occurs within the first six months after someone is exposed to the virus. (cnbc.com)
- For most people, acute infection leads to chronic infection, which can last a lifetime and lead to serious liver problems including cirrhosis (scarring of the liver) or liver cancer. (cnbc.com)
- Hepatitis C is a blood-borne infection that is transmitted in some of the same ways as HIV. (aidsmap.com)
- Hepatitis C is an infection that can cause severe liver damage. (aidsmap.com)
- Recent estimates find that about 160,000 people in the UK are living with hepatitis C. Overall, about one-third of people with HIV also have hepatitis C, known as co-infection. (aidsmap.com)
- The spectrum of the symptomatology of hepatitis B disease varies from subclinical hepatitis to icteric hepatitis to fulminant, acute, and subacute hepatitis during the acute phase, and from an asymptomatic chronic infection state to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) during the chronic phase. (medscape.com)
- Papular acrodermatitis, also recognized as Gianotti-Crosti syndrome , has been associated with hepatitis B, most commonly in children with acute infection. (medscape.com)
- The incubation period is 1-6 months in the acute phase of hepatitis B infection. (medscape.com)
- Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global public health problem involving chronic infection of the liver, which can cause liver disease and is linked with liver cancer. (nature.com)
- Viral innate immune evasion strategies and human genetic determinants underlie the transition of acute HCV infection to viral persistence and the support of chronic infection. (nature.com)
- There are theories suggesting that similarity in viral epitope and self-proteins expression on liver cells' surface causes a cross-reactive immunologic response and possible viral-induced autoimmune hepatitis. (hindawi.com)
- Lupoid hepatitis," as it was called in the past, has been associated with other hepatic diseases such as drug-induced liver injury, primary biliary cholangitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and viral hepatitis, specifically hepatitis C virus [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Hepatitis B viral load was 42,900,000 IU/mL. (hindawi.com)
- AIMS: to evaluate the prevalence of acute exacerbation in HBV-infected renal transplant patients and its association with the time after transplantation, presence of viral replication, clinical evolution, and use of antiviral prophylaxis. (biomedsearch.com)
- Perforin and Fas/Fas ligand-mediated cytotoxicity in acute and chronic woodchuck viral hepatitis. (nih.gov)
- The Fas ligand (FasL)/Fas and the perforin-granzyme cytotoxic pathways presumably play a central role in the development of hepatocellular injury in viral hepatitis. (nih.gov)
- Leading among the infectious causes of hepatitis are viral infections ( viral hepatitis ). (healthhype.com)
- Viral Hepatitis. (ucl.ac.uk)
- The last two decades have witnessed an explosion in knowledge of viral hepatitis, a major public health problem throughout the world affecting several hundred million people. (who.int)
- The Hepatitis B Virus Genotype Affects the Persistence of Viral Replication in Immunodeficient NOG Mice. (semanticscholar.org)
- Interferon α (IFNα) has been widely used for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis. (biomedcentral.com)
- this article focuses on viral hepatitis, which accounts for more than 50% of cases of acute hepatitis in the United States, primarily in the emergency department setting. (medscape.com)
- In the United States, viral hepatitis is most commonly caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). (medscape.com)
- Infrequent causes of viral hepatitis include adenovirus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and, rarely, herpes simplex virus (HSV). (medscape.com)
- The term viral hepatitis can describe either a clinical illness or the histologic findings associated with the disease. (medscape.com)
- Providing that acute viral hepatitis does not progress to FHF, many cases resolve over a period of days, weeks, or months. (medscape.com)
- [ 3 ] Alternatively, acute viral hepatitis may evolve into chronic hepatitis. (medscape.com)
- There is a very large interindividual variability in the natural history of both acute and chronic hepatitis C which can be explained in part by a combination of various host, viral and environmental factors. (semanticscholar.org)
- In chronic infections they may contribute to pathogenesis, To investigate the role of CD8(+) T lymphocyte responses in viral clearance and chronic hepatitis C we have compared hepatitis C virus (HCV) specific cytotoxicity and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production in patients with resolved-acute. (ucl.ac.uk)
- However these CD8(+) T cells may play a beneficial role in contributing to the control of viral load in chronic hepatitis C. (ucl.ac.uk)
- If you have chronic hepatitis B, you'll likely need to follow up with a doctor every six months for a blood test to determine your viral load and liver health. (healthline.com)
- Because underreporting has complicated the understanding of disease burden, in 2010 the Institute of Medicine requested that CDC perform a comprehensive evaluation of national viral hepatitis surveillance ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- Improving surveillance of chronic hepatitis in Michigan will require exploration of more efficient methods for the transfer of laboratory and clinical data and evaluation of the most appropriate sources for risk factor information to aid in the prevention of viral hepatitis transmission. (cdc.gov)
- In the acute form of viral hepatitis are sufficient 10. (blogspot.com)
- An acute insult such as exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B (CHB), alcohol consumption, drug-induced liver injury and other viral hepatitis can lead to ACLF.1 The pathophysiology of ACLF relates to persistent inflammation, immune dysregulation with a systemic inflammatory response syndrome and subsequent sepsis due to immune paresis [ 1 ]. (e-cmh.org)
- Zandu Livotrit Tablets Cures Acute and Chronic Viral Hepatitis, Jaundice, Alcholic hepatitis, Alcoholic liver disease, Chronic Liver Dysfunction. (coimbatore.com)
- Zandu Livotrit Tablets - Cures Acute and Chronic Viral Hepatitis, Jaundice, Adjuvant to AKT, Chronic Liver Dysfunction, Pre-cirrhotic Conditions. (coimbatore.com)
- Treatment with current antiviral drugs suppresses viral reproduction in about 50% to 90% of patients with chronic hepatitis B. The medications are also effective in reducing inflammation and improving blood tests. (medicinenet.com)
- Viral Hepatitis (Yakrit Shoth / यकृत शोथ) - In viral hepatitis there is an inflammation of liver, which results in damage of hepato-cytes with subsequent cell death. (4to40.com)
- In Ayurveda viral hepatitis is known as yakrit shoth, shoth means swelling and yakrit mean liver. (4to40.com)
- What types of treatment, including medication, have you received for your viral hepatitis? (medicinenet.com)
- I got on interferon for viral hepatitis in 2003 which didn't work out, even after half a year of treatment. (medicinenet.com)
- I am not yet put on medication for viral hepatitis, was just tested positive. (medicinenet.com)
- What were your signs and symptoms associated with viral hepatitis? (medicinenet.com)
- If known, how did you contract viral hepatitis? (medicinenet.com)
- Modern therapy for viral hepatitis. (naclo.org)
- Treatment for acute and chronic viral hepatitis B and C using Natrii Hypochloriti therapy. (naclo.org)
- Since 1998 I have been examining and developing a new way of medicamentous therapy for acute and chronic viral hepatitis B and С using Natrii Hypochloriti (NaClO). (naclo.org)
- I invented and clinically proved long-term antiviral effectiveness of NaClO therapy for viral hepatitis B and C, which has been provided documentary evidence. (naclo.org)
- Our expertise includes challenging conditions such as chronic viral hepatitis (hepatitis C or hepatitis B), fatty liver, inherited liver diseases including hemochromatosis, autoimmune liver diseases, cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, hepatocellular (liver) cancer, cholangiocarcinoma (bile duct cancer) and liver metastases from other cancers. (massgeneral.org)
- A variety of cutaneous manifestations have been recognized during the early course of viral hepatitis, including hives and a fleeting maculopapular rash. (medscape.com)
- Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an uncommon chronic liver inflammation with an unclear etiology [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Hepatitis is the term for inflammation of the liver. (healthhype.com)
- In hepatitis, any of the various causes leads to inflammation with immune mediators and inflammatory cells congregating within the liver tissue. (healthhype.com)
- Depending on the cause, hepatitis can progress to a chronic state where inflammation persists for months and years leading to fibrosis (scarring) of the liver tissue. (healthhype.com)
- The word hepatitis is originated from the Greek word, which means the inflammation of the liver, caused by the infectious toxic. (chronichepatitis.org)
- Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. (onhealth.com)
- About 1 in 10 of those who are infected may develop long-term (chronic) liver inflammation (hepatitis). (medlineplus.gov)
- Acute injury is generally followed by complete recovery and prolonged inflammation may be accompanied by fibrosis and progression to cirrhosis. (4to40.com)
- The former indicates fatty liver without inflammation while the latter denotes inflammation of the liver (hepatitis) with fatty infiltration. (healthhype.com)
- The annual rate of reported acute hepatitis C tripled from 2009 to 2018 and was highest among persons aged 20-39 years. (cdc.gov)
- In 2018, the largest proportion of chronic hepatitis C cases occurred among persons aged 20-39 years and 50-69 years. (cdc.gov)
- National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System data were analyzed to determine the rate of acute hepatitis C cases reported to CDC by age group and year during 2009-2018 and the number and rate of newly reported chronic cases in 2018 by sex and age. (cdc.gov)
- The proportion of adults aged ≥20 years with hepatitis C who reported having ever been told that they had hepatitis C was estimated with 2015-2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. (cdc.gov)
- The annual rate of reported acute hepatitis C cases per 100,000 population increased threefold, from 0.3 in 2009 to 1.2 in 2018, and was highest among persons aged 20-29 (3.1) and 30-39 years (2.6) in 2018. (cdc.gov)
- A bimodal distribution of newly reported chronic hepatitis C cases in 2018 was observed, with the highest proportions among persons aged 20-39 years and 50-69 years. (cdc.gov)
- In 2018, ≥15,713 death certificates listed hepatitis C as the underlying or contributing cause of death ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
- Acute humoral rejection in hepatitis C-infected renal transplant recipients receiving antiviral therapy. (bmj.com)
- Your doctor will decide to prescribe an antiviral medication or a combination of medicines depending on the level of liver damage you have, what treatments you have had in the past, and what genotype of hepatitis C you have. (epainassist.com)
- The most common treatment for chronic hepatitis C is a combination of highly active antiviral agents known as direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). (healthline.com)
- For these patients a long-term antiviral effectiveness of NaClO therapy is determined, so hepatitis disappears. (naclo.org)
- Treatment for hepatitis C is with antiviral medicines. (medlineplus.gov)
- The study aims to enroll 120 patients with chronic HBV defined as persistence of HBsAg for more than 6 months. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- A correlation was found between the absence of ICs and the disappearance of HBsAg in patients who had recovered from acute hepatitis B, but complexes containing HBsAg were always found in chronic hepatitis. (nih.gov)
- Les deux groupes étaient semblables en ce qui concerne leur réponse proliférative aux antigènes de surface de l'hépatite B (HBsAg) mais une réponse vigoureuse aux antigènes centraux de l'hépatite B (HBcAg) était une caractéristique importante chez les patients répondants. (who.int)
- What you need to do next is to have your doctor run a test called hepatitis B core antibody IgG. (thebody.com)
- Your liver function tests are rock normal and your hepatitis C antibody is negative. (thebody.com)
- The rest of the workup including acetaminophen level, hepatitis C antibody, HAV Ab IgM, hepatitis D Ab, EBV DNA, HSV DNA, CMV DNA, and hepatitis E Ab came back negative. (hindawi.com)
Types of Hepatitis7
- Read on to learn more about the different types of hepatitis B and how they're treated. (healthline.com)
- The types of hepatitis E that are common in developed countries are often mild and cause no symptoms. (nih.gov)
- Many people don't know they've had these types of hepatitis E. (nih.gov)
- Different types of hepatitis E are more likely to affect different groups of people. (nih.gov)
- The types of hepatitis E that are more common in developing countries are more likely to affect adolescents and young adults. (nih.gov)
- In contrast, the types of hepatitis E that are more common in developed countries most often affect older men. (nih.gov)
- There are different types of hepatitis. (medlineplus.gov)
- Most cases of hepatitis are asymptomatic in the early stages and only detected upon routine testing. (healthhype.com)
- Chronic hepatitis may be virtually asymptomatic apart from a few generalized (non-specific) symptoms like malaise , poor appetite , weight loss and fatigue . (healthhype.com)
- Persons with acute hepatitis C may be either symptomatic or asymptomatic (ie, subclinical). (medscape.com)
- The majority of the patients are asymptomatic, but patients with anicteric hepatitis have a greater tendency to develop chronic hepatitis. (medscape.com)
Cases of acute hepatitis3
- The aim of this study was analyze the follow up of newly acquired acute hepatitis C cases, during the period from January 2002 to May 2005, in the Hemodialysis Center, located in the Southwest region of Parana State, Brazil and to analyze the effectiveness of the measures to restrain the appearance of new cases of acute hepatitis C. Methods: Patients were analyzed monthly with anti-HCV tests and ALT measurements. (ebscohost.com)
- The applied recommendations contributed importantly to restrain the appearance of new cases of acute hepatitis C in this center and the last case was diagnosed in May 2004. (ebscohost.com)
- The aim of this study was analyze the follow up of newly acquired acute hepatitis C cases, during the period from January 2002 to May 2005, in the Hemodialysis Center, located in the Southwest region of Parana State, Brazil and to analyze the effectiveness of the measures to restrain the appearance of new cases of acute hepatitis C. (biomedcentral.com)
Develop chronic hepatitis2
- People who have chronic hepatitis B and D develop complications more often and more quickly than people who have chronic hepatitis B alone. (nih.gov)
- What are the complications of acute hepatitis D? (nih.gov)
- What are the complications of chronic hepatitis D? (nih.gov)
- Most people recover from acute hepatitis E without complications . (nih.gov)
- In pregnant women, hepatitis E can cause other complications for the mother and baby, such as stillbirth , premature birth , or low birthweight . (nih.gov)
- Chronic hepatitis E-which is rare and only occurs in people with weakened immune systems-may lead to complications such as cirrhosis or liver failure. (nih.gov)
- If you have chronic hepatitis C, you probably will not have symptoms until it causes complications. (medlineplus.gov)
- Early diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis C can prevent these complications. (medlineplus.gov)
- There are six genotypes of hepatitis C (ranging from genotype 1 to genotype 6) in total, and each genotype responds only to specific medications. (epainassist.com)
- Considering that his most recent visit to Hong Kong coincided with the incubation period of hepatitis E ( 2 ) he most likely acquired HEV genotype 4 illness during that check out. (bio-aromatica.com)
- A study of the evolution of specific and non-specific immune complexes in acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. (nih.gov)
- to investigate defects in the cellular immune elements of chronic HBV cases with a view to future design of an effective immunotherapy. (who.int)
- However, maintaining this state of tolerance breakdown, to get chronic hepatitis, is difficult because liver immune homeostasis is strongly regulated by several immune response inhibitory mechanisms. (cf.ac.uk)
- Chronic hepatitis E is rare and only occurs in people with weakened immune systems . (nih.gov)
- For example, hepatitis E may become chronic in people taking medicines that weaken their immune system after an organ transplant , or in people who have HIV or AIDS . (nih.gov)
- Unvaccinated people who are exposed to hepatitis B should be evaluated by a physician to determine if they need specific immune globulin (HBIG). (medicinenet.com)
- Only 61% of adults with hepatitis C knew that they were infected. (cdc.gov)
- All adults and pregnant women should be screened for hepatitis C according to CDC's new screening recommendations. (cdc.gov)
- Only 60.6% (95% CI = 46.1%-73.9%) of adults with hepatitis C reported having been told that they were infected. (cdc.gov)
- The new CDC hepatitis C testing recommendations advise screening all adults and pregnant women, not just persons born during 1945-1965, and those with risk factors. (cdc.gov)
- Healthy adults over 19 years of age have about a 5-10 percent chance of contracting a chronic form of hepatitis B. (findatopdoc.com)
- Adults with acute hepatitis A or B are usually symptomatic. (medscape.com)
- The "Common hepatitis C drugs available in Canada for adults" poster provides summary information on treatments that are commonly used in Canada for adults with chronic hepatitis C. The hepatitis C treatment fact sheets have more information on specific treatments. (catie.ca)
- In a study of adults with mild-to-moderate chronic kidney disease, women had a significant 28% decreased risk of end-stage renal disease compared with men. (renalandurologynews.com)
- In addition, adults at high risk for hepatitis B should be vaccinated. (medicinenet.com)
- This quality standard covers diagnosing and managing acute coronary syndromes in adults (aged 18 and over). (nice.org.uk)
Symptoms of hepatitis4
- What are the symptoms of hepatitis? (healthhype.com)
- The first signs and symptoms of hepatitis may mainly involve the gastrointestinal system like nausea , intermittent vomiting , mild diarrhea and loss of appetite . (healthhype.com)
- Hepatitis D may make the symptoms of hepatitis B worse. (medlineplus.gov)
- Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of hepatitis B. (medlineplus.gov)
Infected blood transfusions1
- Liver biopsy was done which was consistent with autoimmune hepatitis. (hindawi.com)
- Among the non-infectious causes of hepatitis, medication and alcohol misuse are common causes of hepatitis followed by other toxins and autoimmune factors. (healthhype.com)
- Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic inflammatory liver disease associated with interface hepatitis, raised plasma liver enzymes, the presence of autoantibodies and regulatory T-cell (Tregs) dysfunction. (cf.ac.uk)
- Acute exacerbations of chronic type B hepatitis are accompanied by increased T cell responses to hepatitis B core and e antigens. (jci.org)
- Lymphocyte blastogenesis assay in response to different mitogens and antigens produced two groups: responders (acute cases) and nonresponders (chronic cases). (who.int)
- Hepatitis B Surface Antigens. (who.int)
- At this point, a diagnosis of hepatitis may be missed unless there is appropriate diagnostic testing or etiology that raises the suspicion of hepatitis. (healthhype.com)
- Early diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis C can help protect the liver. (epainassist.com)
- The best thing you can do to protect your liver from hepatitis C is to get an early diagnosis. (healthline.com)
- 20 Early diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis B and D can lower your chances of developing serious health problems. (nih.gov)
Type of hepatitis2
- Acute hepatitis C and chronic hepatitis C. Treatment for hepatitis C depends on which type of hepatitis you have, and understanding the treatment options available to you will help you make informed decisions about your health. (epainassist.com)
- The treatment plan that your doctor designs for you will depend on the type of hepatitis C you have. (epainassist.com)
- Aims: Patients with hepatitis B-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HB-ACLF) may have an increased circulating microbial burden. (ssrn.com)
- Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) occurs in the presence of a chronic liver disease or cirrhosis, and often results from exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). (e-cmh.org)
- Patients with Wilson's disease who presented with ACLF had a much worse prognosis than those presented with acute liver failure. (medscape.com)
- [ 8 ] Recently, Yoon et al [ 9 ] found that ACLF episode alone was not an independent factor for long-term survival in patients with ACLF who survived over the first 3 months, while prior history of acute decompensation (AD) is a more important factor affecting long-term outcomes. (medscape.com)
- Moreover, it remains unknown whether or not the risk of HCC increases in HBV-ACLF patients when compared to cirrhotic patients without an episode of acute insult. (medscape.com)
Cirrhosis of th1
- Infohep.org: "Hepatitis C treatment factsheet: Harvoni (sofosbuvir + ledipasvir). (webmd.com)
- Hepatitis C Online: "Goals and Benefits with HCV Treatment," "Ledipasvir-Sofosbuvir (Harvoni). (webmd.com)
- Aim: To assess the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with no renal contraindications for SOF-based treatment. (eur.nl)
- Read on to learn more about acute versus chronic hepatitis and your treatment options. (epainassist.com)
- If you are suffering from acute hepatitis C, then you do not need immediate treatment. (epainassist.com)
- A 63-year-old Caucasian man presented to our hospital for chronic hepatitis C treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
- There are six different genotypes of hepatitis C. Treatment for each kind is slightly different. (healthline.com)
- What Are the Side Effects of Hepatitis C Treatment? (healthline.com)
- But those with chronic hepatitis B often need treatment to help manage the condition. (healthline.com)
- Acute hepatitis B doesn't always require treatment. (healthline.com)
- Like acute hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis B may not require medical treatment to avoid permanent liver damage. (healthline.com)
- Because hepatitis C testing and curative treatment substantially reduces long-term risk for disease and death, in 2012 CDC augmented the risk-based testing guidelines to recommend screening all persons born during 1945-1965. (medscape.com)
- People with hepatitis E typically get better without treatment after several weeks. (nih.gov)
- Treatment for acute hepatitis E includes resting, drinking plenty of liquids, and eating healthy foods to help relieve symptoms. (nih.gov)
- Everyone who has hepatitis C should speak with a service provider about their treatment options. (catie.ca)
- If a person has other health conditions, this might affect which treatment is used to cure their hepatitis C. Sometimes when people take medications or supplements for more than one condition at the same time, these medications can affect each other. (catie.ca)
- A case of chronic hepatitis C with pancreas divisum and acute pancreatitis during combination treatment with telaprevir/peginterferon/ribavirin]. (wizdom.ai)
- Modern hepatitis C treatment has few side-effects and can cure almost everyone. (aidsmap.com)
- Treatment of hepatitis C has improved rapidly in recent years. (aidsmap.com)
- In the past, many people acquired hepatitis C from blood products given during medical procedures - for example blood transfusion during surgery or treatment for haemophilia - before blood screening and sterilisation were introduced in the UK in 1991. (aidsmap.com)
- Mixed hepatitis, which is very rare, generally occurs between the 15th and 30th day of treatment. (wikipedia.org)
- In circa 1994 Spain, there was a case associating acute pancreatitis and mixed hepatitis, after three weeks of treatment. (wikipedia.org)
- Lazaros and colleagues at the Western Attica General Hospital in Athens, Greece reported two cases of drug induced hepatitis 18 and 15 days of treatment. (wikipedia.org)
- Hepatitis E has mainly a fecal-oral transmission route that is similar to hepatitis A , but the viruses are unrelated. (wikipedia.org)
- It is a member of the family of viruses that include hepatitis A and hepatitis B. The viruses behave differently and have different modes of transmission. (onhealth.com)
- In a study, percutaneous coronary intervention was associated with a 72% decreased risk of acute renal failure compared with coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with chronic kidney disease. (renalandurologynews.com)
- Acute renal failure (ARF) occurs less frequently with percutaneous coronary intervention than coronary artery bypass grafting among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), according to a new study. (renalandurologynews.com)
- The aims of this study were to follow the development of acute hepatitis C cases in a renal therapy unit located in the southeast of Parana from January 2002 to May 2005, and the response to the measures taken to avoid new acute hepatitis C cases. (biomedcentral.com)
Centers for Diseas1
- Canine hepatitis is an infectious disease. (chronichepatitis.org)
- Hepatitis C is an infectious disease that damages a person's liver. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- infectious disease and the Hepatitis B antenatal screening and newborn immunisation programme, both published by the Department of Health, and in the NICE guidance on Reducing the differences in the uptake of immunisations. (tripdatabase.com)
Morbidity and morta1
High risk for hepatitis1
- Hepatitis C can cause serious liver damage, liver failure, liver cancer , and even death. (onhealth.com)
- If you do have hepatitis C, you may need additional tests to check for liver damage. (medlineplus.gov)
- Untreated chronic hepatitis C can cause serious liver damage, cirrhosis, liver cancer, and even death. (aidsmap.com)
Patients with fulminant1
Exacerbations of chronic1
People with acute hepatitis3
- Many people with acute hepatitis C are unaware that they have the disease because it usually causes no symptoms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Around 70-80 percent of people with acute hepatitis C have no symptoms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Most people with acute hepatitis B make a full recovery. (healthline.com)
- What is fibrosis related to hepatitis C? (webmd.com)
- A biopsy specimen used 3 months afterwards showed quality 3 hepatitis with bile ductular response bridging hepatocytic necrosis and fibrosis and regenerative nodule development (Figure sections C D). A bloodstream sample taken concerning this period examined positive for HEV RNA. (bio-aromatica.com)
Incubation period of hepatitis1
Longer than 6 months1
- The most commom symptoms of acute hepatitis B are loss of appetite, nausea, generally feeling poorly, and pain or tenderness in the right upper part of the abdomen (where the liver is located). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Pain in right hypochondria (upper right part of abdomen), nausea, vomiting, malaise, loss of appetite, and low-grade fever are the some symptom in hepatitis. (4to40.com)
- The appearance of increasing T cell responses to HBcAg/HBeAg usually occurred in the early phase of acute exacerbations. (jci.org)
- Elevation (two- to fourfold) of HBcAg/HBeAg-specific precursor T cell frequencies contributed to the increase of HBcAg/HBeAg-specific T cell proliferation during acute exacerbations. (jci.org)