Hemodilution: Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.Plasma Substitutes: Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives: Starches that have been chemically modified so that a percentage of OH groups are substituted with 2-hydroxyethyl ether groups.Blood Transfusion, Autologous: Reinfusion of blood or blood products derived from the patient's own circulation. (Dorland, 27th ed)Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Blood Loss, Surgical: Loss of blood during a surgical procedure.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Blood Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Surgical Flaps: Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.Blood Substitutes: Substances that are used in place of blood, for example, as an alternative to BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS after blood loss to restore BLOOD VOLUME and oxygen-carrying capacity to the blood circulation, or to perfuse isolated organs.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Hypovolemia: An abnormally low volume of blood circulating through the body. It may result in hypovolemic shock (see SHOCK).Hemoglobin A: Normal adult human hemoglobin. The globin moiety consists of two alpha and two beta chains.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Hemoglobins, Abnormal: Hemoglobins characterized by structural alterations within the molecule. The alteration can be either absence, addition or substitution of one or more amino acids in the globin part of the molecule at selected positions in the polypeptide chains.Blood Volume Determination: Method for determining the circulating blood volume by introducing a known quantity of foreign substance into the blood and determining its concentration some minutes later when thorough mixing has occurred. From these two values the blood volume can be calculated by dividing the quantity of injected material by its concentration in the blood at the time of uniform mixing. Generally expressed as cubic centimeters or liters per kilogram of body weight.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Isotonic Solutions: Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Blood Viscosity: The internal resistance of the BLOOD to shear forces. The in vitro measure of whole blood viscosity is of limited clinical utility because it bears little relationship to the actual viscosity within the circulation, but an increase in the viscosity of circulating blood can contribute to morbidity in patients suffering from disorders such as SICKLE CELL ANEMIA and POLYCYTHEMIA.Fetal Hemoglobin: The major component of hemoglobin in the fetus. This HEMOGLOBIN has two alpha and two gamma polypeptide subunits in comparison to normal adult hemoglobin, which has two alpha and two beta polypeptide subunits. Fetal hemoglobin concentrations can be elevated (usually above 0.5%) in children and adults affected by LEUKEMIA and several types of ANEMIA.Catheterization, Swan-Ganz: Placement of a balloon-tipped catheter into the pulmonary artery through the antecubital, subclavian, and sometimes the femoral vein. It is used to measure pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure which reflects left atrial pressure and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. The catheter is threaded into the right atrium, the balloon is inflated and the catheter follows the blood flow through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle and out into the pulmonary artery.Burns: Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.Resuscitation: The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)Fluid Therapy: Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Microvessels: The finer blood vessels of the vasculature that are generally less than 100 microns in internal diameter.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Hashimoto Disease: Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, characterized by the presence of high serum thyroid AUTOANTIBODIES; GOITER; and HYPOTHYROIDISM.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Famous PersonsHistory, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Databases, Bibliographic: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome: A rare transmissible encephalopathy most prevalent between the ages of 50 and 70 years. Affected individuals may present with sleep disturbances, personality changes, ATAXIA; APHASIA, visual loss, weakness, muscle atrophy, MYOCLONUS, progressive dementia, and death within one year of disease onset. A familial form exhibiting autosomal dominant inheritance and a new variant CJD (potentially associated with ENCEPHALOPATHY, BOVINE SPONGIFORM) have been described. Pathological features include prominent cerebellar and cerebral cortical spongiform degeneration and the presence of PRIONS. (From N Engl J Med, 1998 Dec 31;339(27))Cell Respiration: The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Refusal to Participate: Refusal to take part in activities or procedures that are requested or expected of an individual. This may include refusal by HEALTH PERSONNEL to participate in specific medical procedures or refusal by PATIENTS or members of the public to take part in clinical trials or health promotion programs.Erythrocyte Transfusion: The transfer of erythrocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Treatment Refusal: Patient or client refusal of or resistance to medical, psychological, or psychiatric treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Pallor: A clinical manifestation consisting of an unnatural paleness of the skin.Jupiter: The fifth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its sixteen natural satellites include Callisto, Europa, Ganymede, and Io.Reflex, Babinski: A reflex found in normal infants consisting of dorsiflexion of the HALLUX and abduction of the other TOES in response to cutaneous stimulation of the plantar surface of the FOOT. In adults, it is used as a diagnostic criterion, and if present is a NEUROLOGIC MANIFESTATION of dysfunction in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.BrazilPerindopril: An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is used in patients with hypertension and heart failure.
  • Background: Elevated blood viscosity has been shown to be independently correlated with cardiovascular risk factors and associated with increased risk of major cardiovascular events, including death and acute myocardial infarction. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 10, 11) The results of the TRICC study demonstrated that 30 day mortality, frequency of myocardial infarction, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pulmonary oedema were reduced when RBCs were administered at lower Hgb levels or when they were not administered at all. (signavitae.com)
  • A postoperative hemoglobin level of between 80 and 100 g/dL may not be low enough to warrant transfusion, but these patients often feel lethargic and have a higher risk of syncopal episodes, impairing their ability to mobilize and participate in rehabilitation. (icjr.net)
  • Based on a pilot study in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty for osteoarthritis, it is anticipated that patients treated with continuous-flow cryocompression therapy will have less pain, less morphine consumption and lower decrease of postoperative hemoglobin levels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The primary objective of this study is to compare acute pain the first 72 h postoperative, measured with numeric rating scale for pain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Effects of a multimodality blood conservation schema toward improvement of intraoperative hemoglobin levels and off-pump transfusions in coronary artery bypass graft surgery. (jw.org)
  • For decades, physicians believed in the benefit of prompt transfusion of blood to keep the hemoglobin level at arbitrary, optimum levels, ie, close to normal values, especially in the critically ill, the elderly, and those with coronary syndromes, stroke, or renal failure. (ccjm.org)
  • Additional clinical practice guidelines exist that specify Hb targets for critical care patients with conditions including sepsis, ischemic stroke, and acute coronary syndrome. (tomhsiung.com)
  • The causes are multifactorial and include acute blood loss, blood loss from diagnostic testing and blunted red blood cell production. (cmaj.ca)
  • 1 The reasons for anemia in critically ill patients are multifactorial and include acute blood loss (e.g., from trauma, surgery or gastrointestinal bleeding), iatrogenic blood loss from diagnostic testing and blunted red blood cell production. (cmaj.ca)
  • 1. A pharmaceutical composition for transporting and releasing oxygen comprising a suspension of from about 5 to about 20 grams of reduced lesion hemoglobin per deciliter of a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The latter may be due to the impaired ability of erythrocytes to off-load oxygen within the microcirculation, thus yielding low tissue/plasma P o 2 but elevated microcirculatory hemoglobin oxygen (HbO 2 ) saturations. (physiology.org)
  • The problem with such indications is that the clinical evaluation may be misleading in severely ill patients and haemoglobin levels that impair oxygen delivery cannot be determined easily. (signavitae.com)
  • 2. The composition of claim 1 wherein the partially deoxygenated hemoglobin solution contains less than 1000 parts per million of oxygen. (google.com.au)
  • 15. The composition of claim 12 wherein the reducing agent is ascorbate and the partially deoxygenated hemoglobin solution contains less than about 150 ppm oxygen. (google.com.au)
  • First, the reduction in red blood cell mass is presumed to compromise oxygen delivery to tissues and thus obligate the organism to compensate for reduced oxygen-carrying capacity. (cmaj.ca)
  • 4 Increased extraction of oxygen from the tissues, combined with a rightward shift in the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve, is sufficient to maintain normal oxygen delivery in the presence of mild to moderate anemia. (cmaj.ca)
  • In people who are exercising, reductions in hemoglobin levels have been shown to reduce maximal oxygen consumption and endurance performance, but this is of uncertain relevance to chronically ill patients. (cmaj.ca)
  • This shift allows for the unloading of oxygen to the tissues at higher partial pressures of oxygen, ensuring adequate oxygen delivery despite the reduction in RBC mass. (tomhsiung.com)
  • This reduction in viscosity leads to an increase in regional blood flow at the tissue and organ level , driving up local perfusion area and pressures leading to increased oxygen extraction. (tomhsiung.com)
  • Hemodilution leads to a decrease in the formed elements of the blood, especially in erythrocytes, and the blood's oxygen transport capacity is reduced due to hemodilutional anemia. (clinicsinsurgery.com)
  • Influence of Fraction of Inspired Oxygen on Noninvasive Hemoglobin Measurement: Parallel Assessment of 2 Monitors. (masimo.cn)
  • The targets in these studies were modest at first, but researchers aimed progressively for more aggressive hemodilution with lower hemoglobin targets and demonstrated that the body can tolerate and adapt to more severe anemia. (ccjm.org)
  • Recent publications have proposed targeting lower hemoglobin levels (7 g/dL) to reduce complications related to transfusion of blood products, such as transfusion related infections, immunosuppression, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), hemolytic reactions and fever reactions, in addition to its effects on mortality. (hellonursing.info)
  • Noninfectious risks, which include febrile, allergic/ anaphylactic and hemolytic transfusion reactions, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO), are more common than infectious risks and lead to greater morbidity and mortality. (cmaj.ca)
  • An acute hemolytic transfusion reaction due to ABO incompatibility is specifically identified as a reviewable sentinel event for which a comprehensive analysis of cause, corrective action, preventive action and reporting are required. (scribd.com)
  • Laboratory tests are normal except for a hemoglobin of 10.0 g/dL (100 g/L) and a serum albumin level of 2.9 g/dL (29 g/L). The chest radiograph shows only changes consistent with COPD, and the electrocardiogram is normal. (acphospitalist.org)
  • Weiskopf et al 9 assessed the effect of severe anemia in 32 conscious healthy patients (11 presurgical patients and 21 volunteers not undergoing surgery) by performing acute normovolemic hemodilution with 5% human albumin, autologous plasma, or both, with a target hemoglobin level of 5 g/dL. (ccjm.org)
  • Isooncotic preparations of colloids (for example, human albumin or hydroxyethyl starch) remain nearly completely intravascular when infused to compensate for acute blood losses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1,2 The increase in CO is related to the reduction in blood viscosity resulting in increased venous return and decreased ventricular afterload 3,4 as well as an increased sympathetic stimulation of the heart. (asahq.org)
  • ASD closure leads to a significant reduction in this stress-induced pulmonary hypertension and to a decrease in the right heart diameters indicating reverse RV remodelling. (saladgaffe.ml)
  • The invention relates to novel hemoglobin compositions, particularly novel recombinant mutant hemoglobin compositions, which eliminate or substantially reduce 1) the creation of heart lesions, 2) gastrointestinal discomfort, 3) pressor effects, and 4) endotoxin hypersensitivity associated with the administration of extracellular hemoglobin compositions in various therapeutic applications. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The present invention relates to storage stable hemoglobin solutions which contain partially deoxygenated and surprisingly low amounts of reducing agents. (google.com.au)