Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Hepatitis A: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Hepatitis E: Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).Hepatitis E virus: A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Hepatitis Antibodies: Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Hepatitis B, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Hepatitis, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Hepatitis A Virus, Human: A strain of HEPATITIS A VIRUS which causes hepatitis in humans. The virus replicates in hepatocytes and is presumed to reach the intestine via the bile duct. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Hepatitis A Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS A ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Hepatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Hepatitis, Autoimmune: A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.Hepatitis, Viral, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Jaundice: A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.Hepatitis D: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 22.214.171.124.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 126.96.36.199.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Hepatitis Viruses: Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Hepatitis Delta Virus: A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.GalactosamineHepatovirus: A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.Hepatitis C Antigens: Antigens of the virions of HEPACIVIRUS, their surface, core, or other associated antigens.Hepatitis, Alcoholic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Interferon-alpha: One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Drug-Induced Liver Injury, Chronic: Liver disease lasting six months or more, caused by an adverse drug effect. The adverse effect may result from a direct toxic effect of a drug or metabolite, or an idiosyncratic response to a drug or metabolite.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Hepatitis delta Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Kupffer Cells: Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.MoldovaRibavirin: A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Murine hepatitis virus: A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Injury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.BelizeCarrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Leg Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Mice, Inbred C57BLLung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Needlestick Injuries: Penetrating stab wounds caused by needles. They are of special concern to health care workers since such injuries put them at risk for developing infectious disease.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Hepatitis A Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS A VIRUS such as the human hepatitis A virus (HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HUMAN).Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Abdominal Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving organs in the abdominal cavity.Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1: An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Thioacetamide: A crystalline compound used as a laboratory reagent in place of HYDROGEN SULFIDE. It is a potent hepatocarcinogen.Liver Failure: Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)Hepatitis Antigens: Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.NevadaRemission, Spontaneous: A spontaneous diminution or abatement of a disease over time, without formal treatment.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lamivudine: A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.Equipment Reuse: Further or repeated use of equipment, instruments, devices, or materials. It includes additional use regardless of the original intent of the producer as to disposability or durability. It does not include the repeated use of fluids or solutions.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Hepatitis B Virus, Duck: A DNA virus that closely resembles human hepatitis B virus. It has been recovered from naturally infected ducks.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Hepatic Stellate Cells: Perisinusoidal cells of the liver, located in the space of Disse between HEPATOCYTES and sinusoidal endothelial cells.Hepatic Encephalopathy: A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Protective Agents: Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.Neck Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.Fatty Liver, Alcoholic: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells that is due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. The fatty changes in the alcoholic fatty liver may be reversible, depending on the amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES accumulated.Hepatitis B Virus, Woodchuck: An ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS causing chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in woodchucks. It closely resembles the human hepatitis B virus.Wounds, Nonpenetrating: Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Thoracic Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the chest area.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Acute Kidney Injury: Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.1-Naphthylisothiocyanate: A tool for the study of liver damage which causes bile stasis and hyperbilirubinemia acutely and bile duct hyperplasia and biliary cirrhosis chronically, with changes in hepatocyte function. It may cause skin and kidney damage.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Liver Extracts: Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Arm Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Blast Injuries: Injuries resulting when a person is struck by particles impelled with violent force from an explosion. Blast causes pulmonary concussion and hemorrhage, laceration of other thoracic and abdominal viscera, ruptured ear drums, and minor effects in the central nervous system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Hand Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the hand.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Prothrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Blood Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)Knee Injuries: Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Interferons: Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.Creatine Kinase, MM Form: An isoenzyme of creatine kinase found in the MUSCLE.Hepatitis D, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS in conjunction with HEPATITIS B VIRUS and lasting six months or more.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Mononeuropathies: Disease or trauma involving a single peripheral nerve in isolation, or out of proportion to evidence of diffuse peripheral nerve dysfunction. Mononeuropathy multiplex refers to a condition characterized by multiple isolated nerve injuries. Mononeuropathies may result from a wide variety of causes, including ISCHEMIA; traumatic injury; compression; CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES; CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS; and other conditions.Rats, Inbred LEC: A cinnamon-colored strain of Long-Evans rats which carries a mutation causing fulminant hepatitis and jaundice, with an associated gross accumulation of copper in the liver. This strain is a model for Wilson's Disease (see HEPATOLENTICULAR DEGENERATION).Cholestasis, Intrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).Liver Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the liver as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Torque teno virus: A species of non-enveloped DNA virus in the genus ANELLOVIRUS, associated with BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS; and HEPATITIS. However, no etiological role has been found for TTV in hepatitis.Marmota: A genus of Sciuridae consisting of 14 species. They are shortlegged, burrowing rodents which hibernate in winter.Asymptomatic Infections: Infections that do not exhibit symptoms.Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Abbreviated Injury Scale: Classification system for assessing impact injury severity developed and published by the American Association for Automotive Medicine. It is the system of choice for coding single injuries and is the foundation for methods assessing multiple injuries or for assessing cumulative effects of more than one injury. These include Maximum AIS (MAIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Probability of Death Score (PODS).Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Heart Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the heart.United StatesFacial Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from patients to health professionals or health care workers. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.Mice, Inbred BALB CRecurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.
2011). "Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Twenty Five Cases of Acute Hepatitis Following Ingestion of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb". ... "Reactivation of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a Patient with Polygonum multiflorum Thunb-Induced Hepatitis". Gut and Liver. 3 (1): ... Cárdenas, A; Restrepo, JC; Sierra, F; Correa, G (2006). "Acute hepatitis due to shen-min: A herbal product derived from ... Overconsumption can lead to toxicity-induced hepatitis. More than 100 chemical compounds have been isolated from Fallopia ...
The spectrum of drug-induced liver injury varies from acute hepatitis to chronic hepatitis to acute liver failure. Toxins and ... these are the most common causes of drug-induced hepatitis in Korea. The United-States-based Drug Induced Liver Injury Network ... Both drug-induced hepatitis and autoimmune hepatitis can present very similarly to acute viral hepatitis, with slight ... Acute hepatitis can sometimes resolve on its own, progress to chronic hepatitis, or rarely result in acute liver failure. Over ...
Pessayre D, Larrey D (April 1988). "Acute and chronic drug-induced hepatitis". Baillière's Clinical Gastroenterology. 2 (2): ... "Amineptine induced liver injury. Report of two cases and brief review of the literature". Hepato-gastroenterology. 43 (10): ... Greece reported two cases of drug induced hepatitis 18 and 15 days of treatment. One case of cytolytic hepatitis occurred after ... Acute pancreatitis (very rare) A case associating acute pancreatitis and mixed hepatitis after three weeks of treatment. In ...
Drug-induced liver injury is a cause of acute and chronic liver disease. The liver plays a central role in transforming and ... There can be three types of drug-induced hepatitis. (A) viral hepatitis is the most common, where histological features are ... Drug-induced liver injury is responsible for 5% of all hospital admissions and 50% of all acute liver failures. Adverse drug ... but overdose is the most common cause of drug-induced liver disease and acute liver failure worldwide. Damage to the liver is ...
... eight previously healthy individuals presented themselves at their center suffering with drug-induced liver injury. All of ... "FDA Investigation Summary: Acute Hepatitis Illnesses Linked to Certain OxyElite Pro Products". US Food and Drug Administration ... Three of these patients developed fulminant liver failure, two underwent urgent liver transplantation, and one died. The number ... investigated an outbreak of 97 persons with acute nonviral hepatitis that first emerged in Hawaii. Seventy-two of these persons ...
2006). "Outcome of acute idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury: Long-term follow-up in a hepatotoxicity registry". Hepatology ... nausea and drug-induced lymphocytic colitis has been associated with bentazepam. Severe liver damage and hepatitis has also ... 2000). "Chronic liver injury related to use of bentazepam: an unusual instance of benzodiazepine hepatotoxicity". Digestive ... Whilst liver failure from bentazepam is considered to be rare, liver function monitoring has been recommended for all patients ...
... such as viral hepatitis, liver injury from lack of blood flow, or injury from drugs or toxins. Most disease processes cause ALT ... Possible causes for high ALT levels are liver inflammation (hepatitis A, B, C, infectious mononucleosis, acute viral fever, ... Drug-induced increases such as that found with the use of anti-tuberculosis agents such as isoniazid are limited typically to ... Cirrhosis of the liver or fulminant liver failure secondary to hepatitis commonly reach values for both ALT and AST in the > ...
... citing three recent drug-induced liver injury cases likely due to telithromycin, one resulting in a liver transplant and one in ... Three different incidents were reported: one case of temporary drug-induced hepatitis, one ending in a liver transplant, and ... and an additional 23 cases of acute, serious liver injury, among 5.2 million patients taking telithromycin through April 2006. ... In the United States, the FDA's Office of Epidemiology and Surveillance identified 12 cases of acute liver failure, resulting ...
Hsu, LM; Huang, YS; Chang, FY; Lee, SD (Jul 2005). "'Fat burner' herb, usnic acid, induced acute hepatitis in a family". J ... FDA has received multiple reports of persons who developed liver injury or liver failure while using Lipokinetix. The product ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration. November 20, 2001. Retrieved 5 December 2012. ... Yellapu RK, Mittal V, Grewal P, Fiel M, Schiano T (2011). "Acute liver failure caused by 'fat burners' and dietary supplements ...
... eight previously healthy individuals presented themselves at their center suffering from a drug-induced liver injury. ... "FDA Investigation Summary: Acute Hepatitis Illnesses Linked to Certain OxyElite Pro Products". US Food and Drug Administration ... Aegeline and liver injury. Aegeline is a known constituent of the bael leaf and consumed as a dietary supplement with the ... and Hawaii state and local health officials identified an outbreak of 97 persons with acute non-viral hepatitis that first ...
... drug induced, 70%; indeterminate group, 64%; and other causes,61%. Causes of death for the 101 patients who died within the 3- ... severe alcoholic hepatitis), viral hepatitis (hepatitis A or B - it is extremely uncommon in hepatitis C), acute fatty liver of ... Severe lung injury and hypoxemia result in high mortality. Most cases of severe lung injury are due to ARDS, with or without ... may infrequently present with acute liver failure. In the majority of acute liver failure (ALF) there is widespread ...
Cavar I (2011). "Anti-thromboxane B2 antibodies protect against acetaminophen-induced liver injury in mice". Journal of ... acute hepatotoxicity etc. TxB2, a stable degradation product of TxA2, plays a role in acute hepatoxicity induced by ... doi:10.1002/hep.20000. PMID 14752832. Yokoyama Y (2005). "Role of thromboxane in producing hepatic injury during a hepatic ... The widely used drug aspirin acts by inhibiting the ability of the COX enzyme to synthesize the precursors of thromboxane ...
2005). "Outcome from molecular adsorbent recycling system (MARS) liver dialysis following drug-induced liver failure". Liver ... Hassanein, T; Oliver, D; Stange, J; Steiner, C (2003). "Albumin dialysis in cirrhosis with superimposed acute liver injury: ... "Extracorporeal liver support with molecular adsorbents recirculating system in patients with severe acute alcoholic hepatitis ... A sudden onset of life-threatening hepatic insufficiency is known as acute liver failure (ALF). In hyperacute and acute liver ...
... is not the only drug to target these GABAA receptors. Drugs like Flumazenil also bind to GABAA to induce their effects ... hepatitis and liver cirrhosis decrease elimination by a factor of two) Severe renal deficiencies (for example, patients on ... and 2-20 mg/l in victims of acute overdose. Most commercial immunoassays for the benzodiazepine class of drugs cross-react with ... or spinal cord injury (long-term treatment is coupled with other rehabilitative measures) Palliative treatment of stiff person ...
... autoimmune hepatitis, acute hepatitis, fulminant liver failure, and cirrhosis, as well as an increased risk of hepatocellular ... Neil Kaplowitz (16 October 2002). Drug-Induced Liver Disease. CRC Press. pp. 618-. ISBN 978-0-203-90912-6. Kim JH, Yoo BW, Yang ... Yet another study of 105 patients found a hepatotoxicity rate of 9.5%, with serious hepatic injury occurring in 3.8%. In 2002, ... As such, the prognosis of CPA-induced liver failure is death. The risk of hepatotoxicity and death associated with CPA ...
... and weight loss and rarely does acute liver failure result. Most cases of acute infection are not associated with jaundice. The ... Intravenous drug use (IDU) is a major risk factor for hepatitis C in many parts of the world. Of 77 countries reviewed, 25 ( ... Some countries do not screen for hepatitis C due to the cost. Those who have experienced a needle stick injury from someone who ... HCV induces chronic infection in 80% of infected persons. Approximately 95% of these clear with treatment. In rare cases, ...
Acute kidney injury. p53 Kidney disorders. QPI-1002/I5NP. Graft dysfunction kidney transplant. p53 ... As with conventional manufactured drugs, the main challenge in developing successful offshoots of the RNAi-based drugs is the ... Both miRNA and siRNA form either the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) or the nuclear form of RISC known as RNA-induced ... both in cultured cells and in living organisms. Structural and functional resolution of small RNAs as the effectors of RNA ...
An "abnormal" liver with conditions such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, gall bladder disease, and cancer is likely to result in a ... or is frequently combined with other recreational drugs that complicate diagnosis and treatment. Acute alcohol poisoning is a ... 2008). Catastrophic Injuries in Sports and Recreation: Causes and Prevention: A Canadian Study (2 ed.). University of Toronto ... Other measures may include Treat low blood sugar, with intravenous sugar solutions as ethanol induced low blood sugar ...
... can also cause rare but serious side effects like acute liver injury. Zafirlukast-induced hepatotoxicity generally ... Liver enzyme elevations are common, and the pattern usually reflects hepatocellular damage, resembling acute viral hepatitis. ... "Zafirlukast - Drugs.com". Drugs.com. Drugs.com. Retrieved 29 November 2017. Byers, Christopher; Dhupa, Nishi. "Feline Bronchial ... Zafirlukast inhibits the action of CYP3A4, leading to drug-drug interactions with other drugs that are metabolized by CYP3A4. ...
... drug-induced cholestasis, cholangiocarcinoma, IgG4-related disease, post-liver transplantation non-anastomotic biliary ... doi:10.1002/hep.26565. ISSN 1527-3350. PMID 23775876. Feld JJ, Heathcote EJ (October 2003). "Epidemiology of autoimmune liver ... The resulting scarring of the bile ducts obstructs the flow of bile, which further perpetuates bile duct and liver injury. ... Tabibian JH, Yang JD, Baron TH, Kane SV, Enders FB, Gostout CJ (2016). "Weekend Admission for Acute Cholangitis Does Not ...
"Drug Record - Amoxicillin-Clavulanate". LiverTox - Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury. Retrieved ... of clavulanic acid with penicillins has been associated with an increased incidence of cholestatic jaundice and acute hepatitis ... After several attempts, Beecham finally filed for US patent protection for the drug in 1981, and U.S. Patents 4,525,352, ... Clavulanic acid (/ˌklævjəˈlænɪk/) is a β-lactam drug that functions as a mechanism-based β-lactamase inhibitor. While not ...
Acute fatty liver of pregnancy is sometimes included in the preeclamptic spectrum. It occurs in approximately one in 7,000 to ... Exposure to Pharmaceutical drugs in pregnancy. Anti-depressants, for example, may increase risks of such outcomes as preterm ... There have been rare but known cases of intra-uterine bleeding caused by injury inflicted by the fetus with its fingernails or ... Caused by: Pregnancy-induced hypercoagulability as a physiological response to potential massive bleeding at childbirth. ...
"Hepatocyte growth factor: a regenerative drug for acute hepatitis and liver cirrhosis". Division of Molecular Regenerative ... "Protective effects of quercetin on liver injury induced by ethanol". Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy ... "Activation of innate immunity (NK/IFN-gamma) in rat allogeneic liver transplantation: contribution to liver injury and ... "CYP2E1 and Oxidative Liver Injury by Alcohol". Department of Pharmacology and Systems Therapeutics, Mount Sinai School of ...
PMC 2190558 . Jones, Mark R; Hall, Oliver Morgan; Kaye, Adam M (2015). "Drug-Induced Acute Pancreatitis: A Review". Ochsner ... and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of ... hepatitis and mesenteric ischemia. Diagnosis requires 2 of the 3 following criteria: Characteristic acute onset of epigastric ... Kaurich, Tracie (January 2008). "Drug-induced acute pancreatitis". Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center). 21 (1): 77- ...
Chronic (rather than acute) infection with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus is the main cause of liver cancer. Globally, ... Liver damage can also be caused by drugs, particularly paracetamol and drugs used to treat cancer. A rupture of the liver can ... Liver allografts for transplant usually come from donors who have died from fatal brain injury. Living donor liver ... The mesenchyme of septum transversum induces this endoderm to proliferate, to branch, and to form the glandular epithelium of ...
"Liver injury in alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency: an aggregated protein induces mitochondrial injury". The Journal of Clinical ... Kushner, Mackiewicz A (1993). The acute phase response: an overview. Acute-phase glycoproteins: molecular biology, biochemistry ... a new paradigm for hepatocellular carcinoma in genetic liver disease". Hepatology. 42 (3): 514-21. doi:10.1002/hep.20815. PMID ... Recombinant alpha-1 antitrypsin is not yet available for use as a drug but is under investigation as a therapy for alpha-1 ...
A case of acute cholestatic hepatitis associated with Orlistat].. Kim DH, Lee EH, Hwang JC, Jeung JH, Kim DY, Cheong JY, Cho SW ... "drug"[All Fields] AND "induced"[All Fields] AND "liver"[All Fields] AND "injury"[All Fields]) OR "drug induced liver injury"[ ... "induced"[All Fields] AND "liver"[All Fields] AND "injury"[All Fields]) OR "chemical and drug induced liver injury"[All Fields] ... Good outcome of living donor liver transplantation in drug-induced acute liver failure: A single-center experience. ...
I share your concerns about your liver injury. I also agree with the discontinuation of your Bactrim by your doctor. However, ... I share your concerns about your liver injury. I also agree with the discontinuation of your Bactrim by your doctor. ... Ask the Experts > Forum on Hepatitis and HIV Coinfection > Q & A Acute Drug-induced Hepatitis; a result of HIV drug therapy?. ... Great, except that I have acute drug-induced hepatitis. My doctor stopped the Bactrim and asked that I stop the supplements I ...
... and herb-induced liver injury (HILI) but is also critical for the... ... is not only indispensable for the diagnosis of suspected drug-induced liver injury (DILI) ... for the Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) (2011) Acute hepatitis E infection accounts for some cases of suspected drug- ... Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) (2010) Important elements for the diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury. Clin ...
Characteristics of drug-induced liver injury. *varied presentations *varied histology *necrosis, cholestatis, acute hepatitis, ... Study Liver Disease flashcards from Caitlin Heim ... rarely presents as acute hepatitis. *histo *interface and ...
Nucleic acid amplification technique-based assays are a primary method for the detection of acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) ... Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN). Acute hepatitis E infection accounts for some cases of suspected drug-induced liver ... For example, in some cases of suspected drug-induced liver injury, HEV has been determined as the cause (23). In one such ... Treatment of chronic hepatitis E in liver transplant recipients with pegylated interferon alpha-2b. Liver Transpl. 2010;16:474- ...
Acute Hepatitis E Infection Accounts for Some Cases of Suspected Drug-Induced Liver Injury Gastroenterology, November 2011, Vol ... FGF Receptors 1 and 2 Control Chemically Induced Injury and Compound Detoxification in Regenerating Livers of Mice ... Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Mobilizes CD34+ Cells and Improves Survival of Patients With Acute-on-Chronic Liver ... Improvement in Liver Pathology of Patients With β-Thalassemia Treated With Deferasirox for at Least 3 Years Gastroenterology, ...
Learn how liver damage can affect cholesterol and what treatments you can explore. ... The liver produces and clears cholesterol in the body. ... Common drug-induced liver injuries and the drugs associated ... The injury can include inflammation from a disease such a hepatitis C. After hepatitis C, long-term alcohol abuse is the most ... Drugs. Another significant cause of liver problems is damage from drugs. The livers job is to metabolize chemicals in the body ...
What is our current understanding of the molecular biology of hepatitis E? Review diagnostic and therapeutic strategies and ... Suspected drug induced liver injury. *. Severe acute liver injury (all patients). How should we test for HEV?. *. Anti-HEV IgM ... Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a leading cause of acute icteric hepatitis and acute liver failure in the developing ... HEV is a leading cause of icteric hepatitis and acute liver failure in the developing world. Worldwide, the estimated annual ...
Acute hepatitis with or without cholestasis is the most common histological pattern of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). It is ... 2 is a xenobiotic that induces acute hepatitis and cellular death. Although there are little data on the liver histology in ... R. Ramachandran and S. Kakar, "Histological patterns in drug-induced liver disease," Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 62, no ... Especially in liver, acute and/or chronic intoxication have been reported to increase the organ-to-body weight ratio, inhibit δ ...
New findings from the US Drug Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) in their most... ... Numerous publications contributed to the expanding knowledge base about drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in 2015. ... Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN), et al. Acute hepatitis E infection accounts for some cases of suspected drug-induced ... United States Drug Induced Liver Injury Network, et al. Features and outcomes of 899 patients with drug-induced liver injury: ...
A case of acute hepatitis E virus infection with clinical features indistinguishable from drug-induced liver injury （2005） ... A successful treatment of jejunal leiomyosarcoma accompanied with liver metastases （1995） * 医学共同研究 多施設共同研究による肝細胞癌806例(1992〜95年) ... The secretion of high molecular weight cathepsin B from cultured human
Drug- and herb-induced hepatotoxicity often resolves following discontinuation of the product (3). Attributing liver injury to ... and histopathology of liver biopsy specimens collected thus far suggest drug- or herb-induced hepatotoxicity. Drug- and herb- ... with exposure to a variety of drugs and herbs used as dietary supplements and can lead to severe acute hepatitis and liver ... Notes from the Field: Acute Hepatitis and Liver Failure Following the Use of a Dietary Supplement Intended for Weight Loss or ...
Now-a-days liver transplantation has been an accepted method to treat many liver.. ... Liver failure is one of the major causes of death worldwide and a growing health problem. ... Acute liver failure; DILI: Drug-induced liver injury; CRLMs: Colorectal liver metastasis; NLMs: Neuroendocrine liver metastases ... severe acute liver failure due to viral hepatitis, drug-induced hepatitis etc are the main causes of Liver transplantation [11 ...
... you should be aware that acute liver failure is a rare but serious possible outcome of the infection. ... There are many other possible causes of acute liver failure. In the United States, drug induced liver injury is the most common ... Causes of Acute Liver Failure Acute liver failure is one of the most serious complications of viral hepatitis infection. In ... Hepatitis and Acute Liver Failure This Rare But Serious Condition Is Also Known as Fulminant Hepatitis By Charles Daniel ...
Drug-induced hepatic injury. *Hepatobiliary neoplasms. *Chronic liver disease. *Gastrointestinal manifestations of HIV ... Acute and chronic hepatitis. *Biliary and pancreatic diseases. *Womens health issues in digestive diseases ... GI Summer Clinical Lecture Faculty review clinical aspects of acute management of common GI diseases. This is an introductory ... Percutaneous liver biopsy (fellows must perform a minimum of 20 supervised procedures). ...
... viral hepatitis (HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, HEV), NAFLD/NASH, genetic liver diseases, autoimmune hepatitis, drug¿induced liver injury ... Nimesulide-induced fatal acute liver failure in an elderly woman with metastatic biliary adenocarcinoma. A case report. ... "drug induced liver injury" or "liver injury" or "hepatotoxic adverse drug") and ("Brasil" or "Brazil" or "Brazilian"). All ... Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is difficult to diagnose not only due to its similarity to viral hepatitis and other liver ...
Drug-induced hepatotoxicity most commonly manifests as an acute hepatitis syndrome and remains the leading cause of drug- ... acute hepatocellular injury, acute cholestatic liver injury, and mixed pattern acute liver injury. When a single drug is ... All known causes of acute liver injury were appropriately excluded and (only) drug-induced liver injury was left as a cause of ... Acute drug-induced liver injuries (DILI) predominate (about 90% of cases)  and are classified into 3 categories , ...
Drug Injury Watch provides developing information about prescription drug side effects as well as up-to-date news from the ... Tags: drug labels changes, drug safety, drug-induced liver injury, FDA, hepatitis C drugs, liver damage, side effects, ... Tags: case reports, drug injury, drug-induced liver injury, Health Canada, hepatic failure, liver disease, liver injury, ... Tags: atrial fibrillation, cardiac failure, DILI hepatitis, drug injury, drug safety, drug-induced liver injury, FDA, ...
von Felden J, Montani M, Kessebohm K, Stickel F. Drug-induced acute liver injury mimicking autoimmune hepatitis after intake of ... effects on recovery of acute knee injury. Res Sports Med 2007;15:113-124. View abstract. ... Glucosamine induces autophagic cell death through the stimulation of ER stress in human glioma cancer cells. Biochem Biophys ... Ju Y, Hua J, Sakamoto K, Ogawa H, Nagaoka I. Modulation of TNF-alpha-induced endothelial cell activation by glucosamine, a ...
von Felden J, Montani M, Kessebohm K, Stickel F. Drug-induced acute liver injury mimicking autoimmune hepatitis after intake of ... Joint pain caused by drugs called aromatase inhibitors (aromatase inhibitor-induced arthralgias). Early research suggests that ... effects on recovery of acute knee injury. Res Sports Med 2007;15:113-124. View abstract. ... Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs). There has been concern that glucosamine sulfate might increase blood sugar in ...
Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Twenty Five Cases of Acute Hepatitis Following Ingestion of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb Jung KA, Min ... The notion that acute hepatitis A superimposed on chronic hepatitis B infection leads to a worse outcome than acute hepatitis A ... Heat Shock Proteins and Autophagy in Rats with Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis Kim JN, Lee HS, Ryu SH, Kim YS, Moon JS, Kim ... BACKGROUND/AIMS: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) protect rats from cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) by preventing the ...
... but well established cause of clinically apparent acute liver injury. ... United States Drug Induced Liver Injury Network. Features and outcomes of 899 patients with drug-induced liver injury: The ... Efavirenz-induced acute eosinophilic hepatitis.. [Modified from: Verdon R, Six M, Rousselot P, Bazin C. Efavirenz-induced acute ... Drug-induced Liver Injury Network. Characteristics of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury in children: results from the ...
2011). "Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Twenty Five Cases of Acute Hepatitis Following Ingestion of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb". ... "Reactivation of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a Patient with Polygonum multiflorum Thunb-Induced Hepatitis". Gut and Liver. 3 (1): ... Cárdenas, A; Restrepo, JC; Sierra, F; Correa, G (2006). "Acute hepatitis due to shen-min: A herbal product derived from ... Overconsumption can lead to toxicity-induced hepatitis. More than 100 chemical compounds have been isolated from Fallopia ...
The histologic pattern of injury has not been completely described. Studies quantifying viral load in the liver are lacking. ... and demonstrated histologic findings of macrovesicular steatosis and mild acute hepatitis (lobular necroinflammation) and mild ... A subset of liver tissue blocks were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for viral ribonucleic acid (RNA). Peak levels ... Here we report the clinical and histologic findings related to the liver in 40 patients who died of complications of COVID-19. ...
AutoimmuneTransplantationDILIHepatotoxicityJaundiceDiagnosisBiliaryElevationsBiopsyCholestatic hepatitisIncidenceAcetaminophenAbnormalitiesSerumInflammation of the liver2016Severe acuteAlcoholEtiologyIsoniazidHepatologyIdiosyncratic drug-induced liverClinically apparent acute liver injuryAlcoholic hepatitisToxin inducedCauses of acuteSyndromeAbstractRisk of acuteOrganPancreatitisComplicationsOccursBiopsiesInfectiousRarelyDevelopment of acute hepatitis
- Excluded were other etiologies such as pre-existing autoimmune hepatitis, chronic alcohol use, and chronic liver diseases such as primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, Wilson's disease, and hemochromatosis. (cdc.gov)
- Some pregnancy related illnesses, autoimmune disease, some herbs, cancer infiltrating the liver, sepsis, thrombotic disease and Budd-Chiari syndrome are other potential causes. (verywellhealth.com)
- The most common types of liver infection are hepatitis viruses, including Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. Diseases in which your immune system attacks certain parts of your body (autoimmune) can affect your liver. (ivanhoe.com)
- Examples include autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. (ivanhoe.com)
- Diagnosis of drug-induced liver disease included the exclusion of lesions due to virus (A, B, delta, C in cases later than 1990, and nonA-nonB prior to this date, mononucleosis), autoimmune or metabolic disorders (iron and copper alterations and alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency). (isciii.es)
- Drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis (DIH) is the most common hepatic drug-induced hypersensitization process observed in approximately 9 to 12% of patients with autoimmune hepatitis. (jove.com)
- The purpose of this method is to describe a mouse model of drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis that develops in vivo and demonstrate how it can be utilized to investigate the molecular, immunologic and genetic basis of this disease. (jove.com)
- Idiosyncratic DILI, sometimes referred to as drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis (DIH) is the third most common cause of acute liver failure in the United States. (jove.com)
- These anesthetics covalently binds to liver proteins with reactive products of their metabolism, thus creating novel autoantigens capable of eliciting allergic or autoimmune responses 5 . (jove.com)
- By using BALB/c mice, which are relatively resistant to experimental autoimmune hepatitis, we distinguish our model from the S100-induced immunization model of autoimmune hepatitis in C57Bl/6J mice 8 . (jove.com)
- Autoimmune hepatitis may be treated with medications to suppress the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
- Fulminant hepatitis, or massive hepatic cell death, is a rare and life-threatening complication of acute hepatitis that can occur in cases of hepatitis B, D, and E, in addition to drug-induced and autoimmune hepatitis. (wikipedia.org)
- A more extensive evaluation may include additional cancer screening, biliary imaging, autoimmune antibody assays, and liver biopsy. (aafp.org)
- Other factors such as diabetes, obesity and hyperlipidaemia in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and family history (for Wilson's disease, haemochromatosis, autoimmune disease) may be significant. (bmj.com)
- Specifically, reports of fatalities and severe effects were associated with immune complications that included autoimmune hepatitis (immune-caused liver damage) and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (a disorder that may affect several organs in the body), and hemolytic anemia (abnormal red cell breakdown). (druginjurylaw.com)
- The other new etiologic findings included 34 cases of autoimmune hepatitis, 12 cases of hypovolemic shock or ischemia, five cases of hepatitis B, and two cases of hepatitis A. (healio.com)
- Balb/C mice were injected with ConA (25 mg/kg) to induce acute autoimmune hepatitis, and EGCG (10 or 30 mg/kg) was administered orally twice daily for 10 days before ConA injection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- However, liver inflammation can also result from exposure to chemicals, over-the-counter or prescription drugs, heavy alcohol use, inherited diseases, autoimmune disease , or fatty buildup in the liver. (labtestsonline.org)
- Good outcome of living donor liver transplantation in drug - induced acute liver failure: A single-center experience. (nih.gov)
- Now-a-days liver transplantation has been an accepted method to treat many liver disorders. (omicsonline.org)
- Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is a life-saving procedure for end-stage liver failure. (omicsonline.org)
- Liver transplantation has some complications involved such as immunosuppression, graft rejection and various side effects. (omicsonline.org)
- Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequently occurring malignancies and orthotopic liver transplantation is not recommended for patients with Hepatocellular carcinoma. (omicsonline.org)
- Liver transplantation or Hepatic transplantation is the replacement of a diseased liver with a healthy liver allograft. (omicsonline.org)
- Generally the native liver is removed and replaced by the donor organ in the same anatomic location as the original liver, the technique called orthotopic transplantation. (omicsonline.org)
- Liver transplantation is the second most common solid organ transplantation, yet less than ten percent of global transplantation needs are met at current rates. (ivanhoe.com)
- In severe drug-induced hepatitis, once encephalopathy develops, prognosis is poor without liver transplantation. (alliedacademies.org)
- However, the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scoring system is the classification used by the United Network for Organ Sharing in the allocation of livers for transplantation. (mhmedical.com)
- Nearly three out of four Japanese patients who underwent living donor liver transplantation following acute liver failure managed to live for more than ten years after the surgery. (medindia.net)
- The findings, published in the September issue of Liver Transplantation , a journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD), suggest that the type of liver disease or treatment plan does not affect long-term patient survival following LDLT. (medindia.net)
- Previous studies report patient survival from ALF was less than 15% before the era of liver transplantation and significantly better at more than 65% following transplantation. (medindia.net)
- LDLT when a portion of a healthy liver from a living donor is used for transplantation was developed as an alternative treatment option to overcome the shortage of deceased donor organs. (medindia.net)
- Using data from the Intractable Liver Disease Study Group of Japan, researchers identified 209 ALF candidates who underwent living donor liver transplantation. (medindia.net)
- Deceased donor liver transplantation is dictated by the availability of the organ, and high-risk marginal grafts are frequently used. (medindia.net)
- Although liver transplantation and hepatocyte transplantation have become substitutes for improving liver regeneration, their applications are inhibited by scarce tissue and cell resources. (springer.com)
- Therefore, the transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and their derivatives including hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs), conditioned medium (CM), and exosomes (Ex) can help alleviate liver injury in ALF individuals or animal models via engraftment into liver tissue, hepatogenic differentiation, the promotion of host hepatocyte proliferation, the secretion of anti-inflammatory factors and antioxidants, and the enhancement of liver regeneration in vivo. (springer.com)
- The best treatment for some types of end stage liver disease is transplantation. (gastrocure.com)
- Hepatotoxicity or DILI due to antituberculosis drug-induced liver injury (DILI) encompasses a wide spectrum of liver injury ranging from asymptomatic minimal elevation of liver enzymes to acute liver failure, often leading to death or liver transplantation. (tropicalgastro.com)
- Two of these 8 cases required liver transplantation. (druginjurylaw.com)
- Competing event: liver transplantation. (elsevier.es)
- Cox proportional hazard models for predictors of mortality 1-year after liver transplantation in patients with acute liver failure (N=231). (elsevier.es)
- Liver transplantation (LT) for acute liver failure (ALF) still has a high early mortality. (elsevier.es)
- Liver transplantation may be necessary for patients whose liver failure does not resolve. (aappublications.org)
- Recovery occurs within 1 to 6 months of stopping the ephedra preparation, but instances with acute liver failure and death or need for emergency liver transplantation have been reported. (blogspot.in)
- The aim of managing intracranial hypertension is to normalise the ICP, preventing permanent neurological damage or death from herniation, while awaiting liver recovery or transplantation. (emmedonline.com)
- A robust causality assessment method (CAM) is not only indispensable for the diagnosis of suspected drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and herb-induced liver injury (HILI) but is also critical for the investigation of the clinical features, risk factors, and incidence in pharmacological or epidemiological studies. (springer.com)
- Numerous publications contributed to the expanding knowledge base about drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in 2015. (springer.com)
- New findings from the US Drug Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) in their most recently updated registry include a 1- to 3-week delay in the appearance of acute DILI from short-course antibiotics such as cefazolin. (springer.com)
- They corroborated the finding that acute DILI in patients with underlying liver disease was far more severe and potentially fatal than in patients without liver disease. (springer.com)
- While nearly one in six patients with acute DILI had persistently elevated liver tests at 6 months, and results for 75 % of these patients continued to be abnormal at 12 months, most of these "chronic" injury cases were relatively minor and the result of cholestatic hepatotoxins. (springer.com)
- Newly described DILI agents include tolvaptan, as well as some new direct-acting antiviral protease inhibitors for chronic hepatitis C. The latter have been associated with serious acute hepatitis, hyperbilirubinemia, and decompensation. (springer.com)
- As important as cases with DILI, the class of PCSK9 inhibitors used to lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol have not been associated with significant liver injury, in contrast with other lipid-lowering agents. (springer.com)
- With respect to pharmacologic DILI risk factors, new data show that drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes had a nearly four times higher likelihood of causing DILI. (springer.com)
- New DILI biomarkers, specifically microRNA-122 and keratin-18, among others, appear to have the necessary predictive value to determine the prognosis and outcome of patients with paracetamol (acetaminophen [AAP])-induced acute liver failure (ALF), and may be of great benefit in deciding who requires N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and for what duration. (springer.com)
- Acute drug-induced liver injuries (DILI) predominate (about 90% of cases) [ 1 ] and are classified into 3 categories [ 2 ], acute hepatocellular injury, acute cholestatic liver injury, and mixed pattern acute liver injury. (hindawi.com)
- The administration of multiple concomitant drugs however can pose a difficult implication for which a specific agent would be the cause of DILI. (hindawi.com)
- The administration of multiple concomitant drugs can, however, pose a conundrum as to which specific agent is the cause of DILI. (hindawi.com)
- In the a-Fas model of liver injury, GAI-122 markedly reduced ALT levels by 90% from baseline, where control ALT values were ~22,000 IU/L. Significant efficacy was also demonstrated in the rat TNFa/Gln model and in the Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) model. (bio-medicine.org)
- DILI accounts for more than 50% of acute liver failure and there are no satisfactory treatment options currently available. (bio-medicine.org)
- The National Institutes of Health (NIH) maintains a searchable database of over 1000 drugs, herbal medications, and dietary supplements that have been associated with drug-induced liver injury (DILI) at http://livertox.nih.gov/ . (unboundmedicine.com)
- Acute DILI progresses to chronic injury in 5%-10% of cases. (unboundmedicine.com)
- One autoantigen is the hepatic cytosolic S100 liver fraction, which is a mixture of several proteins 6 , and the second autoantigen is an epitope of CYP2E1 that is recognized by sera from patients with anesthetic immune-mediated DILI 7 . (jove.com)
- Drug-Induced Liver Injury (DILI), also known as Drug- Induced Hepatitis (DIH), has a wide clinical spectrum, ranging from asymptomatic abnormal liver function tests to severe lifethreatening Acute Liver Failure (ALF) [ 1 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
- Many drugs can cause DILI, and different drugs have led to varying disease time courses [ 5 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
- In western countries, the most common drugs that lead to idiosyncratic DILI are antimicrobials, central nervous system drugs, herbal/ dietary supplements, and immunomodulatory agents [ 3 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
- HILI accounts for up to 50% of all cases of drug induced liver injury (DILI) in mainland China [ 1 ] and 20% of cases in South Korea. (medscape.com)
- Drug induced liver injury (DILI) is an important cause of acute liver injury and accounts for approximately 10% of all cases of acute hepatitis. (springer.com)
- Some drugs can alter P450's enzymatic activities and heighten the toxicity profile of a co-ingested drug, and these complex interactions can lead to clinically significant DILI. (springer.com)
- Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an increasingly common cause of acute hepatitis. (bvsalud.org)
- We examined clinical features and types of liver injury of 65 affected patients who underwent liver biopsy according DILI etiology. (bvsalud.org)
- Herbal medications and traditional therapeutic preparations induce more hepatocellular DILI and increased elevations in AST and ALT than prescribed medications. (bvsalud.org)
- Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a minor but significant cause of liver injury across all regions. (tropicalgastro.com)
- Antituberculosis drug-induced liver injury (TB DILI) is a leading cause of DILI and drug-induced acute liver failure (DIALF) in India and much of the developing world. (tropicalgastro.com)
- Simultaneous rechallenge with combination drugs or sequential treatment have similar incidence of DILI, although increasing reports about the role of pyrazinamide in DILI and on rechallenge warrants its careful use. (tropicalgastro.com)
- The combined affliction of HIV or chronic hepatitis B or C and tuberculosis poses multiple challenges including the greatly increased risks of DILI. (tropicalgastro.com)
- [8 , 9 , In contrast, non-TB antibiotics and paracetamol are the commonest causes of DILI and drug-induced ALF in western countries. (tropicalgastro.com)
- 11 , 12 , In a single center registry of 303 patients from Bangalore, antituberculosis drugs contributed to 58% cases of DILI. (tropicalgastro.com)
- Eight cases of ACTEMRA-related moderate to severe [drug-induced liver injury (DILI)] were identified. (druginjurylaw.com)
- Compared with WM, the children whose injuries were caused by Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) showed a higher level of total bilirubin (1.4 mg/dL vs. 16.6 mg/dL, p=0.004) and a longer prothrombin time (11.8 seconds vs. 17.3 seconds, p=0.012), but they exhibited less chronic DILI (2/15 vs. 18/39, p=0.031). (nih.gov)
- Most cases of DILI in children are caused by antibiotics or CHM used to treat respiratory infection and present with hepatocellular injury. (nih.gov)
- Björnsson ES (2016) Hepatotoxicity by drugs: the most common implicated agents. (springer.com)
- The only drug that seemed to have an increased risk of hepatotoxicity in these patients was azithromycin. (springer.com)
- Herbal hepatotoxicity continues to be increasingly reported, although applying causality assessment to these cases can, in fact, be more challenging than with prescription drugs. (springer.com)
- While the investigation is ongoing and these data are preliminary, clinical data, laboratory tests, and histopathology of liver biopsy specimens collected thus far suggest drug- or herb-induced hepatotoxicity. (cdc.gov)
- Although hepatotoxicity accounts for 10% of adverse drug reactions, it remains poorly understood and underreported. (elsevier.es)
- Drug-induced hepatotoxicity most commonly manifests as an acute hepatitis syndrome and remains the leading cause of drug-induced death/mortality and the primary reason for withdrawal of drugs from the pharmaceutical market. (hindawi.com)
- Atorvastatin mitigates cyclophosphamide-induced hepatotoxicity via suppression of oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat model Cyclophosphamide (CP), as a chemotherapy drug , induces hepatotoxicity through causing oxidative stress. (tripdatabase.com)
- The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of ATV against CP-induced hepatotoxicity in rat. (tripdatabase.com)
- Cytotoxic and Hepatocurative Effect of Aqueous Fraction of Tapinanthus bangwensis Against Paracetamol-Induced Hepatotoxicity Medicinal plants over time have proven to have potential to manage a huge number of diseases and disorders and thus have become a great source of pharmaceutical drugs . (tripdatabase.com)
- The contribution of each particular drug to the development of hepatotoxicity in a HAART regimen is difficult to determine. (natap.org)
- Possible pathogenic mechanisms involved in hepatotoxicity are multiple, including direct drug toxicity, immune reconstitution in the presence of HCV and/or HBV co-infections, hypersensitivity reactions with liver involvement, and mitochondrial toxicity. (natap.org)
- With the widespread use of HAART and the availability of more drugs, some of them perhaps more hepatotoxic, HAART-linked hepatotoxicity has been made evident over the past few years. (natap.org)
- Although in a study severe hepatotoxicity with acute hepatic necrosis was present in 2% of HIV+ patients dying due to hepatitis or other liver diseases, mainly among those with prior liver disease, most cases of liver toxicity is mild-to-moderate and asymptomatic . (natap.org)
- Although a vast majority of patients tolerate the drugs, some develop adverse effects of which hepatotoxicity is the most significant. (tropicalgastro.com)
- [8 , Furthermore, the ripple effects of hepatotoxicity include disruption of treatment with potential for prolongation of treatment, genesis of drug resistance and suboptimal cure. (tropicalgastro.com)
- This is according the Canadian drug regulatory agency, Health Canada, which issued this Dear Healthcare Professional Letter, "Important Safety Information on ACTEMRA® (tocilizumab) - Risk of Hepatotoxicity", on May 21, 2019. (druginjurylaw.com)
- Hepatic drug metabolism, often with an imbalance between the generation of toxic metabolites and detoxification processes, can influence the degree of hepatotoxicity. (aappublications.org)
- For example, young children are more resistant to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity when compared with adults, whereas children are more susceptible to valproic acid-induced toxicity. (aappublications.org)
- Drug or environmental xenobiotic-induced hepatotoxicity should be considered in the setting of identified exposure or when other causes of childhood liver disease are excluded. (aappublications.org)
- The severity of the liver injury due to efavirenz ranges from mild and transient enzyme elevations to acute hepatocellular jaundice and even fulminant liver failure and death. (nih.gov)
- This includes patients with unexplained jaundice, unexplained elevations of AST or ALT, elevations of direct bilirubin, hepatomegaly, cirrhosis or liver cancer. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Alcoholic hepatitis is a clinical syndrome, i.e. recent onset of jaundice and/or ascites in a patient with ongoing alcohol misuse. (easl.eu)
- 1 Acute jaundice is often an indicator of significant underlying disease and occurs secondary to intra- and extrahepatic etiologies. (aafp.org)
- The remaining 45% of acute jaundice cases are extrahepatic and include gallstone disease, hemolysis, and malignancy. (aafp.org)
- Liver biopsy should be reserved for cases of jaundice where the diagnosis is unclear after the initial evaluation and if biopsy results will impact treatment and determine prognosis. (aafp.org)
- HBV has an average incubation period of 90 days (range 60-150 days) from exposure to onset of jaundice and 60 days (range 40-90 days) from exposure to onset of abnormal liver enzymes. (nih.gov)
- Twenty percent of patients develop asymptomatic elevation of liver enzymes which is self limiting (as a result of adaptation or discontinuance) in a majority of patients[ 4 , 5 , 6 , but the outlook may be less favorable in those with develop jaundice, ascites, encephalopathy or acute liver failure. (tropicalgastro.com)
- The reduced capacity of glucuronide conjugation in the neonate not only predisposes them to physiologic jaundice but also is probably responsible for the chloramphenicol-induced gray infant syndrome. (aappublications.org)
- Acute hepatitis is often suspected and testing done because of the appearance of signs and symptoms, such as fever, loss of appetite, and nausea, often accompanied by dark urine, pale stools, and yellow discoloration of the skin and the whites of the eyes ( jaundice ). (labtestsonline.org)
- ACG Clinical Guideline: the diagnosis and management of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury. (springer.com)
- When a single drug is involved, the diagnosis is relatively simple. (hindawi.com)
- A1AT deficiency should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any patient with unexplained liver abnormalities. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- In adults, the biochemical and histologic features of a1AT deficiency are similar to those of alcoholic liver disease, which can lead to delayed and mistaken diagnosis when specific testing for a1AT deficiency is not performed. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Longer tissue samples are taken from both lobes of the liver, increasing the likelihood of an accurate diagnosis to 90 percent. (ivanhoe.com)
- EASL Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) assist physicians and other healthcare providers as well as patients and those interested in the clinical decision-making process by describing a range of generally accepted approaches for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of specific liver diseases. (easl.eu)
- However, attributing liver injury to the umbrella term "herb" does not result in timely diagnosis, treatment, prevention, or exploration of the underlying mechanisms of HILI. (medscape.com)
- One reason is that the time from diagnosis to transplant is shorter in live related liver transplant, hence transplant is done before the patient becomes too ill. (medindia.net)
- The diagnosis of toxin-induced liver disease requires a high index of suspicion and often entails the exclusion of other causes of liver disease in children. (aappublications.org)
- Efavirenz is associated with a low rate of serum enzyme elevations during therapy and is an uncommon, but well established cause of clinically apparent acute liver injury. (nih.gov)
- Life-threatening disease occurs in about 5% of ZZ patients before the age of 18 years, although as many as 50% of ZZ children may have some type of hepatic abnormality such as unexplained liver test elevations or hepatomegaly. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- The recovery phase is characterized by resolution of the clinical symptoms of hepatitis with persistent elevations in liver lab values and potentially a persistently enlarged liver. (wikipedia.org)
- Elevations in alkaline phosphatase (alk phos) and γ-Glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) may accompany cholestatic liver disease (eg, drug-induced cholestasis, cholangitis). (mhmedical.com)
- Although fluoroquinolones are sometimes associated with mild, transient elevations in aminotransferase levels, serious acute liver injury is uncommon. (cmaj.ca)
- While several antiretrovirals have been reported to cause fatal acute hepatitis, they most often cause asymptomatic elevations of transaminases. (natap.org)
- Histopathology of the liver biopsy specimen revealed acute cholestatic hepatitis. (hindawi.com)
- The serum enzyme pattern is variable, typically cholestatic or mixed, but sometimes hepatocellular, these cases being more severe, likely to show submassive necrosis on liver biopsy and associated with a high fatality rate. (nih.gov)
- Features such as eosinophilia, skin rash and biopsy findings suggest that the injury is due to an immunoallergic reaction. (nih.gov)
- Non-invasive tests, such as for a1AT deficiency, are commonly performed before more invasive procedures such as liver biopsy or surgery. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- SAN FRANCISCO, Calif. (Ivanhoe Newswire) - When you may have a liver problem, doctors often will order a biopsy to get to the bottom of the problem. (ivanhoe.com)
- A liver biopsy was needed. (ivanhoe.com)
- Zachary's doctors then tried a new approach called an endoscopic ultrasound liver biopsy. (ivanhoe.com)
- So, we can target a needle biopsy very nicely directly into the liver and thereby minimizing potential risks of perforation or bleeding," said Dr. Chen. (ivanhoe.com)
- Santa Clara Valley Medical, where Zachary had his procedure, is one of ten locations across the country that performs the endoscopic ultrasound liver biopsy. (ivanhoe.com)
- In some cases, your doctor may recommend a liver biopsy to directly assess liver tissue. (winchesterhospital.org)
- Liver biopsy showed severe hepatitis. (eurekalert.org)
- Liver biopsy shows fibrous septa formation and moderate interface hepatitis. (nih.gov)
- In 15 cases (25.4%), the liver biopsy after the normalization of liver biochemistry still showed the histologic features of chronic hepatitis, such as moderate portal inflammation, interface hepatitis, fibroplastic proliferation, and fibrous septa formation. (nih.gov)
- We report a 12-year-old boy who received multiple antibiotics for the treatment of cervical lymphadenitis, retropharyngeal cellulitis, and developed signs and symptoms of cholestatic hepatitis. (hindawi.com)
- Less than 20% of patients present in infancy with cholestatic hepatitis. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Of nine patients with liver biopsies, six showed acute cholestatic hepatitis, two acute, and one chronic hepatocellular injury pattern. (medscape.com)
- D, E) Cholestatic hepatitis due to herbal decoction with Polygonum multiflorum for vitiligo. (nih.gov)
- The incidence of liver function abnormalities appears to be rare, but the new labeling informs prescribers that monitoring will be necessary,' said Edward Fox, MD, MS Clinic of Central Texas, Round Rock. (drug-injury.com)
- the incidence of drug-induced hepatitis is higher in patients over 40 years of age, it being more common in females. (isciii.es)
- 5) This is likely a factor in the higher incidence of hepatitis C among baby boomers, who received blood transfusions before better screening was implemented. (everydayhealth.com)
- Herbal products have been trusted and widely used since antiquity in Northeast Asia, resulting in a high incidence of herbal-induced liver injury (HILI) in these countries. (medscape.com)
- [ 3 ] Not surprisingly, the incidence of herbal and dietary supplement-induced liver injury has increased notably in tandem with widespread usage in countries such as United States [ 4 ] and Spain. (medscape.com)
- Concomitant alcohol may be associated with higher incidence of isoniazid hepatitis. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Testing for a1AT deficiency should be considered in patients at any age with unexplained liver abnormalities. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Since a1AT deficiency is a relatively common condition, and can easily and quickly be diagnosed by serum analysis, specific testing for a1AT deficiency is commonly recommended in any presentation of a patient with unexplained liver test abnormalities. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Patients with preexisting liver dysfunction, including chronic active hepatitis B or C, have an increased risk for liver function abnormalities including severe hepatic adverse events. (newsinferno.com)
- Acute hepatitis A or B can be confirmed serologically, as can hepatitis C. Negative serological findings in the presence of hepatitis-like chemistry abnormalities may also suggest acute drug-induced hepatitis, an impression supported by resolution after removal of the offending agent. (privatemdlabs.com)
- Interpretation of abnormalities in liver function tests is a common problem faced by clinicians. (bmj.com)
- Since the approval of palbociclib by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2015, the most common hematologic lab abnormalities are anemia, leukopenia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia. (mdedge.com)
- The clinician thinks of liver damage when abnormalities in the liver tests are seen. (natap.org)
- If abnormalities of liver function exceed three to five times the upper limit of normal, discontinuation of isoniazid should be strongly considered. (nih.gov)
- We investigated the association between serum IP-10 levels and liver pathology in patients. (koreamed.org)
- Control of severe or incapacitating allergic conditions intractable to adequate trials of conventional treatment in asthma, atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, drug hypersensitivity reactions, perennial or seasonal allergic rhinitis, serum sickness, transfusion reactions. (drugs.com)
- In agreement with the International Consensus Meeting recommendations, acute hepatic damage was defined as an increase in serum alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) levels or conjugated bilirubin above or equal to twice the normal upper limit, or a combination of increased aspartate-aminotrasferase (AST) and total bilirubin provided one of these values was more than twice the normal upper limit. (isciii.es)
- Coffee oil also causes elevation of liver enzyme levels in serum. (biomedcentral.com)
- It has been suggested that cafestol is mainly responsible for the effect on serum cholesterol levels and that kahweol is mainly responsible for the effect on liver enzyme levels. (biomedcentral.com)
- Unfiltered coffee also causes elevated liver enzyme levels in serum. (biomedcentral.com)
- Coffee oil also raises serum levels of the liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) and to a lesser extent aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT). (biomedcentral.com)
- A mixture of cafestol and kahweol raised liver enzyme levels more potently than pure cafestol, whereas the effect on serum cholesterol levels is similar. (biomedcentral.com)
- Acute and chronic liver injuries increase serum concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). (mhmedical.com)
- Liver function tests are blood tests that include alkaline phosphatase, prothrombin time (PT, a measure of blood clotting), serum bilirubin and serum albumin. (healthcentral.com)
- Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver. (winchesterhospital.org)
- Toxic hepatitis refers to inflammation of the liver due to medication or exposure to toxic chemicals. (winchesterhospital.org)
- Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue. (wikipedia.org)
- Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver, and hepatitis C is liver inflammation caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). (everydayhealth.com)
- Inflammation of the liver will cause liver enlargement, which stretches the liver capsule generating pain. (explainmedicine.com)
- Diffuse inflammation of the liver causes moderate enlargement of the liver with smooth edges and stretching of the liver capsule producing tender hepatomegaly. (explainmedicine.com)
- Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. (labtestsonline.org)
- Sarges P, Steinberg JM, Lewis JH (2016) Drug-induced liver injury: highlights from a review of the 2015 literature. (springer.com)
- Danan G, Teschke R (2016) RUCAM in drug and herb induced liver injury: the update. (springer.com)
- Hayashi PH (2016) Drug-induced Liver Injury Network causality assessment: criteria and experience in the United States. (springer.com)
- Ortega-Alonso A, Stephens C, Lucena MI, Andrade RJ (2016) Case characterization, clinical features and risk factors in drug-induced liver injury. (springer.com)
- Douros A, Bronder E, Andersohn F, Klimpel A, Kreutz R, Garbe E, Bolbrinker J (2016) Herb-induced liver injury in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study. (springer.com)
- In 2016, there were an estimated 10.4 million cases of TB globally, including 1.2 million (11%) among people living with HIV (PLHIV). (prnewswire.co.uk)
- 2016. https://www.unboundmedicine.com/washingtonmanual/view/Washington-Manual-of-Medical-Therapeutics/602267/all/Drug_Induced_Liver_Injury. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Previous isoniazid-associated hepatic injury. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Severe and sometimes fatal hepatitis associated with isoniazid therapy has been reported and may occur or may develop even after many months of treatment. (nih.gov)
- however, in a U.S. Public Health Service Surveillance Study of 13,838 persons taking isoniazid, there were 8 deaths among 174 cases of hepatitis. (nih.gov)
- Isoniazid-associated hepatitis usually occurs during the first three months of treatment. (nih.gov)
- A recent report suggests an increased risk of fatal hepatitis associated with isoniazid among women, particularly Black and Hispanic women. (nih.gov)
- Patients with tuberculosis who have hepatitis attributed to isoniazid should be given appropriate treatment with alternative drugs. (nih.gov)
- It is the official journal of the Mexican Association of Hepatology (AMH), the Latin-American Association for the Study of the Liver (ALEH) and the Canadian Association for the Study of the Liver (CASL) and publishes original papers, concise reviews, letters to the Editor, invited editorials, opinions and viewpoints in the field of Hepatology. (elsevier.es)
- AU - Bolte,Fabian J, AU - Schmidt,Hartmut H-J, AU - Schlevogt,Bernhard, Y1 - 2020/06/24/ PY - 2020/6/26/entrez JF - Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) JO - Hepatology N2 - Increased use of novel immunomodulatory agents has led to emerging forms of drug-induced liver injury. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Concurrent treatment of TB and HIV remains a challenge as it is compounded by drug interactions, overlapping toxicities and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. (prnewswire.co.uk)
- The doctors suspect the man had developed Kounis syndrome (a group of acute coronary events) triggered by a delayed allergic reaction to the massive amount of bee venom in his system. (eurekalert.org)
- Chronic use of ephedra has been linked to a chronic hepatitis-like syndrome, but recovery is prompt when ephedra is stopped. (blogspot.in)
- The condition is a reaction to long-term injury to the organ. (healthline.com)
- The liver is the largest organ in the human body, the second to brain in organ complexity. (omicsonline.org)
- Liver is the main metabolizing organ in the body [ 1 ] and displays main digestive function for the metabolism of substances such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, and hormones. (omicsonline.org)
- It occurs when cells of the liver are injured so quickly that the organ cannot repair itself fast enough. (verywellhealth.com)
- The pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) has resulted in significant pulmonary morbidity and mortality, but has also raised many questions regarding involvement of other organ systems such as the liver. (nature.com)
- Hepatic lesions as a consequence of adverse reactions to medication are a potential complication when prescribing any new drug, since the liver is the central metabolizing organ for foreign substances entering the body. (isciii.es)
- The liver is an important internal organ because it performs many functions. (healthcentral.com)
- The liver is the largest internal organ and one of the body's most complex. (gastrocure.com)
- The liver is the first organ that comes into contact with enterally absorbed nutrients and xenobiotics via the portal vein. (aappublications.org)
- The liver is a vital organ located in the upper right-hand side of the abdomen. (labtestsonline.org)
- BACKGROUND/AIMS: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) protect rats from cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) by preventing the subcellular redistribution of cathepsin B and the activation of trypsinogen. (koreamed.org)
- The rate of fall can lead to disseminated intravascular coagulation, caused by pregnancy and delivery complications, sepsis, acute pancreatitis, or snake bites. (films.com)
- The combination of increased AST and ALT with negative hepatitis markers occurs in a number of other entities including infectious mononucleosis. (privatemdlabs.com)
- This occurs in acute anicteric hepatitis. (explainmedicine.com)
- Usually, enzyme levels return to normal despite continuance of drug, but in some cases progressive liver dysfunction occurs. (nih.gov)
- therefore, liver injury occurs rarely. (aappublications.org)
- In other cases, hepatitis occurs with a drug that is not directly toxic to the liver but the body recognizes the drug as foreign and attacks it, causing hepatitis. (labtestsonline.org)
- The predominant pathological features were that of drug induced liver injury, although an abnormal amount of copper was noted in the core liver biopsies. (springer.com)
- Liver biopsies from 55 children most frequently demonstrated chronic (47.3%) and acute (27.3%) hepatitis. (nih.gov)
- Liver biopsies were performed in 59 children (85.5%) and the pathological patterns of injury in 55 children were listed in Table 1, whereas four of the cases could not be classified into any pattern because of mild histological changes. (nih.gov)
- Twenty-nine biopsies (49.2%) showed various degrees of interface hepatitis. (nih.gov)
- In older children and adults, a1AT deficiency can be confused with acute infectious hepatitis or drug induced liver injury. (clinicaladvisor.com)