Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.
A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
Multiple symptoms associated with reduced oxygen at high ALTITUDE.
A chlorinated anilide that is used as an herbicide.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
An organophosphate insecticide that inhibits monoamine oxidase and acetylcholinesterase. It has been shown to be genotoxic.
A sport involving mountain climbing techniques.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Residue generated from combustion of coal or petroleum.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and as an acaricide.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.
Organic compounds in which mercury is attached to a methyl group.
A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).
A widely used industrial solvent.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.
A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.
Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Relating to the size of solids.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Effects of acute radiation exposure[edit]. Phase Symptom Whole-body absorbed dose (Gy) ... "Fukushima: Radiation Exposure". World Nuclear Association. Retrieved 2020-05-11.. *^ a b Filyushkin, I.V. (July 1996). "The ... "Annex C: Radiation exposures in accidents" (PDF). Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation - 2008 Report to the General ... have sued for compensation and recognition of their exposure, many successfully. The passage of the Radiation Exposure ...
Acute effects[edit]. The median lethal dose (LD50) for acute radiation exposure is about 4.5 Sv.[78] The committed effective ... "Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure" (PDF). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Retrieved 2009-05-05.. ... In addition to the acute effects, radiation exposure (both internal and external) carries a long-term risk of death from cancer ... Regulatory exposure limits and handling[edit]. The maximum allowable body burden for ingested 210Po is only 1.1 kBq (30 nCi), ...
"Dental Fractures on Acute Exposure to High Altitude". Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine. 77 (6): 654-7. PMID 16780246 ... along with the recent pressure exposure and breathing gas history of the patient. Air transport should be below 1,000 feet (300 ... but is most commonly associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. It used to be the most common complication of ...
Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, (BEST) (2006). Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: ... Exposure to larger amounts of chlorine trifluoride, as a liquid or as a gas, ignites living tissue. The hydrolysis reaction ... with water is violent and exposure results in a thermal burn. The products of hydrolysis are mainly hydrofluoric acid and ...
"INTERIM ACUTE EXPOSURE GUIDELINE LEVELS (AEGLs) FOR 26 SELECTED CHLOROSILANES" (PDF). Environmental Protection Agency. April ...
"Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis following acute kidney injury and exposure to gadolinium". Indian Journal of Medical Sciences. 64 ... History of exposure to GBCAs would favor NSF as the differential diagnosis.[6][8] ... NSF is an iatrogenic disease caused by exposure to gadolinium-based contrast agents used in magnetic resonance imaging.[12] ... iatrogenic disease caused by exposure to gadolinium-based contrast agents. Risk factors. impaired renal function is the major ...
Acute exposure. A single exposure to a toxic substance which may result in severe biological harm or death; acute exposures are ... Acute toxicity looks at lethal effects following oral, dermal or inhalation exposure. It is split into five categories of ... Chronic exposure. Continuous exposure to a toxicant over an extended period of time, often measured in months or years; it can ... the time of exposure (a brief encounter or long term), the number of exposures (a single dose or multiple doses over time), the ...
Acute (short-term) exposure ... results in irritation of the eyes, mucous membranes, ... Chronic (long-term) exposure ... has ... Exposures have been linked with acute short-term symptoms such as headache, dizziness, light-headedness, nausea, coughing, ... Acute Inflammatory Responses in the Airways and Peripheral Blood After Short-Term Exposure to Diesel Exhaust in Healthy Human ... Taking into account the OR and the prevalences of exposure, the highest PAF was estimated for traffic exposure (7.4%) .... ...
Acute (short-term) exposure ... results in irritation of the eyes, mucous membranes, ... Chronic (long-term) exposure ... has ... Exposures have been linked with acute short-term symptoms such as headache, dizziness, light-headedness, nausea, coughing, ... Taking into account the OR and the prevalences of exposure, the highest PAF was estimated for traffic exposure (7.4%) ... Power ... It is impossible to tell how much of this effect is due to the stress of being in traffic and how much is due to exposure to ...
... the Acute Exposure Guideline Level-1 (AEGL-1) is 8.3 ppm, which is almost 7000 times the odor threshold. Merck Index, 11th ... Acute Exposure Guideline Levels. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 2019-04-28. CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide ... Occupational exposure generally involves exposure that occurs regularly, over an extended period of time.) It is toxic in large ... "Human studies on occupational exposure to ethyl acrylate... have suggested a relationship between exposure to the chemical(s) ...
Testing types include acute (short-term exposure), chronic (life span) and bioaccumulation tests.[9] Many industrial facilities ...
High-level aflatoxin exposure produces an acute hepatic necrosis (acute aflatoxicosis), resulting later in cirrhosis or ... Chronic, subclinical exposure does not lead to symptoms so dramatic as acute aflatoxicosis. Chronic exposure increases the risk ... No animal species is immune to the acute toxic effects of aflatoxins. Adult humans have a high tolerance for aflatoxin exposure ... An association between childhood stunting and aflatoxin exposure[5] has been reported in some studies[6][7] but could not be ...
The first is an acute response that occurs immediately after exposure to an allergen. This phase can either subside or progress ... Early exposure to potential allergens[2][3]. Treatment. Avoiding the food in question, having a plan if exposure occurs, ... Early exposure to potential allergens may be protective.[2] Specifically, early exposure to eggs and peanuts reduces the risk ... Acute response[edit]. Degranulation process in allergy.. 1 - antigen. 2 - IgE antibody. 3 - FcεRI receptor. 4 - preformed ...
Acute Exposure Guideline Levels". Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 12. Washington (DC): ... Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels, Committee on Toxicology, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Division ... Brain damage is typically seen with chronic long-term use of solvents as opposed to short-term exposure. Even though many ... Texas during the period 1988-1998 and was reported in 39 deaths in Virginia between 1987 and 1996 from acute voluntary exposure ...
Acute Exposure Guideline Levels". Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals. 6. National Academies Press ... Its LC50 for a 30-minute exposure has been estimated at 3 ppm, and the concentration that is immediately fatal to humans would ... These reach greatest severity after four days, possibly resulting in death from cardiorespiratory or acute kidney injury. ... its smell provides no reliable warning against a potentially fatal exposure. The vapours of Ni(CO)4 can autoignite. The vapor ...
Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels; Committee on Toxicology; Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology; Division ... Methyl Mercaptan Acute Exposure Guideline Levels. NCBI Bookshelf.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) "BHO Mystery ...
"Chronic ethanol feeding and acute ethanol exposure in vitro: effect on intestinal transport of biotin". The American Journal of ...
Excepting for acute or chronic conditions, exposure to copper in cooking is generally considered harmless. Following Paracelsus ... Acute exposure and attendant copper toxicity is possible when cooking or storing highly acidic foods in unlined copper vessels ... Fish species vary in their sensitivity to copper, with the LD50 for 96-h exposure to copper sulphate reported to be in the ... Acute symptoms of copper poisoning by ingestion include vomiting, hematemesis (vomiting of blood), hypotension (low blood ...
A high acute risk was also identified from exposure via residues in nectar and/or pollen."[126][127] Dave Goulson, an author of ... Unlike with other acute causes of die-off such as pesticide exposure, few if any dead bees are found in or near the hive, as if ... Israeli acute paralysis virus[edit]. In 2004, Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), was discovered in Israel and at one time it ... Their review concluded, "A high acute risk to honey bees was identified from exposure via dust drift for the seed treatment ...
"Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure" (PDF). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Retrieved 2017-03-26. "Findings ... "Special Exposure Cohort (SEC)". CDC The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. CDC Centers for Disease Control ... Leukemia is regarded as a risk of occupational polonium exposure. Workers on the Dayton Project had weekly tests for polonium ... apparently due to job-related exposure to radiation, before she was able to defend her dissertation. She is the first African- ...
In Wistar rats too, toxicity is related to the in vivo liberation of cyanide after exposure to MeAN. The acute toxicity of MeAN ... 2014). Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 16. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press ... Ghanayem et al., 1985 Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels; Committee on Toxicology; Board on Environmental Studies and ... Due to this, glutathione is depleted to certain degrees after MeAN exposure. After oral exposure to 100 mg/kg MeAN in rats, the ...
A high acute risk was also identified from exposure via residues in nectar and/or pollen."[7][63] In April 2013, the European ... Toxicity varies depending on whether the exposure occurs on a short-term (acute) or long-term (chronic) basis.[4][11][16][19][ ... A high acute risk was also identified from exposure via residues in nectar and/or pollen."[7] ... Their review concluded, "A high acute risk to honey bees was identified from exposure via dust drift for the seed treatment ...
In humans, excessive exposure to UV radiation can result in acute and chronic harmful effects on the eye's dioptric system and ... Getting too much sun exposure can be harmful, but in moderation, sun exposure is beneficial.[43] ... "DNA damage after acute exposure of mice skin to physiological doses of UVB and UVA light". Arch Dermatol Res. 304 (5): 407-412 ... Exposure to these can cause "welder's flash" or "arc eye" (photokeratitis) and can lead to cataracts, pterygium and pinguecula ...
Acute exposure to yttrium compounds can cause shortness of breath, coughing, chest pain, and cyanosis.[9] The Occupational ... Exposure to yttrium compounds in humans may cause lung disease.[9] Workers exposed to airborne yttrium europium vanadate dust ... The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended exposure limit (REL) is 1 mg/m3 over an 8-hour ... Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) limits exposure to yttrium in the workplace to 1 mg/m3 over an 8-hour workday. ...
In humans, excessive exposure to UV radiation can result in acute and chronic harmful effects on the eye's dioptric system and ... January 2012). "DNA damage after acute exposure of mice skin to physiological doses of UVB and UVA light". Arch Dermatol Res. ... This exposure of 10-15 minutes, on a frequency of two to three times per week will cause the adult's skin to produce enough ... Exposure to these can cause "welder's flash" or "arc eye" (photokeratitis) and can lead to cataracts, pterygium and pinguecula ...
Zadik, Y (2006). "Dental Fractures on Acute Exposure to High Altitude". Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine. 77 (6): ...
According to its onset and course, cheilitis can be either acute or chronic. Most cheilitis is caused by acute sun exposure. ... Instead, small exposure such as kissing someone who is wearing lipstick is enough to cause the condition. Allergy to Balsam of ...
These articles include MMWR publications and articles in peer-reviewed journals on exposures such as acute pesticide-related ... "Acute illnesses associated with pesticide exposure at schools". Journal of the American Medical Association. 294 (4): 455-465. ... A case of pesticide-related illness or injury is characterized by an acute onset of symptoms that are temporally related to a ... Cases are classified as occupational if exposure occurs at work, unless the case was a suicide or an attempted suicide. Cases ...
IgE circulates around and binds to receptors of cells leading to an acute inflammatory response.[13] In this case, ... dependence - an adaptive state associated with a withdrawal syndrome upon cessation of repeated exposure to a stimulus (e.g., ... Allergic Sensitization - There is an acute response (early stages) and a late-phase response (later stages). In the early ... sensitization - an amplified response to a stimulus resulting from repeated exposure to it ...
Acute. Coming to a sharp, but not prolonged point.. Auriculate. Ear-shaped.. Cordate. Heart-shaped with the notch towards the ... Leaves need to support their own mass and align themselves in such a way as to optimize their exposure to the sun, generally ... Shaped like an arrowhead and with the acute basal lobes pointing downward.. Truncate. Ending abruptly with a flat end, that ... The internal organization of most kinds of leaves has evolved to maximize exposure of the photosynthetic organelles, the ...
"Risk of Exposure". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 12 October 2014. Archived from the original on 16 October ... Non-infectious diseases that may result in symptoms similar to those of EVD include acute promyelocytic leukaemia, haemolytic ... The length of time between exposure to the virus and the development of symptoms (incubation period) is between two and 21 days ... Endothelial cells may be infected within three days after exposure to the virus.[49] The breakdown of endothelial cells leading ...
Exposure of the pre-Bötzinger complex to these inhibitory neurotransmitters results in the rhythmic nature associated with ... Investigation of the respiratory response to Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH), repeated episodes of hypoxia, reveals connection ... The suppression of muscarinic receptors and the activation of nicotinic receptors due to prenatal exposure to nicotine have ...
... and neither cleanliness nor exposure to sunlight appears to play a part.[2][13][14] In both sexes, hormones called androgens ... Their use during pregnancy has been associated with the development of acute fatty liver of pregnancy and is further avoided ... Even minimal skin exposure to the sun's ultraviolet rays can sustain hyperpigmentation.[35] Daily use of SPF 15 or higher ... due to exposure to certain chemicals, may look very similar to acne vulgaris.[74] ...
... into acute and chronic forms (see table). Some of the subtypes almost always occur as acute (e.g., acute pseudomembranous ... Some consider oral candidiasis a change in the normal oral environment rather than an exposure or true "infection" as such. The ... Acute atrophic candidiasis may feel like the mouth has been scalded with a hot liquid. Another potential symptom is a metallic ... Acute pseudomembranous candidiasis is a classic form of oral candidiasis, commonly referred to as thrush. Overall, this is the ...
... and animals have demonstrated that primary or secondary hyperalgesia can develop in response to both chronic and acute exposure ...
However, when massive short-term exposure occurs, acute pneumonitis can set in, but symptoms do not manifest themselves for 3 ...
Occupational exposure[edit]. Outdoor workers are at risk of Lyme disease if they work at sites with infected ticks. This ... Lyme radiculopathy affecting the trunk can be misdiagnosed as myriad other conditions, such as diverticulitis and acute ... Exposure to the Borrelia bacterium during Lyme disease possibly causes a long-lived and damaging inflammatory response,[96] a ... Further information: Weather and climate effects on Lyme disease exposure. Transmission[edit]. Lyme disease is classified as a ...
Spinal manipulation may be cost-effective for sub-acute or chronic low back pain but the results for acute low back pain were ... Committee to Assess Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation, Board on Radiation Effects Research, U.S. ... There is moderate quality evidence to support the use of SM for the treatment of acute lumbar radiculopathy[101] and acute ... National Research Council (2006). Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington ...
This improves the contrast resolution of the image, but also increases radiation exposure for the patient.[16] ... and dosimeters used to measure the local radiation exposure, dose, and/or dose rate, for example, for verifying that radiation ...
This led to four deaths and serious injuries from radiation exposure. Together with caesium-134, iodine-131, and strontium-90, ... Johnson, Garland T.; Lewis, Trent R.; Wagner, D. Wagner (1975). "Acute toxicity of cesium and rubidium compounds". Toxicology ... Pinsky, Carl; Bose, Ranjan; Taylor, J. R.; McKee, Jasper; Lapointe, Claude; Birchall, James (1981). "Cesium in mammals: Acute ... and acute cardiac arrest,[242] but such amounts would not ordinarily be encountered in natural sources.[243] As such, caesium ...
Neurofibromatosis, exposure to vinyl chloride, Epstein-Barr virus, ionizing radiation[1][2][3]. ... brain tumors are second only to acute lymphoblastic leukemia as the most common form of cancer.[8] In Australia, the average ... The cause of most brain tumors is unknown.[2] Uncommon risk factors include inherited neurofibromatosis, exposure to vinyl ... Epidemiological studies are required to determine risk factors.[19] Aside from exposure to vinyl chloride or ionizing radiation ...
Inhalation of tiny particles of infectious material (aerosol) is believed to be the most significant means of exposure. It is ... After an incubation period of six to 21 days, an acute illness with multiorgan involvement develops. Nonspecific symptoms ... Infection typically occurs by direct or indirect exposure to animal excrement through the respiratory or gastrointestinal ... Redefining the Role of Immunoglobulin M and Inflammation in Diagnosing Acute Infection". Virology Journal. 8: 478. doi:10.1186/ ...
Theorell, T.; Hasselhorn, H.; Vingård, E.; Andersson, B. (2000). "Interleukin 6 and cortisol in acute musculoskeletal disorders ... Occupational exposure limit. *Occupational health psychology. *Occupational injury. *Occupational stress. *Repetitive strain ...
Honey for acute cough in children,url=,journal=The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews,language=en,volume=4,pages=CD007094, ... Exposure to cold and respiratory tract infections,url=,journal=The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, ... medications for acute cough in children and adults in community settings,url=,journal=The Cochrane Database of Systematic ... Appropriate Antibiotic Use for Acute Respiratory Tract Infection in Adults: Advice for High-Value Care From the American ...
Phantosmia Hyposmia Multiple chemical sensitivity, a condition that some believe is caused by a very acute sense of smell ... ISBN 0-684-85394-9. Henkin, RI (1990-12-05). "Hyperosmia and depression following exposure to toxic vapors". JAMA: the Journal ...
August 1992). "Aluminum-induced acute cholinergic neurotoxicity in rat". Mol. Chem. Neuropathol. 17 (1): 79-89. doi:10.1007/ ... He BP, Strong MJ (January 2000). "A morphological analysis of the motor neuron degeneration and microglial reaction in acute ... NIOSH (US health exposure limits): PEL (Permissible). none[6] REL (Recommended). 2 mg/m3[6] ...
Acute changes in the barometric pressure, i.e. dental barotrauma,[18] which can affect scuba divers[19] and aviators[20] ... Enamel-dentine fracture involving pulp exposure. *Root fracture of tooth. Periodontal injuries[edit]. *Concussion (bruising) ... Tagar H, Djemal S (September 2017). "Oral surgery II: Part 1. Acute management of dentoalveolar trauma". British Dental Journal ... "Guideline on Management of Acute Dental Trauma" (PDF). Council on Clinical Affairs. 2011.. ...
Exposure for even a short time is enough for a potential mosquito bite. Long-sleeved clothing, long pants, and socks are useful ... Different methods for acute treatment of the disease have been shown not to be very successful; passive immunization after the ... Sbrana E, Xiao SY, Guzman H, Ye M, Travassos da Rosa AP, Tesh RB (2004). "Efficacy of post-exposure treatment of yellow fever ... Serologically, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay during the acute phase of the disease using specific IgM against yellow ...
stroke following acute coronary syndrome (clogging of the artery)[note 1][7]:12[29] ... wrapped so as to avoid exposure to the air. These leaves are chewed, and act upon the spirits of those using them, much as a ...
... may provide a means of improving mental health among people with schizophrenia, but its effects in acute ... the potential for harm from exposure to particular agents, the accuracy of diagnostic tests, and the predictive power of ... Raglio, Alfredo (January 30, 2017). "Active music therapy approach for stroke patients in the post-acute rehabilitation". ... "Safe sound exposure in the fetus and preterm infant". Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing. 41 (2): 166-70 ...
US maximum allowed exposure in air (40 h/week) is 1900 mg/m³ for ethanol, 900 mg/m³ for gasoline, and 1260 mg/m³ for methanol. ... 1] University of Cambridge, General Management of Acute Poisoning, Specific Poisonings: Methanol ... However, it is much less volatile than gasoline, and therefore has lower evaporative emissions, producing a lower exposure risk ... While methanol offers somewhat different toxicity exposure pathways, the effective toxicity is no worse than those of benzene ...
... they require a longer time for their stress hormone levels to return to baseline following exposure to both acute and prolonged ... In animal experiments, exposure to prenatal stress has been shown to cause a hyper-reactive HPA stress response. Rats that have ... Exposure to mild or moderate stressors early in life has been shown to enhance HPA regulation and promote a lifelong resilience ... Atrophy of the hippocampus in humans and animals exposed to severe stress is believed to be caused by prolonged exposure to ...
... the best way to reduce the risk of developing cataracts is to avoid smoking and extensive exposure to sun light (i.e. UV-B rays ...
Research indicates that the primary dental benefit from fluoride occurs at the surface from topical exposure.[42][43] Of the ... Momcilović, B. (September 1999). "A case report of acute human molybdenum toxicity from a dietary molybdenum supplement-a new ... In: Chappell W.R, Abernathy C.O, Cothern C.R. eds., Arsenic Exposure and Health. Northwood, UK: Science and Technology Letters ... or when chronic or acute deficiencies arise from pathology, injury, etc. Research has supported that altering inorganic mineral ...
Govan VA, Leat N, Allsopp M, Davison S (2000) Analysis of the complete genome sequence of acute bee paralysis virus shows that ... Enteroviruses are stable under acid conditions and thus they are able to survive exposure to gastric acid. In contrast, ... Plautia stali intestine virus kelp fly virus, Ectropis obliqua picorna-like virus, deformed wing virus, acute bee paralysis ...
... this exposure is a significant occupational hazard for health care professionals.[16] Exposure to dangerous chemicals, ... "Exposure to Stress: Occupational Hazards in Hospitals". NIOSH Publication No. 2008-136 (July 2008). 2 December 2008. doi: ... Exposure to respiratory infectious diseases like tuberculosis (caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and influenza can be ... Annual TB testing is no longer recommended unless there is a known exposure or ongoing transmission at a healthcare facility. ...
The microcystins and nodularins poison the liver, and exposure to high doses can cause death. Exposure to low doses in drinking ... Research suggests both acute and chronic mechanisms of toxicity.[50][51] BMAA is being investigated as a potential ... Recreational exposure to cyanobacteria can result in gastro-intestinal and hay fever symptoms or pruritic skin rashes.[2] ... The progressive symptoms of anatoxin-a exposure are loss of coordination, twitching, convulsions and rapid death by respiratory ...
If acute radiation exposure occurs in the first ten days following conception, when few cells have formed, it is likely that ... Some downwinders may have suffered acute exposure due to their involvement in uranium mining and nuclear experimentation.[4] ... However, the observed inheritable effects of radiation exposure by groups with histories of acute risk are considered minimal ... Estimated Exposures and Thyroid Doses Received by the American People from Iodine-131 in Fallout Following Nevada Atmospheric ...
Acute Respiratory Illness Following Occupational Exposure to Wood Chips -- Ohio The inhalation of organic dust contaminated ... exposure is not a necessary prerequisite and that the syndrome is not restricted to either silo exposures or farming ... A case was defined as the presence in an employee of at least five of the following six symptoms after exposure to the wood ... With removal from exposure, ODTS is a self-limited illness, occasionally resolving within 24 hours, often within several days, ...
... and acute overexposures to sulfur dioxide may result in death from asphyxia (5). Survivors of such acute exposures may suffer ... acute exposure. Although the current permissible exposure limit promulgated by the Occupational Safety and Health ... Epidemiologic Notes and Reports Acute Occupational Exposure to Sulfur Dioxide -- Missouri On March 18, 1982, workers at a ... These acute effects are usually reversible if the individual is rapidly removed from exposure. ...
New research by RWJF Scholar focuses on the public health impact of exposure to media coverage of terror events, like the 2013 ... As we expected, both direct exposure and indirect media exposure were linked to acute stress symptoms. However, the people who ... Media Exposure and Acute Stress Following the Boston Marathon Bombings. Apr 15, 2014, 9:00 AM, Posted by Alison Holman ... indirect media exposure to the bombings-were these different ways of being "exposed" tied to more or less acute stress? ...
LaFramboise, W.A., Bombach, K.L., Pogozelski, A.R. et al. Hepatic Gene Expression Response to Acute Indomethacin Exposure. Mol ... Hepatic Gene Expression Response to Acute Indomethacin Exposure. *William A. LaFramboise. 1,2. , ... Risk of acute myocardial infarction and sudden death in patients treated with COX-2 selective and non-selective NSAIDs. ... Our objective in this study was to assay molecular indicators of acute hepatic injury associated with the administration of ...
Retrospective dietary exposure assessments were conducted for two groups of pesticides that have acute effects on the nervous ... Cumulative dietary exposure assessment of pesticides that have acute effects on the nervous system using SAS® software. ... Cumulative dietary exposure assessment of pesticides that have acute effects on the nervous system using MCRA software ... Exposure estimates were obtained for each group of pesticides by means of a 2-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation, which was ...
For values denoted as ** and *** extreme safety considerations against the hazard(s) of explosion(s) must be taken into account.. You may need a PDF reader to view some of the files on this page. See EPAs About PDF page to learn more. ...
Absence of an AEGL-1 value does not imply that exposure below the AEGL-2 value is without adverse effects. ...
Occupational exposure to noise and mortality from acute myocardial infarction.. Davies HW1, Teschke K, Kennedy SM, Hodgson MR, ... Chronic exposure to noise levels typical of many workplaces was associated with excess risk for acute myocardial infarction ... and we estimated relative risks using an internal low-exposure group as controls. To examine acute effects of noise, we ... There was an exposure-response trend, with a relative risk in the highest exposed group of 1.5 (95% confidence interval=1.1-2.2 ...
Given the very high prevalence of excess noise exposure at work, this association deserves further attention. ... Chronic exposure to noise levels typical of many workplaces was associated with excess risk for acute myocardial infarction ... Occupational exposure to noise and mortality from acute myocardial infarction Epidemiology. 2005 Jan;16(1):25-32. doi: 10.1097/ ... Conclusions: Chronic exposure to noise levels typical of many workplaces was associated with excess risk for acute myocardial ...
High Altitude Hexokinase Activation Chronic Group Acute Group Altitude Exposure These keywords were added by machine and not by ... Moore L.G., Brewer G.J., Oelshlegel F.J. (1972) Red Cell Metabolic Changes in Acute and Chronic Exposure to High Altitude. In: ... Red Cell Metabolic Changes in Acute and Chronic Exposure to High Altitude. ... Rorth, M. (1972). Oxygen Affinity of Hemoglobin and Red Cell Metabolism During Exposure to Simulated High Altitude. In ...
OBJECTIVES: To study acute exposure to imidazoline derivatives in 72 children younger than 15 years of age, followed-up from ... Based on these observations, the objective of this study was to perform a retrospective analysis of cases of acute exposure to ... Within the methodological limits of a retrospective, it can be concluded that acute exposure to imidazoline derivatives, ... between exposure and attendance at the center (median = 2 hours, 25-75% = 1 to 5 hours); exposure route [nasal (n = 13), oral ( ...
Effect of Spinal Ketorolac After Acute Opioid Exposure. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility ...
... Ivana Burazor1 and Aristo ... The study included 200 participants from Serbia: 100 patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI), and 100 age- and sex- ... the interrelationship between chronic exposure to oral pathogens and immune-inflammatory response in patients with acute ... them may be responsible for the elevation of tissue antibodies and biomarkers of inflammation which are involved in acute ...
Im worried that this might be acute HIV. I have some questions: 1. Is 1 week after possible exposure too early for someone ... Forums>HIV - International>Possible exposure and Acute HIV symptoms 1 week later ... I think you will be fine and I do not think you have HIV acute symptoms. It is very likely that you have a strep throat or ... But I have also read that it can happen at one week after exposure. 2. I have a bad habit of sometimes biting the inside of my ...
Abstract 16015: Acute Exposure to Air Pollution Triggers Ventricular Arrhythmias. Mark S Link, Heike Luttmann-Gibson, Joel ... Abstract 16015: Acute Exposure to Air Pollution Triggers Ventricular Arrhythmias. Mark S Link, Heike Luttmann-Gibson, Joel ... Abstract 16015: Acute Exposure to Air Pollution Triggers Ventricular Arrhythmias. Mark S Link, Heike Luttmann-Gibson, Joel ... However, the temporal association for acute events is not clear. In this prospective study we follow patients with implantable ...
"Our research suggests that exposure to Asian dust may trigger the onset of acute myocardial infarction. As far as we know, this ... Incidence of acute myocardial infarction may increase the day after Asian dust exposure. Kumamoto University ... Incidence of acute myocardial infarction may increase the day after Asian dust exposure ... Asian dust exposure triggers acute myocardial infarction, European Heart Journal, Oxford University Press (OUP), 2017. DOI: ...
... Cengizhan Sezgi,1 ... Eighty people with exposure to environmental asbestos and without any disease, 46 mesothelioma patients, and a control group of ... We believe that elevated acute phase reactants and oxidative stress markers (TOL and OSI) in the mesothelioma group can be used ... The aim of this study was to investigate inflammatory indicators and oxidative status in patients with asbestos exposure with ...
... of expected exposure. For example, ATSDR may assume a one time exposure or 3 days of exposure per week for several weeks, ... 4.2 Applying Ingestion Rates to Acute, Intermediate, and Chronic Exposure. Historical Document. This Web site is provided by ... 4.2 Applying Ingestion Rates to Acute, Intermediate, and Chronic Exposure. *4.3 Ingestion Rates for Adults Who Exhibit Soil- ... of acute (,14 days), intermediate (14-365 days), and chronic exposures (,365 days) to develop screening levels. However, when ...
What is Acute exposure? Meaning of Acute exposure as a legal term. What does Acute exposure mean in law? ... Definition of Acute exposure in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Acute exposure legal definition of Acute exposure https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Acute+exposure ... exposure. (redirected from Acute exposure). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Financial, Encyclopedia. exposure. ...
Exposure To Ionizing Radiation) to Weakness (Acute Radiation Syndrome). Radiation Converter. ... Exposure To Ionizing Radiation. , Microroentgen. Convert Microroentgen (µR, Exposure To Ionizing Radiation) to Weakness (Acute ... Microroentgen (µR, Exposure To Ionizing Radiation) to Weakness (Acute Radiation Syndrome) Copyright © 1996-2019 by Sergey ... The first one is from Exposure To Ionizing Radiation. The second one is from Acute Radiation Syndrome. ...
ACUTE EXPOSURE; TOXICITY; ANIMALS; CANADIAN AECB; DOSE-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIPS; ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE; INHALATION; PUBLIC ... ETDEWEB / Search Results / Toxicity levels to humans during acute exposure to hydrogen fluoride - An update ... Halton, D M. Toxicity levels to humans during acute exposure to hydrogen fluoride - An update. Canada: N. p., 1995. Web. ... title = {Toxicity levels to humans during acute exposure to hydrogen fluoride - An update}. author = {Halton, D M}. ...
Maine CDC: Possible exposure to acute hepatitis A at Saco pizza restaurant. ... SACO - A case of acute hepatitis A virus infection in a Saco food service worker has been identified by the Maine Center for ... Symptoms begin to show 15-50 days after exposure to the virus. An infected person can spread the virus to others from ... There is a 14-day window during which prophylaxis is effective after exposure. Those who should get a vaccine includes anyone ...
... acute studies can help to determine other PREP effects. This acute study examines how exposure to AdvanceTM cigarettes ... Acute exposure using clinical laboratory methods has proven value in the evaluation of PREPs for smokers7,12,17; this study is ... Objective: To examine the acute effects of AdvanceTM, a potential reduced exposure product (PREP) for smokers marketed as a ... No compensatory changes in topography were observed with AdvanceTM, despite the fact that the acute exposure methods used are ...
... acute (short-term) exposure and chronic (long-term) exposure. Examples of acute exposure include using nail polish remover or ... Acute Exposure Guideline Levels. The EPA has also set acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) and offers chemical priority ... The specific effects of acute exposure depend on a variety of factors, including the chemical itself, duration of exposure, ... Although periods of exposure may be few and far between, even short contact with certain toxic chemicals may lead to serious ...
Brown adipose tissue oxidative metabolism contributes to energy expenditure during acute cold exposure in humans. ... Brown adipose tissue oxidative metabolism contributes to energy expenditure during acute cold exposure in humans. ... We also observed an increase in BAT radio density upon cold exposure, indicating reduced BAT triglyceride content. In sum, our ... Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is vital for proper thermogenesis during cold exposure in rodents, but until recently its presence ...
This book is the eighth volume in the series Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals, and reviews AEGLs ... This book is the eighth volume in the series Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals, and reviews AEGLs ... Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 8 (2010) Chapter: 1 Acrolein. ... Acute Lethality. Information concerning death in humans following inhalation exposure to acrolein is limited and anecdotal. ...
... on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances and the Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) in ... on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances and the Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) in ... Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals is the tenth volume of the series and documents for N,N- ... Next: Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals--Volume 10 » The National Academies of Sciences, ...
What Health Effects Are Associated With Acute High-Dose Cadmium Exposure?. ... more intense exposure to cadmium and do not improve after one to two days may progress in eight hours to seven days to acute ... The symptoms of acute cadmium inhalation can initially resemble classic metal fume fever, a self-limited condition associated ... The most common way that acute poisoning via cadmium ingestion occurs is consumption of acidic food or beverages improperly ...
  • Risk of acute myocardial infarction and sudden death in patients treated with COX-2 selective and non-selective NSAIDs. (springer.com)
  • Occupational exposure to noise and mortality from acute myocardial infarction. (nih.gov)
  • Relative risks for acute myocardial infarction mortality were elevated in the full cohort, with a stronger association in the subgroup without hearing protection. (nih.gov)
  • Chronic exposure to noise levels typical of many workplaces was associated with excess risk for acute myocardial infarction death. (nih.gov)
  • The study included 200 participants from Serbia: 100 patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI), and 100 age- and sex-matched controls. (hindawi.com)
  • For this reason, a Japanese research group focused on acute myocardial infarction among cardiovascular diseases. (eurekalert.org)
  • At Kumamoto University Hospital , in the middle of Kyushu, cases of acute myocardial infarction are comprehensively registered in a medical database. (eurekalert.org)
  • Since background factors (i.e., age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, chronic kidney disease, etc.) of patients with acute myocardial infarction are also registered in the database, it is possible to determine what factors are most susceptible to Asian dust. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers used this database to analyze the relationship between the dust and acute myocardial infarction. (eurekalert.org)
  • During the study period, there were 4,509 acute myocardial infarction patients registered in the database with clear onset dates. (eurekalert.org)
  • After excluding those who lived outside Kumamoto Prefecture, those who developed acute myocardial infarction during hospitalization or on holidays, or those who lacked patient background information, 3,713 people were analyzed for an association between exposure to Asian dust and the onset of acute myocardial infarction. (eurekalert.org)
  • Results: Acute myocardial infarction increases the day after incidents of Asian dust. (eurekalert.org)
  • The odds ratio (approximate value of relative risk) of developing acute myocardial infarction the day after an Asian dust incident was 1.46, with a 95% confidence interval of 1.09 - 1.95. (eurekalert.org)
  • Therefore, the association between the increased numbers of acute myocardial infarction patients after an observation of Asian dust is clear. (eurekalert.org)
  • It was found that the association between Asian dust and acute myocardial infarction was most prevalent in nonsmoking* male patients older than 75 years old with hypertension, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • Among that cohort, it was clear that patients with chronic kidney disease were significantly more likely to suffer from acute myocardial infarction after being influenced by dust than those without chronic kidney disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • Myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries after acute exposure to carbon monoxide. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • ST-elevation myocardial infarction after acute carbon monoxide poisoning/Akut karbon monoksit zehirlenmesi sonras? (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We investigated the relationship between long-term exposure to traffic and occurrence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a case-control study. (harvard.edu)
  • Background: A number of studies have shown associations between chronic exposure to particulate air pollution and increased mortality, particularly from cardiovascular disease, but fewer studies have examined the association between long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution and specific cardiovascular events, such as acute myocardial infarction (AMI). (harvard.edu)
  • For every patient presenting in 2008 with an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) to one of 55 US academic hospitals enrolled in the University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC), we examined the number of each of the following diagnostic procedures involving ionizing radiation that were performed: Chest radiograph, CT chest, CT body, CT head, nuclear rest/stress perfusion, nuclear MUGA, nuclear ventilation/perfusion scan and cardiac catheterization. (ahajournals.org)
  • We conducted a population-based cohort study to assess the associations of chronic exposure to UFPs and NO 2 with incident congestive heart failure (CHF) and acute myocardial infarction. (ices.on.ca)
  • Occupational exposure to particles and incidence of acute myocardial infarction and other ischaemic heart disease. (arctichealth.org)
  • Information on hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction or other IHDs and cause of death were obtained from nation-wide registers. (arctichealth.org)
  • Exposure to small particles was associated with an increased HR for acute myocardial infarction of 1.12 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.15), and HR for exposure to large particles was 1.14 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.18). (arctichealth.org)
  • This explorative study gives some support to the hypothesis that occupational exposure to particles increases the risk of acute myocardial infarction and other IHD. (arctichealth.org)
  • Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) set levels of chemical concentration that pose a defined level of risk to humans (the general population, including susceptible individuals). (wikipedia.org)
  • Under the authority of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) P.L. 92-463 of 1972, the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances (NAC/AEGL Committee) has been established to identify, review, and interpret relevant toxicologic and other scientific data and develop AEGLs for high-priority, acutely toxic chemicals. (nap.edu)
  • This document was prepared by the AEGL Development Team composed of Cheryl B. Bast (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and Chemical Managers Robert Snyder and Paul Tobin (National Advisory Committee [NAC] on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances). (nap.edu)
  • Both the document and the AEGL values were then reviewed by the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels. (nap.edu)
  • For human beings, acute exposure to mercury can cause impairment of cognitive skills and pulmonary function, as well as cause insomnia, chest pain and cough. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In contrast, patients who have more intense exposure to cadmium and do not improve after one to two days may progress in eight hours to seven days to acute chemical pneumonitis and pulmonary edema. (cdc.gov)
  • This project will quantify, and identify biomarkers of, the short-term pulmonary effects of smoking and secondhand smoke exposure. (fda.gov)
  • A questionnaire consisting of symptoms and exposure, pulmonary function, atopy, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and markers of inflammation in induced sputum, serum, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was assessed. (dovepress.com)
  • In conclusion, the present experimental study indicates that acute exposure to tobacco smoke does not cause any substantial impact on gelatinases or their inhibitors in the peripheral airways, irrespective of atopy status, a finding that is compatible with the fact that it takes many years of tobacco smoking to establish chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (ersjournals.com)
  • Antibacterial Defense of Human Airway Epithelial Cells from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients Induced by Acute Exposure to Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae: Modulation by Cigarette Smoke. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Adverse lung effects following pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are well documented in rodents. (dtu.dk)
  • Epidemiological studies have shown increased cardiovascular disease risk after pulmonary exposure to airborne particles, which has led to concerns that inhalation exposure to MWCNTs might pose similar risks. (dtu.dk)
  • Overall, we show that pulmonary exposure to two different MWCNTs induces similar systemic and hepatic responses, including changes in plasma APR, lipid composition, hepatic gene expression and liver morphology. (dtu.dk)
  • The results link pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs with risk of cardiovascular disease. (dtu.dk)
  • Among children enrolled in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study, we examined the susceptibility conferred by MDR1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and predicted haplotypes and whether they modify the association between indoor insecticide exposure and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the main subtype of childhood leukemia comprising nearly 80% of diagnoses, followed by acute myeloid leukemia (16%) and the chronic subtypes of leukemia ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Residential exposure to magnetic fields and acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children. (emf-portal.org)
  • No significant excess risk for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children associated with time-weighted average summary residential magnetic fields of 0.200 µT or above was found. (emf-portal.org)
  • The results provide little evidence that residential exposure to magnetic fields is related to the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children . (emf-portal.org)
  • Novel ETV6-RUNX1 Mouse Model to Study the Role of ELF-MF in Childhood B-Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: a Pilot Study. (emf-portal.org)
  • Our objective in this study was to assay molecular indicators of acute hepatic injury associated with the administration of indomethacin, a prototypical NSAID, metabolized by the liver that undergoes enterohepatic circulation with associated gastrointestinal adverse effects. (springer.com)
  • These data confirmed that even brief exposure to indomethacin altered serum enzymatic activities and that high levels significantly altered gene expression in the liver and hepatic histology (by interfering with the clearance of toxins and xenobiotic substrates) and the regulation of basal metabolism. (springer.com)
  • While obesogenic diets also upregulated hepatic vaspin mRNA levels, cold exposure tended to increase vaspin gene expression of inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) depots. (nih.gov)
  • Both MWCNTs induced similar histological hepatic changes, with a tendency towards greater response following CNTLarge exposure. (dtu.dk)
  • Conclusions about the effects of acute exposure are generally based on data on the Japanese survivors of the atomic bombs (see Figure 2). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Conclusions: These results provide support for an association between long-term exposure to traffic and the risk of AMI. (harvard.edu)
  • Conclusions: Residential exposure to PM\(_{2.5}\) may best be represented by a combination of area and local PM\(_{2.5}\), and it is important to consider spatial gradients within a single metropolitan area when examining the relationship between particulate matter exposure and cardiovascular events. (harvard.edu)
  • Conclusions Paternal occupational exposure to pesticides was not found to be associated with an increased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in the offspring. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions During ammonia exposure in an exposure chamber, symptoms related to irritation and central nervous effects increase and are constant with no signs of adaptation. (sjweh.fi)
  • Conclusions: With these pilot results, we conclude that cold exposure has no effect on biomarkers for CVD risk. (wku.edu)
  • Conclusions - The digital circulatory response to acute vibration depends upon the magnitude and frequency of the vibration stimulus. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Methods Twelve healthy persons underwent sham or ammonia (5 and 25 ppm) exposure randomly in an exposure chamber on three occasions. (sjweh.fi)
  • Methods: Twenty subjects were recruited and subjected to a 30-min cold exposure test while a metabolic cart collected metabolic data via indirect calorimetry. (wku.edu)
  • Dosimetry methods for use in dose assessment for individuals following acute exposure to radiation are described. (icru.org)
  • Since the above-listed techniques cannot distinguish between exposure to internal and external sources, bioassays may be used to assess exposure from internal contamination, including thyroid counting, chest counting, and excretion analysis methods. (icru.org)
  • This Report concludes with a summary of the various methods and a brief discussion of the uses of such information in the aftermath of acute radiation exposure. (icru.org)
  • The AEGL values describe the expected effects of inhalation exposure to certain compounds (airborne concentrations in ppm or mg/m3). (wikipedia.org)
  • 5.1 The objective of this guide is to describe procedures and data sources for conducting risk characterization of acute inhalation exposure to chemicals emitted from bedding sets. (astm.org)
  • One panelist noted that extrapolations of short-term analytical studies to long-term exposure scenarios suggest that few children likely ingest 5,000 mg of soil a day throughout a year (PS). (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to chemicals is generally classified by two categories: acute (short-term) exposure and chronic (long-term) exposure. (creativesafetysupply.com)
  • Long term exposure to. (bmj.com)
  • Background: Long-term exposure to particulate air pollution has been associated with an increased risk of dying from cardiopulmonary and ischemic heart disease, yet few studies have evaluated cardiovascular end points other than mortality. (harvard.edu)
  • Objective: We examined how long-term exposure to area particulate matter affects the onset of AMI, and we distinguished between area and local pollutants. (harvard.edu)
  • Although certain procedures described in this guide may be applicable to assessing long-term exposure, the guide is not intended to address cancer and other chronic health effects. (astm.org)
  • Non-genotoxic carcinogens are difficult to screen for as the development of tumours only occurs after long term exposure and, since there is no damage to DNA, they cannot be detected by conventional genotoxicity assays such as the Ames test, in vitro clastogenesis assays or the mouse micronucleus test. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phenobarbital (PB) is a well characterized rodent non-genotoxic carcinogen which causes an increase in the incidence of liver tumors after long term exposure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) has been linked to cardiovascular mortality, little is known about the association of ultrafine particles (UFPs) with incidence of major cardiovascular events. (ices.on.ca)
  • We aimed to investigate the interrelationship between chronic exposure to oral pathogens and immune-inflammatory response in patients with acute coronary atherothrombosis. (hindawi.com)
  • Antibody response to chronic oral bacterial infections and host immune response against them may be responsible for the elevation of tissue antibodies and biomarkers of inflammation which are involved in acute coronary thrombosis development. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, we examined the impact of in vivo cocaine exposure on metabotropic inhibitory signaling involving G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying K + (Girk) channels in VTA DA neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • This provides first evidence that acute in vivo exposure to Aβ results in a shift in the enteric microbiome. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our data demonstrate a novel BAT-specific regulation of vaspin gene expression upon physiological stimuli in vivo with acute epigenetic changes that may contribute to cold-induced expression in BAT. (nih.gov)
  • To investigate how orientation selectivity and direction selectivity of neurons are influenced by acute alcohol exposure in vivo , we used the extracellular single-unit recording technique to examine the response properties of neurons in primary visual cortex (A17) of adult cats. (ovid.com)
  • The results suggest that ethanol exposure in vitro has limited effects on synaptic GABA A R function and action-potential independent GABA release in cultured neurons and suggests that ethanol exposure in cultured cortical and hippocampal neurons may not reproduce all of the effects that occur in vivo and in acute brain slices. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Furthermore, chronic ethanol exposure in vivo results in cross tolerance to benzodiazepines and barbiturates ( Woo and Greenblatt, 1979 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Previous research has shown that 20-30 min insulin exposure in vivo induces the translocation of pumps from intracellular stores to the plasma membrane. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • A case was defined as the presence in an employee of at least five of the following six symptoms after exposure to the wood chips: malaise, fever, difficulty breathing, chest tightness, headache, and cough. (cdc.gov)
  • Such symptoms are consistent with acute exposure to sulfur dioxide. (cdc.gov)
  • Acute inhalation causes immediate irritation of the respiratory tract and can cause bronchial constriction, which produces symptoms such as cough, breathlessness, a choking sensation, and tightness or discomfort of the chest. (cdc.gov)
  • Without this "exposure," the acute stress or PTS symptoms experienced by an individual are not considered particularly meaningful for overall well-being. (rwjf.org)
  • As we expected, both direct exposure and indirect media exposure were linked to acute stress symptoms. (rwjf.org)
  • That is, indirect media exposure was associated with a wider range of acute stress-related symptoms-flashbacks, feeling anxious, wanting to avoid reminders of the bombings, etc.-than direct exposure to the bombings. (rwjf.org)
  • 1. Is 1 week after possible exposure too early for someone with a healthy immune system to experience acute HIV symptoms? (medhelp.org)
  • Hi Allison, I think you will be fine and I do not think you have HIV acute symptoms. (medhelp.org)
  • would a week after the possible exposure that I had be too early for symptoms? (medhelp.org)
  • COVID-19) was confirmed in a US patient who had experiencing no symptoms or high-risk exposures in the recently traveled to Wuhan ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The symptoms of acute cadmium inhalation can initially resemble classic metal fume fever, a self-limited condition associated with fever, chills and possible decreases in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1). (cdc.gov)
  • Acute inhalation of cadmium may cause symptoms similar to those of metal fume fever. (cdc.gov)
  • Evidence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 1 evacuee, who reported experiencing no symptoms or high-risk exposures in the previous 2 months. (cdc.gov)
  • The development of asthma-like symptoms among aluminum potroom workers has been associated with exposure to fluorides. (fluoridealert.org)
  • At the end of HF exposure, 7 of 10 individuals reported upper airway symptoms. (fluoridealert.org)
  • A 43-year-old Caucasian female presented with multiple symptoms following acute, severe mold exposure that had been preceded by low-level, chronic mold exposure. (ndnr.com)
  • Symptoms were registered repeatedly before, during, and after the exposure on visual analogue scales. (sjweh.fi)
  • Sulfur dioxide and other air pollutants have been reported to contribute to or aggravate acute, nonspecific diseases of the upper respiratory tract, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and lung cancer (3). (cdc.gov)
  • As of May 1, 2020, a total of 193 of 195 evacuees completed exposure surveys and 3,175,207 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases had submitted upper respiratory or serum specimens or both been confirmed and 224,172 persons had died world- at arrival in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Additional research is needed to evaluate the link between smoking and acute lung injury (ALI), a common cause of acute respiratory failure in critically ill patients. (fda.gov)
  • To determine prevalence of, seroprevalence of, and potential exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among a cohort of evacuees returning to the United States from Wuhan, China, in January 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional study of quarantined evacuees from 1 repatriation flight. (cdc.gov)
  • Overall, 193 of 195 evacuees completed exposure surveys and submitted upper respiratory or serum specimens or both at arrival in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Nearly all evacuees had taken preventive measures to limit potential exposure while in Wuhan, and none had detectable SARS-CoV-2 in upper respiratory tract specimens, suggesting the absence of asymptomatic respiratory shedding among this group at the time of testing. (cdc.gov)
  • On January 7, 2020, a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was isolated from samples associated with the cluster ( 2 , 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • This project will test the hypothesis that patients with pre-existing respiratory, cardiovascular, or diabetic conditions have an enhanced mortality response to particle exposures. (epa.gov)
  • Objectives This study investigated the acute respiratory effects of low ammonia exposure on healthy persons. (sjweh.fi)
  • Toward this goal, this paper applies a spatial scan statistic combined with a zero-inflated negative-binomial regression to re-examine the impacts of a community-based treatment program on the geographic patterns of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) mortality in an area of rural Bangladesh. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Jochem, Warren , Razzaque, Abdur and Root, Elisabeth Dowling (2016) Effects of health intervention programs and arsenic exposure on child mortality from acute lower respiratory infections in rural Bangladesh. (soton.ac.uk)
  • What's more, many people in rural communities experience chronic exposures to pesticides, which are difficult -- almost impossible -- to diagnose as a clinician, but can have significant health consequences. (migrantclinician.org)
  • Although the current permissible exposure limit promulgated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard is 5 ppm for an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) exposure (7), based on available scientific information, NIOSH recommends that occupational exposures to sulfur dioxide not exceed an 8-hour TWA of 0.5 ppm (4). (cdc.gov)
  • Given the low prevalence rate of most occupational exposures and high correlations between these exposures across preconception, gestation, and postpregnancy periods, a study with a large sample size and a comprehensive occupational history would be needed to assess the effect of parental occupational exposures on the risk of leukemia in their offspring by specific exposure time windows. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) was assessed using cyclone samplers. (bmj.com)
  • This study showed that acute exposure during forest firefighting significantly augments the intensity of airway and systemic inflammation in relation to the baseline inflammatory background due to chronic exposure. (dovepress.com)
  • The repeated acute exposures during firefighting augment the burden of chronic airway and systemic inflammation and may eventually lead to allergic sensitization of the airways and increased incidence of rhinitis and asthma after prolonged exposure. (dovepress.com)
  • Peripheral airway responses to acute hair-spray exposure. (harvard.edu)
  • Our findings demonstrate that the antibacterial activity of cultured airway epithelial cells induced by acute bacterial exposure was reduced in COPD and suppressed by cigarette smoke, whereas inflammatory responses persisted. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • On the other hand, measurements of exhaled nitric oxide (parameter associated to airway inflammations) performed during the tests showed no significant differences between the two exposure scenarios. (aaqr.org)
  • Acute Phase Response (APR), a systemic reaction to infection, trauma, and inflammation, is characterized by increases and decreases in plasma levels of positive and negative acute phase proteins (APP), respectively. (epa.gov)
  • Results: RMR increases dramatically during acute cold exposure during shivering and remains increased 5 minutes after the cessation of shivering. (wku.edu)
  • Higher exposures were not associated with increases in severe adverse events (≥ grade 3). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Short insulin exposure induced increases in Na+-K+-ATPase activity, and these increases were due to stimulation of intrinsic activity and not due to translocation. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • In the days following the marathon bombings, my University of California, Irvine colleagues and I decided to replicate our 9/11 study and examine the impact of media exposure to the Boston Marathon bombings. (rwjf.org)
  • To study acute exposure to imidazoline derivatives in 72 children younger than 15 years of age, followed-up from January 1994 to December 1999. (scielo.br)
  • In this prospective study we follow patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) to assess the acute effects of air pollution on ventricular arrhythmias. (ahajournals.org)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate inflammatory indicators and oxidative status in patients with asbestos exposure with and without mesothelioma and to compare results with data from healthy subjects. (hindawi.com)
  • Eighty people with exposure to environmental asbestos and without any disease, 46 mesothelioma patients, and a control group of 50 people without exposure to environmental asbestos were enrolled in this prospective study. (hindawi.com)
  • Overall, the study provides strong evidence that short-term, acute exposure to alcohol poses serious threat of injury. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of nails and the periosteal surface of bone as indicators of acute exposure to fluoride. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The present study was undertaken to ascertain whether two well-characterized targets of prenatal alcohol exposure, sonic hedgehog (Shh) and retinoic acid (RA), that induce the hallmark morphological phenotypes of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), are involved in the generation of behavioral alterations as a result of alcohol exposure. (nih.gov)
  • The Children's Cancer Group recently completed a large-scale case-control study involving 1842 acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) cases and 1986 matched controls. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The study examined the association of self-reported occupational exposure to various hydrocarbons among parents with risk of childhood ALL by exposure time window, immunophenotype of ALL, and age at diagnosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The CCG 4 has recently completed a large-scale comprehensive case-control study, including 1842 childhood ALL patients and 1986 matched controls, which provided us with a unique opportunity to conduct an in-depth evaluation of the association between parental occupational exposure and the risk of childhood ALL. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The study was underpowered with respect to maternal exposure to pesticides. (bmj.com)
  • This study shows that major acute phase response genes are induced in the lung but not liver after ozone exposure suggesting that the role of lung could be substantial in producing systemic acute phase response after inhalation of pollutants. (epa.gov)
  • We conducted a nested case-control study to estimate and compare the relative risks for hospitalizations for newly diagnosed acute liver injury associated with the use of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and other hepatotoxic drugs and their interaction. (rti.org)
  • The present study aimed to determine whether acute exposure to tobacco smoke per se causes a substantial and lasting impact on gelatinases and their inhibitors in the peripheral airways of atopic and nonatopic human subjects. (ersjournals.com)
  • A study on induced sputum from occasional smokers has shed some light on this by providing evidence that, in the proximal airways, acute exposure to tobacco smoke does cause a transient increase in the number of neutrophils, an inflammatory cell that constitutes a potentially important source of the gelatinase MMP-9 6 . (ersjournals.com)
  • However, that study did not indicate any differences in MMP-9 or TIMP-1 in the proximal airways after smoke exposure. (ersjournals.com)
  • The purpose of the study is to identify the patients at high risk of developing Acute Lung Injury (ALI) at the time of hospital admission, and before intensive care unit admission. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In the present study, the immediate nasal response in humans was examined subsequent to short-term hydrogen fluoride (HF) exposure. (fluoridealert.org)
  • A controlled chamber exposure study in acute effects was performed. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The present study reports a case of occupational HP due to diisocyanates after low-level exposure. (ersjournals.com)
  • one epidemiological study in a plant engineered for minimal exposure to diisocyanates did not report cases suggestive of HP 4 . (ersjournals.com)
  • This proposed study aims to measure cardiovascular inflammatory and lipid biomarkers to expand our knowledge of cold exposure and CVD risk. (wku.edu)
  • However, this study was limited by 1) accuracy of analysis techniques, 2) cold exposure protocol, 3) analysis of only two representative biomarkers. (wku.edu)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of acute and sub-acute exposure to crude khat ( Catha edulis F. ) extract on learning and memory in rodents. (omicsonline.org)
  • The possible association between residential exposure to magnetic fields generated by nearby power lines and childhood leukemia was investigated in a case-control study in the USA. (emf-portal.org)
  • This community-based study suggests that positive associations between PM 2.5 exposure and PP and systolic BP are enhanced in areas proximate to sources of PM 2.5 emissions. (bmj.com)
  • However, no study has examined the catalytic properties of this enzyme in response to short insulin exposures. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • The authors addressed the question of whether repeated postnatal anesthetic exposure was sufficient to cause long-term behavioral changes in a highly translationally relevant rhesus monkey model, allowing study of these variables against a background of protracted nervous system and behavioral development. (asahq.org)
  • We used a semi-bidirectional case-crossover study design with short-term exposure lags for asthma exacerbation using data from the PELL system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nail and bone surface as biomarkers for acute fluoride exposure in rats. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Thus, the proximal portion of nails and bone surface are suitable biomarkers for acute fluoride exposure in rats. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Investigators will collect plasma specimens from 570 critically ill patients with severe infection (aged 18 and older) to measure biomarkers of cigarette smoke exposure and lung epithelial and endothelial injury, and will evaluate the impact of cigarette smoke exposure in mouse models. (fda.gov)
  • No exposure-related effects on measurement of blinking frequency by electromyography, measurement of the eye break-up time, vital staining of the eye, nasal lavage biomarkers, transfer tests, spirometric and rhinometric measures were seen. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Venous plasma collected at: pre cold exposure, immediately after cold exposure, and 2 hours post cold exposure was centrifuged for subsequent biomarkers analysis. (wku.edu)
  • However, when the second stressor was applied, both genes were downregulated, indicating that the confinement exposure had a suppressive effect on the expression of toxicant biomarkers (CYP1A and UDP-GT). (uio.no)
  • Sixteen hours after welding exposure, CRP levels were found to be significantly increased in both non-smokers and smokers (0.90 mg/l, 95% CI 0.17 to 1.64). (bmj.com)
  • However, acute as well as chronic exposure to Aβ significantly affected the abundance of numerous individual operational taxonomic units. (frontiersin.org)
  • During exposure to 2-ethyl-1-hexanol subjective ratings of smell and eye discomfort were minimally but significantly increased. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Acute exposure of hippocampal slices to 50 nM rotenone for 1 h did not alter basal CA3-CA1 synaptic transmission though 500 nM rotenone significantly reduced basal synaptic transmission. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Results All the symptom ratings increased significantly during 25-ppm ammonia exposure as compared with the control exposure. (sjweh.fi)
  • The ammonia exposure did not significantly influence lung function or the exhaled NO levels. (sjweh.fi)
  • Ammonia exposure did not significantly alter complement factor 3b in plasma. (sjweh.fi)
  • APR proteins SAA3 and haptoglobin, plasma total cholesterol and low-density/very low-density lipoprotein were significantly increased following exposure to either MWCNTs. (dtu.dk)
  • We estimated standardized mortality ratios using the general population as referents, and we estimated relative risks using an internal low-exposure group as controls. (nih.gov)
  • A zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression model was first used to simultaneously estimate mortality rates and the likelihood of no deaths in groups of related households while controlling for socioeconomic status, potential arsenic exposure, and access to care. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Exposure to arsenic-contaminated drinking water was not associated with increased mortality. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Exposure to noise is highly prevalent in the workplace, and an etiologic association with cardiovascular disease has been hypothesized. (nih.gov)
  • Epidemiology studies have also associated acute exposure to another ubiquitous air pollutant, particulate matter (PM), with death in elderly people with cardiovascular disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We analyzed parameters related to cardiovascular disease, including plasma acute phase response (APR) proteins and plasma lipids, in female C57BL/6 mice exposed to a single intratracheal instillation of 0, 18,54 or 162 mu g/mouse of small, entangled (CNTsmall, 0.8 +/- 0.1 pm long) or large, thick MWCNTs (CNTLarge, 4 +/- 0.4 mu m long). (dtu.dk)
  • Conclusion: These preliminary data suggest that children carrying the haplotype CGC may be less susceptible to the leukemogenic effects of indoor insecticide exposures. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In conclusion, exposure to HF induced immediate nasal inflammatory and antioxidant responses in healthy human volunteers. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Conclusion- Triggered by collagen and enhanced by platelet glycoprotein Ib and α IIb β 3 , vWF fiber formation occurred during acute exposures to pathological γ w and did not require gradients in wall shear rate. (ahajournals.org)
  • The exposure assessments used monitoring data collected by Member States under their official pesticide monitoring programmes in 2014, 2015 and 2016 and individual food consumption data from 10 populations of consumers from different countries and from different age groups. (europa.eu)
  • AEGLs represent threshold exposure limits for the general public and are applicable to emergency exposure periods ranging from 10 minutes (min) to 8 hours (h). (nap.edu)
  • Although the liver has been shown to contribute to APR in various pathologies, the source of circulating APP after air pollution exposure is not well characterized. (epa.gov)
  • We hypothesized that lungs and liver both will contribute to plasma levels APP after an acute ozone exposure. (epa.gov)
  • P-glycoprotein uses an ATP-dependent efflux transport mechanism to minimize the exposure of potentially toxic compounds to the intracellular environment and is expressed primarily in regions that act as epithelial barriers or perform excretory functions, including the gastrointestinal tract, blood-tissue barrier, liver, kidney, testis, and placenta ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The adjusted relative excess risk due to the interaction between current exposure to both categories of drugs was 3.6, accounting for 31% of the cases of acute liver injury among those with exposure to both types of drugs. (rti.org)
  • We conclude that the risk of hospitalization for acute noninfectious liver injury is different among users of various individual potentially hepatotoxic drugs. (rti.org)
  • We analyzed the effects of obesogenic diets and cold exposure on vaspin expression in liver and white and brown adipose tissue (AT) and plasma levels. (nih.gov)
  • Both metabolomics and transcriptomics detected changes in the liver which were dose dependent, even after one day of exposure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • reported that in F344 rats, exposure to 500 ppm PB in the diet for 1-2 weeks produces an increase in relative liver weight which is reversible on returning the animals to control diet. (biomedcentral.com)
  • If the exposure is continued for 18 months, then a sustained increase in relative liver weight is observed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bashir S, Sharma Y, Irshad M, Nag TC, Tiwari M, Kabra M et al (2006) Arsenic induced apoptosis in rat liver following repeated 60 days exposure. (springer.com)
  • Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced acute liver injury. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Liver tissues and plasma were harvested 1,3 and 28 days post-exposure. (dtu.dk)
  • Delayed chemical pneumonitis has been described following acute exposure to other noxious gases, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and phosgene (3,5). (cdc.gov)
  • Given the very high prevalence of excess noise exposure at work, this association deserves further attention. (nih.gov)
  • There was a low prevalence of occupational exposure to pesticides among women that reduced after birth. (bmj.com)
  • Retrospective studies in humans have shown a higher prevalence of learning disabilities in children that received multiple exposures to general anesthesia before the age of 4 yr. (asahq.org)
  • We used cumulative traffic within 100 m of subjects' residence and distance from major roadway as proxies for exposure to traffic-related air pollution. (harvard.edu)
  • Houston is a center of the chemical industry, and exposure to toxic air pollution has long been a concern for Houston metropolitan area residents. (ucsusa.org)
  • These results suggest that the effects of ethanol exposure on changes in anxiety and risk-taking behavior in adolescent zebrafish is manifested by a blunting of Shh, but not RA, signaling during early development. (nih.gov)
  • Decades after ethanol was first described as a GABA mimetic, the precise mechanisms that produce the acute effects of ethanol and the physiological adaptations that underlie ethanol tolerance and dependence remain unclear. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To investigate the acute systemic inflammatory response to welding fume exposure. (bmj.com)
  • However, because no results of similar tests done before the incident were available for comparison, it was not possible to determine whether this abnormality was associated with the exposure to sulfur dioxide. (cdc.gov)
  • Results were validated against exposure estimates obtained by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) using the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment (MCRA) software. (europa.eu)
  • Acute oral ingestion results in severe gastroenteritis. (cdc.gov)
  • The results of this project will inform more accurate models of the economic and public health effects of cigarette smoke exposure. (fda.gov)
  • These results also suggest that smoking may modify the effect of welding fume exposure on specific inflammatory markers. (bmj.com)
  • These results suggest that the effect of parental occupational exposure to hydrocarbons on offspring may depend on the type of hydrocarbon and the timing of the exposure. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We present here the results of parental self-reported occupational exposure to various hydrocarbons and the risk of ALL among offspring. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Results Paternal occupational exposure to pesticides before or around conception was not related to increased risk of childhood ALL. (bmj.com)
  • We describe the demographic and clinical characteristics, potential exposures to SARS-CoV-2, personal protective measures implemented, and SARS-CoV-2 real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) and serologic test results for evacuees from 1 repatriation flight from Wuhan. (cdc.gov)
  • The results revealed no pronounced changes in identity, net activity or concentration of the gelatinases or changes in concentrations of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in BAL fluid before and after acute exposure to tobacco smoke. (ersjournals.com)
  • Finally, Dr. McLaurin brought in results from a recent survey from our Environmental and Occupational Health team, which indicated that primary care providers are often less-than-ideally equipped to handle pesticide exposures. (migrantclinician.org)
  • After an overnight fast each volunteer, wearing only shorts, sat in a climatic chamber at 26°C for 90 min and then for 90 min at 19°C. RESULTS: The T RE in both groups remained at ~36.86±0.48 during each exposure. (wku.edu)
  • Results - Exposure to static load caused no significant changes in FST, FBF, or indices of vasomotor tone in either the vibrated right middle finger or the non-vibrated left middle linger. (soton.ac.uk)
  • In terms of mechanical efficiency, a higher peak metabolic power was recognized for subjects performing tests in high exposure conditions: results were statistically different (about 1%) with respect to low exposure tests. (aaqr.org)
  • PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: For healthy college-aged males it was hypothesised that obese relative to non-obese would have smaller metabolic and NST responses to acute mild cold exposure. (wku.edu)
  • We have used in vitro ethanol exposure followed by recording of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) to determine whether acute or chronic ethanol exposure directly alters synaptic GABA A receptor function or GABA release in cultured cortical and hippocampal neurons. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Several studies have failed to find links between colony collapse and acute exposure to crops genetically modified to produce the Bt pesticide. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Information about the occupational pesticide exposure of mothers and fathers was collected using job-specific modules. (bmj.com)
  • Information on the types and extent of pesticide exposure was collected for mothers and fathers before and around the time of conception, and also for mothers during pregnancy for the index case or control and for 1 year after birth. (bmj.com)
  • Last week, MCN's Jennie McLaurin, MD, MPH, MA, headed to the Washington State legislature's Health and Wellbeing Committee to provide testimony on the wide-ranging effects of drift pesticide exposures in rural communities. (migrantclinician.org)
  • And, over half of those in the survey were unaware of their state's pesticide exposure reporting laws. (migrantclinician.org)
  • For example, ATSDR may assume a one time exposure or 3 days of exposure per week for several weeks, depending on site-specific conditions and toxicology of the contaminant of concern. (cdc.gov)
  • Objective To ascertain whether there was an association between parental occupational exposure to pesticides and increased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in the offspring. (bmj.com)
  • On the basis of clinical and epidemiologic evidence, the investigators concluded that this episode probably represented an outbreak of self-limited, acute toxic reaction associated with inhalation of large amounts of dust heavily contaminated with microbial toxins from decomposing vegetable matter. (cdc.gov)
  • To examine the acute effects of Advance TM , a potential reduced exposure product (PREP) for smokers marketed as a means to reduce exposure to toxic gases and tobacco specific nitrosamines. (bmj.com)
  • Preventing exposure to toxic chemicals is a main concern at many workplaces such as hazardous waste sites. (creativesafetysupply.com)
  • Although periods of exposure may be few and far between, even short contact with certain toxic chemicals may lead to serious health effects. (creativesafetysupply.com)
  • Three levels-AEGL-1, AEGL-2, and AEGL-3-are developed for each of five exposure periods (10 and 30 min and 1, 4, and 8 h) and are distinguished by varying degrees of severity of toxic effects. (nap.edu)
  • If you are a person of color, or living in poverty, you are more likely to be affected by the hazards chemical facilities present, from the looming threat of catastrophic accidents to the slow-motion disaster of chronic exposure to toxic pollutants. (ucsusa.org)
  • The report finds compelling evidence that Houston-area communities with higher populations of color and higher poverty levels face higher risks from chemical accidents and everyday toxic exposure. (ucsusa.org)
  • The latter combines the hazard assessment and exposure assessment into a consolidated risk characterisation including all related uncertainties. (europa.eu)
  • Risk characterization can be used to identify chemical(s) that pose potentially significant human health risks for the scenario(s) and population(s) selected for exposure assessment. (astm.org)
  • Cadmium Toxicity: What Health Effects Are Associated With Acute High-Dose Cadmium Exposure? (cdc.gov)
  • describe the health effects of acute high-dose cadmium exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Biochemical responses to cadmium exposure in Oncorhynchus mykiss erythrocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The first one is from Exposure To Ionizing Radiation . (convert-me.com)
  • Established risk factors for ALL include exposure to ionizing radiation in utero , postnatal high-dose radiation, chemotherapeutic agents, and several genetic syndromes, but these together account for only a small proportion of childhood ALL cases diagnosed ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Absence of an AEGL-1 value does not imply that exposure below the AEGL-2 value is without adverse effects. (epa.gov)
  • Since air pollutants and microorganisms adhere to the yellow sand during transportation, adverse health effects from dust exposure is a great concern. (eurekalert.org)
  • Increased emotional behavior in monkeys after anesthesia exposure in infancy may reflect long-term adverse effects of anesthesia. (asahq.org)
  • Objective post-marketing evaluation, in the form of acute exposure studies, reveals important characteristics of some PREPs, such as Eclipse ® 's greater-than-usual-brand CO delivery. (bmj.com)
  • The objective was to assess acute effects from controlled exposure of volunteers to 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, a volatile organic compound that is often found in indoor air. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Objective- In severe stenosis, von Willebrand Factor (vWF) experiences millisecond exposures to pathological wall shear rates (γ w ). (ahajournals.org)
  • Demographic and clinical data, physiological and hematological parameters were collected 3 days before the ascent and after acute exposure at 3,700 m. (frontiersin.org)
  • Physiological and behavioral studies have demonstrated that a number of visual functions such as visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and motion perception can be impaired by acute alcohol exposure. (ovid.com)
  • While a substantial body of evidence suggests that ethanol acts on GABAergic neurotransmission to enhance inhibition in the CNS, the precise mechanisms underlying the physiological effects of both acute and chronic ethanol exposure are still under investigation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, decades after ethanol was first described as a GABA mimetic the precise mechanisms underlying the physiological effects of both acute and chronic ethanol exposure are still under investigation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We measured physiological effects of airborne particle exposure in athletes. (aaqr.org)
  • Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is vital for proper thermogenesis during cold exposure in rodents, but until recently its presence in adult humans and its contribution to human metabolism were thought to be minimal or insignificant. (jci.org)
  • Using PET with 11C-acetate, 18FDG, and 18F-fluoro-thiaheptadecanoic acid (18FTHA), a fatty acid tracer, we have quantified BAT oxidative metabolism and glucose and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) turnover in 6 healthy men under controlled cold exposure conditions. (jci.org)
  • All subjects displayed substantial NEFA and glucose uptake upon cold exposure. (jci.org)
  • We also observed an increase in BAT radio density upon cold exposure, indicating reduced BAT triglyceride content. (jci.org)
  • DNA-methylation within the vaspin promoter was analyzed to investigate acute epigenetic changes after cold-exposure in BAT. (nih.gov)
  • Analysis of vaspin promoter methylation in AT revealed lowest methylation levels in BAT, which were acutely reduced after cold exposure. (nih.gov)
  • Acute Cold Exposure and CVD Risk" by Michael A. Levi, Jeremy Garcia et al. (wku.edu)
  • We are interested in evaluating the efficacy of cold-exposure to increase shivering- and non-shivering thermogenesis energy expenditure (RMR) as a non-pharmaceutical weight loss tool analogous to low intensity exercise. (wku.edu)
  • Naturally, we are concurrently evaluating the possible effects of cold exposure on risk factors associated with CVD risk. (wku.edu)
  • The hypothesis was that there would be no change in biomarker values before and after cold exposure. (wku.edu)
  • Five minutes post-cold exposure, RMR rapidly decreases to pre-cold exposure RMR and is maintained for up to 120 minutes. (wku.edu)
  • IL-β values increased between blood draws immediately after cold exposure and 2 hours post cold exposure, however this increase was not statistically significant. (wku.edu)
  • Further biomarker analysis is underway for a more comprehensive picture of the purported cold exposure effects. (wku.edu)
  • INTRODUCTION: In response to mild cold exposure, brown adipose tissue (BAT) produces heat via non-shivering thermogenesis (NST). (wku.edu)
  • COPD cell cultures displayed reduced antibacterial activity, whereas smoke exposure suppressed the NTHi-induced expression of AMPs and further increased IL-8 expression in COPD and non-COPD cultures. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Moreover, smoke exposure impaired NTHi-induced activation of NF-κB, but not MAP-kinase signaling. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Practical Implications It is important to assess acute effects in volatile organic compounds like 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Retrospective dietary exposure assessments were conducted for two groups of pesticides that have acute effects on the nervous system: brain and/or erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase inhibition, and functional alterations of the motor division. (europa.eu)
  • Exposure estimates were obtained for each group of pesticides by means of a 2-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation, which was implemented in SAS® software. (europa.eu)
  • The exposure estimates obtained in this report are used in the final scientific report on the cumulative dietary risk characterisation of pesticides that have acute effects on the nervous system. (europa.eu)
  • 1983). When it has been possible to trace exposure, birds are shown to have encountered pesticides in a number of different ways, but a typical scenario includes birds expiring after eating insects tainted on their outer surfaces with lethal amounts of insecticide (McEwen et al. (highbeam.com)
  • Acute myeloid leukaemia cells isolated from 12 consenting patients were treated for 24 h with increasing concentrations of daunorubicin or ara-C and the proportion of topo IIα-negative cells in surviving cell populations determined by flow cytometry. (diva-portal.org)
  • Parental exposure to hydrocarbons at work has been suggested to increase the risk of childhood leukemia. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Increasing evidence indicates that these and other proposed risk factors may have differential effects on childhood leukemia risk depending on the timing of exposure and individual genetic susceptibility ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • To elucidate any differences in the exposure-response of alvocidib (flavopiridol) given by 1-hour bolus or a hybrid schedule (30-minute bolus followed by a 4-hour infusion) using a flavopiridol/cytosine arabinoside/mitoxantrone sequential protocol (FLAM) in patients with acute leukemia. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The hybrid schedule was devised to be pharmacologically superior in chronic leukemia based on unbound exposure. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Further trials in newly diagnosed patients with acute leukemia should utilize the bolus FLAM regimen at the MTD of 50 mg/m 2 /day. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Leukemia and exposure to magnetic fields. (emf-portal.org)
  • Molecular effects of acute and chronic exposure to uranium on the murine transcriptome. (irsn.fr)
  • In Chernobyl, there was acute exposure to a high level of radiation, and 29 people died from it," he said, referring to the initial radiation deaths within the first days and weeks. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The second one is from Acute Radiation Syndrome . (convert-me.com)
  • Rather than radiation exposure per imaging test, future studies should consider efforts at reducing total exposure by admitting diagnosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Bone marrow transplantation is effective in mitigating the detrimental effects of acute exposure to high dose whole body γ-radiation on bone turnover. (oregonstate.edu)
  • High levels of welding fume exposure induce acute systemic inflammation in a relatively young, healthy working population. (bmj.com)
  • There is virtually no information in the literature about the exposure levels needed to induce hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) by diisocyanates. (ersjournals.com)
  • The present authors conclude that concentrations of diisocyanates far below current exposure limits may induce hypersensitivity pneumonitis in susceptible subjects. (ersjournals.com)
  • Edelstyn, N. and Oldershaw, A. (2002) The Acute Effects of Exposure to the Electromagnetic Field Emitted by Mobile Phones on Human Attention. (scirp.org)
  • A diagnosis of HP was made shortly afterwards in April/May 2002, ∼3 yrs after the start of exposure. (ersjournals.com)
  • Using data from a stratified random sample survey of adults conducted in 2002-3 in Detroit, Michigan, we tested body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WCIR) in separate models as effect modifiers of the relationship between PM 2.5 exposure and BP. (bmj.com)
  • The association was somewhat stronger for workers exposed to small particles for more than 5 years, 1.21 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.31), but no trend with exposure intensity was found. (arctichealth.org)
  • Immediately after ozone exposure, genes encoding APP were analyzed at mRNA level in the lungs and livers and proteins were analyzed in the serum. (epa.gov)
  • Longitudinal tracking of cytokines after acute exposure to tuberculosis: association of distinct cytokine patterns with protection and disease development. (thefreedictionary.com)