Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A subgenus of LENTIVIRUS comprising viruses that produce multi-organ disease with long incubation periods in cattle.
An acute infectious disease caused by COXIELLA BURNETII. It is characterized by a sudden onset of FEVER; HEADACHE; malaise; and weakness. In humans, it is commonly contracted by inhalation of infected dusts derived from infected domestic animals (ANIMALS, DOMESTIC).
A species of gram-negative bacteria that grows preferentially in the vacuoles of the host cell. It is the etiological agent of Q FEVER.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.

Rational sequence of tests for pancreatic function. (1/20367)

Of 144 patients with suspected pancreatic disease in whom a 75Se-selenomethionine scan was performed, endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) was successful in 108 (75%). The final diagnosis is known in 100 patients and has been compared with scan and ERP findings. A normal scan reliably indicated a normal pancreas, but the scan was falsely abnormal in 30%. ERP distinguished between carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis in 84% of cases but was falsely normal in five patients with pancreatic disease. In extrahepatic biliary disease both tests tended to give falsely abnormal results. A sequence of tests to provide a rapid and reliable assessment of pancreatic function should be a radio-isotope scan, followed by ERP if the results of the scan are abnormal, and a Lundh test if the scan is abnormal but the findings on ERP are normal.  (+info)

Activation of alveolar macrophages in lung injury associated with experimental acute pancreatitis is mediated by the liver. (2/20367)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate (1) whether alveolar macrophages are activated as a consequence of acute pancreatitis (AP), (2) the implication of inflammatory factors released by these macrophages in the process of neutrophil migration into the lungs observed in lung injury induced by AP, and (3) the role of the liver in the activation of alveolar macrophages. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Acute lung injury is the extrapancreatic complication most frequently associated with death and complications in severe AP. Neutrophil infiltration into the lungs seems to be related to the release of systemic and local mediators. The liver and alveolar macrophages are sources of mediators that have been suggested to participate in the lung damage associated with AP. METHODS: Pancreatitis was induced in rats by intraductal administration of 5% sodium taurocholate. The inflammatory process in the lung and the activation of alveolar macrophages were investigated in animals with and without portocaval shunting 3 hours after AP induction. Alveolar macrophages were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. The generation of nitric oxide, leukotriene B4, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and MIP-2 by alveolar macrophages and the chemotactic activity of supernatants of cultured macrophages were evaluated. RESULTS: Pancreatitis was associated with increased infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs 3 hours after induction. This effect was prevented by the portocaval shunt. Alveolar macrophages obtained after induction of pancreatitis generated increased levels of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and MIP-2, but not leukotriene B4. In addition, supernatants of these macrophages exhibited a chemotactic activity for neutrophils when instilled into the lungs of unmanipulated animals. All these effects were abolished when portocaval shunting was carried out before induction of pancreatitis. CONCLUSION: Lung damage induced by experimental AP is associated with alveolar macrophage activation. The liver mediates the alveolar macrophage activation in this experimental model.  (+info)

Enhanced Th1 and dampened Th2 responses synergize to inhibit acute granulomatous and fibrotic responses in murine schistosomiasis mansoni. (3/20367)

In murine schistosomiasis mansoni, CD4(+) Th1 and Th2 cells participate in the ovum-induced granulomatous inflammation. Previous studies showed that the interleukin-12 (IL-12)-induced Th1 response strongly suppressed the Th2-cell-mediated pulmonary granuloma development in naive or primed mice. However, liver granulomas were only moderately suppressed in egg-vaccinated, recombinant IL-12 (rIL-12)-treated infected mice. The present study shows that repeated rIL-12 injections given during early granuloma development at 5 to 7 weeks after infection prolonged the Th1 phase and resulted in gamma interferon-mediated suppression of liver granulomas. The timing is crucial: if given at 6 to 8 weeks, during the Th2-dominated phase of florid granuloma growth, the treatment is ineffective. Daily injections of rIL-12 given between 5 and 7.5 weeks during the period of granuloma growth achieved a somewhat-stronger diminution in granuloma growth with less deposition of collagen but caused 60% mortality and liver pathology. In contrast, combined treatment with rIL-12 and anti-IL-4-anti-IL-10 monoclonal antibody (MAb) injections given during the Th2 phase strongly inhibited liver granuloma growth without mortality. The diminished inflammatory response was accompanied by less deposition of collagen in the liver. Moreover, neutralization of endogenous IL-12 by anti-IL-12 MAbs effectively decreased the early Th1 phase (between 5 and 6 weeks after infection) but not the developing Th2 phase (5 to 7 weeks) of granuloma development. These studies indicate that the granulomatous response in infected mice can be manipulated by utilizing the Th1-Th2-subset antagonism with potential salutary results in the amelioration of fibrous pathology.  (+info)

Delay in presentation of patients with acute stroke to hospital in Oxford. (4/20367)

We identified prospectively all patients (181 patients, 183 episodes) admitted to hospital in Oxford with acute stroke from 1 January to 30 June 1997. Data were inadequate in 30, leaving 153 episodes in 151 patients (63 men, 90 women). Structured interviews were used to investigate the timing of events preceding admission. Most strokes (91%) occurred at home, and 36% of patients were alone. After a median delay of 15 min, 56% called a GP (median 30 min response), 41% an ambulance (median 48 min to admission), and 3% went directly to A&E. Median time from hospital admission to doctor assessment was 69 min. Factors reducing delay were: initially calling an ambulance rather than a GP (p < 0.0001); onset not at home (p < 0.001); symptoms improving between onset and admission (p < 0.002); and altered consciousness (p < 0.002). The stroke was not recognized by 44% of patients, but no significant delay resulted. Overall, 31% were admitted within 3 h of onset, 46% within 6 h. Initial contact with the GP is a major determinant of delay. If acute therapies for stroke become available, GPs should be the primary targets for an educational initiative.  (+info)

Assessment of swallowing and referral to speech and language therapists in acute stroke. (5/20367)

The best clinical assessment of swallowing following acute stroke, in order to decide whether to refer a patient to a speech and language therapist (SLT), is uncertain. Independently of the managing clinical team, we prospectively investigated 115 patients (51 male) with acute stroke, mean age 75 years (range 24-94) within 72 h of admission, using a questionnaire, structured examination and timed water swallowing test. Outcome variables included referral to and intervention by a speech and language therapist (SLT), dietary modification, respiratory complications and death. Of those patients in whom an SLT recommended intervention, 97% were detected by an abnormal quantitative water swallowing test; specificity was 69%. An SLT was very unlikely to recommend any intervention if the test was normal. Inability to perform a water test and/or abnormality of the test was associated with significantly increased relative risks of death, chest infection and dietary modification. A timed water swallowing test can be a useful test of swallowing and may be used to screen patients for referral to a speech and language therapist after acute stroke.  (+info)

Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis. (6/20367)

OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for evidence that chronic infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae is associated with atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndromes. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and Institute of Science and Information bibliographic databases were searched at the end of September 1998. Indexing terms used were chlamydi*, heart, coronary, and atherosclerosis. Serological and pathological studies published as papers in any language since 1988 or abstracts since 1997 were selected. DATA EXTRACTION: It was assumed that chronic C pneumoniae infection is characterised by the presence of both specific IgG and IgA, and serological studies were examined for associations that fulfilled these criteria. Pathological studies were also reviewed for evidence that the presence of C pneumoniae in diseased vessels is associated with the severity and extent of atherosclerosis. DATA SYNTHESIS: The majority of serological studies have shown an association between C pneumoniae and atherosclerosis. However, the number of cases in studies that have reported a positive association when using strict criteria for chronic infection is similar to the number of cases in studies which found no association. Nevertheless, the organism is widely found in atherosclerotic vessels, although it may not be at all diseased sites and is not confined to the most severe lesions. Rabbit models and preliminary antibiotic trials suggest that the organism might exacerbate atherosclerosis. CONCLUSION: More evidence is required before C pneumoniae can be accepted as playing a role in atherosclerosis. Although use of antibiotics in routine practice is not justified, large scale trials in progress will help to elucidate the role of C pneumoniae.  (+info)

Painful incarcerated hernia following a rugby union lineout. (7/20367)

Discussion related to hernias in sport usually involves the diagnosis and treatment of chronic musculotendinous groin disruption. A case of acute trauma in an incarcerated inguinal hernia, occurring in a rugby union player during a lineout, is presented. The injury arose as a result of a change in the laws of the game.  (+info)

T lymphocyte adhesion mechanisms within inflamed human kidney: studies with a Stamper-Woodruff assay. (8/20367)

Renal inflammatory conditions are characterized by mononuclear cell recruitment to sites of inflammation. We have developed a modified Stamper-Woodruff assay system to analyze mechanisms of functional T cell adhesion to cryostat sections of renal biopsy material from patients with vasculitic glomerulonephritis (GN) and acute allograft rejection. Peripheral blood T cells adhered to intraglomerular, periglomerular, and tubulointerstitial regions of the cortex. Blocking monoclonal antibodies against tissue expressed ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and the CS-1 domain of fibronectin (CS-1Fn) differentially attenuated T cell adhesion. Glomerular adhesion in vasculitic GN and tubulointerstitial adhesion in acute rejection were particularly sensitive to both anti-ICAM-1 and anti-VCAM-1 antibodies, indicating a prominent role for ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 at glomerular sites in vasculitis and at tubulointerstitial sites in rejection. Furthermore, using KL/4 cells (LFA-1 expressing) and Jurkat cells (VLA-4 expressing), we demonstrated specific LFA-1/ICAM-1- and VLA-4/VCAM-1-mediated interactions within glomerular and tubulointerstitial compartments. Jurkat cells also adhered to VCAM-1-free sites, and binding was inhibitable by anti-CS-1Fn antibody, thereby demonstrating a role for VLA-4/fibronectin interactions especially at intraglomerular sites in acute rejection where VCAM-1 is notably absent. We therefore propose a prominent functional role for ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and CS-1 domain fibronectin in T cell recruitment to the inflamed kidney.  (+info)

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Lentiviruses, Bovine, refer to a genus of retroviruses that cause a slow, chronic infection in cattle. These viruses are characterized by their ability to infect non-dividing cells and establish a persistent infection. The bovine lentiviruses include the Maedi-Visna virus (MVV) and the Bovine Immunodeficiency Virus (BIV).

MVV primarily affects the respiratory and central nervous systems of infected animals, causing progressive pneumonia and neurological symptoms. BIV, on the other hand, is more similar to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and causes a bovine immunodeficiency syndrome, characterized by a decline in the immune function and increased susceptibility to other infections.

Both MVV and BIV are transmitted horizontally between animals through close contact with infected bodily fluids such as milk, colostrum, saliva, and semen, as well as vertically from infected cows to their offspring. Currently, there are no vaccines or specific treatments available for bovine lentivirus infections, and control measures focus on identifying and isolating infected animals to prevent the spread of the virus.

Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. It is characterized by acute or chronic flu-like symptoms, pneumonia, and hepatitis. The bacteria are primarily transmitted to humans through inhalation of contaminated dust or aerosols from infected animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats. Q fever can also be transmitted through consumption of unpasteurized milk or direct contact with infected animals. It is often asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic in animals but can cause severe disease in humans.

The acute form of Q fever typically presents with sudden onset of high fever, severe headache, fatigue, muscle pain, and cough. Some patients may also develop pneumonia or hepatitis. The chronic form of the disease is less common but more serious, often affecting people with compromised immune systems. Chronic Q fever can lead to endocarditis, an infection of the inner lining of the heart, which can be life-threatening if left untreated.

Diagnosis of Q fever typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, serological testing, and PCR (polymerase chain reaction) assays. Treatment usually involves antibiotics such as doxycycline or fluoroquinolones for several weeks to months, depending on the severity and duration of the illness. Prevention measures include avoiding contact with infected animals, wearing protective clothing and masks when handling animal products, and pasteurizing milk before consumption.

Coxiella burnetii is a gram-negative, intracellular bacterium that causes Q fever, a zoonotic disease with various clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic seroconversion to acute and chronic forms. The bacterium is highly infectious and can be transmitted to humans through inhalation of contaminated aerosols or direct contact with infected animals or their products. C. burnetii has a unique ability to survive and replicate within host cells, particularly within phagocytic vacuoles, by inhibiting phagosome-lysosome fusion and altering the intracellular environment to promote its survival.

The bacterium exhibits a biphasic developmental cycle, consisting of small cell variants (SCVs) and large cell variants (LCVs). SCVs are metabolically inactive and highly resistant to environmental stressors, including heat, desiccation, and disinfectants. LCVs, on the other hand, are metabolically active and undergo replication within host cells. C. burnetii can form persistent infections, which may contribute to chronic Q fever and its associated complications, such as endocarditis and vascular infection.

Q fever is a worldwide distributed disease, with a higher incidence in rural areas where livestock farming is prevalent. The primary reservoirs for C. burnetii are domestic animals, including cattle, sheep, and goats, although wild animals and arthropods can also serve as potential hosts. Effective antibiotic treatment options for Q fever include doxycycline and fluoroquinolones, while vaccination with the phase I whole-cell vaccine is available in some countries to prevent infection in high-risk populations.

Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) is a viral disease that affects horses and other equine animals. The causative agent of this disease is the Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV), which belongs to the family Retroviridae and genus Lentivirus. This virus is primarily transmitted through the transfer of infected blood, most commonly through biting insects such as horseflies and deerflies.

The EIAV attacks the immune system of the infected animal, causing a variety of symptoms including fever, weakness, weight loss, anemia, and edema. The virus has a unique ability to integrate its genetic material into the host's DNA, which can lead to a lifelong infection. Some animals may become chronic carriers of the virus, showing no signs of disease but remaining infectious to others.

There is currently no cure for EIA, and infected animals must be isolated to prevent the spread of the disease. Vaccines are available in some countries, but they do not provide complete protection against infection and may only help reduce the severity of the disease. Regular testing and monitoring of equine populations are essential to control the spread of this virus.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "horses" is not a medical term. It is the common name given to the species *Equus ferus caballus*, which are large domesticated mammals used for transportation, work, and recreation. If you have any questions about horses or a related topic that you would like a medical perspective on, please let me know and I'd be happy to help!

Autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a model of inflammatory demyelinating disease used in medical research to study the mechanisms of multiple sclerosis (MS) and develop new therapies. It is experimentally induced in laboratory animals, typically mice or rats, through immunization with myelin antigens or T-cell transfer. The resulting immune response leads to inflammation, demyelination, and neurological dysfunction in the central nervous system (CNS), mimicking certain aspects of MS.

EAE is a valuable tool for understanding the pathogenesis of MS and testing potential treatments. However, it is essential to recognize that EAE is an experimental model and may not fully recapitulate all features of human autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the adaptive immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several different types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs).

CD4+ helper T-cells assist in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages. They also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response. CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells directly kill infected cells by releasing toxic substances. Regulatory T-cells help maintain immune tolerance and prevent autoimmune diseases by suppressing the activity of other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes are important in the immune response to viral infections, cancer, and other diseases. Dysfunction or depletion of T-cells can lead to immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to infections. On the other hand, an overactive T-cell response can contribute to autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Lymphocyte activation is the process by which B-cells and T-cells (types of lymphocytes) become activated to perform effector functions in an immune response. This process involves the recognition of specific antigens presented on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages.

The activation of B-cells leads to their differentiation into plasma cells that produce antibodies, while the activation of T-cells results in the production of cytotoxic T-cells (CD8+ T-cells) that can directly kill infected cells or helper T-cells (CD4+ T-cells) that assist other immune cells.

Lymphocyte activation involves a series of intracellular signaling events, including the binding of co-stimulatory molecules and the release of cytokines, which ultimately result in the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and effector functions. The activation process is tightly regulated to prevent excessive or inappropriate immune responses that can lead to autoimmunity or chronic inflammation.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

Cytokines are a broad and diverse category of small signaling proteins that are secreted by various cells, including immune cells, in response to different stimuli. They play crucial roles in regulating the immune response, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and cellular communication.

Cytokines mediate their effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, which triggers intracellular signaling pathways that ultimately result in changes in gene expression, cell behavior, and function. Some key functions of cytokines include:

1. Regulating the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of immune cells such as T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages.
2. Coordinating the inflammatory response by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or tissue damage and modulating their effector functions.
3. Regulating hematopoiesis, the process of blood cell formation in the bone marrow, by controlling the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
4. Modulating the development and function of the nervous system, including neuroinflammation, neuroprotection, and neuroregeneration.

Cytokines can be classified into several categories based on their structure, function, or cellular origin. Some common types of cytokines include interleukins (ILs), interferons (IFNs), tumor necrosis factors (TNFs), chemokines, colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), and transforming growth factors (TGFs). Dysregulation of cytokine production and signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

An acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB), is a ... Bach PB, Brown C, Gelfand SE, McCrory DC (2001). "Management of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a ... Guidelines for treatment of acute lung diseases. August 2004. Authors: Christer Hanson, Carl-Axel Karlsson, Mary Kämpe, ... An acute exacerbation of COPD is associated with increased frequency and severity of coughing. It is often accompanied by ...
The causes of acute pancreatitis also varies across age groups, with trauma and systemic disease (such as infection) being more ... The acute pancreatitis (acute hemorrhagic pancreatic necrosis) is characterized by acute inflammation and necrosis of pancreas ... UK Working Party on Acute Pancreatitis (May 2005). "UK guidelines for the management of acute pancreatitis". Gut. 54 (Suppl 3 ... Working Group IAP/APA Acute Pancreatitis Guidelines (2013). "IAP/APA evidence-based guidelines for the management of acute ...
"Acute respiratory distress syndrome". Nature Reviews. Disease Primers. 5 (1): 18. doi:10.1038/s41572-019-0069-0. PMC 6709677. ... June 2015). "Pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome: consensus recommendations from the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury ... Bakowitz, Magdalena (August 2012). "Acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome in the injured patient". ... Marino (2006), pp 435 Bakowitz, Magdalena; Bruns, Brandon; McCunn, Maureen (2012-08-10). "Acute lung injury and the acute ...
March 2016). "Acute myeloid leukaemia". Nature Reviews. Disease Primers. 2 (1): 16010. doi:10.1038/nrdp.2016.10. PMID 27159408 ... Seiter K, Jules EH (20 May 2011). "Acute Myeloid Leukemia Staging". Retrieved 26 August 2011. Mihova D. "Leukemia acute - Acute ... Acute leukemias of ambiguous lineage (also known as mixed phenotype or biphenotypic acute leukemia) occur when the leukemic ... Complete remission does not mean the disease has been cured; rather, it signifies no disease can be detected with available ...
November 2008). "[Acute esophageal necrosis. An underdiagnosed disease]". Rev Esp Enferm Dig (in Spanish). 100 (11): 701-5. doi ... The prognosis for acute esophageal necrosis is generally poor, as the condition is associated with a high risk of mortality (up ... Acute esophageal necrosis was first described by Goldenberg et al. in 1990. Cases have emerged since 1960, but have never been ... Acute esophageal necrosis made an appearance on an American medical drama show, Dr. G: Medical Examiner. Jan Garavaglia, the ...
... is a disease that infects oak trees originally described in the UK. It mainly affects mature oak trees of ... Unlike chronic oak decline, acute oak decline can lead to the death of trees within 4 to 5 years of symptoms appearing. The ... nov., associated with Acute Oak Decline". Systematic and Applied Microbiology. 33 (8): 444-450. doi:10.1016/j.syapm.2010.08.006 ... "What is acute oak decline?". Forest research. Retrieved 2009-09-26. "Scientists Identify Bacteria in Loughborough Trees ...
The disease was first described in 1940 by H. L. Sheehan as an "acute yellow atrophy" of the liver, then thought to be related ... Pang WW, Lei CH, Chang DP, Yang TF, Chung YT, Huang MH (1999). "Acute jaundice in pregnancy: acute fatty liver or acute viral ... Riely CA (1987). "Acute fatty liver of pregnancy". Seminars in Liver Disease. 7 (1): 47-54. doi:10.1055/s-2008-1040563. PMID ... Koroshi A, Babameto A (2002). "Acute renal failure during acute fatty liver of pregnancy". Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation ...
Wilson's disease (hereditary copper accumulation) may infrequently present with acute liver failure. Acute liver failure also ... Acute liver failure is the appearance of severe complications rapidly after the first signs (such as jaundice) of liver disease ... acute as 8-28 days, and subacute as 4-12 weeks; both the speed with which the disease develops and the underlying cause ... in a patient without known prior liver disease".page 1557 The diagnosis of acute liver failure is based on physical exam, ...
Johnson, CS (1995). "Sickle-Cell Disease: The Acute Chest Syndrome". Sickle cell disease (SCD). Centers for Disease Control and ... "acute chest syndrome" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary Kumar, Abbas, Fausto. Robbins and Cotran: The Pathologic Basis of Disease ... "Inhaled bronchodilators for acute chest syndrome in people with sickle cell disease". The Cochrane Database of Systematic ... The acute chest syndrome is a vaso-occlusive crisis of the pulmonary vasculature commonly seen in people with sickle cell ...
... relapse of malignant disease and incidence of acute and chronic graft-versus-host diseases if they are used for prophylactic ... Larson RA (2 January 2018). "Managing CNS disease in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia". Leukemia & Lymphoma. 59 (1): 3- ... "ACS :: How Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Classified?". Archived from the original on 23 March 2008. DeAngelo DJ, Pui C. Acute ... Diagnosis is typically Acute lymphoblastic leukemia based on blood tests and bone marrow examination. Acute lymphoblastic ...
... "acute disease", it refers to the acute phase (that is, a short course) of any disease entity. For example, in an article on ... "acute" is also included in the definition of several diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, acute leukaemia, ... A mild stubbed toe is an acute injury. Similarly, many acute upper respiratory infections and acute gastroenteritis cases in ... "in acute disease there may be increased mortality without any obvious signs", referring to the acute form or phase of ...
Ramnarayan P (June 2009). "Measuring the performance of an inter-hospital transport service". Archives of Disease in Childhood ... The Children's Acute Transport Service (CATS) is a publicly funded specialised regional intensive care transport service for ... Archives of Disease in Childhood. 95 (9): 681-685. doi:10.1136/adc.2008.151266. PMID 19666940. ...
... (ADEM), or acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, is a rare autoimmune disease marked by a ... Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis at NIH's Office of Rare Diseases Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Information Page at ... Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (AHL, or AHLE), acute hemorrhagic encephalomyelitis (AHEM), acute necrotizing hemorrhagic ... Autoimmune diseases, Central nervous system disorders, Enterovirus-associated diseases, Measles, Rare diseases). ...
Diseases of Tetrapyrrole Metabolism - Refsum Disease and the Hepatic Porphyrias at eMedicine Narang, Neatu; Banerjee, A; Kotwal ... AIP is one of the four porphyrias that presents as an acute attack. 90% of affected individuals never experience an acute ... studies of the severe homozygous dominant disease provides insights into the neurologic attacks in acute porphyrias". Archives ... "Recent advances in the epidemiology and genetics of acute intermittent porphyria". Intractable & Rare Diseases Research. 9 (4 ...
"Acute Flaccid Myelitis". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 1 March 2019. Archived from the original on 29 March ... "About Acute Flaccid Myelitis". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Archived from the original on 2018-10-11. ... "Acute Flaccid Myelitis". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 17 December 2018. Archived from the original on 21 ... "Acute neurologic illness with focal limb weakness of unknown etiology in children". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ...
"Fact sheet on Acute Radiation Syndrome". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 16 July ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wikimedia Commons has media related to Acute radiation syndrome. "Emergency ... Acute effects of ionizing radiation were first observed when Wilhelm Röntgen intentionally subjected his fingers to X-rays in ... Acute radiation syndrome (ARS), also known as radiation sickness or radiation poisoning, is a collection of health effects that ...
... rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/524/acute-megakaryoblastic-leukemia (NIH Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center) (CS1 ... Wang SA, Hasserjian RP (July 2015). "Acute Erythroleukemias, Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemias, and Reactive Mimics: A Guide to ... Cases of the disease not associated with mediastinal germ cell tumors occur in adults who as a group have older median age ... "Acute Myeloid Leukemia - Signs and Symptoms". Arber DA, Orazi A, Hasserjian R, Thiele J, Borowitz MJ, Le Beau MM, Bloomfield CD ...
Acute beryllium disease was first reported in Europe in 1933 and in the United States in 1943. OSHA Beryllium Health Effects ... Acute beryllium poisoning is an occupational disease. Relevant occupations are those where beryllium is mined, processed or ... Acute beryllium poisoning is acute chemical pneumonitis resulting from the toxic effect of beryllium in its elemental form or ... of cases may progress to chronic beryllium disease. Acute beryllium poisoning approximately doubles the risk of lung cancer. ...
2008) Agricultural lung diseases. Environ Health Perspect 108:705-12. Hlastala MP, Ralph DD, Babb AL, Influence of gas physical ... 2007) Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS): the mechanism, present strategies and future ... In the acute phase of ALI, there is increased permeability of this barrier and protein rich fluid leaks out of the capillaries ... 2008) Animal models of acute lung injury. Am J Physiol. 295:L379-99. Li X, Li S, Zhang M, Li X, Zhang X, Zhang W, Li C. (2010) ...
The Network Platform of Severe Acute Respiratory Infectious diseases (SARI) in China Saudi Critical Care Trials Group (SCCTG) ... It is hosted at the Nuffield Department of Medicine within the University of Oxford and led by the Epidemic diseases Research ... The International Severe Acute Respiratory and emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC) is an international research initiative ... ANRS Emerging Infectious Diseases Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Research Centre (ANZIC-RC) Australian and New ...
When a limb is ischaemic in the non-acute (chronic) setting, the condition is alternatively called peripheral artery disease or ... ABC of Arterial and Venous Disease: Acute Limb Ischaemia Ken Callum and Andrew Bradbury BMJ: British Medical Journal, Vol. 320 ... Obara, H.; Matsubara, K.; Kitagawa, Y. (25 December 2018). "Acute Limb Ischemia". Annals of Vascular Diseases. 11 (4): S5- ... In treating acute limb ischaemia time is everything. In the worst cases, acute limb ischaemia progresses to critical limb ...
It is a rare disease, constituting about 2-5% of all leukemia cases. It mostly involve myeloid with either of T lymphocyte or B ... "mixed-phenotype acute leukemia" to include leukemias of ambiguous lineage, acute undifferentiated leukemias and natural killer ... Mixed-phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL) is a group of blood cancers (leukemia) which have combined features of myeloid and ... The name "mixed-phenotype acute leukemia" was adopted by the World Health Organization in 2008 to include leukemias of ...
American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 41 (5): e18.1-e18.6. doi:10.1016/S0272-6386(03)00214-2. PMID 12778436. (Wikipedia articles ... Acute tubular necrosis is classified as a "renal" (i.e. not pre-renal or post-renal) cause of acute kidney injury. Diagnosis is ... is preferred by pathologists over the older name acute tubular necrosis (ATN). ATN presents with acute kidney injury (AKI) and ... Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is a medical condition involving the death of tubular epithelial cells that form the renal tubules ...
"Acute and Subacute, and Reidel's Thyroiditis." Ed. Leslie J. De Groot. The Thyroid And Its Diseases. 6th ed. New York: Elsevier ... "Acute and Subacute, and Reidel's Thyroiditis." Ed. Leslie J. De Groot. The Thyroid And Its Diseases. 6th ed. New York: Elsevier ... "Acute and Subacute, and Reidel's thyroiditis - Thyroid Disease Manager". Archived from the original on 2012-04-29. Retrieved ... If diagnosis and/or treatment is delayed, the disease could prove fatal. Acute infectious thyroiditis is very rare, with it ...
Acute hepatomyoencephalopathy (HME) syndrome is the name given to a multi-system disease affecting the liver, muscle and brain ... Disappearance of a deadly disease acute hepatomyoencephalopathy syndrome from Saharanpur. Indian J Med Res. 2012 Jan; 135(1): ... Pathologically there is acute onset massive zonal necrosis of liver and histopathology evidence of acute muscle fibre ... it was concluded that the disease was not encephalitis as so far believed but a fatal multi-system disease affecting liver, ...
Clinical presentation of diseases of pericardium may vary between: Acute and recurrent pericarditis Pericardial effusion ... The other 10-20% of acute pericarditis cases have various causes including connective tissue diseases (e.g., systemic lupus ... There are several causes of acute pericarditis. In developed nations, the cause of most (80-90%) cases of acute pericarditis is ... Acute pericarditis is associated with a modest increase in serum creatine kinase MB (CK-MB). and cardiac troponin I (cTnI), ...
... and myocardial infarction in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease (MINOCA). In the setting of acute chest pain, ... Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) due to decreased blood flow in the coronary arteries ... Allergic acute coronary syndrome (Kounis syndrome) Amsterdam, E. A.; Wenger, N. K.; Brindis, R. G.; Casey, D. E.; Ganiats, T. G ... Symptoms of the acute coronary syndromes are similar. The cardinal symptom of critically decreased blood flow to the heart is ...
In 1978, Young and Bird named the disease when presented in both eyes, Bilateral Acute Retinal Necrosis, otherwise known as ... Urayama and his colleagues reported the disease that they saw in six Japanese patients. Since then the disease has been seen in ... Further progressed stages of the disease can cause blindness in the eye experiencing ARN. Though the disease may be present ... The disease is not limited to a specific gender. Most cases have been reported in young adults though children and the elderly ...
Aging-associated diseases, Cardiovascular diseases, Ischemic heart diseases, Medical emergencies, Cardiac procedures). ... people who present with angina must prompt evaluation for possible acute coronary syndrome. Acute coronary syndromes are ... Management of acute coronary syndrome is targeted against the effects of reduced blood flow to the affected area of the heart ... Acute coronary syndromes are caused by sudden and critical reduction of blood flow in one of the coronary arteries, the vessels ...
CSF studies are normal earlier in the course of disease. Later on CSF shows moderate elevation of proteins. Brain tumors, ... Acute cerebellar ataxia is the most common cause of unsteady gait in children. The condition is rare in children older than ten ... Acute Cerebellar ataxia is a diagnosis of exclusion. Urgent CT scan is necessary to rule out cerebellar tumor or hemorrhage as ... Acute cerebellar ataxia usually follows 2-3 weeks after an infection. Onset is abrupt. Vomiting may be present at the onset but ...
Div of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases; Div of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National ... Epidemiology of acute, respiratory disease in military recruits. Am Rev Respir Dis 1968;97(Suppl):1--65. ... Van der Veen J, Kok G. Isolation and typing of adenoviruses recovered from military recruits with acute respiratory disease in ... Ad14 infection was described initially in 1955 (5) and was associated with epidemic acute respiratory disease in military ...
Certain liver diseases are uniquely associated with pregnancy, whereas others are unrelated. ... Liver disease that occurs during pregnancy can present a challenge for health care providers. ... 1] Liver disease such as acute viral hepatitis can occur in pregnancy, and pregnancy may occur in a patient with underlying ... The liver diseases unique to pregnancy include hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP), intrahepatic ...
Please note for your information that a Disease Outbreak News has been posted for the following public health event:. Acute ... WHO Statement on travel and transport in relation to Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak ...
An acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB), is a ... Bach PB, Brown C, Gelfand SE, McCrory DC (2001). "Management of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a ... Guidelines for treatment of acute lung diseases. August 2004. Authors: Christer Hanson, Carl-Axel Karlsson, Mary Kämpe, ... An acute exacerbation of COPD is associated with increased frequency and severity of coughing. It is often accompanied by ...
... use and development of acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) are reviewed. The strength and weaknesses of each study are ... A review of the association between intrauterine devices and acute pelvic inflammatory disease J Reprod Med. 1978 Apr;20(4):200 ... use and development of acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) are reviewed. The strength and weaknesses of each study are ... There is the intriguing but uncomfirmed suggestion that nulliparous IUD users are more likely to suffer from acute PID than are ...
Epidemic and pandemic-prone diseases , Outbreaks , Cholera , Acute watery diarrhea/cholera updates (31 August 2023) ... and pandemic-prone diseases, as well as news on outbreak preparedness and response within WHOs Eastern Mediterranean Region. ... and Yemen have reported Acute Watery Diarrhea (AWD)/ suspected cholera cases in 2022 and 2023. In 2023, 8 out of these 9 ...
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) today approved a treatment to prevent acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in ... Abatacept, a drug used to treat autoimmune diseases, is the first FDA-approved therapy to prevent acute GVHD after ... FDA approval offers hope for prevention of acute graft-versus-host disease Posted date ... Abatacept curbs the T-cell attack that drives acute GVHD by binding to and inhibiting one of the key costimulatory signals that ...
When presented with acute gastrointestinal disease, one of the main clinical questions is whether or not surgical intervention ... Diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease in zoo and wildlife species has the added challenge of species-specific anatomic ...
Treatment of Acute Respiratory Diseases. "GASTRO CLINIC" SPECIALIZED CENTER OF GASTROENTEROLOGY Treatment of Acute Respiratory ... Treatment of Acute Respiratory Diseases. COMPANY SEARCHCHANGE SEARCH CRITERIA. Search. Clear ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
Rheumatism, rheumatic (acute NEC) 729.0. *. pancarditis, acute 391.8*. with chorea (acute) (rheumatic) (Sydenhams) 392.0. ... Disease, diseased - see also Syndrome*. heart (organic) 429.9. *. with*. acute pulmonary edema (see also Failure, ventricular, ... incompletely diagnosed - see Disease, heart. *. ischemic (chronic) (see also Ischemia, heart) 414.9. *. acute (see also Infarct ... Home > 2015 ICD-9-CM Diagnosis Codes > Diseases Of The Circulatory System 390-459 > Acute Rheumatic Fever 390-392 > Rheumatic ...
Copyright © 2023 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & British Society of Gastroenterology. All rights reserved.. ...
www.fdanews.com/articles/204091-fda-gives-priority-review-to-bms-orencia-for-preventing-acute-graft-vs-host-disease ... FDA Gives Priority Review to BMS Orencia for Preventing Acute Graft Vs. Host Disease. August 24, 2021 ... has earned a Priority Review by the FDA for preventing moderate-to-severe acute graft vs. host disease (aGvHD) in patients six ...
Humans infected with SARS-CoV-2 develop a disease kn... ... Humans infected with SARS-CoV-2 develop a disease kn... ... Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus. ... Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus. ... Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes the pandemic disease known as coronavirus disease 2019 ...
... and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) are preventable diseases disproportionately affecting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander ( ... Rheumatic heart disease Rheumatic heart disease - expand Rheumatic heart disease - collapse * Rheumatic heart disease is more ... Acute rheumatic fever Acute rheumatic fever - expand Acute rheumatic fever - collapse * Over 500 acute rheumatic fever ... Management of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease Management of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease ...
Adult cystic fibrosis: association of acute pulmonary exacerbations and increasing severity of lung disease with auxotrophic ... Adult cystic fibrosis: association of acute pulmonary exacerbations and increasing severity of lung disease with auxotrophic ... In four patients from whom samples in both the acute and stable states were available, the proportion of auxotrophs fell in the ... Auxotrophs predominated in all samples from 11 of those patients with very severe underlying lung disease, in contrast to 13 of ...
... it is not for non-acute long-term chronic disease management. The acute respiratory infection (ARI) virtual ward can provide ... Guidance note: virtual ward care for people with acute respiratory infection including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. ... Acute respiratory infection (ARI) virtual ward models should be implemented through a partnership between one or more acute ... The discharge criteria from acute level virtual wards should be in line with acute hospital discharge criteria. Virtual wards ...
Coronaviruses and Acute Respiratory Syndromes (MERS and SARS) - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & ... A few patients have acute kidney injury Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) Acute kidney injury is a rapid decrease in renal function ... Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a severe, acute respiratory illness caused ... and neurologic diseases in animals. Only 7 coronaviruses are known to cause disease in humans. ...
An observational disease registry study means that only information about your disease and medical treatment that your study ... Connect MDS and AML: The Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) and Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Disease Registry. This study is ... An observational disease registry study means that only information about your disease and medical treatment that your study ... Connect MDS and AML: The Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) and Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Disease Registry ...
"Acute Chagas Disease Outbreak among Military Personnel, Colombia, 2021" 29, no. 9 (2023). Vergara, Hernán Darío et al. "Acute ... We report an acute Chagas disease outbreak among soldiers in Colombia. Trypanosoma cruzi infection was confirmed through ... 2023). Acute Chagas Disease Outbreak among Military Personnel, Colombia, 2021. 29(9). Vergara, Hernán Darío et al. " ... Title : Acute Chagas Disease Outbreak among Military Personnel, Colombia, 2021 Personal Author(s) : Vergara, Hernán Darío;Gómez ...
... acute schistosomiasis is considered a Th1 disease (de Jesus et al., 2002), and a defect in developing a Th2 response during ... As discussed earlier, acute schistosomiasis is characterized by a Th1 response, and indeed, previous studies in WT mice have ... During acute schistosomiasis worm ova released from adult S. japonicum elicit potent pro-inflammatory responses along with ... Acute schistosomiasis is characterized by pro-inflammatory responses against tissue- or organ-trapped parasite eggs along with ...
The role of human adenoviruses type 41 in acute diarrheal disease in Minas Gerais after rotavirus vaccination. Overview of ... Human adenovirus species F (HAdV-F) type 40 and 41 are commonly associated with acute diarrheal disease (ADD) across the world ... The role of human adenoviruses type 41 in acute diarrheal disease in Minas Gerais after rotavirus vaccination ... which demonstrates the importance of other viral agents in the development of the disease after the introduction of rotavirus ...
Consecutive AHB inpatients who were admitted to Jinan Infectious Disease Hospital, Jinan, between January 2006 and December ... Pregnancy might be a possible risk of chronicity following acute HBV infection. ... days of HBsAg seroclearance form disease onset in pregnant and non-pregnant patients were 145.0 (110.5-179.5) and 80.0 (62.6- ... The impact of pregnancy on the clinical course of acute hepatitis B (AHB) is still largely unclear, mainly because most studies ...
Thrombolytic Therapy for Peripheral Arterial Disease. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common manifestation of ... PE ranges in severity from acute massive PE to acute pulmonary infarction to acute embolism without infarction to multiple ... The Desmoteplase in Acute Ischemic Stroke Trial (DIAS): a phase II MRI-based 9-hour window acute stroke thrombolysis trial with ... 69, 70, 71] In most case reports, acute pulmonary embolism (PE) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was the suspected cause. ...
Read chapter 93 of Fishmans Pulmonary Diseases and Disorders, 6e online now, exclusively on AccessMedicine. AccessMedicine is ... Enkhbaatar P. Enkhbaatar P Enkhbaatar, Perenlei. "Thermal Lung Injury and Acute Smoke Inhalation." Fishmans Pulmonary Diseases ... Michael A. Grippi, et al.eds. Fishmans Pulmonary Diseases and Disorders, 6e. McGraw-Hill Education; 2023. Accessed April 20, ... Enkhbaatar P. Enkhbaatar P Enkhbaatar, Perenlei.Thermal Lung Injury and Acute Smoke Inhalation. In: Grippi MA, Antin-Ozerkis DE ...
Researchers are always looking for better ways to find and treat acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Learn more here. ... Detecting minimal residual disease. In recent years, highly sensitive tests have been developed to detect even the smallest ... Treatment Response Rates for Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). *If Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Doesnt Respond or Comes Back After ... Bhansali RS, Pratz KW, Lai C. Recent advances in targeted therapies in acute myeloid leukemia. J Hematol Oncol. 16, 29 (2023). ...
... uniform criteria used to define a disease for public health surveillance. ... Access Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-associated Coronavirus Disease (SARS-CoV) case definitions; ... Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-associated Coronavirus Disease (SARS-CoV). Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-associated ... Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-associated Coronavirus Disease (SARS-CoV) , Revised July 1, 2003 ...
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) today approved a treatment to prevent acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in patients 2 years of age or older receiving a hematopoietic stem cell transplant from a matched or single-HLA-mismatched unrelated donor. (dana-farber.org)
  • Researchers continue to study the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) at many medical centers, university hospitals, and other institutions around the world. (cancer.org)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • Saving Lives, Protecting People Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). (cdc.gov)
  • Humans infected with SARS-CoV-2 develop a disease known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with symptoms and consequences including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), cardiovascular disorders, and death. (frontiersin.org)
  • is a novel coronavirus identified as the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that began in Wuhan, China in late 2019 and spread worldwide. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The goal is to provide the practical points to be remembered at the bedside while caring for a pregnant woman or a neonate with suspected or proven coronavirus disease 2019 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome . (bvsalud.org)
  • An acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB), is a sudden worsening of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) symptoms including shortness of breath, quantity and color of phlegm that typically lasts for several days. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult cystic fibrosis: association of acute pulmonary exacerbations and increasing severity of lung disease with auxotrophic mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (bmj.com)
  • People of all ages presenting with suspected acute respiratory illness including acute respiratory infections (ARI) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations make up a significant proportion of urgent care and primary care attendances, and hospital admissions. (england.nhs.uk)
  • Virtual ward including hospital at home teams should link to community respiratory teams and work towards providing oxygen, oxygen weaning, and nebuliser support for people on a virtual ward or on discharge as per Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in over 16s: diagnosis and management . (england.nhs.uk)
  • People of all ages with confirmed or suspected acute respiratory infection also including non-infective exacerbations of respiratory conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who require ongoing care and monitoring that can be safely provided in their home or usual place of residence. (england.nhs.uk)
  • The focus of this doctoral thesis was to describe and characterize patients with acute coronary syndromes and concomitant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, their management, and the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on outcome. (lu.se)
  • As the lungs tend to be vulnerable organs due to their exposure to harmful particles in the air, several things can cause an acute exacerbation of COPD: Respiratory infection, being responsible for approximately half of COPD exacerbations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common bacterial pathogens of acute exacerbations include Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis. (wikipedia.org)
  • More than 50% of the total number of colonies were auxotrophic in 19 of 26 samples (73%) from patients with acute exacerbations and in only six of 15 samples (40%) from clinically stable patients. (bmj.com)
  • This guidance sets out the minimum requirement for the care of people with acute respiratory infection including exacerbations of respiratory conditions on a virtual ward, including hospital at home. (england.nhs.uk)
  • Differing acute phase responses in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. (bmj.com)
  • Patients with ulcerative colitis must be made aware of the significant risk of colon cancer, and surgical intervention in nonacute cases should be encouraged after 10 years of disease or when symptoms are refractory or steroid dependent. (medscape.com)
  • Six controlled epidemiologic studies of the association between intrauterine device (IUD) use and development of acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) are reviewed. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers suspect that prolonged inflammation in response to the infection may be involved in the development of acute necrotizing encephalopathy type 1, although the role of the altered RANBP2 protein in this process is unknown. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Subscribe to the monthly infectious hazard preparedness newsletter of WHO's Health Emergencies Programme for the latest data and analysis on epidemic- and pandemic-prone diseases, as well as news on outbreak preparedness and response within WHO's Eastern Mediterranean Region. (who.int)
  • was identified in 2003 as the cause of an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) that began in China near the end of 2002. (msdmanuals.com)
  • and the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa (graded in 2014, deactivated June 2016). (who.int)
  • Because during the period under review the response to the Ebola virus disease outbreak consisted primarily of risk management activities related to the persistence of virus in survivors, details are described only briefly. (who.int)
  • With the exception of the complex emergency in Nigeria and the Ebola virus disease outbreak, all the Grade 3 emergencies were also classified by the Inter-Agency Standing Committee as system- wide Level 3 emergencies. (who.int)
  • Bristol Myers Squibb's supplemental biologics license application (sBLA) for its approved arthritis drug Orencia (abatacept) has earned a Priority Review by the FDA for preventing moderate-to-severe acute graft vs. host disease (aGvHD) in patients six years and older. (fdanews.com)
  • As of 30 October 2017, HPAI H5N1 viruses have caused 860 human infections resulting in 454 deaths since 2003 ( http://www.who.int/influenza/human_animal_interface/2017_10_30_tableH5N1.pdf?ua = 1) Severe cases of influenza cause significant mortality due to their ability to induce cytokine-mediated immune lung pathology with features of moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) [ 3 ]. (springer.com)
  • [ 2 ] In 1958, streptokinase was first used in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and this changed the focus of treatment. (medscape.com)
  • Transverse chest CT images demonstrated in- We identified a case of fatal acute respiratory disease creased areas of patchy shadows and consolidation in both from household transmission of human adenovirus type lungs compared to CT images from April 22, indicative of 55 (HAdV-55) in Anhui Province, China. (cdc.gov)
  • Influenza A viruses (IAV) cause an acute respiratory disease in humans and animals. (springer.com)
  • Address for correspondence: Mathieu Mateo, Unit of Biology of sequencing, elucidate the disease progression and the Emerging Viral Infections, Institut Pasteur, 21 Ave Tony Garnier, Lyon pathogen origin. (cdc.gov)
  • Acute respiratory infections in rural hill region of Nepal : a prospective pilot intervention study / Mrigendra Raj Pandey, principal investigator, and ARI study team. (who.int)
  • Water recreation and disease : plausibility of associated infections: acute effects, sequelae and mortality / K. Pond. (who.int)
  • Is once-weekly intravenous dalbavancin as effective as conventional therapy for the treatment of acute bacterial skin infections? (the-hospitalist.org)
  • Acute bacterial skin infections are common and often require hospitalization for intravenous antibiotic administration. (the-hospitalist.org)
  • Researchers randomized 1,312 patients with acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections with signs of systemic infection requiring intravenous antibiotics to receive dalbavancin on days one and eight, with placebo on other days, or several doses of vancomycin with an option to switch to oral linezolid. (the-hospitalist.org)
  • Once-weekly dalbavancin appears to be similarly efficacious to intravenous vancomycin in the treatment of acute bacterial skin infections in terms of outcomes within 48-72 hours of therapy and might provide an alternative to continued inpatient hospitalization for intravenous antibiotics in stable patients. (the-hospitalist.org)
  • Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2024) Acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in Australia, 2022 , AIHW, Australian Government, accessed 21 April 2024. (aihw.gov.au)
  • Dynamics of acute bacterial diseases : epidemiological models and their application in public health / B. Cvjetanovic, B. Grab, K. Uemura. (who.int)
  • or Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) and are at least 55 years of age Patient is willing and able to provide signed informed consent. (augusta.edu)
  • What's New in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Research? (cancer.org)
  • Monitoring Minimal Residual Disease in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Ready for Prime Time? (nccn.org)
  • Predicting the outcome of therapy in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is currently necessary for making treatment decisions. (nccn.org)
  • An acute exacerbation of COPD is associated with increased frequency and severity of coughing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three days later, AQ-1's grandson, 1 year of age, in Case of Fatal Acute displayed similar symptoms. (cdc.gov)
  • Common Cold The common cold is an acute, usually afebrile, self-limited viral infection causing upper respiratory symptoms, such as rhinorrhea, cough, and sore throat. (msdmanuals.com)
  • [ 1 ] Liver disease such as acute viral hepatitis can occur in pregnancy, and pregnancy may occur in a patient with underlying chronic liver disease, including patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension, and patients who have undergone liver transplantation. (medscape.com)
  • Patients receiving abatacept demonstrated reductions in severe acute GvHD, and improved survival in transplants involving both 8/8 matched and 7/8 mismatched unrelated donors," said Kean. (dana-farber.org)
  • With abatacept's approval as a preventive option for acute GVHD, we hope hematopoietic stem cell transplant becomes a more accessible option for more patients, particularly those of diverse ethnicities who have lower likelihoods of finding matched donors," said Steven Devine, MD, Chief Medical Officer of NMDP/Be The Match, and Associate Scientific Director of CIBMTR. (dana-farber.org)
  • A study was therefore carried out to determine whether the proportion of auxotrophs differs between stable and acutely ill patients, or correlates with the extent of underlying disease. (bmj.com)
  • In four patients from whom samples in both the acute and stable states were available, the proportion of auxotrophs fell in the sample taken when stable. (bmj.com)
  • Auxotrophs predominated in all samples from 11 of those patients with very severe underlying lung disease, in contrast to 13 of 30 samples from patients with less severe disease. (bmj.com)
  • A significant proportion of acutely ill patients and those with severe underlying disease have a preponderance of auxotrophs in the sputum compared with stable patients and those with less severe disease. (bmj.com)
  • Pretreatment covariates, such as clinical and molecular predictors, have helped identify which patients are more or less likely to survive their disease using the currently available regimens. (nccn.org)
  • Here, we report platelet and leukocyte activation during acute and convalescent COVID-19 in patients recruited between May-July 2020. (lu.se)
  • Acute necrotizing encephalopathy type 1, also known as susceptibility to infection-induced acute encephalopathy 3 or IIAE3, is a rare type of brain disease (encephalopathy) that occurs following a viral infection such as the flu. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Guidelines for treatment of acute lung diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • With further refinement and standardization of the assays, and the development of novel, effective, and molecularly targeted agents, monitoring of minimal residual disease is likely to be incorporated into AML guidelines. (nccn.org)
  • It is suspected that the combination of the altered RANBP2 protein and the abnormal immune response play a role in individuals' susceptibility to recurrent episodes of acute necrotizing encephalopathy type 1. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The translocation t(1;19)(q23;p13) with the resulting chimeric TCF3PBX1 gene is the third most prevalent recurrent chromosomal translocation in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and accounts for 3-5% of cases. (bvsalud.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: GRK6 and -2, but not GRK5, are involved in the pathogenesis of acute arthritis in the K/BxN model. (duke.edu)
  • The condition is described as "acute" because the episodes of illness are time-limited. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When presented with acute gastrointestinal disease, one of the main clinical questions is whether or not surgical intervention is warranted. (vin.com)
  • We hypothesized that GRK subtypes differentially regulate granulocyte chemotaxis and clinical disease expression in the K/BxN model. (duke.edu)
  • Virtual ward models and pathways should effectively integrate with local same day emergency care, urgent community response services, acute respiratory infection hubs, single point of access and, for children also paediatric assessment units. (england.nhs.uk)
  • It should be read in conjunction with the acute respiratory infection guidance for combined adult and paediatric acute respiratory infection (ARI) hubs (previously RCAS hubs). (england.nhs.uk)
  • The Essentials about Neonatal Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection and Coronavirus Disease: A Narrative Review. (bvsalud.org)
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 ( SARS-CoV-2 ) infection can occur in neonates as the virus can be transmitted both horizontally (from the environment ) and vertically (during the pregnancy or at the delivery). (bvsalud.org)
  • An observational disease registry study means that only information about your disease and medical treatment that your study doctor is already prescribing as part of your standard medical care is collected. (augusta.edu)
  • In recent years, highly sensitive tests have been developed to detect even the smallest amount of leukemia left after treatment (known as minimal residual disease, or MRD), even when there are so few leukemia cells left that they can't be found by routine bone marrow tests. (cancer.org)
  • The presence of minimal residual disease affects a patient's outlook, as well as if the patient will need further or more intensive treatment. (cancer.org)
  • The objective of this study was to examine if MSC-EV treatment can attenuate influenza virus-induced acute lung injury in a preclinical model. (springer.com)
  • Autopsy and histologic findings at the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner in New York City included presence in the lung of chronic inflammatory cells with intranuclear inclusions, consistent with adenoviral bronchiolitis and acute respiratory distress syndrome. (cdc.gov)
  • Scholars@Duke publication: Granulocyte chemotaxis and disease expression are differentially regulated by GRK subtype in an acute inflammatory arthritis model (K/BxN). (duke.edu)
  • Influenza viruses cause annual outbreaks of acute respiratory illness resulting in significant mortality and morbidity. (springer.com)
  • Methods: A Cushing's disease patient experienced corticotroph releasing hormone (CRH)-induced pituitary apoplexy during inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS). (umn.edu)
  • Liver disease that occurs during pregnancy can present a challenge for healthcare providers. (medscape.com)
  • Certain liver diseases are uniquely associated with pregnancy, whereas others are unrelated. (medscape.com)
  • The liver diseases unique to pregnancy include hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP), intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), and hemolysis and elevated liver enzymes and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Pregnancy-related diseases are the most frequent causes of liver dysfunction during pregnancy and exhibit a trimester-specific occurrence during pregnancy. (medscape.com)
  • Risk factors for hyperemesis gravidarum include past history of the disease, hyperthyroidism, psychiatric illness, molar pregnancy, preexisting diabetes, multiple gestations, multiparity, increased body mass index, and high daily intake of saturated fat before pregnancy. (medscape.com)
  • Diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease in zoo and wildlife species has the added challenge of species-specific anatomic variations. (vin.com)
  • Learners are expected to recognize signs of acute GI bleeding, provide supportive care, and arrange emergency transport. (slideshare.net)
  • In the US alone, since 2010 influenza viruses have caused 140,000-710,000 hospitalizations resulting in 12,000-56,000 deaths annually ( https://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/disease/burden.htm ). (springer.com)
  • These data indicate the significant involvement of HAdV-F type 41 in the etiology of ADD in Minas Gerais, which demonstrates the importance of other viral agents in the development of the disease after the introduction of rotavirus vaccine immunization. (altmetric.com)
  • In mild disease confined to the rectum, topical mesalazine (Asacol) given by suppository is the preferred therapy. (medscape.com)
  • PBX1 chromosomal breakpoints in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and their use for measurable residual disease assessment. (bvsalud.org)
  • We demonstrate that during the acute phase of COVID-19 compared with the convalescent phase, platelets are more responsive while neutrophils are less responsive. (lu.se)
  • In contrast, such a change was not observed in the blood samples from the contralateral side of the apoplexy patient and in other IPSS samples from two non-apoplexy Cushing's disease patient and a patient with ectopic Cushing's syndrome. (umn.edu)
  • Africa Child Survival Initiative - Combatting Childhood Communicable Diseases. (who.int)
  • Results: Acute elevation of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) was observed in the IPSS blood sample on the apoplectic hemorrhagic site of the tumor. (umn.edu)
  • Virtual wards support personalised care for people of all ages who are stable or improving but require acute level care and choose to be cared for at home after a shared decision-making conversation. (england.nhs.uk)