Respiratory syndrome characterized by the appearance of a new pulmonary infiltrate on chest x-ray, accompanied by symptoms of fever, cough, chest pain, tachypnea, or DYSPNEA, often seen in patients with SICKLE CELL ANEMIA. Multiple factors (e.g., infection, and pulmonary FAT EMBOLISM) may contribute to the development of the syndrome.
A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.
Pressure, burning, or numbness in the chest.
Blocking of a blood vessel by fat deposits in the circulation. It is often seen after fractures of large bones or after administration of CORTICOSTEROIDS.
One of the sickle cell disorders characterized by the presence of both hemoglobin S and hemoglobin C. It is similar to, but less severe than sickle cell anemia.
Agents used to prevent or reverse the pathological events leading to sickling of erythrocytes in sickle cell conditions.
A characteristic symptom complex.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
The condition of being heterozygous for hemoglobin S.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase.
An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The major component of hemoglobin in the fetus. This HEMOGLOBIN has two alpha and two gamma polypeptide subunits in comparison to normal adult hemoglobin, which has two alpha and two beta polypeptide subunits. Fetal hemoglobin concentrations can be elevated (usually above 0.5%) in children and adults affected by LEUKEMIA and several types of ANEMIA.
Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
A transient increase in the number of leukocytes in a body fluid.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The sorting out and classification of patients or casualties to determine priority of need and proper place of treatment.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
An episode of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA that generally lasts longer than a transient anginal episode that ultimately may lead to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A viral disorder characterized by high FEVER, dry COUGH, shortness of breath (DYSPNEA) or breathing difficulties, and atypical PNEUMONIA. A virus in the genus CORONAVIRUS is the suspected agent.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.
A class I viral fusion protein that forms the characteristic spikes, or peplomers, found on the viral surface that mediate virus attachment, fusion, and entry into the host cell. During virus maturation, it is cleaved into two subunits: S1, which binds to receptors in the host cell, and S2, which mediates membrane fusion.
A syndrome characterized by outbreaks of late term abortions, high numbers of stillbirths and mummified or weak newborn piglets, and respiratory disease in young unweaned and weaned pigs. It is caused by PORCINE RESPIRATORY AND REPRODUCTIVE SYNDROME VIRUS. (Radostits et al., Veterinary Medicine, 8th ed, p1048)
A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
Precordial pain at rest, which may precede a MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.
Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.

The acute chest syndrome of sickle cell disease following aortic valve replacement. (1/27)


Asthma and sickle cell disease: two distinct diseases or part of the same process? (2/27)


Novel therapies in sickle cell disease. (3/27)


Acute kidney injury in sickle patients with painful crisis or acute chest syndrome and its relation to pulmonary hypertension. (4/27)


The burden of emergency department use for sickle-cell disease: an analysis of the national emergency department sample database. (5/27)


Multi-modal intervention for the inpatient management of sickle cell pain significantly decreases the rate of acute chest syndrome. (6/27)


Improving care for children with sickle cell disease/acute chest syndrome. (7/27)


Elevation of IgE in children with sickle cell disease is associated with doctor diagnosis of asthma and increased morbidity. (8/27)


Acute chest syndrome (ACS) is a serious complication of sickle cell disease, characterized by the presence of new infiltrates on chest X-ray and at least one other clinical symptom such as fever, cough, chest pain, or difficulty breathing. It is often caused by infection, fat embolism, or lung tissue inflammation, leading to respiratory distress, hypoxemia, and potentially respiratory failure. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with antibiotics, analgesics, and sometimes blood transfusions or exchange transfusions are essential for managing ACS.

Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disorder that affects the hemoglobin in red blood cells. Hemoglobin is responsible for carrying oxygen throughout the body. In sickle cell anemia, the hemoglobin is abnormal and causes the red blood cells to take on a sickle shape, rather than the normal disc shape. These sickled cells are stiff and sticky, and they can block blood vessels, causing tissue damage and pain. They also die more quickly than normal red blood cells, leading to anemia.

People with sickle cell anemia often experience fatigue, chronic pain, and jaundice. They may also have a higher risk of infections and complications such as stroke, acute chest syndrome, and priapism. The disease is inherited from both parents, who must both be carriers of the sickle cell gene. It primarily affects people of African descent, but it can also affect people from other ethnic backgrounds.

There is no cure for sickle cell anemia, but treatments such as blood transfusions, medications to manage pain and prevent complications, and bone marrow transplantation can help improve quality of life for affected individuals. Regular medical care and monitoring are essential for managing the disease effectively.

Chest pain is a discomfort or pain that you feel in the chest area. The pain can be sharp, dull, burning, crushing, heaviness, or tightness. It may be accompanied by other symptoms such as shortness of breath, sweating, nausea, dizziness, or pain that radiates to the arm, neck, jaw, or back.

Chest pain can have many possible causes, including heart-related conditions such as angina or a heart attack, lung conditions such as pneumonia or pleurisy, gastrointestinal problems such as acid reflux or gastritis, musculoskeletal issues such as costochondritis or muscle strain, and anxiety or panic attacks.

It is important to seek immediate medical attention if you experience chest pain that is severe, persistent, or accompanied by other concerning symptoms, as it may be a sign of a serious medical condition. A healthcare professional can evaluate your symptoms, perform tests, and provide appropriate treatment.

Fat embolism is a medical condition that occurs when fat globules enter the bloodstream and block small blood vessels (arterioles and capillaries) in various tissues and organs. This can lead to inflammation, tissue damage, and potentially life-threatening complications.

Fat embolism typically occurs as a result of trauma, such as long bone fractures or orthopedic surgeries, where fat cells from the marrow of the broken bone enter the bloodstream. It can also occur in other conditions that cause fat to be released into the circulation, such as pancreatitis, decompression sickness, and certain medical procedures like liposuction.

Symptoms of fat embolism may include respiratory distress, fever, confusion, petechial rash (small purple or red spots on the skin), and a decrease in oxygen levels. In severe cases, it can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and even death. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, and medications to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Hemoglobin SC disease, also known as sickle cell-C disease or SC disorder, is a genetic blood disorder that is a variant of sickle cell anemia. It is caused by the presence of both hemoglobin S (HbS) and hemoglobin C (HbC) in the red blood cells.

Hemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. In Hemoglobin SC disease, the abnormal HbS and HbC proteins can cause the red blood cells to become rigid, sticky, and C-shaped (sickled), which can lead to blockages in small blood vessels.

Symptoms of Hemoglibin SC disease may include anemia, fatigue, jaundice, episodes of pain (known as sickle cell crises), and an increased risk of infection. The severity of the symptoms can vary widely from person to person. Treatment typically focuses on managing symptoms and preventing complications, and may include medications, blood transfusions, and sometimes a bone marrow transplant.

Antisickling agents are medications or substances that help prevent or reduce the sickling of red blood cells in individuals with sickle cell disease. Sickling is a pathological process where the normally disc-shaped red blood cells become crescent-shaped due to abnormal hemoglobin (HbS). This change in shape can lead to blockages in small blood vessels, causing tissue damage and various complications such as pain crises, acute chest syndrome, and stroke.

Antisickling agents work by either inhibiting the polymerization of HbS or improving the oxygen-carrying capacity of red blood cells. The most commonly used antisickling agent is hydroxyurea, which increases the production of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in red blood cells. HbF has a higher affinity for oxygen than HbS and can prevent the polymerization of HbS, thereby reducing sickling. Other antisickling agents include:

1. L-glutamine: An amino acid that helps maintain the structural integrity of red blood cells and reduces oxidative stress.
2. Arginate: A salt of arginine, an amino acid that helps improve nitric oxide production and vasodilation, reducing sickling.
3. Senicapoc: A drug that inhibits the formation of HbS polymers by blocking the interaction between HbS molecules.
4. Voxelotor (Oxbryta): A medication that binds to HbS and stabilizes it in its oxygenated state, reducing sickling.

These antisickling agents can help alleviate symptoms, decrease the frequency of pain crises, and improve the quality of life for individuals with sickle cell disease. However, they should be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as each has its benefits, risks, and potential side effects.

A syndrome, in medical terms, is a set of symptoms that collectively indicate or characterize a disease, disorder, or underlying pathological process. It's essentially a collection of signs and/or symptoms that frequently occur together and can suggest a particular cause or condition, even though the exact physiological mechanisms might not be fully understood.

For example, Down syndrome is characterized by specific physical features, cognitive delays, and other developmental issues resulting from an extra copy of chromosome 21. Similarly, metabolic syndromes like diabetes mellitus type 2 involve a group of risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that collectively increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.

It's important to note that a syndrome is not a specific diagnosis; rather, it's a pattern of symptoms that can help guide further diagnostic evaluation and management.

Lung diseases refer to a broad category of disorders that affect the lungs and other structures within the respiratory system. These diseases can impair lung function, leading to symptoms such as coughing, shortness of breath, chest pain, and wheezing. They can be categorized into several types based on the underlying cause and nature of the disease process. Some common examples include:

1. Obstructive lung diseases: These are characterized by narrowing or blockage of the airways, making it difficult to breathe out. Examples include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchiectasis, and cystic fibrosis.
2. Restrictive lung diseases: These involve stiffening or scarring of the lungs, which reduces their ability to expand and take in air. Examples include idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, and asbestosis.
3. Infectious lung diseases: These are caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites that infect the lungs. Examples include pneumonia, tuberculosis, and influenza.
4. Vascular lung diseases: These affect the blood vessels in the lungs, impairing oxygen exchange. Examples include pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension, and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).
5. Neoplastic lung diseases: These involve abnormal growth of cells within the lungs, leading to cancer. Examples include small cell lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and mesothelioma.
6. Other lung diseases: These include interstitial lung diseases, pleural effusions, and rare disorders such as pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM).

It is important to note that this list is not exhaustive, and there are many other conditions that can affect the lungs. Proper diagnosis and treatment of lung diseases require consultation with a healthcare professional, such as a pulmonologist or respiratory therapist.

Sickle cell trait is a genetic condition where an individual inherits one abnormal gene for hemoglobin S (HbS) from one parent and one normal gene for hemoglobin A (HbA) from the other parent. Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body.

People with sickle cell trait do not have sickle cell disease, but they can pass the abnormal HbS gene on to their children. In certain situations, such as high altitude, low oxygen levels, or intense physical exertion, individuals with sickle cell trait may experience symptoms similar to those of sickle cell disease, such as fatigue, pain, and shortness of breath. However, these symptoms are typically milder and less frequent than in people with sickle cell disease.

It is important for individuals who know they have sickle cell trait to inform their healthcare providers, especially if they become pregnant or plan to engage in activities that may cause low oxygen levels, such as scuba diving or high-altitude climbing.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Hydroxyurea is an antimetabolite drug that is primarily used in the treatment of myeloproliferative disorders such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), essential thrombocythemia, and polycythemia vera. It works by interfering with the synthesis of DNA, which inhibits the growth of cancer cells.

In addition to its use in cancer therapy, hydroxyurea is also used off-label for the management of sickle cell disease. In this context, it helps to reduce the frequency and severity of painful vaso-occlusive crises by increasing the production of fetal hemoglobin (HbF), which decreases the formation of sickled red blood cells.

The medical definition of hydroxyurea is:

A hydantoin derivative and antimetabolite that inhibits ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase, thereby interfering with DNA synthesis. It has been used as an antineoplastic agent, particularly in the treatment of myeloproliferative disorders, and more recently for the management of sickle cell disease to reduce the frequency and severity of painful vaso-occlusive crises by increasing fetal hemoglobin production.

Hemoglobin S (HbS) is a genetic variant of hemoglobin, which is the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. This abnormal form of hemogllobin results from a mutation in the beta-globin gene, leading to the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position six of the beta-globin chain.

In individuals with sickle cell disease (a group of inherited red blood cell disorders), both copies of their beta-globin genes carry this mutation, causing the majority of their hemoglobin to be HbS. When deoxygenated, HbS molecules have a tendency to polymerize and form long, rigid rods within the red blood cells, distorting their shape into a characteristic sickle or crescent form.

These sickled red blood cells are less flexible and more prone to rupture (hemolysis), leading to chronic anemia, vaso-occlusive crises, and other disease complications. Sickle cell disease primarily affects people of African, Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, and Indian ancestry, but it can also be found in other populations worldwide.

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. It is a complex phenomenon that can result from various stimuli, such as thermal, mechanical, or chemical irritation, and it can be acute or chronic. The perception of pain involves the activation of specialized nerve cells called nociceptors, which transmit signals to the brain via the spinal cord. These signals are then processed in different regions of the brain, leading to the conscious experience of pain. It's important to note that pain is a highly individual and subjective experience, and its perception can vary widely among individuals.

A blood transfusion is a medical procedure in which blood or its components are transferred from one individual (donor) to another (recipient) through a vein. The donated blood can be fresh whole blood, packed red blood cells, platelets, plasma, or cryoprecipitate, depending on the recipient's needs. Blood transfusions are performed to replace lost blood due to severe bleeding, treat anemia, support patients undergoing major surgeries, or manage various medical conditions such as hemophilia, thalassemia, and leukemia. The donated blood must be carefully cross-matched with the recipient's blood type to minimize the risk of transfusion reactions.

Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) is a type of hemoglobin that is produced in the fetus and newborn babies. It is composed of two alpha-like globin chains and two gamma-globin chains, designated as α2γ2. HbF is the primary form of hemoglobin during fetal development, replacing the embryonic hemoglobin (HbG) around the eighth week of gestation.

The unique property of HbF is its higher affinity for oxygen compared to adult hemoglobin (HbA), which helps ensure adequate oxygen supply from the mother to the developing fetus. After birth, as the newborn starts breathing on its own and begins to receive oxygen directly, the production of HbF gradually decreases and is usually replaced by HbA within the first year of life.

In some genetic disorders like sickle cell disease and beta-thalassemia, persistence of HbF into adulthood can be beneficial as it reduces the severity of symptoms due to its higher oxygen-carrying capacity and less polymerization tendency compared to HbS (in sickle cell disease) or unpaired alpha chains (in beta-thalassemia). Treatments like hydroxyurea are used to induce HbF production in these patients as a therapeutic approach.

Respiratory insufficiency is a condition characterized by the inability of the respiratory system to maintain adequate gas exchange, resulting in an inadequate supply of oxygen and/or removal of carbon dioxide from the body. This can occur due to various causes, such as lung diseases (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia), neuromuscular disorders (e.g., muscular dystrophy, spinal cord injury), or other medical conditions that affect breathing mechanics and/or gas exchange.

Respiratory insufficiency can manifest as hypoxemia (low oxygen levels in the blood) and/or hypercapnia (high carbon dioxide levels in the blood). Symptoms of respiratory insufficiency may include shortness of breath, rapid breathing, fatigue, confusion, and in severe cases, loss of consciousness or even death. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition and may include oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, medications, and/or other supportive measures.

A pulmonary embolism (PE) is a medical condition that occurs when a blood clot, often formed in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis), breaks off and travels to the lungs, blocking one or more pulmonary arteries. This blockage can lead to various symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, rapid heart rate, and coughing up blood. In severe cases, it can cause life-threatening complications like low oxygen levels, hypotension, and even death if not promptly diagnosed and treated with anticoagulant medications or thrombolytic therapy to dissolve the clot.

Hemolysis is the destruction or breakdown of red blood cells, resulting in the release of hemoglobin into the surrounding fluid (plasma). This process can occur due to various reasons such as chemical agents, infections, autoimmune disorders, mechanical trauma, or genetic abnormalities. Hemolysis may lead to anemia and jaundice, among other complications. It is essential to monitor hemolysis levels in patients undergoing medical treatments that might cause this condition.

Fever, also known as pyrexia or febrile response, is a common medical sign characterized by an elevation in core body temperature above the normal range of 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) due to a dysregulation of the body's thermoregulatory system. It is often a response to an infection, inflammation, or other underlying medical conditions, and it serves as a part of the immune system's effort to combat the invading pathogens or to repair damaged tissues.

Fevers can be classified based on their magnitude:

* Low-grade fever: 37.5-38°C (99.5-100.4°F)
* Moderate fever: 38-39°C (100.4-102.2°F)
* High-grade or severe fever: above 39°C (102.2°F)

It is important to note that a single elevated temperature reading does not necessarily indicate the presence of a fever, as body temperature can fluctuate throughout the day and can be influenced by various factors such as physical activity, environmental conditions, and the menstrual cycle in females. The diagnosis of fever typically requires the confirmation of an elevated core body temperature on at least two occasions or a consistently high temperature over a period of time.

While fevers are generally considered beneficial in fighting off infections and promoting recovery, extremely high temperatures or prolonged febrile states may necessitate medical intervention to prevent potential complications such as dehydration, seizures, or damage to vital organs.

Leukocytosis is a condition characterized by an increased number of leukocytes (white blood cells) in the peripheral blood. A normal white blood cell count ranges from 4,500 to 11,000 cells per microliter of blood in adults. Leukocytosis is typically considered present when the white blood cell count exceeds 11,000 cells/µL. However, the definition might vary slightly depending on the laboratory and clinical context.

Leukocytosis can be a response to various underlying conditions, including bacterial or viral infections, inflammation, tissue damage, leukemia, and other hematological disorders. It is essential to investigate the cause of leukocytosis through further diagnostic tests, such as blood smears, differential counts, and additional laboratory and imaging studies, to guide appropriate treatment.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Triage is a medical term that refers to the process of prioritizing patients based on the severity of their condition or illness, and the resources available. The goal of triage is to ensure that the most critical patients receive care first, which can help reduce morbidity and mortality in emergency situations. This process is typically used in settings where there are more patients than can be treated immediately, such as during mass casualty incidents or in busy emergency departments. Triage nurses or doctors quickly assess each patient's condition, often using a standardized system, to determine the urgency of their medical needs and allocate resources accordingly.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) is a term used to describe a range of conditions associated with sudden, reduced blood flow to the heart muscle. This reduction in blood flow, commonly caused by blood clots forming in coronary arteries, can lead to damage or death of the heart muscle and is often characterized by symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue.

There are three main types of ACS:

1. Unstable Angina: This occurs when there is reduced blood flow to the heart muscle, causing chest pain or discomfort, but the heart muscle is not damaged. It can be a warning sign for a possible future heart attack.
2. Non-ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI): This type of heart attack occurs when there is reduced blood flow to the heart muscle, causing damage or death of some of the muscle cells. However, the electrical activity of the heart remains relatively normal.
3. ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI): This is a serious and life-threatening type of heart attack that occurs when there is a complete blockage in one or more of the coronary arteries, causing extensive damage to the heart muscle. The electrical activity of the heart is significantly altered, which can lead to dangerous heart rhythms and even cardiac arrest.

Immediate medical attention is required for anyone experiencing symptoms of ACS, as prompt treatment can help prevent further damage to the heart muscle and reduce the risk of complications or death. Treatment options may include medications, lifestyle changes, and procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery.

An emergency service in a hospital is a department that provides immediate medical or surgical care for individuals who are experiencing an acute illness, injury, or severe symptoms that require immediate attention. The goal of an emergency service is to quickly assess, stabilize, and treat patients who require urgent medical intervention, with the aim of preventing further harm or death.

Emergency services in hospitals typically operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and are staffed by teams of healthcare professionals including physicians, nurses, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and other allied health professionals. These teams are trained to provide rapid evaluation and treatment for a wide range of medical conditions, from minor injuries to life-threatening emergencies such as heart attacks, strokes, and severe infections.

In addition to providing emergency care, hospital emergency services also serve as a key point of entry for patients who require further hospitalization or specialized care. They work closely with other departments within the hospital, such as radiology, laboratory, and critical care units, to ensure that patients receive timely and appropriate treatment. Overall, the emergency service in a hospital plays a crucial role in ensuring that patients receive prompt and effective medical care during times of crisis.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory illness characterized by fever, cough, shortness of breath, and sometimes severe pneumonia. It is caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV).

The syndrome is considered severe due to its potential to cause rapid spread in communities and healthcare settings, and for its high case fatality rate. In the global outbreak of 2002-2003, approximately 8,000 people were infected and nearly 800 died. Since then, no large outbreaks have been reported, although there have been isolated cases linked to laboratory accidents or animal exposures.

SARS is transmitted through close contact with an infected person's respiratory droplets, such as when they cough or sneeze. It can also be spread by touching a surface contaminated with the virus and then touching the mouth, nose, or eyes. Healthcare workers and others in close contact with infected individuals are at higher risk of infection.

Preventive measures include good personal hygiene, such as frequent handwashing, wearing masks and other protective equipment when in close contact with infected individuals, and practicing respiratory etiquette (covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing). Infected individuals should be isolated and receive appropriate medical care to help manage their symptoms and prevent transmission to others.

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory illness caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). This virus is a member of the Coronaviridae family and is thought to be transmitted most readily through close person-to-person contact via respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

The SARS outbreak began in southern China in 2002 and spread to several other countries before it was contained. The illness causes symptoms such as fever, chills, and body aches, which progress to a dry cough and sometimes pneumonia. Some people also report diarrhea. In severe cases, the illness can cause respiratory failure or death.

It's important to note that SARS is not currently a global health concern, as there have been no known cases since 2004. However, it remains a significant example of how quickly and widely a new infectious disease can spread in today's interconnected world.

A spike glycoprotein in coronaviruses is a type of protein that extends from the surface of the virus and gives it its characteristic crown-like appearance (hence the name "corona," which is Latin for "crown"). This protein plays a crucial role in the infection process of the virus. It allows the virus to attach to and enter specific cells in the host organism, typically through binding to a receptor on the cell surface. In the case of SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus responsible for COVID-19, the spike protein binds to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor found on cells in various tissues, including the lungs, heart, and gastrointestinal tract.

The spike protein is composed of two subunits: S1 and S2. The S1 subunit contains the receptor-binding domain (RBD), which recognizes and binds to the host cell receptor. After binding, the S2 subunit mediates the fusion of the viral membrane with the host cell membrane, allowing the viral genome to enter the host cell and initiate infection.

The spike protein is also a primary target for neutralizing antibodies generated by the host immune system during infection or following vaccination. Neutralizing antibodies bind to specific regions of the spike protein, preventing it from interacting with host cell receptors and thus inhibiting viral entry into cells.

In summary, a spike glycoprotein in coronaviruses is a crucial structural and functional component that facilitates viral attachment, fusion, and entry into host cells. Its importance in the infection process makes it an essential target for vaccine development and therapeutic interventions.

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is a viral disease that affects pigs, causing reproductive failure in breeding herds and respiratory illness in young pigs. The disease is caused by the PRRS virus, which belongs to the family Arteriviridae.

In pregnant sows, PRRS can cause abortions, stillbirths, mummified fetuses, and weak or infertile offspring. In growing pigs, it can lead to pneumonia, reduced growth rates, and increased susceptibility to other infections. The virus is highly contagious and can spread rapidly within a herd through direct contact with infected pigs, aerosols, or contaminated fomites.

PRRS is a significant disease of global importance, causing substantial economic losses to the swine industry. Control measures include biosecurity practices, vaccination, and testing to detect and eliminate the virus from affected herds. However, there is no specific treatment for PRRS, and eradication of the virus from the pig population is unlikely due to its widespread distribution and ability to persist in infected animals and the environment.

A coronavirus is a type of virus that causes respiratory illnesses, such as the common cold, and more severe diseases including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). These viruses are typically spread through close contact with an infected person when they cough or sneeze. They can also spread by touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching your own mouth, nose, or eyes.

Coronaviruses are named for the crown-like spikes on their surface. They are zoonotic, meaning they can be transmitted between animals and people. Common signs of infection include fever, cough, and shortness of breath. In more severe cases, infection can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure, and even death.

One of the most recently discovered coronaviruses is SARS-CoV-2, which causes the disease COVID-19. This virus was first identified in Wuhan, China in late 2019 and has since spread to become a global pandemic.

Nucleocapsid proteins are structural proteins that are associated with the viral genome in many viruses. They play a crucial role in the formation and stability of the viral particle, also known as the virion. In particular, nucleocapsid proteins bind to the viral RNA or DNA genome and help to protect it from degradation by host cell enzymes. They also participate in the assembly and disassembly of the virion during the viral replication cycle.

In some viruses, such as coronaviruses, the nucleocapsid protein is also involved in regulating the transcription and replication of the viral genome. The nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2, for example, has been shown to interact with host cell proteins that are involved in the regulation of gene expression, which may contribute to the virus's ability to manipulate the host cell environment and evade the immune response.

Overall, nucleocapsid proteins are important components of many viruses and are often targeted by antiviral therapies due to their essential role in the viral replication cycle.

Emerging communicable diseases are infections whose incidence has increased in the past two decades or threatens to increase in the near future. These diseases can be caused by new microbial agents, or by previously known agents that have newly acquired the ability to cause disease in humans. They may also result from changes in human demographics, behavior, or travel patterns, or from technological or environmental changes. Examples of emerging communicable diseases include COVID-19, Ebola virus disease, Zika virus infection, and West Nile fever.

Myocardial infarction (MI), also known as a heart attack, is a medical condition characterized by the death of a segment of heart muscle (myocardium) due to the interruption of its blood supply. This interruption is most commonly caused by the blockage of a coronary artery by a blood clot formed on the top of an atherosclerotic plaque, which is a buildup of cholesterol and other substances in the inner lining of the artery.

The lack of oxygen and nutrients supply to the heart muscle tissue results in damage or death of the cardiac cells, causing the affected area to become necrotic. The extent and severity of the MI depend on the size of the affected area, the duration of the occlusion, and the presence of collateral circulation.

Symptoms of a myocardial infarction may include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, nausea, lightheadedness, and sweating. Immediate medical attention is necessary to restore blood flow to the affected area and prevent further damage to the heart muscle. Treatment options for MI include medications, such as thrombolytics, antiplatelet agents, and pain relievers, as well as procedures such as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).

Unstable angina is a term used in cardiology to describe chest pain or discomfort that occurs suddenly and unexpectedly, often at rest or with minimal physical exertion. It is caused by an insufficient supply of oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle due to reduced blood flow, typically as a result of partial or complete blockage of the coronary arteries.

Unlike stable angina, which tends to occur predictably during physical activity and can be relieved with rest or nitroglycerin, unstable angina is more severe, unpredictable, and may not respond to traditional treatments. It is considered a medical emergency because it can be a sign of an impending heart attack or other serious cardiac event.

Unstable angina is often treated in the hospital with medications such as nitroglycerin, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, and antiplatelet agents to improve blood flow to the heart and prevent further complications. In some cases, more invasive treatments such as coronary angioplasty or bypass surgery may be necessary to restore blood flow to the affected areas of the heart.

Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is a medical procedure that records the electrical activity of the heart. It provides a graphic representation of the electrical changes that occur during each heartbeat. The resulting tracing, called an electrocardiogram, can reveal information about the heart's rate and rhythm, as well as any damage to its cells or abnormalities in its conduction system.

During an ECG, small electrodes are placed on the skin of the chest, arms, and legs. These electrodes detect the electrical signals produced by the heart and transmit them to a machine that amplifies and records them. The procedure is non-invasive, painless, and quick, usually taking only a few minutes.

ECGs are commonly used to diagnose and monitor various heart conditions, including arrhythmias, coronary artery disease, heart attacks, and electrolyte imbalances. They can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of certain medications or treatments.

Coronary balloon angioplasty is a minimally invasive medical procedure used to widen narrowed or obstructed coronary arteries (the blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle) and improve blood flow to the heart. This procedure is typically performed in conjunction with the insertion of a stent, a small mesh tube that helps keep the artery open.

During coronary balloon angioplasty, a thin, flexible catheter with a deflated balloon at its tip is inserted into a blood vessel, usually through a small incision in the groin or arm. The catheter is then guided to the narrowed or obstructed section of the coronary artery. Once in position, the balloon is inflated to compress the plaque against the artery wall and widen the lumen (the inner space) of the artery. This helps restore blood flow to the heart muscle.

The procedure is typically performed under local anesthesia and conscious sedation to minimize discomfort. Coronary balloon angioplasty is a relatively safe and effective treatment for many people with coronary artery disease, although complications such as bleeding, infection, or re-narrowing of the artery (restenosis) can occur in some cases.

Coronary angiography is a medical procedure that uses X-ray imaging to visualize the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle. During the procedure, a thin, flexible catheter is inserted into an artery in the arm or groin and threaded through the blood vessels to the heart. A contrast dye is then injected through the catheter, and X-ray images are taken as the dye flows through the coronary arteries. These images can help doctors diagnose and treat various heart conditions, such as blockages or narrowing of the arteries, that can lead to chest pain or heart attacks. It is also known as coronary arteriography or cardiac catheterization.

... and cough are also common in acute chest syndrome. Diagnostic workup includes chest x-ray, complete cell count, reticulocyte ... The acute chest syndrome is a vaso-occlusive crisis of the pulmonary vasculature commonly seen in people with sickle cell ... Acute chest syndrome is often precipitated by a lung infection, and the resulting inflammation and loss of oxygen saturation ... Acute chest syndrome is an indication for exchange transfusion.[citation needed] Bronchodilators may be useful but have not ...
Many people with acute coronary syndromes present with symptoms other than chest pain, particularly women, older people, and ... Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) due to decreased blood flow in the coronary arteries ... Allergic acute coronary syndrome (Kounis syndrome) Amsterdam, E. A.; Wenger, N. K.; Brindis, R. G.; Casey, D. E.; Ganiats, T. G ... "Clinical diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome in patients with chest pain and a normal or non-diagnostic electrocardiogram". ...
"Chest radiography for the diagnosis of acute aortic syndrome". Am J Med. 116 (2): 73-7. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2003.08.030. PMID ... It is surrounded by the chest wall in front, the lungs to the sides and the spine at the back. It extends from the sternum in ... Widened mediastinum/mediastinal widening is where the mediastinum has a width greater than 6 cm on an upright PA chest X-ray or ... Felson's Principles of Chest Roentgenology. "Thoracic Wall, Pleura, and Pericardium - Dissector Answers". Archived from the ...
... including acute coronary syndrome and acute chest syndrome. The trial was halted in March 2012 due to inadequate efficacy. The ... "Anthera's A-001 Receives Orphan Drug Status For The Prevention Of Acute Chest Syndrome In Patients With Sickle Cell Disease" ( ... "Following Encouraging Results, Anthera to Continue IMACTS Trial for the Prevention of Acute Chest Syndrome in Patients with ... "A-001: Prevention of Acute Chest Syndrome in Sickle Cell Disease". Anthera Pharmaceuticals. Retrieved 18 August 2011. Styles LA ...
"An Updated Healthcare System-Wide Clinical Pathway for Managing Patients With Chest Pain and Acute Coronary Syndromes". ...
Most cases of angor animi are found in patients with acute coronary syndrome (cardiac-related chest pain) such as myocardial ... Irukandji syndrome is also another reported cause. Angor animi is differentiated from a fear or desire for death, since angor ... chest). Animi means an animating spirit, intention or temper. angor animi. Online Medical Dictionary. CancerWeb. Centre for ... Irukndji Syndrome'" (PDF). angor. Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary. MICRA, Inc. ...
... and then develop acute chest syndrome. Nevertheless, about 80% of people have vaso-occlusive crises during acute chest syndrome ... Acute chest syndrome is defined by at least two of these signs or symptoms: chest pain, fever, pulmonary infiltrate or focal ... Given that pneumonia and sickling in the lung can both produce symptoms of acute chest syndrome, the patient is treated for ... It is recommended that people with suspected acute chest syndrome should be admitted to the hospital with worsening A-a ...
One of the most severe forms is the acute chest syndrome which occurs as a result of infarction of the lung parenchyma. This ... especially for acute chest syndrome. Hyperbaric oxygen has also been shown to be a useful adjunct in pain reduction. Stuart MJ ... Campos J, Lobo C, Queiroz AM, do Nascimento EM, Lima CB, Cardoso G, Ballas SK (July 2014). "Treatment of the acute sickle cell ... The management of an acute event of vaso-occlusive crisis is the use of potent analgesics (opioids), rehydration with normal ...
... acute chest syndrome and leg ulcers. Out of the cohort tested, with Hemoglobin O-Arab present, all patients shown a median ... When Hemoglobin O-Arab co-inherits with Hemoglobin S, it produces a syndrome with similarities in severity to sickle cell ...
... in people with chest pain or acute coronary syndrome. A person who recently had a myocardial infarction would have an area of ... 2001). "Acute coronary syndromes. The diagnostic role of troponins". Thromb. Res. 103 (1): 63-69. CiteSeerX ... October 1996). "Cardiac-specific troponin I levels to predict the risk of mortality in patients with acute coronary syndromes ... "2014 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Management of Patients With Non-ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes: A Report of the American ...
Computed tomography of the chest revealed diffuse ground-glass opacities consistent with acute respiratory distress syndrome ( ... caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was confirmed to have reached Bhutan on 6 ... The first case of new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) B.1.1.529, (Omicron) in Bhutan was reported ... Initial chest X-ray revealed mild bilateral patchy infiltrates, and he was started on oseltamivir, ceftriaxone, and doxycycline ...
Acute cerebrovascular event (stroke) Acute chest syndrome with respiratory failure Multi-organ failure Mesenteric girdle ... syndrome The commonest emergency reason is to treat an acute chest syndrome. Prior to surgery in people with sickle cell anemia ... acute respiratory distress syndrome)). Based on this evidence, the CDC no longer recommend the use of exchange transfusion in ...
Episodic transfusion is used either acutely in response to a complication of sickle cell disease such as acute chest syndrome ... It is used to treat life-threatening complications of sickle cell disease such as stroke or acute chest crisis. There are three ... Red cell transfusions are used to treat patients with acute chest crisis and respiratory compromise. Exchange transfusion is ... have been given transfusions to prevent stroke there was also a reduction in the number of children who developed acute chest ...
Life-threatening medical emergencies that may be associated with chest wall pain include acute coronary syndrome, aortic ... Costochondritis, also known as chest wall pain syndrome or costosternal syndrome, is a benign inflammation of the upper ... Chest pain is occasionally experienced with respiratory-related conditions such as pleuritis, precordial catch syndrome, and ... A similar condition known as slipping rib syndrome is also associated with chest pain and inflammation of the costal cartilage ...
... to be measured with troponin to identify myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndrome in patients presenting with chest ... "Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein predicts long-term mortality after acute coronary syndrome and identifies high-risk ... is decreased in brains of patients with Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease". Advances in Down Syndrome Research. pp. 225-34 ... H-FABP has been proven to significantly predict 30-day mortality in acute pulmonary embolism. H-FABP is more effective than ...
"Selective dual nuclear scanning in low risk patients with chest pain to reliably identify and exclude acute coronary syndromes ... Fesmire FM, Fesmire CE (February 2000). "Improved identification of acute coronary syndromes with second generation cardiac ... Critical issues in the evaluation and management of adult patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes". ... and selective nuclear stress testing to identify and exclude acute coronary syndromes". Annals of Emergency Medicine. 40 (6): ...
... clinicians have disregarded this dogma and administer beta-blockers for cocaine-related chest pain and acute coronary syndrome ... This can lead to death from acute myocardial infarction, acute respiratory failure (i.e., hypoxemia, with or without ... Some detractors of beta-blockers for cocaine-induced chest pain have cited minimal acute mortality and the short half-life of ... "Safety of β-blockers in the acute management of cocaine-associated chest pain". The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 31 ...
median 11 days). Subjects who received L-glutamine oral powder also had fewer occurrences of acute chest syndrome (a life- ... back pain and chest pain. L-glutamine oral powder received orphan drug designation. The FDA granted the approval of Endari to ...
... syndrome Acute aortic syndrome Acute brain syndrome Acute chest syndrome Acute coronary syndrome Acute HME syndrome Acute ... acute platelet activation syndrome Acute radiation syndrome Acute respiratory distress syndrome Acute retroviral syndrome Adams ... syndrome Wende-Bauckus syndrome Werner syndrome Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome West syndrome Westerhof syndrome Wet lung syndrome ... Setleis syndrome Severe acute respiratory syndrome Shaken baby syndrome Shapiro syndrome Sheehan's syndrome Shell nail syndrome ...
... acute chest syndrome/sickle cell disease, amyloidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, membranous colitis, inhaled irritants, neoplastic ... High-frequency chest wall oscillation can also be used to vibrate the chest wall at a high frequency to try to loosen and thin ... Bronchial casts can sometimes fill the airways of almost an entire lung, and present as an acute, life-threatening emergency.[ ... Acute therapy for PB is often focused on removal or facilitated expectoration of the casts. This is followed by short and long ...
... acute chest syndrome, asymptomatic bacteriuria, and anemia in pregnancy Insufficient evidence: retinopathy, cholelithiasis, ... Sheikha Anwar (2005). "Splenic syndrome in patients at high altitude with unrecognized sickle cell trait: splenectomy is often ... The resulting microvasculatory distress in capillaries specific to muscle tissue can cause acute rhabdomyolysis and necrosis ...
... vaso-occlusive phenomena like acute vaso-occlusive pain and acute chest syndrome may be observed in the acute phases, while in ... "Enhanced splenomegaly and severe liver inflammation in haptoglobin/hemopexin double-null mice after acute hemolysis". Blood. ...
Morrison RJ, Bidani A. (2002) Acute respiratory distress syndrome epidemiology and pathophysiology. Chest Surg Clin N Am. 12: ... 2007) Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS): the mechanism, present strategies and future ... 2011) The acute respiratory distress syndrome: pathogenesis and treatment. Annu Rev Pathol. 6:147-63. Johnson ER, Matthay MA. ( ... Clinically, the most serious and immediate complication is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which usually occurs ...
When ingested it will cause a burning sensation in the throat and chest. It also can cause an acute solvent syndrome. In rats, ...
The most common symptom of AAS is sudden and severe chest pain. However, other variants of chest pain and back pain have been ... Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) describes a range of severe, painful, potentially life-threatening abnormalities of the aorta. ... Smith AD, Schoenhagen P (January 2008). "CT imaging for acute aortic syndrome". Cleve Clin J Med. 75 (1): 7-9, 12, 15-7 passim ... The condition can be mimicked by a ruptured cyst of the pericardium, ruptured aortic aneurysm and acute coronary syndrome. ...
This is achieved with urgent hospitalization and medical therapy, including drugs that relieve chest pain and reduce the size ... people who present with angina must prompt evaluation for possible acute coronary syndrome. Acute coronary syndromes are ... Management of acute coronary syndrome is targeted against the effects of reduced blood flow to the affected area of the heart ... Acute coronary syndromes are caused by sudden and critical reduction of blood flow in one of the coronary arteries, the vessels ...
... is defined as acute coronary syndrome (symptoms such as chest pain relating to reduced blood flow to the heart ... Acute coronary syndrome is usually associated with a constrictive pain in the chest, characteristically with radiation to the ... Memon S, Chhabra L, Masrur S, Parker MW (July 2015). "Allergic acute coronary syndrome (Kounis syndrome)". Proceedings (Baylor ... In addition to the application of the acute coronary syndrome protocol, thrombus aspiration, and placing a new stent is needed ...
... a chest X-ray must be indicative for atypical pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome.[citation needed] The WHO has ... Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory disease of zoonotic origin caused by the virus SARS-CoV-1, the ... In December 2019, another strain of SARSr-CoV was identified as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). ... The first known cases occurred in November 2002, and the syndrome caused the 2002-2004 SARS outbreak. In the 2010s, Chinese ...
... implications for the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome". Chest. 125 (3): 1155-7. doi:10.1378/chest.125.3.1155. ... Chest. 128 (4): 389S-390S. doi:10.1378/chest.128.4_meetingabstracts.389s-b. Earl, John. Delivery of High FiO 2. Cardinal Health ... Chest. 132 (2): 540-6. doi:10.1378/chest.07-0636. PMC 7094533. PMID 17573505. Mardimae A, Slessarev M, Han J, Sasano H, Sasano ... Chest. 138 (1): 179-87. doi:10.1378/chest.09-2555. PMC 2897694. PMID 20605816. Cranston JM, Crockett AJ, Moss JR, Alpers JH ( ...
The definition required the following criteria to be met: acute onset, persistent dyspnea bilateral infiltrates on chest ... June 2015). "Pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome: consensus recommendations from the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury ... Bakowitz, Magdalena (August 2012). "Acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome in the injured patient". ... acute lung injury, and acute respiratory distress syndrome: Time for a reevaluation". Critical Care Medicine. 28 (1): 232-235. ...
... and cough are also common in acute chest syndrome. Diagnostic workup includes chest x-ray, complete cell count, reticulocyte ... The acute chest syndrome is a vaso-occlusive crisis of the pulmonary vasculature commonly seen in people with sickle cell ... Acute chest syndrome is often precipitated by a lung infection, and the resulting inflammation and loss of oxygen saturation ... Acute chest syndrome is an indication for exchange transfusion.[citation needed] Bronchodilators may be useful but have not ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
Tag: Acute chest syndrome. Hydroxyurea: Pediatric Use in Sickle Cell Anemia. *Cardiology ... Exploring Better Therapies For Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: The Role Of Anti-Obesity Medications ...
Angina is a type of chest discomfort due to poor blood flow through the blood vessels of the heart muscle. This article ... Angina is a type of chest discomfort due to poor blood flow through the blood vessels of the heart muscle. This article ... Acute coronary syndrome - chest pain; Coronary artery disease - chest pain; CAD - chest pain; Coronary heart disease - chest ... pain; ACS - chest pain; Heart attack - chest pain; Myocardial infarction - chest pain; MI - chest pain ...
Chest radiograph of a 52-year-old symptomatic woman with severe acute respiratory syndrome (March 20, 2003) taken 5 days after ... Acute respiratory distress syndrome in critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. JAMA. 2003 Jul 16. 290(3 ... encoded search term (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) What to Read Next ... Chest radiograph of a 52-year-old symptomatic woman with severe acute respiratory syndrome (March 20, 2003) taken 5 days after ...
COVID-19 pneumonia as a cause of acute chest syndrome in an adult sickle cell patient. Am J Hematol. 2020;95:E154-6. DOIPubMed ... Vaso-occlusive crisis and acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease due to 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Am J ... 1 acute chest syndrome episodes. Prevalence of pulmonary hypertension, previous stroke, renal disease, and use of chronic ... Dramatic improvement after tocilizumab of severe COVID-19 in a child with sickle cell disease and acute chest syndrome. Am J ...
Acute chest syndrome in children with sickle cell disease Conditions Feb 09, 2024 Fetal Congenital Heart Block ...
chest pain, acute coronary syndrome, thoracic aortic aneurysm, pulmonary embolism. Please ensure Javascript is enabled for ... Results: Among acute cardiac conditions, myocardial infarction turned out to be the most frequent cause of hospitalisation (60 ... Conclusions: Among acute cardiac conditions, myocardial infarction turned out to be the most frequent cause of hospitalisation ... Acute cardiac conditions in women were associated with worse prognosis than in men. ...
Chest radiograph of a 52-year-old symptomatic woman with severe acute respiratory syndrome (March 20, 2003) taken 5 days after ... Acute respiratory distress syndrome in critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. JAMA. 2003 Jul 16. 290(3 ... encoded search term (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) What to Read Next ... Chest radiograph of a 52-year-old symptomatic woman with severe acute respiratory syndrome (March 20, 2003) taken 5 days after ...
SCD is characterized by repeated episodes of severe acute pain and acute chest syndrome, and by other complications including ... acute and chronic pain, acute chest syndrome; increased incidence of stroke, nephropathy, and retinopathy; and a life span that ... including severe acute pain episodes and acute chest syndrome.. Managing sickle cell anemia in children is complex. These ... episodes of acute chest syndrome. A recommendation of moderate strength suggests offering treatment with hydroxyurea without ...
We treated the acute chest syndrome. We treated the stroke. We treated . . . Transfusions have always been the mainstay. ... Not only that, they reduced the number of hospitalizations for the chest and they reduced the number of transfusions that ...
Acute chest syndrome (ACS) in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) ACS symptoms is warranted. Due to a possible association ... In patients with acute coronary syndrome, in whom morphine cannot be withheld and fast P2Y12 inhibition is deemed crucial, the ... Drug withdrawal syndrome Prior to starting treatment with any opioids, a discussion should be held with patients to put in ... Drug dependence and withdrawal (abstinence) syndrome Repeated use of Morphine Oral Solution can lead to drug dependence, even ...
... and guidelines about acute coronary syndrome, classified as either ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI myocardial ... Acute Coronary Syndromes : Review in-depth clinical information, latest medical news, ... Exercise-Induced Chest Pain: Ischemia or Something Else. Circulation September 29, 2023 ...
A 13-Year-Old Girl with Acute Chest Syndrome and Respiratory Failure. Ann Am Thorac Soc Jul;12(7):1097-9, 2015. PMID: 26203611 ... Infectious complications in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated in low-middle-income countries. Expert Rev ...
acute chest syndrome, and stroke.. By James W. Wade III Editor We face various health issues, including diabetes, high blood ...
... chest radiographs were normal. An acute febrile illness was diagnosed, and he was discharged to outpatient follow-up. On June 1 ... Number of confirmed cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome .... Article. Sporadic cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS ... Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome -- United States, 1995 and 1996 MMWR 45(14);291-5 Publication date: 04/12/1996. Table of Contents ... Number of confirmed cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome .... This page last reviewed: Wednesday, January 27, 2016 This ...
Antheras A-001 Receives Orphan Drug Status for the Prevention of Acute Chest Syndrome in Patients With Sickle Cell Disease ... acute chest syndrome, acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, atherosclerosis, acute coronary syndrome, chronic ... acute chest syndrome. Acute chest syndrome is a form of acute lung injury and is the leading cause of death in sickle cell ... About Acute Chest Syndrome. Acute Chest Syndrome (ACS) primarily affects children suffering from sickle cell disease. It is ...
Interobserver variation in interpreting chest radiographs for the diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome. MO MEADE, ...
... acute chest syndrome, splenic sequestration, priapism, stroke, hand-foot syndrome, and pain such as angina pectoris. ... Gillette, P., Vera, J.C., and Levy, P.S. (1994). The acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease: incidence and risk factors. ... acute-chest syndrome, ischemia, priapism, and stroke. As used herein the term "SCD" refers to a variety of clinical problems ... Also included in the term "SCD" are acute episodes of musculoskeletal pain, which affect primarily the lumbar spine, abdomen, ...
Acute coronary syndromes without chest pain, an underdiagnosed and undertreated high-risk group: insights from the Global ... It is well known that lack of chest pain is a major source of delay in seeking treatment among patients with acute myocardial ... Effect of marriage on duration of chest pain associated with acute myocardial infarction before seeking care. Clare L. Atzema, ... We aimed to determine whether marital status was a predictor of the duration of chest pain endured by patients with acute ...
This can cause pain and other serious problems such infection, acute chest syndrome and stroke," the agency explains. ... A new study published in the journal Annals of Internal Medicine shows people with sickle cell disease in acute pain crises ...
Acute chest syndrome can occur in people of all ages, but it is most common among children. It is usually characterized by ... Therefore, it reduces the frequency of sickle cell crises and acute chest syndrome. New drugs that help control the symptoms ... Acute splenic or hepatic (liver) sequestration (a large accumulation of cells in an organ): Rapid enlargement of the spleen or ... In children, acute sequestration of sickled cells in the spleen (sequestration crisis) may occur causing an enlarged spleen and ...
No Acute Coronary Syndrome history. *No Nitrate use. * Chest Pain with reassuring history and exam. *Reproducible Chest Pain on ... These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Vancouver Chest Pain Rule." Click on the image (or right ... Non-reproducible Chest Pain, but a patient under age 50 years with a non-concerning history ...
Case-25 Prolonged Severe Central Chest Pain (Acute Coronary Syndrome) 267-270 ... Case-28 Generalized Swelling of the Body (Nephrotic Syndrome) 280-284 Case-29 Anorexia, Nausea, Nocturia, and Swelling of Face ... Case-24 Central Chest Pain on Exertion (Ischemic Heart Disease-Stable Angina) 263-266 ... Case-27 Swelling of Face and Scanty High Color Urine(Acute Glomerulonephritis) 276-279 ...
All NICE products on acute coronary syndromes. Includes any guidance, advice and quality standards. ... Adoption of HeartFlow FFRCT at the Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust in a Rapid Access Chest Pain Clinic ... Acute coronary syndromes All NICE products on acute coronary syndromes. Includes any guidance, advice and quality standards. ... Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Post MI - An audit of post-acute coronary syndrome - ticagrelor prescription at Leigh Family Practice ...
... and lung ultrasonography in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Anesthesiology. 2004;. 100. (1):9-15. ... Chest. 2011;. 140. (4):859-866. *19. Rothlin M, Naf R, Amgwerd M, Candinas D, Frick T, Trentz O. Ultrasound in blunt abdominal ... Point-of-care ultrasonography for the diagnosis of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema in patients presenting with acute dyspnea ... Case of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Evident by B lines (A), which are the vertical narrow-based lines arising from the ...
Because of this, testing patients with suspected acute PE has in... ... Testing patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism has risen drastically. However, overuse of some tests may not improve ... Clinician gestalt estimate of pretest probability for acute coronary syndrome and pulmonary embolism in patients with chest ... care decreased for patients with chest pain and dyspnea for whom decision support regarding PE and acute coronary syndrome were ...
  • 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines. (
  • All NICE products on acute coronary syndromes. (
  • He also has had severe bouts of pneumonia and acute chest syndrome, a condition common in patients with sickle cell disease caused by sickling in the lungs. (
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a serious, potentially life-threatening viral infection caused by a previously unrecognized virus from the Coronaviridae family, the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). (
  • World map of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) distribution from the 2002-2003 outbreak infection. (
  • Thus, persons with SCD could be at higher risk for development of severe disease if infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). (
  • It has been admission allowing early recognition of possible 2019-nCoV adapted from WHO's Infection prevention and control during infection and immediate isolation of patients with suspected health care for probable or confirmed cases of Middle East nCoV infection in an area separate from other patients (source respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection ,1 control). (
  • The acute chest syndrome is a vaso-occlusive crisis of the pulmonary vasculature commonly seen in people with sickle cell anemia. (
  • A new study published in the journal Annals of Internal Medicine shows people with sickle cell disease in acute pain crises received significantly improved care at specialized infusion centers than emergency departments (ER), including faster access to pain treatments and reduced hospital admission rates. (
  • Determination of acute cardiac conditions (myocardial infarction, unstable angina, thoracic aortic aneurysm, pulmonary embolism) frequency rate and mortality rates by patients' age and gender, as well as determination of hospitalisation period in the studied groups of patients. (
  • Based on medical documentation gathered in the Hospital's electronic database, a group of 1200 patients hospitalised due to acute cardiac conditions (myocardial infarction, unstable angina, thoracic aortic aneurysm, pulmonary embolism) has been selected. (
  • 1 In the Emergency Department the 3 life threatening conditions of most concern in a patient with chest pain are acute coronary syndrome (ACS), pulmonary embolism, and AD. (
  • Acute- and convalescent-phase serum specimens from patient 2 were submitted to the South Dakota Public Health Laboratory and CDC for hantavirus diagnostic testing. (
  • Hydroxyurea therapy, which reduces the occurrence of several complications, including severe acute pain episodes and acute chest syndrome. (
  • Transfusion is also still an important treatment for patients who develop other complications, like acute chest syndrome, or before surgery to avoid post operative complications. (
  • In 2017, the US Food and Drug Administration approved L-glutamine oral powder to reduce the acute complications of sickle cell disease in adult and pediatric patients aged 5 years and older. (
  • This may be due to acute chest syndrome or accompany respiratory complications. (
  • A chest X-ray showed bilateral airspace opacities concerning for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). (
  • After transport to a local hospital, Joe was diagnosed with acute respiratory distress syndrome or ARDS. (
  • We aimed to determine whether marital status was a predictor of the duration of chest pain endured by patients with acute myocardial infarction before they sought care and whether the patient's sex modified the effect. (
  • We conducted a retrospective, population-based cohort analysis of patients with acute myocardial infarction admitted to 96 acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada, from April 2004 to March 2005. (
  • Among 4403 eligible patients with acute myocardial infarction, the mean age was 67.3 (standard deviation 13.6) years, and 1486 (33.7%) were women. (
  • Among men experiencing acute myocardial infarction with chest pain, being married was associated with significantly earlier presentation for care, a benefit that was not observed for married women. (
  • Effective, time-sensitive therapy for acute myocardial infarction is available, 8 , 9 and delays in the emergency department and for in-hospital components of care have been substantially reduced over the past few decades. (
  • 10 , 11 In contrast, patients' delay in seeking care for acute myocardial infarction has shown little improvement over time, 12 , 13 despite intensive campaigns to raise public awareness. (
  • We examined the effect of marital status, a social factor, on the time from onset of chest pain to arrival in an emergency department or hospital, in a population-based cohort of patients with acute myocardial infarction. (
  • The Enhanced Feedback for Effective Cardiac Treatment (EFFECT) study involved a population-based sample of patients with acute myocardial infarction from the province of Ontario, Canada, who sought care from April 2004 to March 2005. (
  • We did not perform acute coronary syndrome, coronary elevation myocardial infarction, whereas angioplasty because the obstruction embolism should be kept in mind in the rest present with non-ST elevation was in the distal portion of the vessel those with prosthetic valves even in the myocardial infarction [8]. (
  • The presence of fevers, low oxygen levels in the blood, increased respiratory rate, chest pain, and cough are also common in acute chest syndrome. (
  • Note: your provider may have given you different advice about taking nitroglycerin when you have chest pain or pressure. (
  • and alanine aminotransferase {ALT} 138 U/L {normal: 7-56 U/L}). Although he reported no abdominal pain and the abdominal examination on admission was normal, serum amylase and lipase levels were elevated (amylase 226 U/L {normal: 30-110 U/L} and lipase 771 U/L {normal: 23-300 U/L}). Chest radiographs at the time of admission demonstrated perihilar interstitial infiltrates. (
  • We excluded patients who did not experience chest pain. (
  • In patients who reported the exact duration of chest pain, we assessed the effect of marital status on the delay in seeking care. (
  • Overall, 75.3% (2317/3079) of married patients, 67.9% (188/277) of single patients, 68.5% (189/276) of divorced patients and 70.8% (546/771) of widowed patients presented within six hours of the onset of chest pain. (
  • This can cause pain and other serious problems such infection, acute chest syndrome and stroke," the agency explains. (
  • Although coronary embolism was performed because her chest pain tral prosthetic valve. (
  • A 34-year-old female was admitted to the emergency department of our hospital in November 2009 with a chest pain which was compressive at the retrosternal zone and which had started 5 hours before. (
  • The chest pain of the patient was assessed to be typical of acute coronary syndrome. (
  • Worsening anemia, fever, and shortness of breath with pain in the long bones, abdomen, and chest can indicate sickle cell crisis. (
  • These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Vancouver Chest Pain Rule. (
  • The results of MAGNETO demonstrate MCG's ability to identify myocardial ischemia in low-to-intermediate risk patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute chest pain and validate MCG's performance compared to tests that comprise the current standard of care. (
  • MAGNETO (Accelerated Magnetocardiography in the Evaluation of Patients with Suspected Cardiac Ischemia) was a multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study which enrolled 390 low-to-intermediate risk chest pain patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the emergency department (ED). The study compared the diagnostic performance of MCG with "standard of care" noninvasive stress testing for the detection of myocardial ischemia. (
  • Which Diagnostic Test Would You Choose For This 59-Year-Old Male with Continuous Chest Pain? (
  • The patient is a 59-year-old male with the onset of continuous chest pain 2 hours prior to admission. (
  • Diagnostic performance of reproducible chest wall tenderness to rule out acute coronary syndrome in acute chest pain: a prospective diagnostic study. (
  • While working at a metal recycling facility, Joe was suddenly overcome with shortness of breath, coughing, chest pressure, and eye irritation. (
  • He had dyspnea and cough with a normal chest radiograph. (
  • Acute chest syndrome is often precipitated by a lung infection, and the resulting inflammation and loss of oxygen saturation leads to further sickling of red cells, thus exacerbating pulmonary and systemic hypoxemia, sickling, and vaso-occlusion. (
  • The differential diagnosis of the early findings of acute HIV infection can be confusing. (
  • 3 Acute HIV infection may resemble infectious mononucleosis, influenza, severe streptococcal pharyngitis, viral hepatitis, toxoplasmosis or even secondary syphilis ( Table 2 ) . (
  • 6 Age is also a factor, with the diagnosis of acute HIV infection often delayed in patients over 50 years old. (
  • It often involves the abdomen, bones, joints, and soft tissue, and it may present as dactylitis (bilateral painful and swollen hands and/or feet in children), acute joint necrosis or avascular necrosis, or acute abdomen. (
  • They usually present as acute abdomen. (
  • These patients none the less present with other causes of acute abdomen like others without hemoglobinopathy. (
  • Six cases of surgical acute abdomen in sickle cell disease patients treated in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) are presented. (
  • citation needed] Hydroxyurea is a medication that can help to prevent acute chest syndrome. (
  • It is now known that 50 to 90 percent of patients acutely infected with HIV experience at least some symptoms of the acute retroviral syndrome. (
  • The diagnosis of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) syndrome requires a high index of suspicion and proper laboratory testing. (
  • Acute chest syndrome is an indication for exchange transfusion. (
  • Sixty-four percent male patients and 36% female patients were hospitalised due to acute cardiac conditions. (
  • Male patients were more frequently hospitalised due to acute cardiac conditions than female patients. (
  • Reductions in dosage may be appropriate in the elderly, and in patients with chronic hepatic disease (for acute hepatic disease see section 4.3), renal impairment, severe hypothyroidism, adrenocortical insufficiency, prostatic hypertrophy, shock or where sedation is undesirable. (
  • SAN MATEO, Calif., Dec. 18 (HSMN NewsFeed) -- Anthera Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a privately held biopharmaceutical company developing anti-inflammatory drugs, announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Office of Orphan Product Development has granted A-001 orphan drug status for the prevention of acute chest syndrome in patients with sickle cell disease. (
  • The IMPACTS trial began recruiting patients in January 2007 and is a double-blind, randomized, parallel group, placebo-controlled dose escalation study aimed at preventing a severe respiratory complication of sickle cell disease, acute chest syndrome. (
  • Acute chest syndrome is a form of acute lung injury and is the leading cause of death in sickle cell disease patients. (
  • Recent academic clinical studies have demonstrated that serum secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) levels rise in advance of acute chest syndrome, and therefore help identify patients at-risk. (
  • As such, discovery of sPLA2 as a potential therapeutic target for patients at risk for acute chest syndrome has opened new prevention and treatment opportunities," says Clark Brown, M.D., Ph.D., IMPACTS investigator at Emory University, and a physician at the Aflac Cancer Center and Blood Disorders Service of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta. (
  • Anthera Pharmaceuticals is a privately-held pharmaceutical development company committed to world-class development and commercialization of promising clinical products to address the unmet medical needs of patients with life-threatening chronic and acute inflammatory diseases. (
  • Because of this, testing patients with suspected acute PE has increased dramatically. (
  • Clinicians should use validated clinical prediction rules to estimate pretest probability in patients in whom acute PE is being considered. (
  • Materials and Methods: Six sickle cell anaemia patients presenting with acute abdominal conditions from 1999 to 2008 (inclusive) in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital were studied retrospectively (two patients) and prospectively (four patients). (
  • Conclusion: Sickle cell anaemia patients are not exempt from acute abdominal conditions requiring surgery. (
  • The most recent large study to address the diagnostic utility of D-dimer for AD was performed as part of The International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection. (
  • This condition commonly manifests with a new opacification of the lung(s) on a chest x-ray. (
  • Both may present with a new opacification of the lung on chest x-ray. (
  • This syndrome leads to respiratory problems and lung infections. (
  • citation needed] The diagnosis of acute chest syndrome is made difficult by its similarity in presentation with pneumonia. (
  • High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scanning is controversial in the evaluation of SARS but may be considered when SARS is a strong clinical possibility despite normal chest radiographs. (
  • A-001 is currently being evaluated for acute chest syndrome in a Phase II clinical trial in the United States called IMPACTS (Investigation of the Modulation of Phospholipase in Acute ChesT Syndrome). (
  • Acute Chest Syndrome (ACS) primarily affects children suffering from sickle cell disease. (
  • It was thought that he might have the new disease called "acquired immunodeficiency syndrome" (AIDS), but a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody test was negative. (
  • Ingestion is the most important route of acute exposure of arsenic trioxide. (
  • Most acute intoxications are from suicidal or homicidal ingestion. (
  • they were specifically asked to report only confirmed COVID-19 cases and to report cases after resolution of acute illness or death. (
  • Sporadic cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), a severe cardiopulmonary illness first identified in 1993, continue to be recognized in the United States (1,2). (
  • An acute febrile illness was diagnosed, and he was discharged to outpatient follow-up. (
  • A computed tomography (CT) chest scan was obtained, which showed diffuse bilateral airspace opacities (see Photo 4). (
  • The patient had a CT scan of the chest performed that demonstrated a dissection in the ascending aorta. (
  • chest radiographs were normal. (
  • Contaminated soil may also be a source of significant arsenic exposure in children, although it is not likely that children would ingest sufficient arsenic-contaminated soil to cause significant acute toxicity. (
  • Angina is a type of chest discomfort due to poor blood flow through the blood vessels of the heart muscle. (
  • the target patient population is all adults, both inpatient and outpatient, suspected of having acute PE. (
  • postoperative haemorrhage (in cholecystectomy patient) and acute chest syndrome (in one appendicectomy patient). (
  • 1 The most common findings of the syndrome are fever (80 to 90 percent), fatigue (70 to 90 percent), rash (40 to 80 percent), headache (32 to 70 percent) and lymphadenopathy (40 to 70 percent). (
  • Arsenic trioxide dust is readily absorbed from the lungs, but inhaled quantities are usually insufficient to cause acute systemic toxicity. (
  • D. Any acute chest syndrome episode resulting in intensive care admission requiring non- mechanical ventilatory support: simple nasal cannula, face mask that requires oxygen content (venti mask, non-rebreather), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), Bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP), high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) or invasive mechanical ventilatory support (delivered by endotracheal tube or tracheostomy). (
  • Acute cardiac conditions in women were associated with worse prognosis than in men. (