A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
Myosin Type II
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).
Heterocyclic Compounds with 4 or More Rings
Nonmuscle Myosin Type IIA
Myosin Light Chains
The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.
Molecular Motor Proteins
Myosin Heavy Chains
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins
Nonmuscle Myosin Type IIB
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.
A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.
Myosin Type V
Evidence for F-actin-dependent and -independent mechanisms involved in assembly and stability of the medial actomyosin ring in fission yeast. (1/982)Cell division in a number of eukaryotes, including the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, is achieved through a medially placed actomyosin-based contractile ring. Although several components of the actomyosin ring have been identified, the mechanisms regulating ring assembly are still not understood. Here, we show by biochemical and mutational studies that the S.pombe actomyosin ring component Cdc4p is a light chain associated with Myo2p, a myosin II heavy chain. Localization of Myo2p to the medial ring depended on Cdc4p function, whereas localization of Cdc4p at the division site was independent of Myo2p. Interestingly, the actin-binding and motor domains of Myo2p are not required for its accumulation at the division site although the motor activity of Myo2p is essential for assembly of a normal actomyosin ring. The initial assembly of Myo2p and Cdc4p at the division site requires a functional F-actin cytoskeleton. Once established, however, F-actin is not required for the maintenance of Cdc4p and Myo2p medial rings, suggesting that the attachment of Cdc4p and Myo2p to the division site involves proteins other than actin itself. (+info)
Calculation of a Gap restoration in the membrane skeleton of the red blood cell: possible role for myosin II in local repair. (2/982)Human red blood cells contain all of the elements involved in the formation of nonmuscle actomyosin II complexes (V. M. Fowler. 1986. J. Cell. Biochem. 31:1-9; 1996. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 8:86-96). No clear function has yet been attributed to these complexes. Using a mathematical model for the structure of the red blood cell spectrin skeleton (M. J. Saxton. 1992. J. Theor. Biol. 155:517-536), we have explored a possible role for myosin II bipolar minifilaments in the restoration of the membrane skeleton, which may be locally damaged by major mechanical or chemical stress. We propose that the establishment of stable links between distant antiparallel actin protofilaments after a local myosin II activation may initiate the repair of the disrupted area. We show that it is possible to define conditions in which the calculated number of myosin II minifilaments bound to actin protofilaments is consistent with the estimated number of myosin II minifilaments present in the red blood cells. A clear restoration effect can be observed when more than 50% of the spectrin polymers of a defined area are disrupted. It corresponds to a significant increase in the spectrin density in the protein free region of the membrane. This may be involved in a more complex repair process of the red blood cell membrane, which includes the vesiculation of the bilayer and the compaction of the disassembled spectrin network. (+info)
Ca2+ and cross-bridge-induced changes in troponin C in skinned skeletal muscle fibers: effects of force inhibition. (3/982)Changes in skeletal troponin C (sTnC) structure during thin filament activation by Ca2+ and strongly bound cross-bridge states were monitored by measuring the linear dichroism of the 5' isomer of iodoacetamidotetramethylrhodamine (5'IATR), attached to Cys98 (sTnC-5'ATR), in sTnC-5'ATR reconstituted single skinned fibers from rabbit psoas muscle. To isolate the effects of Ca2+ and cross-bridge binding on sTnC structure, maximum Ca2+-activated force was inhibited with 0.5 mM AlF4- or with 30 mM 2,3 butanedione-monoxime (BDM) during measurements of the Ca2+ dependence of force and dichroism. Dichroism was 0.08 +/- 0.01 (+/- SEM, n = 9) in relaxing solution (pCa 9.2) and decreased to 0.004 +/- 0.002 (+/- SEM, n = 9) at pCa 4.0. Force and dichroism had similar Ca2+ sensitivities. Force inhibition with BDM caused no change in the amplitude and Ca2+ sensitivity of dichroism. Similarly, inhibition of force at pCa 4.0 with 0.5 mM AlF4- decreased force to 0.04 +/- 0.01 of maximum (+/- SEM, n = 3), and dichroism was 0.04 +/- 0.03 (+/- SEM, n = 3) of the value at pCa 9.2 and unchanged relative to the corresponding normalized value at pCa 4.0 (0.11 +/- 0.05, +/- SEM; n = 3). Inhibition of force with AlF4- also had no effect when sTnC structure was monitored by labeling with either 5-dimethylamino-1-napthalenylsulfonylaziridine (DANZ) or 4-(N-(iodoacetoxy)ethyl-N-methyl)amino-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD). Increasing sarcomere length from 2.5 to 3.6 microm caused force (pCa 4.0) to decrease, but had no effect on dichroism. In contrast, rigor cross-bridge attachment caused dichroism at pCa 9.2 to decrease to 0.56 +/- 0.03 (+/- SEM, n = 5) of the value at pCa 9. 2, and force was 0.51 +/- 0.04 (+/- SEM, n = 6) of pCa 4.0 control. At pCa 4.0 in rigor, dichroism decreased further to 0.19 +/- 0.03 (+/- SEM, n = 6), slightly above the pCa 4.0 control level; force was 0.66 +/- 0.04 of pCa 4.0 control. These results indicate that cross-bridge binding in the rigor state alters sTnC structure, whereas cycling cross-bridges have little influence at either submaximum or maximum activating [Ca2+]. (+info)
Rational analyses of organelle trajectories in tobacco pollen tubes reveal characteristics of the actomyosin cytoskeleton. (4/982)To gain insight into the characteristics of organelle movement and the underlying actomyosin motility system in tobacco pollen tubes, we collected data points representing sequential organelle positions in control and cytochalasin-treated cells, and in a sample of extruded cytoplasm. These data were utilized to reconstruct approximately 900 tracks, representing individual organelle movements, and to produce a quantitative analysis of the movement properties, supported by statistical tests. Each reconstructed track appeared to be unique and to show irregularities in velocity and direction of movement. The regularity quotient was near 2 at the tip and above 3 elsewhere in the cell, indicating that movement is more vectorial in the tube area. Similarly, the progressiveness ratio showed that there were relatively more straight trajectories in the tube region than at the tip. Consistent with these data, arithmetical dissection revealed a high degree of randomlike movement in the apex, lanes with tip-directed movement along the flanks, and grain-directed movement in the center of the tube. Intercalated lanes with bidirectional movement had lower organelle velocity, suggesting that steric hindrance plays a role. The results from the movement analysis indicate that the axial arrangement of the actin filaments and performance of the actomyosin system increases from tip to base, and that the opposite polarity of the actin filaments in the peripheral (+-ends of acting filaments toward the tip) versus the central cytoplasm (+-ends of actin filaments toward to the grain) is installed within a few minutes in these tip-growing cells. (+info)
Alterations of cross-bridge kinetics in human atrial and ventricular myocardium. (5/982)CONDENSED ABSTRACT: We analyzed actomyosin cross-bridge kinetics in human atrial and ventricular muscle strip preparations by using sinusoidal length changes from 0.1 to 60 Hz. The minimum stiffness frequency was higher in atrial than in ventricular human myocardium and lower in failing than in non-failing left ventricular human myocardium. beta-Adrenergic stimulation increased the minimum stiffness frequency by 18 +/- 3% (p < 0.05). Cross-bridge kinetics are temperature-dependent, with a Q10 of at least 2.7. BACKGROUND: Dynamic stiffness measurements have revealed acute and chronic alterations of actomyosin cross-bridge kinetics in cardiac muscles of a variety of different animal species. We studied dynamic stiffness in right atrial and left ventricular preparations of non-failing and failing human hearts and tested the influence of the temperature and beta-adrenergic stimulation on cross-bridge kinetics. METHODS AND RESULTS: Muscle strips were prepared from right atria and left ventricles from human non-failing and failing hearts. After withdrawal of calcium, steady contracture tension was induced by the addition of 1.5 mM barium chloride. Sinusoidal length oscillations of 1% muscle length were applied, with a frequency spectrum of between 0.1 and 60 Hz. Dynamic stiffness was calculated from the length change and the corresponding force response amplitude. The specific minimum stiffness frequency, which indicates the interaction between cross-bridge recruitment and cross-bridge cycling dynamics, was analyzed for each condition: (1) The minimum stiffness frequency was 0.78 +/- 0.04 Hz in left ventricular myocardium and 2.80 +/- 0.31 Hz in right atrial myocardium (p < 0.01) at 27 degrees C. (2) The minimum stiffness frequency was 41% higher in non-failing compared to failing left ventricular human myocardium. (3) Over a wide range of experimental temperatures, the minimum stiffness frequency changed, with a Q10 of at least 2.7. (4) beta-Adrenergic stimulation significantly (p < 0.05) increased the minimum stiffness to 18 +/- 3% higher frequencies and significantly (p < 0.05) lowered contracture tension by 7 +/- 1%. CONCLUSIONS: The contractility of human heart muscle is not only regulated by excitation-contraction coupling but also by modulation of intrinsic properties of the actomyosin system. Acute and chronic alterations of cross-bridge kinetics have been demonstrated, which play a significant role in the physiology and pathophysiology of the human heart. (+info)
Amphidinolide B, a powerful activator of actomyosin ATPase enhances skeletal muscle contraction. (6/982)Amphidinolide B caused a concentration-dependent increase in the contractile force of skeletal muscle skinned fibers. The concentration-contractile response curve for external Ca2+ was shifted to the left in a parallel manner, suggesting an increase in Ca2+ sensitivity. Amphidinolide B stimulated the superprecipitation of natural actomyosin. The maximum response of natural actomyosin to Ca2+ in superprecipitation was enhanced by it. Amphidinolide B increased the ATPase activity of myofibrils and natural actomyosin. The ATPase activity of actomyosin reconstituted from actin and myosin was enhanced in a concentration-dependent manner in the presence or absence of troponin-tropomyosin complex. Ca2+-, K+-EDTA- or Mg2+-ATPase of myosin was not affected by amphidinolide B. These results suggest that amphidinolide B enhances an interaction of actin and myosin directly and increases Ca2+ sensitivity of the contractile apparatus mediated through troponin-tropomyosin system, resulting in an increase in the ATPase activity of actomyosin and thus enhances the contractile response of myofilament. (+info)
Backward movements of cross-bridges by application of stretch and by binding of MgADP to skeletal muscle fibers in the rigor state as studied by x-ray diffraction. (7/982)The effects of the applied stretch and MgADP binding on the structure of the actomyosin cross-bridges in rabbit and/or frog skeletal muscle fibers in the rigor state have been investigated with improved resolution by x-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. The results showed a remarkable structural similarity between cross-bridge states induced by stretch and MgADP binding. The intensities of the 14.4- and 7.2-nm meridional reflections increased by approximately 23 and 47%, respectively, when 1 mM MgADP was added to the rigor rabbit muscle fibers in the presence of ATP-depletion backup system and an inhibitor for muscle adenylate kinase or by approximately 33 and 17%, respectively, when rigor frog muscle was stretched by approximately 4.5% of the initial muscle length. In addition, both MgADP binding and stretch induced a small but genuine intensity decrease in the region close to the meridian of the 5.9-nm layer line while retaining the intensity profile of its outer portion. No appreciable influence was observed in the intensities of the higher order meridional reflections of the 14.4-nm repeat and the other actin-based reflections as well as the equatorial reflections, indicating a lack of detachment of cross-bridges in both cases. The changes in the axial spacings of the actin-based and the 14.4-nm-based reflections were observed and associated with the tension change. These results indicate that stretch and ADP binding mediate similar structural changes, being in the correct direction to those expected for that the conformational changes are induced in the outer portion distant from the catalytic domain of attached cross-bridges. Modeling of conformational changes of the attached myosin head suggested a small but significant movement (about 10-20 degrees) in the light chain-binding domain of the head toward the M-line of the sarcomere. Both chemical (ADP binding) and mechanical (stretch) intervensions can reverse the contractile cycle by causing a backward movement of this domain of attached myosin heads in the rigor state. (+info)
The translation in vitro of mRNA from developing cysts of Artemia salina. (8/982)Successive stages in the development of the brine shrimp cyst were used as a model for studying differentiation at the level of mRNA transcription and translation. The poly (A)-containing mRNA from dormant cysts and free-swimming larvae (nauplii) was found to be efficiently translated in a wheat-germ cell-free system, and electrophoretic patterns of translation products in vitro resembled those of the endogenous proteins extracted from the equivalent developmental stages. Each stage, however, exhibits a characteristic protein pattern. Two low-molecular-weight proteins prominent in the cyst disappeared almost completely in the nauplius stage, whereas the proportion of actin increased 3-fold. Parallel patterns were observed upon translation in vitro of the respective mRNA preparations. The percentage of the acidic protein, tubulin, decreased somewhat during development. (+info)
Unidirectional Brownian motion observed in an in silico single molecule experiment of an actomyosin motor<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Unidirectional Brownian motion observed in an in silico single molecule experiment of an actomyosin motor. AU - Takano, Mitsunori. AU - Terada, Tomoki P.. AU - Sasai, Masaki. PY - 2010/4/27. Y1 - 2010/4/27. N2 - The actomyosin molecular motor, the motor composed of myosin II and actin filament, is responsible for muscle contraction, converting chemical energy into mechanical work. Although recent single molecule and structural studies have shed new light on the energy-converting mechanism, the physical basis of the molecular-level mechanism remains unclear because of the experimental limitations. To provide a clue to resolve the controversy between the lever-arm mechanism and the Brownian ratchet-like mechanism, we here report an in silico single molecule experiment of an actomyosin motor.When we placed myosin on an actin filament and allowed myosin to move along the filament, we found that myosin exhibits a unidirectional Brownian motion along the filament. This ...
α-Catenin stabilises Cadherin-Catenin complexes and modulates actomyosin dynamics to allow pulsatile apical contraction -ORCA
We have investigated how cell contractility and adhesion are functionally integrated during epithelial morphogenesis. To this end, we have analysed the role of α-Catenin, a key molecule linking E-Cadherin-based adhesion and the actomyosin cytoskeleton, during Drosophila embryonic dorsal closure, by studying a newly developed allelic series. We find that α-Catenin regulates pulsatile apical contraction in the amnioserosa, the main force-generating tissue driving closure of the embryonic epidermis. α-Catenin controls actomyosin dynamics by stabilising and promoting the formation of actomyosin foci, and also stabilises DE-Cadherin (Drosophila E-Cadherin, also known as Shotgun) at the cell membrane, suggesting that medioapical actomyosin contractility regulates junction stability. Furthermore, we uncover a genetic interaction between α-Catenin and Vinculin, and a tension-dependent recruitment of Vinculin to amniosersoa apical cell membranes, suggesting the existence of a mechano-sensitive module ...
Mechanical measurements of single actomyosin motor force<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanical measurements of single actomyosin motor force. AU - Miyata, H.. AU - Yoshikawa, H.. AU - Hakozaki, H.. AU - Suzuki, N.. AU - Furuno, Taiji. AU - Ikegami, A.. AU - Kinosita, K.. AU - Nishizaka, T.. AU - Ishiwata, S.. AU - Driezen, P.. AU - Mehta, A.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - To elucidate the mechanism of force generation by actomyosin motor, a measuring system was constructed, in which an in vitro motility assay was combined with an optical trapping technique. An actin filament of several μm long was attached to a gelsolin-coated polystyrene bead, and was allowed to interact with a small number (~1/1-μm actin filament) of rabbit skeletal heavy meromyosin (an active subfragment of myosin) molecules bound to a nitrocellulose-coated coverglass. The bead position was determined at 33-ms intervals. We measured the force generation event at relatively low (100-400 nM) ATP concentration so that the occurrence of individual force generation events could be detected with our ...
TRPM7, a novel regulator of actomyosin contractility and cell adhesion.
Actomyosin contractility regulates various cell biological processes including cytokinesis, adhesion and migration. While in lower eukaryotes, alpha-kinases control actomyosin relaxation, a similar role for mammalian alpha-kinases has yet to be established. Here, we examined whether TRPM7, a cation channel fused to an alpha-kinase, can affect actomyosin function. We demonstrate that activation of TRPM7 by bradykinin leads to a Ca(2+)- and kinase-dependent interaction with the actomyosin cytoskeleton. Moreover, TRPM7 phosphorylates the myosin IIA heavy chain. Accordingly, low overexpression of TRPM7 increases intracellular Ca2+ levels accompanied by cell spreading, adhesion and the formation of focal adhesions. Activation of TRPM7 induces the transformation of these focal adhesions into podosomes by a kinase-dependent mechanism, an effect that can be mimicked by pharmacological inhibition of myosin II. Collectively, our results demonstrate that regulation of cell adhesion by TRPM7 is the combined ...
Welcome to CDC stacks | Contractile Units in Disordered Actomyosin Bundles Arise from F-Actin Buckling - 33757 | CDC Public...
Bundles of filaments and motors are central to contractility in cells. The classic example is striated muscle, where actomyosin contractility is mediated by highly organized sarcomeres which act as fundamental contractile units. However, many contractile bundles in vivo and in vitro lack sarcomeric organization. Here we propose a model for how contractility can arise in bundles without sarcomeric organization and validate its predictions with experiments on a reconstituted system. In the model, internal stresses in frustrated arrangements of motors with diverse velocities cause filaments to buckle, leading to overall shortening. We describe the onset of buckling in the presence of stochastic motor head detachment and predict that buckling-induced contraction occurs in an intermediate range of motor densities. We then calculate the size of the contractile units associated with this process. Consistent with these results, our reconstituted actomyosin bundles show contraction at relatively high ...
Bergen Open Research Archive: Assembly and positioning of actomyosin rings by contractility and planar cell polarity
The actomyosin cytoskeleton is a primary force-generating mechanism in morphogenesis, thus a robust spatial control of cytoskeletal positioning is essential. In this report, we demonstrate that actomyosin contractility and planar cell polarity (PCP) interact in post-mitotic Ciona notochord cells to self-assemble and reposition actomyosin rings, which play an essential role for cell elongation. Intriguingly, rings always form at the cells′ anterior edge before migrating towards the center as contractility increases, reflecting a novel dynamical property of the cortex. Our drug and genetic manipulations uncover a tug-of-war between contractility, which localizes cortical flows toward the equator and PCP, which tries to reposition them. We develop a simple model of the physical forces underlying this tug-of-war, which quantitatively reproduces our results. We thus propose a quantitative framework for dissecting the relative contribution of contractility and PCP to the self-assembly and ...
Polarized epithelia develop distinct cell surface domains, with the apical membrane acquiring characteristic morphological features such as microvilli. Cell polarization is driven by polarity determinants including the evolutionarily conserved partitioning-defective (PAR) proteins that are separated into distinct cortical domains. PAR protein segregation is thought to be a consequence of asymmetric actomyosin contractions. The mechanism of activation of apically polarized actomyosin contractility is unknown. Here we show that the Cdc42 effector MRCK activates myosin-II at the apical pole to segregate aPKC-Par6 from junctional Par3, defining the apical domain. Apically polarized MRCK-activated actomyosin contractility is reinforced by cooperation with aPKC-Par6 downregulating antagonistic RhoA-driven junctional actomyosin contractility, and drives polarization of cytosolic brush border determinants and apical morphogenesis. MRCK-activated polarized actomyosin contractility is required for apical ...
Thermal Inactivation of the Calcium Regulatory Mechanism of Human Skeletal Muscle Actomyosin:A Possible Contributing Factor in...
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Frontiers | Myosin IIA-related Actomyosin Contractility Mediates Oxidative Stress-induced Neuronal Apoptosis | Frontiers in...
Oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis plays an important role in the progression of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. In our study, when neuronal cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), an exogenous oxidant, cell apoptosis was observed with typical morphological changes including membrane blebbing, neurite retraction and cell contraction. The actomyosin system is considered to be responsible for the morphological changes, but how exactly it regulates oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis and the distinctive functions of different myosin II isoforms remain unclear. We demonstrate that myosin IIA was required for neuronal contraction, while myosin IIB was required for neuronal outgrowth in normal conditions. During H2O2-induced neuronal apoptosis, myosin IIA, rather than IIB, interacted with actin filaments to generate contractile forces that leaded to morphological changes. Moreover, myosin IIA knockout using CRISPR/Cas9 reduced H2O2-induced neuronal apoptosis and the associated
Actomyosin contraction of the posterior hemisphere is required for inversion of the Volvox embryo | Development
During inversion of a Volvox embryo, a series of cell shape changes causes the multicellular sheet to bend outward, and propagation of the bend from the anterior to the posterior pole eventually results in an inside-out spherical sheet of cells. We use fluorescent and electron microscopy to study the behavior of the cytoskeleton in cells undergoing shape changes. Microtubules are aligned parallel to the cells long axis and become elongated in the bend. Myosin and actin filaments are arrayed perinuclearly before inversion. In inversion, actin and myosin are located in a subnuclear position throughout the uninverted region but this localization is gradually lost towards the bend. Actomyosin inhibitors cause enlargement of the embryo. The bend propagation is inhibited halfway and, as a consequence, the posterior hemisphere remains uninverted. The arrested posterior hemisphere will resume and complete inversion even in the presence of an actomyosin inhibitor if the anterior hemisphere is removed ...
Competition for actin between two distinct F-actin networks defines a bistable switch for cell polarization<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Competition for actin between two distinct F-actin networks defines a bistable switch for cell polarization. AU - Lomakin, Alexis J.. AU - Lee, Kun Chun. AU - Han, Sangyoon J.. AU - Bui, Duyen A.. AU - Davidson, Michael. AU - Mogilner, Alex. AU - Danuser, Gaudenz. PY - 2015/11/1. Y1 - 2015/11/1. N2 - Symmetry-breaking polarization enables functional plasticity of cells and tissues and is yet not well understood. Here we show that epithelial cells, hard-wired to maintain a static morphology and to preserve tissue organization, can spontaneously switch to a migratory polarized phenotype after relaxation of the actomyosin cytoskeleton. We find that myosin II engages actin in the formation of cortical actomyosin bundles and thus makes it unavailable for deployment in the process of dendritic growth normally driving cell motility. Under low-contractility regimes, epithelial cells polarize in a front-back manner owing to the emergence of actin retrograde flows powered by dendritic ...
Tissue mechanical properties modulate cell extrusion in the Drosophila abdominal epidermis | Development
The replacement of cells is a common strategy during animal development. In the Drosophila pupal abdomen, larval epidermal cells (LECs) are replaced by adult progenitor cells (histoblasts). Previous work showed that interactions between histoblasts and LECs result in apoptotic extrusion of LECs during early pupal development. Extrusion of cells is closely preceded by caspase activation and is executed by contraction of a cortical actomyosin cable. Here, we identify a population of LECs that extrudes independently of the presence of histoblasts during late pupal development. Extrusion of these LECs is not closely preceded by caspase activation, involves a pulsatile medial actomyosin network, and correlates with a developmental time period when mechanical tension and E-cadherin turnover at adherens junctions is particularly high. Our work reveals a developmental switch in the cell extrusion mechanism that correlates with changes in tissue mechanical properties. ...
Microtubules tune mechanosensitive cell responses - Institut Pasteur
Mechanotransduction is a process by which cells sense the mechanical properties of their surrounding environment and adapt accordingly to perform cellular functions such as adhesion, migration and differentiation. Integrin-mediated focal adhesions are major sites of mechanotransduction and their connection with the actomyosin network is crucial for mechanosensing as well as the generation and transmission of forces onto the substrate. Despite having emerged as major regulators of cell adhesion and migration, the contribution of microtubules to mechanotransduction still remains elusive. Here, we show that actomyosin-dependent mechanosensing of substrate rigidity controls microtubule acetylation, a tubulin post-translational modification, by promoting the recruitment of the alpha-tubulin acetyl transferase (αTAT1) to focal adhesions. Microtubule acetylation, in turn, promotes GEF-H1 mediated RhoA activation, actomyosin contractility and traction forces. Our results reveal a fundamental crosstalk between
Head involution in Drosophila melanogaster: on the role of supracellular actomyosin structures in tissue bending, spreading,...
La morfogènesi crea una plètora de formes complexes en animals i plantes. Hem consagrat aquest treball a lestudi de la involució del cap (head involution HI) de Drosophila, un procés embriogenètic tardiu, que implica un complet rearranjament dels teixits del cap, així com la internalització del cervell i la propagació de lepidermis. Mostrem, pel primer cop, la cinètica completa de HI amb una alta resolució espacial i temporal. Describim els moviments que porten a la internalització del cervell de lembrió, així com el seu sculpting per apoptosi i leliminació de cèl.lules pels hemòcits. Seguidament, hem enfocat lestudi en la progressió de lepidermis sobre el cap de lembrió, essent aquest un esdeveniment que es pot dividir en dues fases: rodolament i lliscament. Mostrem que totes dues fases son impulsades per un cable dactomyosina. També mostrem que la propagació de lepidermis es troba espacialment controlada, tenint aquest control com a resultat la formació de ...
Characterisation of the expression profile and endothelial function of Rho GTPase RhoJ - eTheses Repository
Rho GTPases are molecular switches that regulate many aspects of cell physiology. A number of Rho GTPases are essential for the formation of new vessels from pre-existing ones, a process known as angiogenesis. RhoJ/TCL belongs to the Cdc42 subfamily of Rho GTPases. Previous bioinformatic and primary cell line analyses identified RhoJ as being highly expressed in endothelial cells. The aim of this project was to investigate the expression pattern and endothelial function of RhoJ, particularly in the processes necessary for angiogenesis. Silencing RhoJ with siRNA impaired tube formation and migration. On the cellular level, RhoJ knockdown increased focal adhesions, actin stress fibres and collagen gel contraction, suggesting increased actomyosin contractility. Pharmacological inhibition of ROCK and myosin II, two regulators of actomyosin contractility, restored motility and tube formation after RhoJ knockdown. RhoJ localised to blood vessels of developing mice and in various human normal and ...
Interactive Fly, Drosophila
The wound healing response is an essential mechanism to maintain the integrity of epithelia and protect all organisms from the surrounding milieu. In the purse-string mechanism of wound closure, an injured epithelial sheet cinches its hole closed via an intercellular contractile actomyosin cable. This process is conserved across species and utilized by both embryonic as well as adult tissues, but remains poorly understood at the cellular level. In an effort to identify new players involved in purse-string wound closure a wounding strategy suitable for screening large numbers of Drosophila embryos was developed. Using this methodology, wound healing defects were observed in Jun-related antigen (encoding DJUN) and scab (encoding Drosophila alphaPS3 integrin) mutants and a forward genetics screen was performed on the basis of insertional mutagenesis by transposons that led to the identification of 30 lethal insertional mutants with defects in embryonic epithelia repair. One of the mutants ...
Misshapen coordinates protrusion restriction and actomyosin contractility during collective cell migration. | IRIC - Institute...
Collective cell migration is involved in development, wound healing and metastasis. In the Drosophila ovary, border cells (BC) form a small cluster that migrates collectively through the egg chamber. To achieve directed motility, the BC cluster coordinates the formation of protrusions in its leader cell and contractility at the rear. Restricting protrusions to leader cells requires the actin and plasma membrane linker Moesin. Herein, we show that the Ste20-like kinase Misshapen phosphorylates Moesin in vitro and in BC. Depletion of Misshapen disrupts protrusion restriction, thereby allowing other cells within the cluster to protrude. In addition, we show that Misshapen is critical to generate contractile forces both at the rear of the cluster and at the base of protrusions. Together, our results indicate that Misshapen is a key regulator of BC migration as it coordinates two independent pathways that restrict protrusion formation to the leader cells and induces contractile forces.. ...
NDLI: Actomyosin Contractility Rotates The Cell Nucleus
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KLUEDO | 92B05 General biology and biomathematics
Cell migration is essential for embryogenesis, wound healing, immune surveillance, and progression of diseases, such as cancer metastasis. For the migration to occur, cellular structures such as actomyosin cables and cell-substrate adhesion clusters must interact. As cell trajectories exhibit a random character, so must such interactions. Furthermore, migration often occurs in a crowded environment, where the collision outcome is deter- mined by altered regulation of the aforementioned structures. In this work, guided by a few fundamental attributes of cell motility, we construct a minimal stochastic cell migration model from ground-up. The resulting model couples a deterministic actomyosin contrac- tility mechanism with stochastic cell-substrate adhesion kinetics, and yields a well-defined piecewise deterministic process. The signaling pathways regulating the contractility and adhesion are considered as well. The model is extended to include cell collectives. Numer- ical simulations of single ...
Intestinal permeability (Cyrex array 2) - Embracing Nutrition & Functional Medicine
Zonulin and occulin are proteins that open up the tight junctions of the intestinal wall, regulating how permeable the gut is. Researchers first discovered zonulin while studying intestinal infection cholera. It has since been shown that gluten can trigger zonulin release and cause the gut to become more permeable in people reactive to gluten.. As the gut becomes inflamed and breaks down during leaky gut, the immune system makes antibodies to zonulin and occludin. One way to evaluate leaky gut is to test for elevated zonulin-occludin antibodies.. Actomyosin antibodies are an indicator of intestinal destruction. Actomyosin is a complex of proteins that make up muscle fibres and contributes to contractions in the intestine. Antibodies to actomyosin signal a breakdown of the membrane lining the digestive tract and hence leaky gut.. Actomyosin antibodies indicate gut damage is severe enough to break through the cells, not just open the spaces between cells. This type of damage takes longer to ...
Discovery of α-N-trimethylalanine in myosin light chains and its role in actomyosin interaction | Biochemical Society...
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An abnormal adherence of monocytes to fibronectin in thyroid autoimmunity has consequences for cell polarization and the...
Blood monocytes of patients with thyroid autoimmune disease (TAID) display defects in rearranging their cortical actomyosin cytoskeleton (polarize) in response to chemoattractants. Such rearrangements also take place after the adherence of monocytes to the extracellular matrix (ECM). It is therefo …
Spatial localisation of actin filaments across developmental stages of the malaria parasite
Actin dynamics have been implicated in a variety of developmental processes during the malaria parasite lifecycle. Parasite motility, in particular, is thought to critically depend on an actomyosin motor located in the outer pellicle of the parasite cell. Efforts to understand the diverse roles acti …
Frmd6 - FERM domain-containing protein 6 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Frmd6 gene & protein
apical junction complex, cytoskeleton, structural constituent of cytoskeleton, actomyosin structure organization, apical constriction, cellular protein localization, regulation of actin filament-based process
Background Cellular contractility, important for cell proliferation and movement, is certainly - Small Molecule Inhibitors of...
Background Cellular contractility, important for cell proliferation and movement, is certainly controlled by microtubules, Actomyosin and RhoA. natural phenomena such as cytokinesis, motion, difference and substrate adherence. These obvious adjustments in cell form are accomplished by modulation of the cytoskeleton, most the actin cytoskeleton significantly, through pushes produced by the actomyosin network. This network can be controlled primarily through the activity of aminoacids from the Rho-GTPase family members that regulate both actin nucleation and myosin activity through downstream effectors such as mDia and Rock and roll (Rho kinase), respectively (evaluated by , , ). Cell contractility can be typically accomplished by localised service of Myosin II Light String (MLC) by its phosphorylation on Ser19. This phosphorylation, which causes contractions of the actin network by Myosin II is regulated by various MLC kinases and Myosin phosphatase (MYP). This 329932-55-0 site is ...
New type of protein-protein interaction
New type of protein-protein interaction: actomyosin gels interact in a THRESHOLD manner. For details see the following paper: V.V.Matveev. Evidence of a new type of protein-protein interaction: desensitized actomyosin blocks Ca2+-sensitivity of the natural one. A possible model for an intracellular signalling system related to actin filaments. Physiological Chemistry Physics & Medical NMR, 32: 167-179, 2000. ABSTRACT see here: http://members.nbci.com/vm_spb/actomyosin/signal.htm Sent via Deja.com http://www.deja.com/ Before you buy ...
Cooperation Between the Septins and the Actomyosin Ring and Role of a Cell-integrity Pathway During Cell Division in Fission...
The Genetics Society of America (GSA), founded in 1931, is the professional membership organization for scientific researchers and educators in the field of genetics. Our members work to advance knowledge in the basic mechanisms of inheritance, from the molecular to the population level.. Online ISSN: 1943-2631. ...
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My group develops and uses advanced imaging technologies (e.g., photoactivation, FRAP, single particle tracking, multispectral unmixing and PALM) to study the complexity of cell behaviors (e.g., cell crawling, polarity, cytokinesis, viral budding and intercellular transfer) and dynamism of subcellular organelles (e.g., ER, mitochondria, Golgi, endosomes, lysosomes, actomyosin filaments, microtubules, autophagosomes, peroxisomes and cilia) under both healthy and pathological conditions.. Keywords: Organelle dynamics / ER / mitochondria / Golgi / peroxisomes / lipid droplets / actin / secretory pathway / autophagy / super resolution imaging / multispectral imaging / single molecule tracking / HIV budding / ESCRTs. Subject area(s): Membranes & Transport , Proteins & Biochemistry , Structural Biology & Biophysics. ...
Polyclonal antibody for PPP1R12A detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: Flow Cytometry. Reactive species: Human. PPP1R12A information: Molecular Weight: 115281 MW; Subcellular Localization: Cytoplasm . Along actomyosin filaments an
OPUS 4 | Search
A wide variety of cell types exhibit substrate topography-based behavior, also known as contact guidance. However, the precise cellular mechanisms underlying this process are still unknown. In this study, we investigated contact guidance by studying the reaction of human endothelial cells (ECs) to well-defined microgroove topographies, both during and after initial cell spreading. As the cytoskeleton plays a major role in cellular adaptation to topographical features, two methods were used to perturb cytoskeletal structures. Inhibition of actomyosin contractility with the chemical inhibitor blebbistatatin demonstrated that initial contact guidance events are independent of traction force generation. However, cell alignment to the grooved substrate was altered at later time points, suggesting an initial passive phase of contact guidance, followed by a contractility-dependent active phase that relies on mechanosensitive feedback. The actin cytoskeleton was also perturbed in an indirect manner ...
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Kumar, Abhishek and Maitra, Ananyo and Sumit, Madhuresh and Ramaswamy, Sriram and Shivashankar, G. V. (2014) Actomyosin contractility rotates the cell nucleus. In: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 4 . ...
The protein model of signal transduction
The protein model of signal transduction system based on actin cytoskeleton. V.V.Matveev. Evidence of a new type of protein-protein interaction: desensitized actomyosin blocks Ca2+-sensitivity of the natural one. A possible model for an intracellular signalling system related to actin filaments. Physiological Chemistry Physics & Medical NMR, 32: 167-179, 2000. ABSTRACT see here: http://members.nbci.com/vm_spb/actomyosin/signal.htm Sent via Deja.com http://www.deja.com/ Before you buy ...
1703.04395] Maximal fluctuations of confined actomyosin gels: dynamics of the cell nucleus
Abstract: We investigate the effect of stress fluctuations on the stochastic dynamics of an inclusion embedded in a viscous gel. We show that, in non-equilibrium systems, stress fluctuations give rise to an effective attraction towards the boundaries of the confining domain, which is reminiscent of an active Casimir effect. We apply this generic result to the dynamics of deformations of the cell nucleus and we demonstrate the appearance of a fluctuation maximum at a critical level of activity, in agreement with recent experiments [E. Makhija, D. S. Jokhun, and G. V. Shivashankar, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113, E32 (2016 ...
S pombe Rng2 protein Summary Report | CureHunter
S pombe Rng2 protein: a component of the actomyosin ring and the spindle pole body; homologous to S cerevisiae IQG1 protein; amino acid sequence in first source
The cell cortex | Charras Lab
What is actomyosin cortex? The cell cortex is a thin (~0.1 µm thick) network of actin filaments and actin-binding proteins that underlies the plasma membrane in most eukaryotic cells. The cortex is the main determinant of cell shape and therefore plays a fundamental role in processes such as cell division, migration, and tissue morphogenesis. Despite…
LEFT OVER LIGHT by jacques seronde (Paperback) - Lulu
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HER LIGHT by Thomas Weatherspoon (Paperback) - Lulu
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Correlation between myosin heavy chain expression and actomyosin atpase activity in human muscle fibers<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Correlation between myosin heavy chain expression and actomyosin atpase activity in human muscle fibers. AU - Proctor, David Nathan. AU - Joyner, M. J.. AU - Sieck, G. C.. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - The myosin heavy chain (MHC) is the site of ATP hydrolysis during crossbridge cycling; therefore, a correlation should exist between MHC isoform expression and actomyosin ATPase activity in human muscle fibers. Needle biopsies were obtained from the quadriceps femoris of 5 sedentary subjects (21-43 yr). Fibers were classified histochemicalîy and also on the basis of MHC isoform immunoreactivity. Calcium-activated actomyosin ATPase activity of muscle fibers (20 fibers per type) was determined in alternate serial sections using a quantitative histochemical procedure (Blanco & Sieck, Histochem J. 24: 431-444, 1992}. The mean actomyosin ATPase activity (mmol Pi/ liter tissue/min) of type I fibers (52.8±6.1) was two-fold lower (p,0.05) than that of type Ha (102.1 + 13.3) and type IIx ...
Lecture | Page 7 | Tartu Ülikooli molekulaar- ja rakubioloogia instituut
Prof Pekka Lappalainen, Helsingi Ülikooli Biotehnoloogia Instituudi teadusdirektor. Seminari teema: Assembly of contractile actomyosin bundles in migrating cells. Seminari toetab Biomeditsiini ja biotehnoloogia doktorikool ASTRA meetme kaudu (Euroopa Liidu Regionaalarengu Fond). ...
MAGIs regulate aPKC to enable balanced distribution of intercellular tension for epithelial sheet homeostasis<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - MAGIs regulate aPKC to enable balanced distribution of intercellular tension for epithelial sheet homeostasis. AU - Matsuzawa, Kenji. AU - Ohga, Hayato. AU - Shigetomi, Kenta. AU - Shiiya, Tomohiro. AU - Hirashima, Masanori. AU - Ikenouchi, Junichi. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2021, The Author(s).. PY - 2021/12. Y1 - 2021/12. N2 - Constriction of the apical plasma membrane is a hallmark of epithelial cells that underlies cell shape changes in tissue morphogenesis and maintenance of tissue integrity in homeostasis. Contractile force is exerted by a cortical actomyosin network that is anchored to the plasma membrane by the apical junctional complexes (AJC). In this study, we present evidence that MAGI proteins, structural components of AJC whose function remained unclear, regulate apical constriction of epithelial cells through the Par polarity proteins. We reveal that MAGIs are required to uniformly distribute Partitioning defective-3 (Par-3) at AJC of cells throughout the ...
Terminal web - Biology-Online Dictionary
The terminal web is a zone or a region located at the base of the microvilli in certain specialized epithelial cells (such as intestinal epithelial cells). The name is derived from the web (meshwork) of microfilaments that compose this region. The web of microfilaments is from the bundles of apical filaments at the core of a microvillus as well as from adherens junctions in myosin and in other proteins characteristic of an actomyosin motor system. The actin filaments in the terminal web are stabilized by spectrin. They anchor the terminal web to the apical cell membrane. The contractile ability of the terminal web is due to the presence of myosin II and tropomyosin. It is observed that the contraction at the terminal web results in the decrease in the diameter of the apex of the cell. This, in turn, causes the microvilli to spread apart, which is essential during absorption.1,2,3 ...
YAP1 gene - Genetics Home Reference - NIH
Isoform 2 and isoform 3 can activate the C-terminal fragment (CTF) of ERBB4 (isoform 3).. Transcriptional regulator which can act both as a coactivator and a corepressor and is the critical downstream regulatory target in the Hippo signaling pathway that plays a pivotal role in organ size control and tumor suppression by restricting proliferation and promoting apoptosis (PubMed:17974916, PubMed:18280240, PubMed:18579750, PubMed:21364637, PubMed:30447097). The core of this pathway is composed of a kinase cascade wherein STK3/MST2 and STK4/MST1, in complex with its regulatory protein SAV1, phosphorylates and activates LATS1/2 in complex with its regulatory protein MOB1, which in turn phosphorylates and inactivates YAP1 oncoprotein and WWTR1/TAZ (PubMed:18158288). Plays a key role in tissue tension and 3D tissue shape by regulating cortical actomyosin network formation. Acts via ARHGAP18, a Rho GTPase activating protein that suppresses F-actin polymerization (PubMed:25778702). Plays a key role to ...
Cytokinesis in development and disease: Variations on a common theme<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cytokinesis in development and disease. T2 - Variations on a common theme. AU - Li, R.. PY - 2007/12. Y1 - 2007/12. N2 - Cytokinesis is a crucial step in cell proliferation, and remarkably, it is also an important mechanism for developmental regulation in the generation of diverse cell types in eukaryotic organisms. Successful cytokinesis relies on the assembly and activation of an actomyosin-based contractile ring and membrane deposition/fusion in a spatially and temporally precise manner. As such, the molecular pathways governing cytokinesis are highly complex, involving a large number of components forming intricate interactive networks. The complexity of this system, however, may have also provided a rich platform for evolutionary tinkering to achieve specific morphogenetic and developmental outcomes. Furthermore, failed or altered cytokinesis appears to contribute to the development of cancer in unexpected ways.. AB - Cytokinesis is a crucial step in cell proliferation, ...
Diabetes: new hope for better wound healing
Parisa Kakanj, the author of the study, examined the skin of larvae of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. These flies serve as models for diabetes, because insulin metabolism has been strongly conserved over the course of evolution, meaning that flies and mammals are very similar in this respect. Using a precision laser, Kakanj removed a cell from the outermost skin layer of fruit fly larvae and then observed what happens in the neighbouring cells live under the microscope.. Immediately after a skin injury, the neighbouring cells respond by forming an actomyosin cable, Kakanj explains. The cable consists of proteins that otherwise occur in muscle fibres, where they are responsible for muscular contraction. After an injury, the cable forms a contractile ring around the wound. It then contracts, sealing off the gap caused by the wound. However, if insulin metabolism is impaired, as in our genetically modified flies, the cable is weaker and forms much later. This results in incomplete or ...
Epithelial repair is a two-stage process driven first by dying cells and then by their neighbours | Journal of Cell Science
Epithelial cells maintain an essential barrier despite continuously undergoing mitosis and apoptosis. Biological and biophysical mechanisms have evolved to remove dying cells while maintaining that barrier. Cell extrusion is thought to be driven by a multicellular filamentous actin ring formed by neighbouring cells, the contraction of which provides the mechanical force for extrusion, with little or no contribution from the dying cell. Here, we use live confocal imaging, providing time-resolved three-dimensional observations of actomyosin dynamics, to reveal new mechanical roles for dying cells in their own extrusion from monolayers. Based on our observations, the clearance of dying cells can be subdivided into two stages. The first, previously unidentified, stage is driven by the dying cell, which exerts tension on its neighbours through the action of a cortical contractile F-actin and myosin ring at the cell apex. The second stage, consistent with previous studies, is driven by a multicellular ...
The tiny GTPase Rac1 continues to be implicated in the dissemination - HDAC Inhibition for the Disruption of Latent HIV-1...
The tiny GTPase Rac1 continues to be implicated in the dissemination and formation of tumours. and invasion play a significant role in a variety of physiological functions such as for example embryonic development immune system cell replies and wound recovery. Furthermore aberrant legislation of cell motility is certainly associated with tumour progression with an increase of cell migration and invasion marking an integral part of metastasis the main cause of loss of life in cancer sufferers1 2 Research centered on deciphering the root mechanisms involved with cell migration and invasion possess identified five crucial guidelines that govern the mesenchymal-mode of single-cell motility: (1) front-rear polarization; (2) membrane protrusion on the industry leading; (3) cell-extra-cellular matrix (ECM) adhesion; (4) actomyosin contractility; and (5) detachment from the cell back3 4 Provided the mandatory interplay between your actin cytoskeleton cell-ECM adhesions and myosin electric motor ...
Specificities of β1 integrin signaling in the control of cell adhesion and adhesive strength. - Inserm
Cells exert actomyosin contractility and cytoskeleton-dependent force in response to matrix stiffness cues. Cells dynamically adapt to force by modifying their behavior and remodeling their microenvironment. This adaptation is favored by integrin activation switch and their ability to modulate their clustering and the assembly of an intracellular hub in response to force. Indeed integrins are mechanoreceptors and mediate mechanotransduction by transferring forces to specific adhesion proteins into focal adhesions which are sensitive to tension and activate intracellular signals. α(5)β(1) integrin is considered of major importance for the formation of an elaborate meshwork of fibronectin fibrils and for the extracellular matrix deposition and remodeling. Here we summarize recent progress in the study of mechanisms regulating the activation cycle of β(1) integrin and the specificity of α(5)β(1) integrin in mechanotransduction.
Nature - June 2014
Malignancy is associated with altered expression of glycans and glycoproteins that contribute to the cellular glycocalyx. We constructed a glycoprotein expression signature, which revealed that metastatic tumors upregulate expression of bulky glycoproteins. A computational model predicted that these glycoproteins would influence transmembrane receptor spatial organization and function. We tested this prediction by investigating whether a bulky glycocalyx promotes a tumor phenotype by increasing integrin adhesion and signaling. Data revealed that a bulky glycocalyx facilitates integrin clustering by funneling active integrins into adhesions and altering integrin state by applying tension to matrix-bound integrins, independent of actomyosin contractility. Expression of large tumor-associated glycoproteins in non-transformed mammary cells promoted focal adhesion assembly and facilitated integrin-dependent growth factor signaling to support cell growth and survival. Clinical studies revealed that ...
Frontiers | MYBPC1, an Emerging Myopathic Gene: What We Know and What We Need to Learn | Physiology
Myosin Binding Protein-C (MyBP-C) comprises a family of accessory proteins that includes the cardiac, slow skeletal, and fast skeletal isoforms. The three isoforms share structural and sequence homology, and localize at the C-zone of the sarcomeric A-band where they interact with thick and thin filaments to regulate the cycling of actomyosin crossbridges. The cardiac isoform, encoded by MYBPC3, has been extensively studied over the last several decades due to its high mutational rate in congenital hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathy. It is only recently, however, that the MYBPC1 gene encoding the slow skeletal isoform (sMyBP-C) has gained attention. Accordingly, during the last five years it has been shown that MYBPC1 undergoes extensive exon shuffling resulting in the generation of multiple slow variants, which are co-expressed in different combinations and amounts in both slow and fast skeletal muscles. The sMyBP-C variants are subjected to PKA- and PKC-mediated phosphorylation in constitutive and
QuimP | BISE
Summary. QuimP is software for tracking cellular shape changes and dynamic distributions of fluorescent reporters at the cell membrane. QuimPs unique selling point is the possibility to aggregate data from many cells in form of spatio-temporal maps of dynamic events, independently of cell size and shape. QuimP has been successfully applied to address a wide range of problems related to cell movement in many different cell types. Introduction. In transmembrane signalling the cell membrane plays a fundamental role in localising intracellular signalling components to specific sites of action, for example to reorganise the actomyosin cortex during cell polarisation and locomotion. The localisation of different components can be directly or indirectly visualised using fluorescence microscopy, for high-throughput screening commonly in 2D. A quantitative understanding demands segmentation and tracking of whole cells and fluorescence signals associated with the moving cell boundary, for example those ...
Working model of vertex ring assembly. See text for det | Open-i
Working model of vertex ring assembly. See text for details. Solid black arrows indicate a strict hierarchical requirement for vertex enrichment. Dotted arrows
Actomyosin filaments. In many organisms, the force that drives furrow ingression is the assembly and contraction of ... The contractile ring is a very dynamic structure in which actomyosin filaments are continuously assembled and disassembled. The ... actomyosin filaments that often form a contractile ring. ...
Kumar, Abhishek; Maitra, Ananyo; Sumit, Madhuresh; Ramaswamy, Sriram; Shivashankar, G. V. (21 January 2014). "Actomyosin ...
acto-myosin colocalization microscopy effective at 100 μM  C. elegans nonmuscle myosin-2 ventral enclosure effective at 100 ... Blebbistatin inhibits myosin ATPase activity and this way acto-myosin based motility. It binds halfway between the nucleotide ... This type of inhibition relaxes the acto-myosin myofilaments and leads to several biological effects. ...
Myosin binding protein C, cardiac
Moos C, Feng IN (Oct 1980). "Effect of C-protein on actomyosin ATPase". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects ...
Moos C, Feng IN (October 1980). "Effect of C-protein on actomyosin ATPase". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General ...
In the process, she co-discovered actomyosin. In order to get myosin to analyze, Banga extracted it from rabbit muscles - she ... Ilona Banga (1906-1998) was a Hungarian biochemist known for co-discovering actomyosin and working to characterize how actin ... describe their groundbreaking experiments leading to the discovery of actomyosin I Studies from the Institute of Medical ...
Transforming protein RhoA
ROCK kinases induce actomyosin-based contractility and phosphorylate TAU and MAP2 involved in regulating myosins and other ... RhoA is prevalent in regulating cell shape, polarity and locomotion via actin polymerization, actomyosin contractility, cell ... Cytokinesis is defined by actomyosin-based contraction. RhoA-dependent diaphanous-related formins (DRFs) localize to the ... mostly actin stress fibers formation and actomyosin contractility. It acts upon several effectors. Among them, ROCK1 (Rho- ...
subscription required) Cantelli, Gaia (2016). Transcriptional programs controlling actomyosin contractility in melanoma. ethos. ...
Sliding filament theory
By the end of the 1940s Szent-Györgyi's team had postulated with evidence that contraction of actomyosin was equivalent to ... However, in one of his last contributions to muscle research, Szent-Györgyi demonstrated that actomyosin driven by ATP was the ... Cross-bridge theory states that actin and myosin form a protein complex (classically called actomyosin) by attachment of myosin ... Szent-Györgyi, A (1949). "Free-energy relations and contraction of actomyosin". The Biological Bulletin. 96 (2): 140-161. doi: ...
Edwin W. Taylor
The actomyosin ATP hydrolysis cycle in muscle motility was intended to show a direct correlation in the regulation of ATP ... He found the dissociation of phosphate in the actomyosin mechanism to be a slow rate-limiting step, while this step occurred ... Aware that ATP was hydrolyzed in the polymerization of actin, Taylor was confused on whether it dissociated actomyosin through ... Rosenfeld, S. S.; Taylor, E. W. (1987-07-25). "The mechanism of regulation of actomyosin subfragment 1 ATPase". The Journal of ...
Korn, ED (1978). "Biochemistry of actomyosin-dependent cell motility (a review)". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
TnI inhibits ATP-ase activity of acto-myosin; TnC is a Ca2+-binding subunit, playing the main role in Ca2+ dependent regulation ...
1985). "ADP dissociation from actomyosin subfragment 1 is sufficiently slow to limit the unloaded shortening velocity in ... 1997). "Kinetics of nucleoside triphosphate cleavage and phosphate release steps by associated rabbit skeletal actomyosin, ... 1971). "Mechanism of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis by actomyosin". Biochemistry. 10 (25): 4617-4624. doi:10.1021/ ...
The source of cytoskeletal traction is actomyosin contractility. Increased external stiffness leads to a signal transduction ... actomyosin contractility, and cytoskeletal organization. As a result, these changes can cause a cell to rearrange its ...
Actin, alpha 1
Inhibition of actomyosin MgATPase and regulation by phosphorylation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 265 (17): 10148-55. ...
"Myosin cleft movement and its coupling to actomyosin dissociation". Nature Structural & Molecular Biology. 10 (10): 831-835. ...
Wolfenson, H.; Bershadsky, A.; Henis, Y. I.; Geiger, B. (2011). "Actomyosin-generated tension controls the molecular kinetics ...
Due to its importance in mitosis, the molecular components and dynamics of the mitotic actomyosin cortex is an area of active ... Matthews HK, Delabre U, Rohn JL, Guck J, Kunda P, Baum B (August 2012). "Changes in Ect2 localization couple actomyosin- ... Rounding forces are driven by reorganization of F-actin and myosin (actomyosin) into a contractile homogeneous cell cortex that ... Stewart MP, Helenius J, Toyoda Y, Ramanathan SP, Muller DJ, Hyman AA (January 2011). "Hydrostatic pressure and the actomyosin ...
The actomyosin cortex is attached to the cell membrane via membrane-anchoring proteins called ERM proteins and it plays a ... The cell cortex, also known as the actin cortex or actomyosin cortex, is a specialized layer of cytoplasmic proteins on the ... Stewart MP, Helenius J, Toyoda Y, Ramanathan SP, Muller DJ, Hyman AA (January 2011). "Hydrostatic pressure and the actomyosin ... The surface tension produced by the actomyosin cortex activity generates intracellular hydrostatic pressure capable of ...
Yu, L.C.; Brenner, B. (March 1989). "Structures of actomyosin crossbridges in relaxed and rigor muscle fibers". Biophysical ...
These actomyosin rings invaginate to separate all nuclei for one another in the syncytial blastoderm. Anillin has a unique ... Goldbach P, Wong R, Beise N, Sarpal R, Trimble WS, Brill JA (2010). "Stabilization of the Actomyosin Ring Enables Spermatocyte ... Goldbach P, Wong R, Beise N, Sarpal R, Trimble WS, Brill JA (2010). "Stabilization of the Actomyosin Ring Enables Spermatocyte ... Anillins are also enriched at other actomyosin rings, most significantly, those at the leading edge of the Drosophila embryo ...
The actomyosin filaments of β-cells contract and release insulin. Secretion of insulin in large amounts decreases the ...
... is a major downstream effecter of the small GTPase RhoA and is a regulator of the actomyosin cytoskeleton which promotes ... In humans, the main function of ROCK1 is actomyosin contractility. As mentioned before, this contributes to many proximal ...
Stewart MP, Helenius J, Toyoda Y, Ramanathan SP, Muller DJ, Hyman AA (January 2011). "Hydrostatic pressure and the actomyosin ... actomyosin assemblies (F-actin, myosin motors, and associated binding, nucleating, capping, stabilizing, and crosslinking ...
Mitotic cell rounding
Apart from actomyosin-related genes, several disease genes have recently been implicated in mitotic cell rounding. These ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "ETH ETH E-Collection: The Mechanism of Mitotic Rounding: Role of the Actomyosin Cortex ... "Hydrostatic pressure and the actomyosin cortex drive mitotic cell rounding". Nature. 469: 226-230. doi:10.1038/nature09642. ... "Changes in Ect2 localization couple actomyosin-dependent cell shape changes to mitotic progression". Developmental Cell. 23 (2 ...
Like in Xenopus, actomyosin contractility plays a major role in constricting the apical side of the cell. The constricting ... In these cells, apical constriction occurs when actomyosin contractility folds the cell membrane to reduce the apical surface ... Lee, J.; Harland, R. M. (2007). "Actomyosin contractility and microtubules drive apical constriction in Xenopus bottle cells". ...
Deutsch A, Nilsson R (1954). "On the dephosphorylation and deamination of adenosine triphosphate by actomyosin gel". Acta Chem ...
"Plakophilin 2 couples actomyosin remodeling to desmosomal plaque assembly via RhoA". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 21 (16): ...
The oscillators produce actomyosin, a protein complex which contracts muscle tissue. Robertson-Anderson was made Chair of the ...
Actomyosin ring - Wikipedia
It is composed of actin and myosin II bundles, thus the term actomyosin. The actomyosin ring operates in contractile motion, ... 2016). Actomyosin ring driven cytokinesis in budding yeast. Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology 53:19-27. Alberts, B., A. ... In plant cells, there is no actomyosin ring. Instead, a cell plate grows centrifugally outwards from the center of the plane of ... 2016). Actomyosin Ring Formation and Tension Generation in Eukaryotic Cytokinesis. Curr Biol. 26(15):719-737. Mana-Capelli, S ...
Actomyosin | Definition of Actomyosin by Merriam-Webster
Actomyosin definition is - a contractile complex of actin and myosin that together with ATP is active during muscular ... Comments on actomyosin. What made you want to look up actomyosin? Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the ... Post the Definition of actomyosin to Facebook Share the Definition of actomyosin on Twitter ... The first known use of actomyosin was in 1942. See more words from the same year ...
Actomyosin - definition of actomyosin by The Free Dictionary
actomyosin synonyms, actomyosin pronunciation, actomyosin translation, English dictionary definition of actomyosin. n. A ... actomyosin. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to actomyosin: actin, Chloromycetin ... Actomyosin - definition of actomyosin by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/actomyosin ... actomyosin. (ˌæktəʊˈmaɪəsɪn) n. (Biochemistry) a complex protein in skeletal muscle that is formed by actin and myosin and ...
Structure of the fission yeast actomyosin ring during constriction | PNAS
Structure of the fission yeast actomyosin ring. Matthew T. Swulius, Lam T. Nguyen, Mark S. Ladinsky, Davi R. Ortega, Samya Aich ... Structure of the fission yeast actomyosin ring. Matthew T. Swulius, Lam T. Nguyen, Mark S. Ladinsky, Davi R. Ortega, Samya Aich ... The Structure of Myosin II in S. pombe Actomyosin Ring.. Our current ECT data were not able to resolve the structure of myosin ... Structure of the fission yeast actomyosin ring during constriction. Matthew T. Swulius, Lam T. Nguyen, Mark S. Ladinsky, Davi R ...
Novel intermolecular surface force reveals actomyosin driving mechanism | EurekAlert! Science News
Many attempts have thus been made to explain the molecular origin of the actomyosin motility. ... actomyosin) generates contraction force of a muscle utilizing the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis reaction. ... Novel intermolecular surface force reveals actomyosin driving mechanism. Tohoku University. Journal. Cytoskeleton. Keywords. * ... IMAGE: This is a novel force generation mechanism of actomyosin. An actin filament (F-actin) produces an electric field (black ...
Myosin cleft movement and its coupling to actomyosin dissociation. - PubMed - NCBI
Inhibitory Ca2+-Regulation of the Physarum Actomyosin System | SpringerLink
Hartshorne, D. J., and Siemankowski, R. F., 1981, Regulation of smooth muscle actomyosin, Ann. Rev. Physiol ., 43: 519.CrossRef ... Kohama K., Ebashi S. (1986) Inhibitory Ca2+-Regulation of the Physarum Actomyosin System. In: Dove W.F., Dee J., Hatano S., ... Ebashi, S., 1963, Third component participating in the superprecipitation of natural actomyosin, Nature, 200: 1010.PubMed ... Kato, T., and Tonomura, Y., 1975, Ca2+-sensitivity of actomyosin ATPase purified from Physarum polycephalum, J. Biochem ., 77: ...
Polar actomyosin contractility destabilizes the position of the cytokinetic furrow. - PubMed - NCBI
Nonequilibrium phase diagrams for actomyosin networks - Soft Matter (RSC Publishing)
Characterization of the pre-force-generation state in the actomyosin cross-bridge cycle | PNAS
We conclude that a pre-force generation ADP·Pi state is populated in the actomyosin ATPase cycle, which may be critical for the ... 2004) Coupling between phosphate release and force generation in muscle actomyosin. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 359:1913 ... Characterization of the pre-force-generation state in the actomyosin cross-bridge cycle. Mingxuan Sun, Michael B. Rose, Shobana ... 2005) Magnesium, ADP, and actin binding linkage of myosin V: Evidence for multiple myosin V-ADP and actomyosin V-ADP states. ...
Myosin Binding Protein-C: A Regulator of Actomyosin Interaction in Striated Muscle
Reconstitution of contractile actomyosin bundles
Due to the varying composition and structure of actomyosin bundles in vivo, the minimal requirements for their contraction ... Contractile actomyosin bundles are critical for numerous aspects of muscle and nonmuscle cell physiology. ... Reconstitution of contractile actomyosin bundles Biophys J. 2011 Jun 8;100(11):2698-705. doi: 10.1016/j.bpj.2011.04.031. ... Contractile actomyosin bundles are critical for numerous aspects of muscle and nonmuscle cell physiology. Due to the varying ...
Cannabinoid-induced actomyosin contractility shapes neuronal morphology and growth. | Sigma-Aldrich
Cannabinoid-induced actomyosin contractility shapes neuronal morphology and growth.. [Alexandre B Roland, Ana Ricobaraza, ... Our results suggest that CB1R can rapidly transform the neuronal cytoskeleton through actomyosin contractility, resulting in ... dependent contraction of the actomyosin cytoskeleton, through a Rho-GTPase and Rho-associated kinase (ROCK). This induces rapid ...
Actomyosin organization in stationary and migrating sheets of cultured human endothelial cells
Myosin IIA-related Actomyosin Contractility Mediates Oxidative Stress-induced Neuronal Apoptosis. | Sigma-Aldrich
Disordered actomyosin contracts in unexpected ways
It is often assumed that this simple sliding is sufficient to account for all actomyosin-based motion. While this is correct in ... our highly organized striated muscle, we question the application of this dogma to less ordered actomyosin systems, thus ... It is often assumed that this simple sliding is sufficient to account for all actomyosin-based motion. While this is correct in ... our highly organized striated muscle, we question the application of this dogma to less ordered actomyosin systems, thus ...
RCSB PDB - 5JLH: Cryo-EM structure of a human cytoplasmic actomyosin complex at near-atomic resolution
Cryo-EM structure of a human cytoplasmic actomyosin complex at near-atomic resolution.. Ecken, J.V., Heissler, S.M., Pathan- ... Cryo-EM structure of a human cytoplasmic actomyosin complex at near-atomic resolution. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb5JLH/pdb ... Here, using electron cryomicroscopy, we present the structure of a human rigor actomyosin complex at an average resolution of ... The structure reveals details of the actomyosin interface, which is mainly stabilized by hydrophobic interactions. The ...
Cells | Free Full-Text | Actomyosin Contractility in the Generation and Plasticity of Axons and Dendritic Spines
Consequently, possible roles of actomyosin contraction in organizing and maintaining structural properties of dendritic spines ... recent findings involving myosin localization and function in these compartments and to discuss possible roles for actomyosin ... Actomyosin Contractility in the Generation and Plasticity of Axons and Dendritic Spines by Marina Mikhaylova 1,2,*. , Jakob ... "Actomyosin Contractility in the Generation and Plasticity of Axons and Dendritic Spines." Cells 9, no. 9: 2006. ...
PCP and Septins Compartmentalize Cortical Actomyosin to Direct Collective Cell Movement | Science
Sculpting Actomyosin. The sculpting of embryos during development involves coordinated movement of cells in large groups. How ... PCP and Septins Compartmentalize Cortical Actomyosin to Direct Collective Cell Movement Message Subject. (Your Name) has ... Despite our understanding of actomyosin function in individual migrating cells, we know little about the mechanisms by which ... By directing septin-mediated compartmentalization of cortical actomyosin, PCP proteins coordinate the specific shortening of ...
APS -APS March Meeting 2016 - Event - Molecular Simulations of Actomyosin Network Self-Assembly and Remodeling
Actomyosin network growth and remodeling in vivo is based on a large number of chemical and mechanical processes, which are ... Actomyosin networks are an integral part of the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells and play an essential role in determining ... Abstract: S38.00003 : Molecular Simulations of Actomyosin Network Self-Assembly and Remodeling*. 12:03 PM-12:15 PM ... Our simulations reveal how different actomyosin micro-architectures emerge in response to varying the network composition. ...
Involvement of an Actomyosin Contractile Ring in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cytokinesis | JCB
Involvement of an Actomyosin Contractile Ring in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cytokinesis Erfei Bi, Paul Maddox, Daniel J. Lew, E.D ... Involvement of an Actomyosin Contractile Ring in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cytokinesis Erfei Bi, Paul Maddox, Daniel J. Lew, E.D ... The actomyosin ring then contracts to a point and disappears. In the absence of F-actin, the Myo1p ring does not contract. ... Thus, the contractile actomyosin ring is not essential for cytokinesis in S. cerevisiae. In its absence, cytokinesis can still ...
Frontiers | Myosin IIA-related Actomyosin Contractility Mediates Oxidative Stress-induced Neuronal Apoptosis | Frontiers in...
The actomyosin system is considered to be responsible for the morphological changes, but how exactly it regulates oxidative ... Based on our observation, myosin IIA-actin complex contributes to actomyosin contractility and is associated with the positive ... The actomyosin system is considered to be responsible for the morphological changes, but how exactly it regulates oxidative ... Myosin IIA-related Actomyosin Contractility Mediates Oxidative Stress-induced Neuronal Apoptosis. Yan Wang1, Yingqiong Xu1, ...
Fission Yeast Actomyosin Ring Integrity | Learn & Share | Leica Microsystems
The Tem1 small GTPase controls actomyosin and septin dynamics during cytokinesis | Journal of Cell Science
Tem1p is not required for the assembly of the actomyosin ring but controls actomyosin and septin dynamics during cytokinesis. ... The Tem1 small GTPase controls actomyosin and septin dynamics during cytokinesis. J. Lippincott, K.B. Shannon, W. Shou, R.J. ... The Tem1 small GTPase controls actomyosin and septin dynamics during cytokinesis. J. Lippincott, K.B. Shannon, W. Shou, R.J. ... The Tem1 small GTPase controls actomyosin and septin dynamics during cytokinesis. J. Lippincott, K.B. Shannon, W. Shou, R.J. ...
Centering and symmetry breaking in confined contracting actomyosin networks | eLife
Novel mechanisms for cellular centering and symmetry breaking involving persistent contractile actomyosin flows and their ... This is because bulk actomyosin contractility is controlled by the cell cycle. The authors should discuss that and cite at ... The manuscript by Ierushalmi et al., proposes a new mechanism for centering and positioning inside large cells by actomyosin ... In these conditions, self-organized contractile actomyosin structures are generated. The authors propose that this system could ...
Cooperation Between the Septins and the Actomyosin Ring and Role of a Cell-integrity Pathway During Cell Division in Fission...
Cooperation Between the Septins and the Actomyosin Ring and Role of a Cell-integrity Pathway During Cell Division in Fission ... Cooperation Between the Septins and the Actomyosin Ring and Role of a Cell-integrity Pathway During Cell Division in Fission ... Cooperation Between the Septins and the Actomyosin Ring and Role of a Cell-integrity Pathway During Cell Division in Fission ... Cooperation Between the Septins and the Actomyosin Ring and Role of a Cell-integrity Pathway During Cell Division in Fission ...
Novel intermolecular surface force reveals actomyosin dri...
Novel intermolecular surface force reveals actomyosin driving mechanism The actin and myosin complex (actomyosin) generates ... Many attempts have thus been made to explain the molecular origin of the actomyosin motility. A myosin power stroke model, ... The actin and myosin complex (actomyosin) generates contraction force of a muscle utilizing the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ... This article is, therefore, the first to successfully unveil the actomyosin driving mechanism by introducing a novel ...
Theory on active stress in an actomyosin network • AG Netz • Department of Physics
APS -APS March Meeting 2018 - Event - Dynamic Balance between Force Generation and Relaxation Facilitates Pulsatile Contraction...
We found that the strong pulsatile contraction of actomyosin networks only occurs when there is subtle balance between force ... Actomyosin contractility regulates various biological processes including cell migration, muscle contraction, and tissue ... Cell cortex underlying a membrane, which is a representative actomyosin network in eukaryote cells, exhibits dynamic ... While contractile behaviors of actomyosin machinery have been studied extensively in several in vitro experiments and ...
MEDYAN: Mechanochemical Simulations of Contraction and Polarity Alignment in Actomyosin Networks
CytoskeletonMuscle contractionConstrictionRegulatesATPaseProteinsIntermolecular surface force reveals actomyosinDrosophilaControls actomyosinStructuralFissionMechanismCortexCryopreserved actomyosin ringsContracting actomyosin networksMorphogenesisCytokinesisCellularRegulationPlanar cell polContractionsDynamics of actomyosinContributes to actomyosinContraction of actomyosinAffect actomyosinRegulate actomyosinContractility playsCortical actomyosinCellsComplex of actin and myosinEmbryonicCytokineticEukaryotesActin filamentMotilityInteractionRoleMechanicalElegansVivoRigorCell adhesionProteinFunctional
- This activity is lost when the authors manipulate the actomyosin cytoskeleton in both whole embryos and clonal populations, indicating that the pathway responds to mechanical cues in a cell-autonomous manner. (thefreedictionary.com)
- We report atypical coupling of neuronal CB1Rs, after activation by endo- or exocannabinoids such as the marijuana component ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, to heterotrimeric G12/G13 proteins that triggers rapid and reversible non-muscle myosin II (NM II) dependent contraction of the actomyosin cytoskeleton, through a Rho-GTPase and Rho-associated kinase (ROCK). (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Our results suggest that CB1R can rapidly transform the neuronal cytoskeleton through actomyosin contractility, resulting in cellular remodeling events ultimately able to affect the brain architecture and wiring. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Actomyosin networks are an integral part of the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells and play an essential role in determining cellular shape and movement. (aps.org)
- The appearance of an actomyosin cytoskeleton is considered a key evolutionary event in the creation of eukaryotic cells ( Cavalier-Smith, 2002 , 1975 ). (biologists.org)
- The actomyosin cytoskeleton is a primary force-generating mechanism in morphogenesis, thus a robust spatial control of cytoskeletal positioning is essential. (uib.no)
- The actin cytoskeleton microfilament is an actomyosin (a complex of actin filament and myosin ATPases)-based contractile apparatus which is associated with a number of other actin- or myosin-binding proteins. (asm.org)
- However, it is also clear that the actomyosin cytoskeleton itself-whether through the activity of protrusions, at the cell cortex, or elsewhere in the cell-generates contractile forces that could influence signaling. (biomedcentral.com)
- Phagocytes use their actomyosin cytoskeleton to migrate as well as to probe their environment by phagocytosis or macropinocytosis. (rupress.org)
- Using a combination of time-lapse microscopy, immunocytochemistry, and biochemical techniques, we demonstrate that LPA stimulates profound changes in astrocyte morphology that are due to effects on the actomyosin cytoskeleton. (elsevier.com)
- We demonstrate that activation of TRPM7 by bradykinin leads to a Ca(2+)- and kinase-dependent interaction with the actomyosin cytoskeleton. (ru.nl)
- To this end, we have analysed the role of α-Catenin, a key molecule linking E-Cadherin-based adhesion and the actomyosin cytoskeleton, during Drosophila embryonic dorsal closure, by studying a newly developed allelic series. (cf.ac.uk)
- Actomyosin contractility regulates various biological processes including cell migration, muscle contraction, and tissue morphogenesis. (aps.org)
- The actomyosin molecular motor, the motor composed of myosin II and actin filament, is responsible for muscle contraction, converting chemical energy into mechanical work. (elsevier.com)
- To understand the basic mechanism of muscle contraction, specifically the actomyosin interaction driven by ATP hydrolysis, mechanical manifestation, energy supply, and muscle fatigue. (essaymine.com)
- The actomyosin ring follows an orderly sequence of events: identification of the active division site, formation of the ring, constriction of the ring, and disassembly of the ring. (wikipedia.org)
- The actomyosin ring operates in contractile motion, although the mechanism on how or what triggers the constriction is still an evolving topic. (wikipedia.org)
- Apart from cytokinesis, in which the ring constricts as the cells divide (Figure 2), actomyosin ring constriction has also been found to activate during wound closure. (wikipedia.org)
- Rho-kinases) during telophase initiates constriction of the actomyosin ring by creating a groove that migrates in an inward motion. (wikipedia.org)
- Although studies of cytokinetic mechanics mostly focus on the equatorial constriction ring, a contractile actomyosin cortex is also present at the poles of dividing cells. (nih.gov)
- Cytokinesis, or the division of the cytoplasm, following the end of mitosis or meiosis, is accomplished in animal cells, fungi and amoebae, by the constriction of an actomyosin contractile ring, comprising filamentous actin, myosin II and associated proteins. (gla.ac.uk)
- Apical constriction is thought to be triggered by contraction of apical actomyosin networks. (unc.edu)
- Apical constriction is generally driven by contraction of apical actomyosin networks ( 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
- In the Wieschaus lab, I discovered that apical constriction is driven by pulsed actomyosin contractions, which incrementally constrict the cell. (grantome.com)
- Background All eukaryotes with the exception of plants use an actomyosin ring to generate a constriction force at the site of cell division (cleavage furrow) during mitosis and meiosis. (kn-62.com)
- The actomyosin system is considered to be responsible for the morphological changes, but how exactly it regulates oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis and the distinctive functions of different myosin II isoforms remain unclear. (frontiersin.org)
- Trpml is needed for both hemocyte migration and phagocytic processing at distinct subcellular localizations: Trpml regulates hemocyte migration by controlling actomyosin contractility at the cell rear, whereas its role in phagocytic processing lies near the phagocytic cup in a myosin-independent fashion. (rupress.org)
- Our imaging approach thus unveils a force-generating actomyosin lattice that regulates secretion in the exocrine organs of live animals. (elsevier.com)
- Actomyosin contractility regulates various cell biological processes including cytokinesis, adhesion and migration. (ru.nl)
- α-Catenin controls actomyosin dynamics by stabilising and promoting the formation of actomyosin foci, and also stabilises DE-Cadherin (Drosophila E-Cadherin, also known as Shotgun) at the cell membrane, suggesting that medioapical actomyosin contractility regulates junction stability. (cf.ac.uk)
- During mammalian development, PTK7 regulates epithelial morphogenesis and planar cell polarity (PCP) through modulation of actomyosin contractility, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. (edu.kz)
- Xestoquinone, a novel cardiotonic agent activates actomyosin ATPase to enhance contractility of skinned cardiac or skeletal muscle fibers. (aspetjournals.org)
- Binding modes of decavanadate to myosin and inhibition of the actomyosin ATPase activity. (ualg.pt)
- The inhibition could be interpreted as a results of impairing of one of the interactions necessary for normal progression of actomyosin ATPase reaction. (springer.com)
- therefore, a correlation should exist between MHC isoform expression and actomyosin ATPase activity in human muscle fibers. (elsevier.com)
- These results suggest that MHC isoform expression is the major determinant of actomyosin ATPase activity in human muscle fibers. (elsevier.com)
- The similar variance in actomyosin ATPase activity across fiber types further suggests that activation history does not play a major role in determining actomyosin ATPase activity. (elsevier.com)
- Proctor, DN , Joyner, MJ & Sieck, GC 1996, ' Correlation between myosin heavy chain expression and actomyosin atpase activity in human muscle fibers ', FASEB Journal , vol. 10, no. 3. (elsevier.com)
- The dominant myofibrillar proteins are in the form of actomyosin for post-rigor muscles . (thefreedictionary.com)
- Among different proteins, myofibrillar proteins (myosin and actomyosin ) mainly contribute to physicochemical, functional and rheological properties which ultimately determine the eating quality. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Working with developing Xenopus mesoderm, Shindo and Wallingford (p. 649 ) found that planar cell polarity proteins and septins interface with the actomyosin machinery to control collective cell movement. (sciencemag.org)
- By directing septin-mediated compartmentalization of cortical actomyosin, PCP proteins coordinate the specific shortening of mesenchymal cell-cell contacts, which in turn powers cell interdigitation. (sciencemag.org)
- In this work, we applied MEDYAN to investigate a contractile actomyosin network consisting of actin filaments, alpha-actinin cross-linking proteins, and non-muscle myosin IIA mini-filaments. (umd.edu)
- Here we find in Schizosaccharomyces japonicus and Schizosaccharomyces pombe that, during actomyosin ring contraction, actin filaments associated with actomyosin rings are expelled as micron-scale bundles containing multiple actomyosin ring proteins. (elifesciences.org)
- The varied functions associated with actomyosin contractility require the involvement of many proteins other than actin and myosin. (mechanobio.info)
Intermolecular surface force reveals actomyosin1
- Novel intermolecular surface force reveals actomyosin dri. (researchsea.com)
- We found that apical actomyosin contractions began before cell shape changes in both C. elegans and Drosophila. (unc.edu)
- see the Perspective by Razzell and Martin ) have now discovered in both Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila embryos that the actomyosin contractions driving morphogenesis run constitutively, only being engaged to trigger cell shape changes at a specific time during development. (sciencemag.org)
- We used in vivo time-lapse quantitative microscopy to show that clathrin, dynamin, and the ADP-ribosylation factor 6, three components of the endocytic machinery, accumulate around wounds in Drosophila melanogaster embryos in a process that requires calcium signaling and actomyosin contractility. (utoronto.ca)
- During segmentation of the Drosophila embryo, actomyosin contractile cables are enriched at the compartmental boundaries and define individual embryonic parasegments. (biologists.com)
- Tem1p is not required for the assembly of the actomyosin ring but controls actomyosin and septin dynamics during cytokinesis. (biologists.org)
- Li-Chan, "Structural changes in natural actomyosin and surimi from ling cod (Ophiodon elongatus) during frozen storage in the absence or presence of cryoprotectants," Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Force to Divide: Structural and Mechanical Requirements for Actomyosin Ring Contraction. (wikipedia.org)
- Using coarse-grained simulations, we demonstrate that by changing concentrations and kinetics of crosslinkers and motors, as well as filament lengths, we can generate three distinct structural phases of actomyosin assemblies: bundled, polarity-sorted, and contracted. (rsc.org)
- Most models of the actomyosin cross-bridge cycle suggest that myosin binds to actin through both ionic and hydrophobic interactions that stabilize a structural change in the actin binding region, such as closure of the actin binding cleft ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
- Thus, contraction in reconstituted actomyosin bundles captures essential biophysical characteristics of myofibrils while lacking numerous molecular constituents and structural signatures of sarcomeres. (nih.gov)
- The results indicate that the actomyosin system forms the structural basis for monolayer organization of endothelial cells and responds by reorganization upon cell migration. (nih.gov)
- Consequently, possible roles of actomyosin contraction in organizing and maintaining structural properties of dendritic spines, the size and location of axon initial segment and axonal diameter are emerging research topics. (mdpi.com)
- We hypothesize that septin ring splitting may remove a structural barrier for actomyosin ring to contract. (biologists.org)
- Today, we fully understand that, in addition to these aforementioned ancient roles, actomyosin contractility and its derived tension forces play a role in many mechanical, structural and regulatory biological processes. (biologists.org)
- To address these gaps in our knowledge, we studied the dynamics of actomyosin ring contraction and disassembly in the fission yeasts Schizosaccharomyces japonicus and Schizosaccharomyces pombe . (elifesciences.org)
- The actomyosin ring recruits early secretory compartments to the division site in fission yeast. (semanticscholar.org)
- The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe utilizes an actomyosin-based division ring that is thought to provide physical force for the plasma membrane invagination. (semanticscholar.org)
- The formation and contraction of a cytokinetic actomyosin ring (CAR) is essential for the execution of cytokinesis in fission yeast. (singerinstruments.com)
- This is a novel force generation mechanism of actomyosin. (eurekalert.org)
- Now, a research group, led by Emeritus Professor Makoto Suzuki at Tohoku University in collaboration with Professor Nobuyuki Matubayasi at Osaka University, has succeeded in explaining the actomyosin driving mechanism according to the experimental thermodynamics data. (eurekalert.org)
- This article is, therefore, the first to successfully unveil the actomyosin driving mechanism by introducing a novel intermolecular surface force. (eurekalert.org)
- Unlike actomyosin in sarcomeres, which cycles through contraction and relaxation, the cytokinetic ring disassembles during contraction through an unknown mechanism. (elifesciences.org)
- The exact mechanism governing disassembly of actomyosin rings and whether and how the ring disassembly is coordinated to ring contraction have remained unknown so far. (elifesciences.org)
- To elucidate the mechanism of force generation by actomyosin motor, a measuring system was constructed, in which an in vitro motility assay was combined with an optical trapping technique. (elsevier.com)
- To investigate the cause, they performed elegant genetic, pharmacological and physical perturbations of actomyosin contractile cables and found that the tension exerted by neighboring actomyosin cables influences the direction of cell division at parasegment boundaries via a centrosome capture mechanism. (biologists.com)
- To provide a clue to resolve the controversy between the lever-arm mechanism and the Brownian ratchet-like mechanism, we here report an in silico single molecule experiment of an actomyosin motor.When we placed myosin on an actin filament and allowed myosin to move along the filament, we found that myosin exhibits a unidirectional Brownian motion along the filament. (elsevier.com)
- Grill, "Active torque generation by the actomyosin cell cortex drives left-right symmetry breaking," eLife, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Cell cortex underlying a membrane, which is a representative actomyosin network in eukaryote cells, exhibits dynamic contractile behaviors. (aps.org)
- Conversely, recent work has shown that actin-based protrusions and the forces generated in the actomyosin cortex can also influence the ability of cells to send and receive signals from their environment [ 4 , 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- In fact, it is hard to understand how endocytosis could generate the force necessary to unfold Notch in the absence of a rigid or contractile actomyosin cortex upon which to pull and/or push against. (biomedcentral.com)
- Simulation of contracting actomyosin cortex connected to a contact zone with 0% or 100% efficiency. (unc.edu)
- F-actin buckling coordinates contractility and severing in a biomimetic actomyosin cortex. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
- Here we develop a minimal model of the cell actomyosin cortex by forming a quasi-2D cross-linked filamentous actin (F-actin) network adhered to a model cell membrane and contracted by myosin thick filaments. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
Cryopreserved actomyosin rings1
- Here we use cryosectioning and cryofocused ion beam milling to gain access to cryopreserved actomyosin rings in Schizosaccharomyces pombe for direct 3D imaging by electron cryotomography. (pnas.org)
Contracting actomyosin networks2
- Here, we study actin-based positioning mechanisms in artificial cells with persistently contracting actomyosin networks, generated by encapsulating cytoplasmic Xenopus egg extracts into cell-sized 'water-in-oil' droplets. (elifesciences.org)
- These particles appear to be components of contracting actomyosin networks because F-actin coalesced similarly (fig. S2) and myosin particles near the center of each coalescence moved at a slower speed than did those further away (fig. S3), as seen in other contracting actomyosin networks ( 10 ). (sciencemag.org)
- In molecular biology, an actomyosin contractile ring is a prominent structure during cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
- These structures are not made out of actomyosin, but serve a similar role in constricting and permitting cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
- 2016). Actomyosin Ring Formation and Tension Generation in Eukaryotic Cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
- 2016). Actomyosin ring driven cytokinesis in budding yeast. (wikipedia.org)
- 1998). Involvement of an Actomyosin Contractile Ring in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cytokinesis. (wikipedia.org)
- Cytokinesis, the final step of cell division in eukaryotic cells, is typically driven by a contractile actomyosin ring (AMR) primarily composed of actin ( 1 ) and myosin ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
- Thus, the contractile actomyosin ring is not essential for cytokinesis in S . cerevisiae . (rupress.org)
- Cytokinesis in budding yeast involves an actomyosin-based ring which assembles in a multistepped fashion during the cell cycle and constricts during cytokinesis. (biologists.org)
- Many eukaryotes assemble a ring-shaped actomyosin network that contracts to drive cytokinesis. (elifesciences.org)
- In these primitive cells, actomyosin contractility played a role in cell feeding (phagocytosis) and reproduction (cytokinesis) ( Cavalier-Smith, 2002 , 1975 ). (biologists.org)
- Here, we demonstrate that actin filaments and filaments of smooth muscle myosin motors can self-assemble into bundles with contractile elements that efficiently transmit actomyosin forces to cellular length scales. (nih.gov)
- While this is correct in our highly organized striated muscle, we question the application of this dogma to less ordered actomyosin systems, thus reexamining a cornerstone of our understanding of cellular motion. (cea.fr)
- Actomyosin contractility is involved in at least 49 distinct cellular functions that range from providing cell architecture to signal transduction and nuclear activity. (biologists.org)
- Mapping these interactions, we identify the key regulatory pathways involved in the assembly of actomyosin structures and in activating myosin to produce contractile forces within non-muscle cells at the exact time and place necessary for cellular function. (biologists.org)
- Actomyosin networks, the cell's major force production machineries, remodel cellular membranes during myriad dynamic processes 1,2 by assembling into various architectures with distinct force generation properties 3,4 . (elsevier.com)
- A supracellular actomyosin cable around the wound coordinates cellular movements and promotes wound closure. (utoronto.ca)
- We conclude that tight spatiotemporal regulation of myosin activity throughout successive rounds of ovulation shapes actomyosin network development and maintenance required for tissue function and animal fertility. (labroots.com)
- The varying r suggested that actomyosin changes may occur at the level of regulation by troponin and tropomyosin. (uoguelph.ca)
- Collectively, our results demonstrate that regulation of cell adhesion by TRPM7 is the combined effect of kinase-dependent and -independent pathways on actomyosin contractility. (ru.nl)
- Together, these results delineate a PTK7-Src signaling module for spatial regulation of ROCK activity, actomyosin contractility, and epithelial PCP. (edu.kz)
Planar cell pol1
- In this report, we demonstrate that actomyosin contractility and planar cell polarity (PCP) interact in post-mitotic Ciona notochord cells to self-assemble and reposition actomyosin rings, which play an essential role for cell elongation. (uib.no)
- The onset of morphogenetic cell shape changes is thought to be triggered by initiation of actomyosin contractions. (sciencemag.org)
Dynamics of actomyosin1
- The ability to resolve large numbers of particles made it possible to track the detailed dynamics of actomyosin networks ( Fig. 1A , fig. S1, and movie S1). (sciencemag.org)
Contributes to actomyosin1
- Based on our observation, myosin IIA-actin complex contributes to actomyosin contractility and is associated with the positive feedback loop of caspase-3/ROCK1/MLC pathway. (frontiersin.org)
Contraction of actomyosin3
- While contractile behaviors of actomyosin machinery have been studied extensively in several in vitro experiments and computational studies, the pulsatile contraction of actomyosin networks observed in vivo has not been recapitulated well. (aps.org)
- Here, we employed an agent-based computational model based on Brownian dynamics to identify critical factors facilitating the pulsatile contraction of actomyosin networks. (aps.org)
- We found that the strong pulsatile contraction of actomyosin networks only occurs when there is subtle balance between force generation from motors, global force relaxation via actin turnover, and local force relaxation via angle-dependent actin severing. (aps.org)
- Yim, " Actomyosin contractility plays a role in MAP2 expression during nanotopography-directed neuronal differentiation of human embryonic stem cells," Biomaterials, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
- To address this issue, we examined cortical actomyosin dynamics during Caenorhabitis elegans gastrulation. (sciencemag.org)
- In plant cells, there is no actomyosin ring. (wikipedia.org)
- Many eukaryotic cells divide using a contractile actomyosin ring, but its structure is unknown. (pnas.org)
- These results provide insight into nonsarcomeric mechanisms of actomyosin contraction found in smooth muscle and nonmuscle cells. (nih.gov)
- Despite our understanding of actomyosin function in individual migrating cells, we know little about the mechanisms by which actomyosin drives collective cell movement in vertebrate embryos. (sciencemag.org)
- Because the Tem1 small GTPase (Tem1p) is required for the completion of mitosis, we investigated its role in regulating septin and actomyosin ring dynamics in the background of the net1-1 mutation, which bypasses the anaphase cell cycle arrest in Tem1-deficient cells. (biologists.org)
- We report that micron-scale actin bundles are expelled during contraction of the actomyosin ring in a ring curvature-dependent manner in intact cells, in spheroplasts, and when isolated actomyosin rings are triggered to contract with ATP. (elifesciences.org)
- Myosin II is an essential component of the actomyosin ring and has also been detected as a 'spot' in interphase Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells [4-5]. (semanticscholar.org)
- In this work, we use live animal imaging to monitor Ca2+ signaling and actomyosin dynamics in spermathecal cells during ovulation. (labroots.com)
- Lancino M, Majello S, Herbert S, De Chaumont F, Tinevez JY, Olivo-Marin JC, Herbomel P, Schmidt A. Anisotropic organization of circumferential actomyosin characterizes hematopoietic stem cells emergence in the zebrafish . (forumotion.com)
- PTK7 knockdown in cultured epithelial cells reduced the level of active Src at cell-cell contacts, resulting in delocalization of ROCK2 from cell-cell contacts and decreased junctional contractility, with a concomitant increase in actomyosin on the basal surface. (edu.kz)
Complex of actin and myosin1
- actomyosin - /æktəˈmaɪəsən/ (say aktuh muyuhsuhn) noun a complex of actin and myosin which is the major constituent of muscle. (enacademic.com)
- Polar actomyosin contractility destabilizes the position of the cytokinetic furrow. (nih.gov)
- Our simulations also show how myosin II mini-filaments, in tandem with cross-linkers, can produce a range of actin filament polarity distributions and alignment, which is crucially dependent on the rate of actin filament turnover and the actin filament's resulting super-diffusive behavior in the actomyosin-cross-linker system. (umd.edu)
- In this study, we compared the phenotypes of different mutants for core components of the actomyosin system in Toxoplasma gondii to decipher their exact role during gliding motility and invasion. (beds.ac.uk)
- The current model for gliding motility is centred on the actomyosin system of the parasite in force generation during this process. (beds.ac.uk)
- Maegen A. Ackermann and Aikaterini Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos, "Myosin Binding Protein-C: A Regulator of Actomyosin Interaction in Striated Muscle," Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , vol. 2011, Article ID 636403, 9 pages, 2011. (hindawi.com)
- Here we report on the role of a contractile actomyosin ring in this process. (rupress.org)
- We further characterize the role of myosin activity in actomyosin network organization and show that both increased and decreased myosin activity alter network properties including connectivity, orientation, and anisotropy. (labroots.com)
- Together these results reveal a previously unappreciated role for non-muscle myosin II contractility in Notch signaling, providing further support for the idea that force contributes to the cleavage and activation of Notch in the context of ligand-dependent signaling, and a new paradigm for actomyosin-based mechanosensation. (biomedcentral.com)
- While compensatory mechanisms and unusual polymerisation kinetics of parasite actin have been evoked to explain these findings, the actomyosin system could also play a role distinct from force production during parasite movement. (beds.ac.uk)
- However, these mutants are virtually unable to attach to a collagen-coated substrate under flow conditions, indicating an important role for the actomyosin system of T. gondii in the formation of attachment sites. (beds.ac.uk)
- Actomyosin network growth and remodeling in vivo is based on a large number of chemical and mechanical processes, which are mutually coupled and spatially and temporally resolved. (aps.org)
- Strikingly, mechanical compression of actomyosin rings results in expulsion of bundles predominantly at regions of high curvature. (elifesciences.org)
- Actomyosin contractility takes place when bipolar myosin II filaments interact with anti-parallel actin filaments (F-actin) and convert chemical energy (ATP) into mechanical energy [movement of myosin head towards F-actin barbed (+) end]. (biologists.org)
- Mehta, A. / Mechanical measurements of single actomyosin motor force . (elsevier.com)
- In C. elegans, actomyosin networks were initially dynamic, contracting and generating cortical tension without substantial shrinking of apical surfaces. (unc.edu)
- Due to the varying composition and structure of actomyosin bundles in vivo, the minimal requirements for their contraction remain unclear. (nih.gov)
- Using photobleaching and pharmacological perturbations in vivo, we show that actomyosin contractility and actin polymerization together push on the underlying vesicle membrane to overcome the energy barrier and complete exocytosis 7 . (elsevier.com)
- The crystal structure of myosin V in the absence of nucleotide (rigor) demonstrated a closed conformation of the actin binding cleft ( 4 , 5 ), and this structure fit quite well into the electron microscopy image reconstructions of the actomyosin rigor complex ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
- Here, using electron cryomicroscopy, we present the structure of a human rigor actomyosin complex at an average resolution of 3.9 Å. (rcsb.org)
- TRPM7, a novel regulator of actomyosin contractility and cell adhesion. (ru.nl)
- Actomyosin - Mikrofilamente in Fibroblasten der Maus, fluoreszenzmikroskopisch dargestellt Mikrofilamente sind fadenförmige Protein Strukturen in eukaryotischen Zellen. (enacademic.com)
- In muscle , actin is the major component of thin filaments , which, together with the motor protein myosin (which forms thick filaments ), are arranged into actomyosin myofibrils . (wikidoc.org)
- Using functional isolated actomyosin rings we show that expulsion of actin bundles does not require continuous presence of cytoplasm. (elifesciences.org)
- Together, our results define the origin, organization, and functional significance of a major actomyosin contractile structure at the IS that directly propels TCR MC transport. (rupress.org)
- Functional perturbations of drebrin demonstrate that proximal leading process microtubule-actomyosin coupling steers the direction of centrosome and somal migration, as well as the switch from tangential to radial migration. (kcl.ac.uk)