Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Palatal Muscles: The muscles of the palate are the glossopalatine, palatoglossus, levator palati(ni), musculus uvulae, palatopharyngeus, and tensor palati(ni).Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Hypoglossal Nerve: The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Laryngeal Nerves: Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Sleep Apnea Syndromes: Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Hypopharynx: The bottom portion of the pharynx situated below the OROPHARYNX and posterior to the LARYNX. The hypopharynx communicates with the larynx through the laryngeal inlet, and is also called laryngopharynx.Larynx: A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Airway Remodeling: The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Palate, Soft: A movable fold suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate. The uvula hangs from the middle of the lower border.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Epiglottis: A thin leaf-shaped cartilage that is covered with LARYNGEAL MUCOSA and situated posterior to the root of the tongue and HYOID BONE. During swallowing, the epiglottis folds back over the larynx inlet thus prevents foods from entering the airway.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Tracheotomy: Surgical incision of the trachea.Oropharynx: The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Laryngeal Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LARYNX which coordinates many functions such as voice production, breathing, swallowing, and coughing.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Ventilators, Negative-Pressure: Body ventilators that assist ventilation by applying intermittent subatmospheric pressure around the thorax, abdomen, or airway and periodically expand the chest wall and inflate the lungs. They are relatively simple to operate and do not require tracheostomy. These devices include the tank ventilators ("iron lung"), Portalung, Pneumowrap, and chest cuirass ("tortoise shell").Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.Uvula: A fleshy extension at the back of the soft palate that hangs above the opening of the throat.Muscle Denervation: The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Glottis: The vocal apparatus of the larynx, situated in the middle section of the larynx. Glottis consists of the VOCAL FOLDS and an opening (rima glottidis) between the folds.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Snoring: Rough, noisy breathing during sleep, due to vibration of the uvula and soft palate.Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Tracheal StenosisMitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Laryngostenosis: Developmental or acquired stricture or narrowing of the LARYNX. Symptoms of respiratory difficulty depend on the degree of laryngeal narrowing.Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Upper Extremity: The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Intercostal Muscles: Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Mandibular Advancement: Moving a retruded mandible forward to a normal position. It is commonly performed for malocclusion and retrognathia. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Airway Management: Evaluation, planning, and use of a range of procedures and airway devices for the maintenance or restoration of a patient's ventilation.Tracheostomy: Surgical formation of an opening into the trachea through the neck, or the opening so created.Muscle, Striated: One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Tracheal DiseasesMuscle Spindles: Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Laryngeal Muscles: The striated muscle groups which move the LARYNX as a whole or its parts, such as altering tension of the VOCAL CORDS, or size of the slit (RIMA GLOTTIDIS).Nasal Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the nose. The obstruction may be unilateral or bilateral, and may involve any part of the NASAL CAVITY.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Sleep Stages: Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.Abdominal Muscles: Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)Adenoids: A collection of lymphoid nodules on the posterior wall and roof of the NASOPHARYNX.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Muscle Cells: Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Thyroid Cartilage: The largest cartilage of the larynx consisting of two laminae fusing anteriorly at an acute angle in the midline of the neck. The point of fusion forms a subcutaneous projection known as the Adam's apple.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Rhinitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.Work of Breathing: RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)Masseter Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Laryngeal Masks: A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Laryngeal Edema: Abnormal accumulation of fluid in tissues of any part of the LARYNX, commonly associated with laryngeal injuries and allergic reactions.Respiratory System Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities of the respiratory system.Cephalometry: The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.Positive-Pressure Respiration: A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Muscular Atrophy: Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Burns, Inhalation: Burns of the respiratory tract caused by heat or inhaled chemicals.Phrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Nasal Lavage Fluid: Fluid obtained by THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION or washout of the nasal cavity and NASAL MUCOSA. The resulting fluid is used in cytologic and immunologic assays of the nasal mucosa such as with the NASAL PROVOCATION TEST in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle: Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Fluid Shifts: Translocation of body fluids from one compartment to another, such as from the vascular to the interstitial compartments. Fluid shifts are associated with profound changes in vascular permeability and WATER-ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE. The shift can also be from the lower body to the upper body as in conditions of weightlessness.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Pectoralis Muscles: The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Respiratory Tract DiseasesCroup: Inflammation involving the GLOTTIS or VOCAL CORDS and the subglottic larynx. Croup is characterized by a barking cough, HOARSENESS, and persistent inspiratory STRIDOR (a high-pitched breathing sound). It occurs chiefly in infants and children.Nasal Polyps: Focal accumulations of EDEMA fluid in the NASAL MUCOSA accompanied by HYPERPLASIA of the associated submucosal connective tissue. Polyps may be NEOPLASMS, foci of INFLAMMATION, degenerative lesions, or malformations.Tonsillectomy: Surgical removal of a tonsil or tonsils. (Dorland, 28th ed)Fiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in one or more of the PARANASAL SINUSES.Nose Diseases: Disorders of the nose, general or unspecified.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Hyoid Bone: A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.Maximal Expiratory Flow-Volume Curves: Curves depicting MAXIMAL EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE, in liters/second, versus lung inflation, in liters or percentage of lung capacity, during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviation is MEFV.Neuromuscular Blockade: The intentional interruption of transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION by external agents, usually neuromuscular blocking agents. It is distinguished from NERVE BLOCK in which nerve conduction (NEURAL CONDUCTION) is interrupted rather than neuromuscular transmission. Neuromuscular blockade is commonly used to produce MUSCLE RELAXATION as an adjunct to anesthesia during surgery and other medical procedures. It is also often used as an experimental manipulation in basic research. It is not strictly speaking anesthesia but is grouped here with anesthetic techniques. The failure of neuromuscular transmission as a result of pathological processes is not included here.Upper Gastrointestinal Tract: The segment of GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the ESOPHAGUS; the STOMACH; and the DUODENUM.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Cricoid Cartilage: The small thick cartilage that forms the lower and posterior parts of the laryngeal wall.Mouth Breathing: Abnormal breathing through the mouth, usually associated with obstructive disorders of the nasal passages.Vocal Cords: A pair of cone-shaped elastic mucous membrane projecting from the laryngeal wall and forming a narrow slit between them. Each contains a thickened free edge (vocal ligament) extending from the THYROID CARTILAGE to the ARYTENOID CARTILAGE, and a VOCAL MUSCLE that shortens or relaxes the vocal cord to control sound production.Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Supine Position: The posture of an individual lying face up.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Surface Tension: The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Psoas Muscles: A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Anesthetics, Intravenous: Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Laryngoscopy: Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.Paranasal Sinuses: Air-filled spaces located within the bones around the NASAL CAVITY. They are extensions of the nasal cavity and lined by the ciliated NASAL MUCOSA. Each sinus is named for the cranial bone in which it is located, such as the ETHMOID SINUS; the FRONTAL SINUS; the MAXILLARY SINUS; and the SPHENOID SINUS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Mice, Inbred C57BLAnesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Arytenoid Cartilage: One of a pair of small pyramidal cartilages that articulate with the lamina of the CRICOID CARTILAGE. The corresponding VOCAL LIGAMENT and several muscles are attached to it.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Temporal Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Palate: The structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate (PALATE, HARD) and the posterior soft palate (PALATE, SOFT).Laryngismus: A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Sleep, REM: A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.Adenoidectomy: Excision of the adenoids. (Dorland, 28th ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Oscillometry: The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Plethysmography, Whole Body: Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Inspiratory Capacity: The maximum volume of air that can be inspired after reaching the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the TIDAL VOLUME and the INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is IC.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Tongue DiseasesHyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Forced Expiratory Flow Rates: The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Anesthesia, Intravenous: Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.Asphyxia: A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.Glossectomy: Partial or total surgical excision of the tongue. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pulmonary Stretch Receptors: Stretch receptors found in the bronchi and bronchioles. Pulmonary stretch receptors are sensors for a reflex which stops inspiration. In humans, the reflex is protective and is probably not activated during normal respiration.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.High-Frequency Jet Ventilation: Respiratory support system used primarily with rates of about 100 to 200/min with volumes of from about one to three times predicted anatomic dead space. Used to treat respiratory failure and maintain ventilation under severe circumstances.
... increased activity of upper airway dilating muscles 250%, increased airflow and tidal volume 160% and decreased upper airway ... Tonic activity of the pharyngeal dilator muscles of the upper airway decreases during the NREM sleep, contributing to the ... Upper airway function[edit]. Upper airway resistance is expected to be highest during REM sleep because of atonia of the ... Upper airway resistance[edit]. Airway resistance increases by about 230% during NREM sleep. Elastic and flow resistive ...
The airways become inflamed and produce excess mucus and the muscles around the airways tighten making the airways narrower. ... It may be triggered by other things such as an upper respiratory tract infection, cold air, exercise or smoke. Asthma is a ... Exercise-Induced Asthma - is common in asthmatics, especially after participation in outdoor activities in cold weather. ... but many COPD patients also have some degree of reversibility in their airways. In COPD, there is an increase in airway ...
Old age is often accompanied by muscular and neurological loss of muscle tone of the upper airway. Decreased muscle tone is ... Also being studied are exercises of the muscles around the mouth and throat through activities such as playing the didgeridoo. ... As the muscle tone of the body ordinarily relaxes during sleep, and the airway at the throat is composed of walls of soft ... Individuals with decreased muscle tone and increased soft tissue around the airway, and structural features that give rise to a ...
This increased activity in inspiratory muscles leads to the arousals during sleep which patients may or may not be aware of. A ... Upper airway resistance syndrome is caused when the upper airway narrows without closing. Consequently, airflow is either ... "Upper airway resistance syndrome in children". Seminars in Pediatric Neurology: 207-215 - via Elsevier. "Upper Airway ... Upper airway resistance syndrome or UARS is a common sleep disorder characterized by the narrowing of the airway that can cause ...
The geniohyoid muscle brings the hyoid bone forward and upwards. This dilates the upper airway, assisting respiration. During ... ISBN 978-81-8448-461-8. Takahashi, S. (1 December 2002). "Breathing modes, body positions, and suprahyoid muscle activity". ... The geniohyoid muscle is a narrow muscle situated superior to the medial border of the mylohyoid muscle. It is named for its ... Geniohyoid muscle Geniohyoid muscle Geniohyoid muscle This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition ...
Upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) is a clinical variant of sleep apnea that can also cause hypersomnia. Just as other ... Similarly to chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia also may be associated with anomalous alpha wave activity (typically ... healthy subjects causes a significant increase in muscle tenderness similar to that experienced in "neurasthenic ... It is likely that a number of cases labeled as chronic fatigue syndrome are unrecognized cases of upper airway resistance ...
... the tonic drive to most respiratory muscles of the upper airway is inhibited. This has two consequences: *The upper airway ... Visually scored delta activity (stages 3 and 4, SWS) as well as computerized delta activity measures increase after total and ... This narrows the upper airway during sleep, increasing resistance and making airflow through the upper airway turbulent and ... Not surprisingly, the increased tendency of the upper airway to collapse during breathing in sleep can lead to snoring, a ...
Sleep apnea (obstructive sleep apnea, OSA) is a collapse of the upper airway during sleep, which reduces airflow to the lungs. ... "Brain Activity is Visibly Altered Following Sleep Deprivation". UC San Diego Health System. 3 February 2006. Archived from the ... Extreme cases of sleep deprivation have been reported to be associated with hernias, muscle fascia tears, and other such ... I. Effects of 24 h of sleep deprivation on waking human regional brain activity". Journal of Sleep Research. 9 (4): 335-52. doi ...
However, airway smooth muscle has demonstrated almost no capacity for regeneration, instead being replaced by connective tissue ... or other daily activities due to asthma symptoms 73% reduction in hospitalizations for respiratory symptoms Reduction in asthma ... one for the each lower lobe of the lung and another for both upper lobes. Each outpatient procedure is performed approximately ... thus heating the tissue and reducing the amount of smooth muscle present in the airway wall. This treatment has been shown to ...
Inhalation Sahin-Yilmaz, A.; Naclerio, R. M. (2011). "Anatomy and Physiology of the Upper Airway". Proceedings of the American ... expiratory muscles including the abdominal muscles and internal intercostal muscles generate abdominal and thoracic pressure, ... Activity has also been seen within the supplementary motor area and the premotor cortex during voluntary respiration. This is ... In humans it is the movement of air from the lungs out of the airways, to the external environment during breathing. This ...
Apneas occur when the muscles around the patient's airway relax during sleep, causing the airway to collapse and block the ... Sleep disorders include narcolepsy, periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), restless leg syndrome (RLS), upper airway ... of skeletal muscle activity. Simultaneous collection of these measurements is called polysomnography, and can be performed in a ... relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings. ...
... especially upper airway infections, pulmonary infections and acute/serous otitis media infections.[7] Significant changes in a ... B. Acid alpha-mannosidase activity Diagnosis is confirmed by measuring residual alpha-mannosidase activity in leukocytes or ... Type 1: A mild form, recognized after age ten years, with absence of skeletal abnormalities, muscle problems (myopathy), and ... Muscular weakness or spinal abnormalities can occur due to the build-up of storage materials in the muscle.[2] ...
... complete upper airway obstruction, severely diminished ventilation, or profuse upper airway bleeding are poor candidates for ... dynamic collapse of the extrinsic muscles of the airway can obstruct the airway, impeding the free flow of air into the lungs. ... Sustained generalized seizure activity and angioedema are other common causes of life-threatening airway obstruction which may ... The Airway Cam Guide to Intubation and Practical Emergency Airway Management (1st ed.). Wayne, Pennsylvania: Airway Cam ...
Validation of the Phase Angle Technique as an Objective Measure of Upper Airway Obstruction, Pediatric Pulmonology 19:167-173 ... In the case of a total obstruction, the strong chest muscles force the thorax to expand, pulling the diaphragm upward in what ... Minute ventilation is equivalent to tidal volume multiplied by respiratory rate and is used to assess metabolic activity. Peak ... Peak/mean inspiratory and expiratory flow measures the presence of upper airway flow limitations during inspiration and ...
The increased activity not only increases the rate and force of pressure changes in the airway, which is therefore transmitted ... With patulous Eustachian tube, variations in upper airway pressure associated with respiration are transmitted to the middle ... more forcefully into the middle ear, but also drives increased blood flow to peripheral muscles, compounding the problem by ... Activities and substances which dehydrate the body have the same effect and are also possible causes of patulous Eustachian ...
The disorder causes muscle weakness, atrophy, and muscle spasms throughout the body due to the degeneration of the upper motor ... Physical activity[edit]. A 2005 systematic review found no relationship between the amount of physical activity and the risk of ... Invasive ventilation bypasses the nose and mouth (the upper airways) by making a cut in the trachea (tracheostomy) and ... ALS is characterized by stiff muscles, muscle twitching, and gradually worsening weakness due to muscles decreasing in size.[2] ...
Spasm in the diaphragm leads to the muscle 'locking up' so that all breathing effort falls to the intercostal muscles. The ... The position of the thorax and activity of the abdomen is not unlike that seen during normal hiccups, but the sudden spasm in ... When there are bony deformities in the upper body, or other problems present, these may contribute to malfunctioning in soft- ... Tumors and inhaled objects (possible if bedding contains loose fluff) can also cause obstruction or irritation of the airway, ...
In essence, asthma is the result of an immune response in the bronchial airways. The airways of asthma patients are " ... in bronchial smooth muscle cells which leads to muscle shortening and this initiates bronchoconstriction. The mechanisms behind ... In some cases, there is an increase in Estrogen levels which in turn reduce the activity of natural killer cells, Th1 cell ... Early childhood infections, especially viral upper respiratory tract infections. Children who suffer from frequent respiratory ...
For the purposes of sleep studies, episodes of full upper airway collapse for at least ten seconds are called apneas[9] ... About 70% of those who have narcolepsy also have cataplexy, a sudden weakness in the motor muscles that can result in collapse ... Sleepwalking or somnambulism, engaging in activities normally associated with wakefulness (such as eating or dressing), which ... is a medical disorder that is caused by repetitive collapse of the upper airway (back of the throat) during sleep. ...
Muscle cells form the active contractile tissue of the body known as muscle tissue or muscular tissue. Muscle tissue functions ... The activity of this cambium results in the formation of secondary growth. Intercalary Meristem - This meristem is located in ... The epithelial tissues are formed by cells that cover the organ surfaces such as the surface of skin, the airways, the ... Most classification schemes combine a description of the cell-shape in the upper layer of the epithelium with a word denoting ...
... s around the mouth or singed hair inside the nose may indicate that burns to the airways have occurred, but these findings ... A fourth-degree burn additionally involves injury to deeper tissues, such as muscle, tendons, or bone. The burn is often black ... This is most probably due to their higher risk occupations and greater risk-taking activities. In many countries in the ... It typically produces a sharp upper border and is often symmetrical. Other high-risk signs of potential abuse include: ...
Cingi C, Muluk NB, Ipci K, Şahin E (2015). "Antileukotrienes in upper airway inflammatory diseases". Current Allergy and Asthma ... dioxygenase activity. • metal ion binding. • protein binding. • oxidoreductase activity. • oxidoreductase activity, acting on ... contract airways smooth muscle, and otherwise perturb these tissues and b) LTB4 and possibly 5-oxo-ETE which are chemotactic ... LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4 contribute to allergic airways reactions such as asthma, certain non-allergic hypersensitivity airways ...
They damage the upper airway mucosa. Pulmonary edema rarely occurs because mustard rarely affects the lung parenchyma and ... such as the effects of inflammatory mediators on airway and vascular smooth muscle tone. As a rule of thumb, all these models ... Others modulate the activity of ion channels that control fluid transport across lung membranes or target surfactant, a ... Severe exposure may result in changes in upper and lower airways resulting in an acute lung injury, which may not be present ...
The presence of abnormal spontaneous electrical activity in the resting muscles indicates an irritable myopathy and is ... as well as weakens the airway muscles. These changes induce sleep apnea and sleep disruption. Vitamin D induced ANM can also be ... most commonly in skeletal muscle surrounding the limbs and upper shoulder girdle. The most commonly reported symptoms are: ... Corticosteroids often cause muscle weakness to some degree in patients. Symptoms are usually weakness of the proximal muscles, ...
Specifically, the muscle that causes abduction of the arytenoid cartilage, the cricoarytenoideus dorsalis muscle, ceases to ... Mild cases are managed by limiting activity, keeping a healthy body weight, and avoiding exposure to high ambient temperatures ... though often the problem remains an upper respiratory problem. Affected dogs are vulnerable to heat stroke and heat exhaustion ... to inadequate ventilation during exercise and during thermoregulatory panting as well as incomplete protection of the airway ...
Old age is often accompanied by muscular and neurological loss of muscle tone of the upper airway. Decreased muscle tone is ... Also being studied are exercises of the muscles around the mouth and throat through activities such as playing the didgeridoo.[ ... As the muscle tone of the body ordinarily relaxes during sleep, and the airway at the throat is composed of walls of soft ... Individuals with decreased muscle tone and increased soft tissue around the airway, and structural features that give rise to a ...
Influence of sleep onset on upper-airway muscle activity in apnea patients versus normal controls.. Mezzanotte WS1, Tangel DJ, ... to the upper airway. At sleep onset, control subjects demonstrated small but consistent decrements in the activity of both the ... EMG activity than did controls during wakefulness. This augmented muscle activity in apnea patients could be reduced to near ... muscle activity (% of maximum electromyographic [EMG] activity) in 10 OSA patients and eight controls, and then assessed the ...
Arousal from Sleep Does Not Lead to Reduced Dilator Muscle Activity or Elevated Upper Airway Resistance on Return to Sleep in ... 920718-arousal-from-sleep-does-not-lead-to-reduced-dilator-muscle-activity-or-elevated-upper-airway-resistance-on-return-to- ...
Okabe S, Hida W, Kikuchi Y, et al. Upper airway muscle activity during REM and non-REM sleep of patients with obstructive apnea ... The results indicate that changes in respiratory timing and genioglossus muscle activity do occur during partial upper airway ... Aronson R M, Onal E, Carley D W, et al. Upper airway and respiratory muscle responses to continuous negative airway pressure. J ... such that the upper airway dilator muscles could become active and open the collapsed airway. However, Younes1 has reported ...
Deegan P C, Nolan P, Carey M, et al. Effects of positive airway pressure on upper airway dilator muscle activity and ... in upper airway muscle activity at sleep onset could result from a withdrawal of direct wakefulness stimulation of upper airway ... Effects of continuous positive airway pressure on upper airway and respiratory muscle activity. J Appl Physiol1987;62:2026-30. ... after losing the wakefulness drive to these upper airway dilator muscles, there is consistent tonic muscle activity in both the ...
The patency of the upper airway is maintained normally by muscle tone and elasticity of the upper airway muscle. Remmers et al ... Relative muscle activity evaluated EMG activity before treatment as 100 %. The masseter muscle, the genioglossal muscle, and ... The muscles showed significantly higher (genioglossal muscle, p,0.002; masseter muscle, p,0.003; lateral pterygoid muscle, p, ... The activated muscles that protract the tongue and mandible prevented the upper airway from collapsing.. No reduction in the ...
R. B. Fogel, J. Trinder, D. P. White et al., "The effect of sleep onset on upper airway muscle activity in patients with sleep ... 5. Mutability of Muscle Fiber Types: Loss of Aerobic Tonic Type I Muscle Fibers in Upper Airway Dilator Muscles in OSA. The ... W. S. Mezzanotte, D. J. Tangel, and D. P. White, "Influence of sleep onset on upper-airway muscle activity in apnea patients ... S. Okabe, W. Hida, Y. Kikuchi, O. Taguchi, T. Takishima, and K. Shirato, "Upper airway muscle activity during REM and non-REM ...
... employ a first structure that can be placed either in or on a tongue within an oral cavity and/or in a region of hyoid muscle. ... thereby keeping an airway open. The systems and methods ... by a reduction in upper airway dilator muscle activity. For the ... Normally, the muscles of the upper part of the throat keep the airway open to permit air flow into the lungs. When the muscles ... The Anatomy of the Upper Airway. As FIG. 1. shows, the upper airway consists of a conduit that begins at the nasal valve, ...
... increased activity of upper airway dilating muscles 250%, increased airflow and tidal volume 160% and decreased upper airway ... Tonic activity of the pharyngeal dilator muscles of the upper airway decreases during the NREM sleep, contributing to the ... Upper airway function[edit]. Upper airway resistance is expected to be highest during REM sleep because of atonia of the ... Upper airway resistance[edit]. Airway resistance increases by about 230% during NREM sleep. Elastic and flow resistive ...
Upper airway muscle activity in normal women: influence of hormonal status. J Appl Physiol. 1998 Mar. 84(3):1055-62. [Medline] ... The influence of the menstrual cycle on upper airway resistance and breathing during sleep. Sleep. 2005 Apr 1. 28(4):449-56. [ ... may increase the likelihood of upper airway obstruction, leading to SDB. Women with SDB are more likely than men to have ... Patkai P, Johannson G, Post B. Mood, alertness and sympathetic-adrenal medullary activity during the menstrual cycle. Psychosom ...
Influence of wakefulness on pharyngeal airway muscle activity. Thorax 2007; 62: 799-805. ... Effect of age on sleep onset-related changes in respiratory pump and upper airway muscle function. J Appl Physiol 2000; 88: ... Upper airway factors that protect against obstructive sleep apnoea in healthy older males. Thomas Carlisle, Elliott R. Carthy, ... Upper airway length may be associated with the severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep Breath 2008; 12: 311-316. ...
RMMA - rhythmic masticatory muscle activity. SB - sleep bruxism. SDB - sleep-disordered breathing. UA - upper airway ... leads over the major muscles of mastication to identify rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA). For a dental clinician, ... Analysis of upper airway obstruction by sleep videofluoroscopy in obstructive sleep apnea: a large population-based study. ... Although many dentists believe that OSA is a purely anatomic disease caused by a narrow upper airway (UA), anatomy is only one ...
UA muscle activity was measured using intra-oral electrodes. The ratio of the area under the expiratory flow-volume curve ... Comparison of peri-pharyngeal muscle recruitment during upper airway obstruction in patients with OSA and healthy subjects ... Negative expiratory pressure technique correlates with the measurements of upper airway collapsibility (UAC) during sleep in ... Negative expiratory pressure technique correlates with the measurements of upper airway collapsibility (UAC) during sleep in ...
We examined the interaction of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle (PCA), which abducts the larynx, and the diaphragm (DIA) in ... upper airway muscle activity usually precedes inspiratory diaphragm activity. ... In animals and human adults, upper airway muscle activity usually precedes inspiratory diaphragm activity. We examined the ... Laryngeal Muscles / growth & development*. Muscle Development*. Respiratory Mechanics / physiology. Respiratory Muscles / ...
We tested the hypothesis that chronic endurance exercise is associated with the recruitment of four major upper airway muscles ... in the activities of both citrate synthase and superoxide dismutase in the digastric and sternohyoid muscles, as well as in the ... We tested the hypothesis that chronic endurance exercise is associated with the recruitment of four major upper airway muscles ... that this exercise-mediated adaptation is related to the recruitment of these muscles as stabilizers of the upper airway.. ...
... patients have elevated tonic and phasic inspiratory activity in the genioglossus and other upper airway muscles during ... In this group, sleep-related decrements of upper airway motor tone result in sleep-related upper airway obstructions. We ... have collapsible upper airway, exhibit prominent respiratory modulation of upper airway motor tone during quiet wakefulness, ... Electromyographic activity at the base and tip of the tongue across sleep-wake states in rats.. Lu JW1, Kubin L. ...
... in the respiratory muscles measure muscle length and increase motor discharge to the diaphragm and intercostal muscles when ... Changes in the length of a muscle affect the force it can produce when stimulated. Generally there is a length at which the ... Receptors in the respiratory muscles and in the lung can also affect breathing patterns. These receptors are particularly ... and obstruction may occur because of discoordinated activity of upper airway and chest wall muscles. Many of the upper airway ...
IH that leads to the initiation of LTF of upper airway muscle activity could lead to increased stability of the upper airway. ... Mild intermittent hypoxia (MIH) initiates sustained increases in chest wall and upper airway muscle activity in humans. This ... Other: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) All participants will be treated with CPAP each night for a duration of 3 ... Other: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) All participants will be treated with CPAP each night for a duration of 3 ...
... pre-inspiratory discharges appear in all nerves innervating upper airway muscles. Such coordinated activity in the pre- ... with efferent nerves innervating the upper airway muscles (the hypoglossal nerve, a branch of the cervical spinal nerve, the ... The resting muscle activity was recorded once, and two kinds of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) tasks were performed and ... the neuronal network contributing to coordinated activity of the jaw/tongue muscles is located on both sides of the preparation ...
... upper airway patency is maintained by increased muscle activity of the pharyngeal dilators. But, since decreased activity of ... Contraction of pharyngeal muscles can dilate and stiffen the pharyngeal airway. Pharyngeal muscle activation can also constrict ... Effects of Pharyngeal Muscle Activation on Airway Size and Configuration. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;164(7):1236-1241.. 4 ... The muscles surrounding the pharyngeal airway generally have a role in the pathogenesis of snoring and obstructive sleep apnea ...
Sleep is characterized by a reduction in upper airway dilator muscle activity. For the individual with obstructive sleep apnea ... Normally, the muscles of the upper part of the throat keep the airway open to permit air flow into the lungs. When the muscles ... Sleep and the Anatomy of the Upper Airway. As FIGS. 1A and 1B. show, the upper airway consists of a conduit that begins at the ... corresponding to the time when the upper airway dilator muscles are least active, and positive intraluminal pressure is lowest ...
Lingual Muscle Activity Across Sleep-Wake States in Rats with Surgically Altered Upper Airway. *Irma Rukhadze, Julie Kalter, ... Maxillomandibular Advancement Surgery for Patients Who Are Refractory to Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: Are There ...
... on upper airway and respiratory pump muscle activity in the rat. J Physiol 532:525-534. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7793.2001.0525f.x ... muscle to nasal airway occlusion in lightly anesthetized rat pups. The GG muscle helps keep the upper airway open and is ... Whole muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity of the genioglossus muscle (GG, a tongue protrudor muscle) was recorded using ... In vivo studies: influence of DNE on tongue muscle EMG activity in response to airway obstruction. We began our study by ...
Co-ordinated activity of thoracic pump and upper airway dilator muscles is required for optimal control of upper airway caliber ... The findings contrast with our recent observation of upper airway dilator muscle weakness following exposure to pCIH. Thus the ... in the force-generating capacity of the complementary muscle groups could have adverse consequences for the control of airway ... We investigated the effects of exposure to gestational CIH (gCIH) and postnatal CIH (pCIH) on diaphragm muscle function in male ...
... products not only stimulate respiration but also increase the activity of the muscles responsible for dilating the upper airway ... The muscle tone of the upper airway can be increased by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Hanzel et al conducted a study ... These agents can adversely affect the ventilation control during sleep and make the upper airway easily collapsible. Other ... With increasing doses of mirtazapine, significant decrease in collapse of upper-airway has been noticed. However the associated ...
Neostigmine but not sugammadex impairs upper airway dilator muscle activity and breathing. Br J Anaesth. 2008 Sep; 101(3):344-9 ... Differential effects of isoflurane and propofol on upper airway dilator muscle activity and breathing. Anesthesiology. 2008 May ... Pentobarbitals respiratory depressant effect spares upper airway muscle activity during anesthesia in rats. Anesthesiology. ... Influence of wakefulness on pharyngeal airway muscle activity. Thorax. 2007 Sep; 62(9):799-805. PMID: 17389755. ...
  • The benefit of apneic diffusion oxygenation is dependent on achieving maximal preoxygenation, maintaining airway patency, and the existence of a high functional residual capacity to body weight ratio. (medscape.com)
  • These studies led to studies in the mammalian (rodent) airway that explored the modulation of upper airway muscles activities by chemical and pulmonary afferent feedback and the potential for selective electrical stimulation of the cranial nerve XII to alter airway geometry and volume (NIH/NIDCD RO3). (bio5.org)
  • 1984). We decided, therefore, to develop an isolated, artificially ventilated "closed" laryngeal preparation to examine the effects of changing airway CO 2 tension (PawCO 2 ) on the responses of SLN sensory fibres to stimuli associated with a normal respiratory cycle. (springer.com)
  • 4. A method according to claim 2 wherein the second magnetically interactive material is implanted in tissue in an airway. (google.com)
  • Bronchiectasis refers to the abnormal, irreversible dilatation of the bronchi caused by destructive and inflammatory changes in the airway walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • We tested the hypothesis that chronic endurance exercise is associated with the recruitment of four major upper airway muscles (genioglossus, digastric, sternohyoid, and omohyoid) and results in an increased oxidative capacity and a fast-toward-slow shift in myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms of these muscles. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Using anatomic, physiologic and molecular techniques we have determined the origin of the excitatory noradrenergic and cholinergic drive to hypoglossal motoneurons that innervate the genioglossus, the major upper airway dilator muscle. (harvard.edu)
  • We previously reported that in the rat, a species widely used to study the neural mechanisms of both sleep and breathing, lingual electromyographic activity (EMG) is minimal or absent during slow-wave sleep (SWS) and then gradually increases after the onset of rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) due to the appearance of large phasic bursts. (nih.gov)
  • Phasic genioglossus and palatoglossus muscle activity during recovery from sevoflurane anesthesia: a prospective observational study in children. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Surface Ag/AgCl electrodes (EP12, Unique Medical, Tokyo, Japan) for the genioglossal muscle were placed midsagittally, midway between the mental protuberance and lower lip, and midway between the inner aspect of the mandible and hyoid bone (Figure 26) [59, (google.com)
  • Much has been written about the hyoid apparatus' affect on the horse's airway during exercise, but not enough attention is being paid to its influence on biomechanics - especially by riders. (horsesandpeople.com.au)
  • What perhaps isn't known, is that some of the muscles that attach to the hyoid apparatus also extend upwards to the horse's skull (occipitohyoid) and downward to the sternum (sternohyoid and sternothyroid), and the scapula or shoulder blade (omohyoid). (horsesandpeople.com.au)
  • Although the hyoid is attached to muscles that contribute to opening the airway as well as those involved in chewing and swallowing, there is an important relationship between the hyoid apparatus and the horse's locomotion, that is, the horse's performance. (horsesandpeople.com.au)
  • Now consider the omohyoid muscle that runs from the fascia around the shoulder and shoulder blade (the scapula) to the hyoid apparatus. (horsesandpeople.com.au)
  • Omohyoideus, sternohyoid and sternothyroid although important in locomotion, are also considered accessory respiratory muscles, as they attach to the hyoid apparatus. (horsesandpeople.com.au)
  • There is as precise timing of muscle activation during inspiration, starting at the nostrils, then upper and lower airways. (egms.de)
  • The authors' premise is straightforward enough: reflexive glottal narrowing in response to nIPPV is triggered by receptors either in the upper or in the lower airways. (physiology.org)
  • In animal models inhalation of popcorn butter flavoring , its constituent flavoring , diacetyl (D), or diacetyl substitute, 2,3- pentanedione (2,3-P), evoke marked damage to the epithelium of upper airways and large lower airways. (cdc.gov)