Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.
Cost-sharing mechanisms that provide for payment by the insured of some portion of covered expenses. Deductibles are the amounts paid by the insured under a health insurance contract before benefits become payable; coinsurance is the provision under which the insured pays part of the medical bill, usually according to a fixed percentage, when benefits become payable.
A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)
A state of consciousness in which the individual eliminates environmental stimuli from awareness so that the mind can focus on a single thing, producing a state of relaxation and relief from stress. A wide variety of techniques are used to clear the mind of stressful outside interferences. It includes meditation therapy. (Mosby's Medical, Nursing, and Allied Health Dictionary, 4th ed)
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
The measure of that part of the heat or energy of a system which is not available to perform work. Entropy increases in all natural (spontaneous and irreversible) processes. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Pain in the breast generally classified as cyclical (associated with menstrual periods), or noncyclical, i.e. originating from the breast or nearby muscles or joints, ranging from minor discomfort to severely incapacitating.
SESQUITERPENES cyclized to one 10-carbon ring.
A psychological state of awareness, the practices that promote this awareness, a mode of processing information and a character trait. As a therapy mindfulness is defined as a moment-to-moment awareness of one's experience without judgment and as a state and not a trait.
Signal and data processing method that uses decomposition of wavelets to approximate, estimate, or compress signals with finite time and frequency domains. It represents a signal or data in terms of a fast decaying wavelet series from the original prototype wavelet, called the mother wavelet. This mathematical algorithm has been adopted widely in biomedical disciplines for data and signal processing in noise removal and audio/image compression (e.g., EEG and MRI).
... and henipavirus infections. The Powassan virus is a rare cause of encephalitis. It can be caused by a bacterial infection, such ... EEG, in monitoring brain activity, encephalitis will produce abnormal signal. Lumbar puncture (spinal tap), this helps ... Viral encephalitis can occur either as a direct effect of an acute infection, or as one of the sequelae of a latent infection. ... Broder, C. C; Geisbert, T. W; Xu, K; Nikolov, D. B; Wang, L. F; Middleton, D; Pallister, J; Bossart, K. N (2012). Henipavirus. ...
Wang L, Harcourt BH, Yu M (2001). "Molecular biology of Hendra and Nipah viruses". Microbes and Infection. 3 (4): 279-87. doi: ... which provide RNA polymerase activity during replication. Embedded within the lipid membrane are spikes of F (fusion) protein ... ICTV Report: Paramyxoviridae Disease card ViralZone: Henipavirus Henipavirus - Henipavirus Ecology Research Group (HERG) INFO ... Henipavirus is a genus of negative-strand RNA viruses in the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales containing five ...
"Henipavirus infection in fruit bats (Pteropus giganteus), India". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 14 (8): 1309-1311. doi:10.3201/ ... Occasionally a few bats fly around the roost during the day, but most activity is restricted to night, when they leave the ... Due to human encroachment into their habitats, there is a high risk of spillover infection of Nipah virus from Indian flying ... Indian flying foxes in India and Bangladesh have tested positive for Nipah virus, a type of henipavirus. ...
Henipavirus Henipavirus spp. horses, bats exposure to feces, urine, saliva or contact with sick horses ... Unidentified infection of the pigs amplified the force of infection, eventually transmitting the virus to farmers and causing ... either by encroachment of human activity into wilderness areas or by movement of wild animals into areas of human activity. An ... Close contact with cattle can lead to cutaneous anthrax infection, whereas inhalation anthrax infection is more common for ...
The current vaccine for human mumps may actually play a role in reducing the risk of infection from bat-borne mumps virus, or ... They include Rubulavirus, Henipavirus, Respirovirus, Morbillivirus, Ferlavirus, Aquaparamyxovirus, and Abulavirus. The ... purpose of the polyadenylation is to increase the half-life of the protein in order to increase the regulation of the activity ... and it has been noted that patients who had antibodies either from the vaccines or infection of the human mumps virus are able ...
The respirovirus-henipavirus-morbillivirus clade may be basal to the avulavirus-rubulavirus clade. Animal virology Virology " ... Diseases associated with this family include measles, mumps, and respiratory tract infections. The family has four subfamilies ... These possess both haemagglutination and neuraminidase activity, which cleaves sialic acid on the cell surface, preventing ... Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) in the genus Henipavirus have emerged in humans and livestock in Australia and ...
Henipavirus outbreaks overlaid on flying fox distribution map, with Nipah virus as blue icons and Hendra virus as red icons. ... "Rabies and Australian bat lyssavirus infection fact sheet". health.nsw.gov.au. State of New South Wales NSW Ministry of Health ... Lancaster WC, Henson OW, Keating AW (January 1995). "Respiratory muscle activity in relation to vocalization in flying bats". ... The hypothesized primary route of human infection is via contact with horses that have come into contact with flying fox urine. ...
But, unlike other viral infections, the incidence of polio - the rarer severe form of the infection - increased in the 20th ... Hirst identified an enzymic activity associated with the virus particle, later characterised as the neuraminidase, the first ... henipavirus [101] 1997 Anelloviridae [102] See also[edit]. *. History of science portal ... Many bacteriologists soon discovered the cause of numerous infections. However, some infections remained, many of them ...
Hendra virus or henipavirus A deadly disease to which both humans and horses are susceptible. hinny, hinney A sterile hybrid ... The traditional side on which all activities around a horse are done or start to be done. neck rein Turning a horse by touching ... Lyons Press Horseman's Dictionary p. 103 Belknap Horsewords p. 235 "Hendra Virus Infection". Queensland Health. Queensland ...
NP of Lassa virus is reported to have an exonuclease activity to only dsRNAs.[28] the NP dsRNA exonuclease activity counteracts ... Baize, S.; Kaplon, J.; Faure, C.; Pannetier, D.; Georges-Courbot, M. C.; Deubel, V. (2004). "Lassa virus infection of human ... and it is mediated by the endonuclease activity of the L polymerase and the cap binding activity of NP. Antigenomic RNA ... where the annual incidence of infection is between 300,000 and 500,000 cases, resulting in 5,000 deaths per year.[2] ...
"An outbreak of human Semliki Forest virus infections in Central African Republic". The American Journal of Tropical Medicine ... "RNA helicase activity of Semliki Forest virus replicase protein NSP2". FEBS Letters. 448 (1): 19-22. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(99 ... Only one lethal human infection has been reported. In this one case, the patient was speculated to be immunodeficient and ... "Semliki Forest virus infection of mice: A model for genetic and molecular analysis of viral pathogenicity". The Journal of ...
The type-1 interferon response seems to play an important role in the host's response to chikungunya infection. Upon infection ... In India, for instance, chikungunya re-appeared following 32 years of absence of viral activity.[70] Outbreaks have occurred in ... "Infection of myofibers contributes to increased pathogenicity during infection with an epidemic strain of chikungunya virus". ... Chikungunya is an infection caused by the chikungunya virus (CHIKV).[3] Symptoms include fever and joint pains.[2] These ...
C. J. Peters (December 1998). Infection Control for Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers in the African Health Care Setting (PDF). Centers ... the CDC recommends that restrictions on public activity, including travel restrictions, are not required for the following ... Weingartl HM, Nfon C, Kobinger G (May 2013). Review of Ebola virus infections in domestic animals. Dev Biol. Developments in ... Filoviral infection also interferes with proper functioning of the innate immune system.[44][46] EBOV proteins blunt the human ...
Nipah virus and Hendra virus are highly pathogenic zoonotic viruses of the genus Henipavirus, family Paramyxoviridae. These ... Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the central nervous system, especially the hypothalamus and the solitary ... Summary of "Henipavirus Infection of the Central Nervous System.". Nipah virus and Hendra virus are highly pathogenic zoonotic ... Henipavirus Infection of the Central Nervous System.. 08:00 EDT 15th April 2019 , BioPortfolio ...
The cell fusion assay was performed for 2.5 hr at 37°C, followed by lysis in Nonidet P-40 (1%) and β-Gal activity was ... Inhibition of Henipavirus fusion and infection by heptad-derived peptides of the Nipah virus fusion glycoprotein.. Bossart KN1 ... Inhibition of Henipavirus fusion and infection by heptad-derived peptides of the Nipah virus fusion glycoprotein ... Inhibition of Henipavirus fusion and infection by heptad-derived peptides of the Nipah virus fusion glycoprotein ...
... reports the first high-throughput RNA interference screen for host genes that are essential for live henipavirus infection of ... More specifically, the researchers report that mutating the catalytic activity of fibrillarin inhibits henipavirus infection, ... 2016) Genome-wide siRNA Screening at Biosafety Level 4 Reveals a Crucial Role for Fibrillarin in Henipavirus Infection. PLoS ... unappreciated role for nucleolar proteins with methyltransferase activity such as fibrillarin in henipavirus infection, and ...
The most likely source of horse infection was fruit bats. Ongoing surveillance is needed for rapid diagnosis, risk factor ... henipavirus infection caused severe illness among humans and horses in southern Philippines; fatality rates among humans were ... Activities should include accurate and rapid diagnosis of new outbreaks, investigation of risk factors associated with ... Outbreak of Henipavirus Infection, Philippines, 2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(2):328-331. doi:10.3201/ ...
Protection against henipavirus infection by use of recombinant adeno-associated virus-vector vaccines. J Infect Dis 207:469-478 ... the m102 antibody possessed potent virus-neutralizing activity (15), which was further improved by in vitro maturation. This ... Currently, researchers are exploring three different approaches for the prevention and/or treatment of henipavirus infections. ... that undergo asymptomatic infections (1). Henipavirus-associated disease was initially detected in horses and pigs, which ...
... equine Hendra virus vaccine and a neutralizing monoclonal antibody shown to be efficacious against henipavirus infections in ... Of 172 with TD during travel, 24% stopped planned activities, and 2% were hospitalized. Of 31 with non-TD GI symptoms during ... Healthcare Associated Infections * One needle, one syringe, only one time? A survey of physician and nurse knowledge, attitudes ... Serial head and brain imaging of 17 fetuses with confirmed Zika virus infection in Colombia, South AmericaExternal. Parra- ...
We found a seroprevalence of 55% for henipavirus (Hendra or Nipah virus) and 56% for rubulavirus (Tioman or Menangle virus). ... Notably, 36% of bats surveyed contained antibodies to both types of viruses, indicating concurrent or consecutive infection. ... marked the beginning of a new wave of research activities, which led to the association of bats with some of the most notable ... Yaiw KC, Crameri G, Wang L, Chong HT, Chua KB, Tan CT, Serological evidence of possible human infection with Tioman virus, a ...
4A). In participants CAP177 and CAP255, heterologous activity appeared mostly during the second year of infection (52 to 90 ... coronavirus and henipavirus infections, where cross-neutralizing antibodies are induced early but carry very few somatic ... There was a wide range of activities, with most of the 3-year sera lacking substantial heterologous activity against tier 2 ... little heterologous neutralizing activity was detected in the 14 participants analyzed at 12 months of infection. Here we ...
African HNVs at the stage of host-cell entry is a key parameter when considering the potential for spillover and infection of ... Structure-Activity Relationship, Viral Proteins, Virus Internalization ... Henipavirus, Henipavirus Infections, Humans, Protein Structure, Quaternary, Protein Structure, Secondary, Protein Structure, ... Molecular recognition of human ephrinB2 cell surface receptor by an emergent African henipavirus. ...
7. The Intrinsically Disordered W Protein Is Multifunctional during Henipavirus Infection, Disrupting Host Signalling Pathways ... 5. Importance of Endocytosis for the Biological Activity of Cedar Virus Fusion Protein.. Fischer K, Groschup MH, Diederich S. ... Henipavirus Mononegavirales Paramyxoviridae Paramyxovirinae More Specific:. Hendra virus Henipavirus virus Henipavirus virus ... 2. The Structural Features of Henipavirus Matrix Protein Driving Intracellular Trafficking.. Donnelly CM, Roby JA, Scott CJ, ...
A similar trans-infection process was also shown to be important for henipavirus infection (118). ... Plasmacytoid dendritic cell-derived type I interferon is crucial for the adjuvant activity of Toll-like receptor 7 agonists. ... 4) Trans-infection: in the case of HIV and MLV, CD169+ macrophages can also mediate viral trans-infection to CD4 T cells and B ... Viral Infection of CD169+ Macrophages Results in IFN-I Production. CD169+ macrophages rapidly produce IFN-I after infection and ...
We conducted a survey in Cambodia in 2000 on henipavirus infection among several bat species, including flying foxes, and ... In vitro antiviral activity of adenosine analog NITD008 against tick-borne flaviviruses ... We observed similar levels of R1479 antiviral activity across the family, regardless of virus genus. Our brief study expands ... equine Hendra virus vaccine and a neutralizing monoclonal antibody shown to be efficacious against henipavirus infections in ...
Extensive laboratory studies on the host cell infection stage of HeV and NiV and the roles of their envelope glycoproteins have ... of the assay was also demonstrated by an examination of the influence of the cytoplasmic tail of F in its fusion activity and ... This assay can be conducted safely under BSL-2 conditions and will be a useful tool for measuring henipavirus entry and ... Virus entry could be specifically blocked when infection was carried out in the presence of a fusion inhibiting C-terminal ...
Henipavirus Infections / virology * Humans * Leucine * Nipah Virus / metabolism* * Nipah Virus / physiology * Receptors, Virus ... and two residues in the G-H loop of the ephrin B-class ligands are critical determinants of NiV receptor activity. ... replacement of the Tyr-Met residues in the homologous positions in ephrinB1 with Leu-Trp conferred NiV receptor activity to ...
... and henipavirus infections. The Powassan virus is a rare cause of encephalitis. It can be caused by a bacterial infection, such ... EEG, in monitoring brain activity, encephalitis will produce abnormal signal. Lumbar puncture (spinal tap), this helps ... Viral encephalitis can occur either as a direct effect of an acute infection, or as one of the sequelae of a latent infection. ... Broder, C. C; Geisbert, T. W; Xu, K; Nikolov, D. B; Wang, L. F; Middleton, D; Pallister, J; Bossart, K. N (2012). Henipavirus. ...
This first successful treatment of henipavirus infection in vivo with a small molecule drug suggests that favipiravir should be ... We now demonstrate that favipiravir has potent antiviral activity against henipaviruses. In vitro, favipiravir inhibited Nipah ... This first successful treatment of henipavirus infection in vivo with a small molecule drug suggests that favipiravir should be ... This first successful treatment of henipavirus infection in vivo with a small molecule drug suggests that favipiravir should be ...
... infections from the genera henipavirus (15C17) and morbillivirus acknowledge proteinaceous receptors (Compact disc46 and/or ... Posted in Miscellaneous GlutamateTagged Mouse monoclonal to Influenza A virus Nucleoprotein, NVP-AUY922 kinase activity assay ... The masses referred to in ultrasound exam NVP-AUY922 kinase activity assay had been all distinctly visualized on the CT ... All the MV H stalk chimeras are surface-expressed, display hemadsorption activity, and result in MV F. Combining the five- ...
Nipah and Hendra viruses and enables real-time monitoring of viral spread in small animal models of henipavirus infection. Yun ... Broad-Range Antiviral Activity of Hydrogen Sulfide Against Highly Pathogenic RNA Viruses. Bazhanov, N., Escaffre, O., Freiberg ... Freiberg, A., Bente, D. & LeDuc, J., Jun 1 2014, Viral Infections of Humans: Epidemiology and Control. Springer US, Vol. ... Experimental Infection of Syrian Hamsters with Aerosolized Nipah Virus. Escaffre, O., Hill, T., Ikegami, T., Juelich, T. L., ...
... henipavirus, equine, swine, human infection, animal models, vaccine candidates ... Hendra and Nipah viruses are two highly pathogenic zoonotic members of the genus Henipavirus, family Paramyxoviridae, requiring ... henipavirus G proteins lack both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activities.66,80 HeV and NiV glycoprotein G is the virus ... Clinical outcome of henipavirus infection in hamsters is determined by the route and dose of infection. J Virol. 2011;85(15): ...
... planning and development of collaborative TB/HIV activities. We aimed to summarize the prevalence of TB and HIV co-infection ... Nipah and Hendra Viruses and Enables Real-time Monitoring of Viral Spread in Small Animal Models of Henipavirus Infection ... and others that had no previously known antiviral activity (e.g., daptomycin) were identified as inhibitors of ZIKV infection. ... infection. We interrogated a library of FDA-approved drugs for their ability to block infection of human HuH-7 cells by a newly ...
... size on the island would be too small to allow persistence of viruses that are thought to cause acute and immunising infections ... Henipavirus serological analyses (Luminex multiplexed binding and inhibition assays, virus neutralisation tests and western ... 2010) Virus neutralising activity of African fruit bat (Eidolon helvum) sera against emerging lyssaviruses. Virology 408: 183- ... 2008) Evidence of Henipavirus Infection in West African Fruit Bats. PLoS ONE 3: e2739. * View Article ...
... strategies are thus a promising approach for the rapid generation of therapeutic antisera against emerging infections. Passive ... of neutralization activity were recovered (Fig. 4c). Pepsin digest led to around 50% loss of neutralization activity in F(ab′)2 ... Sawatsky, B., Bente, D. A., Czub, M. & Messling, V. v. Morbillivirus and henipavirus attachment protein cytoplasmic domains ... Thematic Translational Unit Emerging Infections, German Center of Infection Research (DZIF), Marburg - Langen - Munich, Germany ...
Entropy to Demonstrate how Mindfulness Practice Increases Coordination between Irregular Cerebral and Cardiac Activities ... planning and development of collaborative TB/HIV activities. We aimed to summarize the prevalence of TB and HIV co-infection ... Nipah and Hendra Viruses and Enables Real-time Monitoring of Viral Spread in Small Animal Models of Henipavirus Infection ... and others that had no previously known antiviral activity (e.g., daptomycin) were identified as inhibitors of ZIKV infection. ...
We have shown that peptides derived from the HRC of HPIV3 F are effective inhibitors of both HPIV3 and henipavirus infection [ ... The inhibitory activity of V-chol, V-PEG4-chol, and VIKI-PEG4-chol (Table 3) against HPIV3 was assessed in a plaque reduction ... In addition to acute infection, these viruses cause asymptomatic infection in up to 60% of exposed people, and may lead to late ... Treatment started on days -2, 0, 2 or 4 post infection and were continued up to 14 days post infection. All animals were ...
Experimental Infection of Syrian Hamsters with Aerosolized Nipah Virus. Escaffre, O., Hill, T., Ikegami, T., Juelich, T. L., ... Ross, B. N., Myers, J. N., Muruato, L. A., Tapia, D. & Torres, A., Jun 25 2018, In : Frontiers in cellular and infection ... Experimental zika virus infection of neotropical primates. Vanchiere, J. A., Ruiz, J. C., Brady, A. G., Kuehl, T. J., Williams ... Exchange Proteins Directly Activated by cAMP and Their Roles in Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection. Choi, E-J., Ren, Y., ...
See your recent activities or item * * Faculty of Graduate Studies (Admin) * Collection Manager (Admin) ... Sawatsky, Bevan, Allen Grolla, Nina Kuzenko, Hana Weingartl & Markus Czub (2007). Inhibition of henipavirus infection by Nipah ... Functional characterization of the attachment glycoprotein of Nipah virus: role in fusion, inhibition of henipavirus infection ... Functional characterization of the attachment glycoprotein of Nipah virus: role in fusion, inhibition of henipavirus infection ...
Yaiw KC, Crameri G, Wang L, Chong HT, Chua KB, Tan CT, Serological evidence of possible human infection with Tioman virus, a ... marked the beginning of a new wave of research activities, which led to the association of bats with some of the most notable ... Middleton DJ, Morrissy CJ, van der Heide BM, Russell GM, Braun MA, Westbury HA, Experimental Nipah virus infection in pteropid ... Iehlé C, Razafitrimo G, Razainirina J, Andriaholinirina N, Goodman SM, Faure C, Henipavirus and Tioman virus antibodies in ...
... a common feature of henipavirus infection. By day three, cells inoculated with NiV and HeV exhibited extensive CPE, but this ... Prion seeding activity in frontal cortex and olfactory bulb regions of the brain was demonstrated in 15 of 20 deer, suggesting ... in response to CedPV infection, whereas nearly all the genes were repressed during NiV and HeV infection. This work is the ... New infections are established by only one or a few virions from within this complex viral swarm. An important goal is to ...
Genome-wide siRNA Screening at Biosafety Level 4 Reveals a Crucial Role for Fibrillarin in Henipavirus Infection. PLoS Pathog ... Borgal L et al. Casein kinase 1 a phosphorylates the Wnt regulator Jade-1 and modulates its activity. J Biol Chem 289:26344-56 ... Miron MJ et al. Localization and importance of the adenovirus E4orf4 protein during lytic infection. J Virol 83:1689-99 (2009 ... Rees-Unwin KS et al. Ribosome-associated nucleophosmin 1: increased expression and shuttling activity distinguishes prognostic ...
Structure-Activity Relationship , Henipavirus Infections - genetics , Ephrin-B2 - metabolism , Henipavirus Infections - ... Henipavirus , Structure , Emerging virus , Viral attachment , Glycoprotein , henipavirus , ATTACHMENT GLYCOPROTEIN , PROTEIN , ... Infectious Disease , Ephrin-B2 , Henipavirus , Ephrin-B3 , Multi-species tropism , Ephrin receptors , Therapeutics , ANTIBODIES ... 2. Full Text Ephrin-As and Patterned Retinal Activity Act Together in the Development of Topographic Maps in the Primary Visual ...
  • Nipah virus and Hendra virus are highly pathogenic zoonotic viruses of the genus Henipavirus, family Paramyxoviridae. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are emerging zoonotic viruses that belong to the Henipavirus genus within the Paramyxoviridae family. (asm.org)
  • The genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae contains 2 highly lethal viruses, Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV), both of which use pteropid bats as their main natural reservoir ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • We observed similar levels of R1479 antiviral activity across the family, regardless of virus genus. (cdc.gov)
  • Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are newly emerged zoonotic paramyxoviruses discovered during outbreaks in Queensland, Australia in 1994 and peninsular Malaysia in 1998/9 respectively and classified within the new Henipavirus genus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hendra and Nipah viruses are two highly pathogenic zoonotic members of the genus Henipavirus , family Paramyxoviridae, requiring work under biosafety level 4 conditions due to a lack of effective therapy and human vaccines. (dovepress.com)
  • In order to accommodate the unique genomic characteristics of NiV and HeV, a new genus within the family Paramyxoviridae was created, named Henipavirus. (umanitoba.ca)
  • NiV is a RNA virus that belongs to genus Henipavirus of Paramyxoviridae family. (alliedacademies.org)
  • A virus of the Paramyxoviridae family, genus Henipavirus that infects horses and humans and experimentally guinea pigs and cats. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Henipavirus is a genus of negative-strand RNA viruses in the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales containing five species. (wikipedia.org)
  • As newly defined viruses, HeV and NiV belong to the family Paramyxoviridae and genus Henipavirus.5 The broad species tropism and the ability to cause severe diseases in both humans and animals distinguish HeV and NiV from other zoonotic viruses. (thiazovivin.com)
  • Belonging to the Henipavirus genus, this virus can cause fever, encephalitis and respiratory disorders. (medworm.com)
  • The Nipah virus is a type of RNA virus in the genus Henipavirus 3 . (ijpsr.com)
  • Hendra (HeV) and Nipah (NiV) viruses, in the genus em Henipavirus /em , are considered zoonotic brokers in Australia (horses) and South-East Asia (pigs), respectively. (tech-strategy.org)
  • Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV) are closely related viral zoonoses that form the genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. (grantome.com)
  • Hendra virus is a member of the genus Henipavirus , a new class of virus in the family Paramyxoviridae . (vic.gov.au)
  • To explore the possibility of developing small-molecule nucleoside inhibitors against henipaviruses, we evaluated the antiviral activity of 4'-azidocytidine (R1479), a drug previously identified to inhibit flaviviruses, against henipaviruses along with other representative members of the family Paramyxoviridae. (cdc.gov)
  • Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic bat henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae NiV is deadly to humans, infecting host cells by direct fusion of the viral and host cell plasma membranes. (bvsalud.org)
  • HeV and NiV infections can be highly fatal to humans and livestock. (asm.org)
  • NiV infection primarily is a zoonotic disease (transmitted from animals to humans) and can be transmitted through consuming contaminated food or directly from human to human. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The virus causes fatal illness in horses and humans following 'natural' infection, and of guinea pigs and cats following experimental inoculation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Other than the lyssaviruses, they do not appear to cause disease in the reservoir bats, thus an explanation for the dichotomous outcomes of infections of humans and bat reservoirs remains to be determined. (frontiersin.org)
  • however, recent evidence of henipavirus infection has been found in a wider range of species, including flying foxes, humans, cats, horses, rabbits and laboratory rodents6 (Physique 4). (thiazovivin.com)
  • This unit has a strong focus on zoonotic diseases, which are those infections that can be transmitted from animals to humans, but also explores disease transmission more broadly through ecosystems. (edu.au)
  • A zoonotic infection (zoonosis) is an animal disease that can be transmitted to humans. (edu.au)
  • Prior to 1998 there had been no reports of a disease of wildlife, domestic animals or humans that would subsequently be considered infection with Nipah virus. (ijpsr.com)
  • However, the characterization of Hendra virus paved the way for the identification of the causative agent of disease in Malaysian pigs and farm workers and assisted in the recognition of the source of the infection and the pathway from the wildlife reservoir to humans. (ijpsr.com)
  • Both viruses may be able to infect other domesticated mammals, and there is a real concern in the veterinary and biodefense communities about spill-over infections and the high fatality rate in humans (632 human NiVcases: 59% case fatality [7, 131]. (tech-strategy.org)
  • Infection of endothelial cells is a hallmark of NiV infection in animals and humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These novel mechanistic roles expand our understanding of henipaviral and paramyxoviral F-triggering, viral entry, and cell-cell fusion (syncytia), a pathognomonic feature of paramyxoviral infections.IMPORTANCE Henipaviruses infect bats, agriculturally important animals, and humans, with high mortality rates approaching â ¼75% in humans. (bvsalud.org)
  • Many of these viruses, which cause severe morbidity and mortality in humans and other mammals, appear to cause no clinical diseases in bats under natural or experimental infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Notably, 36% of bats surveyed contained antibodies to both types of viruses, indicating concurrent or consecutive infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Among the pathogens involved, viruses that can be transmitted directly and cause severe disease with high mortality such as filovirus and henipavirus are considered World Health Organization (WHO) priority pathogens. (nature.com)
  • Given the isolation of fruit bats on Annobón and their lack of connectivity with other populations, it was expected that the population size on the island would be too small to allow persistence of viruses that are thought to cause acute and immunising infections. (plos.org)
  • Reservoir host population size and density play a critical role in the ability of a species to maintain viruses that cause acute or immunising infections, reflected through epidemiological principles such as the critical community size (CCS) and the effective reproductive number (R eff ). (plos.org)
  • In addition to acute infection, these viruses cause asymptomatic infection in up to 60% of exposed people, and may lead to late-onset disease or relapse of encephalitis years after initial infection [24] , as well as persistent or delayed neurological sequelae. (prolekare.cz)
  • Because of the constitutive IFN activity, bat-borne viruses may be shed at low levels from bat cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, upon infection of human cells, where the IFN response is not constitutive, the viruses overwhelm the IFN response, leading to abundant virus replication and pathology. (frontiersin.org)
  • Precision-cut intestinal slices as a culture system to analyze the infection of differentiated intestinal epithelial cells by avian influenza viruses. (tiho-hannover.de)
  • Infection of differentiated airway epithelial cells from caprine lungs by viruses of the bovine respiratory disease complex. (tiho-hannover.de)
  • Characterization of the sialic acid binding activity of influenza A viruses using soluble variants of the H7 and H9 hemagglutinins. (tiho-hannover.de)
  • Three viruses of the bovine respiratory disease complex apply different strategies to initiate infection. (tiho-hannover.de)
  • Differential sensitivity of bat cells to infection by enveloped RNA viruses: coronaviruses, paramyxoviruses, filoviruses, and influenza viruses. (tiho-hannover.de)
  • Etiology: Infection of the skin of the eyelids results when latent herpes simplex viruses present in the tissue are activated by ultraviolet radiation. (wdmac.com)
  • Herein, we present a global portrait of some of the most prevalent or emerging human respiratory viruses that have been associated with possible pathogenic processes in CNS infection, with a special emphasis on human coronaviruses. (mdpi.com)
  • of drugs to treat infections with viruses currently perceived as a threat to societies or associated with a potential for misuse as biothreat brokers. (tech-strategy.org)
  • The great diversity and geographical distribution of bats means it of no surprise that they are a reservoir and transfer vector for many viruses, which once they have crossed the species barrier can be lethal (Filovirus, Flavivirus, Henipavirus, Lyssavirus). (westminster.ac.uk)
  • We also hope to obtain more samples, including immune tissues that, given the viruses' tropism are more pertinent tissues for picking up certain viral infections. (westminster.ac.uk)
  • Rhinoviruses are small, single-stranded RNA viruses in the picornavirus family that are responsible for more than half of all upper respiratory tract infections. (datexis.com)
  • Griffithsin (GRFT) is high-mannose oligosaccharide binding lectin that has shown in vivo broad-spectrum activity against viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, human immunodeficiency virus 1, hepatitis C virus, and Japanese encephalitis virus. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this study, we evaluated the in vitro antiviral activities of GRFT and its synthetic trimeric tandemer (3mG) against NiV and other viruses from 4 virus families. (bvsalud.org)
  • Bats host many viruses that are significant for human and domestic animal health, but the dynamics of these infections in their natural reservoir hosts remain poorly elucidated. (lecollege.org)
  • Preclinical trials data showed that regimens with mosaic-based vaccines, which aim to prevent multiple clades, were highly efficacious in protecting nonhuman primates against infection with HIV-like viruses. (futuremedicineindia.com)
  • An outbreak investigation led by the National Epidemiology Center identified additional human deaths and nonfatal infections and concurrent neurologic disease and sudden deaths in several horses, all of which were subsequently consumed by villagers. (cdc.gov)
  • 7 However, the first NiV outbreak in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998-1999 resulted in 276 documented infections with a case fatality rate of approximately 40%, 8 , 9 illustrating the challenges associated with predicting and preparing for such events. (nature.com)
  • Whole blood from convalescent donors was given as a post-exposure treatment during the 1995 Kikwit outbreak with seven of eight patients surviving the infection. (nature.com)
  • Initial symptoms of NiV infection are nonspecific that affects outbreak response activities like outbreak detection, effective and control measures. (alliedacademies.org)
  • A recent Hendra virus outbreak at a veterinary clinic in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, involved 5 equine and 2 human infections. (nih.gov)
  • Physical contact was identified as the strongest risk factor for developing an infection in the 2004 Faridpur outbreak. (medworm.com)
  • Until the NIPAH outbreak in Malaysia in 1999, knowledge of human infections was limited to the small number of cases associated with the emergence of Hendra virus in Australia in 1994. (ijpsr.com)
  • reported the first outbreak of DHF viral infection in Makkah in 2004, and the isolated virus serotypes were DENV-2 and DENV-3. (datexis.com)
  • Characterisation of infectious Ebola virus from the ongoing outbreak to guide response activities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: a phylogenetic and in vitro analysis. (cdc.gov)
  • At the core is a single helical strand of genomic RNA tightly bound to N (nucleocapsid) protein and associated with the L (large) and P (phosphoprotein) proteins, which provide RNA polymerase activity during replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the G protein Fasiglifam has neither HA nor neuraminidase activities, it plays an important role in HeV and NiV binding to ephrin-B2 and ephrin-B3, which are users of a large family of important signaling proteins involved in cellCcell interactions.67 Binding of RBD in the G protein with its receptor facilitates F protein-mediated viral fusion with the target cell. (thiazovivin.com)
  • We have performed a genome-wide siRNA screen at biosafety level 4 that identified 585 human proteins required for henipavirus infection. (cdc.gov)
  • The arteriviruses are highly species specific, but share many biological and molecular properties, including virion morphology, a unique set of structural proteins, genome organization and replication strategy, and the ability to establish prolonged or true persistent infection in their natural hosts. (caister.com)
  • The scientists believe that the bacterial killing activity of the nucleolus and fibrillarin upon bacterial infection may be related to their function in producing ribosomes, miniature factories that make the proteins of the cell. (phys.org)
  • Inhibition of Henipavirus fusion and infection by heptad-derived peptides of the Nipah virus fusion glycoprotein. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibition of henipavirus infection by Nipah virus attachment glycoprotein occurs without cell-surface downregulation of ephrin-B2 or ephrin-B3. (umanitoba.ca)
  • While outbreaks of Nipah and Hendra virus infections remain rare and sporadic, there is concern that Nipah virus has pandemic potential. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Henipavirus outbreaks are on the rise, but little is known about them, partly because research has to be conducted under extreme level containment conditions. (eurekalert.org)
  • Henipaviruses infection is common in bats, and outbreaks in Australia and Malaysia have been linked to human contact with local fruit bats. (eurekalert.org)
  • A recent escalation in the frequency of outbreaks has increased the need for a vaccine that prevents HeV and NiV infections. (asm.org)
  • In India, the NiV infection was first reported in 2001 followed in 2007 claiming 50 lives at the death rate of 70% in both the outbreaks. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Despite causing regular outbreaks with high case fatality rates, there are currently no licensed vaccines or therapeutics for Nipah virus (NiV) infection. (pnas.org)
  • Broder CC. Henipavirus outbreaks to antivirals: the current status of potential therapeutics. (cdc.gov)
  • Annual outbreaks of NiV human infections in Bangladesh and other areas justify the benefit of a prophylactic vaccine for improving public health as well as reducing their potential as a biothreat. (grantome.com)
  • Extensive laboratory studies on the host cell infection stage of HeV and NiV and the roles of their envelope glycoproteins have been hampered by their highly pathogenic nature and restriction to biosafety level-4 (BSL-4) containment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • and non-pathogenic (lentogenic) strains, which cause inapparent infections. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Henipaviruses are naturally harbored by Pteropid fruit bats (commonly referred to as flying foxes) that undergo asymptomatic infections ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • The most likely source of horse infection was fruit bats. (cdc.gov)
  • The discovery of HeV in Australian flying foxes in 1996 ( 2 ) marked the beginning of a new wave of research activities, which led to the association of bats with some of the most notable viral pathogens to emerge in recent history, including NiV ( 1 ), severe acute respiratory syndrome-like coronaviruses ( 3 ), Ebola virus ( 4 ), and Marburg virus ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Location and species of bats collected for study of henipavirus and rubulavirus antibodies in pteropid bats, Papua New Guinea, June 2008. (cdc.gov)
  • 1 , 2 Bats infected with henipaviruses do not develop an apparent disease, as confirmed by experimental infections with HeV in pregnant and nonpregnant Pteropus poliocephalus and P. alecto , 3 - 5 and NiV in P. poliocephalus . (dovepress.com)
  • Deadly coronavirus may have originated in bats: researchers - We've detected unusual activity from your computer network Up Next Close Rob Gronkowski opens up about everything. (qarantino.com)
  • We are interested in looking for persistent or latent infection of bats such as herpesviruses and retroviruses. (westminster.ac.uk)
  • Together these results suggest that bats are no exception to the diversity of endogenised and persistent infections among mammals. (westminster.ac.uk)
  • Mojiang virus (MojV) is the first henipavirus identified in a rodent and known only by sequence data, whereas all other henipaviruses have been isolated from bats (Hendra virus, Nipah virus, Cedar virus) or discovered by sequence data from material of bat origin (Ghana virus). (bvsalud.org)
  • In addition, these data provide insight into genes relevant to the antiviral responses of bats, and form a basis for examining the roles of these molecules in immune response to viral infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the latter case of persistently infected individuals, theoretical models have shown such individuals would greatly contribute to population-level persistence of henipaviruses (Plowright bats (Rogers roosts in Thailand and populations in Germany shows seasonal excretion peaks of henipavirus and coronaviruses, respectively, that are associated with pregnancy and lactation (Gloza-Rausch et?al . (lecollege.org)
  • Infection of human cells with Hendra virus (green) is critically dependent on fibrillarin (red), a host protein that resides deep within the cell nucleus (blue). (eurekalert.org)
  • A study published on March 24, 2016 in PLOS Pathogens reports the first high-throughput RNA interference screen for host genes that are essential for live henipavirus infection of human cells, and identifies a specific cell protein called fibrillarin as a potential target for drugs against henipaviruses and other paramyxoviruses. (eurekalert.org)
  • More specifically, the researchers report that mutating the catalytic activity of fibrillarin inhibits henipavirus infection, suggesting that this human enzyme could be targeted therapeutically to combat henipavirus infections. (eurekalert.org)
  • When they tested whether fibrillarin function was required for successful infection of human cells by other paramyxoviruses, the researchers found that this was indeed the case for all the family members tested, including the mumps and measles pathogens. (eurekalert.org)
  • Prof. Antebi from the Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing in Cologne notes that "the nucleolus contains a protein highly conserved in evolution called fibrillarin, which also decreases during infection. (phys.org)
  • When we reduce fibrillarin in the nucleolus it is sufficient to defend against bacterial infection. (phys.org)
  • On the other hand, Antebi and his colleagues could show that activities that expand the nucleolus and increase fibrillarin make cells more sensitive to infection. (phys.org)
  • Based on our data from the presented mouse immunogenicity studies, we conclude that a killed RABV vaccine would be highly effective against HeV infections and would make an excellent vaccine candidate in areas where both RABV and henipaviruses pose a threat to human health. (asm.org)
  • We now demonstrate that favipiravir has potent antiviral activity against henipaviruses. (utmb.edu)
  • The need for high biocontainment when studying henipaviruses has hindered the development of therapeutics and knowledge of the viral infection cycle. (cdc.gov)
  • To circumvent this problem, we have developed a henipavirus envelope glycoprotein pseudotyped lentivirus assay system using either a luciferase gene or green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene encoding human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) genome in conjunction with the HeV and NiV fusion (F) and attachment (G) glycoproteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Functional retrovirus particles pseudotyped with henipavirus F and G glycoproteins displayed proper target cell tropism and entry and infection was dependent on the presence of the HeV and NiV receptors ephrinB2 or B3 on target cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Surface glycoproteins of an African henipavirus induce syncytium formation in a cell line derived from an African fruit bat, Hypsignathus monstrosus. (tiho-hannover.de)
  • Our findings clearly show that EB2 signaling does not account for the striking negative impact of elevated receptor expression on NiV infection, but rather that the ratio between the NiV envelope glycoproteins and surface receptors critically influence cell-to-cell fusion and virus entry. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ribavirin, the only drug available for the treatment of some paramyxovirus infections ( 9 , 41 ), has been used experimentally for the treatment of measles, but with limited efficacy ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • We further demonstrate that the GFP virus retained the ability to cause fatal disease in a well-characterized ferret model of henipavirus infection despite the genome being an extra 1290 nucleotides in length. (nih.gov)
  • Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are derived from exogenous retrovirus infections in the evolution of primates and account for about 8% of the human genome. (bvsalud.org)
  • Soon after infection, the single stranded positive RNA that constitutes the viral genome is efficiently translated using a cap-independent mechanism driven by the internal ribosome entry site element (IRES). (caister.com)
  • Here we used a large panel of 44 HIV-1 envelope variants (subtypes A, B, and C) to evaluate the presence of broadly neutralizing antibodies in serum samples obtained 3 years after seroconversion from 40 women enrolled in the CAPRISA 002 acute infection cohort. (asm.org)
  • Mapping of the epitopes targeted by cross-neutralizing antibodies revealed that in one individual these antibodies recognized the membrane-proximal external region (MPER), while in two other individuals, cross-neutralizing activity was adsorbed by monomeric gp120 and targeted epitopes that involved the N-linked glycan at position 332 in the C3 region. (asm.org)
  • These data indicate that fewer than 20% of HIV-1 subtype C-infected individuals develop antibodies with cross-neutralizing activity after 3 years of infection and that these antibodies target different regions of the HIV-1 envelope, including as yet uncharacterized epitopes. (asm.org)
  • Neutralizing antibodies are thought to be crucial in the protective immune response against many viral infections, yet their role in HIV-1 infection remains controversial. (asm.org)
  • During natural infection, they appear to have little impact on acute viremia, as they arise too late and the virus readily escapes type-specific neutralizing antibodies ( 35 , 41 , 42 , 55 ). (asm.org)
  • This assay can be conducted safely under BSL-2 conditions and will be a useful tool for measuring henipavirus entry and studying F and G glycoprotein function in the context of virus entry, as well as in assaying and characterizing neutralizing antibodies and virus entry inhibitors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • in many instances, infection may remain latent for many years, even in the presence of specific circulating antibodies. (wdmac.com)
  • Dependent on whether the individual has had prior exposure to the other type, this is further subdivided into: 1 Primary infection: first infection with either HSV-1 or HSV-2 in an individual with no pre-existing antibodies to either type. (studyres.com)
  • Non-primary infection: first infection with either HSV-1 or HSV-2 in an individual with pre- existing antibodies to the other type. (studyres.com)
  • Recently, a dog was found to have natural infection (presence of antibodies) without symptoms of disease. (vic.gov.au)
  • This first successful treatment of henipavirus infection in vivo with a small molecule drug suggests that favipiravir should be further evaluated as an antiviral treatment option for henipavirus infections. (utmb.edu)
  • Favipiravir has a protective effect against Nipah computer virus infections in the hamster model [29], and remdesivir inhibits a number of paramyxoviruses in vitro [88]. (tech-strategy.org)
  • This review will address Nipah virus basic clinical disease, pathology, and pathogenesis with a particular focus on CNS infection and address the necessity of a model of relapsed CNS infection. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The pathogenesis of NiV infection of the human respiratory tract remains unknown. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • However, the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the infection caused by each virus is distinct, as are the diseases they cause. (caister.com)
  • Virus entry could be specifically blocked when infection was carried out in the presence of a fusion inhibiting C-terminal heptad (HR-2) peptide, a well-characterized, cross-reactive, neutralizing human mAb specific for the henipavirus G glycoprotein, and soluble ephrinB2 and B3 receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Together, these results demonstrate that a specific henipavirus entry assay has been developed using NiV or HeV F and G glycoprotein pseudotyped reporter-gene encoding retrovirus particles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Complications such as pneumonia (lung infection or inflammation) and meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord), or encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) may develop. (sa.gov.au)
  • Individual parainfluenza infections and respiratory syncytial pathogen (RSV) are significant reasons of bronchiolitis, pneumonia and bronchitis in newborns and kids. (tech-strategy.org)
  • Histologically, the infection resulted in lung lesions consistent with bronchointerstitial pneumonia of varying severity and nasal turbinates with blunting or loss of cilia of the epithelium lining the nasal septa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human infections with Hendra virus range from mild influenza-like illness to fatal respiratory disease (pneumonia) or neurological disease (aseptic meningitis and encephalitis). (vic.gov.au)
  • Typically, these bacteria cause infections like pneumonia, bloodstream infections, wound or surgical site infections, and even urinary tract. (contagionlive.com)
  • The in vivo efficacy of cholesterol-tagged peptides, and in particular their ability to penetrate the CNS, suggests that they are promising candidates for the prevention or therapy of infection by Nipah and other lethal paramyxoviruses. (prolekare.cz)
  • Additionally, the innate immune responses to Nipah virus infection in vitro and in the CNS are reviewed as it is likely linked to any persistent CNS infection. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Here, we have evaluated these peptides as well as the corresponding scrambled peptide controls in Nipah virus and Hendra virus-mediated membrane fusion and against infection by live virus in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • Nipah virus and Hendra virus infection in vitro can be potently blocked by specific HR-2 peptides. (nih.gov)
  • Hemadsorption and neuraminidase activity analysis confirms the limited capacity of SosV-RBP to interact with sialic acid in vitro and indicates that SosV-RBP undergoes a nonclassical route of host-cell entry. (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, the immunomodulatory activity in vitro of PFP2, PFP3, and PFP4 on murine Natural264.7 macrophages was investigated. (tech-strategy.org)
  • 99]) and the herb extract naphthoquinone droserone have anti-measles activities in vitro [87]. (tech-strategy.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to test whether long term treatment with acyclovir given orally (by mouth) improves the outcome for infants with herpes simplex virus infection of the brain or. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Importantly, both Nipah virus and Hendra virus-mediated fusion as well as live virus infection were potently inhibited by both capped and PEGylated peptides with IC50 concentrations similar to the original HR-2 peptides, whereas the scrambled modified peptides had no inhibitory effect. (nih.gov)
  • We found a seroprevalence of 55% for henipavirus (Hendra or Nipah virus) and 56% for rubulavirus (Tioman or Menangle virus). (cdc.gov)
  • Despite the availability of a licensed equine Hendra virus vaccine and a neutralizing monoclonal antibody shown to be efficacious against henipavirus infections in non-human primates, there remains no approved therapeutics or vaccines for human use. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, the utility of the assay was also demonstrated by an examination of the influence of the cytoplasmic tail of F in its fusion activity and incorporation into pseudotyped virus particles by generating and testing a panel of truncation mutants of NiV and HeV F. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additional possible viral causes are arboviral flavivirus (St. Louis encephalitis, West Nile virus), bunyavirus (La Crosse strain), arenavirus (lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus), reovirus (Colorado tick virus), and henipavirus infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Henipavirus serological analyses (Luminex multiplexed binding and inhibition assays, virus neutralisation tests and western blots) and lyssavirus serological analyses (LBV: modified Fluorescent Antibody Virus Neutralisation test, LBV and Mokola virus: lentivirus pseudovirus neutralisation assay) were undertaken on 73 and 70 samples respectively. (plos.org)
  • Dynamic viral-bacterial interactions in a porcine precision-cut lung slice co-infection model: swine influenza virus paves the way for Streptococcus suis infection in a two-step process. (tiho-hannover.de)
  • Porcine aminopeptidase N mediated polarized infection by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in target cells. (tiho-hannover.de)
  • Currently, there are no approved vaccines, nor treatments for Ebola virus (EBOV) infection. (oalib.com)
  • A better understanding of the molecular aspects of EBOV replication will be necessary for successful development of specific treatments for EBOV infection.Ebola virus matrix protein, VP40, is the major virion protein and plays an essential role in virus assembly and budding [3,4]. (oalib.com)
  • PMID31954155}} '{{Zika virus}} (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects, including brain and eye abnormalities. (edu.au)
  • The first case of Nipah virus (NiV) infection was initially reported in late September 1998 near Ipoh, West Malaysia. (cureus.com)
  • Hendra virus infection is a serious condition which can be fatal caused by Hendra virus. (sa.gov.au)
  • Since then, seven people have been confirmed to have Hendra virus infection, four of whom died. (sa.gov.au)
  • There is no specific treatment for Hendra virus infection. (sa.gov.au)
  • People who are suspected to have the virus or have been in close contact with horses that might have the infection should be reviewed by an infectious diseases specialist, and may require hospital admission. (sa.gov.au)
  • Nipah virus infection (NiV) is a viral infection caused by the Nipah virus. (ijpsr.com)
  • Nipah virus provides one of the most striking examples of an emerging virus and illustrates many of the pathways leading from a wildlife reservoir to human infections. (ijpsr.com)
  • Prevention of Nipah virus infection is important since there is no effective treatment for the disease. (ijpsr.com)
  • Transmission of human infection with Nipah virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Clinical presentation of Nipah virus infection in Bangladesh. (cdc.gov)
  • Although a relative instability of the pre-fusion conformation of a soluble form of MojV F was observed, MojV F displayed significantly greater fusion activity when heterotypically paired with Ghana virus G. An exhaustive investigation of A- and B-class ephrins indicated that none serve as a primary receptor for MojV. (bvsalud.org)
  • KDM6A)-mediated H3K27me3 demethylation enforces Tfh-related gene expression such as IL6ra to sustain Tfh lineage, and deficiency in UTX prospects Naringenin to impaired GC B cell response and antibody production against chronic computer virus infection (Cook et al. (capecodmushroom.org)
  • Significant involvement of blood vessels in the central nervous system (CNS), lung, heart and kidney was observed in all infections. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Whooping cough - Comprehensive overview covers symptoms, treatment of this vaccinepreventable lung infection. (studyres.com)
  • An understanding of how broadly neutralizing activity develops in HIV-1-infected individuals is needed to guide vaccine design and immunization strategies. (asm.org)
  • There is no specific treatment or vaccine available against NiV infection and only supportive care is offered to affected individuals. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The mosaic-vaccine regimen has been designed with the goal of achieving a global vaccine that could prevent HIV infection due to multiple viral strains. (futuremedicineindia.com)
  • HVTN 705 is a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2b efficacy study of a heterologous prime/boost vaccine regimen of Ad26.Mos4.HIV and aluminum phosphate-adjuvanted clade C gp140 in preventing HIV-1 infection in women in sub-Saharan Africa. (futuremedicineindia.com)
  • The zoonotic infection originates from fruit-eating macrobats ( Pteropus spp. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this study, we describe the immune transcriptome of the Australian flying fox, Pteropus alecto , providing an important resource for identification of genes involved in a range of activities including antiviral immunity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Viral encephalitis can occur either as a direct effect of an acute infection, or as one of the sequelae of a latent infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • A total of six hundred cases have been reported between 1998 and 2015 of NiV infection by WHO in the south and east Asia. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The NiV infection even in animals may result in a significant economic loss as seen in Malaysia where 1.1 million pigs were culled in 1998-99. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Henipavirus-associated disease was initially detected in horses and pigs, which likely were in contact with infective bat urine or droppings or contaminated fruit ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • In one fatal human case the clinical syndrome resembled in general that observed in horses while in a second case death occurred after a prolonged clinical course including signs of central nervous system dysfunction one year after infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Since expression levels of the main NiV entry receptor ephrin-B2 (EB2) are highly regulated in vivo to fulfill the physiological functions in axon guidance and angiogenesis, the goal of this study was to determine if changes in the EB2 expression influence NiV infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • HeV and NiV have host-specific respiratory or neurological tropism, and infections are associated with high morbidity and case fatality rates of up to 75% ( 1 , 3 ). (asm.org)
  • The increasing threat of the multidrug-resistant microorganisms and the related host immune response, the new strategies for the treatment of biofilm-based, acute and chronic microbial infections, as well as the development of new vaccines and more efficacious antimicrobial drugs to prevent and treat human and animal infections will be also reviewed in this series in the light of the most recent achievements in these fields. (ebooksmedicine.net)
  • The need for effective concerted supranational efforts means that cooperating countries need to have a common understanding of the global and regional risks which in turn requires a common risk assessment methodology and common prevention activities. (climvib.eu)
  • She holds a doctorate in Biodefense from George Mason University where her research focuses on the role of infection prevention in facilitating global health security efforts. (contagionlive.com)
  • Herein, we discuss the potential of T. gondii infection to affect the maternal-foetal interface and the potential of pregnancy to disrupt maternal immunity to T. gondii infection. (edu.au)
  • that late pregnancy appears to make adult females susceptible to henipavirus contamination might suggest an important role for cell-mediated immunity in its control outside of these times. (lecollege.org)
  • 2016). By facilitating high-affinity antibody generation, Tfh cells have an important role in protective immunity against pathogen infections. (capecodmushroom.org)
  • It can be caused by a bacterial infection, such as bacterial meningitis, or may be a complication of a current infectious disease syphilis (secondary encephalitis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Among the three genotypes (A, B, and C) types A and C are most often associated with increased morbidity and bacterial secondary infection. (datexis.com)
  • The Series will provide microbiologists, hygienists, epidemiologists and infectious diseases specialists with well-chosen contributed volumes containing updated information in the areas of basic and applied microbiology involving relevant issues for public health, including bacterial, fungal and parasitic infections, zoonosis and anthropozoonosis, environmental and food microbiology. (ebooksmedicine.net)
  • The nucleolus (in green) of macrophage cells shrinks upon bacterial infection (left: uninfected macrophage, right: bacteria infected macrophage). (phys.org)
  • Scientists from Cologne discovered that upon bacterial infection , the nucleolus shrinks in size, revealing a remarkable visible change as part of the host response. (phys.org)
  • Zika-associated birth defects were more common among women with ZIKV RNA detected in prenatal amniotic fluid specimens than women with no laboratory evidence of ZIKV infection, but similar to women with ZIKV RNA detected in other, non-amniotic fluid specimen types. (edu.au)
  • Only in the case of APMV-1, the infection of non-avian species has been investigated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Preliminary analyses of sequences we have amplified indicates that persistent and/or latent infections do exist within bat species. (westminster.ac.uk)
  • One hallmark of pestiviruses is their unique strategy to establish persistent infection during pregnancy. (caister.com)
  • [4] Taenia solium infection is one of the neglected tropical diseases with public health and veterinary concern in endemic regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluconapen is also used to prevent fungal infection in people who have a weak immune system caused by cancer treatment, bone marrow transplant, or diseases such as AIDS. (storysteel.cf)
  • During her work as an infection preventionist, she performed surveillance for infectious diseases, preparedness, and Ebola-response practices. (contagionlive.com)
  • The improved synthesis and solubility characteristics of the second generation HR-2 peptides will facilitate peptide synthesis for pre-clinical trial application in an animal model of Henipavirus infection. (nih.gov)
  • Given its clinical importance, several major studies have investigated the genomic adaptation of P. aeruginosa in lungs and its transition as acute infections become chronic. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Recurrent episode: recurrence of clinical symptoms due to reactivation of preexistent HSV-1 or HSV-2 infection after a period of latency. (studyres.com)
  • Incubation of infection from acquisition to first clinical signs and symptoms in this minority of individuals ranges from 2 days - 2 weeks. (studyres.com)
  • We identified about 18,600 genes involved in a broad range of activities with the most highly expressed genes involved in cell growth and maintenance, enzyme activity, cellular components and metabolism and energy pathways. (biomedcentral.com)