DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Replication Origin: A unique DNA sequence of a replicon at which DNA REPLICATION is initiated and proceeds bidirectionally or unidirectionally. It contains the sites where the first separation of the complementary strands occurs, a primer RNA is synthesized, and the switch from primer RNA to DNA synthesis takes place. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.DNA Replication Timing: The temporal order in which the DNA of the GENOME is replicated.Replication Protein A: A single-stranded DNA-binding protein that is found in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. It is required for DNA REPLICATION; DNA REPAIR; and GENETIC RECOMBINATION.S Phase: Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.DNA Helicases: Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Origin Recognition Complex: The origin recognition complex is a multi-subunit DNA-binding protein that initiates DNA REPLICATION in eukaryotes.DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.Replication Protein C: A DNA-binding protein that consists of 5 polypeptides and plays an essential role in DNA REPLICATION in eukaryotes. It binds DNA PRIMER-template junctions and recruits PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and DNA POLYMERASES to the site of DNA synthesis.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Hydroxyurea: An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Aphidicolin: An antiviral antibiotic produced by Cephalosporium aphidicola and other fungi. It inhibits the growth of eukaryotic cells and certain animal viruses by selectively inhibiting the cellular replication of DNA polymerase II or the viral-induced DNA polymerases. The drug may be useful for controlling excessive cell proliferation in patients with cancer, psoriasis or other dermatitis with little or no adverse effect upon non-multiplying cells.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Replicon: Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.DNA Primase: A single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that functions to initiate, or prime, DNA synthesis by synthesizing oligoribonucleotide primers. EC 2.7.7.-.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2: A minichromosome maintenance protein that is a key component of the six member MCM protein complex. It contains a NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNAL which may provide targeting of the protein complex and an extended N-terminus which is rich in SERINE residues.DNA Polymerase III: A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in E. coli and other lower organisms but may be present in higher organisms. Use also for a more complex form of DNA polymerase III designated as DNA polymerase III* or pol III* which is 15 times more active biologically than DNA polymerase I in the synthesis of DNA. This polymerase has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activities, is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents, and has the same template-primer dependence as pol II. EC 22.214.171.124.DNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in E. coli and other lower organisms. It may be present in higher organisms and has an intrinsic molecular activity only 5% of that of DNA Polymerase I. This polymerase has 3'-5' exonuclease activity, is effective only on duplex DNA with gaps or single-strand ends of less than 100 nucleotides as template, and is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents. EC 126.96.36.199.DNA Polymerase I: A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in prokaryotes and may be present in higher organisms. It has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activity, but cannot use native double-stranded DNA as template-primer. It is not inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents and is active in both DNA synthesis and repair. EC 188.8.131.52.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Geminin: Geminin inhibits DNA replication by preventing the incorporation of MCM complex into pre-replication complex. It is absent during G1 phase of the CELL CYCLE and accumulates through S, G2,and M phases. It is degraded at the metaphase-anaphase transition by the ANAPHASE-PROMOTING COMPLEX-CYCLOSOME.Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 7: A minichromosome maintenance protein that is a key component of the six member MCM protein complex. It is also found in tightly-bound trimeric complex with MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 4 and MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 6.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Genomic Instability: An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.Minichromosome Maintenance Proteins: A family of proteins that were originally identified in SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE as being essential for maintaining the structure of minichromosomes00. They form into a protein complex that has helicase activity and is involved in a variety of DNA-related functions including replication elongation, RNA transcription, chromatin remodeling, and genome stability.Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 3: A minichromosome maintenance protein that is a key component of the six member MCM protein complex. It contains a NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNAL, which provide targeting of the protein complex. In addition, acetylation of this protein may play a role in regulating of DNA replication and cell cycle progression.Polyomavirus: A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.DnaB Helicases: A family of DNA helicases that participate in DNA REPLICATION. They assemble into hexameric rings with a central channel and unwind DNA processively in the 5' to 3' direction. DnaB helicases are considered the primary replicative helicases for most prokaryotic organisms.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Exodeoxyribonucleases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. It includes members of the class EC 3.1.11 that produce 5'-phosphomonoesters as cleavage products.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.Bacteriophage T4: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cell Extracts: Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.Checkpoint Kinase 2: Enzyme activated in response to DNA DAMAGE involved in cell cycle arrest. The gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 22 at position 12.1. In humans it is encoded by the CHEK2 gene.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Adenoviruses, Human: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.S Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Cell regulatory signaling system that controls progression through S PHASE and stabilizes the replication forks during conditions that could affect the fidelity of DNA REPLICATION, such as DNA DAMAGE or depletion of nucleotide pools.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.RNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Bromodeoxyuridine: A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 4: A minichromosome maintenance protein that is a key component of the six member MCM protein complex. It is also found in tightly-bound trimeric complex with MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 6 and MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 7.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.RecQ Helicases: A family of structurally-related DNA helicases that play an essential role in the maintenance of genome integrity. RecQ helicases were originally discovered in E COLI and are highly conserved across both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Genetic mutations that result in loss of RecQ helicase activity gives rise to disorders that are associated with CANCER predisposition and premature aging.ThymidineTranscription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Spodoptera: A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins: A group of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES which activate critical signaling cascades in double strand breaks, APOPTOSIS, and GENOTOXIC STRESS such as ionizing ultraviolet A light, thereby acting as a DNA damage sensor. These proteins play a role in a wide range of signaling mechanisms in cell cycle control.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Flap Endonucleases: Endonucleases that remove 5' DNA sequences from a DNA structure called a DNA flap. The DNA flap structure occurs in double-stranded DNA containing a single-stranded break where the 5' portion of the downstream strand is too long and overlaps the 3' end of the upstream strand. Flap endonucleases cleave the downstream strand of the overlap flap structure precisely after the first base-paired nucleotide, creating a ligatable nick.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 6: A minichromosome maintenance protein that is a key component of the six member MCM protein complex. It is also found in tightly-bound trimeric complex with MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 4 and MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE COMPLEX COMPONENT 7.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mimosine: 3-Hydroxy-4-oxo-1(4H)-pyridinealanine. An antineoplastic alanine-substituted pyridine derivative isolated from Leucena glauca.Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.T-Phages: A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Bacteriophage phi X 174: The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.DNA Ligases: Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC 184.108.40.206 (ATP) and EC 220.127.116.11 (NAD).Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cytomegalovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.Minute virus of mice: The type species of PARVOVIRUS prevalent in mouse colonies and found as a contaminant of many transplanted tumors or leukemias.Herpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Nucleopolyhedrovirus: A genus of the family BACULOVIRIDAE, subfamily Eubaculovirinae, characterized by the formation of crystalline, polyhedral occlusion bodies in the host cell nucleus. The type species is Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus.Bovine papillomavirus 1: A species of DELTAPAPILLOMAVIRUS infecting cattle.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Deoxyribonucleotides: A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.DNA Topoisomerases, Type I: DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-independent breakage of one of the two strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strand through the break, and rejoining of the broken strand. DNA Topoisomerases, Type I enzymes reduce the topological stress in the DNA structure by relaxing the superhelical turns and knotted rings in the DNA helix.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.ThymineBacillus Phages: Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.SOS Response (Genetics): An error-prone mechanism or set of functions for repairing damaged microbial DNA. SOS functions (a concept reputedly derived from the SOS of the international distress signal) are involved in DNA repair and mutagenesis, in cell division inhibition, in recovery of normal physiological conditions after DNA repair, and possibly in cell death when DNA damage is extensive.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Methyl Methanesulfonate: An alkylating agent in cancer therapy that may also act as a mutagen by interfering with and causing damage to DNA.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Immediate-Early Proteins: Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Geminiviridae: A family of plant viruses where the VIRION possesses an unusual morphology consisting of a pair of isometric particles. Transmission occurs via leafhoppers or whitefly. Some viruses cause economically important diseases in cultivated plants. There are four genera: Mastrevirus, Curtovirus, Topocuvirus, and BEGOMOVIRUS.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2: A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.Eukaryotic Cells: Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Exodeoxyribonuclease V: An ATP-dependent exodeoxyribonuclease that cleaves in either the 5'- to 3'- or the 3'- to 5'-direction to yield 5'-phosphooligonucleotides. It is primarily found in BACTERIA.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.DNA, Superhelical: Circular duplex DNA isolated from viruses, bacteria and mitochondria in supercoiled or supertwisted form. This superhelical DNA is endowed with free energy. During transcription, the magnitude of RNA initiation is proportional to the DNA superhelicity.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Caulobacter crescentus: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that consist of slender vibroid cells.Oncogene Proteins, Viral: Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.Deoxycytidine Monophosphate: Deoxycytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A deoxycytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety in the 2'-,3'- or 5- positions.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Exonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.Genes, cdc: Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosomes, Archaeal: Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Bacteriocin Plasmids: Plasmids encoding bacterial exotoxins (BACTERIOCINS).Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Parvoviridae: A family of very small DNA viruses containing a single molecule of single-stranded DNA and consisting of two subfamilies: PARVOVIRINAE and DENSOVIRINAE. They infect both vertebrates and invertebrates.Nuclear Matrix: The residual framework structure of the CELL NUCLEUS that maintains many of the overall architectural features of the cell nucleus including the nuclear lamina with NUCLEAR PORE complex structures, residual CELL NUCLEOLI and an extensive fibrogranular structure in the nuclear interior. (Advan. Enzyme Regul. 2002; 42:39-52)Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
The general categories of function are: Information: storage, maintenance of genetic code; DNA replication and repair; general ... Regulation: Regulation of gene expression and protein activity; information processing in response to environmental input; ... Sequence Search Submit a protein or DNA sequence for SCOP superfamily and family level classification using the SUPERFAMILY ... signal transduction; general regulatory or receptor activity. Metabolism: Anabolic and catabolic processes; cell maintenance ...
... is likely to be a DNA replication inhibitor. Thiocoraline is produced on a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) ... I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation, and biological activities". The Journal of Antibiotics. 50 (9): 734-7. PMID 9360617. Erba ... a natural marine compound with anti-tumour activity". British Journal of Cancer. 80 (7): 971-80. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6690451. ... a new depsipeptide with antitumor activity produced by a marine Micromonospora. ...
This gene encodes a protein with 3' exonuclease activity. Enzymes with this activity are involved in DNA replication, repair, ... Similarity to an E. coli protein suggests that this enzyme may be a subunit of DNA polymerase III, which does not have ... Hartley JL, Temple GF, Brasch MA (2001). "DNA cloning using in vitro site-specific recombination". Genome Res. 10 (11): 1788-95 ... Shevelev IV, Ramadan K, Hübscher U (2004). "The TREX2 3'-->5' exonuclease physically interacts with DNA polymerase delta and ...
Human DNA topoisomerase I (Top1) is an essential enzyme that relaxes DNA supercoiling during replication and transcription. ... Fisher, L. Mark; Pan, Xiao-Su (2008), "Methods to Assay Inhibitors of DNA Gyrase and Topoisomerase IV Activities", New ... Neukam, Karin; Pastor, Nuria; Cortés, Felipe (2008). "Tea flavanols inhibit cell growth and DNA topoisomerase II activity and ... Baxter J, Diffley JF (Jun 2008). "Topoisomerase II inactivation prevents the completion of DNA replication in budding yeast". ...
The binding of diol epoxides and DNA base pairs blocks polymerase replication activity. This blockage ultimately contributes to ... DNA Damage Caused by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Mechanisms and Markers, Selected Topics in DNA Repair, Prof. Clark Chen ... www.intechopen.com/books/selected-topics-in-dna-repair/dna-damage-caused-by-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-mechanisms-and- ... an increase in DNA damage by reducing repair activity. Due to these processes, PAH compounds are thought to play a role in the ...
Cyclin B1 transcription begins at the end of S phase after DNA replication. Its promoter contains consensus binding sequences ... Cyclin B1 accumulates in the cytoplasm throughout G2, where it binds to and activates CDK1's kinase activity. CDK1 activity is ... Downregulation of cyclin A2 in U2OS cells increases Wee1 activity and lowers Plk1 and Cdc25C activity. However, cyclin A2/CDK ... proceed directly from DNA replication to mitosis. Though much is known about the genetic network which regulates G2 phase and ...
... the amino acid is directly linked to DNA replication. Because of its necessity in DNA replication, inhibition of cystathionine ... Studies have linked the anti-fungal activity of several anti-fungal agents to the inhibition of cystathionine beta-lyase; ... Role(s) of lysine 214 and cysteine residues in activity and cytotoxicity". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 (13): 7695- ...
DNA replication timing is correlated with chromatin structure. A total of 5% of the bases in the genome can be confidently ... The activity and expression of protein-coding genes can be modulated by the regulome - a variety of DNA elements, such as the ... The fruitENCODE: an encyclopedia of DNA elements for fruit ripening is a plant ENCODE project aims to generate DNA methylation ... A lexicon of short DNA sequences that form recognition motifs for DNA-binding proteins. Approximately 8.4 million such ...
"Global effects of DNA replication and DNA replication origin activity on eukaryotic gene expression". Molecular Systems Biology ... DNA replication occurs during the C period. The D period refers to the stage between the end of DNA replication and the ... G2 phase occurs after DNA replication and is a period of protein synthesis and rapid cell growth to prepare the cell for ... "Novel Genome-Scale Correlation between DNA Replication and RNA Transcription During the Cell Cycle in Yeast is Predicted by ...
"Global Effects of DNA Replication and DNA Replication Origin Activity on Eukaryotic Gene Expression". Molecular Systems Biology ... and Platform-Matched Tumor and Normal DNA Copy-Number Profiles Uncovers Chromosome Arm-Wide Patterns of Tumor-Exclusive ... "A Tensor Higher-Order Singular Value Decomposition for Integrative Analysis of DNA Microarray Data From Different Studies". ...
Miotto B, Struhl K (January 2010). "HBO1 histone acetylase activity is essential for DNA replication licensing and inhibited by ... The effects of JADE1 depletion on DNA replication events are similar to those described originally for HBO1 and suggests ... Wan G, Hu X, Liu Y, Han C, Sood AK, Calin GA, Zhang X, Lu X (October 2013). "A novel non-coding RNA lncRNA-JADE connects DNA ... JADE1 role in DNA damage has been suggested. A recently discovered non-coding RNA lncRNA-JADE regulates JADE1 expression and ...
Furthermore, the BAZ1A-SMARCA5 complex enables DNA replication through highly condensed regions of chromatin. BAZ1A has been ... The purified CHRAC complex can mobilize nucleosomes into a regularly spaced nucleosomal array, and the spacing activity is ATP- ... "An ACF1-ISWI chromatin-remodeling complex is required for DNA replication through heterochromatin". Nat. Genet. 32 (4): 627-32 ... "WSTF-ISWI chromatin remodeling complex targets heterochromatic replication foci". EMBO J. England. 21 (9): 2231-41. doi:10.1093 ...
... integrating DNA replication and chromatin modification". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (23): 20974-8. doi:10.1074/ ... "DNA methyltransferase Dnmt1 associates with histone deacetylase activity". Nature Genetics. 24 (1): 88-91. doi:10.1038/71750. ... Huang NE, Lin CH, Lin YS, Yu WC (June 2003). "Modulation of YY1 activity by SAP30". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... Tsai SC, Valkov N, Yang WM, Gump J, Sullivan D, Seto E (November 2000). "Histone deacetylase interacts directly with DNA ...
Having DNA in a condensed state inhibits the cell's replication proteins contact with the DNA. Thus the introduction of silver ... but alloyed particles up to 30 nm demonstrated excellent catalytic activity - catalytic activity better than that of gold ... Once bound, some of the silver passes through to the inside, and interacts with phosphate-containing compounds like DNA and RNA ... Within the cell, the integration of silver creates a low molecular weight region where the DNA then condenses. ...
The enzyme was also shown to participate in DNA replication and repair in mammal cell nuclei. The human isozyme PGK2, which is ... Its activity is inhibited by salicylates, which appear to mimic the enzyme's nucleotide substrate. Macromolecular crowding has ... It is known that in the absence of magnesium, no enzyme activity occurs. The bivalent metal assists the enzyme ligands in ... On a molecular level, the mutation in Pgk1 impairs the thermal stability and inhibits the catalytic activity of the enzyme. PGK ...
These complexes then activate S-Cdk complexes that move forward with DNA replication in the S phase. Concurrently, anaphase- ... During G1 phase, the G1/S cyclin activity rises significantly near the end of the G1 phase. Complexes of cyclin that are active ... Reasons the cell would not move into the S phase include insufficient cell growth, damaged DNA, or other preparations have not ... Three methods of preventing Cdk activity are found in G1 phase: inhibitory gene regulatory proteins suppress major cyclin genes ...
"Suppression of Tousled-like kinase activity after DNA damage or replication block requires ATM, NBS1 and Chk1". Oncogene. 22 ( ... of the plant Tousled gene code for cell-cycle-regulated kinases with maximal activities linked to ongoing DNA replication". The ... of the plant Tousled gene code for cell-cycle-regulated kinases with maximal activities linked to ongoing DNA replication". The ... The coding sequences of 40 new genes (KIAA0121-KIAA0160) deduced by analysis of cDNA clones from human cell line KG-1". DNA ...
... exonuclease activity. When an incorrect base pair is recognized, DNA polymerase reverses its direction by one base pair of DNA ... The extent of proofreading in DNA replication determines the mutation rate, and is different in different species. For example ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Idaho U. DNA proofreading and repair "DNA polymerase ε and δ proofreading ... "Proofreading Activity of DNA Polymerase Pol2 Mediates 3′-End Processing during Nonhomologous End Joining in Yeast". PLoS ...
Ctf18-replication factor C, stimulates DNA polymerase eta activity". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (29): 20906-14. ... forms a novel replication factor C-related complex and functions redundantly with Rad24 in the DNA replication checkpoint ... Dcc1-Ctf8-replication factor C complex required for sister chromatid cohesion loads proliferating cell nuclear antigen onto DNA ... Dcc1-Ctf8-replication factor C complex required for sister chromatid cohesion loads proliferating cell nuclear antigen onto DNA ...
Tjian R (1981). "Regulation of viral transcription and DNA replication by the SV40 large T antigen". Current Topics in ... Riley MV, Peters MI (June 1981). "The localization of the anion-sensitive ATPase activity in corneal endothelium". Biochimica ... Martin SS, Senior AE (November 1980). "Membrane adenosine triphosphatase activities in rat pancreas". Biochimica et Biophysica ... "Proteins controlling the helical structure of DNA". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 50: 233-60. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi.50.070181 ...
"Distinctive activities of DNA polymerases during human DNA replication". FEBS J. 273 (13): 2984-3001. doi:10.1111/j.1742- ... Fuss J, Linn S (2002). "Human DNA polymerase epsilon colocalizes with proliferating cell nuclear antigen and DNA replication ... localizes to DNA replication sites, and interacts with DNA polymerase epsilon". Nucleic Acids Res. England. 31 (19): 5568-75. ... localizes to DNA replication sites, and interacts with DNA polymerase epsilon". Nucleic Acids Res. 31 (19): 5568-75. doi: ...
It also inhibits the nicking-closing activity on the subunit of DNA gyrase that releases the positive binding stress on the ... It selectively and reversibly blocks DNA replication in susceptible bacteria. Nalidixic acid and related antibiotics inhibit a ... Pommier, Y.; Leo, E.; Zhang, H.; Marchand, C. (2010). "DNA topoisomerases and their poisoning by anticancer and antibacterial ... Nalidixic acid is effective primarily against gram-negative bacteria, with minor anti-gram-positive activity. In lower ...
The minichromosome maintenance protein 3 (MCM3) is one of the MCM proteins essential for the initiation of DNA replication. The ... It was reported to have phosphorylation-dependent DNA-primase activity, which was up-regulated in antigen immunization induced ... This protein was demonstrated to be an acetyltransferase that acetylates MCM3 and plays a role in DNA replication. The ... a protein essential for DNA replication". Blood. 95 (7): 2321-8. PMID 10733502. Zhou Y, Li L, Liu Q, Xing G, Kuai X, Sun J, Yin ...
Mismatches commonly occur as a result of DNA replication errors, genetic recombination, or other chemical and physical factors ... As with other MutS homologs, hMSH6 has an intrinsic ATPase activity. It functions exclusively when bound to hMSH2 as a ... The ATP induces a release of the complex from the DNA and allows the hMutS alpha to dissociate along the DNA like a sliding ... In normal DNA, adenine (A) bonds with thymine (T) and cytosine (C) bonds with guanine (G). Sometimes there will be a mismatch ...
It has been implicated in chromatin remodeling and DNA relaxation process required for DNA replication, repair and ... CHD1L, a DNA helicase, possesses chromatin remodeling activity and interacts with PARP1/PARylation in regulating pluripotency ... This then allows recruitment of the DNA repair enzyme MRE11, to initiate DNA repair, within 13 seconds. MRE11 is involved in ... Chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 1-like (ALC1) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CHD1L gene. ...
This method was also used in Meselson and Stahl's famous experiment in which they proved that DNA replication is semi- ... Cool - reducing the overall activity of enzyme released later in the procedure ... gradient centrifugation to determine which isotope or isotopes of nitrogen were present in the DNA after cycles of replication. ...
Global effects of DNA replication and DNA replication origin activity on eukaryotic gene expression.. Omberg L1, Meyerson JR, ... Global effects of DNA replication and DNA replication origin activity on eukaryotic gene expression ... Global effects of DNA replication and DNA replication origin activity on eukaryotic gene expression ... Global effects of DNA replication and DNA replication origin activity on eukaryotic gene expression ...
CDA deficiency is associated with a decrease in basal PARP-1 activity, leading to incomplete replication of DNA, promoting UFB ... The formation of UFB-containing unreplicated DNA does not result from DNA replication fork uncoupling. ... we found that DNA replication was unsuccessful due to the partial inhibition of basal PARP-1 activity, rather than slower fork ... the intracellular accumulation of dCTP inhibits PARP-1 activity. CDA deficiency results in incomplete DNA replication when ...
2000). It also has been demonstrated, however, that DNA replication can be completed in the absence of Pol ε catalytic activity ... 1999 DNA polymerase ε catalytic domains are dispensable for DNA replication, DNA repair, and cell viability. Mol. Cell 3: 679- ... 1996 3′ to 5′ exonucleases of DNA polymerases ε and δ correct base analog induced DNA replication errors on opposite DNA ... 2000 DNA damage checkpoints and DNA replication controls in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutat. Res. 451: 187-196. ...
... exonuclease activity that digests DNA and RNA strands in DNA/DNA and RNA/DNA duplexes dependent on unwinding. Nucleic Acids Res ... Arrows mark the positions of replication forks at inactive origins of DNA replication (ARS), the end of the 35S transcript (35S ... DNA helicase activity, the amino terminus is not required for in vitro activity (Ivessa et al. 2002). This article examines the ... 1992 Initiation of DNA replication in ColE1 plasmids containing multiple potential origins of replication. J. Biol. Chem. 267: ...
Plant-derived smoke induced activity of amylases, DNA replication and β-tubulin accumulation before radicle protrusion of ... amylase activity, DNA replication and β-tubulin content appear prior to radicle protrusion through the coleorhiza. Effect of SW ... The nuclear DNA contents in radicle with coleorhiza (RC) were determined using flow cytometry. For cell cycle activity ... de Castro RD, Zheng X, Bergervoet JHW, De Vos RCH, Bino RJ (1995) β-tubulin accumulation and DNA replication in imbibing tomato ...
Eukaryotic DNA replication initiates at multiple genomic loci termed replication origins. While the initiation of DNA ... proLékaře.cz / Odborné časopisy / PLOS Genetics / 2014 - 3 / GC-Rich DNA Elements Enable Replication Origin Activity in the ... GC-Rich DNA Elements Enable Replication Origin Activity in the Methylotrophic Yeast České info ... GC-Rich DNA Elements Enable Replication Origin Activity in the Methylotrophic Yeast ...
Initiation of DNA replication requires actin dynamics and formin activity. Parisis, N.; Krasinska, L.; Harker, B.; Urbach, S.; ... as well as initiation and elongation of DNA replication. Therefore, actin dynamics and formins control DNA replication by ... In proliferating cells, formin inhibition abolishes nuclear transport and initiation of DNA replication, as well as general ... we show that actin dynamics and formins are essential for DNA replication. ...
... we found that DNA replication was unsuccessful due to the partial inhibition of basal PARP-1 activity, rather than slower fork ... we found that DNA replication was unsuccessful due to the partial inhibition of basal PARP-1 activity, rather than slower fork ... the intracellular accumulation of dCTP inhibits PARP-1 activity. CDA deficiency results in incomplete DNA replication when ... the intracellular accumulation of dCTP inhibits PARP-1 activity. CDA deficiency results in incomplete DNA replication when ...
EFFECT OF PRESOWING HYDRATION TREATMENT ON DNA REPLICATION ACTIVITY IN THE EMBRYO OF SUGAR BEET (BETA VULGARIS L.). Elwira ... EFFECT OF PRESOWING HYDRATION TREATMENT ON DNA REPLICATION ACTIVITY IN THE EMBRYO OF SUGAR BEET (BETA VULGARIS L.), EJPAU 2(2 ... cell cycle, DNA replication, flow cytometry, seed treatment, vigour. INTRODUCTION Flow cytometry, a method for measuring DNA ... The effect of presowing hydration treatment on DNA replication activity in the embryo of three sugar beet cultivars was studied ...
In rapidly dividing cells, there is also great pressure for transcription, which may induce conflict with replication. We ... Organisms rely on close interplay between DNA replication, recombination, and repair to secure transmission of the genome. ... RNA Polymerase Modulators and DNA Repair Activities Resolve Conflicts Between DNA Replication and Transcription Brigitte W ... RNA Polymerase Modulators and DNA Repair Activities Resolve Conflicts Between DNA Replication and Transcription Brigitte W ...
describe how FBH1, via its helicase activity, is required to eliminate cells with excessive DNA replication stress, through the ... DNA replication stress promotes genome instability and cell death. Here Fugger et al. ... generation of MUS81-induced DNA double-strand brea… ... Figure 2: FBH1 helicase activity drives DNA DSB formation after ... FBH1 helicase activity promotes DNA DSB formation. Next, we assessed the contribution of the helicase activity of FBH1 to the ...
DNA damage, Chk1, TLK; Titel: Suppression of Tousled-like kinase activity after DNA damage or replication block requires ATM, ... 2003). Suppression of Tousled-like kinase activity after DNA damage or replication block requires ATM, NBS1 and Chk1. Oncogene, ... Suppression of Tousled-like kinase activity after DNA damage or replication block requires ATM, NBS1 and Chk1 ...
B) DNA synthesis activity of Pol3, Polδ*, and Polδ. One nanomolar of each protein was incubated with the linear DNA substrate ( ... 1999) DNA polymerase ε catalytic domains are dispensable for DNA replication, DNA repair, and cell viability. Mol Cell 3:679- ... DNA replication in eukaryotes is carried out by DNA polymerases (Pol) α, Polδ, and Polε. On the lagging strand, replication is ... 1991) Replication factors required for SV40 DNA replication in vitro II. Switching of DNA polymerase alpha and delta during ...
When isolated from a cell and stretched out, DNA looks like a twisted ladder. This shape is called a double helix. The sides of ... the DNA ladder are called the backbone and the steps (also called rungs) of the ladder are pairs. ... DNA Replication Activity. When isolated from a cell and stretched out, DNA looks like a twisted ladder. This shape is called a ... Part 2: DNA replication. 1. In the 1st step of replication, enzymes begin to unzip the double helix to separate the strands ...
DNA and DNA Replication - Code of Life by chris medina , This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool for creating ... 5) Replication Activity Complete the Replication Activity by placing the replication steps in order by first drawing the ... DNA Replication When new DNA needs to be made, replication occurs so that an exact copy of DNA is made from the original strand ... The worksheet DNA-The Double Helix covers basic concepts and ideas about DNA, RNA, and Replication. You need to color the ...
Activity. T4. E. coli. Budding yeast Replicative DNA polymerase. gp43. DNA pol III. DNA polα, δ/ɛ ... A) A replication fork. (B) The replication fork approaching a single-strand interruption in template DNA. (C) The replication ... A) A replication fork approaching a single-strand interruption in template DNA. (B) The replication fork has collapsed. (C) ... B) Chromosome replication has been initiated. (C) Chromosome replication is nearing completion. (D) Chromosome replication is ...
This activity is supported by an educational grant from Celgene Corporation. Sponsored by Editas Medicine, EMD Serono Research ... DNA Replication and Genome Instability: From Mechanism to Disease (A1). Scientific Organizers: Karlene A. Cimprich, Mark J. ...
See the Snowbird Activity Center for rental equipment. X-country Skiing Snowbird Resort has some trails, however the canyon is ... DNA Replication and Genome Instability: From Mechanism to Disease (A1). Scientific Organizers: Karlene A. Cimprich, Mark J. ... Click here for information on winter activities in Snowbird! Skiing Snowbird Resort is a Ski In/Ski Out resort. There is also a ... This activity is supported by an educational grant from Celgene Corporation. Sponsored by Editas Medicine, EMD Serono Research ...
This activity is supported by an educational grant from Celgene Corporation. Sponsored by Editas Medicine, EMD Serono Research ... DNA Replication and Genome Instability: From Mechanism to Disease (A1). Scientific Organizers: Karlene A. Cimprich, Mark J. ... Even if you are not participating in outdoor activities, we suggest you bring clothes appropriate for local weather ...
The six ATPase active sites, however, are likely to contribute differentially to the complex helicase activity. Required for ... DNA replication initiation and elongation in eukaryotic cells. The active ATPase sites in the MCM2-7 ring are formed through ...
Dynamics and Single-Stranded DNA Binding Activity of the Three N-Terminal Domains of the Large Subunit of Replication Protein A ...
... as well as for inhibition of the DNA helicase activity of the Mcm4,6,7 complex. The N-terminal region, which contains an H3- ... GO:0006270 DNA replication initiation Molecular Function. GO:0005524 ATP binding GO:0003677 DNA binding GO:0003678 DNA helicase ... DNA replication licensing factor MCM7, IPR008050. In addition to its role in initiation of DNA replication, Mcm2 is able to ... A double-hexameric MCM2-7 complex is loaded onto origin DNA during licensing of eukaryotic DNA replication.. Proc. Natl. Acad. ...
Coloring Replication Sheet Answers Activity Photosynthesis Printable Dna Pages For Girls. May 13, 2019 0 By healthwomen ... coloring replication sheet answers activity photosynthesis printable dna pages for girls.. parts of a flower coloring page ... coloring pages for kids disney pdf winter book vinyl replication sheet activity,coloring pages paw patrol structure double ... coloring pixels cheat pages for adults flowers the double helix worksheet best activity answers and,coloring pages for kids to ...
Bastia, D. and Mohanty, B.K. (1996) Mechanisms for completing DNA replication. In DePamphilis, M.L. (ed.), DNA Replication in ... DNA helicases are probably ahead of the replication fork, opening the DNA in front of the DNA polymerase. The terminator ... Transcription termination factor TTF‐I exhibits contrahelicase activity during DNA replication. Vera Pütter, Friedrich Grummt ... In mammals, sequence‐specific termination of DNA replication within the ribosomal RNA genes is catalyzed by a defined DNA- ...
To test whether DNA-PKs kinase activity is important for replication restart, DNA fiber analyses were also performed on V3 ... DNA-PKcs kinase activity is requisite but not sufficient for replication restart. Our data clearly demonstrate that DNA-PK ... In turn, this trigger PARP or kinase activity, respectively. PARP and DNA-PK activities recruit XRCC1 to unresected DNA ends to ... CK2 activity is required to recruit XRCC1 to stalled DNA replication forks. Next, we tested whether XRCC1 protein levels are ...
ProteinsInitiatesChromatinElongationOrigins of DNA replicationProcess of DNA replicationFork progressionPolymerase activityBindsCyclin-dependMutationsCatalyticVivoInhibitorsHomologousSequenceGeneticRegulation of DNA replicationEukaryotesMechanismsTranscriptionalComplexesNucleotideCerevisiaeEnzymesEnzymeExonucleasePathwayViralRole in DNA replicationPCNALigaseInhibitChromosomal origins of replicatTelomeresATPaseDouble-strandedArrest
- Metazoan replication initiates in broad replication zones that range up to 500 kb in length. (prolekare.cz)
- Thus, CDKs serve a dual role in the regulation of eukaryotic DNA replication: elevated CDK activity initiates replication at the origins and prevents rereplication by inhibiting origin re-licensing. (wikipedia.org)
- DNA primase initiates DNA replication by synthesizing a short oligo-ribonucleotide primer which is immediately elongated by Pol α to form short RNA-DNA fragments on both leading and lagging strand of DNA. (biomedcentral.com)
- These results suggest that DNA replication initiates on specific sites of chromosomal DNA in this system. (nii.ac.jp)
- Replication generates progeny genomes and initiates the transition to late gene expression. (springer.com)
- In this hazardous situation, he and his colleague found, DDK activates an S-phase checkpoint mechanism that halts the DNA copying process and initiates DNA repair. (redorbit.com)
- Nuclear formin activity is further required to promote loading of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) onto chromatin, as well as initiation and elongation of DNA replication. (cnrs.fr)
- DNA replication can play a role in changing patterns of gene expression ( 1-3 ) and thus is a possible mechanism for disrupting chromatin states before their reprogramming and for the de novo establishment of those states. (sciencemag.org)
- Alterations of two replication-coupled chromatin assembly factors, CAF-1 and ASF1, also disrupt silencing ( 15-18 ). (sciencemag.org)
- These data suggest that CAF1 and PCNA link DNA replication to chromatin assembly and silencing. (sciencemag.org)
- Predicted to have DNA replication origin binding activity and chromatin binding activity. (jax.org)
- The eukaryotic replication fork machinery must deal with the chromatin and chromosome structure of eukaryotic genomes, be able to replicate DNA in the context of a complex cell cycle, and be able to deal with the constant threat of mutations that could arise due to replication of damaged DNA, all while trying to efficiently replicate the DNA with high fidelity. (els.net)
- Previous studies show that the initiation timing and elongation of chromosomal DNA replication are markedly impaired in Pol ε-depleted Xenopus egg extracts, with reduced accumulation of replicative intermediates and products. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, this conclusion is controversial, because the polymerase active domain mutant (polymerase-dead-mutant) is lethal [ 16 ] and our studies showed that the deletion mutant confers temperature-sensitivity for growth, a defect in DNA elongation, premature senescence, and short telomeres. (biomedcentral.com)
- Then, you will model the process of DNA Replication and diagram and explain that process on your handout. (docsbay.net)
- 5. Diagram the process of DNA replication below. (docsbay.net)
- This exercise couples a classic primary literature paper detailing the process of DNA replication with a set of questions designed to both guide students through the process of reading papers and delve deeply into the critical concept of replication. (genetics-gsa.org)
- We demonstrated that loss of SIRT1 resulted in increased replication origin firing, asymmetric fork progression, defective intra-S-phase checkpoint, and chromosome damage. (ijbs.com)
- Indeed, replication stress, a result of slowing replication fork progression, is commonly observed in cancer cells due to loss of the DDR or oncogene activation. (stanford.edu)
- The protein possesses three enzymatic activities, a 5′-3′ exonuclease activity located in the N-terminal part of the protein (the small domain) and a DNA polymerase activity which, together with a 3′-5′ exonuclease activity, is located in the C-terminal part of the protein (the Klenow domain) ( 5 , 15 ). (asm.org)
- The inviability of the uvrB polA1 double mutant suggests that in the absence of the polymerase activity of PolI, DNA replication becomes dependent on the UvrB protein. (asm.org)
- These results indicate that the DNA polymerase activity of Pol ε holoenzyme plays an essential role in normal chromosomal DNA replication in Xenopus egg extracts. (biomedcentral.com)
- These are the first biochemical data to show the DNA polymerase activity of Pol ε holoenzyme is essential for chromosomal DNA replication in higher eukaryotes, unlike in yeasts. (biomedcentral.com)
- 3. Next, DNA polymerase binds individual bases to their complementary base. (docsbay.net)
- A licensing factor which is required for replication initiation binds to origins in the prereplicative state. (wikipedia.org)
- The UvrA protein loads UvrB onto a damaged site, after which UvrC binds to UvrB, resulting in the UvrBC-DNA incision complex. (asm.org)
- In eukaryotes, the origin recognition complex (ORC) heterohexamer preferentially binds replication origins to trigger initiation of DNA replication. (nih.gov)
- These control mechanisms rely on cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity. (wikipedia.org)
- Pre-RC formation requires the absence of cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) activity in G1. (specklab.com)
- An orally available cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. (cancer.gov)
- Mutations in the GC‐rich sequence lead to a loss of folding into correct secondary structure and abrogate contrahelicase activity. (embopress.org)
- In contrast, point mutations within the GC‐stretch or shortening the cluster of C‐residues totally abolishes replication fork arrest. (embopress.org)
- More than 25 years ago it was proposed that UvrB and UvrD might also be involved in DNA replication, since in vivo in the absence of DNA damage-inducing treatments, uvrB or uvrD mutations were found to be lethal in combination with a mutation in the polA gene ( 11 , 29 , 38 , 39 ). (asm.org)
- Spontaneous mutations in DNA replication iii). (scribd.com)
- Drug-resistance mutations occur in the reverse transcriptase region of the HBV polymerase gene and spontaneously arise during viral replication. (hindawi.com)
- The tyrosine-methionine-aspartate-aspartate (YMDD) is one of the most common HBV drug-resistance mutations, which is in the catalytic domain C of viral DNA polymerase [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
- With specific mutants of UvrC we could show that the inhibitory effect of this protein is related to its catalytic activity that on damaged DNA is responsible for the 3′ incision reaction. (asm.org)
- section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes. (uniprot.org)
- a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More. (uniprot.org)
- Pol ε has at least one essential function in both budding and fission yeasts [ 3 , 6 ], and several lines of evidence suggest that Pol ε plays an essential catalytic role during chromosomal DNA replication. (biomedcentral.com)
- Feng W and D'Urso G (2001) Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells lacking the amino‐terminal catalytic domains of DNA polymerase epsilon are viable but require the DNA damage checkpoint control. (els.net)
- ABSTRACT The catalytic site of the HIV integrase is contained within an RNase H-like fold, and numerous drugs have been developed that bind to this site and inhibit its activity. (harvard.edu)
- The results are expected to greatly contribute to applications in this field, such as the development of new inhibitors of DNA methyltransferase that specifically target cancer cells. (eurekalert.org)
- The results of this study have shown not only the scientific significance of clarifying the new mechanism of DNA methylation inheritance, but also the potential to greatly contribute to the development of DNA methyltransferase inhibitors. (eurekalert.org)
- Non-nucleoside inhibitors of herpesvirus replication include foscarnet, which directly inhibits the viral DNA polymerase and thus blocks formation of new viral DNA. (britannica.com)
- Combining cell-cycle checkpoint kinase inhibitors with the DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agent gemcitabine offers clinical appeal, with a mechanistic rationale based chiefly on abrogation of gemcitabine-induced G 2 -M checkpoint activation. (aacrjournals.org)
- Against this background, ongoing clinical trials of CHK1 inhibitors with DNA-damaging agents are chiefly based on the notion of G 2 -M checkpoint abrogation ( 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- As DDK is often deregulated in human cancers, this new understanding of its role in DNA replication may help shape the development of new cancer therapies," explains CSHL President Bruce Stillman, Ph.D., who co-authored the study with colleague Yi-Jun Sheu, Ph.D. "Indeed recent studies have identified DDK inhibitors and they are now in clinical trials. (redorbit.com)
- In this paper, we provide an overview of the current literature on DNA primases as novel drug targets and the methods used to find their inhibitors. (mdpi.com)
- Although few inhibitors have been identified, there are still challenges to develop inhibitors that can efficiently halt DNA replication and may be applied in a clinical setting. (mdpi.com)
- Therefore, we hypothesized that HIV integrase inhibitors might also inhibit HSV replication by targeting ICP8 and/or the terminase. (harvard.edu)
- To identify more potent inhibitors of HSV replication, we screened a panel of integrase inhibitors, and one compound with greater anti-HSV-1 activity, XZ45, was chosen for further analysis. (harvard.edu)
- With a marker or pen and masking tape, label your licorice backbone "DNA- 1" or "DNA-2" depending on which sequence you used. (docsbay.net)
- By convention, if the base sequence of a single strand of DNA is given, the left end of the sequence is the 5' end, while the right end of the sequence is the 3' end. (wikipedia.org)
- The contrahelicase activity requires binding of TTF‐I to its cognate recognition site and the presence of an auxiliary GC‐rich sequence, which is able to form a specific secondary structure. (embopress.org)
- The region preceding Sal box 2, where replication termination occurs, exhibits an unusual nucleotide sequence. (embopress.org)
- that the sites locate on DNA at interval of every 1-5 kilobases, thereby suggesting that specific DNA sequence with 5-6 bases may function as initiation sites for DNA replication. (nii.ac.jp)
- Binns MM, Stenzler L, Tomley FM, Campbell J, Boursnell MEG (1987) Identification by a random sequencing strategy of the fowlpoxvirus DNA polymerase gene, its nucleotide sequence and comparison with other viral DNA polymerases. (springer.com)
- DNA ) is a molecule composed of two chains that coil around each other to form a double helix carrying genetic instructions for the development, functioning, growth and reproduction of all known organisms and many viruses . (wikipedia.org)
- Transcriptional silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae occurs at several genetic loci, including the ribosomal DNA (rDNA). (asm.org)
- The genetic information required for life is stored in our DNA. (rug.nl)
- Extensive studies have established most of the genetic basis of the DNA damage checkpoint and uncovered its different functions in cell cycle regulation, DNA replication and repair, and telomere maintenance. (mdpi.com)
- DNA replication in eukaryotes is carried out by DNA polymerases (Pol) α, Polδ, and Polε. (pnas.org)
- The ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of S. cerevisiae consists of 100 to 200 copies of a 9.1-kb unit organized into a perinuclear tandem array ( 59 , 60 ), an arrangement reminiscent of the heterochromatin of higher eukaryotes. (asm.org)
- In eukaryotes, ORC (origin recognition complex), a six-protein complex, is the most likely initiator of chromosomal DNA replication. (biochemj.org)
- Therefore, actin dynamics and formins control DNA replication by multiple direct and indirect mechanisms. (cnrs.fr)
- DNA replication control mechanisms cooperate to prevent the relicensing of replication origins and to activate cell cycle and DNA damage checkpoints. (wikipedia.org)
- All known mechanisms that prevent DNA rereplication in eukaryotic organisms inhibit origin licensing. (wikipedia.org)
- That's why we conducted research to understand the basic mechanisms of DNA methylation. (eurekalert.org)
- However, the mechanisms how eukaryotic ORC recognizes origin DNA remain elusive. (nih.gov)
- Explain the various mechanisms of DNA repair. (brainscape.com)
- Brush GS and Kelly TJ (1996) Mechanisms for Replicating DNA. (els.net)
- Additionally, the G/C-rich motif matches one of the motifs annotated as binding sites of the human Hsf1 transcriptional regulator suggesting that in this species there may be a link between transcriptional regulation and DNA replication initiation. (prolekare.cz)
- This study shows that normal replication is restored by addition of Pol ε holoenzyme to Pol ε-depleted extracts, but not by addition of polymerase-deficient forms of Pol ε, including polymerase point or deletion mutants or incomplete enzyme complexes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Future studies will likely focus on defining the orientations and architecture of protein complexes at the replication fork. (mdpi.com)
- First, the greatest contribution to replication fidelity is conferred by the inherent base selectivity of the DNA polymerase during nucleotide polymerization. (genetics.org)
- DNA polymerase adds a new strand of DNA by extending the 3' end of an existing nucleotide chain, adding new nucleotides matched to the template strand one at a time via the creation of phosphodiester bonds. (wikipedia.org)
- When a nucleotide is being added to a growing DNA strand, the formation of a phosphodiester bond between the proximal phosphate of the nucleotide to the growing chain is accompanied by hydrolysis of a high-energy phosphate bond with release of the two distal phosphates as a pyrophosphate. (wikipedia.org)
- DNA polymerase I (PolI) functions both in nucleotide excision repair (NER) and in the processing of Okazaki fragments that are generated on the lagging strand during DNA replication. (asm.org)
- This region of repeated nucleotide called telomeres contains noncoding DNA and hinders the loss of important DNA from chromosome ends. (brainscape.com)
- To examine the relative contributions of these factors to replication fidelity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae , we determined the reversion rates and spectra of the lys2 Δ Bgl +1 frameshift allele. (genetics.org)
- For example, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA helicase Rrm3p is a member of the Pif1 family of DNA helicases of which Pif1p is the prototype member. (genetics.org)
- A recent study with S. cerevisiae Polδ has shown that it synthesizes DNA with PCNA with a remarkably high processivity such that it can extend a single primer around an entire 5.4-kb, single-stranded circular DNA in a single binding event ( 19 ). (pnas.org)
- It is also suggested that the presowing treatment (called usually priming ) is related to activation of enzymes, which allows the repair of membranes and DNA damage, as well as metabolic advancement due to activation of the processes involved in germination [4, (media.pl)
- DNA polymerases are a family of enzymes that carry out all forms of DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
- enzymes that regulate the overwinding or underwinding of DNA. (brainscape.com)
- Bambara RA, Murante RS and Henricksen LA (1997) Enzymes and reactions at the eukaryotic DNA replication fork. (els.net)
- Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is an essential enzyme that provides the cell with a balanced supply of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates for DNA replication and repair. (biomedsearch.com)
- polA12 is an undefined mutation, resulting in thermosensitivity for all three activities of the PolI enzyme ( 14 ). (asm.org)
- DNA ligase (polydeoxyribonucleotide synthase) is the enzyme that joins two DNA fragments by catalyzing the formation of an internucleotide ester bond between phosphate and deoxyribose. (ebi.ac.uk)
- Sir2p is an enzyme with histone deacetylase activity ( 7 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Bauer WR, Ressner EC, Kates J, Patzke JV (1977) A DNA nicking-closing enzyme encapsidated in vaccinia virus: partial purification and properties. (springer.com)
- The nucleoside analogs ( acyclovir and ganciclovir) actually mimic the normal nucleoside and block the viral DNA polymerase enzyme , which is important in the formation of DNA. (britannica.com)
- Standard protein purification and characterization techniques, enzyme activity assays, as well as immunoassays (ELISA) will also be taught. (uaeu.ac.ae)
- The inhibitory activity of acyclovir is highly selective due to its afﬁnity for the enzyme thymidine kinase (TK) encoded by HSV and VZV. (drugs.com)
- Wild-type and homozygous mutant diploid strains with all possible combinations of defects in the exonuclease activities of DNA polymerases δ and ε (conferred by the pol3-01 and pol2-4 alleles, respectively) and in mismatch repair (deletion of MSH2 ) were analyzed. (genetics.org)
- A combination of the pol2-4 and pol3-01 alleles is synthetically lethal in haploids and results in a synergistic increase in mutation rate ( M orrison and S ugino 1994 ), suggesting that the exonuclease activities of Pols δ and ε are partially redundant and compete for a common substrate(s). (genetics.org)
- The combination of the 5′-3′ exonuclease and the polymerase activities results in the so-called nick translation activity, which is responsible for the removal of the RNA primers and the resynthesis of DNA in the lagging strand ( 16 ). (asm.org)
- polA1 is an amber mutation introducing a stop codon at the position corresponding to residue 342, which results in a protein lacking the polymerase and proofreading activities but with a functional 5′-3′ exonuclease activity ( 14 ). (asm.org)
- FUNCTION: 3'-5' exonuclease acting on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and CC RNA (ssRNA) substrates. (genome.jp)
- Exonuclease_RNaseT/DNA_pol3. (genome.jp)
- Caulobacter crescentus mutants that lack the trans translation pathway have a defect in the cell cycle and do not initiate DNA replication at the correct time. (asm.org)
- This finding suggests that PAF15 ubiquitination is the primary pathway controlling DNMT1 localization to DNA methylation sites, and that histone H3 ubiquitination may serve as a backup system. (eurekalert.org)
- Apparently UvrA, UvrB, and UvrD are needed in a replication backup system that replaces the PolI function, and UvrC interferes with this alternative replication pathway. (asm.org)
- Importantly, these experiments identified a novel proteolytic pathway whose activity is regulated by replication. (europa.eu)
- Mismatch repair pathway- corrects base mismatch based ny replication errors that escaped DNA Pol proof reading. (brainscape.com)
- Viral DNA (vDNA) was quantified using ICP0 primers and normalized to 18S rDNA and GM05757B values. (biomedcentral.com)
- XZ45 blocked HSV viral DNA replication and late gene expression. (harvard.edu)
- Exploiting a Nicotiana benthamiana pOri2 line, which is transformed with a transgene consisting of a direct repeat of the African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV)-replication origin (Ori) flanking a non-viral DNA region, and virus-induced RNA silencing (VIGS), the impact of host gene expression on replication of the ACMV-derived replicon was investigated. (springer.com)
- The greater antiviral activity of acyclovir against HSV compared with VZV is due to its more efﬁcient phosphorylation by the viral TK. (drugs.com)
- Resistance of HSV and VZV to acyclovir can result from qualitative and quantitative changes in the viral TK and/or DNA polymerase. (drugs.com)
- While most of the acyclovir-resistant mutants isolated thus far from immunocompromised patients have been found to be TK-deﬁcient mutants, other mutants involving the viral TK gene (TK partial and TK altered) and DNA polymerase have been isolated. (drugs.com)
- Finally, the remaining nick is closed by DNA ligase (for reviews, see references 8 and 36 ). (asm.org)
- There are two forms of DNA ligase: one requires ATP ( EC:18.104.22.168 ), the other NAD ( EC:22.214.171.124 ). (ebi.ac.uk)
- Steps 5-7 indicate the flap displacement by Pol δ, and the RNA primer processing by Fen1 and DNA ligase 1. (els.net)
- BIOPHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES: CC Kinetic parameters: CC Note=kcat is 25 min(-1) for ATPase activity in the absence of DNA. (genome.jp)
- CC kcat is 78 min(-1) for ATPase activity in the presence of ssDNA. (genome.jp)
- Crystallographic studies using eubacterial and archaeal ORC orthologs suggested that eukaryotic ORC may bind to origin DNA via putative winged-helix DNA-binding domains and AAA+ ATPase domains. (nih.gov)
- Now you will act as DNA polymerase and add the correct bases until you have a newly synthesized double-stranded DNA molecule. (docsbay.net)
- 4. Continue until you have a fully synthesized double-stranded DNA. (docsbay.net)
- replication with exogenous double-stranded DNA as templates in which efficiency of DNA replication depended of the species of DNA or restriction fragments of a DNA added. (nii.ac.jp)