Solar Activity: Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)Activity Cycles: Bouts of physical irritability or movement alternating with periods of quiescence. It includes biochemical activity and hormonal activity which may be cellular. These cycles are shorter than 24 hours and include sleep-wakefulness cycles and the periodic activation of the digestive system.Astronomy: The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Cosmic Radiation: High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.Solar System: The group of celestial bodies, including the EARTH, orbiting around and gravitationally bound by the sun. It includes eight planets, one minor planet, and 34 natural satellites, more than 1,000 observed comets, and thousands of lesser bodies known as MINOR PLANETS (asteroids) and METEOROIDS. (From Academic American Encyclopedia, 1983)Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Planets: Celestial bodies orbiting around the sun or other stars.Neon: Neon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ne, atomic number 10, and atomic weight 20.18. It is found in the earth's crust and atmosphere as an inert, odorless gas and is used in vacuum tubes and incandescent lamps.Sialorrhea: Increased salivary flow.Tobacco, Smokeless: Powdered or cut pieces of leaves of NICOTIANA TABACUM which are inhaled through the nose, chewed, or stored in cheek pouches. It includes any product of tobacco that is not smoked.Capsicum: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.Sunlight: Irradiation directly from the sun.Sunscreening Agents: Chemical or physical agents that protect the skin from sunburn and erythema by absorbing or blocking ultraviolet radiation.Black Pepper: A common spice from fruit of PIPER NIGRUM. Black pepper is picked unripe and heaped for a few days to ferment. White Pepper is the ripe fruit dehulled by maceration in water. Piperine is a key component used medicinally to increase gastrointestinal assimilation of other supplements and drugs.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Programming Languages: Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Workflow: Description of pattern of recurrent functions or procedures frequently found in organizational processes, such as notification, decision, and action.Language Disorders: Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.Language Development Disorders: Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.Sign Language: A system of hand gestures used for communication by the deaf or by people speaking different languages.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Onions: Herbaceous biennial plants and their edible bulbs, belonging to the Liliaceae.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Allium: A genus of the plant family Liliaceae (sometimes classified as Alliaceae) in the order Liliales. Many produce pungent, often bacteriostatic and physiologically active compounds and are used as VEGETABLES; CONDIMENTS; and medicament, the latter in traditional medicine.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Accidents, AviationDisease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.United StatesOccupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
(1/175) Neural changes after operant conditioning of the aerial respiratory behavior in Lymnaea stagnalis.

In this study, we demonstrate neural changes that occurred during operant conditioning of the aerial respiratory behavior of Lymnaea stagnalis. Aerial respiration in Lymnaea occurs at the water interface and is achieved by opening and closing movements of its respiratory orifice, the pneumostome. This behavior is controlled by a central pattern generator (CPG), the neurons of which, as well as the motoneurons innervating the pneumostome, have previously been identified and their synaptic connections well characterized. The respiratory behavior was operantly conditioned by applying a mechanical stimulus to the open pneumostome whenever the animal attempted to breathe. This negative reinforcement to the open pneumostome resulted in its immediate closure and a significant reduction in the overall respiratory activity. Electrophysiological recordings from the isolated CNSs after operant conditioning showed that the spontaneous patterned respiratory activity of the CPG neurons was significantly reduced. This included reduced spontaneous activity of the CPG interneuron involved in pneumostome opening (input 3 interneuron) and a reduced frequency of spontaneous tonic activity of the CPG interneuron [right pedal dorsal 1 (RPeD1)]. The ability to trigger the patterned respiratory activity by electrical stimulation of RPeD1 was also significantly reduced after operant conditioning. This study therefore demonstrates significant changes within a CPG that are associated with changes in a rhythmic homeostatic behavior after operant conditioning.  (+info)

(2/175) Scanning electron microscopy of the lateral cell surfaces of rat incisor ameloblasts.

Dry dissected rat incisor ameloblasts studied in the scanning electron microscope show remarkable specializations of their lateral surfaces. Four or five cycles of a change from a surface with longitudinal gutterlike folds associated with large intercellular spaces, to one with microvilli and reduced intercellular spaces, are found along the length of the lower incisor maturation zone. It is argued that these changes indicate cyclical activity in maturation ameloblasts.  (+info)

(3/175) Many LH peaks are needed to physiologically stimulate testosterone secretion: modulation by fasting and NPY.

The pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone secretions were studied during serial blood collections performed at 7-min time intervals in the male rat. In fed rats, a discontinuous pattern of LH secretion was observed. Periods without secretion alternated with active secretory episodes consisting in trains of three to four LH peaks that triggered testosterone secretion usually 1-2 h later. The magnitude of the testosterone response was not correlated with the amplitude of the LH peaks. Isolated, single peaks of LH did not evoke clear testosterone responses. Forty-eight hours after initiation of fasting, testosterone secretion was markedly decreased, but integrated LH secretion was only partly reduced. Chronic infusion of neuropeptide Y (NPY; 18 microgram/day, icv) reduced testosterone secretion to very low levels and abolished pulsatile LH secretion or testosterone response to isolated LH peaks. In conclusion, the stimulation of testosterone secretion by LH necessitates several LH peaks organized in a proper sequence, and the testosterone response is not immediate. Low testosterone secretion in fasting rats appears to result from disappearance of coordinated, multiple LH peaks of sufficient size. Inhibition of the gonadotropic axis achieved by central NPY administration is due to either absence of LH peak "clusters" or occurrence of nonfunctional single LH peaks.  (+info)

(4/175) Activity patterns and synaptic organization of ventrally located interneurons in the embryonic chick spinal cord.

To investigate the origin of spontaneous activity in developing spinal networks, we examined the activity patterns and synaptic organization of ventrally located lumbosacral interneurons, including those whose axons project into the ventrolateral funiculus (VLF), in embryonic day 9 (E9)-E12 chick embryos. During spontaneous episodes, rhythmic synaptic potentials were recorded from the VLF and from spinal interneurons that were synchronized, cycle by cycle, with rhythmic ventral root potentials. At the beginning of an episode, ventral root potentials started before the VLF discharge and the firing of individual interneurons. However, pharmacological blockade of recurrent motoneuron collaterals did not prevent or substantially delay interneuron recruitment during spontaneous episodes. The synaptic connections of interneurons were examined by stimulating the VLF and recording the potentials evoked in the ventral roots, in the VLF, or in individual interneurons. Low-intensity stimulation of the VLF evoked a short-latency depolarizing potential in the ventral roots, or in interneurons, that was probably mediated mono- or disynaptically. At higher intensities, long-latency responses were recruited in a highly nonlinear manner, eventually culminating in the activation of an episode. VLF-evoked potentials were reversibly blocked by extracellular Co2+, indicating that they were mediated by chemical synaptic transmission. Collectively, these findings indicate that ventral interneurons are rhythmically active, project to motoneurons, and are likely to be interconnected by recurrent excitatory synaptic connections. This pattern of organization may explain the synchronous activation of spinal neurons and the regenerative activation of spinal networks when provided with a suprathreshold stimulus.  (+info)

(5/175) Lispro or regular insulin for multiple injection therapy in adolescence. Differences in free insulin and glucose levels overnight.

OBJECTIVE: Regular insulin given with the evening meal could contribute to the risk of nocturnal hypoglycemia in adolescents with type 1 diabetes using a multiple injection regimen. To test this hypothesis, we compared glucodynamics and free insulin levels on two separate study nights. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 14 adolescents were recruited. On both nights, identical doses of regular insulin or insulin lispro were administered 30 min or 10 min, respectively, before the evening meal, using a double-blind randomized crossover study design. Doses of NPH insulin and carbohydrate content of the evening meal and snack were kept identical. Blood samples were taken every 15 min for blood glucose and every 60 min for free insulin and ketones. RESULTS: After insulin lispro administration, glucose levels were significantly lower between the evening meal and the bedtime snack (analysis of variance [ANOVA] P = 0.02), and four hypoglycemic episodes were recorded. This corresponded to a higher (458 +/- 48 vs. 305 +/- 33 pmol/l, P = 0.02), earlier (64 +/- 4.6 vs. 103 +/- 12 min, P = 0.01), and shorter-lasting (245 +/- 21 vs. 365 +/- 39 min, P = 0.01) insulin peak in contrast to regular insulin. After the bedtime snack, glucose levels increased dramatically during the lispro night and stayed higher, up to 0300 in the morning (ANOVA P = 0.01), corresponding to lower mean insulin levels (146 +/- 20 vs. 184 +/- 27 pmol/l, P = 0.04). No differences were seen in glucose and insulin levels between 0300 and 0800. Four episodes of nocturnal hypoglycemia were documented after the bedtime snack during the regular insulin night, in contrast to one episode after insulin lispro. No differences in ketone levels were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The replacement of regular insulin with insulin lispro may reduce the risk of late hypoglycemia, but redistribution of the evening carbohydrate may be needed to ensure good metabolic control and prevent early postprandial hypoglycemia.  (+info)

(6/175) Intracellular Ca(2+) oscillations in luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons derived from the embryonic olfactory placode of the rhesus monkey.

To understand the mechanism of pulsatile luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) release, we examined whether cultured LHRH neurons exhibit spontaneous intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) signaling. The olfactory placode and the ventral migratory pathway of LHRH neurons from rhesus monkey embryos at embryonic ages 35-37 were dissected out and cultured on glass coverslips. Two to five weeks later, cultured cells were labeled with fura-2 and examined for [Ca(2+)](i) signaling by recording changes in [Ca(2+)](i) every 10 sec for 30-175 min. Cells were fixed and immunostained for LHRH and neuron-specific enolase. In 20 cultures, 572 LHRH-positive cells exhibited [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations at an interpulse interval (IPI) of 8.2 +/- 0.7 min and a duration of 88.8 +/- 2.9 sec. LHRH-negative neurons in culture exhibited only occasional [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations. In 17 of 20 cultures with LHRH-positive cells, [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations occurred synchronously in 50-100% of the individual cells, whereas [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations in cells in the remaining three cultures did not synchronize. Strikingly, in 12 of 17 cultures the synchronization of [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations repeatedly occurred in complete unison at 52.8 +/- 3.0 min intervals, which is similar to the period observed for LHRH release, whereas in 5 of 17 cultures the less tight synchronization of [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations repeatedly occurred at 23.4 +/- 4.6 min intervals. IPI of [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations in cells with tight synchronization and less tight synchronization did not differ from IPI in cells without synchronization. The results indicate that LHRH neurons derived from the monkey olfactory placode possess an endogenous mechanism for synchronization of [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations. Whether synchronization of [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations relates to neurosecretion remains to be investigated.  (+info)

(7/175) Oscillatory behavior of a simple kinetic model for proteolysis during cell invasion.

Extracellular proteolysis during cell invasion is thought to be tightly organized, both temporally and spatially. This work presents a simple kinetic model that describes the interactions between extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, proteinases, proteolytic fragments, and integrins. Nonmonotonous behavior arises from enzyme de novo synthesis consecutive to integrin binding to fragments or entire proteins. The model has been simulated using realistic values for kinetic constants and protein concentrations, with fibronectin as the ECM protein. The simulations show damped oscillations of integrin-complex concentrations, indicating alternation of maximal adhesion periods with maximal mobility periods. Comparisons with experimental data from the literature confirm the similarity between this system behavior and cell invasion. The influences on the system of cryptic functions of ECM proteins, proteinase inhibitors, and soluble antiadhesive peptides were examined. The first critical parameter for oscillation is the discrepancy between integrin affinity for intact ECM proteins and the respective proteolytic fragments, thus emphasizing the importance of cryptic functions of ECM proteins in cell invasion. Another critical parameter is the ratio between proteinase and the initial ECM protein concentration. These results suggest new insights into the organization of the ECM degradation during cell invasion.  (+info)

(8/175) Circadian rhythms in the suprachiasmatic nucleus are temperature-compensated and phase-shifted by heat pulses in vitro.

Temperature compensation and the effects of heat pulses on rhythm phase were assessed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Circadian neuronal rhythms were recorded from the rat SCN at 37 and 31 degrees C in vitro. Rhythm period was 23.9 +/- 0.1 and 23.7 +/- 0.1 hr at 37 and 31 degrees C, respectively; the Q(10) for tau was 0.99. Heat pulses were administered at various circadian times (CTs) by increasing SCN temperature from 34 to 37 degrees C for 2 hr. Phase delays and advances were observed during early and late subjective night, respectively, and no phase shifts were obtained during midsubjective day. Maximum phase delays of 2.2 +/- 0.3 hr were obtained at CT 14, and maximum phase advances of 3.5 +/- 0.2 hr were obtained at CT 20. Phase delays were not blocked by a combination of NMDA [AP-5 (100 microM)] and non-NMDA [CNQX (10 microM)] receptor antagonists or by tetrodotoxin (TTX) at concentrations of 1 or 3 microM. The phase response curve for heat pulses is similar to ones obtained with light pulses for behavioral rhythms. These data demonstrate that circadian pacemaker period in the rat SCN is temperature-compensated over a physiological range of temperatures. Phase delays were not caused by activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors, release of other neurotransmitters, or temperature-dependent increases in metabolism associated with action potentials. Heat pulses may have phase-shifted rhythms by directly altering transcriptional or translational events in SCN pacemaker cells.  (+info)

*  Activity cycle diagram
In activity-based modeling, the dynamics of system is represented as an ACD (activity cycle diagram) which is a network model ... List all entities and their key attributes For each entity define its individual closed cycle of activity - queue - activity ... 1] INTRODUCTION TO DISCRETE EVENT SIMULATION [2] MODEL DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE [3] ACTIVITY CYCLE DIAGRAMS [4] SIMULATION USING ... The methodology for constructing an activity cycle diagram consists of the following five steps : Specify the model domain. ...
*  Basic rest-activity cycle
311-317 Dictionary Definition of basic rest-activity cycle "Basic Rest and Activity Cycles," Polyphasic Society. ... and the delta activity cycle. When awake, our brainwaves are faster during the first half of the cycle, when we feel alert and ... The basic rest-activity cycle (BRAC) is a physiological arousal mechanism in humans proposed by Nathaniel Kleitman, ... Kleitman, N., Sleep and Wakefulness, 1963, Reprint 1987: ISBN 9780226440736 Kleitman, N., Basic rest-activity cycle-22 years ...
*  Tau Ceti
Hall, J. C.; Lockwood, G. W. (2004). "The Chromospheric Activity and Variability of Cycling and Flat Activity Solar-Analog ... Hall, J. C.; Lockwood, G. W.; Gibb, E. L. (1995). "Activity cycles in cool stars. 1: Observation and analysis methods and case ... See: Hall, J. C.; Lockwood, G. W. (2000). "Evidence of a Pronounced Activity Cycle in the Solar Twin 18 Scorpii". The ... Gray, D. F.; Baliunas, S. L. (1994). "The activity cycle of tau Ceti". Astrophysical Journal. 427 (2): 1042-1047. Bibcode: ...
*  12 Ophiuchi
"H-K Project: Activity Cycles". Mount Wilson Observatory. Archived from the original on 2007-02-09. Retrieved 2006-12-04. H. J. ... Measurements of the long-term variability show two overlapping cycles of starspot activity (compared to the Sun's single, 11- ... year cycle.) The periods of these two cycles are 4.0 and 17.4 years. This star is among the top 100 target stars for NASA's ... The variability is attributed to large-scale magnetic activity on the chromosphere (in the form of starspots) combined with a ...
*  HR 1614
The activity cycle for this star is 11.1 years in length. Based upon gyrochronology, the estimated age of this star is 4.5 Gyr ... "H-K Project: Activity Cycles". Mt. Wilson Observatory. Archived from the original on 2012-03-27. Retrieved 2006-11-30. Bailer- ...
*  Xerocole
Caldwell, Janalee P. "Activity cycles, animals". Deserts. p. 5. Halpern, E. Anette. "Camel". Deserts. pp. 96-97. "Animal ... Amphibians are usually nocturnal as well, while many other xerocoles are diurnal, but reduce activity at midday and increase in ... Some xerocoles change their activity patterns depending on the season: nocturnal ants, for example, become diurnal during ... Ophardt, Charles E. "Urea Cycle". Virtual Chembook. Elmhurst College. Archived from the original on November 15, 2012. ...
*  61 Cygni
It has an activity cycle that is much more pronounced than the solar sunspot cycle. This is a complex activity cycle that ... There is an 11.7-year periodicity to the overall activity cycle of B. Both stars exhibit stellar flare activity, but the ... Hempelmann, A.; Robrade, J.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Favata, F.; Baliunas, S. L.; Hall, J. C. (2006). "Coronal activity cycles in ... Hempelmann, A.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Baliunas, S. L.; Donahue, R. A. (2003). "Evidence for coronal activity cycles on 61 Cygni ...
*  Sleep cycle
Kleitman and others following have referred to this rhythm as the basic rest-activity cycle, of which the "sleep cycle" would ... sometimes called the ultradian sleep cycle, sleep-dream cycle, or REM-NREM cycle, to distinguish it from the circadian ... Nathaniel Kleitman, "Basic Rest-Activity Cycle-22 Years Later"; Sleep 5(4), 1982; doi:10.1093/sleep/5.4.311. Mallick, B. N.; S ... In humans this cycle takes 1-2 hours. Electroencephalography readily shows the timing of sleep cycles by virtue of the marked ...
*  Biphasic and polyphasic sleep
... engaged in sexual activity, or committed petty crime. The human circadian rhythm regulates the human sleep-wake cycle of ... "Sleep and Alertness During Alternating Monophasic and Polyphasic Rest-Activity Cycles". International Journal of Neuroscience. ... Subjects were to perform two hours of activity followed by four hours of rest (sleep allowed), this was repeated four times ... 54 Gamble, Jessa (2010). Our natural sleep cycle (video). TEDGlobal 2010, Oxford, England: TED Conferences, LLC. Retrieved 2014 ...
*  Long-tailed dwarf hamster
The activity cycle is a nocturnal. The species feeds on seeds and insects. It constructs shallow tunnels and burrows under ...
*  Ultradian rhythm
Ultradian mood cycling is characterized by cycles shorter than 24 hours. Basic rest-activity cycle "Ultradian, adj". Oxford ... Ultradian mood states in bipolar disorder cycle much faster than rapid cycling; the latter is defined as four or more mood ... In contrast, circadian rhythms complete one cycle daily, while infradian rhythms such as the human menstrual cycle have periods ... The descriptive term ultradian is used in sleep research in reference to the 90-120 minute cycling of the sleep stages during ...
*  Horn shark
Their daily activity cycles are controlled by environmental light levels. Adult sharks prey mainly on hard-shelled molluscs, ... Mating in the horn shark occurs in December or January, on a possibly annual reproductive cycle. The male chases the female to ... The longest documented movement for an individual horn shark is 16 km (9.9 mi). Unlike most fishes, the daily activity pattern ... Nelson, D.R.; Johnson, R.H. (December 12, 1970). "Diel Activity Rhythms in the Nocturnal, Bottom-Dwelling Sharks, Heterodontus ...
*  Proxima Centauri
The activity level also appears to vary with a period of roughly 442 days, which is shorter than the solar cycle of 11 years. ... It has a regular activity cycle of starspots. In 2002, optical interferometry with the Very Large Telescope (VLTI) found that ... Cincunegui, C.; Díaz, R. F.; Mauas, P. J. D. (2007). "A possible activity cycle in Proxima Centauri". Astronomy and ... The activity level of the star adds noise to the radial velocity measurements, complicating detection of a companion using this ...
*  Sunspot
... activity cycles are about every eleven years, with some variation in length. Over the solar cycle, sunspot populations ... The point of highest sunspot activity during a cycle is known as solar maximum, and the point of lowest activity as solar ... Solar activity (and the solar cycle) have been implicated in global warming, originally the role of the Maunder Minimum of ... Early in the cycle, sunspots appear in the higher latitudes and then move towards the equator as the cycle approaches maximum, ...
*  Psi Serpentis
It has developed a four-year activity cycle. During the period 2000-2004, it showed a strong activity cycle with little ... This was followed by a flatter activity cycle from 2004-2008 that showed an inverse brightness variation with the level of ... the primary component appeared to be transitioning from a maunder minimum state to a state of cycling magnetic activity. ... March 2007), "The Activity and Variability of the Sun and Sun-like Stars. I. Synoptic Ca II H and K Observations", The ...
*  Solar cycle
The solar cycle or solar magnetic activity cycle is the nearly periodic 11-year change in the Sun's activity (including changes ... Periodicity of solar activity with periods longer than the sunspot cycle has been proposed, including: The 210 year Suess cycle ... Because the solar cycle reflects magnetic activity, various magnetically driven solar phenomena follow the solar cycle, ... The current solar cycle began on January 4, 2008, with minimal activity until early 2010. It is on track to have the lowest ...
*  Actigraphy
... is a non-invasive method of monitoring human rest/activity cycles. A small actigraph unit, also called an actimetry ... Activity actigraphs are worn and used similarly to a pedometer: around the waist, near the hip. They are useful for determining ... Literature shows that PIM provides most accurate measurements for both sleep and activity, though the difference with ZCM is ... A novel approach to scoring and interpreting sleep-wake activity. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 85, 207-216. Jean-Louis, ...
*  SSH1
2003). "Cell cycle-associated changes in Slingshot phosphatase activity and roles in cytokinesis in animal cells". J. Biol. ... 2004). "Efficient Salmonella entry requires activity cycles of host ADF and cofilin". Cell. Microbiol. 6 (5): 459-71. doi: ... 2004). "Differential activities, subcellular distribution and tissue expression patterns of three members of Slingshot family ... 2007). "Coronin 1B coordinates Arp2/3 complex and cofilin activities at the leading edge". Cell. 128 (5): 915-29. doi:10.1016/j ...
*  Southern tree hyrax
doi:10.1080/02541858.1984.11447869 . Rudnai, Judith (1984). "Activity Cycle and space utilization in captive Dendrohyrax ... "Activity patterns and feeding behaviour of the tree hyrax, Dendrohyrax arboreus, in the Parc National des Volcans, Rwanda". ...
*  Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis
This corresponds to the rest-activity cycle of the organism. An abnormally flattened circadian cortisol cycle has been linked ... Release of CRH from the hypothalamus is influenced by stress, physical activity, illness, by blood levels of cortisol and by ... At least one human study has identified maternal neural activity patterns in response to video stimuli of mother-infant ... In humans, prolonged maternal stress during gestation is associated with mild impairment of intellectual activity and language ...
*  Solar minimum
Grand solar minima occur when several solar cycles exhibit lesser than average activity for decades or centuries. Solar cycles ... List of solar cycles Maunder Minimum Solar cycle Solar cycle 24 Solar maximum Moussas, X.; Polygiannakis, J. M.; Preka-Papadema ... Solar minimum is the period of least solar activity in the 11 year solar cycle of the sun. During this time, sunspot and solar ... Solar minima and maxima are the two extremes of the sun's 11-year activity cycle. At a maximum, the sun is peppered with ...
*  Nu2 Lupi
Magnetic activity cycles in solar-type stars: statistics and impact on precise radial velocities". arXiv:1107.5325 . Bibcode: ...
*  HD 154088
Magnetic activity cycles in solar-type stars: statistics and impact on precise radial velocities". arXiv:1107.5325 . Bibcode: ... It also has a magnetic cycle similar to the Sun, though its length is not well constrained. A planet orbiting HD 154088 ...
*  Tachocline
Route, Matthew (October 20, 2016). "The Discovery of Solar-like Activity Cycles Beyond the End of the Main Sequence?". The ... solar-strength magnetic fields and display solar-like activity despite the absence of tachoclines. This suggests that the ...
*  HD 114613
Magnetic activity cycles in solar-type stars: statistics and impact on precise radial velocities". arXiv:1107.5325 [astro-ph.SR ... about four-and-a-half times shorter than the Solar magnetic cycle and one of the shortest magnetic cycles known. Being bright ... 2013, Tau Ceti is noted to have a similar activity index distribution to HD 114613. Again, a Tuomi et al. 2012 is referenced, ... HD 114613 has a magnetic cycle with a period of 897 ± 61 days, ...
*  Mister E
E's nighttime activities made the news, and John Constantine knew it had to be E, so he summoned the other members of the ... Mister E made the difficult decision to let Tim Hunter live in peace, thus breaking the cycle of abuse started by E's own ...
solar activity cycle  solar activity cycle
Comments (0) , Posted in Uncategorized , Tagged interplanetary space probe, solar activity cycle, solar wind ... Tagged: solar activity cycle. Farewell space probe Ulysses. July 1, 2009 at 3:00 pm ... space probe that provided scientists with a more complete understanding of the solar wind and the solar activity cycle, was ...
more infohttp://blogs.bu.edu/bunow/tag/solar-activity-cycle/
Tree rings show calendar of sun spot activity • The Register  Tree rings show calendar of sun spot activity • The Register
... suggesting that the sun naturally cycles through more and less busy times. Sami Solanki, the scientist who led the research, ... Sunspot activity is more intense now than at any point in the last 8,000 years, according to researchers at the Max Planck ... Tree rings show calendar of sun spot activity. Spottiest for 8,000 years. By Lucy Sherriff 28 Oct 2004 at 13:20 ... To track solar activity using trees, the researchers had to go looking for the presence of particular isotopes, like carbon14 ...
more infohttps://www.theregister.co.uk/2004/10/28/sun_spots/
Activity Cycle Of The Sun Will Peak Again In 2000 - tribunedigital-orlandosentinel  Activity Cycle Of The Sun Will Peak Again In 2000 - tribunedigital-orlandosentinel
... the sun peaks in activity: It spits out more solar flares, and more sunspots pepper its surface.The last peak was in 1989, so ... Activity Cycle Of The Sun Will Peak Again In 2000. Science & medicine - NOTEBOOK. ... Strong solar activity can send blobs of gas and energetic particles streaming toward Earth, which can knock out satellites and ... Every 11 years, the sun peaks in activity: It spits out more solar flares, and more sunspots pepper its surface. ...
more infohttp://articles.orlandosentinel.com/2000-01-02/news/0001030207_1_aurora-borealis-northern-lights-streams
Sunspots, unemployment, and recessions, or Can the solar activity cycle shape the business cycle?  Sunspots, unemployment, and recessions, or Can the solar activity cycle shape the business cycle?
... all 7 cyclical maximums of the solar activity overlapped closely with the US recessions, thus predicting (or triggering?) 8 out ... "Sunspots, unemployment, and recessions, or Can the solar activity cycle shape the business cycle?," MPRA Paper 40271, ... Sunspots, unemployment, and recessions, or Can the solar activity cycle shape the business cycle?. ... Was it a mere coincidence or a part of a broader pattern? This paper explores the correlation between the solar activity cycles ...
more infohttps://ideas.repec.org/p/pra/mprapa/40271.html
Are Bipolar-Related Sleep, Wake, and Activity Cycles Inherited? | MD Magazine  Are Bipolar-Related Sleep, Wake, and Activity Cycles Inherited? | MD Magazine
... and activity cycles associated with severe bipolar disorder appear to be inherited. ... Are Bipolar-Related Sleep, Wake, and Activity Cycles Inherited?. FEBRUARY 17, 2016 ... had lower activity levels when awake, and displayed greater variations in their sleep and wake cycles.. The 13 endophenotypes ... and activity cycles associated with severe bipolar disorder appear to be inherited. Published online on December 28, 2015 in ...
more infohttp://www.mdmag.com/medical-news/are-bipolar-related-sleep-wake-and-activity-cycles-inherited
Activity cycle diagram - Wikipedia  Activity cycle diagram - Wikipedia
In activity-based modeling, the dynamics of system is represented as an ACD (activity cycle diagram) which is a network model ... List all entities and their key attributes For each entity define its individual closed cycle of activity - queue - activity ... 1] INTRODUCTION TO DISCRETE EVENT SIMULATION [2] MODEL DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE [3] ACTIVITY CYCLE DIAGRAMS [4] SIMULATION USING ... The methodology for constructing an activity cycle diagram consists of the following five steps : Specify the model domain. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Activity_cycle_diagram
Basic rest-activity cycle - Wikipedia  Basic rest-activity cycle - Wikipedia
311-317 Dictionary Definition of basic rest-activity cycle "Basic Rest and Activity Cycles," Polyphasic Society. ... and the delta activity cycle. When awake, our brainwaves are faster during the first half of the cycle, when we feel alert and ... The basic rest-activity cycle (BRAC) is a physiological arousal mechanism in humans proposed by Nathaniel Kleitman, ... Kleitman, N., Sleep and Wakefulness, 1963, Reprint 1987: ISBN 9780226440736 Kleitman, N., Basic rest-activity cycle-22 years ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basic_rest-activity_cycle
Transition into daylight saving time influences the fragmentation of the rest-activity cycle  Transition into daylight saving time influences the fragmentation of the rest-activity cycle
There was no significant effect on the rest-activity cycle in the sample as a whole. Fragmentation of the rest-activity cycle ... Transition into daylight saving time influences the fragmentation of the rest-activity cycle. Authors: Tuuli A Lahti , ... The cycle of rest-activity was obviously collapsed on the day after the transition from the remaining. This is in line with the ... There are few reports of the impact of DST on the circadian rhythms or daily rest-activity cycles. In a study of 65 subjects [4 ...
more infohttps://www.jcircadianrhythms.com/articles/10.1186/1740-3391-4-1/
J Clin Psychiatry/Efficacy of the Novel Antidepressant Agomelatine on the Circadian Rest-Activity Cycle and Depressive and...  J Clin Psychiatry/Efficacy of the Novel Antidepressant Agomelatine on the Circadian Rest-Activity Cycle and Depressive and...
Conclusions: The favorable effect of agomelatine on the relative amplitude of the circadian rest-activity/sleep-wake cycle in ... The main outcome measure was the relative amplitude of the individual rest-activity cycles, expressed as change from baseline ... Efficacy of the Novel Antidepressant Agomelatine on the Circadian Rest-Activity Cycle and Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in ... versus sertraline with regard to the amplitude of the circadian rest-activity cycle and depressive and anxiety symptoms in ...
more infohttp://www.psychiatrist.com/jcp/article/pages/2010/v71n02/v71n0202.aspx
Frontiers | Cell cycle activity of neural precursors in the diseased mammalian brain | Neuroscience  Frontiers | Cell cycle activity of neural precursors in the diseased mammalian brain | Neuroscience
However, and despite a huge literature on embryonic neural precursors, very little is known about cell cycle parameters of ... However, and despite a huge literature on embryonic neural precursors, very little is known about cell cycle parameters of ... aging and therapy with a specific focus on their quiescence and cell cycle length in physiological conditions and neurological ... aging and therapy with a specific focus on their quiescence and cell cycle length in physiological conditions and neurological ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnins.2014.00039/full
Solar cycle activity recorded in cosmogenic isotope  Be-7  Solar cycle activity recorded in cosmogenic isotope Be-7
2002 (Swedish)In: IGBP-PAGES Swedish National Meeting, March 14-16, Stockholm, 2002Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed) ...
more infohttp://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:49218
Puffin Life Cycle Activity: Collaborative Research Poster by Tied 2 Teaching  Puffin Life Cycle Activity: Collaborative Research Poster by Tied 2 Teaching
As you teach about life cycles, your students will love to work together to complete this puffin life cycle craft activity - ... As you teach about life cycles, your students will love to work together to complete this puffin life cycle craft activity - ... Study the life cycle of a puffin! Create a beautiful collaborative research poster as you study the life of a puffin. ... Study the life cycle of a puffin! Create a beautiful collaborative research poster as you study the life of a puffin. ...
more infohttps://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Puffin-Life-Cycle-Activity-Collaborative-Research-Poster-3515212
CP12 provides a new mode of light regulation of Calvin cycle activity in higher plants | PNAS  CP12 provides a new mode of light regulation of Calvin cycle activity in higher plants | PNAS
CP12 provides a new mode of light regulation of Calvin cycle activity in higher plants. Norbert Wedel, Jürgen Soll, and ... In recent years, the activities of five enzymes of the Calvin cycle have been shown to be modulated by light driven changes. ... 1-5). Another mode of regulating enzyme activity in the cycle was shown for GAPDH, which, depending on its substrate, 1,3- ... Additional control of the activities of various enzymes of the cycle is further mediated by specific metabolites, acting either ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/94/19/10479?ijkey=6bd5f0669238d267407bfb7bbfa705b9e801cf26&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
Classroom Activities: Cycling of Matter and Energy Through Ecosystems - Lesson Guide - Texas Instruments - content  Classroom Activities: Cycling of Matter and Energy Through Ecosystems - Lesson Guide - Texas Instruments - content
p>In this Science Nspired module, students will explore the topic of Cycling of Matter and Energy Through Ecosystems through ... Activity Overview In this Science Nspired module, students will explore the topic of Cycling of Matter and Energy Through ... This Lesson Guide allows you to preview the variety of activities provided for this module, as well as gives a suggested flow ( ... Cycling of Matter and Energy Through Ecosystems - Lesson Guide Published on 01/16/2014 ...
more infohttps://education.ti.com/en/activity/detail?id=0DA97812D80D4138ABEF088402C27E03
Cell Cycle Activity - Catapult Learning  Cell Cycle Activity - Catapult Learning
Cell Cycle Activity. The purpose of this project was to include the different phases of the Cell Cycle. Students were given a ... They were also given the option to briefly describe on the plate what occurs in each phase of the Cell Cycle. ... paper plate and had the opportunity to sketch and label each phase of the Cell Cycle. ...
more infohttps://catapultlearning.com/2018/11/14/cell-cycle-activity/
The Water Cycle Activities & Project for 4th - 6th Grade | Lesson Planet  The Water Cycle Activities & Project for 4th - 6th Grade | Lesson Planet
Young scientists get their feet wet as they learn about the water cycle in this series of activities. Whether they are ... this resource engages children in exploring the different processes driving the hyrologic cycle. ... This The Water Cycle Activities & Project is suitable for 4th - 6th Grade. ... They label the parts of the water cycle as they learn about them in a hands on activity, and then participate in a game where ...
more infohttps://www.lessonplanet.com/teachers/the-water-cycle--4dcfd7dc-3bed-45a1-913a-070ee7f30af5
Victoria Cycling Adventuress Activities  Victoria Cycling Adventures's Activities
Ride with GPS creates tools that allow cyclists to plan, navigate, and share great rides. Using our website & app, riders can create detailed routes with cuesheets then navigate using turn-by-turn voice navigation or a GPS device.
more infohttps://ridewithgps.com/users/242765/activities
Prevalence and social patterning of walking and cycling activity in the West of Scotland  - Strathprints  Prevalence and social patterning of walking and cycling activity in the West of Scotland - Strathprints
Mutrie, N. and Hannah, M.K. (2002) Prevalence and social patterning of walking and cycling activity in the West of Scotland. ... Walking and cycling are frequently promoted as modes of physical activity that are accessible to the whole population and yet ... Here we describe the walking and cycling activity of the cohorts in 1995-96 when they were interviewed for the third time and ... social patterning, walking, cycling, Scotland, physical activity, Personal health and hygiene, including exercise, nutrition , ...
more infohttps://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/7875/
Cycling, Outdoor activities, Gippsland, Victoria, Australia  Cycling, Outdoor activities, Gippsland, Victoria, Australia
Cycling. Arapiles Cycling Event - The A.C.E. Ride The A.C.E. Ride is an opportunity for cycling enthusiasts of all abilities to ... Cycling. Road cycling Bring your own bicycle or hire a ride and explore Victoria's most spectacular cycle routes, from the ... Cycling. Lake Hume Cycle Challenge The Lake Hume Cycle Challenge 2019 will be held on Saturday, February 23, with rides to ... Cycling. Woody's Murray to Moyne Woody's Murray to Moyne Annual Cycle Relay is an annual cycling relay with approximately 1,500 ...
more infohttps://www.visitvictoria.com/Things-to-do/Outdoor-activities/Cycling?page=3
  • Fragmentation of the rest-activity cycle was enhanced in a subgroup of persons having sleep for eight hours or less (P = 0.04) but reduced in those who preferred to sleep for more than eight hours per night (P = 0.05). (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • We hypothesize that they reduce the circadian amplitude and start driving the individual into a later activity phase. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • This study evaluates the efficacy of agomelatine, the first antidepressant to be an agonist at MT 1 /MT 2 receptors and an antagonist at 5-HT 2C receptors, versus sertraline with regard to the amplitude of the circadian rest-activity cycle and depressive and anxiety symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). (psychiatrist.com)
  • The main outcome measure was the relative amplitude of the individual rest-activity cycles, expressed as change from baseline to week 6 and collected from continuous records using wrist actigraphy and sleep logs. (psychiatrist.com)
  • A significant difference in favor of agomelatine compared to sertraline on the relative amplitude of the circadian rest-activity cycle was observed at the end of the first week ( P = .01). (psychiatrist.com)
  • The favorable effect of agomelatine on the relative amplitude of the circadian rest-activity/sleep-wake cycle in depressed patients at week 1 reflects early improvement in sleep and daytime functioning. (psychiatrist.com)
  • They found that people with the disorder, when compare with those without it, awoke later and slept longer, were awake fewer minutes overall on average, were active for shorter periods of time, had lower activity levels when awake, and displayed greater variations in their sleep and wake cycles. (mdmag.com)
  • Here, we assessed the impact of CuO-NPs (0.1, 1, and 100 mg/kg dry soil) on soil microbial activities involved in the carbon and nitrogen cycles in five contrasting agricultural soils in a microcosm experiment over 90 days. (frontiersin.org)
  • These two experiments show that CuO-NPs can have detrimental effects on microbial activities in soils with contrasting physicochemical properties and previously exposed to various agricultural practices. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this review, we briefly discuss the long journey of NSC research from embryonic development to adult homeostasis, aging and therapy with a specific focus on their quiescence and cell cycle length in physiological conditions and neurological disorders. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here we summarize our knowledge on cell cycle parameters of adult neural precursors in physiological and pathological conditions with particular attention to a new player in biomedicine, oligodendrocyte progenitors. (frontiersin.org)
  • There are many known modeling paradigms to describe the dynamics of system in process-oriented, event-based and activity-based view points. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it remains unclear how cells accommodate the dynamics and interplay between the Ras-ERK and PI3K-Akt pathways to regulate cell-fate decisions, mainly because of the lack of good tools to visualize ERK and Akt activities simultaneously in live cells. (go.jp)
  • Our study provides a useful tool for quantifying the dynamics among ERK and Akt activities and the cell cycle in a live cell, and for addressing the mechanisms underlying intrinsic resistance to molecularly targeted drugs. (go.jp)
  • Over the last 77 years (from 1935), all 7 cyclical maximums of the solar activity overlapped closely with the US recessions, thus predicting (or triggering? (repec.org)
  • Over the last 64 years (from 1948), all 6 maximums of the solar activity were preceded by minimums of the US unemployment rate, and the spikes in the unemployment rate followed with lags of 2-3 years. (repec.org)
  • On the world scale, over the last 44 years (for which the data is available), all 4 maximums of the solar activity overlapped with minimums of the unemployment rate in the G7 countries, followed by its spikes within 2-3 years. (repec.org)
  • In recent years, the activities of five enzymes of the Calvin cycle have been shown to be modulated by light driven changes. (pnas.org)
  • Here we describe the walking and cycling activity of the cohorts in 1995-96 when they were interviewed for the third time and were aged about 24, 44 and 64 years, respectively. (strath.ac.uk)
  • The research is the first large-scale delineation of sleep and activity traits in people with bipolar disorder and their relatives and the first genetic investigation of a large set of sleep and circadian measures in any human study. (mdmag.com)
  • Basic research during embryonic development has led to the identification of general principles governing cell cycle progression, proliferation and differentiation of mammalian neural stem cells (NSC). (frontiersin.org)
  • Fujita, 1962 ) and that immense efforts are currently invested worldwide in stem cell research and regenerative medicine, it comes as a surprise that cell cycle studies during adulthood, contrary to development, are extremely limited with only a handful addressing the diseased brain. (frontiersin.org)
  • An international study led by University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and University of California, Los Angeles researchers indicates that more than a dozen traits related to sleep, wake, and activity cycles associated with severe bipolar disorder appear to be inherited. (mdmag.com)
  • Study the life cycle of a puffin! (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • The activity is designed to provide students with the chance to work independently with teacher check-ins during the lab for accuracy and content. (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • We observed that denitrification was the most sensitive microbial activity to CuO-NPs in most soil types, while soil respiration and nitrification were mainly impacted in coarse soils with low organic matter content. (frontiersin.org)
  • We were able to identify 13 sleep and activity measures, most of which are inherited, that correlated with whether an individual had bipolar disorder," said Joseph Takahashi, PhD, Professor and Loyd B. Sands Distinguished Chair in Neuroscience and Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator at UT Southwestern. (mdmag.com)
  • In this Science Nspired module, students will explore the topic of Cycling of Matter and Energy Through Ecosystems through simulations, formative assessments and summative assessments. (ti.com)
  • Note that there are other categories for aerobic sports such as running, outdoor cycling, swimming, walking, etc. (dmoztools.net)
  • Then why not bring them to the lovely National Trust at Bovey Tracey on the edge of Dartmoor and have a Guided Cycle ride through the woods and parkland. (dartmoornt.org.uk)
  • To simultaneously measure ERK, Akt and the cell-cycle status, we generated a polycistronic vector expressing ERK-KTR, Akt-FoxO3a-KTR, a cell-cycle reporter and a nuclear reporter, and applied linear unmixing to these four images to remove spectral overlap among fluorescent proteins. (go.jp)
  • It is convenient to use the appropriate stencils of UML notation from the UML Activity library included to the Rapid UML solution of ConceptDraw Solution Park and containing a lot of specific vector UML objects. (conceptdraw.com)
  • As one factor fuelling interest in this area, short cell cycles were found to correlate with a higher proliferative potential of neural precursors at the cellular and tissue level and across phylogeny ( Borrell and Calegari, in press ). (frontiersin.org)
  • These limitations, together with the fact that a significant proportion of NSC are quiescent, makes it remarkably difficult to assess cell cycle parameters during adulthood. (frontiersin.org)
  • They were also given the option to briefly describe on the plate what occurs in each phase of the Cell Cycle. (catapultlearning.com)
  • The Ras-ERK pathway controls cell proliferation and differentiation, whereas the PI3K-Akt pathway plays a role in the process of cell-cycle progression and cell survival. (go.jp)
  • Here, we developed a multiplexed fluorescence system for imaging ERK and Akt signaling and the cell-cycle status at the single cell level. (go.jp)
  • We examined the cellular heterogeneity of relationship between ERK and Akt activities under a basal or EGF-stimulated condition, and found that ERK and Akt were regulated in a highly cooperative and cell-cycle-dependent manner. (go.jp)
  • We get a lot of anger and naval gazing particularly near the end of a release cycle where things are building up in the next rawhide tag and in the updates tag for the release we're about to make. (fedoraproject.org)
  • Tuatara Tours specialises in guided walking and cycling tours that are achievable for most levels of fitness. (newzealand.com)
  • This Lesson Guide allows you to preview the variety of activities provided for this module, as well as gives a suggested flow (lesson plan) of the lesson. (ti.com)
  • CuO-NPs caused significant reductions of the three microbial activities measured (denitrification, nitrification, and soil respiration) at 100 mg/kg dry soil, but the low concentrations (0.1 and 1 mg/kg) had limited effects. (frontiersin.org)
  • A cross functional team of people will meet and discuss current problems with the Fedora Development Cycle and discuss potential changes to the cycle to solve the problems. (fedoraproject.org)