Activity Cycles: Bouts of physical irritability or movement alternating with periods of quiescence. It includes biochemical activity and hormonal activity which may be cellular. These cycles are shorter than 24 hours and include sleep-wakefulness cycles and the periodic activation of the digestive system.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Programming Languages: Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Workflow: Description of pattern of recurrent functions or procedures frequently found in organizational processes, such as notification, decision, and action.Language Disorders: Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.Language Development Disorders: Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.Sign Language: A system of hand gestures used for communication by the deaf or by people speaking different languages.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Gingival Overgrowth: Excessive growth of the gingiva either by an increase in the size of the constituent cells (GINGIVAL HYPERTROPHY) or by an increase in their number (GINGIVAL HYPERPLASIA). (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p574)Genes, cdc: Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).Water Cycle: Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Beginning of Human Life: The point at which religious ensoulment or PERSONHOOD is considered to begin.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Achaete-Scute Complex Genome Region: A genomic region found in DROSOPHILA. The region contains genes encoding BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that play a critical role in the regulation of pattern formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Motorcycles: Two-wheeled, engine-driven vehicles.Bathing Beaches: Beaches, both natural and man-made, used for bathing and other activities.Head Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of heads from impact, penetration from falling and flying objects, and from limited electric shock and burn.Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Off-Road Motor Vehicles: Motorized, recreational vehicles used on non-public roads. They include all-terrain vehicles, dirt-bikes, minibikes, motorbikes, trailbikes, and snowmobiles. Excludes MOTORCYCLES, which are considered public road vehicles.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Governing Board: The group in which legal authority is vested for the control of health-related institutions and organizations.Specialty Boards: Organizations which certify physicians and dentists as specialists in various fields of medical and dental practice.Technology Assessment, Biomedical: Evaluation of biomedical technology in relation to cost, efficacy, utilization, etc., and its future impact on social, ethical, and legal systems.World War I: Global conflict primarily fought on European continent, that occurred between 1914 and 1918.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Great BritainFantasy: An imagined sequence of events or mental images, e.g., daydreams.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Love: Affection; in psychiatry commonly refers to pleasure, particularly as it applies to gratifying experiences between individuals.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Democracy: A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.Civil Rights: Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from accessed 1/31/2003)Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Sociobiology: The comparative study of social organization in animals including humans, especially with regard to its genetic basis and evolutionary history. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Physiognomy: An assessment of a person's personality based on their facial and other external features.

Neural changes after operant conditioning of the aerial respiratory behavior in Lymnaea stagnalis. (1/175)

In this study, we demonstrate neural changes that occurred during operant conditioning of the aerial respiratory behavior of Lymnaea stagnalis. Aerial respiration in Lymnaea occurs at the water interface and is achieved by opening and closing movements of its respiratory orifice, the pneumostome. This behavior is controlled by a central pattern generator (CPG), the neurons of which, as well as the motoneurons innervating the pneumostome, have previously been identified and their synaptic connections well characterized. The respiratory behavior was operantly conditioned by applying a mechanical stimulus to the open pneumostome whenever the animal attempted to breathe. This negative reinforcement to the open pneumostome resulted in its immediate closure and a significant reduction in the overall respiratory activity. Electrophysiological recordings from the isolated CNSs after operant conditioning showed that the spontaneous patterned respiratory activity of the CPG neurons was significantly reduced. This included reduced spontaneous activity of the CPG interneuron involved in pneumostome opening (input 3 interneuron) and a reduced frequency of spontaneous tonic activity of the CPG interneuron [right pedal dorsal 1 (RPeD1)]. The ability to trigger the patterned respiratory activity by electrical stimulation of RPeD1 was also significantly reduced after operant conditioning. This study therefore demonstrates significant changes within a CPG that are associated with changes in a rhythmic homeostatic behavior after operant conditioning.  (+info)

Scanning electron microscopy of the lateral cell surfaces of rat incisor ameloblasts. (2/175)

Dry dissected rat incisor ameloblasts studied in the scanning electron microscope show remarkable specializations of their lateral surfaces. Four or five cycles of a change from a surface with longitudinal gutterlike folds associated with large intercellular spaces, to one with microvilli and reduced intercellular spaces, are found along the length of the lower incisor maturation zone. It is argued that these changes indicate cyclical activity in maturation ameloblasts.  (+info)

Many LH peaks are needed to physiologically stimulate testosterone secretion: modulation by fasting and NPY. (3/175)

The pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone secretions were studied during serial blood collections performed at 7-min time intervals in the male rat. In fed rats, a discontinuous pattern of LH secretion was observed. Periods without secretion alternated with active secretory episodes consisting in trains of three to four LH peaks that triggered testosterone secretion usually 1-2 h later. The magnitude of the testosterone response was not correlated with the amplitude of the LH peaks. Isolated, single peaks of LH did not evoke clear testosterone responses. Forty-eight hours after initiation of fasting, testosterone secretion was markedly decreased, but integrated LH secretion was only partly reduced. Chronic infusion of neuropeptide Y (NPY; 18 microgram/day, icv) reduced testosterone secretion to very low levels and abolished pulsatile LH secretion or testosterone response to isolated LH peaks. In conclusion, the stimulation of testosterone secretion by LH necessitates several LH peaks organized in a proper sequence, and the testosterone response is not immediate. Low testosterone secretion in fasting rats appears to result from disappearance of coordinated, multiple LH peaks of sufficient size. Inhibition of the gonadotropic axis achieved by central NPY administration is due to either absence of LH peak "clusters" or occurrence of nonfunctional single LH peaks.  (+info)

Activity patterns and synaptic organization of ventrally located interneurons in the embryonic chick spinal cord. (4/175)

To investigate the origin of spontaneous activity in developing spinal networks, we examined the activity patterns and synaptic organization of ventrally located lumbosacral interneurons, including those whose axons project into the ventrolateral funiculus (VLF), in embryonic day 9 (E9)-E12 chick embryos. During spontaneous episodes, rhythmic synaptic potentials were recorded from the VLF and from spinal interneurons that were synchronized, cycle by cycle, with rhythmic ventral root potentials. At the beginning of an episode, ventral root potentials started before the VLF discharge and the firing of individual interneurons. However, pharmacological blockade of recurrent motoneuron collaterals did not prevent or substantially delay interneuron recruitment during spontaneous episodes. The synaptic connections of interneurons were examined by stimulating the VLF and recording the potentials evoked in the ventral roots, in the VLF, or in individual interneurons. Low-intensity stimulation of the VLF evoked a short-latency depolarizing potential in the ventral roots, or in interneurons, that was probably mediated mono- or disynaptically. At higher intensities, long-latency responses were recruited in a highly nonlinear manner, eventually culminating in the activation of an episode. VLF-evoked potentials were reversibly blocked by extracellular Co2+, indicating that they were mediated by chemical synaptic transmission. Collectively, these findings indicate that ventral interneurons are rhythmically active, project to motoneurons, and are likely to be interconnected by recurrent excitatory synaptic connections. This pattern of organization may explain the synchronous activation of spinal neurons and the regenerative activation of spinal networks when provided with a suprathreshold stimulus.  (+info)

Lispro or regular insulin for multiple injection therapy in adolescence. Differences in free insulin and glucose levels overnight. (5/175)

OBJECTIVE: Regular insulin given with the evening meal could contribute to the risk of nocturnal hypoglycemia in adolescents with type 1 diabetes using a multiple injection regimen. To test this hypothesis, we compared glucodynamics and free insulin levels on two separate study nights. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 14 adolescents were recruited. On both nights, identical doses of regular insulin or insulin lispro were administered 30 min or 10 min, respectively, before the evening meal, using a double-blind randomized crossover study design. Doses of NPH insulin and carbohydrate content of the evening meal and snack were kept identical. Blood samples were taken every 15 min for blood glucose and every 60 min for free insulin and ketones. RESULTS: After insulin lispro administration, glucose levels were significantly lower between the evening meal and the bedtime snack (analysis of variance [ANOVA] P = 0.02), and four hypoglycemic episodes were recorded. This corresponded to a higher (458 +/- 48 vs. 305 +/- 33 pmol/l, P = 0.02), earlier (64 +/- 4.6 vs. 103 +/- 12 min, P = 0.01), and shorter-lasting (245 +/- 21 vs. 365 +/- 39 min, P = 0.01) insulin peak in contrast to regular insulin. After the bedtime snack, glucose levels increased dramatically during the lispro night and stayed higher, up to 0300 in the morning (ANOVA P = 0.01), corresponding to lower mean insulin levels (146 +/- 20 vs. 184 +/- 27 pmol/l, P = 0.04). No differences were seen in glucose and insulin levels between 0300 and 0800. Four episodes of nocturnal hypoglycemia were documented after the bedtime snack during the regular insulin night, in contrast to one episode after insulin lispro. No differences in ketone levels were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The replacement of regular insulin with insulin lispro may reduce the risk of late hypoglycemia, but redistribution of the evening carbohydrate may be needed to ensure good metabolic control and prevent early postprandial hypoglycemia.  (+info)

Intracellular Ca(2+) oscillations in luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons derived from the embryonic olfactory placode of the rhesus monkey. (6/175)

To understand the mechanism of pulsatile luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) release, we examined whether cultured LHRH neurons exhibit spontaneous intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) signaling. The olfactory placode and the ventral migratory pathway of LHRH neurons from rhesus monkey embryos at embryonic ages 35-37 were dissected out and cultured on glass coverslips. Two to five weeks later, cultured cells were labeled with fura-2 and examined for [Ca(2+)](i) signaling by recording changes in [Ca(2+)](i) every 10 sec for 30-175 min. Cells were fixed and immunostained for LHRH and neuron-specific enolase. In 20 cultures, 572 LHRH-positive cells exhibited [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations at an interpulse interval (IPI) of 8.2 +/- 0.7 min and a duration of 88.8 +/- 2.9 sec. LHRH-negative neurons in culture exhibited only occasional [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations. In 17 of 20 cultures with LHRH-positive cells, [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations occurred synchronously in 50-100% of the individual cells, whereas [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations in cells in the remaining three cultures did not synchronize. Strikingly, in 12 of 17 cultures the synchronization of [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations repeatedly occurred in complete unison at 52.8 +/- 3.0 min intervals, which is similar to the period observed for LHRH release, whereas in 5 of 17 cultures the less tight synchronization of [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations repeatedly occurred at 23.4 +/- 4.6 min intervals. IPI of [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations in cells with tight synchronization and less tight synchronization did not differ from IPI in cells without synchronization. The results indicate that LHRH neurons derived from the monkey olfactory placode possess an endogenous mechanism for synchronization of [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations. Whether synchronization of [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations relates to neurosecretion remains to be investigated.  (+info)

Oscillatory behavior of a simple kinetic model for proteolysis during cell invasion. (7/175)

Extracellular proteolysis during cell invasion is thought to be tightly organized, both temporally and spatially. This work presents a simple kinetic model that describes the interactions between extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, proteinases, proteolytic fragments, and integrins. Nonmonotonous behavior arises from enzyme de novo synthesis consecutive to integrin binding to fragments or entire proteins. The model has been simulated using realistic values for kinetic constants and protein concentrations, with fibronectin as the ECM protein. The simulations show damped oscillations of integrin-complex concentrations, indicating alternation of maximal adhesion periods with maximal mobility periods. Comparisons with experimental data from the literature confirm the similarity between this system behavior and cell invasion. The influences on the system of cryptic functions of ECM proteins, proteinase inhibitors, and soluble antiadhesive peptides were examined. The first critical parameter for oscillation is the discrepancy between integrin affinity for intact ECM proteins and the respective proteolytic fragments, thus emphasizing the importance of cryptic functions of ECM proteins in cell invasion. Another critical parameter is the ratio between proteinase and the initial ECM protein concentration. These results suggest new insights into the organization of the ECM degradation during cell invasion.  (+info)

Circadian rhythms in the suprachiasmatic nucleus are temperature-compensated and phase-shifted by heat pulses in vitro. (8/175)

Temperature compensation and the effects of heat pulses on rhythm phase were assessed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Circadian neuronal rhythms were recorded from the rat SCN at 37 and 31 degrees C in vitro. Rhythm period was 23.9 +/- 0.1 and 23.7 +/- 0.1 hr at 37 and 31 degrees C, respectively; the Q(10) for tau was 0.99. Heat pulses were administered at various circadian times (CTs) by increasing SCN temperature from 34 to 37 degrees C for 2 hr. Phase delays and advances were observed during early and late subjective night, respectively, and no phase shifts were obtained during midsubjective day. Maximum phase delays of 2.2 +/- 0.3 hr were obtained at CT 14, and maximum phase advances of 3.5 +/- 0.2 hr were obtained at CT 20. Phase delays were not blocked by a combination of NMDA [AP-5 (100 microM)] and non-NMDA [CNQX (10 microM)] receptor antagonists or by tetrodotoxin (TTX) at concentrations of 1 or 3 microM. The phase response curve for heat pulses is similar to ones obtained with light pulses for behavioral rhythms. These data demonstrate that circadian pacemaker period in the rat SCN is temperature-compensated over a physiological range of temperatures. Phase delays were not caused by activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors, release of other neurotransmitters, or temperature-dependent increases in metabolism associated with action potentials. Heat pulses may have phase-shifted rhythms by directly altering transcriptional or translational events in SCN pacemaker cells.  (+info)

Biological oscillations with an ultradian time scale of 1 to several hours include cycles in behavioral arousal, episodic glucocorticoid release, and gene expression. Ultradian rhythms are thought to have an extrinsic origin because of a perceived absence of ultradian rhythmicity in vitro and a lack of known molecular ultradian oscillators. We designed a novel, non-spectral-analysis method of separating ultradian from circadian components and applied it to a published gene expression dataset with an ultradian sampling resolution. Ultradian rhythms in mouse hepatocytes in vivo have been published, and we validated our approach using this control by confirming 175 of 323 ultradian genes identified in a prior study and found 862 additional ultradian genes. For the first time, we now report ultradian expression of ,900 genes in vitro. Sixty genes exhibited ultradian transcriptional rhythmicity, both in vivo and in vitro, including 5 genes involved in the cell cycle. Within these 60 genes, we ...
Get this from a library! Ultradian rhythms from molecules to mind : a new vision of life. [David Lloyd; Ernest Lawrence Rossi, 1933-;]
Nonlinear delay-differential equations represent infinite-dimensional systems for which characterising the behaviour of solutions can be technically challenging. Their appearance in many applied fields, such as population biology, is in great part due to their ability to model dynamics with non-instantaneous effects. These phenomena often exhibit behaviour which does not occur in the associated non-delayed counterpart. In particular, it is known that delays can trigger the occurrence of oscillatory behaviour and can, in several cases, bring evidence for mechanisms underlying oscillations in biological systems. Oscillatory dynamics play an important role in the accurate regulation of hormones. Such rhythms in the ultradian regime have been observed in multiple physiological areas such as the HPA-axis, phases of sleep, and the glucose regulatory system.. In this contribution, the effect of diabetic deficiencies on the production of an oscillatory ultradian regime is studied using a deterministic ...
The issue is that there is an assumption that REM sleep is dreaming sleep. Dement and Kleitman woke participants up at the times when their brain waves were characterised by REM sleep. They found that participants were highly likely to report dreaming. However, they also found that participants would dream out of REM sleep and others would not dream with in REM sleep. ...
In the first study of its kind, a team of international scientists led by UT Southwestern Medical Center and UCLA researchers have identified a dozen inherited traits related to sleep, wake, and activity cycles that are associated with severe bipolar disorder.
A major ideal of science is to integrate apparently different phenomena into a general theory of nature. The more widely divergent the phenomena that we can bring together in a meaningful way, the...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rapid glucocorticoid receptor-mediated inhibition of hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal ultradian activity in healthy males. AU - Russell, Georgina M.. AU - Henley, David E.. AU - Leendertz, Jack. AU - Douthwaite, Jennie A.. AU - Wood, Susan A.. AU - Stevens, Adam. AU - Woltersdorf, Wolfram W.. AU - Peeters, Bernard W.M.M.. AU - Ruigt, Ge S.F.. AU - White, Anne. AU - Veldhuis, Johannes D.. AU - Lightman, Stafford L.. PY - 2010/4/28. Y1 - 2010/4/28. N2 - A complex dynamic ultradian rhythm underlies the hypothalamic-pituitary- adrenal (HPA) circadian rhythm. We have investigated in normal human male subjects the importance, site of action, and receptor-mediated processes involved in rapid basal corticosteroid feedback and its interaction with corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) drive. Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), ACTH, and cortisol were measured every 10 min from healthy males during the awakening period or late afternoon using an automated blood sampling system. Mathematical ...
Venous system: The hypotensive action instead of unilateral pain and evidence cancer risk is greater if performed concomitantly with a higher aggregate mark or spot] subarachnoid adj. Compare circadian rhythm, infradian rhythm, ultradian rhythm. Those using conjugated linoleic acid is present in the urine, annika sned- man. Loin to groin for time not markedly worse ureteric pain on a fasting glucose of 260 mg tid bid therapy, if community prevalence and associations. 29.18), although injections can cause a disproportionate increase in value or staying the same, given their earlier pathways and may require insulin at about 1 day later 4 days rest; and (iii) raynaud s syndrome and metastatic renal cell carcinoma. A nitroimidazole derivative (fig, imidazole derivatives metronidazole: Metronidazole. The risk of injury is affected. Prep and drape the perineum to the spread of the soft palate and the posterior cul-de-sac. Option b: You receive 8 with certainty. It is absorbed slowly and may also have ...
Plasma testosterone levels display circadian variation, peaking during sleep, and reaching a nadir in the late afternoon, with a superimposed ultradian rhythm with pulses every 90 min reflecting the underlying rhythm of pulsatile luteinizing hormone
The highest prevalence rates greater than for older patients and their ultradian rhythms of autonomic, cardiovascular, and infectious diseases we fail to comply. Due to the lateral epicondyle or may have to be diagnosed by comparing the lateral. Retest shouldertrunk motions in testing and prescription. Ann ny acad sci. Typical settings differ based on patient selection of patients . With respect to the high potential for causing imbalances between the three leading causes of shock figs. Other symptoms may be helpful in determining abnormal and may be. Their clinical use, interpretation, and diversity of training for students who will write guidelines that are prone to bruising, or inconsistent with best research practices, which dictate that interventions directed at weight loss lumbosacral spine detect anatomic abnormalities found during evaluation for ftt by the ligamentous restraints and opposing muscle pull. Not to be needed, the small intestinal mucosal lymphoid tissues peyer patches and ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Multivariate autoregressive model in analysis of cardiovascular and respiratory oscillations in neonatal lambs. AU - Kalli, Seppo. AU - Grönlund, Juhani. AU - Ihalainen, Heimo. AU - Siimes, Anja. AU - Antila, Kari. AU - Välimäki, Ilkka. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. M3 - Chapter or book article. SN - 978-0-916859-39-8. BT - Fetal and Neonatal Development. A2 - Jones, Colin T.. CY - Ithaca. ER - ...
Evidence collected over the past 15 years suggests that the central nervous system of all mammals alternates between two distinct states of physiologic activity. This alternating sleep pattern has been called the short term REM/non REM sleep cycle. In a series of studies it was determined that during the latter half of the nocturnal sleep period, cortisol was secreted in an episodic manner. Under
Patients with T2D and DR had smaller PIPR and lower urinary aMT6s than other groups (p < 0.001). In adjusted regression models, smaller PIPR was associated with lower urinary aMT6s (β = 4.552, p = 0.005). Patients with DR were more likely to have no detectable DLMO (p = 0.049), higher evening salivary cortisol, greater insomnia symptoms and greater sleep variability compared to other groups. Sleep duration, efficiency and rest-activity rhythms were similar ...
The ActTrust Actigraph supports the therapy of psychiatric conditions, such as ADHD and depression. ActTrust measures sleep and activity cycles, the light intensity as well as blue/green/red wavelength light and the temperature.
Thinking about concomitant parameter changes led us to the next candidate explanation. As with the tendency to use a lower TR for SMS-EPI than for regular EPI, there is also a tendency to drive the in-plane gradients harder. Heres the logical progression. We start with a change in the slice dimension whereby SMS permits, say, 2 mm slice thickness and full brain coverage in a TR below 2000 ms. Next, we are tempted to improve the in-plane resolution in order to get cubic voxels. The only way to get finer resolution in-plane is to make the frequency and phase encoding gradients work harder. The SMS scheme doesnt help (or hinder very much - see Note 2) the in-plane dimension, however, and theres only so much one can drive the gradients before the total gradient area must be increased through longer application times. (If you need a refresher on gradient areas and k-space in EPI, take a look at this post and its predecessors.) Thus, a further consequence of pushing up the in-plane resolution is to ...
Thinking about concomitant parameter changes led us to the next candidate explanation. As with the tendency to use a lower TR for SMS-EPI than for regular EPI, there is also a tendency to drive the in-plane gradients harder. Heres the logical progression. We start with a change in the slice dimension whereby SMS permits, say, 2 mm slice thickness and full brain coverage in a TR below 2000 ms. Next, we are tempted to improve the in-plane resolution in order to get cubic voxels. The only way to get finer resolution in-plane is to make the frequency and phase encoding gradients work harder. The SMS scheme doesnt help (or hinder very much - see Note 2) the in-plane dimension, however, and theres only so much one can drive the gradients before the total gradient area must be increased through longer application times. (If you need a refresher on gradient areas and k-space in EPI, take a look at this post and its predecessors.) Thus, a further consequence of pushing up the in-plane resolution is to ...
Its theoretical research is concerned with building formal models, then exploring and exploiting their properties. These models range from the exact description of various flavours of computation, including concurrent and reversible computation, through programming language related features like type systems and specification logics to network protocols. While the groups activities rest on solid mathematical and logical foundations, its ultimate objective is to turn those new designs and insights into tools that support the corresponding programming and networking related activities.. ...
What do these results suggest?. There is something fishy about the reindeer clock. It is not working the same way it does in other mammals studied to date. For example, seals and humans living in the Arctic have normal circadian rhythms of melatonin. Some other animals show daily rhythms in behavior. But in reindeer, rhythms in behavior and melatonin can be seen only if the environment is rhythmic as well. In constant light conditions, it appears that the clock is not working. But, is it? How do we know?. During the long winter night and the long summer day, the behavior of reindeer is not completely random. It is in bouts which show some regularity - these are ultradian rhythms with the period much shorter than 24 hours. If the clock is not working in reindeer, i.e., if there is no clock in this species, then the ultradian rhythms would persist during spring and fall as well. Yet we see circadian rhythms during these seasons - there is an underlying clock there which can be entrained to a ...
After 18 years and nearly three complete orbits around the sun, Ulysses, the interplanetary space probe that provided scientists with a more complete understanding of the solar wind and the solar activity cycle, was turned off. Nathan Schwadron, an associate professor of astronomy, can discuss the space probes solar wind observations, which led scientists to […]. ...
Studies on glucocorticoid receptor (GR) action typically assess gene responses by long-term stimulation with synthetic hormones. As corticosteroids are released from adrenal glands in a circadian and high-frequency (ultradian) mode, such treatments may not provide an accurate assessment of physiological hormone action. Here we demonstrate that ultradian hormone stimulation induces cyclic GR-mediated transcriptional regulation, or gene pulsing, both in cultured cells and in animal models. Equilibrium receptor-occupancy of regulatory elements precisely tracks the ligand pulses. Nascent RNA transcripts from GR-regulated genes are released in distinct quanta, demonstrating a profound difference between the transcriptional programs induced by ultradian and constant stimulation. Gene pulsing is driven by rapid GR exchange with response elements and by GR recycling through the chaperone machinery, which promotes GR activation and reactivation in response to the ultradian hormone release, thus coupling ...
As it turns out, late morning turns out to be the best time to try doing tasks such as mental arithmetic that demand that we hold several pieces of information in mind at once. Later in the afternoon is the time to attempt simpler tasks, like searching for a particular letter in a page of gibberish.. Another clue about the clock in our brains comes from people with conditions such as depression and bipolar disorder. People with these disorders often have trouble sleeping at night, or feel groggy during the day. Some people with dementia experience "sundowning," becoming confused or aggressive at the end of the day.. "Sleep and activity cycles are a very big part of psychiatric illnesses," said Huda Akil, a neuroscientist at the University of Michigan.. Yet neuroscientists have struggled to understand exactly how the circadian clock affects our minds. After all, researchers cant simply pop open a subjects skull and monitor his brain cells over the course of each day.. A few years ago, Akil and ...
Solar variations have significant influence on the Earths space environment and climate via its magnetic field, irradiation and energetic particles. Long-term and reliable historical datasets of solar and stellar activity indices are crucial for understanding the variations and predicting the future solar cycle. Cosmogenic and radionuclides can extend our knowledge of solar variations back to the Holocene. There are a number of important and hot issues relevant to the evolution of solar activity and variability. These include, how to build up longterm consistent datasets, e.g., sunspot number and solar irradiance, how to realistically reconstruct the physics parameters, e.g., interior convection spectrum and photospheric open flux, based on the records, how to understand the relations among different indices, how to model the solar cycles based on the observed data. Furthermore, the progress in the understanding of the stellar variability and activity cycles helps us to understand the solar ...
Both abnormal automaticity and triggered activity induced by delayed afterdepolarizations have been proposed as the primary mechanism for ventricular tachycardia (VT) occurring in dogs 24 hr after ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Because of this controversy, we studied the effects of ventricular pacing and therapeutic concentrations of lidocaine and ethmozin on sustained rhythmic activity of isolated subendocardial preparations excised from the infarct, and on VT in conscious dogs. There were differences in the sustained rhythmic activity cycle length of isolated preparations and the VT cycle length that were attributable to the absence of sympathetic input in the former and its presence in the latter. In isolated tissues, pacing for 1 or 10 beats reset the sustained rhythmic activity and pacing for 1 min induced overdrive suppression. Lidocaine (5 micrograms/ml) had no effect on sustained rhythmic activity but ethmozin (2 micrograms/ml) suppressed it. Delayed ...
When a coronal mass ejection reaches Earth, it interacts with our planets magnetic field, potentially creating a geomagnetic storm. Solar particles stream down the field lines toward Earths poles. Those particles collide with atoms of nitrogen and oxygen in the atmosphere, which then glow like miniature neon signs. Aurorae normally are visible only at high latitudes. However, during a geomagnetic storm aurorae can light up the sky at lower latitudes. Sky watchers in the northern U.S. and other countries should look toward the north on the evening of August 3rd/4th for rippling "curtains" of green and red light. The Sun goes through a regular activity cycle about 11 years long on average. The last solar maximum occurred in 2001. Its latest minimum was particularly weak and long lasting. This eruption is one of the first signs that the Sun is waking up and heading toward another maximum. ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] The protein encoded by this gene is involved in plasma membrane electron transport pathways. The encoded protein has both a hydroquinone (NADH) oxidase activity and a protein disulfide-thiol interchange activity. The two activities cycle with a periodicity of 24 minutes, with one activity being at its peak when the other is at its lowest. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2016 ...
Some citations have links to full-text .pdf files:. Alstott, J. and Timberlake, W. (2009). Effects of rat sex differences and lighting on locomotor exploration of a circular open field with free-standing central corners and without peripheral walls. Behavioural Brain Research, 196, 214-219. PDF. Fernandez, E. J. and Timberlake, W. (2008). Mutual benefits of research collaborations between zoos and academic institutions. Zoo Biology, 27, 470-487. PDF. Gillman, A., Kosobud, A., and Timberlake, W. (2008). Pre- and post-nicotine circadian activity rhythms can be differentiated by a paired environmental cue. Physiology & Behavior, 93, 337-350. PDF. Timberlake, W., Sinning, S., and Leffel, J. (2007). Beacon training in a water maze can facilitate as well as interfere with subsequent room cue learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 33, 225-243. PDF. Timberlake, W. (2007). Anthropomorphism revisited. Comparative Cognition and Behavior Reviews, 2, 139-144. PDF. Kosobud, ...
Palmers new Model PTG100 Precision Test Gauge has been designed for field and laboratory applications. It can be used for precision pressure measurement and field gauge calibration, etc. The company says the PTG100 Series is an ideal substitution for precision pointer pressure gauges. The gauge has pressure ranges to 2,500 bar, a fully temperature-compensated accuracy from 32° to 122°F, up to nine selectable pressure units, and a large backlit display with 6-digit resolution. The company also says the gauge has low power consumption, continuous working . . .
Circadian activity rhythms in hamsters are entrained to the daily light:dark cycle by photic information arriving from the retina to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the site of the master circadian pacemaker in mammals. The effects of light on adjusting the timing of the circadian pacemaker is modified …
Abnormalities in sleep and circadian rhythms are central features of bipolar disorder (BP), often persisting between episodes. We report here, to our knowledge, the first systematic analysis of circadian rhythm activity in pedigrees segregating severe BP (BP-I). By analyzing actigraphy data obtained from members of 26 Costa Rican and Colombian pedigrees [136 euthymic (i.e., interepisode) BP-I individuals and 422 non-BP-I relatives], we delineated 73 phenotypes, of which 49 demonstrated significant heritability and 13 showed significant trait-like association with BP-I. All BP-I-associated traits related to activity level, with BP-I individuals consistently demonstrating lower activity levels than their non-BP-I relatives. We analyzed all 49 heritable phenotypes using genetic linkage analysis, with special emphasis on phenotypes judged to have the strongest impact on the biology underlying BP. We identified a locus for interdaily stability of activity, at a threshold exceeding genome-wide ...
Activity onsets of horn sharks, Heterodontus francisci, were studied in the natural environment at Santa Catalina Island, California. The mean of activity onsets of these nocturnal sharks occurred 76 min after sunset which corresponded to an approximate light level of 0.03 lux. During laboratory studies under a fixed LD 12:12 (12 hr light- 12 hr dark) regime, the L phase of which was 8 lux, H. francisci showed anticipation of the D phase. Under 23 days of constant dim light, H. francisci exhibited a drifting circadian rhythm with period lengths, for one individual, of 20.8 hr under 2.0 lux, and 23.0 hr under 0.13 lux. Under 15 days of constant darkness, the sharks showed a high level of aperiodic activity. During laboratory experimental dusk transitions, the light intensity eliciting onset of activity was: 1), proportional to the amount of time sharks spent in the L phase of the LD regime, and 2), independent of the level of Hght duiing the L phase of the LD regime.
Mammalian skeletal muscle is influenced by the functional demands placed upon it. Functional morphology of facial expression musculature, or mimetic musculature, is largely unknown. Recently, primate mimetic musculature has been shown to respond to demands associated with social factors. Body size has also been demonstrated to affect many aspects of primate functional morphology and evolutionary morphology. The present study was designed to further examine the role of social variables and body size in influencing the morphology of primate mimetic musculature using a broad phylogenetic range of primates, primates with varying body sizes, and those that exploit differing time of day activity cycles and social group sizes ...
Mammalian skeletal muscle is influenced by the functional demands placed upon it. Functional morphology of facial expression musculature, or mimetic musculature, is largely unknown. Recently, primate mimetic musculature has been shown to respond to demands associated with social factors. Body size has also been demonstrated to affect many aspects of primate functional morphology and evolutionary morphology. The present study was designed to further examine the role of social variables and body size in influencing the morphology of primate mimetic musculature using a broad phylogenetic range of primates, primates with varying body sizes, and those that exploit differing time of day activity cycles and social group sizes ...
The homodimeric, growth-related and time-keeping constitutive hydroquinone oxidase ENOX1 of the eukaryotic cell surface capable of oxidizing extracellular NAD(P)H and intracellular hydroquinones...
Organisms go through cycles of metabolic activity, driven by internal cues (circadian, circannual clocks) and physiologic/behavioral inputs (e.g. feeding/fasting, physical activity/rest). In addition, organisms face environmental challenges (physical, chemical or psychological stressors) that require continual adaptation of the pathways regulating metabolism. The goal of our research is to elucidate the regulatory and transcriptional mechanisms that integrate information and enable physiologic adaptations (particularly in response to changes in physical activity, environmental temperature, nutritional state), and that, when deregulated, contribute to metabolic disease. Our studies focus on the Estrogen-Related Receptors (ERRα, ERRβ, and ERRγ), which we use as an entry point to the study of the regulatory / transcriptional networks that are important for adaptation in adipose tissue and in skeletal muscle, in response to changes in environmental temperature, physical exercise and/or diet. In ...
There are more than 500 scientific publications advocating the use of Gerovital as an anti aging drug. Every person has his own biological clock. Aging is a process which is influenced by the genetic and environmental factors. Normal aging rhythm can be accelerated or delayed due to these factors. Aging rhythm can be controlled by […]. ...
This period of ultradian cycling (more than one cycle in a day) has, apart from a few days per fortnight, has been going on for five or six weeks now. Im exhausted and my sleep quality is poor and patchy. Im barely awake during the day and barely asleep during the night. Im not eating properly, Im not looking after myself properly and Im getting behind with things like laundry - running out of clean clothes to wear in fact.. So Im taking a step back from things for a few weeks. I can do my "in the world but not of it" brand of being a hermit. Ill dip in and out of Twitter and chat with people but Ill also make a big effort not to get involved in long exchanges or big campaigns.. Talking to my GP earlier about physical health concerns led me to tears and only a vague idea of what we were actually saying about something quite important. Luckily I have people named via Lasting Power of Attorney who can speak to him and check up with what was said so if I cant make informed choices then ...
The Delta Wave Havening Techniques from my extensive clinical experience are the most powerful psychological treatment in the world today for two reasons.
NADH oxidases at the external surface of plant and animal cells (ECTO-NOX proteins) exhibit stable and recurring patterns of oscillations with potentially clock-related, entrainable, and temperature-compensated period lengths of 24 min. To determine if ECTO-NOX proteins might represent the ultradian time keepers (pacemakers) of the biological clock, COS cells were transfected with cDNAs encoding tNOX proteins having a period length of 22 min or with C575A or C558A cysteine to alanine replacements having period lengths of 36 or 42 min. Here we demonstrate that such transfectants exhibited 22, 36, or 40 to 42 h circadian patterns in the activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, a common clock-regulated protein, in addition to the endogenous 24 h circadian period length. The fact that the expression of a single oscillatory ECTO-NOX protein determines the period length of a circadian biochemical marker (60 X the ECTO-NOX period length) provides compelling evidence that ECTO-NOX proteins ...
Over the last few days Ive discovered the new iPhone app Sleep Cycle Alarm Clock. This is a really clever app which uses the accelerometer in your iPhone to monitor your movement while you sleep. From the amount you fidget, the app can work out which sleep cycle you are in - awake, light sleep/dreaming, or deep sleep. It then wakes you up when you are in your lightest sleep cycle (within half an hour of your alarm time) so you awake feeling relaxed and refreshed. ...
- Nervous Control of GI SystemEnteric nervous system coordinates Autonomic network of neurons around GI tract independent of (but in communication with) parasympathetic/sympathetic nervous systemCoordination of peristalsis (motility), segmentation (churning/mixing), and secretion (of enzymes and hormones) after eatingStimulated by parasympathetic activity (rest and digest)Inhibited by sympathetic activity (fight or flight) - Enteric nervous system coordinates Autonomic network of neurons around GI tract independent of (but in communication with) parasympathetic/sympathetic nervous systemCoordination of peristalsis (motility), segmentation (churning/mixing), and secretion (of enzymes and hormones) after eating - Autonomic network of neurons around GI tract independent of (but in communication with) parasympathetic/sympathetic nervous system - Coordination of peristalsis (motility), segmentation (churning/mixing), and secretion (of enzymes and hormones) after eating - Stimulated by parasympathetic
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Tight can also refer to music. You know like sometimes rhythm can be loose (like jazz) and sometimes it can be tight. So if a band that is not a jazz band is playing well, someone might say they are "tight" so that could be another reason why tight is good. Back in the 40s, tight meant drunk, which I never understood. Youd think drunk would be loose, but in old movies, people say tight to mean drunk.. ReplyDelete ...
Waking up at 3am is a common problem, often interrupting our sleep cycle and having a negative impact on our mood and ability to function the following day.
The Norway lobster is one of the most important commercial crustaceans in Europe. A detailed knowledge of the behaviour of this species is crucial in order to optimize fishery yields, improve sustainability of fisheries, and identify man-made environmental threats. Due to the cryptic life-style in burrows, the great depth and low-light condition of their habitat, studies of the behaviour of this species in its natural environment are challenging. Here, we first provide an overview of the sensory modalities (vision, chemoreception, and mechanoreception) of Nephrops norvegicus. We focus particularly on the role of the chemical and mechanical senses in eliciting and steering spatial orientation behaviours. We then concentrate on recent research in social behaviour and biological rhythms of Nephrops. A combination of laboratory approaches and newly developed tracking technologies has led to a better understanding of aggressive interactions, reproductive behaviours, activity cycles, and ...
In the central nervous system, the nucleoside adenosine regulates neuronal activity by modulating the actions of other neurotransmitter systems, thereby influencing many different physiological processes and behaviors. Adenosinergic mechanisms are especially important in fine-tuning glutamatergic neurotransmission. Astrocytic release of adenosine triphosphate and its subsequent extracellular breakdown provides adenosine to drive homeostatic sleep. Acute ethanol (alcohol) exposure increases extracellular adenosine, which mediates the ataxic and hypnotic/sedative effects of alcohol, while chronic ethanol exposure leads to downregulated adenosine signaling that underlies insomnia, a major predictor of relapse. Adenosine gates glutamatergic input to the circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, modulating both photic (light-induced) and nonphotic (behaviorally-induced) synchronization of circadian activity rhythms. A recent study using mice lacking the equilibrative ...
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I'm recovering from alcohol abuse and have been sober for the past 10 days but my sleep cycle has been completely - Answered by a verified Health Professional
The link between sleeping and obesity is drawn tighter as a new research published online in the FASEB Journal shows that what your mother ate when she was pregnant may make you obese or overweight by altering the function of genes (epigenetic changes) that regulate circadian rhythm.
Sleep cycle and 4 point saliva testing - my sleep cycle also moves, but it moves forward. I sleep a lot and you dont sleep very much, so maybe thats...
Whats the verdict on sleep-tracking apps? How do they work, and how accurate are they? Is it all a big scam, or perhaps the placebo effect at work?
1.2 Effect of climatic cycles. *1.3 Effects of human activity. *2 Isotopic fractionation ... Effects of human activity[edit]. caption = Atmospheric 14. C for the northern and southern hemispheres, showing percentage ... Effect of climatic cycles[edit]. Because the solubility of CO. 2 in water increases with lower temperatures, glacial periods ... C activity if the additional carbon from fossil fuels were distributed throughout the carbon exchange reservoir, but because of ...
RNAPII cycles during transcription. CTD phosphatase activity is regulated by two GTFs (TFIIF and TFIIB). The large subunit of ... to separate the two strands using its helicase activity. It has a kinase activity that phosphorylates the C-terminal domain ( ... During the transcription cycle, the CTD of the large subunit of RNAP II is reversibly phosphorylated. RNAP II containing ... Ser5 phosphorylation (Ser5PO4) near the 5′ ends of genes depends principally on the kinase activity of TFIIH (Kin28 in yeast; ...
Hall, J. C.; Lockwood, G. W. (2004). "The Chromospheric Activity and Variability of Cycling and Flat Activity Solar-Analog ... Hall, J. C.; Lockwood, G. W.; Gibb, E. L. (1995). "Activity cycles in cool stars. 1: Observation and analysis methods and case ... See: Hall, J. C.; Lockwood, G. W. (2000). "Evidence of a Pronounced Activity Cycle in the Solar Twin 18 Scorpii". The ... Gray, D. F.; Baliunas, S. L. (1994). "The activity cycle of tau Ceti". Astrophysical Journal. 427 (2): 1042-1047. Bibcode: ...
"H-K Project: Activity Cycles". Mount Wilson Observatory. Archived from the original on 2007-02-09. Retrieved 2006-12-04. H. J. ... Measurements of the long-term variability show two overlapping cycles of starspot activity (compared to the Sun's single, 11- ... year cycle.) The periods of these two cycles are 4.0 and 17.4 years. This star is among the top 100 target stars for NASA's ... The variability is attributed to large-scale magnetic activity on the chromosphere (in the form of starspots) combined with a ...
The activity cycle for this star is 11.1 years in length. Based upon gyrochronology, the estimated age of this star is 4.5 Gyr ... "H-K Project: Activity Cycles". Mt. Wilson Observatory. Archived from the original on 2012-03-27. Retrieved 2006-11-30. Bailer- ...
"Phosphorylation of Ser72 does not regulate the ubiquitin ligase activity and subcellular localization of Skp2". Cell Cycle. 9 ( ... Here, SKP2 has been implicated in double negative feedback loops with both p21 and p27, that control cell cycle entry and G1/S ... Ganoth D, Bornstein G, Ko TK, Larsen B, Tyers M, Pagano M, Hershko A (March 2001). "The cell-cycle regulatory protein Cks1 is ... Wei W, Ayad NG, Wan Y, Zhang GJ, Kirschner MW, Kaelin WG (March 2004). "Degradation of the SCF component Skp2 in cell-cycle ...
... whose activity is restricted to the G1-S phase of the cell cycle, and is essential[citation needed] for the G1/S transition. ... Kaldis P, Aleem E (2007). "Cell cycle sibling rivalry: Cdc2 vs. Cdk2". Cell Cycle. 4 (11): 1491-4. doi:10.4161/cc.4.11.2124. ... "Bcl-2 expression suppresses mismatch repair activity through inhibition of E2F transcriptional activity". Nat. Cell Biol. 7 (2 ... Its activity is also regulated by phosphorylation. Two alternatively spliced variants and multiple transcription initiation ...
"Life Cycle". Retrieved 2015-11-28. Robert L Bates, Julia A Jackson, ed. Dictionary of Geological Terms: Third ... Yazoo streams have been altered through intense agricultural activities and flood control measures. Low water, excessive ...
Akt is known to play a role in the cell cycle. Under various circumstances, activation of Akt was shown to overcome cell cycle ... Activated Akt can then go on to activate or deactivate its myriad substrates (e.g. mTOR) via its kinase activity. Besides being ... Somanath PR, Razorenova OV, Chen J, Byzova TV (March 2006). "Akt1 in endothelial cell and angiogenesis". Cell Cycle. 5 (5): 512 ... "Tumor Genetics; AKT Function and Oncogenic Activity" (pdf). Scientific Report. Fox Chase Cancer Center. 2005. Lindhurst MJ, ...
The RING domain of Mdm2 confers E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and is sufficient for E3 ligase activity in Mdm2 RING ... Ivanchuk SM, Mondal S, Rutka JT (June 2008). "p14ARF interacts with DAXX: effects on HDM2 and p53". Cell Cycle. 7 (12): 1836-50 ... Honda R, Yasuda H (March 2000). "Activity of MDM2, a ubiquitin ligase, toward p53 or itself is dependent on the RING finger ... Thus Mdm2 and USP7 form an intricate circuit to finely regulate the stability and activity of p53, whose levels are critical ...
Main economical activity of Aquitania is onion farming. Small carbon mining exists within the municipality. Arsenio Chaparro ... Cycling Archives. Retrieved 2 April 2015. Coordinates: 5°35′N 72°50′W / 5.583°N 72.833°W / 5.583; -72.833. ...
Impact of cyclin E overexpression on Smad3 activity in breast cancer cell lines. Cell Cycle. 2010, 9: 4900-4907 Morris L, Allen ... The phosphorylation of Smad3 by cyclin E/CDK2 inhibits its transcriptional activity and ultimately facilitates cell cycle ... Apart from the function in cell cycle progression, cyclin E/CDK2 plays a role in the centrosome cycle. This function is ... Cell Cycle. 2009, 8: 1062-1068 Keyomarsi K, Tucker SL, Buchholz TA, et al. Cyclin E and survival in patients with breast cancer ...
... is an activity in which cyclists ascend and descend a given hill multiple times, in order to have cumulatively ... "American rider takes hill repeats to a new level by breaking climbing world record". Cycling Weekly. Retrieved 4 November 2015 ... "Tobias Lestrell Strava". Retrieved 5 February 2017. "The First Man To Ride A ...
Oricchio, Elisa; Wendel, Hans-Guido (15 March 2012). "Mining the cancer genome uncovers therapeutic activity of EphA7 against ... Cell Cycle. Rome, Italy: Institute of Biology and Molecular Pathology, National Research Council. 5 (1): 88-92. doi:10.4161/cc. ... lymphoma". Cell Cycle. New York, New York: Taylor & Francis. 11 (6): 1076-1080. doi:10.4161/cc.11.6.19451. PMC 3335915 . PMID ...
"Annual Report on Activities of the RSMC Tokyo - Typhoon Center 2000" (PDF). Japan Meteorological Agency. February 2001. p. 3. ... "PM cycle". Associated Press. July 16, 1983. "Vera leaves its mark". The Deseret News. July 18, 1983. Retrieved September 1, ... "PM cycle". Associated Press. July 18, 1983. "Typhoon Vera Kills 3". Toledo Blade. Associated Press. July 22, 1983. Retrieved ... "AM cycle". United Press International. July 14, 1983. "Typhoon Vera Blows Through". Youngstown Vindicator. July 15, 1983. ...
Caldwell, Janalee P. "Activity cycles, animals". Deserts. p. 5. Halpern, E. Anette. "Camel". Deserts. pp. 96-97. "Animal ... Amphibians are usually nocturnal as well, while many other xerocoles are diurnal, but reduce activity at midday and increase in ... Some xerocoles change their activity patterns depending on the season: nocturnal ants, for example, become diurnal during ... Ophardt, Charles E. "Urea Cycle". Virtual Chembook. Elmhurst College. Archived from the original on November 15, 2012. ...
Fellner, W. J. (1956). Trends and Cycles in Economic Activity. New York: Henry Holt. pp. 308-338. ... A. W. Mullineux (1984). The Business Cycle After Keynes: A Contemporary Analysis. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 11. Goldberg, Samuel ... Estey, J. A. (1956). "The Multiplier-Accelerator Interaction". Business Cycles: Their Nature, Cause, and Control (Third ed.). ... Bratt, E. C. (1961). "Multiplier-Accelerator Models". Business Cycles and Forecasting (Fifth ed.). Homewood: Irwin. pp. 188-211 ...
At night, the water activity is high enough for life, but it is too cold, and in the day time it is warm enough but too dry. ... On Mars, carbon can be cycled from the surface of the dune to its subsurface where it may come in contact with moisture and ... Photosynthetic activity continued to increase for the duration of the experiment, showing that the lichen adapted to the Mars ... Honey has a low water activity level of 0.6. That's why honey doesn't spoil - you don't need to keep honey in a fridge, because ...
It has an activity cycle that is much more pronounced than the solar sunspot cycle. This is a complex activity cycle that ... There is an 11.7-year periodicity to the overall activity cycle of B. Both stars exhibit stellar flare activity, but the ... Hempelmann, A.; Robrade, J.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Favata, F.; Baliunas, S. L.; Hall, J. C. (2006). "Coronal activity cycles in ... Hempelmann, A.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Baliunas, S. L.; Donahue, R. A. (2003). "Evidence for coronal activity cycles on 61 Cygni ...
... beside Findon Cycle Speedway, home of the Findon Skid Kids cycling club. The other main greenspace in the suburb is Matheson ... "Findon Community Centre Inc Events & Activities". City of Charles Sturt. Retrieved 5 June 2011. "Australian Schools Directory ... "Findon Cycle Speedway". Retrieved 5 June 2011. "Public Transport in Adelaide". Adelaide Metro official website. Dept. for ...
Pekerman resides in Kfar Saba, Israel, trains swimming to Triathlon, Hydrotherapy and babies activities in the water. "Cycling ... In 2002, she competed for the first time in Triathlon, afterwards she focused on cycling races and in 2003 she competed in the ... Archives". Cycling Archives. September 28, 1977. Retrieved November 16, 2011. ניר שועלי, הסיפור מאחורי אשת הברזל נינה פקרמן, ...
MOC requirements run in three-year cycles. At the end of each cycle, diplomates report to the ABS about their MOC activities. A ...
It is a catalytic subunit of the protein kinase complex that is important for cell cycle G1 phase progression. The activity of ... Also phosphorylates SMAD3 in a cell-cycle-dependent manner and represses its transcriptional activity. Component of the ternary ... cdk kinase activity by MyoD promotes myoblast cell cycle withdrawal and terminal differentiation". EMBO J. 18 (24): 6983-93. ... Fåhraeus R, Paramio JM, Ball KL, Laín S, Lane DP (1996). "Inhibition of pRb phosphorylation and cell-cycle progression by a 20- ...
"Baker City Cycling Classic". Baker City Cycling Classic. Retrieved 2012-03-20. "Elkhorn Classic". Oregon Bicycle Racing ... The city hosts the Oregon School Activities Association Class 1A girls and boys basketball tournaments at Baker High School in ... The Baker City Cycling Classic is a set of bicycle races held in Baker City and the surrounding region. Similar bicycle races, ... Possible forest activities include hiking, biking, winter sports, fishing, hunting, mineral prospecting, camping, wildlife ...
The site comprises three main areas of activity (Plaza, Village Square and the Jardin Des Sports) surrounded by other activity ... Mobility scooters, wheelchairs, cycle trailers, D-locks and helmets also available.[citation needed] The park originally had ... Activity Den. The village crèche. Leisure Bowl and House of Games. A ten-pin bowling alley and coin-operated arcade games. ... Gym, courts Activity Den, Astro Turf, bowling green. Also Sports Café and Starbucks, and Refresh and Sportique shops. The ...
Council Decision of 28 September 1987 concerning the framework programme for Community activities in the field of research and ... by investigating potential microservices that serve the airspace user's needs in all phases of the operation life cycle, from ... Council Decision of 23 April 1990 concerning the framework Programme of Community activities in the field of research and ... Council resolution of 25 July 1983 on framework programmes for Community research, development and demonstration activities and ...
In activity-based modeling, the dynamics of system is represented as an ACD (activity cycle diagram) which is a network model ... List all entities and their key attributes For each entity define its individual closed cycle of activity - queue - activity ... 1] INTRODUCTION TO DISCRETE EVENT SIMULATION [2] MODEL DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE [3] ACTIVITY CYCLE DIAGRAMS [4] SIMULATION USING ... The methodology for constructing an activity cycle diagram consists of the following five steps : Specify the model domain. ...
311-317 Dictionary Definition of basic rest-activity cycle "Basic Rest and Activity Cycles," Polyphasic Society. ... and the delta activity cycle. When awake, our brainwaves are faster during the first half of the cycle, when we feel alert and ... The basic rest-activity cycle (BRAC) is a physiological arousal mechanism in humans proposed by Nathaniel Kleitman, ... Kleitman, N., Sleep and Wakefulness, 1963, Reprint 1987: ISBN 9780226440736 Kleitman, N., Basic rest-activity cycle-22 years ...
... Gregory J. Colman, Dhaval M. Dave. NBER Working Paper No. ... w17413 Racial, Ethnic and Gender Differences in Physical Activity. Xu and Kaestner. w15737 The Business Cycle and Health ... "Exercise, physical activity, and exertion over the business cycle," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 11- ... Business Cycle Memos, FAQ, Members. Business Cycle Dates. Current Population Survey. Economic Report of the President. New ...
Download this activity as a printable PDF:. (Re)Cycling Water (PDF) , (Re)Ciclar el Agua (PDF). ... Download and Print Activity. (Re)Cycling Water (PDF). (Re)Ciclar el Agua (PDF) ... Have you heard of the water cycle? In the water cycle, the sun heats liquid water and turns it into a gas called water vapor. ... Thoroughly wash hands after this activity. *Use hot water from the faucet. Do not use boiling water, which is too hot and ...
Cycling. Arapiles Cycling Event - The A.C.E. Ride The A.C.E. Ride is an opportunity for cycling enthusiasts of all abilities to ... Cycling. Road cycling Bring your own bicycle or hire a ride and explore Victorias most spectacular cycle routes, from the ... Cycling. Lake Hume Cycle Challenge The Lake Hume Cycle Challenge 2019 will be held on Saturday, February 23, with rides to ... Cycling. Woodys Murray to Moyne Woodys Murray to Moyne Annual Cycle Relay is an annual cycling relay with approximately 1,500 ...
Ride with GPS creates tools that allow cyclists to plan, navigate, and share great rides. Using our website & app, riders can create detailed routes with cuesheets then navigate using turn-by-turn voice navigation or a GPS device.
Can we show it in activity via a cycle? or we have to have to end state in Registeration Activity Diagram, one when the form is ... Can we have a cycle in an activity diagram?. For example in Registeration Use case, a form must be filled out and give to the ... Forum Directory ,‎ Rational ,‎ Forum: Unified Modeling Language - UML ,‎ Topic: Cycle in Activity Diagram ...
Wisconsin is home for 5.1 million residents and 2.5 million workers. Important industrial sectors include service, manufacturing and retail trade; as Americas Dairyland, agriculture also plays a vital role in the economy. From October 1, 1991 through February 28, 1997, the Wisconsin FACE program tracked 629 occupational fatalities through its surveillance system. During this period, the Wisconsin
Thus, the activity of a subpopulation of CDK2 molecules is inhibited at a time in the cell cycle when overall CDK2 activity is ... Cell cycle regulation of CDK2 activity by phosphorylation of Thr160 and Tyr15.. Gu Y1, Rosenblatt J, Morgan DO. ... is required for kinase activity. Mutation of Y15 and T14 stimulates kinase activity, demonstrating that phosphorylation at ... Analysis of HeLa cells synchronized at various cell cycle stages indicates that CDK2 phosphorylation on T160 increases during S ...
Support » Plugin: NextGEN Gallery - WordPress Gallery Plugin » Persistent NextGen background activity using server cycles ... The topic Persistent NextGen background activity using server cycles is closed to new replies. ... There seems to be an unknown background activity running on our server that I have no idea what it is and what is doing. ... I am getting hundreds of records showing up in our activity stream related to NextGen. ...
Implications of Anthropogenic Activities: 10.4018/978-1-5225-1037-6.ch001: The study of biogeochemical cycles is important to ... "Biogeochemical Cycles of Nitrogen and Phosphorus: Implications of Anthropogenic Activities." Technologies for the Treatment and ... "Biogeochemical Cycles of Nitrogen and Phosphorus: Implications of Anthropogenic Activities." In Technologies for the Treatment ... Since human activity is increasing its influence over these cycles at a global scale, it is important to analyze the ...
The role of E2F4 in adipogenesis is independent of its cell cycle regulatory activity. Rebecca L. Landsberg, Julia E. Sero, ... The role of E2F4 in adipogenesis is independent of its cell cycle regulatory activity ... The role of E2F4 in adipogenesis is independent of its cell cycle regulatory activity ... The role of E2F4 in adipogenesis is independent of its cell cycle regulatory activity ...
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San Diego School of Medicine describe for the first time how abnormal gene activity in cell cycle networks that are known to ... Altered Cell Cycle Gene Activity Underlies Brain Overgrowth in Autistic Toddlers Findings identify abnormal activity of cell ... Home / Newsroom / Releases / Altered Cell Cycle Gene Activity Underlies Brain Overgrowth in Autistic Toddlers ... Timing of the cell cycle appears to be critical. Shorter cell cycle periods may result in bigger brains and greater ...
Earth has a limited amount of water that recycles itself in what is called the water cycle. Climate change, weather and human ... life are highly affected by changes in this continuous, interconnected cycle. ... Earth has a limited amount of water that recycles itself in what is called the water cycle. Climate change, weather and human ... a good overview of current research capabilities and activities in the area of space borne observations of the water cycle, ...
CP12 provides a new mode of light regulation of Calvin cycle activity in higher plants. Norbert Wedel, Jürgen Soll, and ... In recent years, the activities of five enzymes of the Calvin cycle have been shown to be modulated by light driven changes. ... 1-5). Another mode of regulating enzyme activity in the cycle was shown for GAPDH, which, depending on its substrate, 1,3- ... Additional control of the activities of various enzymes of the cycle is further mediated by specific metabolites, acting either ...
... all 7 cyclical maximums of the solar activity overlapped closely with the US recessions, thus predicting (or triggering?) 8 out ... "Sunspots, unemployment, and recessions, or Can the solar activity cycle shape the business cycle?," MPRA Paper 40271, ... Sunspots, unemployment, and recessions, or Can the solar activity cycle shape the business cycle?. ... Was it a mere coincidence or a part of a broader pattern? This paper explores the correlation between the solar activity cycles ...
Relentless Cycle, a motorcycle parts company that specializes in sourcing custom parts for Harley-Davidson ... Relentless Cycle Turns One This Month, Continues Relentless Activities to Find Best Deals for Harley-Davidson Custom Parts. ... Relentless Cycles new website is now open for business. The new store is designed to be easy to navigate and Harley owners can ... Relentless Cycle is celebrating its one year anniversary with the promise to continue to source the best custom parts for ...
Our study provides a useful tool for quantifying the dynamics among ERK and Akt activities and the cell cycle in a live cell, ... Here, we developed a multiplexed fluorescence system for imaging ERK and Akt signaling and the cell-cycle status at the single ... To simultaneously measure ERK, Akt and the cell-cycle status, we generated a polycistronic vector expressing ERK-KTR, Akt- ... We examined the cellular heterogeneity of relationship between ERK and Akt activities under a basal or EGF-stimulated condition ...
... the sun peaks in activity: It spits out more solar flares, and more sunspots pepper its surface.The last peak was in 1989, so ... Activity Cycle Of The Sun Will Peak Again In 2000. Science & medicine - NOTEBOOK. ... Strong solar activity can send blobs of gas and energetic particles streaming toward Earth, which can knock out satellites and ... Every 11 years, the sun peaks in activity: It spits out more solar flares, and more sunspots pepper its surface. ...
Cycling is also very good for the butt and abs to a lesser degree. Considering most women are concerned about their thighs Id ... think cycling would be an excellent choice. Its low impact and if you work it, it can burn a ton of calories. As for upper ...
This lab activity covers:- Mitosis- The Cell Cycle--------------------------------------------Buyer Comments:- These stations ... Used in a 9th grade Biology class.- I just used your Mitosis Lab station activity and it was AMAZING! I loved it and so did ... In your activity, each will be tailored to the specific content.Station 1: Get Hands-On - using their creative skills, students ... An answer key is also provided where applicable.These station cards are meant to be used as a lab activity but can also be ...
Cytotoxic activity and cell cycle analysis of hexahydrocurcumin on SW 480 human colorectal cancer cells.. Chen CY1, Yang WL, ... The cytotoxicity of hexahydrocurcumin and its effect on the cell cycle in human colorectal cancer cells SW480 has been studied ... resulted in a massive accumulation of the cells in the G1/G0 phase of the cell cycle. The cytotoxic effect of hexahydrocurcumin ...
However, and despite a huge literature on embryonic neural precursors, very little is known about cell cycle parameters of ... However, and despite a huge literature on embryonic neural precursors, very little is known about cell cycle parameters of ... aging and therapy with a specific focus on their quiescence and cell cycle length in physiological conditions and neurological ... aging and therapy with a specific focus on their quiescence and cell cycle length in physiological conditions and neurological ...
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  • It is currently unclear whether the developmental defects reflect a requirement for E2F4 and/or E2F5 in cell cycle control or whether these proteins play a more direct role in the differentiation process. (
  • From these results, we conclude that light regulation of the Calvin cycle in higher plants is not only via reductive activation of different proteins by the well-established ferredoxin/thioredoxin system, but in addition, by reversible dissociation of the PRK/CP12/GAPDH complex, mediated by NADP(H). (
  • These multienzyme complexes of Calvin cycle proteins were proposed to have the functional advantage of allowing channelling of reaction intermediates from one enzyme to another, thereby avoiding free diffusion through the stroma. (
  • To simultaneously measure ERK, Akt and the cell-cycle status, we generated a polycistronic vector expressing ERK-KTR, Akt-FoxO3a-KTR, a cell-cycle reporter and a nuclear reporter, and applied linear unmixing to these four images to remove spectral overlap among fluorescent proteins. (
  • A 10-fold decrease of cytoskeleton proteins (STMN1, TBCA) provided a link to alterations of the cell cycle. (
  • The relationship of telomerase activity with tumors suppressor proteins (p51, Rb, p21), cell cycle machinery, and apoptosis was also studied. (
  • To gain insight into the cellular response mechanisms underlying favorable outcomes, we analyzed the H1299 cell cycle profiles and the expression patterns of several key proteins after monotherapy. (
  • In this study, we test the hypothesis that AMPAR trafficking proteins couple synaptic activity to AMPAR cycling in RGCs. (
  • Our results support a role for correlated, activity-driven changes in multiple AMPAR trafficking proteins that modulate GluA2 cycling which can in turn affect synaptic AMPAR composition in RGCs. (
  • Studies using Myc and Max proteins with reciprocal complementary mutations in their leucine zippers have shown that heterodimeric complex formation is required for cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and transformation ( 2 , 4 ). (
  • The Ras-ERK pathway controls cell proliferation and differentiation, whereas the PI3K-Akt pathway plays a role in the process of cell-cycle progression and cell survival. (
  • Basic research during embryonic development has led to the identification of general principles governing cell cycle progression, proliferation and differentiation of mammalian neural stem cells (NSC). (
  • However, in progression, reduced ras Ha -associated ERK protein and activity, increased Δ5PTEN-associated cyclin E2 expression, and unique K1/K13 profiles following TPA treatment suggest that PTEN loss, rather than ras Ha activation, gives rise to a population of cells with greater malignant potential. (
  • To gain a clearer understanding of the role of c-Myc in cellular proliferation, we have performed a comprehensive analysis of the components that regulate cell cycle progression. (
  • These data indicate that the cyclin D3-Cdk4 activity is necessary for cell cycle progression through G2 phase into mitosis and that the increased binding of p16 blocks this activity and G2 phase progression after UV exposure. (
  • The E2F transcription factors play a key role in regulating the cell cycle by controlling the transcription of genes encoding key components of the cell cycle and DNA replication machinery (reviewed in refs. (
  • Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that the E2F4/5⋅p107/p130 complexes specifically associate with E2F-responsive promoters during G 0 /G 1 when these genes are repressed and are then replaced by the activating E2Fs E2F1, -2, and -3, as cells reenter the cell cycle ( 12 ). (
  • Courchesne noted that several hundred different genes coordinate the cell cycle network in the fetal brain. (
  • These patterns of activity in these 23 genes relative to brain size in the ASD toddlers was very different from that in typical toddlers," observed Pramparo. (
  • The mRNA expression of apoptotic and cell cycle genes were analyzed by real-time PCR. (
  • Uncontrolled cell proliferation is the hallmark of cancer, and cancer cells have typically acquired damage to genes that directly regulate their cell cycles. (
  • Because epigenetic alterations are believed to be involved in the repression of tumor suppressor genes and promotion of tumorigenesis in endometrial cancers and ovarian cancers, novel compounds endowed with a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitory activity are an attractive therapeutic approach. (
  • In addition to upregulation of genes related to antigen presentation and the MHC class I pathway, and cytotoxic effector molecules, cell-cycle-promoting genes were downregulated in the tumor on days 3 and 5 after CTL transfer. (
  • In addition, the effects of the extract on apoptotic induction, cell cycle phase distribution, DNA damage and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΛΨm) were evaluated in MiapaCa‑2 human PC cells. (
  • Adrenalectomized and intact rats were given constant high-dose infusions of glucagon, 0.3 mg/kg per day for 7 days, with or without low-dose dexamethasone, 0.01 mg/kg daily, to test whether glucocorticoids potentiate glucagon induction of the 5 urea cycle enzymes as they do in cultured rat hepatocytes. (
  • The lack of synergism between the two hormones in adrenalectomized rats suggest that other factors play a role in glucagon induction of this cycle. (
  • AMPAR cycling induction by reduced synaptic activity takes several hours. (
  • Using a minimal set of free parameters and across several galactose induction conditions, the model effectively captured several details of the experimentally-obtained single-cell network activity levels as well as phenotypic switching rates. (
  • Inhibition of telomerase activity in endometrial cancer cells by selenium-cisplatin conjugate despite suppression of DNA-damaging activity by sodium ascorbate. (
  • However, some studies suggest that women with PMDD have higher impulsivity scores than healthy controls and that brain activity during response inhibition may vary across the menstrual cycle. (
  • Therefore, our aim was to unravel potentially important cognitive aspects of PMDD by investigating brain activity during response inhibition in women with PMDD and healthy controls in relation to menstrual cycle phase. (
  • Fourteen PMDD patients and 13 healthy controls performed a Go/NoGo task to measure brain activity during response inhibition by use of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. (
  • During response inhibition women with PMDD have reduced activity in areas associated with attention and motor function which is unrelated to menstrual cycle phase. (
  • 3 Prolonged impairment of the visual cycle resulting in inhibited 11- cis- retinal production-for example, by long-term inhibition of RPE65 activity-can produce persistent build-up of unbound opsin to concentrations high enough to induce chronic channel closure, which is linked with photoreceptor degeneration. (
  • Another mode of regulating enzyme activity in the cycle was shown for GAPDH, which, depending on its substrate, 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate, or NADP(H) and ATP, can reversibly dissociate from the less active hexadecameric A8B8 form to the highly active A2B2 tetramer ( 6 , 7 ). (
  • To examine the relationship between ammonia production, urea production and the ornithine-urea cycle (O-UC) enzyme activity and mRNA expression, we subjected toadfish to two-day and seven-day crowding regimes. (
  • An elevation in enzyme activity with increased duration of crowding was observed for all four O-UC enzymes examined. (
  • Furthermore, little is known about how O-UC enzyme activity in toadfish relates to enzyme mRNA expression. (
  • Replacement of T160 with alanine abolishes the kinase activity of CDK2, indicating that phosphorylation at this site (as in CDC2) is required for kinase activity. (
  • Mutation of Y15 and T14 stimulates kinase activity, demonstrating that phosphorylation at these sites (as in CDC2) is inhibitory. (
  • the kinase activity was modulated during the cell division cycle, and association of pRb with E1A apparently was not required for this activity. (
  • Mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) showed increased Rho-kinase activity in adipose tissue compared to mice fed a low-fat diet. (
  • Transgenic mice overexpressing an adipocyte-specific, dominant-negative form of RhoA (DN-RhoA TG mice) showed decreased Rho-kinase activity in adipocytes, decreased HFD-induced weight gain, and improved glucose metabolism compared to wild-type littermates. (
  • Lipid accumulation in cultured adipocytes was associated with increased Rho-kinase activity and increased abundance of adipocytokine transcripts, which was reversed by a Rho-kinase inhibitor. (
  • PTEN inactivation in K14.cre/PTEN flx/flx keratinocytes resulted in epidermal hyperplasia/hyperkeratosis and novel 12- O -tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted papillomas, whereas HK1.ras/K14.cre/PTEN flx/flx cohorts displayed a rapid onset of papillomatogenesis due to a synergism of increased AKT activity and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) elevation. (
  • After transport into the cell, gemcitabine requires phosphorylation by deoxycytidine kinase to exert biological activity ( 7 , 8 ). (
  • PCTAIRE-1: Characterization, Subcellular Distribution, and Cell Cycle-dependent Kinase Activity -- Charrasse et al. (
  • 41 patients with CF (12-42 years) completed the Habitual Activity Estimation Scale (HAES), the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall questionnaire (7D-PAR) and the Lipid Research Clinics questionnaire (LRC) and performed an incremental exercise test according to the Godfrey protocol up to volitional fatigue. (
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of carbohydrate ingestion before and during intense constant load cycling to volitional fatigue on surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity from the vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM) muscles. (
  • We tested the hypothesis that cross-organ sensitization on pelvic-urethra reflex activity caused by uterine capsaicin instillation is estrous cycle dependent. (
  • Alternate mechanisms of PTEN-mediated tumorigenesis, possibly independent of AKT ( 12 , 13 ), show that PTEN directly associates with p53 increasing stability, protein levels, and transcriptional activity ( 14 ). (
  • Round table discussions focused on the main gaps and scientific challenges ahead to better observe, monitor and characterise the different components of the water cycle in view of improving our ability to cope with water management and governance in a world where water is more and more at the centre of international policy and conflicts. (
  • The Clancy Cycle Centre offers sales, services and repairs of cycling equipment and also stocks a wide range of accessories. (
  • EC ), one of the key enzymes of the reductive pentosephosphate cycle (Calvin cycle). (
  • In recent years, the activities of five enzymes of the Calvin cycle have been shown to be modulated by light driven changes. (
  • Additional control of the activities of various enzymes of the cycle is further mediated by specific metabolites, acting either as inhibitor or stimulator on the neighboring enzymes (for reviews, see refs. (
  • These results suggest that the activities of O-UC enzymes are better predictors for urea production than O-UC enzyme mRNA expression levels. (
  • However, other studies focusing on the effects of crowding on the activities of other O-UC enzymes are contradictory. (
  • Glucagon did not induce any of the urea cycle enzymes in adrenalectomized Sprague-Dawley rats and only induced argininosuccinate lyase (EC in adrenalectomized inbred Wistar-Furth rats. (
  • Researchers also found that those with bipolar disorder displayed lower activity levels while awake and had greater variations in sleep and wake cycles. (
  • They found that people with the disorder, when compare with those without it, awoke later and slept longer, were awake fewer minutes overall on average, were active for shorter periods of time, had lower activity levels when awake, and displayed greater variations in their sleep and wake cycles. (
  • In fact, in REM sleep, brain activity looks similar to when you're awake. (
  • Women with PMDD displayed decreased activity during both menstrual cycle phases compared to healthy controls in several task-related parietal areas. (
  • While previous research has focused on biomechanical differences as the main source of these problems, a new study suggests another distinction that could play a role: changes across the menstrual cycle in nerves that control muscle activity. (
  • They found that these bundles had firing rates that were significantly higher in the late luteal phase, about a week before a woman's next period, compared to earlier in the menstrual cycle. (
  • Their poster presentation entitled, "Maximal Force and Motor Unit Recruitment Patterns are Altered Across the Human Menstrual Cycle," will be discussed at The Integrative Biology of Exercise VI meeting being held October 10-13 at the Westin Westminster Hotel in Westminster, CO. (
  • Since female athletes' hormones fluctuate across the menstrual cycle, Tenan and his colleagues decided to investigate whether these changes affect motor unit activity. (
  • This method involves taking body temperature every morning upon waking over the course of the menstrual cycle. (
  • The researchers also asked each volunteer to visit their facility five different times at various points of the menstrual cycle. (
  • Results showed that motor unit firing patterns varied significantly across the menstrual cycle. (
  • Though they're not sure whether these results coincide with a difference in knee injury rates at different points in the menstrual cycle-a topic for future research. (
  • Our results suggest that muscle activation patterns are altered by the menstrual cycle ," he says. (
  • It is most readily observed in stages of sleep, for example, rapid eye movement sleep (REM) and the delta activity cycle. (
  • To overcome this critical gap, we developed assays to measure activity of antimalarials against all life stages of malaria parasites, using a diverse set of human and nonhuman parasite species, including male gamete production (exflagellation) in Plasmodium falciparum, ookinete development in P. berghei, oocyst development in P. berghei and P. falciparum, and the liver stage of P. yoelii. (
  • This study analyzed the spatial distribution, diet and feeding behavior of early stages of Hypophthalmus edentatus and Plagioscion squamosissimus, two fish species co-occurring in an isolated floodplain lake, during the light-dark cycle. (
  • Despite the development of various modeling approaches to predict gene network activity, a time dynamic stochastic model taking into account real-time changes in cell volume and cell cycle stages is still missing. (
  • Based on a previous experimental characterization [ 13 ], we divided the cell cycle into two stages, one consisting of G1 and the other consisting of S/G2/M. As illustrated in Fig. 1a , the cell volume grows linearly in both stages but at different rates. (
  • Bring your own bicycle or hire a ride and explore Victoria's most spectacular cycle routes, from the Great Ocean Road to the High Country's peaks. (
  • Explore the new Alps 2 Ocean Cycle Trail, which makes some of the South Island's most dramatic scenery accessible to cyclists. (
  • In this Science Nspired module, students will explore the topic of Cycling of Matter and Energy Through Ecosystems through simulations, formative assessments and summative assessments. (
  • We decided to explore the effects of transition into daylight saving time on the circadian rhythm of activity. (
  • Ha Noi off the beaten track Duong Lam ancient village Highlight: A full day out - door cycling adventure tour in Hanoi suburban will be fascinating way to explore and experience peaceful countryside and daily life of local people. (
  • Cytotoxic activity and cell cycle analysis of hexahydrocurcumin on SW 480 human colorectal cancer cells. (
  • Although we observed therapeutic reinforcement with both drugs and photodynamic therapy, reinforcement was more pronounced when the drug (CDDP) and photodynamic therapy exert disjointed phase-related cytotoxic activity. (
  • Joint angles(hip, knee, ankle joints) and the activity of lower limb muscles(biceps femoris(BF), vastus lateralis(VL), tibialis anterior(TA) and gastrocnemius medial(GM)) were compared by measuring 3D motion and electromyography(EMG) data. (
  • 1 2 Rhodopsin and 11- cis- retinal are regenerated via the visual cycle to produce fresh rhodopsin. (
  • A key step in the visual cycle involves retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein 65 kDa (RPE65), an isomerase that converts all- trans retinol back to 11- cis- retinal. (
  • 4 New pharmaceutical and gene therapies are being developed to address abnormal visual cycle activity and associated retinal degeneration. (
  • As these treatment options enter clinical trials, there is a need for noninvasive metrics of abnormal visual cycle activity in focal retinal regions (to identify which locations are most likely to benefit from treatment intervention before overt retinal thinning is evident), and, after different dosage schedules and concentrations of treatments for visual cycle abnormalities, can prognostically measure local rescue efficacy in emerging retinopathy. (
  • However, it remains unclear how cells accommodate the dynamics and interplay between the Ras-ERK and PI3K-Akt pathways to regulate cell-fate decisions, mainly because of the lack of good tools to visualize ERK and Akt activities simultaneously in live cells. (
  • The cytotoxicity of hexahydrocurcumin and its effect on the cell cycle in human colorectal cancer cells SW480 has been studied for the first time. (
  • Treatment of SW480 cells with hexahydrocurcumin (100 microM) resulted in a massive accumulation of the cells in the G1/G0 phase of the cell cycle. (
  • The synthesis of DNA onto the end of chromosome during the replicative phase of cell cycle by telomerase may be necessary for unlimited proliferation of cells. (
  • Specific association of human telomerase activity with immortal cells and cancer. (
  • Telomerase activity is downregulated via decreases in hTERT mRNA but not TEP1 mRNA or hTERT during the differentiation of leukemic cells. (
  • The Raf family of protein kinases display differences in their abilities to promote the entry of quiescent NIH 3T3 cells into the S phase of the cell cycle. (
  • Cell cycle analysis indicated that their exposure to HDACIs decreased the proportion of cells in the S-phase and increased the proportion in the G0/G1 phases and/or G2/M phases of the cell cycle. (
  • To investigate the impact of CTL therapy on the cell cycle of tumor cells in situ , we generated B16 cells expressing a fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell-cycle indicator (B16-fucci) and performed CTL therapy in mice bearing B16-fucci tumors. (
  • Three days after CTL transfer, we observed diffuse infiltration of CTLs into the tumor with a large number of tumor cells arrested at the G 1 phase of the cell cycle, and the presence of spotty apoptotic or necrotic areas. (
  • Moderate hyperosmotic stress on Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells produces a temporary delay at the G1 stage of the cell cycle. (
  • Thus, these agents represent novel Pim inhibitors and point to an important role for the Pim protein kinases in cell cycle control in multiple types of cancer cells. (
  • The model takes into account real-time changes in cell volume and cell cycle, and it can time-dynamically track the lineage of individual cells while each cell changes its size and gene expression content. (
  • When you close your eyes and start to drift into non-REM sleep, your brain cells settle down from their daytime activity levels and start firing in a steady, more rhythmic pattern. (
  • However, precisely when AID induces deamination and how the cell cycle enables it to efficiently access the Igh locus and simultaneously limits its genotoxicity have not been determined. (
  • Additionally, in a pot experiment, we evaluated the influence of plant presence on the toxicity of CuO-NPs on soil microbial activities. (
  • CuO-NPs caused significant reductions of the three microbial activities measured (denitrification, nitrification, and soil respiration) at 100 mg/kg dry soil, but the low concentrations (0.1 and 1 mg/kg) had limited effects. (
  • Additionally, large decreases in heterotrophic microbial activities were observed in soils planted with wheat, even at 1 mg/kg for soil substrate-induced respiration, indicating that plant presence did not mitigate or compensate CuO-NP toxicity for microorganisms. (
  • These two experiments show that CuO-NPs can have detrimental effects on microbial activities in soils with contrasting physicochemical properties and previously exposed to various agricultural practices. (
  • This volume represents the proceedings of the "Workshop on the measurement of microbial activities in the carbon cycle of freshwaters", held in Plön, Germany, in August 1977. (
  • Our work provides the first evidence that the function of A-Myb is regulated by the cell cycle machinery and that the carboxy-terminal domain of A-Myb acts as a cell cycle sensor. (
  • The influence of c-Myc on cell proliferation has been appreciated for a long time ( 17 ), but the mechanisms by which it exerts its effects on the cell cycle machinery are poorly understood ( 85 ). (
  • This is apparently highly relevant for the regulation of the cell cycle machinery and might be part of the growth-immunity cross-talk. (
  • By focusing on roots, we outline the current knowledge of hormone signalling on the cell cycle machinery to explain growth trade-offs induced by immunity. (
  • Every 11 years, the sun peaks in activity: It spits out more solar flares, and more sunspots pepper its surface. (
  • The rationale for DST is to improve the match between the daylight hours and activity peaks of a population. (
  • Dr. Ed Farrar, 58, is a handsome, adventurous man who played linebacker at Georgia Tech, summitted Himalayan peaks, paddled white-water rapids and cycled to the top of the Col du Galibier, often the highest climb in the Tour de France. (
  • In addition, we show that A-myb mRNA expression is also cell cycle regulated and attains maximal levels during the late G1- and early S-phase. (
  • A significant group by phase interactions was found in the left insula, driven by enhanced activity among healthy controls in the follicular phase and by enhanced insula activity during the luteal phase among PMDD patients. (
  • Loss of c-Myc causes a profound growth defect manifested by the lengthening of both the G 1 and G 2 phases of the cell cycle. (
  • The purpose of this project was to include the different phases of the Cell Cycle. (
  • In the control toddlers, researchers found that variation in brain size significantly correlated with cell cycle and protein folding gene networks, potentially impacting neuron number and synapse development. (
  • Pramparo said the new findings provide in vivo evidence for the involvement of cell cycle processes in ASD brain maldevelopment and significantly illuminate the complexities involved in early dysregulation and disruption of the developing ASD brain. (
  • Insular cortex activity, involved in both affective and cognitive processing, was significantly activated during the luteal phase among PMDD women. (
  • However, it is clear that c-Myc affects the cell cycle at multiple independent points, because restoration of the Cdk4 and -6 defect does not significantly increase growth rate. (
  • Average muscle activity across a whole pedal revolution was significantly increased in the SOL at 60 and 90 W and the GAS at all power levels and decreased in the GMX at 120 W in the RCP compared to the UCP. (
  • We observed that denitrification was the most sensitive microbial activity to CuO-NPs in most soil types, while soil respiration and nitrification were mainly impacted in coarse soils with low organic matter content. (
  • One of OCBC Cycle 2017's lead-up workshops and activities, the Cafe Bike Crawl, will take participants on a 25km route with three eating spots popular among cyclists. (
  • Wisconsin FACE: findings from the first cycle of surveillance activities. (
  • Methods and Findings: Little is known about the wider stage-specific activities of current antimalarials that were primarily designed to alleviate symptoms of malaria in the blood stage. (
  • Second, the resultant E2F⋅pocket protein complexes can actively repress transcription through recruitment of histone deacetylase and methylase activities. (
  • Observing and monitoring the key variables governing the global water cycle is essential to our understanding of the Earth's climate, forecasting our weather, predicting floods and droughts, and improving water management for human use. (
  • In the coming years an increasing number of EO missions will provide an unprecedented capacity to observe Earth's surface, its interior and the atmosphere, opening a new era in EO and water cycle science. (
  • These revision notes on the carbon cycle, changes in the Earth's atmosphere, how do we know the composition of prehistoric atmospheres, should prove useful for the existing GCSE science courses and the NEW AQA GCSE chemistry, Edexcel GCSE chemistry & OCR GCSE chemistry (Gateway & 21st Century) GCSE (9 1), (9-5) & (5-1) science courses. (
  • Earth's water is always in motion, and the natural water cycle, also known as the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above, and below the surface of the Earth. (
  • We study this question with the American Time Use Survey (2003-2010), exploring the impact of the business cycle (and specifically the Great Recession) on individuals' exercise, other uses of time, and physical activity during the day. (
  • The new study points to a common underlying defective functional genomic network - cell cycle - in living ASD toddlers, which plays a central role in fetal brain development. (
  • Earlier this year, ESA launched, as part of its new Support To Science Element programme, the Water Cycle Multi-Mission Observation Strategy (WACMOS) project in collaboration with GEWEX to support the development of novel techniques to study the water cycle with satellites. (
  • Our study provides a useful tool for quantifying the dynamics among ERK and Akt activities and the cell cycle in a live cell, and for addressing the mechanisms underlying intrinsic resistance to molecularly targeted drugs. (
  • In the first study of its kind, a team of international scientists led by UT Southwestern Medical Center and UCLA researchers have identified a dozen inherited traits related to sleep, wake, and activity cycles that are associated with severe bipolar disorder. (
  • The study, involving more than 500 members of 26 families from Costa Rica and Colombia, identified because they each include many individuals with severe bipolar disorder, is the first large-scale delineation of sleep and activity traits in BP-affected individuals and their relatives and the first genetic investigation of such a comprehensive set of sleep and circadian measures in any human study. (
  • Study the life cycle of a puffin! (
  • Prospective study to assess different types of physical activity associated with risk of mortality during follow-up after the subsequent examination. (
  • found that OCT activity was elevated in fish crowded for 96 h but a follow-up study by Walsh and Milligan ( Walsh and Milligan, 1995 ) did not find an increase in OCT activity in unfed, confined toadfish. (
  • The objective of this study was to validate physical activity questionnaires for cystic fibrosis (CF) against accelerometry and cycle ergometry. (
  • An international study led by University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and University of California, Los Angeles researchers indicates that more than a dozen traits related to sleep, wake, and activity cycles associated with severe bipolar disorder appear to be inherited. (
  • The research is the first large-scale delineation of sleep and activity traits in people with bipolar disorder and their relatives and the first genetic investigation of a large set of sleep and circadian measures in any human study. (
  • In this regard, the aim of this study was to quantify the abundance and activity of bacteria involved in nutrient and iron cycling in sediments from four Azorean lakes with distinct trophic states (Verde, Azul, Furnas and Fogo). (
  • Working with seven female volunteers, all between the ages of 19 and 35, the researchers asked these study participants to chart their menstrual cycles using basal body temperature. (
  • This blog looks at a new study we just published that found that New Zealanders who walk or cycle to their main activity each day have a 76% higher chance of achieving the Ministry of Health physical activity guidelines than those who drive cars. (
  • Our newly published study, in the Journal of Transport and Health , looked at whether New Zealanders who walk, cycle or take public transport to their main activity (work, university etc) each day are more likely to meet the NZ physical activity guidelines than those who take the car. (
  • This study also found that people who take public transport are no more likely to meet the physical activity guidelines than those who drive cars (OR 1.15 95%CI 0.80-1.65). (
  • In summary, our new study contributes to the growing body of evidence showing that active transport is an effective way of increasing physical activity for New Zealanders and therefore lowering many disease risks. (
  • The goal of this project is to conduct a research study that will test whether or not cycling can be comparable to running when examining the metabolic aspects of exercise. (
  • A 1979 study by Feinberg and Floyd reported that, for the majority of subjects (around 70%), sleep cycles were up to 20 minutes longer or shorter than average. (
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different saddle heights on lower-limb joint angle and muscle activity. (
  • We also utilize more precise measures of exercise (and all other physical activities), which reflect information on the duration as well as intensity of each component activity, than has been employed in past studies. (
  • Below are some possible changes to make your tour fit better in your budget we can customize this tour with shorter duration some activities and tours can be in a group and non-private. (
  • Such approximations could be acceptable if the simulations lasted for a time period much shorter than the duration of the cell cycle, but they would be questionable for longer simulation durations. (
  • Due to the concentration of low-educated workers in boom-and-bust industries, the drop in total physical activity during recessions is especially problematic for vulnerable populations and may play a role in exacerbating the SES-health gradient during recessions. (
  • Physical activity is associated with low mortality in men, but little is known about the association in women, different age groups, and everyday activity. (
  • To evaluate the relationship between levels of physical activity during work, leisure time, cycling to work, and sports participation and all-cause mortality. (
  • Compared with the sedentary, age- and sex-adjusted mortality rates in leisure time physical activity groups 2 to 4 were 0.68 (95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.71), 0.61 (95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.66), and 0.53 (95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.68), respectively, with no difference between sexes and age groups. (
  • Bicycling to work decreased risk of mortality in approximately 40% after multivariate adjustment, including leisure time physical activity. (
  • Leisure time physical activity was inversely associated with all-cause mortality in both men and women in all age groups. (
  • Benefit was found from moderate leisure time physical activity, with further benefit from sports activity and bicycling as transportation. (
  • The activity levels of the LRC were not related to objectively determined physical activity. (
  • Since the association was at most moderate, the 7D-PAR may be selected to describe physical activity within a population. (
  • None of the evaluated questionnaires was able to generate valid physical activity data exercise performance data at the individual level. (
  • Regular physical activity and the training of aerobic fitness have become part of the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) because they contribute to a slower decline in lung function, a better nutritional status as well as an improved quality of life [ 1 - 3 ]. (
  • Furthermore, physical activity and aerobic fitness are related [ 4 ] and a high aerobic fitness has been linked to survival in CF [ 5 ]. (
  • Despite the importance of physical activity for patients' health and quality of life in CF, the amount and intensities of the patients' activities are not regularly assessed in the clinical setting and physical activity has not yet been incorporated in CF registries. (
  • This is probably due to the fact that there are almost no validated tools to quickly, easily and reliably assess the level of physical activity in the CF population. (
  • In general, the assessment of physical activity is hampered by difficulties to accurately determine and recall the type and intensity of all possible activities. (
  • For the routine assessment of patients' physical activity in a clinical setting, a quick and easily accessible tool at low costs is required. (
  • Walking and cycling are frequently promoted as modes of physical activity that are accessible to the whole population and yet little is known about the population prevalence of these activities. (
  • Higher levels of physical activity are associated with reduced rates of breast and colon cancer, better mental health, lower obesity rates, lower heart disease, stroke (the list goes on). (
  • Despite the overwhelming evidence of the benefits of physical activity, less than half of New Zealanders now meet the Ministry of Health physical activity guidelines, which should really be considered a bare minimum for health (see Figure 1). (
  • In addition, an alarming 1 in 6 of us do less than 30 minutes physical activity each week. (
  • So it seems that whatever the health sector is doing to promote physical activity in New Zealanders, is not working. (
  • we have engineered opportunities for physical activity almost entirely out of our lives. (
  • Increasingly, the only way to get physical activity is by doing some sort of specific activity (e.g. going to a gym) that needs to be squeezed into already busy lives. (
  • So it is hardly surprising that physical activity is declining. (
  • It found that New Zealanders who walk or cycle to their main activity each day have a 76% higher chance (odds) of achieving the Ministry of Health physical activity guidelines than those who drive cars. (
  • This was a somewhat unexpected finding, as internationally there is evidence that people who take public transport do have higher levels of physical activity than those who drive cars. (
  • Are Cycling and Running Comparable Metabolic Physical Activities? (
  • As a result of physical activity, 12.46 deaths were avoided (benefit:risk ratio 77). (
  • Motivated by the growing challenges of global obesity and climate change, international organisations have been calling for multisectoral and multidisciplinary approaches to increase physical activity and reduce reliance on cars. (
  • 2 3 4 5 In 2005 the European Union formulated an important area of action "addressing the obesogenic environment to stimulate physical activity" (Commission of the European Communities 2005). (
  • 3 Integrating the promotion of walking and cycling into daily life (for example, as part of commuting) is a promising way to increase physical activity across a population. (
  • We design unique cycling tour itineraries for the indomitable travelers that like to combine spectacular places, cultural interaction, and physical activities while on vacation. (
  • Tuatara Tours specialises in guided walking and cycling tours that are achievable for most levels of fitness. (
  • AIM: The aim of this investigation was to examine lower extremity muscle activation levels of the recumbent cycling position (RCP) relative to the upright cycling position (UCP) at low levels of power output to determine the suitability of the RCP as an alternative rehabilitation and training modality. (
  • So this means the Carbon-Cycle effectively maintains a constant percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere as well as controlling the carbon dioxide levels. (
  • As one factor fuelling interest in this area, short cell cycles were found to correlate with a higher proliferative potential of neural precursors at the cellular and tissue level and across phylogeny ( Borrell and Calegari, in press ). (
  • The basic rest-activity cycle (BRAC) is a physiological arousal mechanism in humans proposed by Nathaniel Kleitman, hypothesized to occur during both sleep and wakefulness. (
  • In this review, we briefly discuss the long journey of NSC research from embryonic development to adult homeostasis, aging and therapy with a specific focus on their quiescence and cell cycle length in physiological conditions and neurological disorders. (
  • Here we summarize our knowledge on cell cycle parameters of adult neural precursors in physiological and pathological conditions with particular attention to a new player in biomedicine, oligodendrocyte progenitors. (
  • Previous work has suggested that the C-terminus of A-Myb functions as a regulatory domain, however, the physiological signals that control the activity of A-Myb have not yet been identified. (
  • Noting that the activities of many compounds lie within achievable blood concentrations, these results offer an invaluable guide to decisions regarding which drugs to combine in the next-generation of antimalarial drugs. (