Activins: Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyFollistatin: A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.Activin Receptors: Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those transmembrane receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily (RECEPTORS, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA), ALK's consist of two different but related protein kinases, Type I and Type II. Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity.Inhibin-beta Subunits: They are glycopeptides and subunits in INHIBINS and ACTIVINS. Inhibins and activins belong to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily.Activin Receptors, Type II: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS. They are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. The major type II activin receptors are ActR-IIA and ActR-IIB.Activin Receptors, Type I: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS or activin receptor-like kinases (ALK'S). There are several type I activin receptors. The major active ones are ALK-2 (ActR-IA) and ALK-4 (ActR-IB).Zona Reticularis: The inner zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces the enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE, a 21-carbon steroid, to 19-carbon steroids (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPREGNENOLONE.Follicle Stimulating Hormone, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.Myostatin: A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.Gonadotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells that can produce both FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.Smad2 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. It regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
(1/1189) The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping.

Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut.  (+info)

(2/1189) Identification of a nuclear localization signal in activin/inhibin betaA subunit; intranuclear betaA in rat spermatogenic cells.

Activin is a dimeric glycoprotein hormone that was initially characterized by its ability to stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and was subsequently recognized as a growth factor with diverse biological functions in a large variety of tissues. In the testis, activin has been implicated in the auto/paracrine regulation of spermatogenesis through its cognate cell membrane receptors on Sertoli and germ cells. In this study we provide evidence for intranuclear activin/inhibin betaA subunit and show its distribution in the rat seminiferous epithelium. We have shown by transient expression in HeLa cells of beta-galactosidase fusion proteins that the betaA subunit precursor contains a functional nuclear localization signal within the lysine-rich sequence corresponding to amino acids 231-244. In all stages of the rat seminiferous epithelial cycle, an intense immunohistochemical staining of nuclear betaA was demonstrated in intermediate or type B spermatogonia or primary spermatocytes in their initial stages of the first meiotic prophase, as well as in pachytene spermatocytes and elongating spermatids primarily in stages IX-XII. In some pachytene spermatocytes, the pattern of betaA immunoreactivity was consistent with the characteristic distribution of pachytene chromosomes. In the nuclei of round spermatids, betaA immunoreactivity was less intense, and in late spermatids it was localized in the residual cytoplasm, suggesting disposal of betaA before spermatozoal maturation. Immunoblot analysis of a protein extract from isolated testicular nuclei revealed a nuclear betaA species with a molecular mass of approximately 24 kDa, which is more than 1.5 times that of the mature activin betaA subunit present in activin dimers. These results suggest that activin/inhibin betaA may elicit its biological functions through two parallel signal transduction pathways, one involving the dimeric molecule and cell surface receptors and the other an alternately processed betaA sequence acting directly within the nucleus. According to our immunohistochemical data, betaA may play a significant role in the regulation of nuclear functions during meiosis and spermiogenesis.  (+info)

(3/1189) Dominant-negative Smad2 mutants inhibit activin/Vg1 signaling and disrupt axis formation in Xenopus.

Smads are central mediators of signal transduction for the TGFbeta superfamily. However, the precise functions of Smad-mediated signaling pathways in early development are unclear. Here we demonstrate a requirement for Smad2 signaling in dorsoanterior axis formation during Xenopus development. Using two point mutations of Smad2 previously identified in colorectal carcinomas, we show that Smad2 ushers Smad4 to the nucleus to form a transcriptional activation complex with the nuclear DNA-binding protein FAST-1 and that the mutant proteins interact normally with FAST-1 but fail to recruit Smad4 into the nucleus. This mechanism of inhibition specifically restricts the dominant-negative activity of these mutants to the activin/Vg1 signaling pathway without inhibiting BMPs. Furthermore, expression of these mutants in Xenopus animal caps inhibits but does not abolish activin and Vg1 induction of mesoderm and in the embryo results in a truncated dorsoanterior axis. These studies define a mechanism through which mutations in Smad2 may block TGFbeta-dependent signaling and suggest a critical role for inductive signaling mediated by the Smad2 pathway in Xenopus organizer function.  (+info)

(4/1189) Activin and TGFbeta limit murine primordial germ cell proliferation.

Mammalian primordial germ cells (PGCs) proliferate as they migrate from their initial location in the extraembryonic mesoderm to the genital ridge, the gonadal anlage. Once in the genital ridge, PGCs cease dividing and differentiate according to their gender. To identify ligands that might limit PGC proliferation, we analyzed growth factor receptors encoded in RNA obtained from purified germ cells shortly after their arrival in the genital ridge. Receptors for two members of the TGFbeta superfamily were found, TGFbeta1 and activin. As the signal-transducing domains of both receptor systems are highly conserved, the effects of both TGFbeta1 and activin on PGCs would be expected to be similar. We found that both ligands limited the accumulation of germ cells in primary PGC cultures. BrdU incorporation assays demonstrated that either ligand inhibits PGC proliferation. These results suggest that these signal transduction pathways are important elements of the mechanism that determines germ cell endowment.  (+info)

(5/1189) Expression of inhibin/activin subunits and their receptors and binding proteins in human preimplantation embryos.

PURPOSE: Our purpose was to study the role of inhibin/activin during embryogenesis. METHODS: Transcripts of inhibin/activin subunits (alpha, beta A, beta B), activin receptors (types I and II), and follistatin were detected by a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in human reproductive cells and preembryos cultured alone or co-cultured with human endometrial cells. RESULTS: Transcripts of alpha, beta A, beta B subunits were all detected in granulosa luteal cells, but only beta A units were detected in endometrial stromal and decidualized cells. In human preimplantation embryos, none of these subunits were detected in embryos from the four-cell to the morula stage and only beta A subunits were detectable in blastocyst embryos. Activin receptors were detectable in all of the studied embryos and cells. Transcripts of beta A, activin receptors, and follistatin were differentially expressed in human preimplantation embryos cultured in vitro and their expressions were significantly enhanced with the presence of endometrial stromal cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that there is a possible endometrium-embryo interaction via endometrial activins and preimplantation embryo receptors and that the embryonic expressions of these activins, their receptors, and binding proteins are dependent on embryonic stage.  (+info)

(6/1189) Identification of two amino acids in activin A that are important for biological activity and binding to the activin type II receptors.

Activins are members of the transforming growth factor-beta family of growth and differentiation factors. In this paper, we report the results of a structure-function analysis of activin A. The primary targets for directed mutagenesis were charged, individual amino acids located in accessible domains of the protein, concentrating on those that differ from transforming growth factor-beta2, the x-ray crystal structure of which is known. Based on the activities of the recombinant activin mutants in two bioassays, 4 out of 39 mutant proteins (D27K, K102A, K102E, and K102R) produced in a vaccinia virus system were selected for further investigation. After production in insect cells and purification of these four mutants to homogeneity, they were studied in bioassays and in cross-linking experiments involving transfected receptor combinations. Mutant D27K has a 2-fold higher specific bio-activity and binding affinity to an ActRIIA/ALK-4 activin receptor complex than wild type activin, whereas mutant K102E had no detectable biological activity and did not bind to any of the activin receptors. Mutant K102R and wild type activin bound to all the activin receptor combinations tested and were equipotent in bioassays. Our results with the Lys-102 mutants indicate that the positive charge of amino acid 102 is important for biological activity and type II receptor binding of activins.  (+info)

(7/1189) Characterization of the Ets-type protein ER81 in Xenopus embryos.

A function for FGF-type peptide growth factors has been implied for early mesodermal patterning events in Xenopus laevis. FGF signalling operates via the MAP kinase cascade that can directly activate the transcription of organizer-expressed genes, such as Xbra and Xegr-1. We have recently provided evidence for a critical role of Ets-type transcription factors in FGF mediated Xegr-1 transcription activation. Here, we report on the identification of the Xenopus Ets-type protein ER81 that is expressed in a pattern overlapping with the ones of Xegr-1 and Xbra during gastrulation. Microinjection in XER81 encoding mRNA into ventral blastomeres of Xenopus embryos results in the induction of ectopic, tail-like protrusions, whereas dorsal overexpression results in disturbed eye development. In the animal cap assay, ectopic expression of XER81 is found to interfere with activin mediated induction of Xegr-1 and gsc, but not with the Xbra response to activin.  (+info)

(8/1189) Establishment of substratum polarity in the blastocoel roof of the Xenopus embryo.

The fibronectin fibril matrix on the blastocoel roof of the Xenopus gastrula contains guidance cues that determine the direction of mesoderm cell migration. The underlying guidance-related polarity of the blastocoel roof is established in the late blastula under the influence of an instructive signal from the vegetal half of the embryo, in particular from the mesoderm. Formation of an oriented substratum depends on functional activin and FGF signaling pathways in the blastocoel roof. Besides being involved in tissue polarization, activin and FGF also affect fibronectin matrix assembly. Activin treatment of the blastocoel roof inhibits fibril formation, whereas FGF modulates the structure of the fibril network. The presence of intact fibronectin fibrils is permissive for directional mesoderm migration on the blastocoel roof extracellular matrix.  (+info)

*  TGFBR3
2000). "Betaglycan binds inhibin and can mediate functional antagonism of activin signalling". Nature. 404 (6776): 411-4. doi: ...
*  Follistatin
In the blood, activin and follistatin are both known to be involved in the inflammatory response following tissue injury or ... The activin-binding protein follistatin is produced by folliculostellate (FS) cells of the anterior pituitary. FS cells make ... 2007). "Activin subunit and receptor expression in normal and cleft human fetal palate tissues". Pediatr. Dev. Pathol. 10 (6): ... Follistatin also known as activin-binding protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FST gene. Follistatin is an ...
*  INHBB
1997). "Inhibin interferes with activin signaling at the level of the activin receptor complex in Chinese hamster ovary cells ... 2001). "Localization of activin beta(A)-, beta(B)-, and beta(C)-subunits in humanprostate and evidence for formation of new ... Furthermore, the beta B subunit forms a homodimer, activin B, and also joins with the beta A subunit to form a heterodimer, ... 2002). "Production of activins by the human endosalpinx". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 87 (11): 5283-9. doi:10.1210/jc.2001- ...
*  Activin receptor
An Activin receptor is a receptor which binds activin. Types include: Activin type 1 receptors Activin type 2 receptors These ... Activin receptors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ...
*  Activin and inhibin
... called activin βA, activin βB, activin βC and activin βE. Activin βA and βB are identical to the two beta subunits of inhibin. ... Two activin βA subunits give rise to activin A, one βA, and one βB subunit gives rise to activin AB, and so on. Various, but ... In the male, activin enhances spermatogenesis. Activin is strongly expressed in wounded skin, and overexpression of activin in ... Activin type 1 receptors: ACVR1, ACVR1B, ACVR1C Activin type 2 receptors: ACVR2A, ACVR2B Activin binds to the Type II receptor ...
*  Activin type 2 receptors
... inhibin/activin betaA and betaB and the activin type II and inhibin beta-glycan receptors in the developing human testis". ... There are two activin type two receptors: ACVR2A and ACVR2B. Despite the large amount of processes that these ligands regulate ... These include: activin (or inhibin), bone morphogenetic proteins and nodal. They are involved in a host of physiological ... The activin type 2 receptors modulate signals for ligands belonging to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily of ...
*  Activin type 1 receptors
The Activin type I receptors transduce signals for a variety of members of the Transforming growth factor beta superfamily of ... There are three type I Activin receptors: ACVR1, ACVR1B, and ACVR1C. Each bind to a specific type II receptor-ligand complex. ... This family of cytokines and hormones include activin, Anti-müllerian hormone (AMH), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), and ...
*  Wylie Vale
Stenvers, K. L.; Findlay, J. K. (2012). "Inhibins and activins: Towards the future. A tribute to the late Professor Wylie W. ...
*  Counterregulatory hormone
Inhibins and activins also regulate bone mass. Beall, C.; Ashford, M. L.; McCrimmon, R. J. (2011). "The physiology and ... verification needed] Hurwitz JM, Santoro N (August 2004). "Inhibins, activins, and follistatin in the aging female and male". ... Reproductive Counterregulation In the reproductive system, inhibins and follistatin counterregulate activins, to control ... Activin and Inhibin". Mol Cell Endocrinol. 310 (1-2): 11-20. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2009.07.001. PMC 2951729 . PMID 19615428. Watts ...
*  TGF beta signaling pathway
There are three activins: Activin A, Activin B and Activin AB. Activins are involved in embryogenesis and osteogenesis. They ... It can then either form a receptor complex with activin A receptor, type IB (ACVR1B) or with activin A receptor, type IC ( ... TGF beta's, Activins, Nodals and some GDFs are mediated by SMAD2 and SMAD3, while BMPs, AMH and a few GDFs are mediated by ... BMP and activin membrane bound inhibitor (BAMBI), has a similar extracellular domain as type I receptors. It lacks an ...
*  ACVRL1
"Entrez Gene: ACVRL1 activin A receptor type II-like 1". Olivieri C, Mira E, Delù G, Pagella F, Zambelli A, Malvezzi L, ... Oh SP, Seki T, Goss KA, Imamura T, Yi Y, Donahoe PK, Li L, Miyazono K, ten Dijke P, Kim S, Li E (March 2000). "Activin receptor ... It is also known as activin receptor-like kinase 1, or ALK1. This gene encodes a type I cell-surface receptor for the TGF-beta ... Attisano L, Cárcamo J, Ventura F, Weis FM, Massagué J, Wrana JL (November 1993). "Identification of human activin and TGF beta ...
*  INHBA
"Entrez Gene: INHBA inhibin, beta A (activin A, activin AB alpha polypeptide)". Lewis, K A; Gray P C; Blount A L; MacConell L A ... "Inhibin interferes with activin signaling at the level of the activin receptor complex in Chinese hamster ovary cells". ... 2005). "Activin, inhibin and the human breast". Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 225 (1-2): 77-82. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2004.02.016. PMID ... 1992). "Effect of activin A on globin gene expression in purified human erythroid progenitors". Blood. 79 (3): 773-81. PMID ...
*  INHA
1992). "Effect of activin A on globin gene expression in purified human erythroid progenitors". Blood. 79 (3): 773-81. PMID ... Shav-Tal Y, Zipori D (2003). "The role of activin a in regulation of hemopoiesis". Stem Cells. 20 (6): 493-500. doi:10.1634/ ... Shimonaka M, Inouye S, Shimasaki S, Ling N (1991). "Follistatin binds to both activin and inhibin through the common subunit". ... Xu J, McKeehan K, Matsuzaki K, McKeehan WL (1995). "Inhibin antagonizes inhibition of liver cell growth by activin by a ...
*  NODAL
On the contrary, inhibition of Nodal and Activin signaling enabled the differentiation of hESCs. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... August 2001). "The orphan receptor ALK7 and the Activin receptor ALK4 mediate signaling by Nodal proteins during vertebrate ... Vallier L, Alexander M, Pedersen RA (2006). "Activin/Nodal and FGF pathways cooperate to maintain pluripotency of human ... Chng Z, Vallier L, Pedersen R (2011). "Activin/ nodal signaling and pluripotency". Vitamins and hormones. 85: 38-58. doi: ...
*  FGF and mesoderm formation
A truncated activin receptor inhibits mesoderm induction and formation of axial structures in Xenopus embryos. Nature 359:609 - ... Members of the TGF-β superfamily, Activin and Nodal, are essential for mesodermal induction, while FGF and Wnt are in charge of ... Activin-mediated mesoderm induction requires FGF. Development 120:453-462. 8. Kimelman D, Griffin KJ. Vertebrate mesendoderm ... In Xenopus, VegT activates transcription of Nodal-related genes (Xnr) genes, Activin and other mesodermal transcripts, which ...
*  ACVR2B
Activin receptor type-2B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACVR2B gene. ACVR2B is an activin type 2 receptor. ... This gene encodes activin A type IIB receptor, which displays a 3- to 4-fold higher affinity for the ligand than activin A type ... Schneider-Kolsky ME, Manuelpillai U, Waldron K, Dole A, Wallace EM (2002). "The distribution of activin and activin receptors ... "Inhibin interferes with activin signaling at the level of the activin receptor complex in Chinese hamster ovary cells". ...
*  SYNJ2BP
"Regulation of endocytosis of activin type II receptors by a novel PDZ protein through Ral/Ral-binding protein 1-dependent ... "Novel factors in regulation of activin signaling". Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. 225 (1-2): 1-8. doi:10.1016/j.mce. ... "Novel factors in regulation of activin signaling". Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. 225 (1-2): 1-8. doi:10.1016/j.mce. ...
*  ACVR2A
... is an activin type 2 receptor. This gene encodes activin A type II receptor. Activins are dimeric growth and ... "Inhibin interferes with activin signaling at the level of the activin receptor complex in Chinese hamster ovary cells". ... "Variations in activin receptor, inhibin/activin subunit and follistatin mRNAs in human prostate tumour tissues". Br. J. Cancer ... "Truncated activin type II receptors inhibit bioactivity by the formation of heteromeric complexes with activin type I. ...
*  Sertoli cell
inhibin and activins - secreted after puberty, and work together to regulate FSH secretion androgen binding protein (also ... "Activin signaling regulates Sertoli cell differentiation and function". Endocrinology. 153 (12): 6065-77. doi:10.1210/en.2012- ...
*  IGFBP7
Kato MV (2000). "A secreted tumor-suppressor, mac25, with activin-binding activity". Mol. Med. 6 (2): 126-35. PMC 1949932 . ...
*  Testicular immunology
The cytokines interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-6 and Activin A are found in the testis, often at high levels. In other tissues, these ... Lee W, Mason AJ, Schwall R, Szonyi E, Mather JP (1989). "Secretion of activin by interstitial cells in the testis". Science. ... Boitani C, Stefanini M, Fragale A, Morena AR (1995). "Activin stimulates Sertoli cell proliferation in a defined period of rat ... Mather JP, Attie KM, Woodruff TK, Rice GC, Phillips DM (1990). "Activin stimulates spermatogonial proliferation in germ-Sertoli ...
*  ACVR1
Activin A receptor, type I (ACVR1) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ACVR1 gene; also known as ALK-2 (activin ... This gene encodes activin A type I receptor which signals a particular transcriptional response in concert with activin type II ... Activins signal through a heteromeric complex of receptor serine kinases which include at least two type I ( I and IB) and two ... "Entrez Gene: ACVR1 (activin A receptor, type I)". Inman GJ, Nicolás FJ, Callahan JF, Harling JD, Gaster LM, Reith AD, Laping NJ ...
*  Uterine serpin
Ovine uterine serpin also binds to activin, IgM and IgA. Another possible role for uterine serpins is in the inhibition of ... October 1999). "Uterine milk protein, a novel activin-binding protein, is present in ovine allantoic fluid". Endocrinology. 140 ...
*  FOXH1
Chen X, Weisberg E, Fridmacher V, Watanabe M, Naco G, Whitman M (1997). "Smad4 and FAST-1 in the assembly of activin-responsive ... FOXH1 encodes a human homolog of Xenopus forkhead activin signal transducer-1. FOXH1 protein binds SMAD2 and activates an ... a TGF beta and activin signal transducer". Mol Cell. 2 (1): 121-7. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80120-3. PMID 9702198. "Entrez ... "Smad4 and FAST-1 in the assembly of activin-responsive factor". Nature. 389 (6646): 85-9. doi:10.1038/38008. PMID 9288972. ...
*  INHBC
2003). "Inhibin, activin, follistatin, activin receptors and beta-glycan gene expression in the placental tissue of patients ... 2003). "Activin betaC-subunit heterodimers provide a new mechanism of regulating activin levels in the prostate". Endocrinology ... 2001). "Localization of activin beta(A)-, beta(B)-, and beta(C)-subunits in humanprostate and evidence for formation of new ... Inhibins and activins, also members of the TGF-beta superfamily, are hormones with opposing actions and are involved in ...
The intraovarian function of gonadally produced inhibin and activin has been extensively studied in experimental models for decades, yet their presence and function have been rarely reported in wild rodents. With our seasonal breeding model, the wild ground squirrel, we aimed to investigate the possible roles of these peptides in the seasonal folliculogenesis. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting have been used to detect the cellular localization and expression patterns of inhibin/activin subunits (a, beta(A) and beta(B)). In the breeding season ovary, all three subunits were present in granulosa cells, theca cells of antral follicles and interstitial cells, with the strongest immunostaining in granulosa cells. Following ovulation, the corpora lutea become a major site of inhibin/activin synthesis. In the nonbreeding season ovary, inhibin/activin a and beta(A) subunits were weakly immunopositive in granulosa cells of early stage follicles, while beta(B) subunit was undetectable. The ...
China 2mg/Vial Freeze-Dried Polypeptide Powder Follistatin 344 Activin-Binding Protein, Find details about China Follistatin 344, Fst from 2mg/Vial Freeze-Dried Polypeptide Powder Follistatin 344 Activin-Binding Protein - Shanghai Shucan Industrial Co., Ltd.
The very sensitive quantitative competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to investigate the expression of inhibin/activin subunits in the granulosa cells of developing ovarian follicles of the hen. Two competitors specific to inhibin alpha and beta(A) subunits were constructed. In one study, the expression of inhibin alpha and beta(A) genes was determined in the granulosa cells of the five largest yellow follicles (F1, F2, F3, F4/5), the small yellow follicles (SYF), and the large white follicles (LWF) of a layer strain of chickens. Competitive RT-PCR for inhibin a subunit revealed 10.35 +/- 2.15 pg/mu g total RNA in the LWF. The expression increased 40-fold in the SYF and remained at that level in the F4/5 but decreased markedly thereafter up to the F1 stage. Inhibin/activin beta(A) subunit was also detected in the LWF in low amounts and showed no significant increase until the F2 stage. The highest level was found in the F1. The pattern of the mRNA for ...
Although activins A and B have similar activities in vitro, their roles in vivo appear to be at least partially distinct. Loss of activin A was neonatally lethal (13), whereas loss of activin B was tolerated, although several developmental defects were reported (29). Further support for in vivo distinctions in activity was obtained when the sequence for the mature portion of the activin B peptide was inserted into the locus for activin βA, so that activin B was expressed everywhere that either activin A or B is normally expressed (Inhbabk/bk or BK mice) (4). Although this rescued the neonatal lethality of complete loss of activin A (13), BK mice were deficient in both growth and metabolism (4, 10). These studies indicate that while there is substantial overlap in function, activins A and B may have additional distinct roles in vivo involved in growth and metabolism. Activin B-specific roles could be achieved via signaling through the ALK7 type I receptor, which is not used by activin A but is ...
SAFWAT, NEDAL WAFIK. Activin Induction of Follicle Stimulating Hormone is Mediated by Transforming Growth Factor Beta Activated Kinase-1 (TAK-1) in Pituitary Gonadotropes (Under the direction of William L. Miller.) Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is an essential hormone for female folliculogenesis and plays an important role in male spermatogenesis. The hormone is secreted by pituitary gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary lobe, and its overall production is regulated by expression of the FSH? subunit. The regulation of FSH? subunit is achieved by combined actions of neurocrine, endocrine, and pituitary paracrine/autocrine factors. Activin shown to be produced locally within the pituitary is a potent stimulator of the FSH? subunit. This study used 4.7 kb of the ovine FSH? promoter linked to luciferase (oFSH?Luc) plus a well characterized activins responsive construct, p3TPLuc, to investigate the hypothesis that Smad3, TAK1 (TGF? activated kinase1), or both cause activin-mediated induction of ...
Question:Endometroid adenocarcinoma with squamous differentiation are rare carcinomas of the endometrium. The aim of the examination was to determine possible pathogenetic factors and molecules, which are relevant for therapy of these tumors. We tested eight endometroid adenocarcinoma with squamous differentiation for HPV, steroid receptors and inhibin/activin-subunits. Methods:Eight endometroid adenocarcinoma with squamous differentiation were immunohistochemically tested with specific monoclonal antibodies for HPV (polyclonal anti-HPV and monoclonal anti-HPV 18), estrogen receptor ER-α and ER-β, progesterone receptor PR-A and PR-B and the inihibin/activin subunits Inhibin-α, -βA, -βB, -βC and -βE.. Results: HPV 18 and the polyclonal HPV antibody was detected in all endometroid adenocarcinoma with squamous differentiation, both in the endometroid (n=7/8) and squamous (n=8/8) parts of the tumor. Both estrogen receptors ER-α and ER-β were not detectable in any tumor in contrast to ...
Activin A is a homodimer of 14kDa beta-A. Activin A, a cytokine member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, is expressed locally by the mesenchymal component of the hemopoietic microenvironment. Its expression is regulated on the mRNA level by different cytokines, and the biological activity of the protein is tightly controlled by several inhibitory molecules.1 Inhibins and activins are members of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily and are known to modulate the growth and differentiation of several cell types.2 Inhibins and activins inhibit and activate, respectively, the secretion of follitropin by the pituitary gland. Inhibins/activins are involved in regulating a number of diverse functions such as hypothalamic and pituitary hormone secretion, gonadal hormone secretion, germ cell development and maturation, erythroid differentiation, insulin secretion, nerve cell survival, embryonic axial development or bone growth, depending on their subunit composition. Inhibins ...
References for Abcams Recombinant Human Activin Receptor Type IIA protein (ab114449). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Authors. Svitlana Pasteuning-Vuhman, Johanna Boertje-van der Meulen, Maaike van Putten, Maurice Overzier, Peter ten Dijke, Szymon M. Kiełbasa, Wibowo Arindrarto, Ron Wolterbeek, Ksenia V. Lezhnina, Ivan V. Ozerov, Aleksandr M. Aliper, Willem M. Hoogaars, Annemieke Aartsma-Rus & Cindy J. M. Loomans. Journal. The FASEB Journal, volume 3, Publication date. October 2016. Abstract. Skeletal muscle fibrosis and impaired muscle regeneration are major contributors to muscle wasting in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Muscle growth is negatively regulated by myostatin (MSTN) and activins. Blockageofthese pathwaysmayimprove musclequality andfunction inDMD.Antisenseoligonucleotides(AONs) were designed specifically to block the function of ALK4, a key receptor for the MSTN/activin pathway in skeletal muscle. AON-induced exon skipping resulted in specific Alk4 down-regulation, inhibition of MSTN activity, and increased myoblast differentiation in vitro . Unexpectedly, a marked decrease in muscle mass ...
Purified Recombinant Human Activin A protein from Creative Biomart. Recombinant Human Activin A protein can be used for research.
During the later stages of follicular growth (Figure 2), activins and estradiol, the predominant estrogen in humans, enhance the actions of FSH (65, 66) (Figure 2). In mice, activins activate the transcription factors SMAD2/3 and SMAD4, which coordinately regulate several FSH-induced genes including those encoding the cell cycle regulator CCND2 and the steroidogenic enzyme aromatase (67), which converts theca cell-derived androgens to estradiol. Estradiol, acting primarily via estrogen receptor beta (ERS2), has recently been shown to suppress expression of phosphodiesterase 1C (Pde1c), thereby increasing intracellular levels of cAMP induced by FSH (66). Because activins facilitate proliferation of granulosa cells and enhance FSH actions, in part by increasing estradiol, these interactions may help explain why, when activin actions are unopposed by inhibins (as occurs in mice lacking inhibin α subunit, which is encoded by Inha), activins promote GCT growth. The WNT signaling target β-catenin ...
Sidis Y., Mukherjee A., Keutmann H., Delbaere A., Sadatsuki M., Schneyer A.. Follistatin (FST) and FST-like-3 (FSTL3) are activin-binding and neutralization proteins that also bind myostatin. Three FST isoforms have been described that differ in tissue distribution and cell-surface binding activity, suggesting that the FST isoforms and FSTL3 may have some nonoverlapping biological actions. We produced recombinant FST isoforms and FSTL3 and compared their biochemical and biological properties. Activin-binding affinities and kinetics were comparable between the isoforms and FSTL3, whereas cell-surface binding differed markedly (FST288 > FST303 > FST315 > FSTL3). Inhibition of endogenous activin bioactivity, whether the FST isoforms were administered endogenously or exogenously, correlated closely with surface binding activity, whereas neutralization of exogenous activin when FST and FSTL3 were also exogenous was consistent with their equivalent activin-binding affinities. This difference in ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Neuromi \ Recombinant Human Activin B, 25 ug. \ PR15012CF-25 for more molecular products just contact us
Read full paper at:http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=54066#.VOBb7CzQrzE. Activin plays an important role in numerous physiological processes such as cell differentiation and remodeling, regeneration and repair of tissues from various organs, angiogenesis, morphogenesis of glandular organs, pluripotency and differentiation of stem cells, cell adhesion and apoptosis. It participates in reproductive processes like embryogenesis, in the expression of Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Luteinizing Hormone and maturation of ovarian follicles and therefore has application in the area of reproduction of vertebrates. Given the economic importance of activin, we develop an efficient and economical method for the production of recombinant human activin A (rACT), using as expression system the yeast Pichia pastoris. rACT showed biological activity as it induced, on submicromolar dose, the increase of ovarian mass and the ovulation process in a mammal model.. ...
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1 Antibody. Validated: WB, IHC, IHC-Fr. Tested Reactivity: Mouse, Rat, Human, and more. 100% Guaranteed.
In recent years, a significant amount of research has examined the controversial role of activin A in cancer. Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily, is best characterized for its function during embryogenesis in mesoderm cell fate differentiation and reproduction. During embryogenesis, TGFβ superfamily ligands, TGFβ, bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and activins, act as potent morphogens. Similar to TGFβs and BMPs, activin A is a protein that is highly systemically expressed during early embryogenesis; however, post-natal expression is overall reduced and remains under strict spatiotemporal regulation. Of importance, normal post-natal expression of activin A has been implicated in the migration and invasive properties of various immune cell types, as well as endometrial cells. Aberrant activin A signaling during development results in significant morphological defects and premature mortality. Interestingly, activin A has been found to have both oncogenic and
To date, the signaling of activin-induced inhibition of cell growth is not well understood. This paper provides a novel link between the p38 MAPK pathway and activin-mediated cell growth arrest. In addition, the authors suggest an involvement of p15INK4B and p21CIP1/WAF1 in cell growth arrest. Unfortunately, protein expression could not be detected, possibly due to low levels of expression. Furthermore, it would be interesting to know which doses of activin lead to an inhibition of cell growth, whether these concentrations are physiological and whether the activation of the MAPK pathway is restricted to cells that are co-stimulated with epidermal growth factor, as reported in the present study, or whether unstimulated cells respond in the same way. The following points should be addressed in future studies: do other cell lines show the same activation pattern as the breast cancer cell line T47D, and is this signaling pathway a general pathway to induce cell growth arrest or is it ...
China Follistatin 344 Follistatin344 Follistatin 1mg / Vial Lyophilized Powder, Find details about China Follistatin 344, Follistatin 344 Powder from Follistatin 344 Follistatin344 Follistatin 1mg / Vial Lyophilized Powder - Guangzhou Kafen Biotech Co., Ltd.
Follistatin also known as activin-binding protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FST gene. Follistatin is an autocrine glycoprotein that is expressed in nearly all tissues of higher animals. Its primary function is the binding and bioneutralization of members of the TGF-β superfamily, with a particular focus on activin, a paracrine hormone. An earlier name for the same protein was FSH-suppressing protein (FSP). At the time of its initial isolation from follicular fluid, it was found to inhibit the anterior pituitarys secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Follistatin is part of the inhibin-activin-follistatin axis. Currently there are three reported isoforms, FS-288, FS-300, and FS-315. Two, FS-288 and FS-315, are known to be created by alternative splicing of the primary mRNA transcript. FS-300 (porcine follistatin) is thought to be the product of posttranslational modification via truncation of the C-terminal domain from the primary amino-acid chain. Although FS is ...
Patients with symptoms of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) create a diagnostic dilemma as no definitive tests have established its pathophysiological basis. While progress in defining and measuring the degree of the fatigue are available, biochemical tests have been unhelpful determining their cause. In some patients, the onset of their symptoms may be linked to an earlier inflammatory illness, but supportive biochemical data are unavailable. Activin A and B, TGFβ family members, have been identified as proinflammatory cytokines and are regulated by Follistatin (Fst), a high affinity binding protein and all can be measured by specific assays. In mice, serum activin A, B and Fst increase following a lipopolysaccharide injection and are elevated in many patients in intensive care 1,2,3 . In contrast, in the CFS cohort diagnosed by accepted clinical measures (n=47), serum activin A was not increased (97.5 ±10.1pg/ml) but serum activin B was increased (117 ±13.4 pg/ml, p,0.05) and lower Fst levels ...
Activins are dimeric growth and differentiation factors which belong to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of structurally…
Activin Receptor Type IIA兔多克隆抗体(ab124072)可与小鼠样本反应并经WB实验严格验证。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Inhibins and activins are essential for normal reproductive and endocrine function. Previous literature showed that loss of INHA encoding for inhibin-α subunit in mice results in development of gonadal (sex-cord stromal) and adrenal tumourigenesis. However, a strong paradox has emerged regarding the function of INHA in human tumours primarily due to conflicting studies. A correlation has been found between the overexpression of activin-A by the tumours in the inhibin-deficient mice and severe cancer-associated cachexia, which has a profound impact on survival. Therefore, activin antagonism has been used to modulate the sex-cord stromal tumour growth rate both in vivo and in vitro. Recent work has shown that activin-C is an additional activin-A antagonist, despite being considered biologically redundant for several years. A preliminary study conducted in the inhibin-deficient mouse model, showed that overexpression of activin-βC has a beneficial effect, modulating sex-cord stromal tumours ...
Activin-A and activin-B, members of the TGF-β superfamily, are regulators of reproductive functions, inflammation and wound healing. These dimeric molecules regulate various cellular activities such as proliferation, migration and suvival. Malignant mesothelioma is an asbestos exposure related tumor affecting mainly pleura and it usually has a dismal prognosis. Here, we demonstrate that both activin-A and -B are abundantly expressed in mesothelioma tumor tissue as well as in cultured primary and established mesothelioma cells. Migratory and invasive mesothelioma cells were also found to have attenuated activation of the Smad2/3 pathway in response to activins. Migration and invasive growth of the cells in three-dimentional matrix was prevented by inhibition of activin activity using a soluble activin receptor 2B (sActR2B-Fc). This was associated with decreased ERK activity. Furthermore, migration and invasive growth was significantly inhibited by blocking ERK phosphorylation. Mesothelioma ...
Activin regulation of blastomere attachment to anti- C-cadherin mAbs. (A) Attachment of uninduced, activin-induced, or activin-induced and mAb AA5-treated bla
Buy ACVR1 elisa kit, Human activin A receptor, type I ELISA Kit-NP_001096.1 (MBS9323715) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits
KIMURA, Edna T.; MATSUO, Sílvia E. and RICARTE-FILHO, Júlio Cézar. TGFb, activin and SMAD signalling in thyroid cancer. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab [online]. 2007, vol.51, n.5, pp.683-689. ISSN 1677-9487. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-27302007000500005.. TGFb and activin are members of the TGFb superfamily and play a wide role in development, proliferation and apoptosis. These growth factors exert their biological effects by binding to the type I and II membrane receptors to transduce their signalling through the nucleus by phosphorylation of R-SMADs (SMAD 2/3) and co-SMADs (Smad 4). The proper control of TGFb/activin pathway is negatively regulated by inhibitory SMAD (SMAD7) and by E3 ubiquitination enzymes (Smurfs). Physiologically, TGFb and activin act as potent growth inhibitors in thyroid follicular cell. Thus, alterations in the receptors and components of SMAD signalling pathway are associated with several types of tumors. Since TGFb and activin generate their intracellular signalling ...
Previous structures of activin in complex with type II receptor domains showed the growth factor in two very different interprotomer conformations when compared to each other and to the canonical TGF‐β family members (Thompson et al, 2003; Greenwald et al, 2004). The structures presented here further emphasise the flexibility of activin A (Figure 7C). While the uncomplexed activin A is very similar to the activin A in the type II receptor complex structure by Greenwald et al (2004), in the Fs12 complex, the growth factor exhibits a more closed structure. Here, the fingers rotate away from the other protomer, pulling with them the interfacial α‐helix. β‐strands 1 and 2, which show the largest displacement compared to free activin, move by more than 20 Å at the tip of the fingers.. With four independent crystal structures of activin now available, it is likely that the observed conformational divergence from the canonical TGF‐β structures is a reflection of true structural plasticity ...
University at Buffalo researchers have identified a neural pathway that could hold a key to preventing relapse in individuals recovering from cocaine addiction. Their study focused on the activity of Activin receptors in the brain that are located in regions involved in pleasure and reward.. Published online June 1 in Nature Neuroscience, the study authored by Amy Gancarz, PhD, found that the Activin pathway controls the ability of cocaine to alter the connections between various neurons. By manipulating the activity of Activin receptors, researchers were able to change cocaine-taking behavior in animal models.. "Understanding this critical pathway will help us pursue new directions in potential pharmacological and gene therapies to prevent drug relapses," senior author David Dietz, PhD, assistant professor at the university medical schools Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, said in a June 18 news release.. ...
Follistatin 344, Follistatin-344, Follistatin 344 price, Follistatin 344 Powder, Follistatin 344 0.1mg, Peptides Injection, Follistatin, CAS No. 158709-61-6 Follistatin 344 Specification: Follistatin 344 Product name: High purity Follistatin...
Looking for online definition of activin in the Medical Dictionary? activin explanation free. What is activin? Meaning of activin medical term. What does activin mean?
Many of the genes in which we found high FSM rates have known potential links to carcinogenesis. For example, ACTRII is a member of the TGF-β receptor family that is involved in the induction of differentiation, growth suppression, and apoptosis. Mutant ACTRII inhibits activin-mediated induction of differentiation (12) . DKFZ564K112 is a human homologue of the Drosophila tumor suppressor gene multi-sex-comb (mxc), a member of the homeobox gene transcription repressor family Polycomb group. Mxc is ubiquitously expressed, and its loss of function provokes uncontrolled malignant cell growth (13) . ICE/caspase-1, a human homologue of Caenorhabditis elegans CED3, is a mediator of Fas-mediated apoptosis. Down-regulation of ICE/caspase-1 is observed in various human cancers (14) , and overexpression of ICE/caspase-1 inhibits the growth of renal cell carcinoma cell lines in vivo (15) . KIAA0896 (hHYD) is a human homologue of the Drosophila tumor suppressor gene hyperplastic discs. hHYD is expressed at ...
It has long been proposed that excitotoxicity contributes to nerve cell death in neurodegenerative diseases. Activin A, AQ3 a member of the transforming growth factor-b superfamily, is expressed by neurons following excitotoxicity. We show for the first time that this activin A expression is essential for neurogenesis to proceed following neurodegeneration. We found that intraventricular infusion of activin A increased the number of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1 layers of the normal adult hippocampus and also, following lipopolysaccharide administration, had a potent inhibitory effect on gliosis in vivo and on microglial proliferation in vivo and in vitro. Consistent with the role of activin A in regulating central AQ4 nervous system inflammation and neurogenesis, intraventricular infusion of follistatin, an activin A antagonist, profoundly impaired neurogenesis and increased the number of microglia and reactive astrocytes following onset of kainic acid-induced eurodegeneration.
Gastroenterology Research and Practice is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that provides a forum for researchers and clinicians working in the areas of gastroenterology, hepatology, pancreas and biliary, and related cancers. The journal welcomes submissions on the physiology, pathophysiology, etiology, diagnosis, and therapy of gastrointestinal diseases.
The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family members, which include TGF-betas, activins and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), are structurally related secreted cytokines found in species ranging from worms and insects to mammals. A wide spectrum of cellular functions such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and migration are regulated by TGF-beta family members. TGF-beta family member binds to the Type II receptor and recruits Type I, whereby Type II receptor phosphorylates and activates Type I. The Type I receptor, in turn, phosphorylates receptor-activated Smads ( R-Smads: Smad1, Smad2, Smad3, Smad5, and Smad8). Once phosphorylated, R-Smads associate with the co-mediator Smad, Smad4, and the heteromeric complex then translocates into the nucleus. In the nucleus, Smad complexes activate specific genes through cooperative interactions with other DNA-binding and coactivator (or co-repressor) proteins ...
The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family members, which include TGF-betas, activins and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), are structurally related secreted cytokines found in species ranging from worms and insects to mammals. A wide spectrum of cellular functions such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and migration are regulated by TGF-beta family members. TGF-beta family member binds to the Type II receptor and recruits Type I, whereby Type II receptor phosphorylates and activates Type I. The Type I receptor, in turn, phosphorylates receptor-activated Smads ( R-Smads: Smad1, Smad2, Smad3, Smad5, and Smad8). Once phosphorylated, R-Smads associate with the co-mediator Smad, Smad4, and the heteromeric complex then translocates into the nucleus. In the nucleus, Smad complexes activate specific genes through cooperative interactions with other DNA-binding and coactivator (or co-repressor) proteins ...
An important developmental question concerns whether neurotransmitter phenotype is an inherent property of neurons or is influenced by target tissues. This issue can be addressed in the avian ciliary ganglion (CG) which contains two cholinergic populations, ciliary and choroid neurons, that differentially express the peptide cotransmitter, somatostatin. The present study tests the hypothesis that differences in the level of expression of activin A and its endogenous inhibitor follistatin in CG neuron target tissues are responsible for selective expression of somatostatin in choroid neurons. Intraocular injection of activin A or follistatin (300 ng injected at E10/E11) in cultured embryos resulted in a 39% increase or a 23% decrease, respectively, in somatostatin-positive neurons relative to controls. Chorioallantoic membrane application of follistatin (1 microgram daily from E7 to E13) reduced somatostatin positive neurons by 54%. Neuron number, size, and target tissue morphology were unaffected ...
Grasso P، Rozhavskaya-Arena M، Reichert LE (1999). "Cysteine residues in a synthetic peptide corresponding to human follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit receptor-binding domain 81-95 [hFSH-beta-(81-95)] modulate the in vivo effects of hFSH-beta-(81-95) on the mouse estrous cycle". Regul. Pept. 81 (1-3): 67-71. PMID 10395410. doi:10.1016/S0167-0115(99)00022-1. ...
Fig. 4. Hypertrophy response as measured via (A) body weight, (B) muscle weight change from sham group, after 4-wk treatment with ActRIIA-specific Ab, ActRIIB-specific Ab, combination thereof, and bimagrumab in SCID mice (n = 12 per group). Mice were untreated, sham group (white), or treated with weekly s.c. injection of isotype control antibody (20 mg/kg/wk) or of anti-ActRIIA Ab (CSJ089, blue, 6 or 20 mg/kg), an anti-ActRIIB Ab (CQI876, orange, 6 or 20 mg/kg), a combination of CSJ089 and CQI876 (black, 6 or 20 mg/kg of each Ab), or bimagrumab (green, 6 or 20 mg/kg). (C) Invasive muscle contractile function determination in gastrocnemius muscle of sham (white) and bimagrumab (green, 6 and 20 mg/kg)-treated groups, average of three stimulations. Hypertrophy response was measured through gastrocnemius and quadriceps muscle weight changes in SCID mice, (D) after 2-wk treatment with the same antibodies as in A, all dosed at 20 mg/kg, with CQI876 being also dosed at 100 mg/kg (orange crosses), (E) ...
Here, we show a remarkable pro‐tumorigenic effect of activin in the early phase of skin tumorigenesis, which is mediated via activin‐induced attraction of monocytes and their differentiation into a TAM‐like phenotype. The early upregulation of activin during epithelial skin tumorigenesis in mice and humans may be a consequence of inflammation, since activin A expression is induced in cultured keratinocytes by pro‐inflammatory cytokines (Hubner & Werner, 1996) and since AK lesions and also papillomas in HPV8‐transgenic mice are characterized by an inflammatory infiltrate (Massone & Cerroni, 2015; Rolfs et al, 2015; M. Antsiferova and S. Werner, unpublished data). Thus, activin seems to be particularly relevant at the stage when benign tumors appear and further progress. By contrast, there is little inflammation in the pre‐tumorigenic, but already mildly hyperplastic skin of HPV8‐transgenic mice (Rolfs et al, 2015), including a lack of macrophage accumulation, which correlates with ...
The TGF-β superfamily is a large family of growth and differentiation factors that regulate a wide variety of cellular processes in many different cell types and biological contexts. Different family members regulate cell proliferation (both positively and negatively), migration, extracellular matrix elaboration, adhesion, survival and differentiation, in both developing embryos and adult organisms, ranging from worms to humans (Whitman, 1998; Massagué and Chen, 2000; Massagué et al., 2000). Aberrant signaling by TGF-β, the prototype of the family, has been implicated in a number of human diseases, including cancer, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, atherosclerosis, and fibrotic disease of the kidney, liver, and lung (Blobe et al., 2000). In addition, low levels of TGF-β signaling have been implicated in compromised wound healing, and inappropriately high levels of TGF-β signaling are associated with excessive scarring (Roberts and Sporn, 1993).. The mechanism of signaling by TGF-β ...
An activin antagonist (344 aa) that inhibits the secretion of follicle stimulating hormone. Not a member of the inhibin family. Has three follistatin domains, which are presumed to be growth factor binding motifs. Follistatin-like 1 (follistatin-related protein, 308 aa) appears to act on macrophages to increase TNF and IL-1β production and IL-6 activity. Follistatin-like-3 (263 aa) is an extracellular matrix-associated glycoprotein thought to bind morphogens or growth/differentiation factors and regulate their activity during development. ...
Establishment of mesodermal tissues in the amphibian body involves a series of inductive interactions probably elicited by a variety of peptide growth factors. Results reported here suggest that mesodermal patterning involves an array of signalling molecules including DVR-4, a TGF-beta-like molecule. We show that ectopic expression of DVR-4 causes embryos to develop with an overall posterior and/or ventral character, and that DVR-4 induces ventral types of mesoderm in animal cap explants. Moreover, DVR-4 overrides the dorsalizing effects of activin. DVR-4 is therefore the first molecule reported both to induce posteroventral mesoderm and to counteract dorsalizing signals such as activin. Possible interactions between these molecules resulting in establishment of the embryonic body plan are discussed.. ...
Binds directly to activin and functions as an activin antagonist which plays a role in neural induction. The short isoform is a more potent inhibitor of activin than the long isoform. Specific inhibitor of the biosynthesis and secretion of pituitary follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). [-] ...
Sotatercept, the first in a novel class of anemia therapies, is a soluble fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of activin receptor type IIA (ActRIIA) linked to the Fc protein of human IgG1. Sotatercept binds with high affinity to activin A and other proteins in the TGF-β superfamily and inhibits signaling through the ActRIIA receptor.. Sotatercept increases hemoglobin levels and RBCs by a novel mechanism: it is not an erythropoietin (EPO)-based product or EPO-mimetic, does not bind the EPO receptor, but rather targets a pathway that is fundamentally distinct from EPO. In preclinical studies, administration of sotatercept or a mouse version of the molecule to mice and cynomolgus monkeys was associated with increases in erythropoiesis and total red cell mass. The precise actions of sotatercept underlying the promotion of erythropoiesis are under investigation.. Sotatercept also affects bone formation. One of the functions of activin A is to inhibit bone growth. Activin A ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A positive role of Patched-Smoothened signaling in promoting cell proliferation during normal head development in Drosophila. AU - Shyamala, Baragur V.. AU - Bhat, Krishna M.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - The transmembrane receptor Patched regulates several developmental processes in both invertebrates and vertebrates. In vertebrates, Patched also acts as a tumor suppressor. The Patched pathway normally operates by negatively regulating Smoothened, a G-protein-coupled receptor; binding of Hedgehog ligand to Patched relieves this negative interaction and allows signaling by Smoothened. We show that Ptc regulates Drosophila head development by promoting cell proliferation in the eye-antennal disc. During head morphogenesis, Patched positively interacts with Smoothened, which leads to the activation of Activin type I receptor Baboon and stimulation of cell proliferation in the eye-antennal disc. Thus, loss of Ptc or Smoothened activity affects cell proliferation in the eye-antennal ...
Cytokines of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily, including TGF-betas, activins and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), bind to specific serine/threonine kinase receptors and transmit intracellular signals through Smad proteins. Upon ligand stimulation, Smads move into the nucleus and function as components of transcription complexes. TGF-beta and BMP signaling is regulated positively and negatively through various mechanisms. Positive regulation amplifies signals to a level sufficient for biological activity. Negative regulation occurs at the extracellular, membrane, cytoplasmic and nuclear levels. TGF-beta and BMP signaling is often regulated through negative feedback mechanisms, which limit the magnitude of signals and terminate signaling. Negative regulation is also important for formation of gradients of morphogens, which is crucial in developmental processes. In addition, other signaling pathways regulate TGF-beta and BMP signaling through cross-talk. Nearly 20 BMP ...
ACE-031, a soluble form of the human activin receptor type IIB, was administered once every 2 to 4 weeks by subcutaneous (SC) injection to boys with DMD. Dose levels and regimens for this multiple-dose study were based on data from the initial clinical studies in healthy subjects in which doses of 0.02 to 3 mg/kg SC were evaluated. A total of 24 subjects were enrolled into the study; 18 received ACE-031 and 6 placebo. All subjects were treated for a period of 12 weeks.The pharmacodynamic effects of ACE-031 treatment were assessed by a battery of motor function test that included the 6-Minute Walk Test, the 10-Minute Walk/Run Test, the 4-Stair Climb Test and the Gower Maneuver (GW). Muscle strength was assessed by hand-held myometry and fixed system testing. Body composition (i.e., spine BMD, lean mass, and fat mass) was assessed by whole body and lumbar spine DXA scans. Pulmonary function was assessed by forced vital capacity (FVC), maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory ...
Anti-follistatin (Fst) antibody was purchased from GeneTex (San Antonio TX U. To induce myogenic differentiation YK11 or DHT in DMEM supplemented with 2% horse serum (differentiation medium) was added to the cells on day 0. Mk-2866 Sarms S22 Cream for the neutralization assay of Fst (also known as activin-binding protein) C2C12 cells were maintained in differentiation medium in the presence of anti-Fst antibody. HCI pH 6. Whole-cell lysates were resolved by SDS-polyachylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and immunoblotting was performed using anti-myosin heavy chain (MyHC eBioscience San Diego CA U.. A role of the amino-terminal (N) and carboxyl-terminal (C) interaction in binding of androgen receptor to chromatin. Schaufele F Carbonell X Guerbadot M Borngraeber S Chapman MS Ma AA Miner JN Diamond MI. The structural basis of androgen receptor activation: intramolecular and intermolecular amino-carboxy interactions. He B Lee LW Minges JT Wilson EM. Dependence of selective gene activation on the ...
The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) family plays an important role in embryonic development and control of the cell cycle. Members of the TGF-β family have pleiotropic functions and are involved in both the inhibition and progression of various cancers. In particular, deregulation of the TGF-β family has been associated with prostate cancer, as both a mechanism of disease progression and a possible therapeutic target. This review concentrates on the TGF-βs, activins and inhibins, bone morphogenetic proteins and NODAL and their connection to prostate cancer. Whilst most studies examine the family members in isolation, there are multiple interactions that may occur between members which can alter their function. Such interactions include ligand competition for receptor binding and shared intracellular pathways such as the Mothers against decapentaplegic (SMAD) proteins. Another mechanism for interaction within the TGF-β family is facilitated by their dimeric structure; heterodimers can form
Inhibin and Activin are important local modulators of theca cell steroidogenesis in the ovary. needed account activation of the Smad2/3 path. Activin reduced the phrase amounts of steroidogenic severe regulatory proteins (Superstar), whereas Superstar phrase was elevated by SB-431542 and inhibin, by itself and in mixture. was untouched. The phrase of coding 17-hydroxylase was untouched by activin but elevated by SB-431542 and inhibin, and when added in mixture the impact was enhanced further. The phrase of 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (and by phrase of aromatase in the cumulus granulosa cells encircling the oocyte in the preovulatory hair foillicle, hence reducing exposure to these damaging effects of excess testo-sterone and androgens possibly. In rats, androgens not really just can induce follicular atresia (Hillier & Ross 1979, Daniel & Armstrong 1986, Billig for 5?minutes and resuspended in lifestyle mass media (DMEM-F12 with 100?kIU/d penicillin, 01?g/d streptomycin, 3?mmol/d l-glutamine, ...
AMH (Anti-Müllerian hormone) is polypeptide belonging to the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily which also includes TGF-β, inhibins and activins. All members of this family play a role in the growth and differentiation of tissues. AMH is produced in the Sertoli cells of the testis in the male, and in the granulosa cells of the ovary in the female. AMH, determination is useful in evaluation of male fertility, Diagnosis of cryptorchidism and anorchia in boys, Differential diagnosis of intersex conditions in children, determination of ovarian status in women, and diagnosis and follow-up of granulosa cell tumors and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We offer two different formats of this assay, see tables below:.. ...
Transforming growth factor beta family ligands are neutralized by a number of structurally divergent antagonists. Follistatin-type antagonists, which include splice variants of follistatin (FS288 and FS315) and follistatin-like 3 (FSTL3), have high affinity for activin A but differ in their affinity for other ligands, particularly bone morphogenetic proteins. To understand the structural basis for ligand specificity within FS-type antagonists, we determined the x-ray structure of activin A in complex with FSTL3 to a resolution of 2.5 A. Similar to the previously resolved FS.activin A structures, the ligand is encircled by two antagonist molecules blocking all ligand receptor-binding sites. Recently, the significance of the FS N-terminal domain interaction at the ligand type I receptor site has been questioned; however, our data show that for FSTL3, the N-terminal domain forms a more intimate contact with activin A, implying that this interaction is stronger than that for FS. Furthermore, binding ...
The concentrations of proteins, fats, minerals and vitamins are so low in honey that the intake of nutrients is neglectable, except empty calories in the form of carbohydrates.. Theoretically, honey contains small amounts of substances with action favorable effect on health, especially inhibins and enzymes or ferments. Inhibins have an inhibit action of braking on microorganisms. Unfortunately, this inhibins are very unstable. They disappear from the heated honey or honey cakes. Also, they are destroyed by enzymes in the digestive tube that their action, at best, can only take place in the mouth, pharynx and esophagus.. Ecological, honey is an compelling advantage because the sugar production occupies large surfaces, that could be used for the cultivation of cereals and vegetables. Also, refining the sugar consumes much energy and contribute to environmental pollution. However, due to refining the sugar does not contain harmful substances.. Bees, however, are dependent on the environment, which, ...
15. Tenhola S, Rahiala E, Marikainen A, et al. Blood pressure, serum lipids, fasting insulin, and adrenal hormones in 12-year old children born with maternal preeclampsia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 88:1217-22.. 16. Redman CWG, Roberts JM. Management of pre-eclampsia. Lancet 1993;341:1451-4.. 17. Muttukrishna S, North RA, Morris J, et al. Serum Inhibin A and activin A elevated prior to the onset of pre-eclampsia. Human Reprod 2000;15:1640-5.. 18. Muttukrishna S, Child TJ, Groome NP, et al. Source of circulating levels of inhibin A, pro alpha C-containing inhibins and activin A in early pregnancy. Hum Reprod 1997;12:1089-93.. 19. Muttukrishna S, George L, Fowler PA, et al. Measurement of serum concentrations of inhibin-A (alpha-beta A dimmer) during human pregnancy. Clin Endocrinol 1995;42:391-7.. 20. Muttukrishna S, Fowler PA, George L, et al. Changes in peripheral serum levels of total activin A during the human menstrual cycle and pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996;81:3328-33.. 21. ...
The Gene Ontology (GO) project is a collaborative effort to address the need for consistent descriptions of gene products across databases. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated gene data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Circulation Research.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address. ...
UNSPECIFIED. (1987) THE DEVELOPMENT OF ANIMAL CAP CELLS IN XENOPUS - A MEASURE OF THE START OF ANIMAL CAP COMPETENCE TO FORM MESODERM. DEVELOPMENT, 101 (3). pp. 557-563. ISSN 0950-1991 ...
TY - PAT. T1 - A bacterium salmonella harboring siRNA against Inhibin alpha and antitumoral composition thereof. AU - Kim, Chul Yong. AU - Chae, Yang Seok. PY - 2015/8/7. Y1 - 2015/8/7. N2 - 인히빈 알파 siRNA를 발현하는 살모넬라 균주 및 이를 함유하는 항암제 조성물. AB - 인히빈 알파 siRNA를 발현하는 살모넬라 균주 및 이를 함유하는 항암제 조성물. M3 - Patent. M1 - 10-1544602. ER - ...
Looking for online definition of ActRIIB or what ActRIIB stands for? ActRIIB is listed in the Worlds largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms
Principal Investigator:OGAWA Kenji, Project Period (FY):1998 - 1999, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Basic veterinary science/Basic zootechnical science
Complete information for INHA gene (Protein Coding), Inhibin Alpha Subunit, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
There is evidence that BMPs and activin mediate the up-regulation of CGRP and substance P in response to injury or inflammation (Cruise et al., 2004; Xu et al., 2005), and it was previously demonstrated that, in vitro, BMPs and activin increase the percentage of DRG neurons immunoreactive for CGRP (Ai et al., 1999). Our data extend these findings by demonstrating that BMP2 up-regulated substance P as well as CGRP expression in sensory neurons cultured from DRG. We also observed that statins blocked induction of CGRP and substance P when added simultaneously with BMPs or activin, and that they significantly decreased neuropeptide expression when added to DRG cultures pretreated with BMPs. These effects were not blocked by TTX/MgCl2 and occurred at statin concentrations that had no effect on survival or growth of cultured DRG neurons, suggesting that statins act directly on DRG neurons to selectively alter neuropeptide synthesis independent of any altered electrical activity or decreased cell ...
This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
Build: Sat Nov 17 23:53:08 EST 2018 (commit: a759bb7). National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-4874 • 301-435-0888. ...
Title: Project Report - Lean Sigma Author: Heon-Jae Jeong, MD, MPH, MBA Last modified by: Karen Fleming-Michael Created Date: 11/13/2007 7:33:12 PM - A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 7edf2e-MTVlY
Through this agreement, Enbridge acquires a 50% stake in Eolien Maritime France (EMF), the company controlling the three future offshore wind farms. EDF Energies Nouvelles and Enbridge will be co-owners (50/50) of EMF.
Creative Bioarray produces the worlds most comprehensive list of research-use cells, including tumor cells, primary cells, stem cells AND transformed cells. Creative Bioarray offers ActoFactor™ Recombinant Human Inhibin, alpha for your research.
In adult sheep, inhibin expression in developing follicles appears to be associated with antrum formation. Our objective was to investigate using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry whether antral follicles present before birth in the sheep expressed mRNA or peptide for inhibin α- and βA-subunits. At days 70 and 100 when only primordial and primary follicles were present, there was no detectable mRNA or peptide for either inhibin subunit. By days 130 and 140 (term = 145 days), many secondary follicles were present, a proportion of which (∼50%) expressed detectable levels of α-subunit mRNA but not peptide. A number of antral follicles were present by this stage, all of which expressed α-subunit mRNA and peptide. Expression of βA-subunit mRNA and peptide was undetectable at all stages of gestation. Our results indicate that even in non-ovulatory follicles present before birth, expression of inhibin, at least the α-subunit, is developmentally linked with antrum formation ...
Mechanisms regulating gonadotropin surges and gonadotropin requirements for follicle emergence and selection were studied in heifers. Experiment 1 evaluated whether follicular inhibins regulate the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH)/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) surges elicited by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) injection (Hour = 0) and the subsequent periovulatory FSH surge. Treatments included control (n = 6), steroid-depleted bovine follicular fluid (bFF) at Hour -4 (n = 6), and bFF at Hour 6 (n = 6). Gonadotropins in blood were assessed hourly from Hours -6 to 36, and follicle growth tracked by ultrasound. Consistent with inhibin independence, bFF at Hour -4 did not impact the GnRH-induced preovulatory FSH surge, whereas treatment at Hour 6 delayed onset of the periovulatory FSH surge and impeded growth of a new follicular wave. Experiment 2 examined GnRH and estradiol (E2) regulation of the periovulatory FSH surge. Treatment groups were control (n = 8), GnRH-receptor ...
Unconjugated estriol (uE3-estriol) and dimeric inhibin A (DIA) are two of the tests that are part of the quadruple prenatal screening panel (quad screen), which is performed on maternal serum during the second trimester of pregnancy. Which of the following tests are also included on the quad screen ...
Daily administration of 1,3-DNB resulted in decreased testis weight only on day 5 and only at the high dose (6 mg/kg/day). There was a time-dependent increase in incidence and severity of testicular findings characterized by degeneration of the germinal epithelium with loss of pachytene spermatocytes and vacuolization of the Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules at the high dose. Inhibin B levels in 1,3-DNB-treated animals were decreased with treatment only on day 5 at the high dose; there were no associated changes in follicle stimulating hormone. ...
The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor plays a critical role in the formation and maintenance of synapses during brain development. In the rodent, changes in subunit expression and assembly of the heteromeric receptor complex accompany these maturational processes. However, little is known about N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit expression during human brain development. We used in situ hybridization to examine the distribution and relative abundance of NR1, NR2A and NR2B subunit messenger ribonucleic acids in the hippocampal formation and adjacent cortex of 34 human subjects at five stages of life (neonate, infant, adolescent, young adult and adult). At all ages, the three messenger ribonucleic acids were expressed in all subfields, predominantly by pyramidal neurons, granule cells and polymorphic hilar cells. However, their abundance varied across ontogeny. Levels of NR1 messenger ribonucleic acid in CA4, CA3 and CA2 subfields were significantly lower in the neonate than all other age groups. In the
The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor plays a critical role in the formation and maintenance of synapses during brain development. In the rodent, changes in subunit expression and assembly of the heteromeric receptor complex accompany these maturational processes. However, little is known about N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit expression during human brain development. We used in situ hybridization to examine the distribution and relative abundance of NR1, NR2A and NR2B subunit messenger ribonucleic acids in the hippocampal formation and adjacent cortex of 34 human subjects at five stages of life (neonate, infant, adolescent, young adult and adult). At all ages, the three messenger ribonucleic acids were expressed in all subfields, predominantly by pyramidal neurons, granule cells and polymorphic hilar cells. However, their abundance varied across ontogeny. Levels of NR1 messenger ribonucleic acid in CA4, CA3 and CA2 subfields were significantly lower in the neonate than all other age groups. In the
Thrilled to be 6 weeks pregnant. Nevertheless, its always recommended for you to choose a fluffy pillow to provde the most consolation during your sleep period. You also may low antral follicle count and pregnancy symptoms and truly mistake a counf for something like normal pregnancy. This calculates the anticipated due date from the first day of the last regular menstrual period (LMP or Low antral follicle count and pregnancy no matter components known to qntral this inaccurate, reminiscent of a shorter 7 weeks pregnant and showing second pregnancy longer menstrual cycle ahtral. While there is no single sex place that is finest for babymaking (or for selecting your babys sex), stick to one the place youll be in your again when antal is over. It is obtainable in the form of a juice, an pregnancg used in colonic irrigation, or capsules. So watch for a couple of weeks after which take a low antral follicle count and pregnancy oow look at once more or make another go to to your physician. A ...
INHIBIN A, TUMOR MARKER. Males: ,2.0 pg/mL. Females. ,11 years: ,4.7 pg/mL. 11-17 years: ,97.5 pg/mL. Premenopausal: ,97.5 pg/mL. Postmenopausal: ,2.1 pg/mL. INHIBIN B. Males 0-23 months: ,430 pg/mL. 2-4 years: ,269 pg/mL. 5-7 years: ,184 pg/mL. 8-10 years: ,214 pg/mL. 11-13 years: ,276 pg/mL. 14-17 years: ,273 pg/mL. Adults: ,399 pg/mL. Females. 0-23 months: ,111 pg/mL. 2-4 years: ,44 pg/mL. 5-7 years: ,27 pg/mL. 8-10 years: ,67 pg/mL. 11-13 years: ,120 pg/mL. 14-17 years: ,136 pg/mL. Premenopausal. Follicular: ,139 pg/mL. Luteal: ,92 pg/mL. Postmenopausal: ,10 pg/mL. ...
INHIBIN A, TUMOR MARKER. Males: ,2.0 pg/mL. Females. ,11 years: ,4.7 pg/mL. 11-17 years: ,97.5 pg/mL. Premenopausal: ,97.5 pg/mL. Postmenopausal: ,2.1 pg/mL. INHIBIN B. Males 0-23 months: ,430 pg/mL. 2-4 years: ,269 pg/mL. 5-7 years: ,184 pg/mL. 8-10 years: ,214 pg/mL. 11-13 years: ,276 pg/mL. 14-17 years: ,273 pg/mL. Adults: ,399 pg/mL. Females. 0-23 months: ,111 pg/mL. 2-4 years: ,44 pg/mL. 5-7 years: ,27 pg/mL. 8-10 years: ,67 pg/mL. 11-13 years: ,120 pg/mL. 14-17 years: ,136 pg/mL. Premenopausal. Follicular: ,139 pg/mL. Luteal: ,92 pg/mL. Postmenopausal: ,10 pg/mL. ...
Hi there, I have been having my inhibins drawn pretty regularly after my recent mastectomy for DCIS. They have continually risen since that time. Inhibin A is 2.6 and Inhibin B is 77. I just saw my onc...
Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / inhibin B; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone; EC 1.14.99.10 / Steroid 21-Hydroxylase; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; U0476M545B / Fludrocortisone; WI4X0X7BPJ / ...
Tai, C.J.; Kang, S.K.; Tzeng, C.R.; Leung, P.C., 2001: Adenosine triphosphate activates mitogen-activated protein kinase in human granulosa-luteal cells
Inhibin beta B antibody [C3], C-term (inhibin, beta B) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-Inhibin beta B pAb (GTX108408) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
But I dont think any of this is actually a major part of why Im not convinced the leadin is unusable, and heres why: while we can debate on what we think the most "important" part of this selection process is (and I think its the drop in FSH from inhibin & estradiol while you think its the rise in FSH after the drop), it doesnt actually matter, since the sentence doesnt have to contain the most important part of the process to be unique, knowable, and buzzable. The sentence maps into three discrete clues: 1) "high levels of inhibin" 2) "Graafian type" 3) "dominant". A player buzzing at any point in this sentence will probably be buzzing on knowledge that theres a selection of a dominant follicle prior to ovulation, follicles being prepared for ovulation are called Graafian at some point, or that inhibin rises during the menstrual, all of which I think are fine discrete buzz points for someone buzzing on the first line of this EFT tossup on the menstrual cycle. The reason I think inhibin ...
Atlantic Reproductive has tested ovarian reserves for women throughout the Triangle. The test determines if a woman has an average number of eggs.
View Notes - From the Ovaries from PT 101 at Texas State. - Relaxin PP Pelvis and cervix Prepares the birth canal and cervix dilation - Inhibin P Anterior pituitary Inhibits release of FSH
Binh My Eco-tourism Area (Binh My Commune, Cu Chi District) located near the Saigon River is a favourite destination for many people in Ho Chi Minh City and nearby areas for its abundance of unique rural tourism services such as fishing and canal cruising.
FSH Level measurement test measures the ovarian reserve of a female.High FSH level suggests poor ovarian reserve & High FSG Level is diagnostic of ovarian failure,FSH Level.
I prefer to end my week either on a high note or hell, why not just high.. However, since Im now a responsible adult with a child, Ill be selecting the high note.. There are several tests out there to help physicians determine a womans Ovarian Reserve (cache of eggs). We have the AFC: Antral Follicle Count - Presumably, the number of antral follicles visible on ultrasound is indicative of the relative number of microscopic (and sound asleep) primordial follicles remaining in the ovary. Each primordial follicle contains an immature egg that can potentially develop in the future. In other words, when there are only a few antral follicles visible, there are less eggs remaining as compared to when there are more antral follicles visible. As women age, they have less eggs (primordial follicles) remaining, therefore they have less antral follicles visible on ultrasound. (1). We have the CD3 FSH:. Day 3 Follicle Stimulating Hormone - By measuring a baseline FSH on day 3 of the cycle (we do it on ...
Day 3 FSH blood test checks ovarian reserve - egg supply. There are better ovarian reserve tests, but day 3 FSH, LH and estradiol levels are commonly used.
Anti-Mullerian Hormone Marks Ovarian Reserve in Amh Levels By Age Chart Amh: Anti-Mullerian Hormone | Seattle, Bellevue, Kirkland, Wa within Amh Levels By
BACKGROUND To determine whether women with extremely low-serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels (|0.1-0.4 ng/ml) still demonstrate live birth potential with assisted reproduction and whether such potential is age dependent. METHODS Between January
Clinical efficacy of anti-Mullerian hormone inspection in supporting diagnosis for climacteric disorders. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
ACVR2B antibody to detect human activin receptor type-2B. Validated on up to 12 cell lysates for western blotting. Try a trial size today.
Article about Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test. Includes illustrations and topical information provided by ADAM and Drugs.com.
Vietnam Binh Duong 500ml Iced Tea Lemon Flavour manufactures and 500ml Iced Tea Lemon Flavour factories,NAM VIET FOODS AND BEVERAGE COMPANY LTD is one quality china supplier for you to purchase 500ml Iced Tea Lemon Flavour.
Thanh Binh NGUYEN, Cédric GENNEQUIN, Renaud COUSIN, Haingomalala Lucette TIDAHY, Thị Thu Ha VU, Thanh Son LE, Minh Son NGUYEN, Thi Minh Thu NGUYEN, Xuan Nui PHAM, Synthesis and investigation of activity of nano-spinels MeCo2O4 (Me: Mn, Ni, Cu) for total oxidation of toluene, Today, 2013, 31, 8-11 ...
Visit Docality for information on Dr. Binh Dinh Md. Find Phone & Address information, ratings, reviews, medical practice history and more.
Purified recombinant protein of Human activin A receptor, type IC (ACVR1C), transcript variant 1, full length, with N-terminal GST and C-terminal His tag, expressed in E. coli, 50ug ...
Follicle-restricted compartmentalization of transforming growth factor beta superfamily ligands in the feline ovary.. Biol Reprod. 2004 Mar;70(3):846-59. Authors: Bristol SK, Woodruff TK ...
Expression of biologically active heterodimeric bovine follicle-stimulating hormone in milk of transgenic mice.: Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH; follitropin)
The BOT (build-operate-transfer) mode could be the solution for schools with tight budgets to build swimming pools to teach children how to swim. 
Discover free and exclusive voucher codes for EDF Energy in 2017 at MyVoucherCodes. Choose your favourite voucher and save money today!
The Testosterone Recovery Stack AM Members, This stack maximizes LH & FSH secretion and enhances testicular sensitivity for the maximum
Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1 Antibody (NBP1-33500): Novus Biologicals  Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1 Antibody (NBP1-33500): Novus Biologicals
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1 Antibody. Validated: WB, IHC, IHC-Fr. Tested Reactivity: Mouse ... Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1 » Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1 Antibodies » Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin ... Additional Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1 Products. Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1 NBP1-33500 * Activin ... Blogs on Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1. There are no specific blogs for Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1, ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/products/activin-ria-alk-2-activin-receptor-type-1-antibody_nbp1-33500
Activin induction of follicle stimulating hormone is mediated by transforming growth factor beta activated kinase-1 (TAK-1) in...  Activin induction of follicle stimulating hormone is mediated by transforming growth factor beta activated kinase-1 (TAK-1) in...
Luc by activin (10-24 h after activin treatment) was not blocked by either DN-Smad inhibitor, suggesting that activation of ... T2 cells where 10-fold induction by activin (2-8 h after activin treatment) was blocked > 90% by two dominant negative (DN) ... The data show that gonadotropes are able to produce activin and/or activin-like molecule(s), however paracrine factors from ... and shows that primary gonadotropes rely on paracrine factors to produce activin. Activin Induction of Follicle Stimulating ...
more infohttp://www.openthesis.org/documents/Activin-induction-follicle-stimulating-hormone-3436.html
Activin Receptor Type IIA抗体|Abcam中国|Anti-Activin Receptor Type IIA抗体  Activin Receptor Type IIA抗体|Abcam中国|Anti-Activin Receptor Type IIA抗体
Activin Receptor Type IIA兔多克隆抗体(ab124072)可与小鼠样本反应并经WB实验严格验证 ... Anti-Activin Receptor Type IIA抗体. 参阅全部 Activin Receptor Type IIA 一抗. ... Anti-Activin Receptor Type IIA antibody (ab124072) at 1/100 dilution + Mouse kidney tissue lysate at 35 µg. Predicted band size ... Synthetic peptide conjugated to KLH, corresponding to a region within N terminal amino acids
more infohttp://www.abcam.cn/activin-receptor-type-iia-antibody-ab124072.html
Activin A and follistatin influence expression of somatostatin in the ciliary ganglion in vivo.  Activin A and follistatin influence expression of somatostatin in the ciliary ganglion in vivo.
... Academic Article * Authors ... Intraocular injection of activin A or follistatin (300 ng injected at E10/E11) in cultured embryos resulted in a 39% increase ... The present study tests the hypothesis that differences in the level of expression of activin A and its endogenous inhibitor ... Together with our previous studies, these data suggest that activin A and follistatin are target-derived molecules that ...
more infohttp://vivo.mblwhoilibrary.org/display/publication137286
China 2mg/Vial Freeze-Dried Polypeptide Powder Follistatin 344 Activin-Binding Protein - China Follistatin 344, Fst  China 2mg/Vial Freeze-Dried Polypeptide Powder Follistatin 344 Activin-Binding Protein - China Follistatin 344, Fst
Fst from 2mg/Vial Freeze-Dried Polypeptide Powder Follistatin 344 Activin-Binding Protein - Shanghai Shucan Industrial Co., Ltd ... China 2mg/Vial Freeze-Dried Polypeptide Powder Follistatin 344 Activin-Binding Protein, Find details about China Follistatin ... FS is a high-affinity activin-binding protein that can act as an activin antagonist. Two alternatively spliced ... Follistatin binds directly to activin and functions as an activin antagonist. specific inhibitor of the biosynthesis and ...
more infohttp://pharmagear.en.made-in-china.com/product/ZKzJMCRAkwWB/China-2mg-Vial-Freeze-Dried-Polypeptide-Powder-Follistatin-344-Activin-Binding-Protein.html
Follistatin - Wikipedia  Follistatin - Wikipedia
In the blood, activin and follistatin are both known to be involved in the inflammatory response following tissue injury or ... The activin-binding protein follistatin is produced by folliculostellate (FS) cells of the anterior pituitary. FS cells make ... 2007). "Activin subunit and receptor expression in normal and cleft human fetal palate tissues". Pediatr. Dev. Pathol. 10 (6): ... Follistatin also known as activin-binding protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FST gene. Follistatin is an ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Follistatin
Plus it  Plus it
Smad2 and Smad3 are activated by the TGF-β type I receptor and the activin type IB receptor, whereas Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8 ... Baker J. C., Harland R. M. A novel mesoderm inducer, Madr2, functions in the activin signal transduction pathway. Genes Dev., ... Smad2 is a receptor-regulated Smad that participates specifically in TGF-β and activin signaling. Targeted disruption of Smad2 ... Smad2 is a receptor-regulated Smad that is activated specifically by transforming growth factor β and activin signaling. We ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/62/20/5955
China Follistatin 344 Follistatin344 Follistatin 1mg / Vial Lyophilized Powder - China Follistatin 344, Follistatin 344 Powder  China Follistatin 344 Follistatin344 Follistatin 1mg / Vial Lyophilized Powder - China Follistatin 344, Follistatin 344 Powder
FS is a high-affinity activin-binding protein that can act as an activin antagonist. Two alternatively spliced ... Follistatin binds directly to activin and functions as an activin antagonist. specific inhibitor of the biosynthesis and ... particular focus on activin, a paracrine hormone.. Storage Instruction. Store at +4°C or at -20°C if ... Synonyms: FST, FS, Activin-binding protein.. Appearance: Sterile Filtered White Lyophilized & ...
more infohttp://kafenbio.en.made-in-china.com/product/NXPJnBxUCwVK/China-Follistatin-344-Follistatin344-Follistatin-1mg-Vial-Lyophilized-Powder.html
ActoFactor™ Recombinant Human Myostatin (Plant) | Creative Bioarray  ActoFactor™ Recombinant Human Myostatin (Plant) | Creative Bioarray
... activins and inhibins. As other members of this superfamily, it is synthesized and secreted as a homodimeric prepropeptide that ...
more infohttps://www.creative-bioarray.com/ActoFactor-Recombinant-Human-Myostatin-Plant-CSC-CTK0468-item-3794.htm
Anti-TGFBR1/Tgf Beta Receptor I Antibody  Anti-TGFBR1/Tgf Beta Receptor I Antibody
TGF-beta receptor type-1;TGFR-1;2.7.11.30;Activin A receptor type II-like protein kinase of 53kD;Activin receptor-like kinase 5 ...
more infohttps://www.bosterbio.com/anti-tgfbr1-antibody-pa1731.html
Activin and inhibin - Wikipedia  Activin and inhibin - Wikipedia
... called activin βA, activin βB, activin βC and activin βE. Activin βA and βB are identical to the two beta subunits of inhibin. ... Two activin βA subunits give rise to activin A, one βA, and one βB subunit gives rise to activin AB, and so on. Various, but ... In the male, activin enhances spermatogenesis. Activin is strongly expressed in wounded skin, and overexpression of activin in ... Activin type 1 receptors: ACVR1, ACVR1B, ACVR1C Activin type 2 receptors: ACVR2A, ACVR2B Activin binds to the Type II receptor ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Activin_and_inhibin
Activin | Define Activin at Dictionary.com  Activin | Define Activin at Dictionary.com
Activin definition, a peptide that is synthesized in the pituitary gland and gonads and stimulates the secretion of FSH. See ...
more infohttps://www.dictionary.com/browse/activin
Addiction by Activin | Science Signaling  Addiction by Activin | Science Signaling
Activins are members of the transforming growth factor-β family (TGF-β) and regulate cell fate in various cell types, including ... found that a week of withdrawal after a period of cocaine self-administration in rats increased the abundance of Activin ... Activin signaling mediates changes in neuronal spine density, thereby contributing to addiction. ... Activin signaling mediates changes in neuronal spine density, thereby contributing to addiction. ...
more infohttps://stke.sciencemag.org/content/8/386/ec196.abstract
Activin and inhibin - Wikipedia  Activin and inhibin - Wikipedia
In mammals, four beta subunits have been described, called activin βA, activin βB, activin βC and activin βE. Activin βA and βB ... A fifth subunit, activin βD, has been described in Xenopus laevis. Two activin βA subunits give rise to activin A, one βA, and ... ActivinEdit. Activin A is more plentiful in the adipose tissue of obese, compared to lean persons.[20] Activin A promotes the ... ActivinEdit. Activin is produced in the gonads, pituitary gland, placenta, and other organs:. *In the ovarian follicle, activin ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inhibin
Recombinant Human Activin B  Recombinant Human Activin B
Activin B is a TGF-β family member that exhibits a wide range of biological activities, including regulation of embryogenesis, ... Activin B, like certain other members of the TGF-β family, signals through the ActRII receptor (Activin Receptor type II). ... Human Activin B is a 25.6 kDa disulfide-linked homodimer consisting of two βB chains, each containing 115 amino acid residues. ... Activin B is a TGF-β family member that exhibits a wide range of biological activities, including regulation of embryogenesis, ...
more infohttps://www.peprotech.com/ko/recombinant-human-activin-b
Activin RIIB Products: R&D Systems  Activin RIIB Products: R&D Systems
View our 10 Activin RIIB products for your research including Activin RIIB Primary Antibodies, Proteins and Enzymes, and cDNA ... Activin RIIB: Products. Receptors for the TGF-beta superfamily comprise two groups, the type I and the type II serine/threonine ... Type I receptors are referred to as the Activin Receptor-like Kinases (ALKs), while the type II receptors are named for the ...
more infohttps://www.rndsystems.com/target/activin-riib
Anti-Activin Receptor Type IIA antibody (ab96793) | Abcam  Anti-Activin Receptor Type IIA antibody (ab96793) | Abcam
Rabbit polyclonal Activin Receptor Type IIA antibody. Validated in WB, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Cited in 1 publication(s). ... Anti-Activin Receptor Type IIA antibody. See all Activin Receptor Type IIA primary antibodies. ... All lanes : Anti-Activin Receptor Type IIA antibody (ab96793) at 1/10000 dilution. Lane 1 : HeLa whole cell lysate. Lane 2 : ... Recombinant protein fragment corresponding to a region within amino acids 267 and 509 of Human Activin receptor type IIA ( ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/activin-receptor-type-iia-antibody-ab96793.html
Activin A ELISA Kits from Abcam | Biocompare.com  Activin A ELISA Kits from Abcam | Biocompare.com
Compare Activin A ELISA Kits from Abcam from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, ... Activin A ELISA Kits from Abcam. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely used application for detecting and ... Your search returned 5 Activin A ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. ...
more infohttps://www.biocompare.com/pfu/110627/soids/2-4184/ELISA_Kit/ELISA_Activin_A?vids=100436
Recombinant Human Activin Receptor Type IIB protein (ab125577)  Recombinant Human Activin Receptor Type IIB protein (ab125577)
Buy our Recombinant Human Activin Receptor Type IIB protein. Ab125577 is a protein fragment produced in Baculovirus infected ... Recombinant Human Activin Receptor Type IIB protein. See all Activin Receptor Type IIB proteins and peptides. ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/recombinant-human-activin-receptor-type-iib-protein-ab125577.html
  • The two curated transcript variants (NM_001105.4 and NM_001111067.2) of ACVR1 encode the same protein of 509 amino acids containing a single transmembrane and three conserved domains (cyan - Activin receptor, blue - TGF-beta and red - Pkinase domains). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • In contrast, mRNA levels of interferon gamma receptor 1 (IFNGR1), activin A receptor, type 1 (ACVR1), and activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) all exhibited downregulation in study subjects of the high-level arsenic exposure group. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Activin was initially discovered as an activator of follicle stimulating hormone in the pituitary gland. (reactome.org)
  • The direct effects of activin A on VEGF expression were investigated in vitro in corneal epithelial and microvascular endothelial cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • The data showed that the effect of Activin A on ESCs was partially abrogated by pretreatment with an inhibitor of ALK4 (the type I receptor, ActRIB) and Smad4-siRNA. (hindawi.com)
  • ACVR1C can mediate signaling by ligans such as Nodal, GDF-1/3, activin B and activin AB, all of which can also signal through the ubiquitous activin type I receptor ACVR1B (also known as ALK4). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Activin A stimulates inflammatory corneal angiogenesis by increasing VEGF levels through a p38 and p42/44 MAPK-dependent mechanism. (arvojournals.org)
  • Activin-recp domain: a specific hydrophilic Cys-rich ligand-binding domain characterized by 9 amino acid cysteine box, with the consensus CCX{4-5}CN and 7 extracellular residues preceding the cysteine box. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Activin A increased the expression level of type-I collagen suggesting that activin A acts as a potent activator of fibroblasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intra-accumbal injection of Activin A increased cocaine self-administration after withdrawal in rats, whereas injection of Activin receptor antagonist SB-43152 decreased self-administration. (sciencemag.org)