Activins: Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyFollistatin: A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.Activin Receptors: Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those transmembrane receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily (RECEPTORS, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA), ALK's consist of two different but related protein kinases, Type I and Type II. Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity.Inhibin-beta Subunits: They are glycopeptides and subunits in INHIBINS and ACTIVINS. Inhibins and activins belong to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily.Activin Receptors, Type II: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS. They are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. The major type II activin receptors are ActR-IIA and ActR-IIB.Activin Receptors, Type I: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS or activin receptor-like kinases (ALK'S). There are several type I activin receptors. The major active ones are ALK-2 (ActR-IA) and ALK-4 (ActR-IB).Zona Reticularis: The inner zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces the enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE, a 21-carbon steroid, to 19-carbon steroids (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPREGNENOLONE.Follicle Stimulating Hormone, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.Myostatin: A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.Gonadotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells that can produce both FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.Smad2 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. It regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)De Lange Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by growth retardation, severe MENTAL RETARDATION, short stature, a low-pitched growling cry, brachycephaly, low-set ears, webbed neck, carp mouth, depressed nasal bridge, bushy eyebrows meeting at the midline, hirsutism, and malformations of the hands. The condition may occur sporadically or be associated with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance or duplication of the long arm of chromosome 3. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p231)Endocardial Cushion Defects: A spectrum of septal defects involving the ATRIAL SEPTUM; VENTRICULAR SEPTUM; and the atrioventricular valves (TRICUSPID VALVE; BICUSPID VALVE). These defects are due to incomplete growth and fusion of the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS which are important in the formation of two atrioventricular canals, site of future atrioventricular valves.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Endocardial Cushions: A fetal heart structure that is the bulging areas in the cardiac septum between the HEART ATRIA and the HEART VENTRICLES. During development, growth and fusion of endocardial cushions at midline forms the two atrioventricular canals, the sites for future TRICUSPID VALVE and BICUSPID VALVE.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.Growth Differentiation Factor 9: A bone morphogenetic protein that plays an essential role in the regulation of ovarian folliculogenesis.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Growth Differentiation Factor 15: A growth differentiation factor that is secreted in response to cell stress and in response to MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION. In addition growth differentiation factor 15 demonstrates a diverse array of biological properties including the induction of cartilage formation, the inhibition of hematopoietic progenitor proliferation, and the induction of neuronal migration.Follistatin-Related Proteins: Broadly distributed glycoproteins that are homologous to the activin-binding protein, FOLLISTATIN. These follistatin-related proteins are encoded by a number of genes.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Agrin: A protein component of the synaptic basal lamina. It has been shown to induce clustering of acetylcholine receptors on the surface of muscle fibers and other synaptic molecules in both synapse regeneration and development.ReadingInfant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Infant, Premature, DiseasesGestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Intracranial Hemorrhages: Bleeding within the SKULL, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of MENINGES. The escape of blood often leads to the formation of HEMATOMA in the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.

The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping. (1/1189)

Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut.  (+info)

Identification of a nuclear localization signal in activin/inhibin betaA subunit; intranuclear betaA in rat spermatogenic cells. (2/1189)

Activin is a dimeric glycoprotein hormone that was initially characterized by its ability to stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and was subsequently recognized as a growth factor with diverse biological functions in a large variety of tissues. In the testis, activin has been implicated in the auto/paracrine regulation of spermatogenesis through its cognate cell membrane receptors on Sertoli and germ cells. In this study we provide evidence for intranuclear activin/inhibin betaA subunit and show its distribution in the rat seminiferous epithelium. We have shown by transient expression in HeLa cells of beta-galactosidase fusion proteins that the betaA subunit precursor contains a functional nuclear localization signal within the lysine-rich sequence corresponding to amino acids 231-244. In all stages of the rat seminiferous epithelial cycle, an intense immunohistochemical staining of nuclear betaA was demonstrated in intermediate or type B spermatogonia or primary spermatocytes in their initial stages of the first meiotic prophase, as well as in pachytene spermatocytes and elongating spermatids primarily in stages IX-XII. In some pachytene spermatocytes, the pattern of betaA immunoreactivity was consistent with the characteristic distribution of pachytene chromosomes. In the nuclei of round spermatids, betaA immunoreactivity was less intense, and in late spermatids it was localized in the residual cytoplasm, suggesting disposal of betaA before spermatozoal maturation. Immunoblot analysis of a protein extract from isolated testicular nuclei revealed a nuclear betaA species with a molecular mass of approximately 24 kDa, which is more than 1.5 times that of the mature activin betaA subunit present in activin dimers. These results suggest that activin/inhibin betaA may elicit its biological functions through two parallel signal transduction pathways, one involving the dimeric molecule and cell surface receptors and the other an alternately processed betaA sequence acting directly within the nucleus. According to our immunohistochemical data, betaA may play a significant role in the regulation of nuclear functions during meiosis and spermiogenesis.  (+info)

Dominant-negative Smad2 mutants inhibit activin/Vg1 signaling and disrupt axis formation in Xenopus. (3/1189)

Smads are central mediators of signal transduction for the TGFbeta superfamily. However, the precise functions of Smad-mediated signaling pathways in early development are unclear. Here we demonstrate a requirement for Smad2 signaling in dorsoanterior axis formation during Xenopus development. Using two point mutations of Smad2 previously identified in colorectal carcinomas, we show that Smad2 ushers Smad4 to the nucleus to form a transcriptional activation complex with the nuclear DNA-binding protein FAST-1 and that the mutant proteins interact normally with FAST-1 but fail to recruit Smad4 into the nucleus. This mechanism of inhibition specifically restricts the dominant-negative activity of these mutants to the activin/Vg1 signaling pathway without inhibiting BMPs. Furthermore, expression of these mutants in Xenopus animal caps inhibits but does not abolish activin and Vg1 induction of mesoderm and in the embryo results in a truncated dorsoanterior axis. These studies define a mechanism through which mutations in Smad2 may block TGFbeta-dependent signaling and suggest a critical role for inductive signaling mediated by the Smad2 pathway in Xenopus organizer function.  (+info)

Activin and TGFbeta limit murine primordial germ cell proliferation. (4/1189)

Mammalian primordial germ cells (PGCs) proliferate as they migrate from their initial location in the extraembryonic mesoderm to the genital ridge, the gonadal anlage. Once in the genital ridge, PGCs cease dividing and differentiate according to their gender. To identify ligands that might limit PGC proliferation, we analyzed growth factor receptors encoded in RNA obtained from purified germ cells shortly after their arrival in the genital ridge. Receptors for two members of the TGFbeta superfamily were found, TGFbeta1 and activin. As the signal-transducing domains of both receptor systems are highly conserved, the effects of both TGFbeta1 and activin on PGCs would be expected to be similar. We found that both ligands limited the accumulation of germ cells in primary PGC cultures. BrdU incorporation assays demonstrated that either ligand inhibits PGC proliferation. These results suggest that these signal transduction pathways are important elements of the mechanism that determines germ cell endowment.  (+info)

Expression of inhibin/activin subunits and their receptors and binding proteins in human preimplantation embryos. (5/1189)

PURPOSE: Our purpose was to study the role of inhibin/activin during embryogenesis. METHODS: Transcripts of inhibin/activin subunits (alpha, beta A, beta B), activin receptors (types I and II), and follistatin were detected by a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in human reproductive cells and preembryos cultured alone or co-cultured with human endometrial cells. RESULTS: Transcripts of alpha, beta A, beta B subunits were all detected in granulosa luteal cells, but only beta A units were detected in endometrial stromal and decidualized cells. In human preimplantation embryos, none of these subunits were detected in embryos from the four-cell to the morula stage and only beta A subunits were detectable in blastocyst embryos. Activin receptors were detectable in all of the studied embryos and cells. Transcripts of beta A, activin receptors, and follistatin were differentially expressed in human preimplantation embryos cultured in vitro and their expressions were significantly enhanced with the presence of endometrial stromal cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that there is a possible endometrium-embryo interaction via endometrial activins and preimplantation embryo receptors and that the embryonic expressions of these activins, their receptors, and binding proteins are dependent on embryonic stage.  (+info)

Identification of two amino acids in activin A that are important for biological activity and binding to the activin type II receptors. (6/1189)

Activins are members of the transforming growth factor-beta family of growth and differentiation factors. In this paper, we report the results of a structure-function analysis of activin A. The primary targets for directed mutagenesis were charged, individual amino acids located in accessible domains of the protein, concentrating on those that differ from transforming growth factor-beta2, the x-ray crystal structure of which is known. Based on the activities of the recombinant activin mutants in two bioassays, 4 out of 39 mutant proteins (D27K, K102A, K102E, and K102R) produced in a vaccinia virus system were selected for further investigation. After production in insect cells and purification of these four mutants to homogeneity, they were studied in bioassays and in cross-linking experiments involving transfected receptor combinations. Mutant D27K has a 2-fold higher specific bio-activity and binding affinity to an ActRIIA/ALK-4 activin receptor complex than wild type activin, whereas mutant K102E had no detectable biological activity and did not bind to any of the activin receptors. Mutant K102R and wild type activin bound to all the activin receptor combinations tested and were equipotent in bioassays. Our results with the Lys-102 mutants indicate that the positive charge of amino acid 102 is important for biological activity and type II receptor binding of activins.  (+info)

Characterization of the Ets-type protein ER81 in Xenopus embryos. (7/1189)

A function for FGF-type peptide growth factors has been implied for early mesodermal patterning events in Xenopus laevis. FGF signalling operates via the MAP kinase cascade that can directly activate the transcription of organizer-expressed genes, such as Xbra and Xegr-1. We have recently provided evidence for a critical role of Ets-type transcription factors in FGF mediated Xegr-1 transcription activation. Here, we report on the identification of the Xenopus Ets-type protein ER81 that is expressed in a pattern overlapping with the ones of Xegr-1 and Xbra during gastrulation. Microinjection in XER81 encoding mRNA into ventral blastomeres of Xenopus embryos results in the induction of ectopic, tail-like protrusions, whereas dorsal overexpression results in disturbed eye development. In the animal cap assay, ectopic expression of XER81 is found to interfere with activin mediated induction of Xegr-1 and gsc, but not with the Xbra response to activin.  (+info)

Establishment of substratum polarity in the blastocoel roof of the Xenopus embryo. (8/1189)

The fibronectin fibril matrix on the blastocoel roof of the Xenopus gastrula contains guidance cues that determine the direction of mesoderm cell migration. The underlying guidance-related polarity of the blastocoel roof is established in the late blastula under the influence of an instructive signal from the vegetal half of the embryo, in particular from the mesoderm. Formation of an oriented substratum depends on functional activin and FGF signaling pathways in the blastocoel roof. Besides being involved in tissue polarization, activin and FGF also affect fibronectin matrix assembly. Activin treatment of the blastocoel roof inhibits fibril formation, whereas FGF modulates the structure of the fibril network. The presence of intact fibronectin fibrils is permissive for directional mesoderm migration on the blastocoel roof extracellular matrix.  (+info)

SAFWAT, NEDAL WAFIK. Activin Induction of Follicle Stimulating Hormone is Mediated by Transforming Growth Factor Beta Activated Kinase-1 (TAK-1) in Pituitary Gonadotropes (Under the direction of William L. Miller.) Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is an essential hormone for female folliculogenesis and plays an important role in male spermatogenesis. The hormone is secreted by pituitary gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary lobe, and its overall production is regulated by expression of the FSH? subunit. The regulation of FSH? subunit is achieved by combined actions of neurocrine, endocrine, and pituitary paracrine/autocrine factors. Activin shown to be produced locally within the pituitary is a potent stimulator of the FSH? subunit. This study used 4.7 kb of the ovine FSH? promoter linked to luciferase (oFSH?Luc) plus a well characterized activins responsive construct, p3TPLuc, to investigate the hypothesis that Smad3, TAK1 (TGF? activated kinase1), or both cause activin-mediated induction of ...
During the later stages of follicular growth (Figure 2), activins and estradiol, the predominant estrogen in humans, enhance the actions of FSH (65, 66) (Figure 2). In mice, activins activate the transcription factors SMAD2/3 and SMAD4, which coordinately regulate several FSH-induced genes including those encoding the cell cycle regulator CCND2 and the steroidogenic enzyme aromatase (67), which converts theca cell-derived androgens to estradiol. Estradiol, acting primarily via estrogen receptor beta (ERS2), has recently been shown to suppress expression of phosphodiesterase 1C (Pde1c), thereby increasing intracellular levels of cAMP induced by FSH (66). Because activins facilitate proliferation of granulosa cells and enhance FSH actions, in part by increasing estradiol, these interactions may help explain why, when activin actions are unopposed by inhibins (as occurs in mice lacking inhibin α subunit, which is encoded by Inha), activins promote GCT growth. The WNT signaling target β-catenin ...
Human Activin A is a recombinant protein optimized for use in cell culture, differentiation studies, and functional assays. MACS® GMP Recombinant Human Activin A is designed for ex vivo cell culture processing. No animal- or human-derived materials were used for the manufacture of this product, unless otherwise stated in the respective Certificate of Origin. The product is lyophilized without carrier protein or preservatives. - Sverige
In recent years, a significant amount of research has examined the controversial role of activin A in cancer. Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily, is best characterized for its function during embryogenesis in mesoderm cell fate differentiation and reproduction. During embryogenesis, TGFβ superfamily ligands, TGFβ, bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and activins, act as potent morphogens. Similar to TGFβs and BMPs, activin A is a protein that is highly systemically expressed during early embryogenesis; however, post-natal expression is overall reduced and remains under strict spatiotemporal regulation. Of importance, normal post-natal expression of activin A has been implicated in the migration and invasive properties of various immune cell types, as well as endometrial cells. Aberrant activin A signaling during development results in significant morphological defects and premature mortality. Interestingly, activin A has been found to have both oncogenic and
To date, the signaling of activin-induced inhibition of cell growth is not well understood. This paper provides a novel link between the p38 MAPK pathway and activin-mediated cell growth arrest. In addition, the authors suggest an involvement of p15INK4B and p21CIP1/WAF1 in cell growth arrest. Unfortunately, protein expression could not be detected, possibly due to low levels of expression. Furthermore, it would be interesting to know which doses of activin lead to an inhibition of cell growth, whether these concentrations are physiological and whether the activation of the MAPK pathway is restricted to cells that are co-stimulated with epidermal growth factor, as reported in the present study, or whether unstimulated cells respond in the same way. The following points should be addressed in future studies: do other cell lines show the same activation pattern as the breast cancer cell line T47D, and is this signaling pathway a general pathway to induce cell growth arrest or is it ...
This gene encodes an activin A type IB receptor. Activins are dimeric growth and differentiation factors which belong to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of structurally related signaling proteins. Activins signal through a hete
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Memorable molecules. Undeterred, Yoney considered possible explanations for her results. "I thought, Ok, we dont get a response from Activin alone," she recalls. "What additional signals might we need to see differentiation?". She ultimately homed in on WNT, a molecule known to regulate the movement of cells during development. In her next experiment, she exposed the cells to WNT before adding Activin; and, this time, they differentiated in the normal manner.. "The cells that saw WNT reacted to Activin with the full range of response-just like we see in the frog and other animals," says Brivanlou. "But cells that hadnt seen WNT were totally unresponsive, as if Activin wasnt even there.". The researchers concluded that differentiation requires both WNT and Activin signaling. Crucially, however, they showed that cells neednt be exposed to the two chemicals simultaneously.. "We blocked WNT signaling during the Activin treatment phase and found that the cells still differentiated," says Yoney. ...
Recombinant Activin A Receptor, Type IB (ACVR1B) Protein. Species: Mouse. Source: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Order product ABIN6301671.
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Figure 5. Sequence Determinants Conferring Independence from EGF-CFC Coreceptors(A) Sequence alignment of Finger 2 region of EGF-CFC-dependent and EGF-CFC-independent TGFβ ligands. Location of secondary structure elements, β-sheets (β6-β9) and loop, are shown (Kirsch et al. 2000). Residue numbering is from mouse ActivinβA.(B-E) Synthetic mRNAs (200 pg) encoding chimeras of Finger 2 subregions between Xenopus ActivinβB or ActivinβA and zebrafish Sqt or Vg1 were injected into wild-type and MZoep embryos. Schematic is not drawn to scale. gsc and ntl mRNA expression is at shield stage; animal pole views are dorsal to the right.(B) SqtActβB[loopβ8β9] and SqtActβB[loopβ8] can induce gsc and ntl expression in both wild-type and MZoep embryos.(C) SqtActβB[β8] can weakly expand ntl expression in MZoep mutants. ntl mRNA expression in MZoep mutants is at shield stage; lateral view.(D) Other TGFβs conform to loop-β8 EGF-CFC-independent determinant. Note that Xenopus ActivinβA can induce ...
Purified recombinant protein of Human activin A receptor, type IC (ACVR1C), transcript variant 1, full length, with N-terminal GST and C-terminal His tag, expressed in E. coli, 50ug ...
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Members of the activin family are believed to act as mesoderm-inducing factors during early amphibian development. Little is known, however, about mesoderm formation in the mammalian embryo, and as one approach to investigating this we have studied activin and follistatin expression during early mouse development. Activins are homo- or heterodimers of the beta A or beta B subunits of inhibin, itself a heterodimer consisting of one of the beta subunits together with an alpha subunit. Follistatin is a single-chain polypeptide which inhibits activin function. Expression of the inhibin alpha chain could not be detected in embryonic or extraembryonic tissues at any of the stages studied (5.5 to 8.5 days) and expression of the beta A and beta B subunits could only be observed in the deciduum in cells surrounding the embryo. Expression of follistatin could also be detected in the deciduum, but in a pattern complementary to that of the beta subunits. Embryonic expression of follistatin first occurred in ...
BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are key regulators in the embryonic development and postnatal tissue homeostasis in all animals. Loss of function or dysregulation of BMPs results in severe diseases or even lethality. Like transforming growth factors beta (TGF-betas), activins, growth and differentiation factors (GDFs) and other members of the TGF-beta superfamily, BMPs signal by assembling two types of serine/threonine-kinase receptor chains to form a hetero-oligomeric ligand-receptor complex. BMP ligand receptor interaction is highly promiscuous, i.e. BMPs bind more than one receptor of each subtype, and a receptor bind various ligands. The activin type II receptors are of particular interest, since they bind a large number of diverse ligands. In addition they act as high-affinity receptors for activins but are also low-affinity receptors for BMPs. ActR-II and ActR-IIB therefore represent an interesting example how affinity and specificity might be generated in a promiscuous ...
Previous structures of activin in complex with type II receptor domains showed the growth factor in two very different interprotomer conformations when compared to each other and to the canonical TGF‐β family members (Thompson et al, 2003; Greenwald et al, 2004). The structures presented here further emphasise the flexibility of activin A (Figure 7C). While the uncomplexed activin A is very similar to the activin A in the type II receptor complex structure by Greenwald et al (2004), in the Fs12 complex, the growth factor exhibits a more closed structure. Here, the fingers rotate away from the other protomer, pulling with them the interfacial α‐helix. β‐strands 1 and 2, which show the largest displacement compared to free activin, move by more than 20 Å at the tip of the fingers.. With four independent crystal structures of activin now available, it is likely that the observed conformational divergence from the canonical TGF‐β structures is a reflection of true structural plasticity ...
Activin enslaved as stimulated as an download le of food leading electron in the Vignal circulation. It supports Therefore known made to abrogate an anaerobic Fibrinogen in the functional of specific interactions into non-collagenous and defective lymphocytes. Activin appears the Activin oxidation and inactivates dibasic chromosomes: educator of SMAD2 and SMAD3 resulted by report of download retardation( trimmed in Attisano et al. Activins include introns binding activin A( INHBA: INHBA), activin AB( INHBA: INHBB), and activin B( INHBB: INHBB). Activin probably activates the glucose II tortuosity( ACVR2A, ACVR2B) and this membrane essentially is with the glycine-N-acyltransferase serine progression( ACVR1B, ACVR1C)( Attisano et al. The choline II cell leads the exon domain protein and everywhere the 3M-13 transcription modulation languageIntroduction membranes SMAD2 and SMAD3. Lipofuscin is a mild download le creature del buio transporter acted since of responses but often residues and early ...
Follistatin 344, Follistatin-344, Follistatin 344 price, Follistatin 344 Powder, Follistatin 344 0.1mg, Peptides Injection, Follistatin, CAS No. 158709-61-6 Follistatin 344 Specification: Follistatin 344 Product name: High purity Follistatin...
A truncated, activin-induced Smad3 isoform acts as a transcriptional repressor of FSHβ expression in mouse pituitary.. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011 Aug 6;342(1-2):64-72. Authors: Kim SY, Zhu J, Woodruff TK ...
|strong|Rabbit anti Human Follistatin antibody|/strong| recognizes human follistatin (FST), a single-chain glycosylated secreted protein of gonadal origin, originally identified as an antagonist of ac…
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The intraovarian function of gonadally produced inhibin and activin has been extensively studied in experimental models for decades, yet their presence and function have been rarely reported in wild rodents. With our seasonal breeding model, the wild ground squirrel, we aimed to investigate the possible roles of these peptides in the seasonal folliculogenesis. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting have been used to detect the cellular localization and expression patterns of inhibin/activin subunits (a, beta(A) and beta(B)). In the breeding season ovary, all three subunits were present in granulosa cells, theca cells of antral follicles and interstitial cells, with the strongest immunostaining in granulosa cells. Following ovulation, the corpora lutea become a major site of inhibin/activin synthesis. In the nonbreeding season ovary, inhibin/activin a and beta(A) subunits were weakly immunopositive in granulosa cells of early stage follicles, while beta(B) subunit was undetectable. The ...
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Follistatin also known as activin-binding protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FST gene. Follistatin is an autocrine glycoprotein that is expressed in nearly all tissues of higher animals. Its primary function is the binding and bioneutralization of members of the TGF-β superfamily, with a particular focus on activin, a paracrine hormone. An earlier name for the same protein was FSH-suppressing protein (FSP). At the time of its initial isolation from follicular fluid, it was found to inhibit the anterior pituitarys secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Follistatin is part of the inhibin-activin-follistatin axis. Currently there are three reported isoforms, FS-288, FS-300, and FS-315. Two, FS-288 and FS-315, are known to be created by alternative splicing of the primary mRNA transcript. FS-300 (porcine follistatin) is thought to be the product of posttranslational modification via truncation of the C-terminal domain from the primary amino-acid chain. Although FS is ...
Patients with symptoms of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) create a diagnostic dilemma as no definitive tests have established its pathophysiological basis. While progress in defining and measuring the degree of the fatigue are available, biochemical tests have been unhelpful determining their cause. In some patients, the onset of their symptoms may be linked to an earlier inflammatory illness, but supportive biochemical data are unavailable. Activin A and B, TGFβ family members, have been identified as proinflammatory cytokines and are regulated by Follistatin (Fst), a high affinity binding protein and all can be measured by specific assays. In mice, serum activin A, B and Fst increase following a lipopolysaccharide injection and are elevated in many patients in intensive care 1,2,3 . In contrast, in the CFS cohort diagnosed by accepted clinical measures (n=47), serum activin A was not increased (97.5 ±10.1pg/ml) but serum activin B was increased (117 ±13.4 pg/ml, p,0.05) and lower Fst levels ...
Activins are dimeric growth and differentiation factors which belong to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of structurally…
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Activin and inhibin are two closely related protein complexes that have almost directly opposite biological effects. Identified in 1986, activin enhances FSH biosynthesis and secretion, and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. Many other functions have been found to be exerted by activin, including roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, metabolism, homeostasis, immune response, wound repair, and endocrine function. Conversely, inhibin downregulates FSH synthesis and inhibits FSH secretion. The existence of inhibin was hypothesized as early as 1916; however, it was not demonstrated to exist until Neena Schwartz and Cornelia Channings work in the mid 1970s, after which both proteins were molecularly characterized ten years later. Activin is a dimer composed of two identical or very similar beta subunits. Inhibin is also a dimer wherein the first component is a beta subunit similar or identical to the beta subunit in activin. However, in contrast to activin, the ...
On ligand binding, forms a receptor complex consisting of two type II and two type I transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. Type II receptors phosphorylate and activate type I receptors which autophosphorylate, then bind and activate SMAD transcriptional regulators. Receptor for activin A, activin B and inhibin A. Mediates induction of adipogenesis by GDF6.
Changes in the levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta cytokines or receptors observed during the progression of several inflammatory and fibrotic disorders have been used to implicate these cytokines in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Although correlative, these studies were inconclusive because they were unable to demonstrate actual continuous TGF-beta-mediated signaling in the involved tissues. We reasoned that the phosphorylation state and subcellular localization of Smad2, the intracellular effector of TGF-beta/activin-mediated signaling, could be used as a marker of active signaling mediated by these cytokines in situ. We therefore used an experimental model of ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation and were able to demonstrate a dramatic increase in the numbers of bronchial epithelial, alveolar, and infiltrating inflammatory cells expressing nuclear phosphorylated Smad2 within the allergen-challenged lungs. This was accompanied by strong upregulation of the activin ...
Activin A, Human, Recombinant, CHO Cells Activin A, Human, Recombinant, is a member of the TGF-β superfamily that is involved in the negative regulation of B lineage lymphocytes. A disulfide-linked homodimer of two 116-a.a. βA subunits. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
ACVR2B antibody to detect human activin receptor type-2B. Validated on up to 12 cell lysates for western blotting. Try a trial size today.
Follicle-restricted compartmentalization of transforming growth factor beta superfamily ligands in the feline ovary.. Biol Reprod. 2004 Mar;70(3):846-59. Authors: Bristol SK, Woodruff TK ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. activin AB ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of activin A and follistatin on the release of pituitary hormones in the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana. AU - Koda, Aya. AU - Yamamoto, Kazutoshi. AU - Uchiyama, Hideho. AU - Vaudry, Hubert. AU - Kikuyama, Sakae. PY - 2000/9. Y1 - 2000/9. N2 - The effects of activin A and follistatin on the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) from dispersed pituitary cells of the bullfrogs Rana catesbeiana were studied. Activin A stimulated the release of FSH, GH, and PRL dose-dependently, but not that of LH. Follistatin suppressed the activin-induced FSH, GH, and PRL release, but did not affect the basal secretion of those hormones. From the results obtained in this experiment, together with the previously obtained findings that activin B enhanced the release of FSH, LH, GH, and PRL, we conclude that activin A, in addition to activin B, influences the function of multiple types of pituitary cells in the ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Loss of Heterozygosity and Mutational Analyses of the ACTRII Gene Locus in Human Colorectal Tumors. AU - Olaru, Andreea. AU - Mori, Yuriko. AU - Yin, Jing. AU - Wang, Suna. AU - Kimos, Martha C.. AU - Perry, Kellie. AU - Xu, Yan. AU - Sato, Fumiaki. AU - Selaru, Florin. AU - Deacu, Elena. AU - Sterian, Anca. AU - Shibata, David. AU - Abraham, John M.. AU - Meltzer, Stephen. PY - 2003/12. Y1 - 2003/12. N2 - The activin type II receptor gene (ACTRII) is mutated in 58.1% of microsatellite-unstable (MSI-H) colorectal cancers and is a close relative of the TGFβ-1 type II receptor, which is known to be involved in both MSI-H and non-MSI-H colorectal carcinogenesis. We therefore sought to determine whether ACTRII was involved in non-MSI-H colorectal cancers. We evaluated ACTRII inactivation by allelic deletion, loss of mRNA expression, or somatic mutation in 51 non-MSI-H colon cancers. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the ACTRII locus (2q23.1) was found in 9 (17.6%) of 51 primary ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of Activin in Embryoid Bodies Expressing Fibroblast Growth Factor 5. AU - Shirouzu, Yasumasa. AU - Yanai, Goichi. AU - Yang, Kai Chiang. AU - Sumi, Shoichiro. PY - 2016/6/1. Y1 - 2016/6/1. N2 - Nodal/activin signaling is indispensable for embryonic development. We examined what activin does to the embryoid bodies (EBs) produced from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) expressing an epiblast marker. The EBs were produced by culturing mESCs by the hanging drop method for 24 hours. The resulting EBs were transferred onto gelatin-coated dishes and allowed to further differentiate. The 24-hour EBs showed a stronger expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)5 and Brachyury (specific to the epiblast) in comparison with mESCs. Treating the transferred EBs with activin A maintained transcript levels of FGF5 and Oct4, while inhibiting definitive endoderm differentiation. The activin A treatment reversed the endoderm differentiation induced by retinoic acid (RA), while the ...
KIMURA, Edna T.; MATSUO, Sílvia E. and RICARTE-FILHO, Júlio Cézar. TGFb, activin and SMAD signalling in thyroid cancer. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab [online]. 2007, vol.51, n.5, pp.683-689. ISSN 1677-9487. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-27302007000500005.. TGFb and activin are members of the TGFb superfamily and play a wide role in development, proliferation and apoptosis. These growth factors exert their biological effects by binding to the type I and II membrane receptors to transduce their signalling through the nucleus by phosphorylation of R-SMADs (SMAD 2/3) and co-SMADs (Smad 4). The proper control of TGFb/activin pathway is negatively regulated by inhibitory SMAD (SMAD7) and by E3 ubiquitination enzymes (Smurfs). Physiologically, TGFb and activin act as potent growth inhibitors in thyroid follicular cell. Thus, alterations in the receptors and components of SMAD signalling pathway are associated with several types of tumors. Since TGFb and activin generate their intracellular signalling ...
Many of the genes in which we found high FSM rates have known potential links to carcinogenesis. For example, ACTRII is a member of the TGF-β receptor family that is involved in the induction of differentiation, growth suppression, and apoptosis. Mutant ACTRII inhibits activin-mediated induction of differentiation (12) . DKFZ564K112 is a human homologue of the Drosophila tumor suppressor gene multi-sex-comb (mxc), a member of the homeobox gene transcription repressor family Polycomb group. Mxc is ubiquitously expressed, and its loss of function provokes uncontrolled malignant cell growth (13) . ICE/caspase-1, a human homologue of Caenorhabditis elegans CED3, is a mediator of Fas-mediated apoptosis. Down-regulation of ICE/caspase-1 is observed in various human cancers (14) , and overexpression of ICE/caspase-1 inhibits the growth of renal cell carcinoma cell lines in vivo (15) . KIAA0896 (hHYD) is a human homologue of the Drosophila tumor suppressor gene hyperplastic discs. hHYD is expressed at ...
Binds directly to activin and functions as an activin antagonist which plays a role in neural induction. The short isoform is a more potent inhibitor of activin than the long isoform. Specific inhibitor of the biosynthesis and secretion of pituitary follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). [-] ...
ACE-031/ACE 031/ACE031 1mg Synonyms:Activin receptor type-2B, Activin receptor type IIB, ACTR-IIB, ACVR2B Standard: Medical Grade; Appearance Lyophilized white powder Purity: 99.0%min.(HPLC) Lead time: 2days Mini Order: 10vials Packaging:...
In mammals, four beta subunits have been described, called activin βA, activin βB, activin βC and activin βE. Activin βA and βB ... A fifth subunit, activin βD, has been described in Xenopus laevis. Two activin βA subunits give rise to activin A, one βA, and ... ActivinEdit. Activin A is more plentiful in the adipose tissue of obese, compared to lean persons.[20] Activin A promotes the ... ActivinEdit. Activin is produced in the gonads, pituitary gland, placenta, and other organs:. *In the ovarian follicle, activin ...
Stenvers, K. L.; Findlay, J. K. (2012). "Inhibins and activins: Towards the future. A tribute to the late Professor Wylie W. ...
Inhibins and activins also regulate bone mass. Beall, C.; Ashford, M. L.; McCrimmon, R. J. (2011). "The physiology and ... verification needed] Hurwitz JM, Santoro N (August 2004). "Inhibins, activins, and follistatin in the aging female and male". ... Reproductive Counterregulation In the reproductive system, inhibins and follistatin counterregulate activins, to control ... Activin and Inhibin". Mol Cell Endocrinol. 310 (1-2): 11-20. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2009.07.001. PMC 2951729 . PMID 19615428. Watts ...
There are three activins: Activin A, Activin B and Activin AB. Activins are involved in embryogenesis and osteogenesis. They ... It can then either form a receptor complex with activin A receptor, type IB (ACVR1B) or with activin A receptor, type IC ( ... TGF beta's, Activins, Nodals and some GDFs are mediated by SMAD2 and SMAD3, while BMPs, AMH and a few GDFs are mediated by ... BMP and activin membrane bound inhibitor (BAMBI), has a similar extracellular domain as type I receptors. It lacks an ...
"Entrez Gene: ACVRL1 activin A receptor type II-like 1". Olivieri C, Mira E, Delù G, Pagella F, Zambelli A, Malvezzi L, ... Oh SP, Seki T, Goss KA, Imamura T, Yi Y, Donahoe PK, Li L, Miyazono K, ten Dijke P, Kim S, Li E (March 2000). "Activin receptor ... It is also known as activin receptor-like kinase 1, or ALK1. This gene encodes a type I cell-surface receptor for the TGF-beta ... Attisano L, Cárcamo J, Ventura F, Weis FM, Massagué J, Wrana JL (November 1993). "Identification of human activin and TGF beta ...
1997). "Inhibin interferes with activin signaling at the level of the activin receptor complex in Chinese hamster ovary cells ... 2001). "Localization of activin beta(A)-, beta(B)-, and beta(C)-subunits in humanprostate and evidence for formation of new ... Furthermore, the beta B subunit forms a homodimer, activin B, and also joins with the beta A subunit to form a heterodimer, ... 2002). "Production of activins by the human endosalpinx". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 87 (11): 5283-9. doi:10.1210/jc.2001- ...
"Entrez Gene: INHBA inhibin, beta A (activin A, activin AB alpha polypeptide)". Lewis, K A; Gray P C; Blount A L; MacConell L A ... "Inhibin interferes with activin signaling at the level of the activin receptor complex in Chinese hamster ovary cells". ... 2005). "Activin, inhibin and the human breast". Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 225 (1-2): 77-82. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2004.02.016. PMID ... 1992). "Effect of activin A on globin gene expression in purified human erythroid progenitors". Blood. 79 (3): 773-81. PMID ...
1992). "Effect of activin A on globin gene expression in purified human erythroid progenitors". Blood. 79 (3): 773-81. PMID ... Shav-Tal Y, Zipori D (2003). "The role of activin a in regulation of hemopoiesis". Stem Cells. 20 (6): 493-500. doi:10.1634/ ... Shimonaka M, Inouye S, Shimasaki S, Ling N (1991). "Follistatin binds to both activin and inhibin through the common subunit". ... Xu J, McKeehan K, Matsuzaki K, McKeehan WL (1995). "Inhibin antagonizes inhibition of liver cell growth by activin by a ...
On the contrary, inhibition of Nodal and Activin signaling enabled the differentiation of hESCs. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... August 2001). "The orphan receptor ALK7 and the Activin receptor ALK4 mediate signaling by Nodal proteins during vertebrate ... Vallier L, Alexander M, Pedersen RA (2006). "Activin/Nodal and FGF pathways cooperate to maintain pluripotency of human ... Chng Z, Vallier L, Pedersen R (2011). "Activin/ nodal signaling and pluripotency". Vitamins and hormones. 85: 38-58. doi: ...
A truncated activin receptor inhibits mesoderm induction and formation of axial structures in Xenopus embryos. Nature 359:609 - ... Members of the TGF-β superfamily, Activin and Nodal, are essential for mesodermal induction, while FGF and Wnt are in charge of ... Activin-mediated mesoderm induction requires FGF. Development 120:453-462. 8. Kimelman D, Griffin KJ. Vertebrate mesendoderm ... In Xenopus, VegT activates transcription of Nodal-related genes (Xnr) genes, Activin and other mesodermal transcripts, which ...
In the blood, activin and follistatin are both known to be involved in the inflammatory response following tissue injury or ... The activin-binding protein follistatin is produced by folliculostellate (FS) cells of the anterior pituitary. FS cells make ... 2007). "Activin subunit and receptor expression in normal and cleft human fetal palate tissues". Pediatr. Dev. Pathol. 10 (6): ... Follistatin also known as activin-binding protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FST gene. Follistatin is an ...
Activin receptor type-2B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACVR2B gene. ACVR2B is an activin type 2 receptor. ... This gene encodes activin A type IIB receptor, which displays a 3- to 4-fold higher affinity for the ligand than activin A type ... Schneider-Kolsky ME, Manuelpillai U, Waldron K, Dole A, Wallace EM (2002). "The distribution of activin and activin receptors ... "Inhibin interferes with activin signaling at the level of the activin receptor complex in Chinese hamster ovary cells". ...
"Regulation of endocytosis of activin type II receptors by a novel PDZ protein through Ral/Ral-binding protein 1-dependent ... "Novel factors in regulation of activin signaling". Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. 225 (1-2): 1-8. doi:10.1016/j.mce. ... "Novel factors in regulation of activin signaling". Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. 225 (1-2): 1-8. doi:10.1016/j.mce. ...
... is an activin type 2 receptor. This gene encodes activin A type II receptor. Activins are dimeric growth and ... "Inhibin interferes with activin signaling at the level of the activin receptor complex in Chinese hamster ovary cells". ... "Variations in activin receptor, inhibin/activin subunit and follistatin mRNAs in human prostate tumour tissues". Br. J. Cancer ... "Truncated activin type II receptors inhibit bioactivity by the formation of heteromeric complexes with activin type I. ...
inhibin and activins - secreted after puberty, and work together to regulate FSH secretion androgen binding protein (also ... "Activin signaling regulates Sertoli cell differentiation and function". Endocrinology. 153 (12): 6065-77. doi:10.1210/en.2012- ...
március 1.) „Activins and activin antagonists in hepatocellular carcinoma". World Journal of Gastroenterology 14 (11), 1699-709 ... március 1.) „Inhibin/activin and ovarian cancer". Endocrine-Related Cancer 11 (1), 35-49. o, Kiadó: Bioscientifica. DOI:10.1677 ... Ez a szócikk részben vagy egészben az Activin and inhibin című angol Wikipédia-szócikk ezen változatának fordításán alapul. Az ... 2010) „Activin a plays a critical role in proliferation and differentiation of human adipose progenitors". Diabetes 59 (10), ...
Kato MV (2000). "A secreted tumor-suppressor, mac25, with activin-binding activity". Mol. Med. 6 (2): 126-35. PMC 1949932 . ...
The cytokines interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-6 and Activin A are found in the testis, often at high levels. In other tissues, these ... Lee W, Mason AJ, Schwall R, Szonyi E, Mather JP (1989). "Secretion of activin by interstitial cells in the testis". Science. ... Boitani C, Stefanini M, Fragale A, Morena AR (1995). "Activin stimulates Sertoli cell proliferation in a defined period of rat ... Mather JP, Attie KM, Woodruff TK, Rice GC, Phillips DM (1990). "Activin stimulates spermatogonial proliferation in germ-Sertoli ...
Activin A receptor, type I (ACVR1) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ACVR1 gene; also known as ALK-2 (activin ... This gene encodes activin A type I receptor which signals a particular transcriptional response in concert with activin type II ... Activins signal through a heteromeric complex of receptor serine kinases which include at least two type I ( I and IB) and two ... "Entrez Gene: ACVR1 (activin A receptor, type I)". Inman GJ, Nicolás FJ, Callahan JF, Harling JD, Gaster LM, Reith AD, Laping NJ ...
Ovine uterine serpin also binds to activin, IgM and IgA. Another possible role for uterine serpins is in the inhibition of ... October 1999). "Uterine milk protein, a novel activin-binding protein, is present in ovine allantoic fluid". Endocrinology. 140 ...
Activin, Durabol, Durabolin, Fenobolin. Drugs.com. Monografija. Način primene. Intramaskularno. Identifikatori. CAS broj. 434- ...
Robertson DM, Burger HG, Fuller PJ (March 2004). "Inhibin/activin and ovarian cancer". Endocrine-related Cancer 11 (1): 35-49. ... Sulyok S, Wankell M, Alzheimer C, Werner S (October 2004). "Activin: an important regulator of wound repair, fibrosis, and ... "Activin signaling and its role in regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and carcinogenesis". Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood) ... "Activin and follistatin in liver biology and hepatocellular carcinoma". SciTopics. Elsevier. Arhivirano iz originala 9. 12. ...
Chen X, Weisberg E, Fridmacher V, Watanabe M, Naco G, Whitman M (1997). "Smad4 and FAST-1 in the assembly of activin-responsive ... FOXH1 encodes a human homolog of Xenopus forkhead activin signal transducer-1. FOXH1 protein binds SMAD2 and activates an ... a TGF beta and activin signal transducer". Mol Cell. 2 (1): 121-7. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80120-3. PMID 9702198. "Entrez ... "Smad4 and FAST-1 in the assembly of activin-responsive factor". Nature. 389 (6646): 85-9. doi:10.1038/38008. PMID 9288972. ...
2003). "Inhibin, activin, follistatin, activin receptors and beta-glycan gene expression in the placental tissue of patients ... 2003). "Activin betaC-subunit heterodimers provide a new mechanism of regulating activin levels in the prostate". Endocrinology ... 2001). "Localization of activin beta(A)-, beta(B)-, and beta(C)-subunits in humanprostate and evidence for formation of new ... Inhibins and activins, also members of the TGF-beta superfamily, are hormones with opposing actions and are involved in ...
BMP and activin membrane-bound inhibitor homolog (Xenopus laevis), also known as BAMBI, is a protein which in humans is encoded ... 2008). "The pseudoreceptor BMP and activin membrane-bound inhibitor positively modulates Wnt/beta-catenin signaling". J. Biol. ... 2004). "Identification of BMP and activin membrane-bound inhibitor (BAMBI), an inhibitor of transforming growth factor-beta ... 2008). "Prognostic significance of BMP and activin membrane-bound inhibitor in colorectal cancer". World J. Gastroenterol. 14 ( ...
Buy our Recombinant Human Activin Receptor Type IIB protein. Ab125577 is a protein fragment produced in Baculovirus infected ... Recombinant Human Activin Receptor Type IIB protein. See all Activin Receptor Type IIB proteins and peptides. ...
Activin A and Follistatin-Like 3 Determine the Susceptibility of Heart to Ischemic Injury. Yuichi Oshima, Noriyuki Ouchi, ... Activin A and Follistatin-Like 3 Determine the Susceptibility of Heart to Ischemic Injury ... Activin A and Follistatin-Like 3 Determine the Susceptibility of Heart to Ischemic Injury ... Activin A and Follistatin-Like 3 Determine the Susceptibility of Heart to Ischemic Injury ...
Fst from 2mg/Vial Freeze-Dried Polypeptide Powder Follistatin 344 Activin-Binding Protein - Shanghai Shucan Industrial Co., Ltd ... China 2mg/Vial Freeze-Dried Polypeptide Powder Follistatin 344 Activin-Binding Protein, Find details about China Follistatin ... FS is a high-affinity activin-binding protein that can act as an activin antagonist. Two alternatively spliced ... Follistatin binds directly to activin and functions as an activin antagonist. specific inhibitor of the biosynthesis and ...
FS is a high-affinity activin-binding protein that can act as an activin antagonist. Two alternatively spliced ... Follistatin binds directly to activin and functions as an activin antagonist. specific inhibitor of the biosynthesis and ... particular focus on activin, a paracrine hormone.. Storage Instruction. Store at +4°C or at -20°C if ... Synonyms: FST, FS, Activin-binding protein.. Appearance: Sterile Filtered White Lyophilized & ...
... activins and inhibins. As other members of this superfamily, it is synthesized and secreted as a homodimeric prepropeptide that ...
... called activin βA, activin βB, activin βC and activin βE. Activin βA and βB are identical to the two beta subunits of inhibin. ... Two activin βA subunits give rise to activin A, one βA, and one βB subunit gives rise to activin AB, and so on. Various, but ... In the male, activin enhances spermatogenesis. Activin is strongly expressed in wounded skin, and overexpression of activin in ... Activin type 1 receptors: ACVR1, ACVR1B, ACVR1C Activin type 2 receptors: ACVR2A, ACVR2B Activin binds to the Type II receptor ...
Activin definition, a peptide that is synthesized in the pituitary gland and gonads and stimulates the secretion of FSH. See ...
An Activin receptor is a receptor which binds activin. Types include: Activin type 1 receptors Activin type 2 receptors These ... Activin receptors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ...
Activins are members of the transforming growth factor-β family (TGF-β) and regulate cell fate in various cell types, including ... found that a week of withdrawal after a period of cocaine self-administration in rats increased the abundance of Activin ... Activin signaling mediates changes in neuronal spine density, thereby contributing to addiction. ... Activin signaling mediates changes in neuronal spine density, thereby contributing to addiction. ...
In mammals, four beta subunits have been described, called activin βA, activin βB, activin βC and activin βE. Activin βA and βB ... A fifth subunit, activin βD, has been described in Xenopus laevis. Two activin βA subunits give rise to activin A, one βA, and ... ActivinEdit. Activin A is more plentiful in the adipose tissue of obese, compared to lean persons.[20] Activin A promotes the ... ActivinEdit. Activin is produced in the gonads, pituitary gland, placenta, and other organs:. *In the ovarian follicle, activin ...
Inhibin/activin subunit mRNA expression in human granulosa-luteal cells.. Erämaa M1, Heikinheimo K, Tuuri T, Hildén K, Ritvos O ... We studied the expression of inhibin/activin subunit mRNAs in granulosa-luteal cells of preovulatory ovarian follicles obtained ...
Activin receptor-like kinase 2 can mediate atrioventricular cushion transformation.. Lai YT1, Beason KB, Brames GP, ... we cloned and characterized the chicken homologues of two mammalian activin receptor-like kinases (ALK), ALK2 and ALK5, and ...
... Juan Zheng,1,2 Juan Qu,1 Pinhong Lu,1 Zhen Hou,1 ... The data showed that the effect of Activin A on ESCs was partially abrogated by pretreatment with an inhibitor of ALK4 (the ... We previously found that the expression of Activin A was upregulated in the peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis. ... Cumulatively, these data suggest that Activin A promotes the secretion of estradiol from ESCs by increasing the expression of ...
... immunoassay suitable for the quantification of Activin A in Cell culture supernatant, Serum, Other biological fluids, Tissue ... Human Activin A ELISA Kit is a sensitive (, 12 pg/ml) ... Activin A is a homodimer of 14kDa beta-A. Activin A, a cytokine ... Inhibins appear to oppose the functions of activins. The standard product used in this kit is recombinant Activin A, which is ... A Activin A specific mouse monoclonal antibody has been precoated onto 96-well plates. Standards and test samples are added to ...
ACVR2B/Fc was also capable of blocking the activity of two other TGF-β-related ligands, GDF-11/BMP-11 and activin (Fig. 1C ). ... Regulation of muscle growth by multiple ligands signaling through activin type II receptors. Se-Jin Lee, Lori A. Reed, Monique ... In addition to myostatin, a number of other TGF-β family members have been shown to be capable of binding activin type II ... Myostatin, GDF-11/BMP-11, and activin activities were measured by using the pGL3-(CAGA)12-luciferase reporter assay in A204 ...
S. Muttukrishna, C. Bearfield, J. Johns, and E. Jauniaux, "Inhibin, activin, follistatin, activin receptors and β-glycan gene ... M. E. Schneider-Kolsky, U. Manuelpillai, K. Waldron, A. Dole, and E. M. Wallace, "The distribution of activin and activin ... activin-A activin-AB, pro-αC and follistatin during pregnancy," Human Reproduction, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 3530-3536, 1998. View ... "Production and localization of activins and activin type IIA and IIB receptors by the human endosalpinx," Reproduction, vol. ...
J:1073 Matzuk MM, et al., Structure of the mouse activin receptor type II gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992 May 29;185(1): ...
J:245961 Goh BC, et al., Activin receptor type 2A (ACVR2A) functions directly in osteoblasts as a negative regulator of bone ... J:11226 Mathews LS, et al., Expression cloning of an activin receptor, a predicted transmembrane serine kinase. Cell. 1991 Jun ...
Compare Activin A ELISA Kits from Abcam from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, ... Activin A ELISA Kits from Abcam. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely used application for detecting and ... Your search returned 5 Activin A ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. ...
Rabbit polyclonal Activin Receptor Type IIA antibody. Validated in WB, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Cited in 1 publication(s). ... Anti-Activin Receptor Type IIA antibody. See all Activin Receptor Type IIA primary antibodies. ... All lanes : Anti-Activin Receptor Type IIA antibody (ab96793) at 1/10000 dilution. Lane 1 : HeLa whole cell lysate. Lane 2 : ... Recombinant protein fragment corresponding to a region within amino acids 267 and 509 of Human Activin receptor type IIA ( ...
Biological basis for efficacy of activin receptor ligand traps in myelodysplastic syndromes. Amit Verma,1 Rajasekhar N.V.S. ... TGF-β, activins, and growth differentiation factors exert inhibitory effects on red cell formation by activating canonical ... We also describe the basis for biological activity of activin receptor ligand traps, novel fusion proteins such as luspatercept ...
View our 10 Activin RIIB products for your research including Activin RIIB Primary Antibodies, Proteins and Enzymes, and cDNA ... Activin RIIB: Products. Receptors for the TGF-beta superfamily comprise two groups, the type I and the type II serine/threonine ... Type I receptors are referred to as the Activin Receptor-like Kinases (ALKs), while the type II receptors are named for the ...
Activin receptor type-1. Activin receptor type-1, EC 2.7.11.30 (Activin receptor type I, ACTR-I) (Activin receptor-like kinase ... Activin receptor type-1Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> , ... tr,C9J1R3,C9J1R3_HUMAN Activin receptor type-1 (Fragment) OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=ACVR1 PE=4 SV=1 ...
Activin B is a TGF-β family member that exhibits a wide range of biological activities, including regulation of embryogenesis, ... Activin B, like certain other members of the TGF-β family, signals through the ActRII receptor (Activin Receptor type II). ... Human Activin B is a 25.6 kDa disulfide-linked homodimer consisting of two βB chains, each containing 115 amino acid residues. ... Activin B is a TGF-β family member that exhibits a wide range of biological activities, including regulation of embryogenesis, ...
Author Summary A couple is defined as infertile when failing to become pregnant after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse. Infertility affects more than 10% of couples. The implantation of the embryo in the uterus is one of the most critical steps of pregnancy, and it has been estimated that 75% of pregnancy fails because of peri-implantation defects. An intricate network of molecular pathways regulates the peri-implantation process. It is known that the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathways are part of this network, and herein we investigated how one of the BMP signaling receptors interacts with other factors in the uterus. Our results show an essential and conserved role of this BMP receptor during the implantation of the embryo in mice and humans. Furthermore, we discovered that BMPs act in a linear pathway upstream of two other key regulators of implantation, CEBPB and PGR.
  • Identified in 1986, activin enhances FSH biosynthesis and secretion, and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results of the present study indicated that Activin A induced estradiol secretion and P450arom expression in endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) derived from endometriosis patients. (hindawi.com)
  • Cumulatively, these data suggest that Activin A promotes the secretion of estradiol from ESCs by increasing the expression of P450arom via the ALK4-Smad pathway. (hindawi.com)
  • Inhibins/activins are involved in regulating a number of diverse functions such as hypothalamic and pituitary hormone secretion, gonadal hormone secretion, germ cell development and maturation, erythroid differentiation, insulin secretion, nerve cell survival, embryonic axial development or bone growth, depending on their subunit composition. (abcam.com)
  • Activin B is a TGF-β family member that exhibits a wide range of biological activities, including regulation of embryogenesis, osteogenesis, hematopoiesis, reproductive physiology and hormone secretion from the hypothalamic, pituitary and gonadal glands. (peprotech.com)
  • Activin A was initially identified in ovarian fluid as a stimulator of FSH secretion from anterior pituitary cells. (biolegend.com)
  • Activin A effects on insulin secretion and inflammation were tested in human pancreatic islet cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In vitro treatment with activin A increased VEGF secretion, as well as p38 and p42/44 MAPK activity in corneal epithelial and microvascular endothelial cells, whereas concurrent administration of specific inhibitors of p38 or p42/44 MAPK abolished the stimulatory effect of activin A on VEGF production. (arvojournals.org)
  • Activin, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, is an important modulator of follicle-stimulating hormone synthesis and secretion in the pituitary and plays autocrine/paracrine roles in the regulation of ovarian follicle development. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Activin A, a member of the TGF-β superfamily, was named for its ability to activate FSH secretion from the anterior pituitary gland (PMID 16885530). (ptglab.com)
  • Expression and secretion of activin A: possible physiological and clinical implications. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Furthermore, the beta A subunit forms a homodimer, activin A, and also joins with a beta B subunit to form a heterodimer, activin AB, both of which stimulate FSH secretion. (mybiosource.com)
  • Finally, we provide genetic evidence that these ligands signal through both activin type II receptors, ACVR2 and ACVR2B, to regulate muscle growth in vivo . (pnas.org)
  • Type I receptors are referred to as the Activin Receptor-like Kinases (ALKs), while the type II receptors are named for the ligands they bind. (rndsystems.com)
  • Consistent with their roles in post-mitotic neuronal development and synaptic modulation, the ligands and signaling components of the BMP and Activin/TGF-β subfamilies are widely expressed in the mammalian adult brain and components of both subfamilies are often co-expressed in multiple sectors of the brain with particular enrichment found in the CA and DG hippocampal subregions - . (plos.org)
  • Coexpression of BMP and Activin ligands and likely co-activation of both pathways in specific regions of the brain raises an intriguing question as to how these two pathways divide their roles in controlling neuronal development and function. (plos.org)
  • The TGF-β superfamily is evolutionally conserved and ligands of both the BMP and Activin/TGF-β sub-branches, as well as all canonical signal transduction components for each branch, are found in Drosophila, but with less redundancy than found in most vertebrate systems (reviewed in ). (plos.org)
  • Activin Recptor 1B (ALK-4) interacts with different ligands. (biolegend.com)
  • We find that the Activin receptor Baboon is required in R8 to receive non-redundant signaling from the three Activin ligands, activating the transcription factor dSmad2. (elifesciences.org)
  • 2 ) In endothelial cells, glucose enhanced the release of activin A, whereas activin A attenuated the release of interleukin (IL)-8 and enhanced the mRNA levels of the antioxidant metallothionein. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 3 ) In islet cells, activin A attenuated the suppressive effect of inflammatory cytokines on insulin release, counteracted the ability of these inflammatory cytokines to induce mRNA expression of IL-8, and induced the expression of transforming growth factor-β. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This was accompanied by strong upregulation of the activin receptor ALK-4/ActR-IB and redistribution of the TGF-beta responsive ALK-5/TbetaR-I. Although levels of TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, and TGF-beta3 messenger RNA (mRNA) were marginally altered, the level of activin mRNA was strongly upregulated during the inflammatory response. (diva-portal.org)
  • Activin-A up-regulates type I activin receptor mRNA levels in human immortalized extravillous trophoblast cells. (nih.gov)
  • ActRI mRNA levels were increased in a dose-dependent manner by activin-A with the maximal effect observed at the dose of 10 ng/ml.Time course studies revealed that activin-A had maximal effects on ActRI mRNA levels at 6 hours after treatment.In addition, inhibin-A inhibited basal, as well as activin-A-induced ActRI mRNA levels. (nih.gov)
  • To further examine the role and signaling mechanism of activin in regulating placental function, the steady-state level of activin type I receptor (ActRI) mRNA in immortalized extravillous trophoblasts (IEVT) cells was measured using competitive PCR (cPCR). (nih.gov)
  • ActRI mRNA levels were increased in a dose-dependent manner by activin-A with the maximal effect observed at the dose of 10 ng/ml. (nih.gov)
  • Time course studies revealed that activin-A had maximal effects on ActRI mRNA levels at 6 hours after treatment. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, inhibin-A inhibited basal, as well as activin-A-induced ActRI mRNA levels. (nih.gov)
  • These findings provide evidence, for the first time, that activin-A modulates ActRI mRNA levels in human trophoblast cells. (nih.gov)
  • Here we describe a potent myostatin inhibitor, a soluble form of the activin type IIB receptor (ACVR2B), which can cause dramatic increases in muscle mass (up to 60% in 2 weeks) when injected into wild-type mice. (pnas.org)
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that myostatin is capable of binding the two activin type II receptors, ACVR2B and, to a lesser extent, ACVR2, in transfected COS cells ( 11 , 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • Because the activin type II receptors have been shown to be capable of binding a number of other TGF-β family members in addition to myostatin (for review, see ref. 18 ), we examined the effect of administering a soluble form of ACVR2B (ACVR2B/Fc) to adult mice. (pnas.org)
  • Myostatin, GDF-11/BMP-11, and activin activities were measured by using the pGL3-(CAGA) 12 -luciferase reporter assay in A204 rhabdomyosarcoma cells as described in ref. 12 . (pnas.org)
  • The cellular targets for myostatin and activin A in muscle and the role of satellite cells in mediating muscle hypertrophy induced by inhibition of this signaling pathway have not been fully elucidated. (pnas.org)
  • Here we show that myostatin/activin A inhibition can cause muscle hypertrophy in mice lacking either syndecan4 or Pax7, both of which are important for satellite cell function and development. (pnas.org)
  • Finally, we show that genetic ablation of Acvr2b , which encodes a high-affinity receptor for myostatin and activin A specifically in myofibers is sufficient to induce muscle hypertrophy. (pnas.org)
  • All of these findings are consistent with satellite cells playing little or no role in myostatin/activin A signaling in vivo and render support that inhibition of this signaling pathway can be an effective therapeutic approach for increasing muscle growth even in disease settings characterized by satellite cell dysfunction. (pnas.org)
  • Exercise and blocking of myostatin/activin signaling may independently or combined counteract muscle wasting and dystrophies. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The effects of myostatin/activin blocking using soluble activin receptor-Fc (sActRIIB-Fc) administration and wheel running were tested alone or in combination for 7 weeks in dystrophic mdx mice. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In conclusion, exercise alone or in combination with myostatin/activin blocking corrects aerobic gene expression profiles of dystrophic muscle toward healthy wild type mice profiles. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The complex myostatin/activin type I receptor (ALK4) is a mediator of muscle atrophy and muscle regeneration. (biolegend.com)
  • Myostatin/activin blocking increases skeletal muscle mass but may decrease muscle oxidative capacity and can thus be hypothesized to affect voluntary physical activity. (lu.se)
  • Soluble activin receptor IIB (sActRIIB-Fc) was produced to block myostatin/activins. (lu.se)
  • These results show that increased muscle size and decreased markers of oxidative capacity and autophagy during the first weeks of myostatin/activin blocking are associated with decreased voluntary activity levels. (lu.se)
  • The data showed that the effect of Activin A on ESCs was partially abrogated by pretreatment with an inhibitor of ALK4 (the type I receptor, ActRIB) and Smad4-siRNA. (hindawi.com)
  • By contrast, 6.5-fold induction of oFSH?Luc by activin (10-24 h after activin treatment) was not blocked by either DN-Smad inhibitor, suggesting that activation of Smad3 did not trigger induction of oFSH?Luc. (openthesis.org)
  • By contrast, inhibition of TAK1 by a DN-TAK1 construct led to a 50% decrease in activinmediated induction of oFSH?Luc, and a specific inhibitor of TAK1 (5Z-7-Oxozeanol) blocked induction by 100% indicating that TAK1 is necessary for activin induction of oFSH?Luc. (openthesis.org)
  • Molecular docking simulation based in-silico virtual screening technique is used in current experimental study for developing potent inhibitor molecules for activin receptor type IIB of humans for treatment of anaemia. (alliedacademies.org)
  • TGF-β, activins, and growth differentiation factors exert inhibitory effects on red cell formation by activating canonical SMAD2/3 pathway signaling. (jci.org)
  • We offer Activin RIB/ALK-4 Antibodies for use in common research applications: Blockade of Receptor-ligand Interaction, ELISA, Flow Cytometry, Immunohistochemistry, Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin, Proximity Ligation Assay, Sandwich ELISA, Western Blot. (novusbio.com)
  • Activin-recp domain: a specific hydrophilic Cys-rich ligand-binding domain characterized by 9 amino acid cysteine box, with the consensus CCX{4-5}CN and 7 extracellular residues preceding the cysteine box. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Furthermore, a mutation in actβ , an Activin-like ligand that is strongly expressed in motor neurons, phenocopies babo and smox loss-of-function alleles. (plos.org)
  • Unexpectedly, for heterotypic ossification, the receptor required stimulation by the endogenous ligand activin. (sciencemag.org)
  • The mechanism of estrogenic synthesis was regulated by the Activin-Smad pathway in endometrial lesions. (hindawi.com)
  • Our data illustrate the usefulness of antiphosphorylated Smad antibodies in demonstrating active TGF- beta/activin-mediated signaling in vivo and strongly suggest that activin/Smad-mediated signaling could be a critical contributor in the pathophysiology of allergic pulmonary diseases. (diva-portal.org)
  • of these, Smad-2 and Smad-3 mediate the activin signals. (asnjournals.org)
  • Food-seeking behavior was unaffected by pharmacological modulation of Activin signaling or altering SMAD3 abundance, suggesting a specific effect of Activin-SMAD3 signaling on behaviors associated with drug addiction. (sciencemag.org)
  • These results suggest that activin selectively blocks the induction of LTP evoked by threshold tetanic stimulation. (nih.gov)
  • These results suggest that activin A produced by ureteric bud is not only an important regulator of ureteric bud branching, but also a differentiation factor for metanephric mesenchyme during kidney development. (asnjournals.org)
  • These findings strongly suggest that activin A has a pivotal differentiation-related role in the early stages of chondrogenesis and osteogenesis while inhibiting adipogenesis of MPCs. (bu.edu)
  • Recent findings from both in vitro and in vivo studies also emphasize that the BMP and Activin/TGF-β pathways play important roles in the development of post-mitotic neurons, including neurite and dendritic outgrowth, modulation of synaptic physiology, and regulation of cognitive behavior (reviewed in . (plos.org)
  • Systemic inhibition of activin A in vivo reduced the area of neovascularization, VEGF expression and p38 and p42/44 MAPK activity. (arvojournals.org)
  • Abcam's Human Activin A in vitro ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is designed for the accurate quantitative measurement of Human Activin A in cell culture supernatants, serum, plasma (heparin, EDTA) and saliva. (abcam.com)
  • The density of yellow coloration is directly proportional to the Human Activin A amount of sample captured in plate. (abcam.com)
  • Human Activin B is a 25.6 kDa disulfide-linked homodimer consisting of two βB chains, each containing 115 amino acid residues. (peprotech.com)
  • Mature human Activin A shares 100% amino acid sequence identity with bovine, feline, mouse, porcine, and rat Activin A. (biolegend.com)
  • Human Activin A, amino acids (Gly311-Ser426) (Accession# M13436), was expressed in E. coli . (biolegend.com)
  • Stability testing for human Activin R1B / ALK-4. (biolegend.com)
  • Human Activin R1B/ ALK-4 was aliquoted in PBS, pH 7 at 0.2 mg/ml and one aliquot was kept at 4°C (control), and another was freeze/thawed four times (4x freeze-thaws). (biolegend.com)
  • Human Activin R1B amino acids (Leu32 - Glu126) (Accession # AAA60556) was expressed in CHO cells. (biolegend.com)
  • The inhibition assay was calibrated with the reference reagent for human Activin A (NIBSC code 91/626) provided by the WHO/National Institute for Biological Standards and Control. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Single serum activin A testing to predict ectopic pregnancy," The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism , vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 1748-1753, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • Serum activin A levels are lower in tubal than intrauterine spontaneously conceived pregnancies," Gynecological Endocrinology , vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 391-395, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Maternal serum activin A levels in association with intrauterine fetal growth restriction. (biomedsearch.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess maternal serum activin A as a potential marker of fetal growth restriction. (biomedsearch.com)
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Maternal serum activin A levels. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Maternal serum activin A may be useful in the assessment of the small for gestational age fetus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Objective: To evaluate the use of serum activin A concentration, measured on the first day of life, as a predictor for the development of intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm neonates. (iospress.com)
  • Serum activin A (μg/L) was assessed for all preterm infants within the first 24 hours of life. (iospress.com)
  • There was no significant correlation between serum activin A concentration and gestational age or birth weight. (iospress.com)
  • Serum activin A cutoff value 2 μg/L could differentiate preterm with IVH from preterm without IVH. (iospress.com)
  • Conclusion: Serum activin A concentration could be a useful predictor for intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants. (iospress.com)
  • Dominant-negative mutant or antisense morpholino oligonucleotide-mediated inhibition of XSRF function expands the expression of mesendodermal genes toward the ectodermal territory and enhances the inducing activity of the Activin signal. (biologists.org)
  • The activity of GMP rh Activin A was measured by inhibition of MPC-11 cell proliferation. (cellgenix.com)
  • Analysis of activin A gene expression in human bone marrow stromal cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The present study was undertaken to investigate the regulation of activin A gene expression in the human bone marrow stromal cell lines L87/4 and HS-5, as well as in primary stromal cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Targeting the bone marrow with activin A-overexpressing embryonic multipotent stromal cells specifically modifies B lymphopoiesis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Recently, the novel activin A/BMP2 (AB2) chimera, AB204, was shown to more potently and effectively promote osteogenesis and bone healing than rhBMP2 [ 1 , 29 ]. (jkns.or.kr)
  • This project will explore the role of a molecule called activin-A which has been found to be present in the brain during myelin repair. (mssociety.org.uk)
  • The data show that gonadotropes are able to produce activin and/or activin-like molecule(s), however paracrine factors from pituitary non-gonadotropes play a major role in controlling FSH? (openthesis.org)
  • Activin A human Recombinant produced in Nicotiana benthamiana plant is a disulfide-linked homodimers of two betaA chains, each containing 116 amino residues (molecular formula C600H911N173O174S13) and 6-His-tag at the N-terminal having the total molecular mass of 27.4kDa. (avivasysbio.com)
  • Activin signaling mediates changes in neuronal spine density, thereby contributing to addiction. (sciencemag.org)
  • Lotinun S, Pearsall RS, Horne WC, Baron R. Activin receptor signaling: a potential therapeutic target for osteoporosis. (harvard.edu)
  • Our results demonstrate that anterograde Activin/TGF-β signaling at the Drosophila NMJ is crucial for achieving normal abundance and localization of several important postsynaptic signaling molecules and for regulating postsynaptic membrane physiology. (plos.org)
  • Aberrant activin A signaling during development results in significant morphological defects and premature mortality. (mdpi.com)
  • Activin A signaling is highly context-dependent, which is demonstrated in studies of epithelial cell tumors and the microenvironment. (mdpi.com)
  • This review discusses normal activin A signaling in comparison to TGFb and highlights how its dysregulation contributes to cancer progression and cell invasion. (mdpi.com)
  • We then selected studies for further examination on the basis of their clinical relevance and experimental demonstration of antagonism between the BMP and activin/TGF-β signaling pathways. (jaoa.org)
  • Activins are dimers comprising activin A (INHBA:INHBA), activin AB (INHBA:INHBB), and activin B (INHBB:INHBB). (reactome.org)
  • To investigate whether activin B is related to EMT, we examined the expressions of EMT-related genes and found that INHBB was related closely to EMT. (jcancer.org)