Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.
Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those transmembrane receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily (RECEPTORS, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA), ALK's consist of two different but related protein kinases, Type I and Type II. Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity.
They are glycopeptides and subunits in INHIBINS and ACTIVINS. Inhibins and activins belong to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily.
One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS. They are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. The major type II activin receptors are ActR-IIA and ActR-IIB.
One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS or activin receptor-like kinases (ALK'S). There are several type I activin receptors. The major active ones are ALK-2 (ActR-IA) and ALK-4 (ActR-IB).
The inner zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces the enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE, a 21-carbon steroid, to 19-carbon steroids (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPREGNENOLONE.
The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.
A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.
Anterior pituitary cells that can produce both FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. It regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A syndrome characterized by growth retardation, severe MENTAL RETARDATION, short stature, a low-pitched growling cry, brachycephaly, low-set ears, webbed neck, carp mouth, depressed nasal bridge, bushy eyebrows meeting at the midline, hirsutism, and malformations of the hands. The condition may occur sporadically or be associated with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance or duplication of the long arm of chromosome 3. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p231)
A spectrum of septal defects involving the ATRIAL SEPTUM; VENTRICULAR SEPTUM; and the atrioventricular valves (TRICUSPID VALVE; BICUSPID VALVE). These defects are due to incomplete growth and fusion of the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS which are important in the formation of two atrioventricular canals, site of future atrioventricular valves.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A fetal heart structure that is the bulging areas in the cardiac septum between the HEART ATRIA and the HEART VENTRICLES. During development, growth and fusion of endocardial cushions at midline forms the two atrioventricular canals, the sites for future TRICUSPID VALVE and BICUSPID VALVE.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).
Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
A bone morphogenetic protein that plays an essential role in the regulation of ovarian folliculogenesis.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A growth differentiation factor that is secreted in response to cell stress and in response to MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION. In addition growth differentiation factor 15 demonstrates a diverse array of biological properties including the induction of cartilage formation, the inhibition of hematopoietic progenitor proliferation, and the induction of neuronal migration.

The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping. (1/1189)

Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut.  (+info)

Identification of a nuclear localization signal in activin/inhibin betaA subunit; intranuclear betaA in rat spermatogenic cells. (2/1189)

Activin is a dimeric glycoprotein hormone that was initially characterized by its ability to stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and was subsequently recognized as a growth factor with diverse biological functions in a large variety of tissues. In the testis, activin has been implicated in the auto/paracrine regulation of spermatogenesis through its cognate cell membrane receptors on Sertoli and germ cells. In this study we provide evidence for intranuclear activin/inhibin betaA subunit and show its distribution in the rat seminiferous epithelium. We have shown by transient expression in HeLa cells of beta-galactosidase fusion proteins that the betaA subunit precursor contains a functional nuclear localization signal within the lysine-rich sequence corresponding to amino acids 231-244. In all stages of the rat seminiferous epithelial cycle, an intense immunohistochemical staining of nuclear betaA was demonstrated in intermediate or type B spermatogonia or primary spermatocytes in their initial stages of the first meiotic prophase, as well as in pachytene spermatocytes and elongating spermatids primarily in stages IX-XII. In some pachytene spermatocytes, the pattern of betaA immunoreactivity was consistent with the characteristic distribution of pachytene chromosomes. In the nuclei of round spermatids, betaA immunoreactivity was less intense, and in late spermatids it was localized in the residual cytoplasm, suggesting disposal of betaA before spermatozoal maturation. Immunoblot analysis of a protein extract from isolated testicular nuclei revealed a nuclear betaA species with a molecular mass of approximately 24 kDa, which is more than 1.5 times that of the mature activin betaA subunit present in activin dimers. These results suggest that activin/inhibin betaA may elicit its biological functions through two parallel signal transduction pathways, one involving the dimeric molecule and cell surface receptors and the other an alternately processed betaA sequence acting directly within the nucleus. According to our immunohistochemical data, betaA may play a significant role in the regulation of nuclear functions during meiosis and spermiogenesis.  (+info)

Dominant-negative Smad2 mutants inhibit activin/Vg1 signaling and disrupt axis formation in Xenopus. (3/1189)

Smads are central mediators of signal transduction for the TGFbeta superfamily. However, the precise functions of Smad-mediated signaling pathways in early development are unclear. Here we demonstrate a requirement for Smad2 signaling in dorsoanterior axis formation during Xenopus development. Using two point mutations of Smad2 previously identified in colorectal carcinomas, we show that Smad2 ushers Smad4 to the nucleus to form a transcriptional activation complex with the nuclear DNA-binding protein FAST-1 and that the mutant proteins interact normally with FAST-1 but fail to recruit Smad4 into the nucleus. This mechanism of inhibition specifically restricts the dominant-negative activity of these mutants to the activin/Vg1 signaling pathway without inhibiting BMPs. Furthermore, expression of these mutants in Xenopus animal caps inhibits but does not abolish activin and Vg1 induction of mesoderm and in the embryo results in a truncated dorsoanterior axis. These studies define a mechanism through which mutations in Smad2 may block TGFbeta-dependent signaling and suggest a critical role for inductive signaling mediated by the Smad2 pathway in Xenopus organizer function.  (+info)

Activin and TGFbeta limit murine primordial germ cell proliferation. (4/1189)

Mammalian primordial germ cells (PGCs) proliferate as they migrate from their initial location in the extraembryonic mesoderm to the genital ridge, the gonadal anlage. Once in the genital ridge, PGCs cease dividing and differentiate according to their gender. To identify ligands that might limit PGC proliferation, we analyzed growth factor receptors encoded in RNA obtained from purified germ cells shortly after their arrival in the genital ridge. Receptors for two members of the TGFbeta superfamily were found, TGFbeta1 and activin. As the signal-transducing domains of both receptor systems are highly conserved, the effects of both TGFbeta1 and activin on PGCs would be expected to be similar. We found that both ligands limited the accumulation of germ cells in primary PGC cultures. BrdU incorporation assays demonstrated that either ligand inhibits PGC proliferation. These results suggest that these signal transduction pathways are important elements of the mechanism that determines germ cell endowment.  (+info)

Expression of inhibin/activin subunits and their receptors and binding proteins in human preimplantation embryos. (5/1189)

PURPOSE: Our purpose was to study the role of inhibin/activin during embryogenesis. METHODS: Transcripts of inhibin/activin subunits (alpha, beta A, beta B), activin receptors (types I and II), and follistatin were detected by a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in human reproductive cells and preembryos cultured alone or co-cultured with human endometrial cells. RESULTS: Transcripts of alpha, beta A, beta B subunits were all detected in granulosa luteal cells, but only beta A units were detected in endometrial stromal and decidualized cells. In human preimplantation embryos, none of these subunits were detected in embryos from the four-cell to the morula stage and only beta A subunits were detectable in blastocyst embryos. Activin receptors were detectable in all of the studied embryos and cells. Transcripts of beta A, activin receptors, and follistatin were differentially expressed in human preimplantation embryos cultured in vitro and their expressions were significantly enhanced with the presence of endometrial stromal cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that there is a possible endometrium-embryo interaction via endometrial activins and preimplantation embryo receptors and that the embryonic expressions of these activins, their receptors, and binding proteins are dependent on embryonic stage.  (+info)

Identification of two amino acids in activin A that are important for biological activity and binding to the activin type II receptors. (6/1189)

Activins are members of the transforming growth factor-beta family of growth and differentiation factors. In this paper, we report the results of a structure-function analysis of activin A. The primary targets for directed mutagenesis were charged, individual amino acids located in accessible domains of the protein, concentrating on those that differ from transforming growth factor-beta2, the x-ray crystal structure of which is known. Based on the activities of the recombinant activin mutants in two bioassays, 4 out of 39 mutant proteins (D27K, K102A, K102E, and K102R) produced in a vaccinia virus system were selected for further investigation. After production in insect cells and purification of these four mutants to homogeneity, they were studied in bioassays and in cross-linking experiments involving transfected receptor combinations. Mutant D27K has a 2-fold higher specific bio-activity and binding affinity to an ActRIIA/ALK-4 activin receptor complex than wild type activin, whereas mutant K102E had no detectable biological activity and did not bind to any of the activin receptors. Mutant K102R and wild type activin bound to all the activin receptor combinations tested and were equipotent in bioassays. Our results with the Lys-102 mutants indicate that the positive charge of amino acid 102 is important for biological activity and type II receptor binding of activins.  (+info)

Characterization of the Ets-type protein ER81 in Xenopus embryos. (7/1189)

A function for FGF-type peptide growth factors has been implied for early mesodermal patterning events in Xenopus laevis. FGF signalling operates via the MAP kinase cascade that can directly activate the transcription of organizer-expressed genes, such as Xbra and Xegr-1. We have recently provided evidence for a critical role of Ets-type transcription factors in FGF mediated Xegr-1 transcription activation. Here, we report on the identification of the Xenopus Ets-type protein ER81 that is expressed in a pattern overlapping with the ones of Xegr-1 and Xbra during gastrulation. Microinjection in XER81 encoding mRNA into ventral blastomeres of Xenopus embryos results in the induction of ectopic, tail-like protrusions, whereas dorsal overexpression results in disturbed eye development. In the animal cap assay, ectopic expression of XER81 is found to interfere with activin mediated induction of Xegr-1 and gsc, but not with the Xbra response to activin.  (+info)

Establishment of substratum polarity in the blastocoel roof of the Xenopus embryo. (8/1189)

The fibronectin fibril matrix on the blastocoel roof of the Xenopus gastrula contains guidance cues that determine the direction of mesoderm cell migration. The underlying guidance-related polarity of the blastocoel roof is established in the late blastula under the influence of an instructive signal from the vegetal half of the embryo, in particular from the mesoderm. Formation of an oriented substratum depends on functional activin and FGF signaling pathways in the blastocoel roof. Besides being involved in tissue polarization, activin and FGF also affect fibronectin matrix assembly. Activin treatment of the blastocoel roof inhibits fibril formation, whereas FGF modulates the structure of the fibril network. The presence of intact fibronectin fibrils is permissive for directional mesoderm migration on the blastocoel roof extracellular matrix.  (+info)

SAFWAT, NEDAL WAFIK. Activin Induction of Follicle Stimulating Hormone is Mediated by Transforming Growth Factor Beta Activated Kinase-1 (TAK-1) in Pituitary Gonadotropes (Under the direction of William L. Miller.) Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is an essential hormone for female folliculogenesis and plays an important role in male spermatogenesis. The hormone is secreted by pituitary gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary lobe, and its overall production is regulated by expression of the FSH? subunit. The regulation of FSH? subunit is achieved by combined actions of neurocrine, endocrine, and pituitary paracrine/autocrine factors. Activin shown to be produced locally within the pituitary is a potent stimulator of the FSH? subunit. This study used 4.7 kb of the ovine FSH? promoter linked to luciferase (oFSH?Luc) plus a well characterized activins responsive construct, p3TPLuc, to investigate the hypothesis that Smad3, TAK1 (TGF? activated kinase1), or both cause activin-mediated induction of ...
During the later stages of follicular growth (Figure 2), activins and estradiol, the predominant estrogen in humans, enhance the actions of FSH (65, 66) (Figure 2). In mice, activins activate the transcription factors SMAD2/3 and SMAD4, which coordinately regulate several FSH-induced genes including those encoding the cell cycle regulator CCND2 and the steroidogenic enzyme aromatase (67), which converts theca cell-derived androgens to estradiol. Estradiol, acting primarily via estrogen receptor beta (ERS2), has recently been shown to suppress expression of phosphodiesterase 1C (Pde1c), thereby increasing intracellular levels of cAMP induced by FSH (66). Because activins facilitate proliferation of granulosa cells and enhance FSH actions, in part by increasing estradiol, these interactions may help explain why, when activin actions are unopposed by inhibins (as occurs in mice lacking inhibin α subunit, which is encoded by Inha), activins promote GCT growth. The WNT signaling target β-catenin ...
Human Activin A is a recombinant protein optimized for use in cell culture, differentiation studies, and functional assays. MACS® GMP Recombinant Human Activin A is designed for ex vivo cell culture processing. No animal- or human-derived materials were used for the manufacture of this product, unless otherwise stated in the respective Certificate of Origin. The product is lyophilized without carrier protein or preservatives. - Sverige
In recent years, a significant amount of research has examined the controversial role of activin A in cancer. Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily, is best characterized for its function during embryogenesis in mesoderm cell fate differentiation and reproduction. During embryogenesis, TGFβ superfamily ligands, TGFβ, bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and activins, act as potent morphogens. Similar to TGFβs and BMPs, activin A is a protein that is highly systemically expressed during early embryogenesis; however, post-natal expression is overall reduced and remains under strict spatiotemporal regulation. Of importance, normal post-natal expression of activin A has been implicated in the migration and invasive properties of various immune cell types, as well as endometrial cells. Aberrant activin A signaling during development results in significant morphological defects and premature mortality. Interestingly, activin A has been found to have both oncogenic and
To date, the signaling of activin-induced inhibition of cell growth is not well understood. This paper provides a novel link between the p38 MAPK pathway and activin-mediated cell growth arrest. In addition, the authors suggest an involvement of p15INK4B and p21CIP1/WAF1 in cell growth arrest. Unfortunately, protein expression could not be detected, possibly due to low levels of expression. Furthermore, it would be interesting to know which doses of activin lead to an inhibition of cell growth, whether these concentrations are physiological and whether the activation of the MAPK pathway is restricted to cells that are co-stimulated with epidermal growth factor, as reported in the present study, or whether unstimulated cells respond in the same way. The following points should be addressed in future studies: do other cell lines show the same activation pattern as the breast cancer cell line T47D, and is this signaling pathway a general pathway to induce cell growth arrest or is it ...
This gene encodes an activin A type IB receptor. Activins are dimeric growth and differentiation factors which belong to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of structurally related signaling proteins. Activins signal through a hete
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Human Activin A is a recombinant protein optimized for use in cell culture, differentiation studies, and functional assays. | Italia
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Memorable molecules. Undeterred, Yoney considered possible explanations for her results. I thought, Ok, we dont get a response from Activin alone, she recalls. What additional signals might we need to see differentiation?. She ultimately homed in on WNT, a molecule known to regulate the movement of cells during development. In her next experiment, she exposed the cells to WNT before adding Activin; and, this time, they differentiated in the normal manner.. The cells that saw WNT reacted to Activin with the full range of response-just like we see in the frog and other animals, says Brivanlou. But cells that hadnt seen WNT were totally unresponsive, as if Activin wasnt even there.. The researchers concluded that differentiation requires both WNT and Activin signaling. Crucially, however, they showed that cells neednt be exposed to the two chemicals simultaneously.. We blocked WNT signaling during the Activin treatment phase and found that the cells still differentiated, says Yoney. ...
Activin and inhibin are two closely related protein complexes that have almost directly opposite biological effects. Identified in 1986, activin enhances FSH biosynthesis and secretion, and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. Many other functions have been found to be exerted by activin, including roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, metabolism, homeostasis, immune response, wound repair,and endocrine function. Conversely, inhibin downregulates FSH synthesis and inhibits FSH secretion. The existence of inhibin was hypothesized as early as 1916; however, it was not demonstrated to exist until Neena Schwartz and Cornelia Channings work in the mid 1970s, after which both proteins were molecularly characterized ten years later ...
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Figure 5. Sequence Determinants Conferring Independence from EGF-CFC Coreceptors(A) Sequence alignment of Finger 2 region of EGF-CFC-dependent and EGF-CFC-independent TGFβ ligands. Location of secondary structure elements, β-sheets (β6-β9) and loop, are shown (Kirsch et al. 2000). Residue numbering is from mouse ActivinβA.(B-E) Synthetic mRNAs (200 pg) encoding chimeras of Finger 2 subregions between Xenopus ActivinβB or ActivinβA and zebrafish Sqt or Vg1 were injected into wild-type and MZoep embryos. Schematic is not drawn to scale. gsc and ntl mRNA expression is at shield stage; animal pole views are dorsal to the right.(B) SqtActβB[loopβ8β9] and SqtActβB[loopβ8] can induce gsc and ntl expression in both wild-type and MZoep embryos.(C) SqtActβB[β8] can weakly expand ntl expression in MZoep mutants. ntl mRNA expression in MZoep mutants is at shield stage; lateral view.(D) Other TGFβs conform to loop-β8 EGF-CFC-independent determinant. Note that Xenopus ActivinβA can induce ...
Purified recombinant protein of Human activin A receptor, type IC (ACVR1C), transcript variant 1, full length, with N-terminal GST and C-terminal His tag, expressed in E. coli, 50ug ...
Activin A is a TGF-β family member that exhibits a wide range of biological activities, including regulation of cellular proliferation
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Activins, follistatin and immunoregulation in the epididymis. AU - Wijayarathna, R.. AU - Hedger, M.P.. PY - 2019/9. Y1 - 2019/9. N2 - Background: The interface between the epididymis and the immune system is implicated in many male reproductive pathologies. The resident immune cell populations and immune-environment within the epididymis are significantly different from the testis, which is an immune-privileged site. Moreover, the immune cell subsets and immunological responses between different regions of the epididymis vary considerably. The cauda epididymis is more susceptible to autoimmune responses than the caput in rodent models of active immunization or suppressed immune tolerance, and in men with congenital or physical damage to the reproductive tract. Activins are members of the transforming growth factor-β family of cytokines that are crucial for testis and epididymal development; however, they also have complex immunoregulatory properties and may play an essential ...
Major advances in the genetics of vertebrate limb development have been obtained in recent years. However, the nature of the signals which trigger differentiation of the mesoderm to form the limb skeleton remains elusive. Previously, we have obtained evidence for a role of TGFbeta2 in digit formation. Here, we show that activins A and B and/or AB are also signals involved in digit skeletogenesis. activin betaA gene expression correlates with the initiation of digit chondrogenesis while activin betaB is expressed coincidently with the formation of the last phalanx of each digit. Exogenous administration of activins A, B or AB into the interdigital regions induces the formation of extra digits. follistatin, a natural antagonist of activins, is expressed, under the control of activin, peripherally to the digit chondrogenic aggregates marking the prospective tendinous blastemas. Exogenous application of follistatin blocks physiological and activin-induced digit formation. Evidence for a close ...
Members of the activin family are believed to act as mesoderm-inducing factors during early amphibian development. Little is known, however, about mesoderm formation in the mammalian embryo, and as one approach to investigating this we have studied activin and follistatin expression during early mouse development. Activins are homo- or heterodimers of the beta A or beta B subunits of inhibin, itself a heterodimer consisting of one of the beta subunits together with an alpha subunit. Follistatin is a single-chain polypeptide which inhibits activin function. Expression of the inhibin alpha chain could not be detected in embryonic or extraembryonic tissues at any of the stages studied (5.5 to 8.5 days) and expression of the beta A and beta B subunits could only be observed in the deciduum in cells surrounding the embryo. Expression of follistatin could also be detected in the deciduum, but in a pattern complementary to that of the beta subunits. Embryonic expression of follistatin first occurred in ...
Activins were initially characterised as stimulators of follicle stimulating hormone production from the anterior pituitary.32 ,33 Subsequently, they were detected in reproductive and other tissues where they were found to exert important endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine actions that contribute to the regulation of cell proliferation, development, and differentiated functions.16 ,17 The multifunctional nature of activins is underscored by the finding that activin A inhibits growth in a number of cell lines, including prostate cancer cell line, vascular endothelial cells, mammary epithelial cells, and hepatocytes34-38 but stimulates the growth of BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts, granulosa cells, erythropoietic progenitor cells, and ovarian cancer cell lines.39-42 Interestingly, inhibin α deficient mice exhibit high levels of circulating activin and develop gonadal stromal tumours,43 ,44 raising the possibility that increased activin expression may be tumorigenic under certain circumstances. This ...
May 2006 Researchers at Monash University in Melbourne, Australia, have concluded that the expression of inhibin/activin subunits in eutopic endometrium is altered in women with endometriosis, leading to higher levels of activin-A secretion by both glandular cells and stromal cells. Activin is a well-characterised growth and differentiation factor and an important inflammatory mediator. Activin is […] ...
Transcription factors belonging to the Smad family are activated in response to signals from TGF-β family members, which in Xenopus embryos are involved in morphogenesis and pattern formation. Direct binding of DNA by Smads is weak; however, Smads can be recruited to DNA by other transcription factors, and these interactions may play an important role in specifying which genes Smads will regulate in a particular cell. Germain et al. studied expression from the Xenopus goosecoid promoter in response to activin, a member of the TGF-β family, in order to identify the transcription factors that recruit activated Smads to the distal element (DE) in this promoter. The activin response required protein synthesis and led to the production of a protein that bound to the DE, as measured by gel-shift assay. The activin-induced DNA-protein complex was further shifted by the addition of Smad2 to the assay, indicating that a ternary complex could be formed. Two members of the paired-like homeodomain ...
BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are key regulators in the embryonic development and postnatal tissue homeostasis in all animals. Loss of function or dysregulation of BMPs results in severe diseases or even lethality. Like transforming growth factors beta (TGF-betas), activins, growth and differentiation factors (GDFs) and other members of the TGF-beta superfamily, BMPs signal by assembling two types of serine/threonine-kinase receptor chains to form a hetero-oligomeric ligand-receptor complex. BMP ligand receptor interaction is highly promiscuous, i.e. BMPs bind more than one receptor of each subtype, and a receptor bind various ligands. The activin type II receptors are of particular interest, since they bind a large number of diverse ligands. In addition they act as high-affinity receptors for activins but are also low-affinity receptors for BMPs. ActR-II and ActR-IIB therefore represent an interesting example how affinity and specificity might be generated in a promiscuous ...
Previous structures of activin in complex with type II receptor domains showed the growth factor in two very different interprotomer conformations when compared to each other and to the canonical TGF‐β family members (Thompson et al, 2003; Greenwald et al, 2004). The structures presented here further emphasise the flexibility of activin A (Figure 7C). While the uncomplexed activin A is very similar to the activin A in the type II receptor complex structure by Greenwald et al (2004), in the Fs12 complex, the growth factor exhibits a more closed structure. Here, the fingers rotate away from the other protomer, pulling with them the interfacial α‐helix. β‐strands 1 and 2, which show the largest displacement compared to free activin, move by more than 20 Å at the tip of the fingers.. With four independent crystal structures of activin now available, it is likely that the observed conformational divergence from the canonical TGF‐β structures is a reflection of true structural plasticity ...
Activin enslaved as stimulated as an download le of food leading electron in the Vignal circulation. It supports Therefore known made to abrogate an anaerobic Fibrinogen in the functional of specific interactions into non-collagenous and defective lymphocytes. Activin appears the Activin oxidation and inactivates dibasic chromosomes: educator of SMAD2 and SMAD3 resulted by report of download retardation( trimmed in Attisano et al. Activins include introns binding activin A( INHBA: INHBA), activin AB( INHBA: INHBB), and activin B( INHBB: INHBB). Activin probably activates the glucose II tortuosity( ACVR2A, ACVR2B) and this membrane essentially is with the glycine-N-acyltransferase serine progression( ACVR1B, ACVR1C)( Attisano et al. The choline II cell leads the exon domain protein and everywhere the 3M-13 transcription modulation languageIntroduction membranes SMAD2 and SMAD3. Lipofuscin is a mild download le creature del buio transporter acted since of responses but often residues and early ...
Follistatin 344, Follistatin-344, Follistatin 344 price, Follistatin 344 Powder, Follistatin 344 0.1mg, Peptides Injection, Follistatin, CAS No. 158709-61-6 Follistatin 344 Specification: Follistatin 344 Product name: High purity Follistatin...
A truncated, activin-induced Smad3 isoform acts as a transcriptional repressor of FSHβ expression in mouse pituitary.. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011 Aug 6;342(1-2):64-72. Authors: Kim SY, Zhu J, Woodruff TK ...
Follistatin (FST) is a secreted glycoprotein that was first identified as a follicle-stimulating hormone inhibiting substance in ovarian follicular fluid (1, 2). Human Follistatin cDNA encodes a 344 amino acid (aa) protein with a 29 aa signal sequence, an
|strong|Rabbit anti Human Follistatin antibody|/strong| recognizes human follistatin (FST), a single-chain glycosylated secreted protein of gonadal origin, originally identified as an antagonist of ac…
Proteintechs Humankine Activin A is made from HEK293 human cells, conferring authentic glycosylation and folding in addition to superior stability and activity.
References for Abcams Recombinant human Follistatin protein (ab51800). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
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The intraovarian function of gonadally produced inhibin and activin has been extensively studied in experimental models for decades, yet their presence and function have been rarely reported in wild rodents. With our seasonal breeding model, the wild ground squirrel, we aimed to investigate the possible roles of these peptides in the seasonal folliculogenesis. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting have been used to detect the cellular localization and expression patterns of inhibin/activin subunits (a, beta(A) and beta(B)). In the breeding season ovary, all three subunits were present in granulosa cells, theca cells of antral follicles and interstitial cells, with the strongest immunostaining in granulosa cells. Following ovulation, the corpora lutea become a major site of inhibin/activin synthesis. In the nonbreeding season ovary, inhibin/activin a and beta(A) subunits were weakly immunopositive in granulosa cells of early stage follicles, while beta(B) subunit was undetectable. The ...
A Sandwich ELISA, Double Antibody ELISA kit for the detection of Homo sapiens, Human, Activin receptor type-2A, Activin receptor type IIA, ACTR-IIA, ACTRIIA, ACVR2A, ACVR2, 2.7.11.30
TY - JOUR. T1 - Activin C antagonizes activin A in vitro and overexpression leads to pathologies in vivo. AU - Gold, Elspeth Joan. AU - Jetly, Niti. AU - OBryan, Moira Kathleen. AU - Meachem, Sarah J. AU - Srinivasan, Deepa. AU - Behuria, Supreeti. AU - Sanchez-Partida, Luis Gabriel. AU - Woodruff, Teresa K. AU - Hedwards, Shelley Lee. AU - Wang, Hong. AU - McDougall, Helen. AU - Casey, Victoria. AU - Niranjan, Birunthi. AU - Patella, Shane. AU - Risbridger, Gail Petuna. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - Activin A is a potent growth and differentiation factor whose synthesis and bioactivity are tightly regulated. Both follistatin binding and inhibin subunit heterodimerization block access to the activin receptor and/or receptor activation. We postulated that the activin-beta(C) subunit provides another mechanism regulating activin bioactivity. To test our hypothesis, we examined the biological effects of activin C and produced mice that overexpress activin-beta(C). Activin C reduced activin A ...
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1 Antibody. Validated: WB, IHC, IHC-Fr. Tested Reactivity: Mouse, Rat, Human, and more. 100% Guaranteed.
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Follistatin also known as activin-binding protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FST gene. Follistatin is an autocrine glycoprotein that is expressed in nearly all tissues of higher animals. Its primary function is the binding and bioneutralization of members of the TGF-β superfamily, with a particular focus on activin, a paracrine hormone. An earlier name for the same protein was FSH-suppressing protein (FSP). At the time of its initial isolation from follicular fluid, it was found to inhibit the anterior pituitarys secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Follistatin is part of the inhibin-activin-follistatin axis. Currently there are three reported isoforms, FS-288, FS-300, and FS-315. Two, FS-288 and FS-315, are known to be created by alternative splicing of the primary mRNA transcript. FS-300 (porcine follistatin) is thought to be the product of posttranslational modification via truncation of the C-terminal domain from the primary amino-acid chain. Although FS is ...
Patients with symptoms of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) create a diagnostic dilemma as no definitive tests have established its pathophysiological basis. While progress in defining and measuring the degree of the fatigue are available, biochemical tests have been unhelpful determining their cause. In some patients, the onset of their symptoms may be linked to an earlier inflammatory illness, but supportive biochemical data are unavailable. Activin A and B, TGFβ family members, have been identified as proinflammatory cytokines and are regulated by Follistatin (Fst), a high affinity binding protein and all can be measured by specific assays. In mice, serum activin A, B and Fst increase following a lipopolysaccharide injection and are elevated in many patients in intensive care 1,2,3 . In contrast, in the CFS cohort diagnosed by accepted clinical measures (n=47), serum activin A was not increased (97.5 ±10.1pg/ml) but serum activin B was increased (117 ±13.4 pg/ml, p,0.05) and lower Fst levels ...
Activins are dimeric growth and differentiation factors which belong to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of structurally…
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Activin and inhibin are two closely related protein complexes that have almost directly opposite biological effects. Identified in 1986, activin enhances FSH biosynthesis and secretion, and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. Many other functions have been found to be exerted by activin, including roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, metabolism, homeostasis, immune response, wound repair, and endocrine function. Conversely, inhibin downregulates FSH synthesis and inhibits FSH secretion. The existence of inhibin was hypothesized as early as 1916; however, it was not demonstrated to exist until Neena Schwartz and Cornelia Channings work in the mid 1970s, after which both proteins were molecularly characterized ten years later. Activin is a dimer composed of two identical or very similar beta subunits. Inhibin is also a dimer wherein the first component is a beta subunit similar or identical to the beta subunit in activin. However, in contrast to activin, the ...
1. The effect of inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection on plasma follistatin (FS) concentrations was investigated. 2. Plasma FS a
Rat pancreatic AR42J cells possess exocrine and neuroendocrine properties. Activin A induces morphological changes and converts them into neuron-like cells. In activin-treated cells, mRNA for pancreatic polypeptide (PP) but not that for either insulin or glucagon was detected by reverse transcription-PCR. About 25% of the cells were stained by anti-PP antibody. When AR42J cells were incubated with betacellulin, a small portion of the cells were stained positively with antiinsulin and anti-PP antibodies. The effect of betacellulin was dose dependent, being maximal at 2 nM. Approximately 4% of the cells became insulin positive at this concentration, and mRNAs for insulin and PP were detected. When AR42J cells were incubated with a combination of betacellulin and activin A, approximately 10% of the cells became insulin positive. Morphologically, the insulin-positive cells were composed of two types of cells: neuron-like and round-shaped cells. Immunoreactive PP was found in the latter type of ...
On ligand binding, forms a receptor complex consisting of two type II and two type I transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. Type II receptors phosphorylate and activate type I receptors which autophosphorylate, then bind and activate SMAD transcriptional regulators. Receptor for activin A, activin B and inhibin A. Mediates induction of adipogenesis by GDF6.
Changes in the levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta cytokines or receptors observed during the progression of several inflammatory and fibrotic disorders have been used to implicate these cytokines in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Although correlative, these studies were inconclusive because they were unable to demonstrate actual continuous TGF-beta-mediated signaling in the involved tissues. We reasoned that the phosphorylation state and subcellular localization of Smad2, the intracellular effector of TGF-beta/activin-mediated signaling, could be used as a marker of active signaling mediated by these cytokines in situ. We therefore used an experimental model of ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation and were able to demonstrate a dramatic increase in the numbers of bronchial epithelial, alveolar, and infiltrating inflammatory cells expressing nuclear phosphorylated Smad2 within the allergen-challenged lungs. This was accompanied by strong upregulation of the activin ...
Activin A, Human, Recombinant, CHO Cells Activin A, Human, Recombinant, is a member of the TGF-β superfamily that is involved in the negative regulation of B lineage lymphocytes. A disulfide-linked homodimer of two 116-a.a. βA subunits. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
ACVR2B antibody to detect human activin receptor type-2B. Validated on up to 12 cell lysates for western blotting. Try a trial size today.
Follicle-restricted compartmentalization of transforming growth factor beta superfamily ligands in the feline ovary.. Biol Reprod. 2004 Mar;70(3):846-59. Authors: Bristol SK, Woodruff TK ...
Activin A is a TGF-β family member that exhibits a wide range of biological activities, including regulation of cellular proliferation
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. activin AB ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
Follistatin Italy is a protein that rises in muscle tissue in response to muscle injury and plays a function in cell development.
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Stenvers, K. L.; Findlay, J. K. (2012). "Inhibins and activins: Towards the future. A tribute to the late Professor Wylie W. ...
Inhibins and activins also regulate bone mass. Beall, C.; Ashford, M. L.; McCrimmon, R. J. (2011). "The physiology and ... In the reproductive system, inhibins and follistatin counterregulate activins, to control follicle-stimulating hormone and so ... activins, and follistatin in the aging female and male". Semin Reprod Med. 22 (3): 209-17. doi:10.1055/s-2004-831896. PMID ... Activin and Inhibin". Mol Cell Endocrinol. 310 (1-2): 11-20. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2009.07.001. PMC 2951729. PMID 19615428. Watts ...
There are three activins: Activin A, Activin B and Activin AB. Activins are involved in embryogenesis and osteogenesis. They ... It can then either form a receptor complex with activin A receptor, type IB (ACVR1B) or with activin A receptor, type IC ( ... TGF beta's, Activins, Nodals and some GDFs are mediated by SMAD2 and SMAD3, while BMPs, AMH and a few GDFs are mediated by ... BMP and activin membrane bound inhibitor (BAMBI), has a similar extracellular domain as type I receptors. It lacks an ...
In mammals, four beta subunits have been described, called activin βA, activin βB, activin βC and activin βE. Activin βA and βB ... A fifth subunit, activin βD, has been described in Xenopus laevis. Two activin βA subunits give rise to activin A, one βA, and ... ActivinEdit. Activin A is more plentiful in the adipose tissue of obese, compared to lean persons.[20] Activin A promotes the ... ActivinEdit. Activin is produced in the gonads, pituitary gland, placenta, and other organs:. *In the ovarian follicle, activin ...
1997). "Inhibin interferes with activin signaling at the level of the activin receptor complex in Chinese hamster ovary cells ... 2001). "Localization of activin beta(A)-, beta(B)-, and beta(C)-subunits in humanprostate and evidence for formation of new ... Furthermore, the beta B subunit forms a homodimer, activin B, and also joins with the beta A subunit to form a heterodimer, ... 2002). "Production of activins by the human endosalpinx". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 87 (11): 5283-9. doi:10.1210/jc.2001- ...
"Entrez Gene: INHBA inhibin, beta A (activin A, activin AB alpha polypeptide)". Lewis, K A; Gray P C; Blount A L; MacConell L A ... "Inhibin interferes with activin signaling at the level of the activin receptor complex in Chinese hamster ovary cells" (PDF). ... 2005). "Activin, inhibin and the human breast". Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 225 (1-2): 77-82. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2004.02.016. PMID ... 1992). "Effect of activin A on globin gene expression in purified human erythroid progenitors". Blood. 79 (3): 773-81. doi: ...
1992). "Effect of activin A on globin gene expression in purified human erythroid progenitors". Blood. 79 (3): 773-81. doi: ... Shav-Tal Y, Zipori D (2003). "The role of activin a in regulation of hemopoiesis". Stem Cells. 20 (6): 493-500. doi:10.1634/ ... Shimonaka M, Inouye S, Shimasaki S, Ling N (1991). "Follistatin binds to both activin and inhibin through the common subunit". ... Xu J, McKeehan K, Matsuzaki K, McKeehan WL (1995). "Inhibin antagonizes inhibition of liver cell growth by activin by a ...
On the contrary, inhibition of Nodal and Activin signaling enabled the differentiation of hESCs. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... August 2001). "The orphan receptor ALK7 and the Activin receptor ALK4 mediate signaling by Nodal proteins during vertebrate ... Vallier L, Alexander M, Pedersen RA (2006). "Activin/Nodal and FGF pathways cooperate to maintain pluripotency of human ... Chng Z, Vallier L, Pedersen R (2011). "Activin/ nodal signaling and pluripotency". Vitamins and Hormones. 85: 38-58. doi: ...
A truncated activin receptor inhibits mesoderm induction and formation of axial structures in Xenopus embryos. Nature 359:609 - ... Members of the TGF-β superfamily, Activin and Nodal, are essential for mesodermal induction, while FGF and Wnt are in charge of ... Activin-mediated mesoderm induction requires FGF. Development 120:453-462. 8. Kimelman D, Griffin KJ. Vertebrate mesendoderm ... In Xenopus, VegT activates transcription of Nodal-related genes (Xnr) genes, Activin and other mesodermal transcripts, which ...
Activin receptor type-2B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACVR2B gene. ACVR2B is an activin type 2 receptor. ... This gene encodes activin A type IIB receptor, which displays a 3- to 4-fold higher affinity for the ligand than activin A type ... Schneider-Kolsky ME, Manuelpillai U, Waldron K, Dole A, Wallace EM (2002). "The distribution of activin and activin receptors ... "Inhibin interferes with activin signaling at the level of the activin receptor complex in Chinese hamster ovary cells". ...
"Regulation of endocytosis of activin type II receptors by a novel PDZ protein through Ral/Ral-binding protein 1-dependent ... "Novel factors in regulation of activin signaling". Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. 225 (1-2): 1-8. doi:10.1016/j.mce. ... "Novel factors in regulation of activin signaling". Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. 225 (1-2): 1-8. doi:10.1016/j.mce. ...
... is an activin type 2 receptor. This gene encodes activin A type II receptor. Activins are dimeric growth and ... "Inhibin interferes with activin signaling at the level of the activin receptor complex in Chinese hamster ovary cells". ... "Variations in activin receptor, inhibin/activin subunit and follistatin mRNAs in human prostate tumour tissues". Br. J. Cancer ... "Truncated activin type II receptors inhibit bioactivity by the formation of heteromeric complexes with activin type I. ...
"Activin A Is Essential for Neurogenesis Following Neurodegeneration". Stem Cells. 27 (6): 1330-46. doi:10.1002/stem.80. PMC ...
inhibin and activins - secreted after puberty, and work together to regulate FSH secretion. androgen binding protein (also ... "Activin signaling regulates Sertoli cell differentiation and function". Endocrinology. 153 (12): 6065-77. doi:10.1210/en.2012- ...
Labonne, C.; Whitman, M. (1994-05-01). "Mesoderm induction by activin requires FGF-mediated intracellular signals". Trends in ... During her doctoral career, LaBonne discovered that activin-mediated mesoderm induction required FGF signaling and elucidated ...
In the blood, activin and follistatin are both known to be involved in the inflammatory response following tissue injury or ... The activin-binding protein follistatin is produced by folliculostellate (FS) cells of the anterior pituitary. FS cells make ... 2007). "Activin subunit and receptor expression in normal and cleft human fetal palate tissues". Pediatr. Dev. Pathol. 10 (6): ... Follistatin also known as activin-binding protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FST gene. Follistatin is an ...
The cytokines interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-6 and Activin A are found in the testis, often at high levels. In other tissues, these ... Lee W, Mason AJ, Schwall R, Szonyi E, Mather JP (1989). "Secretion of activin by interstitial cells in the testis". Science. ... Boitani C, Stefanini M, Fragale A, Morena AR (1995). "Activin stimulates Sertoli cell proliferation in a defined period of rat ... Mather JP, Attie KM, Woodruff TK, Rice GC, Phillips DM (1990). "Activin stimulates spermatogonial proliferation in germ-Sertoli ...
Activin A receptor, type I (ACVR1) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ACVR1 gene; also known as ALK-2 (activin ... This gene encodes activin A type I receptor which signals a particular transcriptional response in concert with activin type II ... Activins signal through a heteromeric complex of receptor serine kinases which include at least two type I ( I and IB) and two ... "Entrez Gene: ACVR1 (activin A receptor, type I)". Inman GJ, Nicolás FJ, Callahan JF, Harling JD, Gaster LM, Reith AD, Laping NJ ...
Ovine uterine serpin also binds to activin, IgM and IgA. Another possible role for uterine serpins is in the inhibition of ... October 1999). "Uterine milk protein, a novel activin-binding protein, is present in ovine allantoic fluid". Endocrinology. 140 ...
Chen X, Weisberg E, Fridmacher V, Watanabe M, Naco G, Whitman M (1997). "Smad4 and FAST-1 in the assembly of activin-responsive ... FOXH1 encodes a human homolog of Xenopus forkhead activin signal transducer-1. FOXH1 protein binds SMAD2 and activates an ... a TGF beta and activin signal transducer". Mol Cell. 2 (1): 121-7. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80120-3. PMID 9702198. "Entrez ... "Smad4 and FAST-1 in the assembly of activin-responsive factor". Nature. 389 (6646): 85-9. doi:10.1038/38008. PMID 9288972. ...
Activin A receptor type 2A (ACVR2A) is a transmembrane receptor that is involved in ligand-binding and mediates the functions ... "ACVR2A activin A receptor type 2A [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". Gene. Bock, J B; Klumperman, J; Davanger, S; Scheller ... of activins. Syntaxin 6 functions in trans-Golgi network vesicle trafficking, perhaps targeting to endosomes in mammalian cells ...
2003). "Inhibin, activin, follistatin, activin receptors and beta-glycan gene expression in the placental tissue of patients ... 2003). "Activin betaC-subunit heterodimers provide a new mechanism of regulating activin levels in the prostate". Endocrinology ... 2001). "Localization of activin beta(A)-, beta(B)-, and beta(C)-subunits in humanprostate and evidence for formation of new ... Inhibins and activins, also members of the TGF-beta superfamily, are hormones with opposing actions and are involved in ...
BMP and activin membrane-bound inhibitor homolog (Xenopus laevis), also known as BAMBI, is a protein which in humans is encoded ... "Entrez Gene: BMP and activin membrane-bound inhibitor homolog (Xenopus laevis)". Degen WG, Weterman MA, van Groningen JJ, ... 2008). "The pseudoreceptor BMP and activin membrane-bound inhibitor positively modulates Wnt/beta-catenin signaling". J. Biol. ... 2004). "Identification of BMP and activin membrane-bound inhibitor (BAMBI), an inhibitor of transforming growth factor-beta ...
ACE-011 was a chimeric protein, created by fusing the binding portion of the activin type 2 receptor to part of an antibody; ... the resulting protein binds to activin and prevents it from acting. Knopf took over as CEO in 2007. He became known for showing ... a protein therapeutic that was an activin type 2 receptor antagonist intended to treat bone loss. ...
A mutation in the gene ACVR1 (also known as activin-like kinase 2 (ALK2)) is responsible for the disease. ACVR1 encodes activin ... Fibro/adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) may be the disease-causing cell type responsible for activin A dependent ectopic bone ... the company initiated a phase 1 study of its activin antibody, REGN 2477, in healthy volunteers; a phase 2 trial in FOP ... Regeneron announced new insight into the mechanism of disease involving the activation of the ACVR1 receptor by activin A. In ...
It blocks TGFβ1 and activin associating with the receptor, blocking access to SMAD2. It is an inhibitory SMAD (I-SMAD) and is ... By occupying type I receptors for Activin and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), it also plays a role in negative feedback of ... Lebrun JJ, Takabe K, Chen Y, Vale W (January 1999). "Roles of pathway-specific and inhibitory Smads in activin receptor ... and activin-mediated growth arrest and apoptosis in B cells". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (19): 13637-42. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.19.13637. ...
Tsai ZY, Singh S, Yu SL, Kao LP, Chen BZ, Ho BC, Yang PC, Li SS (Jan 2010). "Identification of microRNAs regulated by activin A ...
2000). "Betaglycan binds inhibin and can mediate functional antagonism of activin signalling". Nature. 404 (6776): 411-4. ...
2010). "Activin A promotes multiple myeloma-induced osteolysis and is a promising target for myeloma bone disease". Proceedings ... Two such chemicals - proteasome inhibitors and activin inhibitors - are under clinical trials. Mukerjee's lab has also ...
The activin A receptor also known as ACVR1C or ALK-7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACVR1C gene. ACVR1C is a ... 2006). "Activin receptor-like kinase 7 induces apoptosis through up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Xiap in normal and ... 2004). "Activin receptor-like kinase-7 induces apoptosis through activation of MAPKs in a Smad3-dependent mechanism in hepatoma ... Watanabe R, Shen ZP, Tsuda K, Yamada Y (2008). "Insulin gene is a target in activin receptor-like kinase 7 signaling pathway in ...
... called activin βA, activin βB, activin βC and activin βE. Activin βA and βB are identical to the two beta subunits of inhibin. ... Two activin βA subunits give rise to activin A, one βA, and one βB subunit gives rise to activin AB, and so on. Various, but ... In the male, activin enhances spermatogenesis. Activin is strongly expressed in wounded skin, and overexpression of activin in ... Activin type 1 receptors: ACVR1, ACVR1B, ACVR1C Activin type 2 receptors: ACVR2A, ACVR2B Activin binds to the Type II receptor ...
Activin definition, a peptide that is synthesized in the pituitary gland and gonads and stimulates the secretion of FSH. See ...
An Activin receptor is a receptor which binds activin. Types include: Activin type 1 receptors Activin type 2 receptors These ... Activin+receptors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ...
Activins are members of the transforming growth factor-β family (TGF-β) and regulate cell fate in various cell types, including ... found that a week of withdrawal after a period of cocaine self-administration in rats increased the abundance of Activin ... Activin signaling mediates changes in neuronal spine density, thereby contributing to addiction. ... Activin signaling mediates changes in neuronal spine density, thereby contributing to addiction. ...
Activins initiate their cellular responses by binding to their receptors with intrinsic serine/threonine kinase activity and ... Activin is a member of the TGF-beta superfamily and has various effects on diverse biological systems. ... Activin is a member of the TGF-beta superfamily and has various effects on diverse biological systems. Activins initiate their ... Activin receptor signaling Growth Factors. 2004 Jun;22(2):105-10. doi: 10.1080/08977190410001704688. ...
In mammals, four beta subunits have been described, called activin βA, activin βB, activin βC and activin βE. Activin βA and βB ... A fifth subunit, activin βD, has been described in Xenopus laevis. Two activin βA subunits give rise to activin A, one βA, and ... ActivinEdit. Activin A is more plentiful in the adipose tissue of obese, compared to lean persons.[20] Activin A promotes the ... ActivinEdit. Activin is produced in the gonads, pituitary gland, placenta, and other organs:. *In the ovarian follicle, activin ...
Like all TGF-β family of growth factors, activins are synthesized as large precursors from which mature dimeric growth factors ... Here we have studied the activation of activin A and determ … ... Activins are growth factors with multiple roles in the ... Activins are growth factors with multiple roles in the development and homeostasis. Like all TGF-β family of growth factors, ... Structure and activation of pro-activin A Nat Commun. 2016 Jul 4;7:12052. doi: 10.1038/ncomms12052. ...
Inhibin/activin subunit mRNA expression in human granulosa-luteal cells.. Erämaa M1, Heikinheimo K, Tuuri T, Hildén K, Ritvos O ... We studied the expression of inhibin/activin subunit mRNAs in granulosa-luteal cells of preovulatory ovarian follicles obtained ...
Activin receptor-like kinase 2 can mediate atrioventricular cushion transformation.. Lai YT1, Beason KB, Brames GP, ... we cloned and characterized the chicken homologues of two mammalian activin receptor-like kinases (ALK), ALK2 and ALK5, and ...
... Juan Zheng,1,2 Juan Qu,1 Pinhong Lu,1 Zhen Hou,1 ... The data showed that the effect of Activin A on ESCs was partially abrogated by pretreatment with an inhibitor of ALK4 (the ... We previously found that the expression of Activin A was upregulated in the peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis. ... Cumulatively, these data suggest that Activin A promotes the secretion of estradiol from ESCs by increasing the expression of ...
... immunoassay suitable for the quantification of Activin A in Cell culture supernatant, Serum, Other biological fluids, Tissue ... Human Activin A ELISA Kit is a sensitive (, 12 pg/ml) ... Activin A is a homodimer of 14kDa beta-A. Activin A, a cytokine ... Inhibins appear to oppose the functions of activins. The standard product used in this kit is recombinant Activin A, which is ... A Activin A specific mouse monoclonal antibody has been precoated onto 96-well plates. Standards and test samples are added to ...
ACVR2B/Fc was also capable of blocking the activity of two other TGF-β-related ligands, GDF-11/BMP-11 and activin (Fig. 1C ). ... Regulation of muscle growth by multiple ligands signaling through activin type II receptors. Se-Jin Lee, Lori A. Reed, Monique ... In addition to myostatin, a number of other TGF-β family members have been shown to be capable of binding activin type II ... Myostatin, GDF-11/BMP-11, and activin activities were measured by using the pGL3-(CAGA)12-luciferase reporter assay in A204 ...
S. Muttukrishna, C. Bearfield, J. Johns, and E. Jauniaux, "Inhibin, activin, follistatin, activin receptors and β-glycan gene ... M. E. Schneider-Kolsky, U. Manuelpillai, K. Waldron, A. Dole, and E. M. Wallace, "The distribution of activin and activin ... activin-A activin-AB, pro-αC and follistatin during pregnancy," Human Reproduction, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 3530-3536, 1998. View ... "Production and localization of activins and activin type IIA and IIB receptors by the human endosalpinx," Reproduction, vol. ...
J:1073 Matzuk MM, et al., Structure of the mouse activin receptor type II gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992 May 29;185(1): ...
J:245961 Goh BC, et al., Activin receptor type 2A (ACVR2A) functions directly in osteoblasts as a negative regulator of bone ... J:11226 Mathews LS, et al., Expression cloning of an activin receptor, a predicted transmembrane serine kinase. Cell. 1991 Jun ...
Compare activin A receptor type 1C ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, ... activin A receptor type 1C ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely used application for detecting ... Your search returned 57 activin A receptor type 1C ELISA ELISA Kit across 3 suppliers. ...
Compare Activin A ELISA Kits from Abcam from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, ... Activin A ELISA Kits from Abcam. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely used application for detecting and ... Your search returned 5 Activin A ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. ...
Rabbit polyclonal Activin Receptor Type IIA antibody. Validated in WB, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Cited in 1 publication(s). ... Anti-Activin Receptor Type IIA antibody. See all Activin Receptor Type IIA primary antibodies. ... All lanes : Anti-Activin Receptor Type IIA antibody (ab96793) at 1/10000 dilution. Lane 1 : HeLa whole cell lysate. Lane 2 : ... Recombinant protein fragment corresponding to a region within amino acids 267 and 509 of Human Activin receptor type IIA ( ...
Biological basis for efficacy of activin receptor ligand traps in myelodysplastic syndromes. Amit Verma,1 Rajasekhar N.V.S. ... TGF-β, activins, and growth differentiation factors exert inhibitory effects on red cell formation by activating canonical ... We also describe the basis for biological activity of activin receptor ligand traps, novel fusion proteins such as luspatercept ...
View our 10 Activin RIIB products for your research including Activin RIIB Primary Antibodies, Proteins and Enzymes, and cDNA ... Activin RIIB: Products. Receptors for the TGF-beta superfamily comprise two groups, the type I and the type II serine/threonine ... Type I receptors are referred to as the Activin Receptor-like Kinases (ALKs), while the type II receptors are named for the ...
Activin beta-A chainARBA annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ... tr,Q3UY39,Q3UY39_MOUSE Activin beta-A chain OS=Mus musculus OX=10090 GN=Inhba PE=2 SV=1 ...
Activin receptor type-1. Activin receptor type-1, EC 2.7.11.30 (Activin receptor type I, ACTR-I) (Activin receptor-like kinase ... Activin receptor type-1Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> , ... tr,C9J1R3,C9J1R3_HUMAN Activin receptor type-1 (Fragment) OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=ACVR1 PE=4 SV=1 ...
Activin B is a TGF-β family member that exhibits a wide range of biological activities, including regulation of embryogenesis, ... Activin B, like certain other members of the TGF-β family, signals through the ActRII receptor (Activin Receptor type II). ... Human Activin B is a 25.6 kDa disulfide-linked homodimer consisting of two βB chains, each containing 115 amino acid residues. ... Activin B is a TGF-β family member that exhibits a wide range of biological activities, including regulation of embryogenesis, ...
Author Summary A couple is defined as infertile when failing to become pregnant after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse. Infertility affects more than 10% of couples. The implantation of the embryo in the uterus is one of the most critical steps of pregnancy, and it has been estimated that 75% of pregnancy fails because of peri-implantation defects. An intricate network of molecular pathways regulates the peri-implantation process. It is known that the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathways are part of this network, and herein we investigated how one of the BMP signaling receptors interacts with other factors in the uterus. Our results show an essential and conserved role of this BMP receptor during the implantation of the embryo in mice and humans. Furthermore, we discovered that BMPs act in a linear pathway upstream of two other key regulators of implantation, CEBPB and PGR.
Browse our Activin RIB/ALK-4 Antibodies all backed by our Guarantee+. ... Activin RIB/ALK-4 Antibodies available through Novus Biologicals. ... Alternate Names for Activin RIB/ALK-4 Antibodies. anti-Activin RIB/ALK-4 antibody, anti-ACVR1B antibody, anti-activin A ... Activin RIB/ALK-4 Antibodies. We offer Activin RIB/ALK-4 Antibodies for use in common research applications: Blockade of ...
Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which ... thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALKs). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those ... Song W, Cheng D, Hong S, Sappe B, Hu Y, Wei N, Zhu C, OConnor MB, Pissios P, Perrimon N. Midgut-Derived Activin Regulates ... Lee KL, Lim SK, Orlov YL, Yit le Y, Yang H, Ang LT, Poellinger L, Lim B. Graded Nodal/Activin signaling titrates conversion of ...
Browse our Activin RIB/ALK-4 Lysate catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Activin RIB/ALK-4 Lysates available through Novus Biologicals. ... Activin RIB/ALK-4 Lysates. We offer Activin RIB/ALK-4 Lysates ... Activin RIB/ALK-4 lysate, ACVR1B lysate, activin A receptor, type IB lysate, Activin receptor type IB lysate, Activin receptor- ... Our Activin RIB/ALK-4 Lysates can be used in a variety of model species. Use the list below to choose the Activin RIB/ALK-4 ...
Research aims to uncover the importance of activin receptors for stem cells in driving myelin repair and developing treatments ... This project will explore the role of a molecule called activin-A which has been found to be present in the brain during myelin ... This research aims to uncover the importance of activin receptors for stem cells in driving myelin repair. This is knowledge ... The researchers will be looking to understand further how activin receptors control stem cell behaviour. This will reveal how ...
The role of activin-A has been widely studied in inflammatory cells and a dual role of activin-A in inflammatory responses has ... An imbalance between activin-A and follistatin potentially leads to excess activin-A-mediated inflammatory responses. However, ... Moreover, it is rational to explore the role of activin-A in remodelling as activin-A shares homology and signalling ... activin-A also promotes alveolar epithelial cell death [7]. Hence, it would be worthwhile to explore the role of activin-A in ...
However, follistatin binds to activin A with high affinity, but does not bind TGF-β1 or TGF-β2.32 ,33 Furthermore, activin A ... Overexpression of activin A in the skin of transgenic mice reveals new activities of activin in epidermal morphogenesis, dermal ... Activin A and follistatin immunohistochemistry were performed as described.6 For TGF-β and activin receptor immunostaining ... Activin A, TGF-β, follistatin and activin receptor immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 3 μm formalin- ...
  • As with other members of the superfamily, activins interact with two types of cell surface transmembrane receptors (Types I and II) which have intrinsic serine/threonine kinase activities in their cytoplasmic domains: Activin type 1 receptors: ACVR1, ACVR1B, ACVR1C Activin type 2 receptors: ACVR2A, ACVR2B Activin binds to the Type II receptor and initiates a cascade reaction that leads to the recruitment, phosphorylation, and activation of Type I activin receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activins initiate their cellular responses by binding to their receptors with intrinsic serine/threonine kinase activity and activation of specific downstream intracellular effectors termed Smad proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Activin receptor-like kinase 2 can mediate atrioventricular cushion transformation. (nih.gov)
  • Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity. (harvard.edu)
  • The beta B subunit also exists as a heterodimer to form Activin B. Activin A binds two type I and two type II serine/threonine kinase receptors at the same time. (biolegend.com)
  • The ALKs have approximately 40% sequence identity to activin receptor type II and activin receptor type IIB , transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) type II receptor and Daf-1 in the kinase domains. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The most frequently studied biochemical markers were human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, 8 studies), inhibin A, and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) in 6 studies and [alpha]-fetoprotein (AFP), activin A, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), and placental growth factor (PlGF) in 5 studies. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Recent studies by positional cloning approaches identified 2 causative genes of HHT: HHT1 and HHT2,[6] which encode endoglin and activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1), respectively. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A gene on chromosome 2q22.3 that encodes activin receptor type IIA, a receptor that forms a complex with other type-I and two type-II transmembrane serine/threonine kinase receptors for activin, a dimeric growth and differentiating factor belonging to the TGF-beta superfamily of structurally related signalling proteins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Similar to TGF-β and bone morphogenetic protein, activin signaling involves two types of cell-surface receptors with serine/threonine kinase activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Endothelial cell proliferation, activin A, or its constitutively active activin receptor-like kinase 4 receptor (ALK4T206D), increased the expression of CDKN1A (p21), CDKN2B (p15), and CDKN1B (p27) CDK inhibitors and down-regulated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, the receptor of a key angiogenic factor in cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The ligand/type II receptor complex then recruits, binds, and transphosphorylates the type I receptor, ActR-IB, also known as activin receptor-like kinase 4 (ALK4). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Administration of activin A in mice increased the area of neovascularization, VEGF expression and the kinase activities of p38 and p42/44 MAPKs. (arvojournals.org)
  • Targeted inhibition of activin receptor-like kinase 5 signaling attenuates cardiac dysfunction following myocardial infarction. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We thus aimed to inhibit TGF-beta signaling using a novel orally active TGF-beta type I receptor [activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5)] inhibitor (GW788388) to attenuate left ventricular remodeling and cardiac dysfunction in a rat model of MI. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Activin Receptor-Like Kinase 4(ALK4), Serine/Threonine-Protein Kinase Receptor R2 (SKR2), Activin A Receptor, Type IB (ACTRIB), ACVRLK4, Activin Receptor Type IB. (biolegend.com)
  • Activin A binds two type I and two type II serine/threonine kinase receptors. (biolegend.com)
  • The type I receptors are named activin receptor-like kinases 1 to 7 (ALK1~7) and Activins bind to ALK4 and ALK7.The type II receptor kinase is constitutively active and phosphorylates the type I receptor after the formation of the ligand-receptor complex. (biolegend.com)
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS Activins and inhibins are dimeric polypeptides that belong to the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily and that bind to transmembrane receptors with serine/threonine kinase activity. (bmj.com)
  • We demonstrate, by genetic and pharmacological means, that the TGF-β and BMP9 receptor activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) 1 represents a new therapeutic target for tumor angiogenesis. (rupress.org)
  • The prototypical ligand TGF-β 1 (hereafter referred to as TGF-β) binds to the TGF-β type II receptor (TGF-βRII), with subsequent recruitment of its type I receptors, e.g. the ubiquitously expressed activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) 5. (rupress.org)
  • We identified four variants in the gene ACVR1C , encoding the activin-receptor like kinase 7 receptor expressed on adipocytes and pancreatic beta cells, which independently associated with reduced WHRadjBMI: Asn150His (-0.09 standard deviations, p=3.4*10 -17 ), Ile195Thr (-0.15 SD, p=1.0*10 -9 ), Ile482Val (-0.019 SD, p=1.6*10 -5 ) and rs72927479 (-0.035 SD, p=2.6*10 -12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The protective effect of activin A on cultured myocytes was abolished by treatment with Fstl3 or by a pharmacological activin receptor-like kinase inhibitor. (scialert.net)
  • It was demonstrated that activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK-5) inhibitors are effective in suppressing expression of downstream, scarring-related proteins of transforming growth factor-β in cultured rabbit subconjunctival fibroblasts. (arvojournals.org)
  • The activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK-1) is a type I cell-surface receptor for the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family of proteins. (biologists.org)
  • The biologic activity of activin is mediated by heteromeric receptor complexes consisting of two different types of receptor, the type I receptors (ActRI) and type II receptors (ActRII), which are characterized by an intracellular serine/threonine kinase domain ( 7 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Activin response is initiated by the binding of activin to a pair of specific receptors, designated as activin type I receptor (ActR-I) and activin type II receptor (ActR-II), leading to activation of ActR-I.The signal is transferred to Smad2/3 through the receptor-kinase mediated phosphorylation of Smads. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Activin Receptor Type 1 (Activin Receptor Like Kinase 2 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Receptor R1 or TGF B Superfamily Receptor Type I or ALK2 or ACVR1 or EC 2.7.11.30) pipeline Target constitutes close to 11 molecules. (marketresearch.com)
  • The latest report Activin Receptor Type 1 - Pipeline Review, H1 2018, outlays comprehensive information on the Activin Receptor Type 1 (Activin Receptor Like Kinase 2 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Receptor R1 or TGF B Superfamily Receptor Type I or ALK2 or ACVR1 or EC 2.7.11.30) targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (marketresearch.com)
  • Furthermore, this report also reviews key players involved in Activin Receptor Type 1 (Activin Receptor Like Kinase 2 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Receptor R1 or TGF B Superfamily Receptor Type I or ALK2 or ACVR1 or EC 2.7.11.30) targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (marketresearch.com)
  • Maternal serum total activin A and follistatin in pregnancy and parturition," British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology , vol. 107, no. 8, pp. 995-1000, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • Accordingly, the endogenous activin-A inhibitor follistatin has attracted great interest in view of its ability to counteract activin-A activity. (ersjournals.com)
  • An imbalance between activin-A and follistatin potentially leads to excess activin-A-mediated inflammatory responses. (ersjournals.com)
  • However, the roles of activin-A and follistatin have not yet been established in COPD. (ersjournals.com)
  • In vitro , activin-A expression increased after cigarette smoke exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells, whereas expression of follistatin was reduced. (ersjournals.com)
  • Most intriguingly, this study revealed that inhibition of activin-A signalling by administration of its endogenous inhibitor follistatin, attenuates cigarette smoke-induced production of interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, keratinocyte-derived chemokine and TGF-β 1 , and induces the release of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. (ersjournals.com)
  • Furthermore, activin-A is increased following pulmonary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure and follistatin reduces LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation in mice [ 7 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • Follistatin, an endogenously produced protein, binds activin A with high affinity and inhibits its bioactivity. (bmj.com)
  • Intranasal follistatin (0.05, 0.5, 5 µg) inhibited the airway remodelling and dose-dependently decreased airway activin A and TGF-β1, and allergen-specific T helper 2 cytokine production in the lung-draining lymph nodes. (bmj.com)
  • Follistatin also impaired the loss of TGF-β1 and activin RIB immunostaining in airway epithelium which occurred following chronic allergen challenge. (bmj.com)
  • To determine whether blocking activin A with its naturally occurring antagonist follistatin inhibits asthmatic airway remodelling. (bmj.com)
  • Follistatin instillation during allergen challenge inhibited secretion of activin A and transforming growth factor β1 in the lung, and significantly inhibited subepithelial collagen deposition and airway epithelial mucus production. (bmj.com)
  • Our findings provide insight into the therapeutic potential of follistatin in the control of fibrosis in lung inflammatory disease, and highlight a role for activin A in the regulation of inflammation. (bmj.com)
  • In the zebrafish, the dynamic expression of the activin-inhibin-follistatin system during folliculogenesis and its exclusive localization (except follistatin) in follicle cells suggests that the system plays important roles in follicle development and that its expression is subject to tight controls, probably by external factors including those derived from the oocyte. (bioone.org)
  • Considering their spatiotemporal expression in the follicle, we hypothesized that members of the activin-inhibin-follistatin system in follicle cells could be potential target genes of BMPs. (bioone.org)
  • Our results showed that all activin beta subunits ( inhbaa , inhbab , and inhbb ) were down-regulated by both zfBMP2b and zfBMP4, while follistatin ( fst , an activin-binding protein) and inhibin alpha ( inha, an activin antagonist) were significantly up-regulated. (bioone.org)
  • Activins are involved in differentiation of erythroid precursors and erythroleukemia cell lines, neuronal survival, stimulation of insulin and anterior pituitary hormone secretion, regulation of the menstrual cycle, increasing FSH production and granulosa cell differentiation by binding to follistatin, an FSH release inhibitor. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The transforming growth factor-β superfamily member activin and its antagonist, follistatin, act as a pleiotropic growth factor system that controls cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To further study the role of the activin/follistatin system during angiogenesis and tumor progression, activin- and follistatin-expressing R30C mammary carcinoma cells were studied in mouse tumor experiments. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Surprisingly, activin-expressing tumors grew much faster than follistatin-expressing tumors although they failed to induce increased angiogenesis (as evidenced by low microvessel density counts). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Analysis of activin- and follistatin-expressing R30C cells identified a cell autonomous role of this system in controlling tumor cell growth. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Collectively, the data shed further light into the dichotomous stimulating and inhibiting roles that the activin/follistatin system can exert during angiogenesis and tumor progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Activin signaling is extracellularly regulated by a high-affinity binding protein, follistatin ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Follistatin is a single-chain glycoprotein that exists in two isoforms with different potencies to neutralize the effects of activin ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Activin and follistatin were first isolated from the ovary based on their ability to stimulate and inhibit follicle-stimulating hormone release from the pituitary, respectively ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Follistatin is also widely distributed and expressed in many tissues that synthesize activin ( 9 , 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Therefore, the activin/follistatin system is thought to primarily act as a local growth regulating system controlling proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of many cell types in an autocrine and paracrine manner ( 8 , 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The biological activities of Activin A can be neutralized by inhibins and by the diffusible TGF-beta antagonist, Follistatin. (promocell.com)
  • Follistatin-like 3 (Fstl3) is an extracellular regulator of activin A protein, and its function in the heart is also unknown. (scialert.net)
  • The effects of activin-A on ActRI mRNA levels was blocked by follistatin, an activin binding protein, in a dose-dependent manner. (nih.gov)
  • Cells were incubated for 6 hours in the presence or absence of activin-A (10 ng/ml) alone, or activin-A(10 ng/ml) incombination with increasing concentrations of follistatin (10-100 ng/ml). cPCR was performed to obtain ActRI mRNA levels which were then normalized for β-actin mRNA levels measured by PCR. (nih.gov)
  • The activin-binding protein, follistatin, has been shown to neutralize the effects of activin in several biological systems [24-27]. (nih.gov)
  • To determine the specificity of activin-A action, we examined the effects of increasing concentrations of recombinant human follistatin-288 on activin-A-induced ActRI mRNA levels. (nih.gov)
  • however, when activin-A and follistatin were added to the culture together, the activin-A-stimulated ActRI mRNA levels were decreased. (nih.gov)
  • At the doses of 50 and 100 ng/ml, follistatin-288 completely blocked the effects of activin-A on the ActRI mRNA levels (Fig. 5). (nih.gov)
  • Expression of follistatin, an activin-binding protein, in vascular smooth muscle cells and arteriosclerotic lesions. (ahajournals.org)
  • Here, we studied the expression of follistatin, an activin-binding protein, in both A10 cells, a rat aortic SMC line, and vascular SMCs derived from adult rat aorta. (ahajournals.org)
  • This is the first study to show an increase in the expression of activin βA subunit, type II receptors, follistatin, and iNOS within the human fallopian tube of EP patients who were serologically positive for C. trachomatis . (asm.org)
  • We suggest that tubal activin A, its type II receptors, follistatin, and NO could be involved in the microbial-mediated immune response within the fallopian tube, and their pathological expression may lead to tubal damage and the development of EP. (asm.org)
  • The present study was conducted to investigate the role of the activin-follistatin system in the development of metanephros. (asnjournals.org)
  • Follistatin, an antagonist of activin A was used to clarify the role of endogenous activin A. Exogenous follistatin enlarged the size of cultured metanephroi, increased ureteric bud branching, and promoted cell growth in ureteric bud. (asnjournals.org)
  • Blockade of activin signaling by adenoviral transfection of dominantly negative activin mutant receptor mimics the effect of follistatin. (asnjournals.org)
  • The important modulator of activin action is follistatin ( 10 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Follistatin is synthesized in the target cells of activins and remains in the extracellular matrix ( 13 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, the production of follistatin is regulated by activins. (asnjournals.org)
  • Hence, activin and follistatin modulate cellular functions in a complex manner. (asnjournals.org)
  • Activin/follistatin expression regulation, protein expression of pSmad2 and NF-kB p50 in skin tissue of wounds were analyzed by Real Time PCR, Western blot, immunohistochemistry and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Real Time PCR analysis showed higher mRNA expression of activin/follistatin in diabetic delayed wound versus the wound in normal mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Western Blot immunoassay analysis showed reduction of activin/follistatin proteins levels by SJHY Formula treatment 15 days after injury. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present study found that diabetic delayed wound healing time is closely related to the high expression level of activin/follistatin, which leads to excessive inflammation in the process of re-epithelization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • SJHY Formula accelerates re-epithelialization and healing time of diabetic wounds through decreasing the high expression of activin/follistatin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study thus aimed to explore the effects of the activin A-follistatin system on myocardial cell apoptosis in heart failure (HF) rats in order to determine whether or not the mechanism operates through the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) pathway. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect activin A, follistatin and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) contents in serum. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Immunohistochemical staining for activin A, follistatin, CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP) and caspase-3 was performed on the myocardial tissue. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of activin A, follistatin and ERS-related proteins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Results: It was found that the high expression of activin A could cause activin A-follistatin system imbalance, inducing myocardial cell apoptosis via ERS in vivo. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • When HF developed to a certain stage, the expression of follistatin was upregulated to antagonize the expression of activin A. Activin A inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis with a low concentration and promoted apoptosis with a high concentration in vitro, also via ERS. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Conclusion: Activin A-follistatin system participated in ERS-mediated myocardial cell apoptosis in HF. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Follistatin is widely expressed in various tissues as an extracellular antagonist preventing activin from binding to activin receptor (ActR) [ 16 , 17 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Activin A and follistatin are usually expressed in tissues and organs at the same time. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The imbalance of activin A-follistatin system participates in remodeling and repairing of tissues. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • For instance, a few studies showed that the over-expressed activin A in the skin of transgenic mice led to dermal fibrosis and excessive epidermal incrassation, whereas the over-expressed follistatin distinctly reduced the formation of the scar areas [ 5 , 18 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Activin and inhibin are two closely related protein complexes that have almost directly opposite biological effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activin, inhibin and a number of other structurally related proteins such as anti-Müllerian hormone, bone morphogenetic protein, and growth differentiation factor belong to the TGF-β protein superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activin and inhibin protein complexes are both dimeric in structure, and, in each complex, the two monomers are linked to one another by a single disulfide bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our high-resolution structures of pro-activin A share features seen in the pro-TGF-β1 and pro-BMP-9 structures, but reveal a new oligomeric arrangement, with a domain-swapped, cross-armed conformation for the protomers in the dimeric protein. (nih.gov)
  • Its expression is regulated on the mRNA level by different cytokines, and the biological activity of the protein is tightly controlled by several inhibitory molecules.1 Inhibins and activins are members of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily and are known to modulate the growth and differentiation of several cell types.2 Inhibins and activins inhibit and activate, respectively, the secretion of follitropin by the pituitary gland. (abcam.com)
  • Recombinant protein fragment corresponding to a region within amino acids 267 and 509 of Human Activin receptor type IIA (AAH69707). (abcam.com)
  • Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). (harvard.edu)
  • Notably, regardless of airflow limitation, lung tissues of current smokers had a significantly higher level of activin-A mRNA expression compared with nonsmoker subjects, whereas the increased activin-A protein expression in airway epithelium was specific for COPD. (ersjournals.com)
  • The two curated transcript variants (NM_001105.4 and NM_001111067.2) of ACVR1 encode the same protein of 509 amino acids containing a single transmembrane and three conserved domains (cyan - Activin receptor, blue - TGF-beta and red - Pkinase domains). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • 1993) characterized cDNA clones encoding four putative transmembrane protein serine/threonine kinases, named as activin receptor-like kinases (ALK) -1, -2, -3 and -4. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Activin A Receptor, Type IIB Proteine (34) und Activin A Receptor, Type IIB Kits (2) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Sotatercept, a soluble receptor fusion protein comprised of extracellular domain of the human activin receptor type IIA (ActRIIA) fused to human immunoglobulin, is a biologic therapeutic. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • ACE-011, a soluble form of the activin receptor type IIA (ActRIIA), is a biologic therapeutic that binds to and prevents signaling of several members of the TGF-beta protein super family, and has been shown to stimulate red blood cell production, promote bone formation, and inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The results from the oral presentation titled "ACE-011, A Soluble Activin Receptor Type IIA Fusion Protein, Increases BMD and Improves Microarchitecture in Cynomolgus Monkeys" were presented at The American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR) 29th Annual Meeting held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, September 16 - 19, 2007. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We have previously screened conditioned media from SH-EP007 and WAC2 cells and found that N- MYC overexpression in WAC2 cells down-regulated the expression of activin A, a protein that inhibited proliferation of cultured endothelial cell and angiogenesis in the chorioallantoic membrane assay (7) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Rat Activin-A was lyophilized from a concentrated 1mg/ml protein solution containing 0.02% TFA. (prospecbio.com)
  • Additionally we are shipping Activin A Receptor Type IB Proteins (28) and Activin A Receptor Type IB Kits (6) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Activin A and VEGF corneal protein levels were measured 4, 5 and 8 days later with an ELISA assay. (arvojournals.org)
  • Activin-A protein solution (1mg/ml) contains 20mM Tris pH 8.0 and 10% glycerol. (prospecbio.com)
  • Similar pregnancy test results were carried out other parts of the world with the main focus area being the United Kingdom wherein scientists at Edinburgh University have declared that protein activin B could prove a major key in identifying the results and carrying out appropriate treatment as most cases go unidentified in the first hospital visit. (sbwire.com)
  • The pregnancy test accuracy can be found in the journals of Edinburgh University's test reports where researchers have claimed that women with one aborted pregnancy lack protein activin B when compared to normal pregnancies. (sbwire.com)
  • Human Activin A was lyophilized from a concentrated (1 mg/ml), sterile-filtered protein solution containing 0.10% TFA. (promocell.com)
  • Activin A, a homodimeric protein (βAβA) and a member of the TGF-β superfamily, is involved in the inflammatory repair process. (jimmunol.org)
  • Activin A was present in the cytoplasm of activated but not unstimulated murine bone marrow MC as demonstrated by immunofluorescence studies, suggesting that secretion of activin A by MC was due to de novo synthesis rather than secretion of preformed protein. (jimmunol.org)
  • The mutated ACVR1 receptor, expressed in cultured cells, responded to activin as well as to its natural ligand, bone morphogenetic protein. (sciencemag.org)
  • Overexpression of activin A with an adenoviral vector (Ad-actβA) or treatment with recombinant activin A protein protected cultured myocytes from hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis. (scialert.net)
  • In humans, a major player in setting up and maintaining reproductive machinery is activin A. It is a heterodimeric protein that is a member of the TGF Beta family (Figure 1). (ptglab.com)
  • There are 2 distinct arms downstream of the TGF-β superfamily ligands-the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and activin/TGF-β signaling pathways-and these 2 responses can oppose one another's effects, most notably in disease states. (jaoa.org)
  • When expressed alone in test cells, Atr-I is unable to bind TGF-beta, activin, or bone morphogenetic protein 2. (asm.org)
  • Publications] Ishisaki,A.: 'Differential inhibition of Smad6 and Smad7 on bone morphogenetic protein- and activin-mediated growth arrest and apoptosis of B cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Human Activin A is a recombinant protein optimized for use in cell culture, differentiation studies, and functional assays. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • To investigate the expression and function of specific Type I TGFbeta receptors during AV cushion transformation, we cloned and characterized the chicken homologues of two mammalian activin receptor-like kinases (ALK), ALK2 and ALK5, and generated specific, polyclonal antibodies against the extracellular binding domains of each. (nih.gov)
  • Type I receptors are referred to as the Activin Receptor-like Kinases (ALKs), while the type II receptors are named for the ligands they bind. (rndsystems.com)
  • The type I receptors are named activin receptor-like kinases 1 to 7 (ALK1-7), and Activins bind to ALK4 and ALK7. (biolegend.com)
  • Inhibin is also a dimer wherein the first component is a beta subunit similar or identical to the beta subunit in activin. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in contrast to activin, the second component of the inhibin dimer is a more distantly-related alpha subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • A fifth subunit, activin βD, has been described in Xenopus laevis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two activin βA subunits give rise to activin A, one βA, and one βB subunit gives rise to activin AB, and so on. (wikipedia.org)
  • The βC subunit is able to form activin heterodimers with βA or βB subunits but is unable to dimerize with inhibin α. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibin/activin subunit mRNA expression in human granulosa-luteal cells. (nih.gov)
  • We studied the expression of inhibin/activin subunit mRNAs in granulosa-luteal cells of preovulatory ovarian follicles obtained from women undergoing in vitro fertilization, and in corpus luteum tissue samples of early pregnancy. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibins/activins are involved in regulating a number of diverse functions such as hypothalamic and pituitary hormone secretion, gonadal hormone secretion, germ cell development and maturation, erythroid differentiation, insulin secretion, nerve cell survival, embryonic axial development or bone growth, depending on their subunit composition. (abcam.com)
  • the beta A subunit binds the beta B subunit of inhibin to form Activin AB. (biolegend.com)
  • Activin beta A subunit is expressed in bovine oviduct. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Likewise, capillary endothelial cells express the activin βA subunit in a number of human tissues ( 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Activins are homodimers or heterodimers of the different β subunit isoforms, part of the TGFβ family. (prospecbio.com)
  • Types include: Activin type 1 receptors Activin type 2 receptors These proteins are receptor-type kinases of Ser/Thr type, which have a single transmembrane domain and a specific hydrophilic Cys-rich ligand-binding domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also describe the basis for biological activity of activin receptor ligand traps, novel fusion proteins such as luspatercept that are promising as erythroid maturation agents to alleviate anemia and related comorbidities in MDSs and other conditions characterized by impaired erythroid maturation. (jci.org)
  • Activins, members of the TGF-beta superfamily, are disulfide-linked dimeric proteins originally purified from gonadal fluids as proteins that stimulated pituitary follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) release. (slideserve.com)
  • Activins are dimeric growth and differentiation factors which belong to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of structurally related signaling proteins. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Activin A is a member of the TGF-β1 family which includes TGFs, activins, Nodal, growth and differentiation factors (GDF), and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). (biolegend.com)
  • A second compound in a new class of activin receptor proteins, ACE-536, is under investigation to treat beta-thalassemia, a blood disorder characterized by reduced hemoglobin production. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Myostatin and activin A are structurally related secreted proteins that act to limit skeletal muscle growth. (pnas.org)
  • ACE-011, a soluble form of the activin receptor type IIA (ActRIIA), is a biologic therapeutic agent that inhibits signaling through the ActRIIA receptor, a member of the Growth and Differentiation Factor (GDF) family of proteins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Activin A, a homodimer of two inhibin βA subunits, is a member of the activin/inhibin family, which in turn belongs to the large transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily of proteins (8) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Several members of the TGF-β growth factor superfamily, including Activin, Vg1 and Nodal-related proteins are responsible for the induction of mesoderm and endoderm germ layers as well as for the subsequent patterning of the embryo ( Schier, 2003 ). (biologists.org)
  • These proteins have been shown to limit the spatial or temporal extent of the response to Activin/Nodal signaling in vertebrate embryos. (biologists.org)
  • 40 distinct TGF members have been identified in vertebrates and they are generally divided into two branches, the TGF /activin/nodals and the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). (biolegend.com)
  • 30 secreted cytokines in mammals, including TGF-βs, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), activins, and growth and differentiation factors. (rupress.org)
  • The transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily is a large group of signaling molecules that includes TGF-βs, activins, growth differentiation factors (GDFs), and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). (jaoa.org)
  • Activins are dimeric proteins, and subunits of activin are expressed in various organs ( 9 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • As an intracellular mediator of activin signaling, the Smad proteins have been identified ( 7 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Activins and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) elicit diverse biological responses by signaling through two pairs of structurally related types I and II receptors. (monash.edu)
  • Identified in 1986, activin enhances FSH biosynthesis and secretion, and participates in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results of the present study indicated that Activin A induced estradiol secretion and P450arom expression in endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) derived from endometriosis patients. (hindawi.com)
  • Cumulatively, these data suggest that Activin A promotes the secretion of estradiol from ESCs by increasing the expression of P450arom via the ALK4-Smad pathway. (hindawi.com)
  • Activin B is a TGF-β family member that exhibits a wide range of biological activities, including regulation of embryogenesis, osteogenesis, hematopoiesis, reproductive physiology and hormone secretion from the hypothalamic, pituitary and gonadal glands. (peprotech.com)
  • Activin A was initially identified in ovarian fluid as a stimulator of FSH secretion from anterior pituitary cells. (biolegend.com)
  • Activin A effects on insulin secretion and inflammation were tested in human pancreatic islet cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In vitro treatment with activin A increased VEGF secretion, as well as p38 and p42/44 MAPK activity in corneal epithelial and microvascular endothelial cells, whereas concurrent administration of specific inhibitors of p38 or p42/44 MAPK abolished the stimulatory effect of activin A on VEGF production. (arvojournals.org)
  • Secretion of activin A was evident in human mast cell-1 line cells 3 h after stimulation and progressively increased over time. (jimmunol.org)
  • Furthermore, secretion of activin A was significantly increased in the airway of wild-type mice after OVA sensitization followed by intranasal challenge. (jimmunol.org)
  • Secretion of activin A, however, was greatly reduced in MC-deficient WBB6F 1 - W/W v mice as compared with wild-type mice, indicating that MC are an important contributor of activin A in the airways of a murine asthma model. (jimmunol.org)
  • Activin, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, is an important modulator of follicle-stimulating hormone synthesis and secretion in the pituitary and plays autocrine/paracrine roles in the regulation of ovarian follicle development. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Activin is a dimer composed of two identical or very similar beta subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, four beta subunits have been described, called activin βA, activin βB, activin βC and activin βE. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activin βA and βB are identical to the two beta subunits of inhibin. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, four beta subunits have been described, called activin β A , activin β B , activin β C and activin β E . Activin β A and β B are identical to the two beta subunits of inhibin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activins are homodimers or heterodimers of different β subunits. (peprotech.com)
  • We also measured concentrations of plasma activin A. Activin A is a glycoprotein composed of 2 [beta]A subunits that belong to the transforming growth factor-[beta] superfamily of differentiation factors and is expressed in the central nervous system (8). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Mature Activin A has two 116 amino acids residues βA subunits (βA-βA). (prospecbio.com)
  • The aim of this study was to characterise, in colon cancer cell lines and in normal and malignant human colon tissues, levels of expression of inhibin subunits that are involved in activin/inhibin dimer formation, and of the type I and II activin receptors (actRI and actRII). (bmj.com)
  • METHODS Expression of inhibin subunits and activin receptors was analysed by northern blot analysis. (bmj.com)
  • Recombinant, human activin A (disulfide-linked homodimer of two 116-amino acid residue βA subunits) expressed in CHO cells. (merckmillipore.com)
  • Activin A binds to the two forms of activin receptor type I (Act RI-A and Act RI-B) and two forms of activin receptor type II (Act RII-A and Act RII-B). Activins are homodimers or heterodimers of different β subunits. (biovendor.com)
  • Activins, a transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family, are homo- or heterodimers of inhibin β subunits (INHβA, INHβB). (jcancer.org)
  • It consists of two disulfide-linked activin β subunits (βA-βD) [ 1 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • found that a week of withdrawal after a period of cocaine self-administration in rats increased the abundance of Activin receptor 2a (ACVR2a) and phosphorylation of its downstream mediator, the transcription factor SMAD3, specifically in NAc neurons. (sciencemag.org)
  • Activin first binds the type II receptor (ACVR2A, ACVR2B) and this complex then interacts with the type I receptor (ACVR1B, ACVR1C) (Attisano et al. (reactome.org)
  • Activin is a member of the TGF-beta superfamily and has various effects on diverse biological systems. (nih.gov)
  • Activin A is a homodimer of 14kDa beta-A. Activin A, a cytokine member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, is expressed locally by the mesenchymal component of the hemopoietic microenvironment. (abcam.com)
  • Activin-A, a member of the TGF-β superfamily, is an important regulator of embryonic development, haematopoiesis and a broad range of tightly regulated biological processes, including immunity and tissue repair [ 5 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • Accumulating evidence convincingly demonstrates that activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily, is a key driver of airway inflammation, but its role in chronic asthmatic airway remodelling is ill-defined. (bmj.com)
  • Activins are members of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily of growth factors and the three best studied isoforms are activin A, activin B, and activin AB. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, we analyzed whether the Activin branch of the TGF-β superfamily also contributes to NMJ development and function. (plos.org)
  • The TGF-β superfamily is evolutionally conserved and ligands of both the BMP and Activin/TGF-β sub-branches, as well as all canonical signal transduction components for each branch, are found in Drosophila, but with less redundancy than found in most vertebrate systems (reviewed in [11] ). (plos.org)
  • Activin A is a dimeric glycoprotein that belongs to the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily and is involved in the pathogenesis of proliferative membrane formation in both ischemic and nonischemic vitreoretinal diseases. (arvojournals.org)
  • Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily, is best characterized for its function during embryogenesis in mesoderm cell fate differentiation and reproduction. (mdpi.com)
  • Activin, a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF-β) superfamily, induces mesoderm , endoderm and neuro- ectoderm formation in Xenopus embryos. (xenbase.org)
  • In addition, one member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, activin A, shares a selective overlap with the neuropoietic family in the spectrum of neuropeptides that it induces in sympathetic neurons. (caltech.edu)
  • Activin A, Human, Recombinant, is a member of the TGF-β superfamily that is involved in the negative regulation of B lineage lymphocytes. (merckmillipore.com)
  • Activins are members of the TGF-β superfamily and have been shown to play an important role in the regulation of homonogenesis, cellular homeostasis, and differentiation programs. (merckmillipore.com)
  • Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, has been shown to play a role in the neuroprotection of midbrain neurons against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in vitro, suggesting that activin A may offer similar neuroprotective effects in in vivo models of PD. (garvan.org.au)
  • Activin A belongs to the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily. (cellgenix.com)
  • Activin is a subgroup of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Activin A is a member of the TGF-β superfamily and is involved in a wide range of biological processes like growth and differentiation of several tissues. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Intra-accumbal injection of Activin A increased cocaine self-administration after withdrawal in rats, whereas injection of Activin receptor antagonist SB-43152 decreased self-administration. (sciencemag.org)
  • Publications] Ohguchi,M.: 'Activin A regulates the production of mature interleukin-1β and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist in human monocytic cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Activin A has been associated with neuroprotection, apoptosis, and fibrosis. (biolegend.com)
  • Activins are involved in all stages of the cell cycle: proliferation, differentiation, metabolism, homeostasis, and death (apoptosis), as well as immune response and tissue repair-activins A and B are highly expressed during wound repair and healing, and have yin-yang relationship with inhibin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • After activin binding, type-I receptors phosphorylate cytoplasmic SMAD transcription factors, which then translocate to the nucleus and interact directly with DNA or in complex with other transcription factors, playing roles in cell differentiation, growth arrest and apoptosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • ACVR1C, also known as ALK7, is a type I activin receptor and plays a role in cell differentiation, growth arrest and apoptosis. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • In this research project, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which activin-A induced growth arrest and apoptosis using HS-72 mouse hybridoma cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 1) Activin-signals for growth arrest and apoptosis were mediated through ActR-IB but not ActR-I and overexpression of ActR-I inhibited these activin-effects mediated through ActR-JB. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 2) Both activin-induced growth arrest and apoptosis were mediated by phosphorylation of Smad2. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 4) Smad7 was an activin-inducible gene product and negatively regulated activin-induced growth arrest and apoptosis by inhibiting Smad2 phosphorylation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Ishisaki,A.: 'Smad7 is an activin-inducible inhibitor of activin-induced growth arrest and apoptosis in mouse B cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Hashimoto,O.: 'The role of activin typeI receptors in activin A-induced growth arrest and apoptosis in HS-72 B cell hybridoma cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Koseki,T.: 'Accumulation of Bcl-Xs in mouse B cell hybridoma cells during activin A-mediated apoptosis. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Background: A previous study suggested that activin A inhibited myocardial cell apoptosis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The activin A-stimulated apoptosis of H9c2 cells was tested by flow cytometry. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Activin A can cause apoptosis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • For example, activin A can inhibit DNA synthesis induced by mitogen, so as to inhibit the growth of liver cells and proliferation of liver [ 19 ] and induce liver cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo [ 20 , 21 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cell apoptosis was activin A dose dependent within a certain range. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A recent study, however, has suggested that activin A could inhibit acute ischemia- and hypoxia-induced myocardial cell apoptosis [ 22 ], proving that activin A could induce or inhibit apoptosis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • At the same time, whether activin A inhibits myocardial cell apoptosis after chronic damage such as heart failure (HF) after myocardial infarction (MI) needs to be confirmed. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Activins signal through a heteromeric complex of receptor serine kinases which include at least two type I and two type II receptors. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Two distinct transmembrane serine/threonine kinases from Drosophila melanogaster form an activin receptor complex. (asm.org)
  • Here we describe a potent myostatin inhibitor, a soluble form of the activin type IIB receptor (ACVR2B), which can cause dramatic increases in muscle mass (up to 60% in 2 weeks) when injected into wild-type mice. (pnas.org)
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that myostatin is capable of binding the two activin type II receptors, ACVR2B and, to a lesser extent, ACVR2, in transfected COS cells ( 11 , 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • Because the activin type II receptors have been shown to be capable of binding a number of other TGF-β family members in addition to myostatin (for review, see ref. 18 ), we examined the effect of administering a soluble form of ACVR2B (ACVR2B/Fc) to adult mice. (pnas.org)
  • Myostatin, GDF-11/BMP-11, and activin activities were measured by using the pGL3-(CAGA) 12 -luciferase reporter assay in A204 rhabdomyosarcoma cells as described in ref. 12 . (pnas.org)
  • The cellular targets for myostatin and activin A in muscle and the role of satellite cells in mediating muscle hypertrophy induced by inhibition of this signaling pathway have not been fully elucidated. (pnas.org)
  • Here we show that myostatin/activin A inhibition can cause muscle hypertrophy in mice lacking either syndecan4 or Pax7, both of which are important for satellite cell function and development. (pnas.org)
  • Finally, we show that genetic ablation of Acvr2b , which encodes a high-affinity receptor for myostatin and activin A specifically in myofibers is sufficient to induce muscle hypertrophy. (pnas.org)
  • All of these findings are consistent with satellite cells playing little or no role in myostatin/activin A signaling in vivo and render support that inhibition of this signaling pathway can be an effective therapeutic approach for increasing muscle growth even in disease settings characterized by satellite cell dysfunction. (pnas.org)
  • Exercise and blocking of myostatin/activin signaling may independently or combined counteract muscle wasting and dystrophies. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The effects of myostatin/activin blocking using soluble activin receptor-Fc (sActRIIB-Fc) administration and wheel running were tested alone or in combination for 7 weeks in dystrophic mdx mice. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In conclusion, exercise alone or in combination with myostatin/activin blocking corrects aerobic gene expression profiles of dystrophic muscle toward healthy wild type mice profiles. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The complex myostatin/activin type I receptor (ALK4) is a mediator of muscle atrophy and muscle regeneration. (biolegend.com)
  • Myostatin/activin blocking increases skeletal muscle mass but may decrease muscle oxidative capacity and can thus be hypothesized to affect voluntary physical activity. (lu.se)
  • Soluble activin receptor IIB (sActRIIB-Fc) was produced to block myostatin/activins. (lu.se)
  • These results show that increased muscle size and decreased markers of oxidative capacity and autophagy during the first weeks of myostatin/activin blocking are associated with decreased voluntary activity levels. (lu.se)
  • Oxidative stress, Toll-like receptor ligands and inflammatory cytokines stimulate the expression and production of activin-A, which in turn regulates inflammatory cytokine release, explaining its role in inflammatory responses [ 7 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • On one hand, activin-A promotes alveolar cell death and stimulates the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6. (ersjournals.com)
  • Activin A is induced by inflammatory cytokines and inhibited by glucocorticoids. (biolegend.com)
  • 3 ) In islet cells, activin A attenuated the suppressive effect of inflammatory cytokines on insulin release, counteracted the ability of these inflammatory cytokines to induce mRNA expression of IL-8, and induced the expression of transforming growth factor-β. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We reasoned that the phosphorylation state and subcellular localization of Smad2, the intracellular effector of TGF-beta/activin-mediated signaling, could be used as a marker of active signaling mediated by these cytokines in situ. (diva-portal.org)
  • A Activin A specific mouse monoclonal antibody has been precoated onto 96-well plates. (abcam.com)
  • A biotinylated detection polyclonal antibody from goat, specific for Activin A is then added followed by washing with PBS or TBS buffer. (abcam.com)
  • Each Activin RIB/ALK-4 Antibody is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you need it. (novusbio.com)
  • Choose from our Activin RIB/ALK-4 polyclonal antibodies and browse our Activin RIB/ALK-4 monoclonal antibody catalog. (novusbio.com)
  • To investigate the effect of activin A on inflammatory corneal neovascularization and VEGF expression, we implanted mice with osmotic pumps containing either recombinant activin A, or a neutralizing antibody against activin A. The area of neovascularization was quantified on day 7. (arvojournals.org)
  • Release of activin A and potential anti-inflammatory effects of activin A were measured in human endothelial cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thus, the effects of activin A on endothelial cell proliferation seem to be conveyed via the ALK4/SMAD2-SMAD3 pathways, however, non-SMAD cascades may also contribute. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The direct effects of activin A on VEGF expression were investigated in vitro in corneal epithelial and microvascular endothelial cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • ACVR1C plays an important role in regulating the functional plasticity of pancreatic islets, negatively affecting beta-cell function by mediating the effects of activin B on Ca2+ signaling. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Finally, we provide genetic evidence that these ligands signal through both activin type II receptors, ACVR2 and ACVR2B, to regulate muscle growth in vivo . (pnas.org)
  • Consistent with their roles in post-mitotic neuronal development and synaptic modulation, the ligands and signaling components of the BMP and Activin/TGF-β subfamilies are widely expressed in the mammalian adult brain and components of both subfamilies are often co-expressed in multiple sectors of the brain with particular enrichment found in the CA and DG hippocampal subregions [6] - [10] . (plos.org)
  • Coexpression of BMP and Activin ligands and likely co-activation of both pathways in specific regions of the brain raises an intriguing question as to how these two pathways divide their roles in controlling neuronal development and function. (plos.org)
  • Activin Recptor 1B (ALK-4) interacts with different ligands. (biolegend.com)
  • We find that the Activin receptor Baboon is required in R8 to receive non-redundant signaling from the three Activin ligands, activating the transcription factor dSmad2. (elifesciences.org)
  • As a consequence of the broad range of activities of activins and BMPs, it is perhaps not surprising that additional mechanisms are continually being discovered through which a cell's responsiveness to these ligands is modulated. (monash.edu)
  • Negative regulation of activin signal occurs at the extracellular, membrane, cytoplasmic and nuclear levels. (nih.gov)
  • Activin-recp domain: a specific hydrophilic Cys-rich ligand-binding domain characterized by 9 amino acid cysteine box, with the consensus CCX{4-5}CN and 7 extracellular residues preceding the cysteine box. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The spacing of extracellular cysteines and the cytoplasmic domain of Atr-I resemble most closely those of the recently described mammalian type I receptors for TGF-beta and activin. (asm.org)
  • Here, we summarize recent advances in understanding the mode of action of activins and BMPs, focusing on our elucidation of the crystal structure of BMP-7 in complex with the extracellular domain (ECD) of the activin type II receptor and our identification of a binding site for activin on the type I receptor ALK4. (monash.edu)
  • In this review, we describe novel ways in which the two extracellular cofactors, betaglycan and Cripto, regulate BMP and/or activin signal transduction. (monash.edu)
  • Abcam's Human Activin A in vitro ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is designed for the accurate quantitative measurement of Human Activin A in cell culture supernatants, serum, plasma (heparin, EDTA) and saliva. (abcam.com)
  • Activin A drives Th9 differentiation in vitro . (biolegend.com)
  • Activin inhibits fibroblast growth factor 2-induced sprouting angiogenesis in vitro (spheroidal angiogenesis assay) and in vivo (Matrigel assay). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recent findings from both in vitro and in vivo studies also emphasize that the BMP and Activin/TGF-β pathways play important roles in the development of post-mitotic neurons, including neurite and dendritic outgrowth, modulation of synaptic physiology, and regulation of cognitive behavior (reviewed in [5] . (plos.org)
  • Activin-induced neurons also exhibit appropriate striatal-like electrophysiology in vitro . (biologists.org)
  • Detailed characterization of ES cell-derived endodermal cell types by gene expression analysis in vitro and functional analysis in vivo reveal that, despite their similarity in gene expression, Nodal and Activin-derived endodermal cells exhibit a distinct difference in functional competence following transplantation into the developing mouse embryo. (harvard.edu)
  • The data showed that the effect of Activin A on ESCs was partially abrogated by pretreatment with an inhibitor of ALK4 (the type I receptor, ActRIB) and Smad4-siRNA. (hindawi.com)
  • ACVR1C can mediate signaling by ligans such as Nodal, GDF-1/3, activin B and activin AB, all of which can also signal through the ubiquitous activin type I receptor ACVR1B (also known as ALK4). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Here, we review the latest advances in activin signal transduction. (nih.gov)
  • Lee KL, Lim SK, Orlov YL, Yit le Y, Yang H, Ang LT, Poellinger L, Lim B. Graded Nodal/Activin signaling titrates conversion of quantitative phospho-Smad2 levels into qualitative embryonic stem cell fate decisions. (harvard.edu)
  • Activin/Nodal signaling is essential for germ-layer formation and axial patterning during embryogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • Ectopic expression of XSRF RNA suppresses mesoderm induction, both in the marginal zone in vivo and caused by Activin/Nodal signals in animal caps. (biologists.org)
  • Activin A is a related TGFβ member that acts through many of the same downstream signaling effectors as Nodal and is thought to mimic Nodal activity. (harvard.edu)
  • These findings were further validated in vivo , demonstrating that cigarette smoke induces marked expression of activin-A in the lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of mice. (ersjournals.com)
  • Systemic inhibition of activin A in vivo reduced the area of neovascularization, VEGF expression and p38 and p42/44 MAPK activity. (arvojournals.org)
  • Our data illustrate the usefulness of antiphosphorylated Smad antibodies in demonstrating active TGF- beta/activin-mediated signaling in vivo and strongly suggest that activin/Smad-mediated signaling could be a critical contributor in the pathophysiology of allergic pulmonary diseases. (diva-portal.org)
  • The receptors for Activin A are expressed by many stromal cells, among them fibroblasts, hepatocytes, myometral cells, vascular endothelial cells, and neuronal progenitor cells. (biolegend.com)
  • 2 ) In endothelial cells, glucose enhanced the release of activin A, whereas activin A attenuated the release of interleukin (IL)-8 and enhanced the mRNA levels of the antioxidant metallothionein. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Correspondingly, recombinant activin A inhibits proliferation of cultured endothelial cells ( 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In agreement with the decreased vascularity of the xenograft tumors, activin A inhibited several crucial angiogenic responses of cultured endothelial cells, such as proteolytic activity, migration, and proliferation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • TGF-β, activins, and growth differentiation factors exert inhibitory effects on red cell formation by activating canonical SMAD2/3 pathway signaling. (jci.org)
  • Activin binds the Activin receptor and triggers downstream events: phosphorylation of SMAD2 and SMAD3 followed by activation of gene expression (reviewed in Attisano et al. (reactome.org)
  • The activated activin type I receptor phosphorylates Smad2 and Smad3, which in turn form a complex with the co-Smad, Smad4 (common mediator Smad4). (aacrjournals.org)
  • SRF interacts with Smad2 and FAST-1, and inhibits the formation of the Smad2-FAST-1 complex induced by Activin. (biologists.org)
  • 2020), Dusp1 modulates activin/smad2 mediated germ lay. (xenbase.org)
  • Dusp1 modulates activin/smad2 mediated germ layer specification via FGF signal inhibition in Xenopus embryos. (xenbase.org)
  • We identified expression of various fibroblast growth factor (FGF) genes in activin/ smad2 treated animal cap explants (AC) of Xenopus embryos. (xenbase.org)
  • Activin/ smad2 increased fgf3/8 expression, which was reduced by co-injection of dominant negative activin receptor (DNAR) and dominant negative Fgf receptor (DNFR). (xenbase.org)
  • Interestingly, activin/ smad2 also increased expression of dual specificity phosphatase 1 (dusp1) which has been known to inhibit Fgf signaling. (xenbase.org)
  • In addition, dusp1 decreased the reporter gene activities of activin response element (ARE) and increased it for bmp response element (BRE), indicating that dusp1 modulates two opposite morphogen signaling of dorsal (activin/ Smad2 ) and ventral (bmp/ Smad1 ) tracks, acting to fine tune the Fgf/ Erk pathway. (xenbase.org)
  • Ectopic expression of Activin, Smad2 , and Fgfs in AC. (xenbase.org)
  • The phosphorylated Smad2/3 form hetero-oligomers with Smad4, translocate to the nucleus and transactivate genes executing activin effects. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The role of activin-A has been widely studied in inflammatory cells and a dual role of activin-A in inflammatory responses has been proposed. (ersjournals.com)
  • OBJECTIVE On the basis of the role of activin A in inflammation, atherogenesis, and glucose homeostasis, we investigated whether activin A could be related to glucometabolic abnormalities in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These results provide novel information regarding the role of activin A in the malignant transformation process of neuroblastomas and the molecular mechanisms involved in regulating angiogenesis thereof. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We examined the role of activin A in inflammatory corneal neovascularization. (arvojournals.org)
  • In recent years, a significant amount of research has examined the controversial role of activin A in cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • Investigations into the role of activin A in prostate and breast cancer has demonstrated tumor suppressive effects, while in lung and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, it has been consistently shown that activin A expression is correlated with increased proliferation, invasion and poor patient prognosis. (mdpi.com)
  • This was accompanied by strong upregulation of the activin receptor ALK-4/ActR-IB and redistribution of the TGF-beta responsive ALK-5/TbetaR-I. Although levels of TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, and TGF-beta3 messenger RNA (mRNA) were marginally altered, the level of activin mRNA was strongly upregulated during the inflammatory response. (diva-portal.org)
  • To further examine the role and signaling mechanism of activin in regulating placental function, the steady-state level of activin type I receptor (ActRI) mRNA in immortalized extravillous trophoblasts (IEVT) cells was measured using competitive PCR (cPCR). (nih.gov)
  • Food-seeking behavior was unaffected by pharmacological modulation of Activin signaling or altering SMAD3 abundance, suggesting a specific effect of Activin-SMAD3 signaling on behaviors associated with drug addiction. (sciencemag.org)
  • In contrast, mRNA levels of interferon gamma receptor 1 (IFNGR1), activin A receptor, type 1 (ACVR1), and activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) all exhibited downregulation in study subjects of the high-level arsenic exposure group. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Inhibins appear to oppose the functions of activins. (abcam.com)
  • Activins and Inhibins: Roles in Development, Physiology, and Disease. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Using cDNA microarray analysis, we discovered strong induction of the activin β A gene in human mast cells (MC) on stimulation with PMA and calcium ionophore (A23187). (jimmunol.org)
  • Activin regulates estrogen receptor gene expression in the mouse ovary. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This gene encodes an activin A type IB receptor. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Activin A is used in the cell and gene therapy space to promote differentiation of ESCs and iPSCs into definitive endoderm, and for the maintenance and self-renewal of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). (cellgenix.com)
  • Dominant-negative mutant or antisense morpholino oligonucleotide-mediated inhibition of XSRF function expands the expression of mesendodermal genes toward the ectodermal territory and enhances the inducing activity of the Activin signal. (biologists.org)
  • Figure 2 - The activity of HumanKine® Activin A was determined by the dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation of the MPC11 cell line (mouse plasmacytoma cell line) using Promega CellTiter96® Aqueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay. (ptglab.com)
  • The activity of GMP rh Activin A was measured by inhibition of MPC-11 cell proliferation. (cellgenix.com)
  • The inhibition assay was calibrated with the reference reagent for human Activin A (NIBSC code 91/626) provided by the WHO/National Institute for Biological Standards and Control. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • The mechanism of estrogenic synthesis was regulated by the Activin-Smad pathway in endometrial lesions. (hindawi.com)
  • Activin A acts in paracrine and autocrine mechanisms, binding to its cognate receptor and exerting downstream effects through the Smad pathway (Figure 2). (ptglab.com)
  • of these, Smad-2 and Smad-3 mediate the activin signals. (asnjournals.org)
  • Single serum activin A testing to predict ectopic pregnancy," The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism , vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 1748-1753, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • Serum activin A levels are lower in tubal than intrauterine spontaneously conceived pregnancies," Gynecological Endocrinology , vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 391-395, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Maternal serum activin A levels in association with intrauterine fetal growth restriction. (biomedsearch.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess maternal serum activin A as a potential marker of fetal growth restriction. (biomedsearch.com)
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Maternal serum activin A levels. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Maternal serum activin A may be useful in the assessment of the small for gestational age fetus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Objective: To evaluate the use of serum activin A concentration, measured on the first day of life, as a predictor for the development of intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm neonates. (iospress.com)
  • Serum activin A (μg/L) was assessed for all preterm infants within the first 24 hours of life. (iospress.com)
  • There was no significant correlation between serum activin A concentration and gestational age or birth weight. (iospress.com)
  • Serum activin A cutoff value 2 μg/L could differentiate preterm with IVH from preterm without IVH. (iospress.com)
  • Conclusion: Serum activin A concentration could be a useful predictor for intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants. (iospress.com)
  • An Activin receptor is a receptor which binds activin. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, Atr-I binds activin efficiently when coexpressed with the distantly related Drosophila activin receptor Atr-II, with which it forms a heteromeric complex. (asm.org)
  • The standard product used in this kit is recombinant Activin A, which is composed of two single chains of 116 amino acids with the molecular mass of 26KDa. (abcam.com)
  • Recombinant Activin A has been purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques. (promocell.com)
  • Activin A is a TGF-β family member that exhibits a wide range of biological activities, including regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation, and promotion of neuronal survival. (peprotech.com)
  • We offer Activin RIB/ALK-4 Antibodies for use in common research applications: Blockade of Receptor-ligand Interaction, ELISA, Flow Cytometry, Immunohistochemistry, Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin, Proximity Ligation Assay, Sandwich ELISA, Western Blot. (novusbio.com)
  • Furthermore, a mutation in actβ , an Activin-like ligand that is strongly expressed in motor neurons, phenocopies babo and smox loss-of-function alleles. (plos.org)
  • Unexpectedly, for heterotypic ossification, the receptor required stimulation by the endogenous ligand activin. (sciencemag.org)
  • Activin β A mRNA was also highly induced in primary cultured murine bone marrow MC (BMMC) after stimulation by IgE receptor cross-linking. (jimmunol.org)
  • Human Activin B is a 25.6 kDa disulfide-linked homodimer consisting of two βB chains, each containing 115 amino acid residues. (peprotech.com)
  • Recombinant human Activin A is a disulfide bond linked homodimer. (biolegend.com)
  • Human/Murine/Rat Activin A is a 26.0 kDa disulfide-linked homodimer of two βA chains, each containing 116 amino acid residues. (biovendor.com)
  • Activin B, a homodimer of inhibin beta b (INHBB), is a multifunctional cytokine belonging to the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family. (jcancer.org)
  • Activin A increased the expression level of type-I collagen suggesting that activin A acts as a potent activator of fibroblasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • We previously found that the expression of Activin A was upregulated in the peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis. (hindawi.com)
  • Indeed, neuroblastoma cells with restored activin A expression exhibited a diminished proliferation rate and formed smaller xenograft tumors with reduced vascularity, whereas lung metastasis rate remained unchanged. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Activin A expression increased steadily from day 4 until day 8 after the mechanical debridement, paralleling VEGF expression. (arvojournals.org)
  • Inhibin βA and activin receptor expression were also assessed by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (bmj.com)
  • Of importance, normal post-natal expression of activin A has been implicated in the migration and invasive properties of various immune cell types, as well as endometrial cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Activin A induced the expression of Bcl-2, and ablation of Bcl-2 by small interfering RNA abrogated its protective action in myocytes. (scialert.net)
  • 3) Activin-A induced growth arrest by activating p2lCIPl/WAF1 expression. (nii.ac.jp)
  • However, we found no corresponding protection of striatal DA or dopamine transporter (DAT) expression levels in animals receiving activin A compared to vehicle controls. (garvan.org.au)
  • Human Activin A, amino acids (Gly311-Ser426) (Accession# M13436), was expressed in E. coli . (biolegend.com)
  • Active form Activin-A Rat Recombinant produced in e.coli is a homodimeric, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 2 x 117 amino acids and having a molecular weight of 26.2kDa. (prospecbio.com)
  • Activin-A Human Recombinant produced in E.coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 137 amino acids (311-426) and having a molecular mass of 15.2kDa. (prospecbio.com)
  • Human Activin R1B amino acids (Leu32 - Glu126) (Accession # AAA60556) was expressed in CHO cells. (biolegend.com)
  • Activin also regulates the morphogenesis of branching organs such as the prostate, lung, and especially kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activin-A up-regulates type I activin receptor mRNA levels in human immortalized extravillous trophoblast cells. (nih.gov)
  • Activins are dimers comprising activin A (INHBA:INHBA), activin AB (INHBA:INHBB), and activin B (INHBB:INHBB). (reactome.org)
  • To investigate whether activin B is related to EMT, we examined the expressions of EMT-related genes and found that INHBB was related closely to EMT. (jcancer.org)
  • Activin is strongly expressed in wounded skin, and overexpression of activin in epidermis of transgenic mice improves wound healing and enhances scar formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Systemic overexpression of activin A in mice by intravenous injection of Ad-actβA protected hearts from ischemia/reperfusion injury. (scialert.net)
  • Your search returned 57 activin A receptor type 1C ELISA ELISA Kit across 3 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Your search returned 5 Activin A ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. (biocompare.com)
  • This project will explore the role of a molecule called activin-A which has been found to be present in the brain during myelin repair. (mssociety.org.uk)
  • In this respect, activin A seemed to be an inhibitor of angiogenesis, a property that has not been previously ascribed to this molecule. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Upregulation of Activin A drives pluripotent stem cells into a mesoendodermal fate, and thus provides a useful tool for stem cell differentiation and organoid formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells in the brain have activin receptors that when activated in laboratory studies multiply and produce more oligodendrocytes. (mssociety.org.uk)
  • This research aims to uncover the importance of activin receptors for stem cells in driving myelin repair. (mssociety.org.uk)
  • This is knowledge which could be implemented in the development of new therapies to slow the worsening of disability that results from nerve damage in MS.This research aims to uncover the importance of activin receptors for stem cells in driving myelin repair. (mssociety.org.uk)
  • Activin A is expressed by a wide range of cells such as BM-derived stromal fibroblasts, aortic smooth muscle cells, pulmonary epithelium, and CD4 + T cells. (biolegend.com)
  • Activin A is a morphogen during embryonal development, regulating chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPC). (biolegend.com)
  • By immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation, activin A and inhibin βA mRNA were present in the mucosal epithelial cells in normal tissues from patients with stage I disease but were either absent or weakly present in normal tissues from patients with stage IV disease. (bmj.com)
  • Additionally, activin A promoted the proliferation of human airway smooth muscle cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • These findings provide evidence, for the first time, that activin-A modulates ActRI mRNA levels in human trophoblast cells. (nih.gov)
  • Proteintech's HumanKine® Activin A is made from HEK293 human cells, conferring authentic glycosylation and folding in addition to superior stability and activity. (ptglab.com)
  • The extracts containing activin A were found to stimulate the release of follicle-stimulating hormone from rat anterior pituitary cells and were biochemically characterized. (ptglab.com)
  • Activin-A has a mitogenic effect on vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and is produced by monocyte/macrophage lineage cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Furthermore, activin A induced the expressions of epithelial differentiation markers in these cells. (asnjournals.org)
  • From a microarray study on mouse ovarian granulosa cells, we discovered that the estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) is inducible by activin. (semanticscholar.org)
  • After treatment of shINHBB cells with activin B, those activities were restored similar to the shMock cells. (jcancer.org)
  • Although exogenous activin B promotes cellular adhesion, migration, and invasiveness activities in endometrial cancer cells [ 14 , 15 ], the detailed functions of activin B in OSCCs have not been reported. (jcancer.org)
  • CellGenix Recombinant Human Activin A reliably promotes definitive endoderm differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). (cellgenix.com)
  • This study has therefore established an HF model after MI to observe the influence of activin A on chronic injured myocardial cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Activin A human Recombinant produced in Nicotiana benthamiana plant is a disulfide-linked homodimers of two betaA chains, each containing 116 amino residues (molecular formula C600H911N173O174S13) and 6-His-tag at the N-terminal having the total molecular mass of 27.4kDa. (avivasysbio.com)
  • Activin was initially discovered as an activator of follicle stimulating hormone in the pituitary gland. (reactome.org)
  • The structural properties, binding specificity, and dependence on type II receptors define Atr-I as an activin type I receptor from D. melanogaster. (asm.org)
  • RESULTS 1 ) In patients with acute MI, serum levels of activin A were significantly higher in those with abnormal glucose regulation (AGR) compared with those with normal glucose regulation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Activins takes part in the production and regulation of hormones such as FSH, LH, GnRH and ACTH. (prospecbio.com)
  • Activin A is a member of this family whose regulation and function in heart are not well understood at a molecular level. (scialert.net)
  • Besides reproduction, activin A has been implicated in the regulation of islets and the immune response. (ptglab.com)
  • The tumor suppressor function of activin A, together with our findings that activin A is an inhibitor of angiogenesis, which is down-regulated by the N- MYC oncogene, prompted us to investigate in more detail its role in the malignant transformation process of neuroblastomas. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 140 Activin A Receptor, Type IIB (ACVR2B) Antikörper von 20 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Like all TGF-β family of growth factors, activins are synthesized as large precursors from which mature dimeric growth factors are released proteolytically. (nih.gov)