JordanActivin Receptors, Type II: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS. They are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. The major type II activin receptors are ActR-IIA and ActR-IIB.Activin Receptors: Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those transmembrane receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily (RECEPTORS, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA), ALK's consist of two different but related protein kinases, Type I and Type II. Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity.ShoesActivins: Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Inhibin-beta Subunits: They are glycopeptides and subunits in INHIBINS and ACTIVINS. Inhibins and activins belong to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily.Myostatin: A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Activin Receptors, Type I: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS or activin receptor-like kinases (ALK'S). There are several type I activin receptors. The major active ones are ALK-2 (ActR-IA) and ALK-4 (ActR-IB).Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyFollistatin: A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Carcinoma, Embryonal: A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells: The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.Fetal Proteins: Proteins that are preferentially expressed or upregulated during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Teratoma: A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Tretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Epirubicin: An anthracycline which is the 4'-epi-isomer of doxorubicin. The compound exerts its antitumor effects by interference with the synthesis and function of DNA.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Telangiectasia, Hereditary Hemorrhagic: An autosomal dominant vascular anomaly characterized by telangiectases of the skin and mucous membranes and by recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding. This disorder is caused by mutations of a gene (on chromosome 9q3) which encodes endoglin, a membrane glycoprotein that binds TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Telangiectasis: Permanent dilation of preexisting blood vessels (CAPILLARIES; ARTERIOLES; VENULES) creating small focal red lesions, most commonly in the skin or mucous membranes. It is characterized by the prominence of skin blood vessels, such as vascular spiders.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases: A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Caulimovirus: A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.Miller Fisher Syndrome: A variant of the GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME characterized by the acute onset of oculomotor dysfunction, ataxia, and loss of deep tendon reflexes with relative sparing of strength in the extremities and trunk. The ataxia is produced by peripheral sensory nerve dysfunction and not by cerebellar injury. Facial weakness and sensory loss may also occur. The process is mediated by autoantibodies directed against a component of myelin found in peripheral nerves. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1313; Neurology 1987 Sep;37(9):1493-8)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Endoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.Growth Differentiation Factor 3: A growth differentiation factor that may play a role in maintaining the undifferentiated state of PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS by inhibiting the actions of BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. Differentiation factor 3 is also considered a nodal signaling ligand that influences the genesis of left-right asymmetry.Nodal Protein: The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.Left-Right Determination Factors: Signaling ligands that act in opposition to NODAL PROTEIN. During vertebrate development they regulate the degree of left-right asymmetry by controlling the spatiotemporal influence of NODAL PROTEIN.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Viscera: Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
(1/298) Lack of regulation in the heart forming region of avian embryos.

The ability to regenerate a heart after ablation of cardiogenic mesoderm has been demonstrated in early stage fish and amphibian embryos but this type of regulation of the heart field has not been seen in avians or mammals. The regulative potential of the cardiogenic mesoderm was examined in avian embryos and related to the spatial expression of genes implicated in early cardiogenesis. With the identification of early cardiac regulators such as bmp-2 and nkx-2.5, it is now possible to reconcile classical embryological studies with molecular mechanisms of cardiac lineage determination in vivo. The most anterior lateral embryonic cells were identified as the region that becomes the heart and removal of all or any subset of these cells resulted in the loss of corresponding cardiac structures. In addition, removal of the lateral heart forming mesoderm while leaving the lateral endoderm intact also results in loss of cardiac structures. Thus the medial anterior mesoderm cannot be recruited into the heart lineage in vivo even in the presence of potentially cardiac inducing endoderm. In situ analysis demonstrated that genes involved in early events of cardiogenesis such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 (bmp-2) and nkx-2.5 are expressed coincidentally with the mapped far lateral heart forming region. The activin type IIa receptor (actR-IIa) is a potential mediator of BMP signaling since it is expressed throughout the anterior mesoderm with the highest level of expression occurring in the lateral prospective heart cells. The posterior boundary of actR-IIa is consistent with the posterior boundary of nkx-2.5 expression, supporting a model whereby ActR-IIa is involved in restricting the heart forming region to an anterior subset of lateral cells exposed to BMP-2. Analysis of the cardiogenic potential of the lateral plate mesoderm posterior to nkx-2.5 and actR-IIa expression demonstrated that these cells are not cardiogenic in vitro and that removal of these cells from the embryo does not result in loss of heart tissue in vivo. Thus, the region of the avian embryo that will become the heart is defined medially, laterally, and posteriorly by nkx-2.5 gene expression. Removal of all or part of the nkx-2.5 expressing region results in the loss of corresponding heart structures, demonstrating the inability of the chick embryo to regenerate cardiac tissue in vivo at stages after nkx-2.5 expression is initiated.  (+info)

(2/298) Identification of two amino acids in activin A that are important for biological activity and binding to the activin type II receptors.

Activins are members of the transforming growth factor-beta family of growth and differentiation factors. In this paper, we report the results of a structure-function analysis of activin A. The primary targets for directed mutagenesis were charged, individual amino acids located in accessible domains of the protein, concentrating on those that differ from transforming growth factor-beta2, the x-ray crystal structure of which is known. Based on the activities of the recombinant activin mutants in two bioassays, 4 out of 39 mutant proteins (D27K, K102A, K102E, and K102R) produced in a vaccinia virus system were selected for further investigation. After production in insect cells and purification of these four mutants to homogeneity, they were studied in bioassays and in cross-linking experiments involving transfected receptor combinations. Mutant D27K has a 2-fold higher specific bio-activity and binding affinity to an ActRIIA/ALK-4 activin receptor complex than wild type activin, whereas mutant K102E had no detectable biological activity and did not bind to any of the activin receptors. Mutant K102R and wild type activin bound to all the activin receptor combinations tested and were equipotent in bioassays. Our results with the Lys-102 mutants indicate that the positive charge of amino acid 102 is important for biological activity and type II receptor binding of activins.  (+info)

(3/298) Control of digit formation by activin signalling.

Major advances in the genetics of vertebrate limb development have been obtained in recent years. However, the nature of the signals which trigger differentiation of the mesoderm to form the limb skeleton remains elusive. Previously, we have obtained evidence for a role of TGFbeta2 in digit formation. Here, we show that activins A and B and/or AB are also signals involved in digit skeletogenesis. activin betaA gene expression correlates with the initiation of digit chondrogenesis while activin betaB is expressed coincidently with the formation of the last phalanx of each digit. Exogenous administration of activins A, B or AB into the interdigital regions induces the formation of extra digits. follistatin, a natural antagonist of activins, is expressed, under the control of activin, peripherally to the digit chondrogenic aggregates marking the prospective tendinous blastemas. Exogenous application of follistatin blocks physiological and activin-induced digit formation. Evidence for a close interaction between activins and other signalling molecules, such as BMPs and FGFs, operating at the distal tip of the limb at these stages is also provided. Chondrogenesis by activins is mediated by BMPs through the regulation of the BMP receptor bmpR-1b and in turn activin expression is upregulated by BMP signalling. In addition, AER hyperactivity secondary to Wnt3A misexpression or local administration of FGFs, inhibits activin expression. In correlation with the restricted expression of activins in the course of digit formation, neither activin nor follistatin treatment affects the development of the skeletal components of the stylopod or zeugopod indicating that the formation of the limb skeleton is regulated by segment-specific chondrogenic signals.  (+info)

(4/298) Impaired differentiation of endocrine and exocrine cells of the pancreas in transgenic mouse expressing the truncated type II activin receptor.

Activin A is expressed in endocrine precursor cells of the fetal pancreatic anlage. To determine the physiological significance of activins in the pancreas, a transgenic mouse line expressing the truncated type II activin receptor under the control of beta-actin promoter was developed. Histological analyses of the pancreas revealed that the pancreatic islets of the transgenic mouse were small in size and were located mainly along the pancreatic ducts. Immunoreactive insulin was detected in islets, some acinar cells, and in some epithelial cells in the duct. In addition, there were abnormal endocrine cells outside the islets. The shape and the size of the endocrine cells varied and some of them were larger than islets. These cells expressed immunoreactive insulin and glucagon. In the exocrine portion, there were morphologically abnormal exocrine cells, which did not form a typical acinar structure. The cells lacked spatial polarity characteristics of acinar cells but expressed immunoreactive amylase, which was distributed diffusely in the cytoplasm. Plasma glucose concentration was normal in the transgenic mouse before and after the administration of glucose. The insulin content of the pancreas in transgenic and normal mice was nearly identical. These results suggest that activins or related ligands regulate the differentiation of the pancreatic endocrine and exocrine cells.  (+info)

(5/298) The type II activin receptors are essential for egg cylinder growth, gastrulation, and rostral head development in mice.

The type II activin receptors, ActRIIA and ActRIIB, have been shown to play critical roles in axial patterning and organ development in mice. To investigate whether their function is required for mesoderm formation and gastrulation as implicated in Xenopus studies, we generated mice carrying both receptor mutations by interbreeding the ActRIIA and ActRIIB knockout mutants. We found that embryos homozygous for both receptor mutations were growth arrested at the egg cylinder stage and did not form mesoderm. Further analyses revealed that ActRIIA(-/-)ActRIIB(+/-) and about 15% of the ActRIIA(-/-) embryos failed to form an elongated primitive streak, resulting in severe disruption of mesoderm formation in the embryo proper. Interestingly, we observed similar gastrulation defects in ActRIIA(-/-)nodal(+/-) double mutants, which, if they developed beyond the gastrulation stage, displayed rostral head defects and cyclopia. These results provide genetic evidence that type II activin receptors are required for egg cylinder growth, primitive streak formation, and rostral head development in mice.  (+info)

(6/298) Activin stimulation of zebrafish oocyte maturation in vitro and its potential role in mediating gonadotropin-induced oocyte maturation.

Activin plays important roles in the regulation of vertebrate reproduction. Using zebrafish, Danio rerio, as a model, the present study aimed at investigating the role of activin in the regulation of final oocyte maturation. Administration of recombinant goldfish activin B significantly increased the rate of oocyte maturation in vitro in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The effect of activin seemed to be additive to the effects of gonadotropin (hCG) and 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxyprogesterone, a potent maturation-inducing hormone in teleosts. The specificity of the activin action was confirmed by coincubation with recombinant human follistatin, which completely abolished the stimulatory effect of activin B. Interestingly, follistatin also significantly inhibited hCG-induced oocyte maturation, suggesting that endogenous activin may be a downstream mediator of gonadotropin actions. No effect of activin B was observed in the presence of actinomycin D, indicating that the action of activin may involve changes in transcriptional activity. These results, together with the demonstration that activin and its type II receptor are expressed in the zebrafish ovary, strongly suggest a paracrine/autocrine role for activin in the controlling of final oocyte maturation.  (+info)

(7/298) Characterization of bone morphogenetic protein-6 signaling pathways in osteoblast differentiation.

Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-6 is a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-(&bgr;) superfamily, and is most similar to BMP-5, osteogenic protein (OP)-1/BMP-7, and OP-2/BMP-8. In the present study, we characterized the endogenous BMP-6 signaling pathway during osteoblast differentiation. BMP-6 strongly induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in cells of osteoblast lineage, including C2C12 cells, MC3T3-E1 cells, and ROB-C26 cells. The profile of binding of BMP-6 to type I and type II receptors was similar to that of OP-1/BMP-7 in C2C12 cells and MC3T3-E1 cells; BMP-6 strongly bound to activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)-2 (also termed ActR-I), together with type II receptors, i.e. BMP type II receptor (BMPR-II) and activin type II receptor (ActR-II). In addition, BMP-6 weakly bound to BMPR-IA (ALK-3), to which BMP-2 also bound. In contrast, binding of BMP-6 to BMPR-IB (ALK-6), and less efficiently to ALK-2 and BMPR-IA, together with BMPR-II was detected in ROB-C26 cells. Intracellular signalling was further studied using C2C12 and MC3T3-E1 cells. Among the receptor-regulated Smads activated by BMP receptors, BMP-6 strongly induced phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation of Smad5, and less efficiently those of Smad1. However, Smad8 was constitutively phosphorylated, and no further phosphorylation or nuclear accumulation of Smad8 by BMP-6 was observed. These findings indicate that in the process of differentiation to osteoblasts, BMP-6 binds to ALK-2 as well as other type I receptors, and transduces signals mainly through Smad5 and possibly through Smad1.  (+info)

(8/298) Mouse Lefty2 and zebrafish antivin are feedback inhibitors of nodal signaling during vertebrate gastrulation.

Mammalian lefty and zebrafish antivin form a subgroup of the TGF beta superfamily. We report that mouse mutants for lefty2 have an expanded primitive streak and form excess mesoderm, a phenotype opposite to that of mutants for the TGF beta gene nodal. Analogously, overexpression of Antivin or Lefty2 in zebrafish embryos blocks head and trunk mesoderm formation, a phenotype identical to that of mutants caused by loss of Nodal signaling. The lefty2 mutant phenotype is partially suppressed by heterozygosity for nodal. Similarly, the effects of Antivin and Lefty2 can be suppressed by overexpression of the nodal-related genes cyclops and squint or the extracellular domain of ActRIIB. Expression of antivin is dependent on Nodal signaling, revealing a feedback loop wherein Nodal signals induce their antagonists Lefty2 and Antivin to restrict Nodal signaling during gastrulation.  (+info)

*  TGFBR3
2001). "Type III TGF-β receptor-independent signalling of TGF-β2 via TβRII-B, an alternatively spliced TGF-β type II receptor ... 2000). "Betaglycan binds inhibin and can mediate functional antagonism of activin signalling". Nature. 404 (6776): 411-4. doi: ... Gao J, Symons AL, Bartold PM (1999). "Expression of transforming growth factor-beta receptors types II and III within various ... 1995). "The soluble exoplasmic domain of the type II transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta receptor. A heterogeneously ...
*  Follistatin
2005). "The structure of the follistatin:activin complex reveals antagonism of both type I and type II receptor binding". Dev. ... Walsh S, Metter EJ, Ferrucci L, Roth SM (2007). "Activin-type II receptor B (ACVR2B) and follistatin haplotype associations ... 2007). "Activin subunit and receptor expression in normal and cleft human fetal palate tissues". Pediatr. Dev. Pathol. 10 (6): ... Two, FS-288 and FS-315, are known to be created by alternative splicing of the primary mRNA transcript. FS-300 (porcine ...
*  INHBB
From these receptors β-glycan (the TGFß type III receptor) and InhBP/p120 (a membrane-tethered proteoglycan) were identified as ... INHBB is a subunit of both activin and inhibin, two closely related glycoproteins with opposing biological effects. Inhibins ... 1997). "Inhibin interferes with activin signaling at the level of the activin receptor complex in Chinese hamster ovary cells ... Mathews LS, Vale WW (1991). "Expression cloning of an activin receptor, a predicted transmembrane serine kinase". Cell. 65 (6 ...
*  Embryoid body
The pluripotent cell types that comprise embryoid bodies include embryonic stem cells (ESCs) derived from the blastocyst stage ... Nostro, M. C.; Cheng, X.; Keller, G. M.; Gadue, P. (2008). "Wnt, Activin, and BMP Signaling Regulate Distinct Stages in the ... Coucouvanis, E.; Martin, G. R. (1995). "Signals for death and survival: A two-step mechanism for cavitation in the vertebrate ... Esner, M.; Pachernik, J.; Hampl, A.; Dvorak, P. (2002). "Targeted disruption of fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 blocks ...
*  Activin type 2 receptors
There are two activin type two receptors: ACVR2A and ACVR2B. Despite the large amount of processes that these ligands regulate ... inhibin/activin betaA and betaB and the activin type II and inhibin beta-glycan receptors in the developing human testis". ... which recruits and trans-phosphorylates a type I receptor. The type I receptor recruits a receptor regulated SMAD (R-SMAD) ... "Regulation of muscle growth by multiple ligands signaling through activin type II receptors". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 ...
*  Activin receptor
An Activin receptor is a receptor which binds activin. Types include: Activin type 1 receptors Activin type 2 receptors These ... Activin receptors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ... proteins are receptor-type kinases of Ser/Thr type, which have a single transmembrane domain and a specific hydrophilic Cys- ... Wrana JL, Attisano L, Wieser R, Ventura F, Massague J (1994). "Mechanism of activation of the TGF-beta receptor". Nature. 370 ( ...
*  ACVR2A
"Truncated activin type II receptors inhibit bioactivity by the formation of heteromeric complexes with activin type I. ... and type II receptors are required for binding ligands and for expression of type I receptors. Type I and II receptors form a ... resulting in phosphorylation of type I receptors by type II receptors. Type II receptors are considered to be constitutively ... "Truncated activin type II receptors inhibit bioactivity by the formation of heteromeric complexes with activin type I. ...
*  Three-finger protein
"Three-finger toxin fold for the extracellular ligand-binding domain of the type II activin receptor serine kinase". Nature ... Ploug, Michael; Ellis, Vincent (1994-08-01). "Structure-function relationships in the receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen ... such as the activin type 2 receptor; and bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type IA. Other LU domain proteins are small ... Other receptors with LU domains include members of the transforming growth factor beta receptor (TGF-beta) superfamily, ...
*  Activin type 1 receptors
A ligand binds to a Type two receptor, which recruits and trans-phosphorylate a type I receptor. The type I receptor recruits a ... There are three type I Activin receptors: ACVR1, ACVR1B, and ACVR1C. Each bind to a specific type II receptor-ligand complex. ... The Activin type I receptors transduce signals for a variety of members of the Transforming growth factor beta superfamily of ... This family of cytokines and hormones include activin, Anti-müllerian hormone (AMH), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), and ...
*  ACVRL1
"Identification of human activin and TGF beta type I receptors that form heteromeric kinase complexes with type II receptors". ... "Entrez Gene: ACVRL1 activin A receptor type II-like 1". Olivieri C, Mira E, Delù G, Pagella F, Zambelli A, Malvezzi L, ... It is also known as activin receptor-like kinase 1, or ALK1. This gene encodes a type I cell-surface receptor for the TGF-beta ... "Mutations in the activin receptor-like kinase 1 gene in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia type 2". Nature Genetics. 13 (2 ...
*  ACVR2B
Type II receptors are considered to be constitutively active kinases. This gene encodes activin A type IIB receptor, which ... and type II receptors are required for binding ligands and for expression of type I receptors. Type I and II receptors form a ... "Truncated activin type II receptors inhibit bioactivity by the formation of heteromeric complexes with activin type I. ... "Truncated activin type II receptors inhibit bioactivity by the formation of heteromeric complexes with activin type I. ...
*  ACVR1B
... resulting in phosphorylation of type I receptors by type II receptors. This gene encodes activin A type IB receptor, composed ... and type II receptors are required for binding ligands and for expression of type I receptors. Type I and II receptors form a ... "Truncated activin type II receptors inhibit bioactivity by the formation of heteromeric complexes with activin type I. ... "Truncated activin type II receptors inhibit bioactivity by the formation of heteromeric complexes with activin type I. ...
*  Myostatin
A two-week treatment of normal mice with soluble activin type IIB receptor, a molecule that is normally attached to cells and ... Myostatin binds to the activin type II receptor, resulting in a recruitment of either coreceptor Alk-3 or Alk-4. This ... "Regulation of muscle growth by multiple ligands signaling through activin type II receptors". Proceedings of the National ... is thought that binding of myostatin to the soluble activin receptor prevents it from interacting with the cell-bound receptors ...
*  MAGI2
"Identification and characterization of a PDZ protein that interacts with activin type II receptors". J Biol Chem. 275 (8): 5485 ... This encoded protein is characterized by two WW domains, a guanylate kinase-like domain, and multiple PDZ domains. It has ... 1998). "Atrophin-1, the DRPLA gene product, interacts with two families of WW domain-containing proteins". Mol. Cell. Neurosci ... Nakayama M, Kikuno R, Ohara O (2003). "Protein-protein interactions between large proteins: two-hybrid screening using a ...
*  TGF beta receptor 1
Transforming growth factor beta receptor I (activin A receptor type II-like kinase, 53kDa) is a membrane-bound receptor protein ... "Determination of type I receptor specificity by the type II receptors for TGF-beta or activin". Science. 262 (5135): 900-2. doi ... beta receptor I (activin A receptor type II-like kinase, 53kDa)". Razani B, Zhang XL, Bitzer M, von Gersdorff G, Böttinger EP, ... "Human type II receptor for bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs): extension of the two-kinase receptor model to the BMPs". Molecular ...
*  RALBP1
"Regulation of endocytosis of activin type II receptors by a novel PDZ protein through Ral/Ral-binding protein 1-dependent ... II. Doxorubicin transport in lung cancer by RLIP76". Int. J. Oncol. 22 (4): 713-20. doi:10.3892/ijo.22.4.713. PMID 12632060. ... involvement of the Ral pathway in receptor endocytosis". J. Cell Sci. 113 (16): 2837-44. PMID 10910768. Awasthi S, Cheng J, ... 273 (2): 814-21. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.2.814. PMID 9422736. Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, ...
*  ACVR1
... resulting in phosphorylation of type I receptors by type II receptors. This gene encodes activin A type I receptor which ... and type II receptors are required for binding ligands and for expression of type I receptors. Type I and II receptors form a ... and two type II (II and IIB) receptors. These receptors are all transmembrane proteins, composed of a ligand-binding ... ACVR1 encodes activin receptor type-1, a BMP type-1 receptor. The mutation causes the ACVR1 protein to have the amino acid ...
*  SYNJ2BP
"Regulation of endocytosis of activin type II receptors by a novel PDZ protein through Ral/Ral-binding protein 1-dependent ... "Novel factors in regulation of activin signaling". Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. 225 (1-2): 1-8. doi:10.1016/j.mce. ... "Novel factors in regulation of activin signaling". Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. 225 (1-2): 1-8. doi:10.1016/j.mce. ... "Interactions of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene family with cytosolic adaptor and scaffold proteins suggest diverse ...
*  REPS2
"Regulation of endocytosis of activin type II receptors by a novel PDZ protein through Ral/Ral-binding protein 1-dependent ... The product of this gene is part of a protein complex that regulates the endocytosis of growth factor receptors. The encoded ... Its expression can negatively affect receptor internalization and inhibit growth factor signaling. Multiple transcript variants ... "Epsin binds to the EH domain of POB1 and regulates receptor-mediated endocytosis". Oncogene. 18 (43): 5915-22. doi:10.1038/sj. ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D08)
... activin receptors, type i MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.062.750 --- activin receptors, type ii MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682. ... type i MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.109.750 --- bone morphogenetic protein receptors, type ii MeSH D08.811.913.696.620.682. ... type ii, archaeal MeSH D08.811.399.403.741.300 --- dna topoisomerases, type ii, bacterial MeSH D08.811.399.403.741.300.500 --- ... nitric oxide synthase type i MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.772.500 --- nitric oxide synthase type ii MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.772. ...
*  Acceleron Pharma
ACE-011 was a chimeric protein, created by fusing the binding portion of the activin type 2 receptor to part of an antibody; ... a protein therapeutic that was an activin type 2 receptor antagonist intended to treat bone loss. ... the resulting protein binds to activin and prevents it from acting. Knopf took over as CEO in 2007. He became known for showing ... At that time, the company had three protein therapeutic candidates being studied in 12 Phase 2 clinical trials, including ...
*  Chromosome 12 (human)
... activin A receptor type II-like 1f APOF: encoding protein Apolipoprotein F APOLD1: apolipoprotein L domain containing 1 ARL6IP4 ... type II, gamma PIWIL1: encoding protein Piwi-like protein 1 POP5: encoding enzyme Ribonuclease P/MRP protein subunit POP5 ... non-receptor type 11 (Noonan syndrome 1) PUS1: encoding enzyme tRNA pseudouridine synthase A PUS7L: encoding enzyme ... types II and XI cornea plana 2 episodic ataxia hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia hypochondrogenesis ichthyosis bullosa of ...
*  GDF2
... also known has Activin A receptor, type I (ACVR1), and the other type II receptors BMPRII and ActRIIA. GDF2 and BMP10 are the ... and activin type II receptors balance BMP9 signals mediated by activin receptor-like kinase-1 in human pulmonary artery ... start with a ligand binding with a high affinty type I receptor (ALK1-7) followed by the recruitment of a type II receptor( ... an endothelial-specific type I receptor of the TGF-beta receptor family. Endoglin, a type I membrane glycoprotein that forms ...
*  TGF beta 1
"Determination of type I receptor specificity by the type II receptors for TGF-beta or activin". Science. 262 (5135): 900-2. doi ... Choy L, Derynck R (November 1998). "The type II transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta receptor-interacting protein TRIP-1 acts ... Oh SP, Seki T, Goss KA, Imamura T, Yi Y, Donahoe PK, Li L, Miyazono K, ten Dijke P, Kim S, Li E (March 2000). "Activin receptor ... "Conserved role for 14-3-3epsilon downstream of type I TGFbeta receptors". FEBS Lett. 490 (1-2): 65-9. doi:10.1016/s0014-5793(01 ...
*  Type 2
... error Type II lattice Type II string theory Type-II superconductor Type II supernova Activin type 2 receptors Atelosteogenesis ... a Japanese tank Type II keratin Type II error used in statistics for a "false negative" ... Type II, a Japanese sub-machine gun Type 2 12 cm Mortar, a Japanese weapon Type 2 20 mm AA machine cannon, a Japanese weapon ... Motorola Type II Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 Neurofibromatosis type II Real Personal Trooper Type-2 R-Type II Type I ...
*  MECOM
As of 2006, Phase I and II clinical trials were being conducted to test this compound on a wide variety of cancer types, and ... As shown in the figure below, the downstream effectors of TGF-β are the Smad receptors (also known as receptor-activated Smads ... and activin are involved in regulating important cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and ... It appears to depend on the specific cell type, cell line and growth conditions being used as to whether EVI1 expression ...
*  BMPR1A
... and BMPR1B and the type II receptor BMPR2. These receptors are also closely related to the activin receptors, ACVR1 and ACVR2. ... kinase receptors: type I receptors of about 50-55 kD and type II receptors of about 70-80 kD. Type II receptors bind ligands in ... but they require their respective type I receptors for signaling, whereas type I receptors require their respective type II ... "Human type II receptor for bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs): extension of the two-kinase receptor model to the BMPs". Mol. Cell ...
Activin-A receptor type-II-like kinase, 53kD | definition of activin-A receptor type-II-like kinase, 53kD by Medical dictionary  Activin-A receptor type-II-like kinase, 53kD | definition of activin-A receptor type-II-like kinase, 53kD by Medical dictionary
What is activin-A receptor type-II-like kinase, 53kD? Meaning of activin-A receptor type-II-like kinase, 53kD medical term. ... What does activin-A receptor type-II-like kinase, 53kD mean? ... activin-A receptor type-II-like kinase, 53kD explanation free. ... Looking for online definition of activin-A receptor type-II-like kinase, 53kD in the Medical Dictionary? ... Activin-A receptor type-II-like kinase, 53kD , definition of activin-A receptor type-II-like kinase, 53kD by Medical dictionary ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/activin-A+receptor+type-II-like+kinase%2C+53kD
Activin type 2 receptors - Wikipedia  Activin type 2 receptors - Wikipedia
There are two activin type two receptors: ACVR2A and ACVR2B. Despite the large amount of processes that these ligands regulate ... inhibin/activin betaA and betaB and the activin type II and inhibin beta-glycan receptors in the developing human testis". ... which recruits and trans-phosphorylates a type I receptor. The type I receptor recruits a receptor regulated SMAD (R-SMAD) ... "Regulation of muscle growth by multiple ligands signaling through activin type II receptors". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Activin_type_2_receptors
A validated, sensitive electrophoretic method for the detection of activin receptor type II-Fc fusion proteins in human blood.  A validated, sensitive electrophoretic method for the detection of activin receptor type II-Fc fusion proteins in human blood.
They are dimeric recombinant fusion proteins composed of the extracellular domain of a human activin receptor (ActRIIA or IIB) ... Cell-type-specific expression of a wheat-germ agglutinin gene in embryos and young seedlings of Triticum aestivum ... New therapeutic proteins that trap circulating members of the transforming growth factor (TGF) beta superfamily (activins and ... indifferently type IIA or IIB). A confirmation performed by double-blotting using different antibodies for detection allows a ...
more infohttp://4ka.pomposity.us/paper/hloi6
Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1 Antibody (NBP1-33500): Novus Biologicals  Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1 Antibody (NBP1-33500): Novus Biologicals
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1 Antibody. Validated: WB, IHC, IHC-Fr. Tested Reactivity: Mouse ... resulting in phosphorylation of type I receptors by type II receptors. This gene encodes activin A type I receptor which ... and type II receptors are required for binding ligands and for expression of type I receptors. Type I and II receptors form a ... Green: Activin A Receptor type I protein stained by Activin A Receptor type I antibody ...read more ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/products/activin-ria-alk-2-activin-receptor-type-1-antibody_nbp1-33500
Activin type 2 receptors  Activin type 2 receptors
... The Activin type 2 receptors modulate signals for ligands belonging to the Transforming growth factor ... A ligand binds to a Type two receptor, which recruits and trans-phosphorylate a type I receptor. The type I receptor recruits a ... There are two Activin type two receptors: ACVR2A and ACVR2B. Despite the large amount of processes that these ligands regulate ... TGFBR1: Activin type 1 receptors (ACVR1, ACVR1B, ACVR1C) - ACVRL1 - BMPR1 (BMPR1A - BMPR1B) TGFBR2: Activin type 2 receptors ( ...
more infohttps://www.chemeurope.com/en/encyclopedia/Activin_type_2_receptors.html
Cheap Nike Jordans Shoes - Blockade of activin type II receptors with a dual anti  Cheap Nike Jordans Shoes - Blockade of activin type II receptors with a dual anti
Blockade of activin type II receptors with a dual anti-ActRIIA/IIB antibody is critical to promote maximal skeletal muscle ... G) ELISA data for activin A level in serum from mice of D/F. Data are presented as mean ± SEM analyzed using one-way ANOVA; ... D) Overlay of the ActRIIA Fv complex (gold ribbon) and ActRIIB Fv complex (red ribbon). (E) Footprint of activin (gray surface ... C) Crystal structure of the mouse ActRIIB LBD complex with human activin-β (PDB entry 1S4Y) (35), shown in the same orientation ...
more infohttp://www.danielhellerman.com/content/114/47/12448.figures-only?sid=bc1e0383-a0a0-4956-a072-5a3995ebf231
Activin Receptor Type 1 (Activin Receptor Like Kinase 2 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Receptor R1 or TGF B Superfamily...  Activin Receptor Type 1 (Activin Receptor Like Kinase 2 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Receptor R1 or TGF B Superfamily...
Activin Receptor Like Kinase 2 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Receptor R1 or TGF B Superfamily Receptor Type I or ALK2 or ... Activin A receptor type I (ACVR1) is a protein is encoded by the ACVR1 gene. Type II receptors phosphorylate and activate type ... Assessment by Molecule Type. Activin Receptor Type 1 (Activin Receptor Like Kinase 2 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase ... Activin Receptor Type 1 (Activin Receptor Like Kinase 2 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Receptor R1 or TGF B Superfamily ...
more infohttps://www.marketresearch.com/Global-Markets-Direct-v3480/Activin-Receptor-Type-Kinase-Serine-11712278/
Francis Perry Wilson, MD, MS > Internal Medicine | Yale School of...  Francis Perry Wilson, MD, MS > Internal Medicine | Yale School of...
Nephrology; Activin Receptors, Type II; Healthcare Disparities; Sarcopenia; Acute Kidney Injury Research Organizations. ... Lin J, Reilly MP, Terembula K, Wilson FP: Plasma lipoprotein(a) levels are associated with mild renal impairment in type 2 ... 2017 1-2; 2016 Sep 28. PMID: 27680757 * Grams ME, Wilson FP: Lifetime Probabilities of ESRD: A Decade of Disparity. Am J Kidney ... characterization and functional gene quantification in RDX-degrading microcosms derived from sediment and groundwater at two ...
more infohttps://medicine.yale.edu/intmed/people/francis_p_wilson-2.profile
Acvr2b MGI Mouse Gene Detail - MGI:87912 - activin receptor IIB  Acvr2b MGI Mouse Gene Detail - MGI:87912 - activin receptor IIB
J:1073 Matzuk MM, et al., Structure of the mouse activin receptor type II gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992 May 29;185(1): ... Blue cells = expressed in wild-type.. Gray triangles = other expression annotations only. (e.g. absence of expression or data ... IPR000472 Activin types I and II receptor domain. IPR000719 Protein kinase domain ...
more infohttp://www.informatics.jax.org/marker/MGI:87912
Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2, His-tagged BMP2-867H - Creative BioMart  Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2, His-tagged BMP2-867H - Creative BioMart
BMP receptor binding; SMAD binding; activin receptor activity, type II; cytokine activity; growth factor activity; phosphatase ... receptor binding; retinol dehydrogenase activity; transmembrane receptor protein serine/threonine kinase activity;. ... Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystem; Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, conserved ... Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2, His-tagged. Download Datasheet See All BMP2 Products. Bring this labeled ...
more infohttps://www.creativebiomart.net/description_108501_16.htm
Activin Receptor Type 1 (Activin Receptor Like Kinase 2 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Receptor R1 or TGF B Superfamily...  Activin Receptor Type 1 (Activin Receptor Like Kinase 2 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Receptor R1 or TGF B Superfamily...
Activin Receptor Like Kinase 2 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Receptor R1 or TGF B Superfamily Receptor Type I or ALK2 or ... TGF Beta Receptor Type 1 (Activin A Receptor Type II Like Protein Kinase Of 53kD or Activin Receptor Like Kinase 5 or Serine/ ... TGF Beta Receptor Type 1 (Activin A Receptor Type II Like Protein Kinase Of 53kD or Activin Receptor Like Kinase 5 or Serine/ ... Activin A receptor type I (ACVR1) is a protein is encoded by the ACVR1 gene. Type II receptors phosphorylate and activate type ...
more infohttps://www.jsbmarketresearch.com/pharmaceuticals/activin-receptor-type-1-activin-receptor-like-kinase-2-or-serinethreonine-protein-kinase-receptor-r1-or-tgf-b-superfamily-receptor-type-i-or-alk2-or-acvr1-or-ec-271130-pipeline-review-h1-2018
CiNii 論文 - 
 		
 		
 			
 		 	
 		 		
 		 			Neuronal and mesodermal differentiation of P19 embryonal carcinoma cells is...  CiNii 論文 - Neuronal and mesodermal differentiation of P19 embryonal carcinoma cells is...
Identification of human activin and TGF β type I receptors that form heteromeric kinase complex with type II receptors ATTISANO ... Cloning of type I TGF-beta receptor, and its effect on TGF-beta binding to the type II receptor EBNER R. ... Different phenotypes for mice deficient in either activins or activin receptor type II MATZUK M. M. ... Identification of the two types of specific receptor for activin/EDF expressed on Friend leukemia and embryonal carcinoma cells ...
more infohttps://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/10008756860
Kinetics of Smad activation during PCMO culture.The act | Open-i  Kinetics of Smad activation during PCMO culture.The act | Open-i
Activin Receptors, Type I/metabolism. *Activin Receptors, Type II/metabolism. *Cell Differentiation/physiology ... in phospho-Smad2C may have been stimulated by endogenous activin secretion in combination with upregulation of activin receptor ... in phospho-Smad2C may have been stimulated by endogenous activin secretion in combination with upregulation of activin receptor ... Here we asked whether activin(s) and TGF-β(s), are involved in PCMO generation. De novo proliferation of PCMO was higher under ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4338298_pone.0118097.g004&req=4
ACVR1B Gene - GeneCards | ACV1B Protein | ACV1B Antibody  ACVR1B Gene - GeneCards | ACV1B Protein | ACV1B Antibody
Activin A Receptor Type 1B, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The ... Activins signal through a heteromeric complex of receptor serine kinases which include at least two type I and two type II ... Transmembrane serine/threonine kinase activin type-1 receptor forming an activin receptor complex with activin receptor type-2 ... Transmembrane serine/threonine kinase activin type-1 receptor forming an activin receptor complex with activin receptor type-2 ...
more infohttps://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=ACVR1B
Two distinct transmembrane serine/threonine kinases from Drosophila melanogaster form an activin receptor complex. | Molecular...  Two distinct transmembrane serine/threonine kinases from Drosophila melanogaster form an activin receptor complex. | Molecular...
Atr-I can also bind activin in concert with mammalian activin type II receptors. Two alternative forms of Atr-I have been ... The structural properties, binding specificity, and dependence on type II receptors define Atr-I as an activin type I receptor ... Atr-I binds activin efficiently when coexpressed with the distantly related Drosophila activin receptor Atr-II, with which it ... Two distinct transmembrane serine/threonine kinases from Drosophila melanogaster form an activin receptor complex.. J L Wrana, ...
more infohttps://mcb.asm.org/content/14/2/944?ijkey=c32071096a983792ea56d613dc95e255e2cf5527&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
Anti-BMPR2 antibody (ab106266) | Abcam  Anti-BMPR2 antibody (ab106266) | Abcam
Serine threonine kinase type II activin receptor like kinase antibody. *T ALK antibody ... forms a receptor complex consisting of two type II and two type I transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. Type II receptors ... Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type-2 antibody. *Bone morphogenic protein receptor type II serine threonine kinase ... Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II antibody. * ... By product type. Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/bmpr2-antibody-ab106266.html
ACVR1 | Cancer Genetics Web  ACVR1 | Cancer Genetics Web
... resulting in phosphorylation of type I receptors by type II receptors. This gene encodes activin A type I receptor which ... activin binding - activin receptor activity, type I - activin receptor complex - activin receptor signaling pathway - acute ... and type II receptors are required for binding ligands and for expression of type I receptors. Type I and II receptors form a ... and two type II (II and IIB) receptors. These receptors are all transmembrane proteins, composed of a ligand-binding ...
more infohttp://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/ACVR1.htm
BMPR2 gene - Genetics Home Reference  BMPR2 gene - Genetics Home Reference
Receptor, Type II BMP. *serine/threonine kinase. *T-ALK. *type II activin receptor-like kinase ... OMIM: BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTOR, TYPE II. *. Machado RD, Pauciulo MW, Thomson JR, Lane KB, Morgan NV, Wheeler L, ... bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Printable PDF Open All Close ... Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 spans the cell membrane, so that one end of the protein is on the outer surface of ...
more infohttps://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/gene/BMPR2
Identification of multiple quantitative trait loci affecting the size and shape of the mandible in mice, Mammalian Genome | 10...  Identification of multiple quantitative trait loci affecting the size and shape of the mandible in mice, Mammalian Genome | 10...
Different phenotypes for mice deficient in either activins or activin receptor type II ... Pleiotropic effects on mandibular morphology II: differential epistasis and genetic variation in morphological integration ... The role of collagen II and cartilage fibril-associated molecules in skeletal development ... Targeted disruption of the melanocortin-4 receptor results in obesity in mice ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer_journal/identification-of-multiple-quantitative-trait-loci-affecting-the-size-PbKxux6s0f
ACVRL1 activin A receptor like type 1 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI  ACVRL1 activin A receptor like type 1 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI
TGF-B superfamily receptor type I. activin A receptor type II-like 1. activin A receptor type IL. activin A receptor, type II- ... ACVRL1 activin A receptor like type 1 [Homo sapiens] ACVRL1 activin A receptor like type 1 [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:94 ... STKc_ACVR1_ALK1; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinases, Activin Type I Receptor and Activin receptor-Like Kinase 1. ... STKc_ACVR1_ALK1; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinases, Activin Type I Receptor and Activin receptor-Like Kinase 1. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene?Db=gene&Cmd=DetailsSearch&Term=94
  • Sotatercept (ActRIIA-Fc) and Luspatercept (a modified ActRIIB-Fc) in particular are now in phase 2/3 of clinical trials against anemia and included in the prohibited list established by the World Anti-Doping Agency. (pomposity.us)
  • C ) Crystal structure of the mouse ActRIIB LBD complex with human activin-β (PDB entry 1S4Y) (35), shown in the same orientation as in A , B , and D . ( D ) Overlay of the ActRIIA Fv complex (gold ribbon) and ActRIIB Fv complex (red ribbon). (danielhellerman.com)
  • Realtime-PCR analysis showed that PCMO express ActRIIA, ALK4, TβRII, ALK5 as well as TGF-β1 and the βA subunit of activin. (nih.gov)
  • Interestingly, expression of ActRIIA and ALK4, and activin A levels in the culture supernatants increased until day 4 of culture, while levels of total and active TGF-β1 strongly declined. (nih.gov)
  • For example, embryos carrying a mutation of TGF-β family members (such as BMP4 or Nodal), and their receptors (type I receptor ActRIB or the type II receptors ActRIIA/ActRIIB), either arrest at egg cylinder stages prior to mesoderm induction or die during gastrulation with severe patterning defects [ 12 - 15 ], highlighting an important function of TGF-β signaling in gastrulation and mesoderm induction. (ijbs.com)
  • B ) Efficacy/potency of antibodies or combination thereof at blocking myostatin or activin A-induced Smad2/3 response. (danielhellerman.com)
  • Stimulation of PCMO with recombinant activins (A, B, AB) and TGF-β1 induced phosphorylation of Smad2 but not Smad3. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibition of autocrine activin signaling by either SB431542 or follistatin reduced both Smad2 activation and Oct4A/Nanog upregulation. (nih.gov)
  • Our data show that during PCMO generation pluripotency marker expression is controlled positively by activin/Smad2 and negatively by TGF-β/Smad3 signaling, while relief from growth inhibition is primarily the result of reduced TGF-β/Smad3, and to a lesser extent, activin/Smad2 signaling. (nih.gov)
  • Soon after their association with the activin receptor and subsequent phosphorylation, SMAD2 and SMAD3 are released into the cytoplasm where they interact with the common partner SMAD4. (genecards.org)
  • Inhibitory SMAD7, which is recruited to ACVR1B through FKBP1A, can prevent the association of SMAD2 and SMAD3 with the activin receptor complex, thereby blocking the activin signal. (genecards.org)
  • Cripto regulates hematopoietic stem cells as a hypoxic-niche-related factor through cell surface receptor GRP78. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Thus, in cell culture, Gdf3 signaling requires the EGF-CFC co-receptor Cripto and can be inhibited by Lefty antagonists. (biologists.org)
  • E ) Footprint of activin (gray surface, calculated from PDB entry 1S4Y) and ( F ) bimagrumab on the ActRIIB LBD. (danielhellerman.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry-Frozen: Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1 Antibody [NBP1-- Frozen sectioned adult mouse retina. (novusbio.com)
  • Western Blot: Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1 Antibody [NBP1-- Human pancreatic cancer cell lines. (novusbio.com)
  • The microtiter plate provided in this kit has been pre-coated with an antibody specific to Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor 1A (BMPR1A). (uscnk.com)
  • Standards or samples are then added to the appropriate microtiter plate wells with a biotin-conjugated antibody specific to Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor 1A (BMPR1A). (uscnk.com)
  • After TMB substrate solution is added, only those wells that contain Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor 1A (BMPR1A), biotin-conjugated antibody and enzyme-conjugated Avidin will exhibit a change in color. (uscnk.com)
  • To understand the molecular mechanism of activin action, we have cloned the rat type II activin receptor from a rat ovary cDNA library. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Furthermore, in vivo experiments showed that the mRNA levels of activin receptor in immature rat ovary has been induced according to the maturation of follicles and even after ovulation it continued to increase. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Many events in the adult ovary are controlled by two hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), secreted from the anterior pituitary gland under the control of pulses of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus (Figure 1 ). (jci.org)
  • Right: A cross section of a mouse ovary is shown, demonstrating the main cell types and follicle stages. (jci.org)
  • When expressed alone in test cells, Atr-I is unable to bind TGF-beta, activin, or bone morphogenetic protein 2. (asm.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 spans the cell membrane, so that one end of the protein is on the outer surface of the cell and the other end remains inside the cell. (nih.gov)
  • No significant cross-reactivity or interference between Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor 1A (BMPR1A) and analogues was observed. (uscnk.com)
  • Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): 3 samples with low, middle and high level Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor 1A (BMPR1A) were tested 20 times on one plate, respectively. (uscnk.com)
  • Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): 3 samples with low, middle and high level Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor 1A (BMPR1A) were tested on 3 different plates, 8 replicates in each plate. (uscnk.com)
  • The concentration of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor 1A (BMPR1A) in the samples is then determined by comparing the O.D. of the samples to the standard curve. (uscnk.com)
  • Previous studies reported that activin alone increased FSH receptor levels by using receptor binding assay and various hormone regulated FSH receptor mRNA levels in cultures rat granulosa cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In this study, we examined the effect of activin A on FSH receptor mRNA in cultured rat granulosa cells using a FSH receptor cRNA probe. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Northern blot analysis with cRNA of FSH receptor detected mRNA transcripts of 5.5- and 2.4-kb. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Our data showed that activin alone stimulated FSH receptor mRNA transcripts as well as FSH receptor levels in a concentration-dependent manner. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Previous studies reported that FSH may maintain its own receptor mRNA and various growth factors as epidermal growth factor(EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor(bFGF), and insulin-like growth factor-I(IGF-I) did not alter basal levels of FSH receptor mRNA but EGF or bFGF dose-dependently attenuated the stimulatory actions of FSH on FSH receptor mRNA levels. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Therefore, our results indicated that the stimulatory action of activin on the levels of the FSH receptor is closely related to the stimulatory action of activin on FSH receptor mRNA levels, and compared with other growth factors, activin may play a important role in the induction of the FSH receptor. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The results that the granulosa cells contained two predominant rat type II activin receptor mRNA transcripts (6.0 and 3.0 kilobases). (nii.ac.jp)
  • Diseases associated with ACVR1B include Pancreatic Cancer and Type I . Among its related pathways are mTOR Pathway and TGF-beta signaling pathway (KEGG) . (genecards.org)
  • Transduces the activin signal from the cell surface to the cytoplasm and is thus regulating a many physiological and pathological processes including neuronal differentiation and neuronal survival, hair follicle development and cycling, FSH production by the pituitary gland, wound healing, extracellular matrix production, immunosuppression and carcinogenesis. (genecards.org)
  • The spacing of extracellular cysteines and the cytoplasmic domain of Atr-I resemble most closely those of the recently described mammalian type I receptors for TGF-beta and activin. (asm.org)