Activin Receptors, Type II: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS. They are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. The major type II activin receptors are ActR-IIA and ActR-IIB.Activin Receptors: Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those transmembrane receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily (RECEPTORS, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA), ALK's consist of two different but related protein kinases, Type I and Type II. Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity.Activins: Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.Activin Receptors, Type I: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS or activin receptor-like kinases (ALK'S). There are several type I activin receptors. The major active ones are ALK-2 (ActR-IA) and ALK-4 (ActR-IB).Myostatin: A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyInhibin-beta Subunits: They are glycopeptides and subunits in INHIBINS and ACTIVINS. Inhibins and activins belong to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Exome: That part of the genome that corresponds to the complete complement of EXONS of an organism or cell.Biological Specimen Banks: Facilities that collect, store, and distribute tissues, e.g., cell lines, microorganisms, blood, sperm, milk, breast tissue, for use by others. Other uses may include transplantation and comparison of diseased tissues in the identification of cancer.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Obesity, Abdominal: A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.Islets of Langerhans Transplantation: The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Adenoma, Islet Cell: A benign tumor of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the INSULIN-producing PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, as in INSULINOMA, resulting in HYPERINSULINISM.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins, Type IIb: A sodium-dependent phosphate transporter present primarily at apical sites of EPITHELIAL CELLS in the SMALL INTESTINE.Telangiectasia, Hereditary Hemorrhagic: An autosomal dominant vascular anomaly characterized by telangiectases of the skin and mucous membranes and by recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding. This disorder is caused by mutations of a gene (on chromosome 9q3) which encodes endoglin, a membrane glycoprotein that binds TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Telemetry: Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Growth Differentiation Factor 2: A growth differentiation factor that plays a regulatory role as a paracrine factor for a diverse array of cell types during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and in the adult tissues. Growth differentiation factor 2 is also a potent regulator of CHONDROGENESIS and was previously referred to as bone morphogenetic protein 9.Anemia, Diamond-Blackfan: A rare congenital hypoplastic anemia that usually presents early in infancy. The disease is characterized by a moderate to severe macrocytic anemia, occasional neutropenia or thrombocytosis, a normocellular bone marrow with erythroid hypoplasia, and an increased risk of developing leukemia. (Curr Opin Hematol 2000 Mar;7(2):85-94)Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Hyperoxia: An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular: Enlargement of the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is often attributed to PULMONARY HYPERTENSION and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Monomethylhydrazine: Hydrazine substituted by one methyl group.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Pharmacology: The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Follistatin: A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Web Browser: Software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web.Programming Languages: Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.

Lack of regulation in the heart forming region of avian embryos. (1/298)

The ability to regenerate a heart after ablation of cardiogenic mesoderm has been demonstrated in early stage fish and amphibian embryos but this type of regulation of the heart field has not been seen in avians or mammals. The regulative potential of the cardiogenic mesoderm was examined in avian embryos and related to the spatial expression of genes implicated in early cardiogenesis. With the identification of early cardiac regulators such as bmp-2 and nkx-2.5, it is now possible to reconcile classical embryological studies with molecular mechanisms of cardiac lineage determination in vivo. The most anterior lateral embryonic cells were identified as the region that becomes the heart and removal of all or any subset of these cells resulted in the loss of corresponding cardiac structures. In addition, removal of the lateral heart forming mesoderm while leaving the lateral endoderm intact also results in loss of cardiac structures. Thus the medial anterior mesoderm cannot be recruited into the heart lineage in vivo even in the presence of potentially cardiac inducing endoderm. In situ analysis demonstrated that genes involved in early events of cardiogenesis such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 (bmp-2) and nkx-2.5 are expressed coincidentally with the mapped far lateral heart forming region. The activin type IIa receptor (actR-IIa) is a potential mediator of BMP signaling since it is expressed throughout the anterior mesoderm with the highest level of expression occurring in the lateral prospective heart cells. The posterior boundary of actR-IIa is consistent with the posterior boundary of nkx-2.5 expression, supporting a model whereby ActR-IIa is involved in restricting the heart forming region to an anterior subset of lateral cells exposed to BMP-2. Analysis of the cardiogenic potential of the lateral plate mesoderm posterior to nkx-2.5 and actR-IIa expression demonstrated that these cells are not cardiogenic in vitro and that removal of these cells from the embryo does not result in loss of heart tissue in vivo. Thus, the region of the avian embryo that will become the heart is defined medially, laterally, and posteriorly by nkx-2.5 gene expression. Removal of all or part of the nkx-2.5 expressing region results in the loss of corresponding heart structures, demonstrating the inability of the chick embryo to regenerate cardiac tissue in vivo at stages after nkx-2.5 expression is initiated.  (+info)

Identification of two amino acids in activin A that are important for biological activity and binding to the activin type II receptors. (2/298)

Activins are members of the transforming growth factor-beta family of growth and differentiation factors. In this paper, we report the results of a structure-function analysis of activin A. The primary targets for directed mutagenesis were charged, individual amino acids located in accessible domains of the protein, concentrating on those that differ from transforming growth factor-beta2, the x-ray crystal structure of which is known. Based on the activities of the recombinant activin mutants in two bioassays, 4 out of 39 mutant proteins (D27K, K102A, K102E, and K102R) produced in a vaccinia virus system were selected for further investigation. After production in insect cells and purification of these four mutants to homogeneity, they were studied in bioassays and in cross-linking experiments involving transfected receptor combinations. Mutant D27K has a 2-fold higher specific bio-activity and binding affinity to an ActRIIA/ALK-4 activin receptor complex than wild type activin, whereas mutant K102E had no detectable biological activity and did not bind to any of the activin receptors. Mutant K102R and wild type activin bound to all the activin receptor combinations tested and were equipotent in bioassays. Our results with the Lys-102 mutants indicate that the positive charge of amino acid 102 is important for biological activity and type II receptor binding of activins.  (+info)

Control of digit formation by activin signalling. (3/298)

Major advances in the genetics of vertebrate limb development have been obtained in recent years. However, the nature of the signals which trigger differentiation of the mesoderm to form the limb skeleton remains elusive. Previously, we have obtained evidence for a role of TGFbeta2 in digit formation. Here, we show that activins A and B and/or AB are also signals involved in digit skeletogenesis. activin betaA gene expression correlates with the initiation of digit chondrogenesis while activin betaB is expressed coincidently with the formation of the last phalanx of each digit. Exogenous administration of activins A, B or AB into the interdigital regions induces the formation of extra digits. follistatin, a natural antagonist of activins, is expressed, under the control of activin, peripherally to the digit chondrogenic aggregates marking the prospective tendinous blastemas. Exogenous application of follistatin blocks physiological and activin-induced digit formation. Evidence for a close interaction between activins and other signalling molecules, such as BMPs and FGFs, operating at the distal tip of the limb at these stages is also provided. Chondrogenesis by activins is mediated by BMPs through the regulation of the BMP receptor bmpR-1b and in turn activin expression is upregulated by BMP signalling. In addition, AER hyperactivity secondary to Wnt3A misexpression or local administration of FGFs, inhibits activin expression. In correlation with the restricted expression of activins in the course of digit formation, neither activin nor follistatin treatment affects the development of the skeletal components of the stylopod or zeugopod indicating that the formation of the limb skeleton is regulated by segment-specific chondrogenic signals.  (+info)

Impaired differentiation of endocrine and exocrine cells of the pancreas in transgenic mouse expressing the truncated type II activin receptor. (4/298)

Activin A is expressed in endocrine precursor cells of the fetal pancreatic anlage. To determine the physiological significance of activins in the pancreas, a transgenic mouse line expressing the truncated type II activin receptor under the control of beta-actin promoter was developed. Histological analyses of the pancreas revealed that the pancreatic islets of the transgenic mouse were small in size and were located mainly along the pancreatic ducts. Immunoreactive insulin was detected in islets, some acinar cells, and in some epithelial cells in the duct. In addition, there were abnormal endocrine cells outside the islets. The shape and the size of the endocrine cells varied and some of them were larger than islets. These cells expressed immunoreactive insulin and glucagon. In the exocrine portion, there were morphologically abnormal exocrine cells, which did not form a typical acinar structure. The cells lacked spatial polarity characteristics of acinar cells but expressed immunoreactive amylase, which was distributed diffusely in the cytoplasm. Plasma glucose concentration was normal in the transgenic mouse before and after the administration of glucose. The insulin content of the pancreas in transgenic and normal mice was nearly identical. These results suggest that activins or related ligands regulate the differentiation of the pancreatic endocrine and exocrine cells.  (+info)

The type II activin receptors are essential for egg cylinder growth, gastrulation, and rostral head development in mice. (5/298)

The type II activin receptors, ActRIIA and ActRIIB, have been shown to play critical roles in axial patterning and organ development in mice. To investigate whether their function is required for mesoderm formation and gastrulation as implicated in Xenopus studies, we generated mice carrying both receptor mutations by interbreeding the ActRIIA and ActRIIB knockout mutants. We found that embryos homozygous for both receptor mutations were growth arrested at the egg cylinder stage and did not form mesoderm. Further analyses revealed that ActRIIA(-/-)ActRIIB(+/-) and about 15% of the ActRIIA(-/-) embryos failed to form an elongated primitive streak, resulting in severe disruption of mesoderm formation in the embryo proper. Interestingly, we observed similar gastrulation defects in ActRIIA(-/-)nodal(+/-) double mutants, which, if they developed beyond the gastrulation stage, displayed rostral head defects and cyclopia. These results provide genetic evidence that type II activin receptors are required for egg cylinder growth, primitive streak formation, and rostral head development in mice.  (+info)

Activin stimulation of zebrafish oocyte maturation in vitro and its potential role in mediating gonadotropin-induced oocyte maturation. (6/298)

Activin plays important roles in the regulation of vertebrate reproduction. Using zebrafish, Danio rerio, as a model, the present study aimed at investigating the role of activin in the regulation of final oocyte maturation. Administration of recombinant goldfish activin B significantly increased the rate of oocyte maturation in vitro in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The effect of activin seemed to be additive to the effects of gonadotropin (hCG) and 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxyprogesterone, a potent maturation-inducing hormone in teleosts. The specificity of the activin action was confirmed by coincubation with recombinant human follistatin, which completely abolished the stimulatory effect of activin B. Interestingly, follistatin also significantly inhibited hCG-induced oocyte maturation, suggesting that endogenous activin may be a downstream mediator of gonadotropin actions. No effect of activin B was observed in the presence of actinomycin D, indicating that the action of activin may involve changes in transcriptional activity. These results, together with the demonstration that activin and its type II receptor are expressed in the zebrafish ovary, strongly suggest a paracrine/autocrine role for activin in the controlling of final oocyte maturation.  (+info)

Characterization of bone morphogenetic protein-6 signaling pathways in osteoblast differentiation. (7/298)

Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-6 is a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-(&bgr;) superfamily, and is most similar to BMP-5, osteogenic protein (OP)-1/BMP-7, and OP-2/BMP-8. In the present study, we characterized the endogenous BMP-6 signaling pathway during osteoblast differentiation. BMP-6 strongly induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in cells of osteoblast lineage, including C2C12 cells, MC3T3-E1 cells, and ROB-C26 cells. The profile of binding of BMP-6 to type I and type II receptors was similar to that of OP-1/BMP-7 in C2C12 cells and MC3T3-E1 cells; BMP-6 strongly bound to activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)-2 (also termed ActR-I), together with type II receptors, i.e. BMP type II receptor (BMPR-II) and activin type II receptor (ActR-II). In addition, BMP-6 weakly bound to BMPR-IA (ALK-3), to which BMP-2 also bound. In contrast, binding of BMP-6 to BMPR-IB (ALK-6), and less efficiently to ALK-2 and BMPR-IA, together with BMPR-II was detected in ROB-C26 cells. Intracellular signalling was further studied using C2C12 and MC3T3-E1 cells. Among the receptor-regulated Smads activated by BMP receptors, BMP-6 strongly induced phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation of Smad5, and less efficiently those of Smad1. However, Smad8 was constitutively phosphorylated, and no further phosphorylation or nuclear accumulation of Smad8 by BMP-6 was observed. These findings indicate that in the process of differentiation to osteoblasts, BMP-6 binds to ALK-2 as well as other type I receptors, and transduces signals mainly through Smad5 and possibly through Smad1.  (+info)

Mouse Lefty2 and zebrafish antivin are feedback inhibitors of nodal signaling during vertebrate gastrulation. (8/298)

Mammalian lefty and zebrafish antivin form a subgroup of the TGF beta superfamily. We report that mouse mutants for lefty2 have an expanded primitive streak and form excess mesoderm, a phenotype opposite to that of mutants for the TGF beta gene nodal. Analogously, overexpression of Antivin or Lefty2 in zebrafish embryos blocks head and trunk mesoderm formation, a phenotype identical to that of mutants caused by loss of Nodal signaling. The lefty2 mutant phenotype is partially suppressed by heterozygosity for nodal. Similarly, the effects of Antivin and Lefty2 can be suppressed by overexpression of the nodal-related genes cyclops and squint or the extracellular domain of ActRIIB. Expression of antivin is dependent on Nodal signaling, revealing a feedback loop wherein Nodal signals induce their antagonists Lefty2 and Antivin to restrict Nodal signaling during gastrulation.  (+info)

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References for Abcams Recombinant Human Activin Receptor Type IIA protein (ab114449). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
ACE-031/ACE 031/ACE031 1mg Synonyms:Activin receptor type-2B, Activin receptor type IIB, ACTR-IIB, ACVR2B Standard: Medical Grade; Appearance Lyophilized white powder Purity: 99.0%min.(HPLC) Lead time: 2days Mini Order: 10vials Packaging:...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Loss of Heterozygosity and Mutational Analyses of the ACTRII Gene Locus in Human Colorectal Tumors. AU - Olaru, Andreea. AU - Mori, Yuriko. AU - Yin, Jing. AU - Wang, Suna. AU - Kimos, Martha C.. AU - Perry, Kellie. AU - Xu, Yan. AU - Sato, Fumiaki. AU - Selaru, Florin. AU - Deacu, Elena. AU - Sterian, Anca. AU - Shibata, David. AU - Abraham, John M.. AU - Meltzer, Stephen. PY - 2003/12. Y1 - 2003/12. N2 - The activin type II receptor gene (ACTRII) is mutated in 58.1% of microsatellite-unstable (MSI-H) colorectal cancers and is a close relative of the TGFβ-1 type II receptor, which is known to be involved in both MSI-H and non-MSI-H colorectal carcinogenesis. We therefore sought to determine whether ACTRII was involved in non-MSI-H colorectal cancers. We evaluated ACTRII inactivation by allelic deletion, loss of mRNA expression, or somatic mutation in 51 non-MSI-H colon cancers. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the ACTRII locus (2q23.1) was found in 9 (17.6%) of 51 primary ...
Anaemia is a clinical syndrome of blood characterized by decrease in the haemoglobin content in the red blood cells resulting in the marked reduction ..
Activins are dimeric growth and differentiation factors which belong to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of structurally…
View mouse Acvr2b Chr9:119402118-119434995 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
The Role of ActRIIB Signaling and Muscle Growth. Muscle growth is regulated by proteins in the TGF-? protein superfamily that serve as "on" or "off" switches for muscle production. Several molecules including GDF-8 interact with the ActRIIB receptor and send an "off" signal to stop muscle production. In the absence of these "off" switch molecules that signal through the ActRIIB receptor, muscle mass increases dramatically. In nature, this effect has been observed in numerous species, particularly in animals that have been bred for increased musculature and strength. For example, Belgian Blue cattle lack the gene for GDF-8, which is one of several molecules that activate the ActRIIB receptor. A deficiency of this protein results in cattle with tremendously developed musculature and strength. Similar effects have been observed in other species, including rodents, dogs and even humans.. Treatment with ACE-031 Builds Skeletal Muscle. Treatment with ACE-031 promotes muscle growth by inhibiting ...
CHO-Anti-Human ACVRL1 MAb stable cell line is clonally-derived from a CHO cell line, which has been transfected with an Anti-human ACVRL1 MAb gene to allow expression of the MAb. It is an example of a cell line transfected using our proprietary CBTGS gene screening and amplification system.
Complete information for ACVRL1 gene (Protein Coding), Activin A Receptor Like Type 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Activin Receptor Type IA (ACVR1) Antibody (Center N153), Purified Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Pab) validated in WB, IHC-P, E (AP7101A), Abgent
Endoglin is a 180-kDa glycoprotein receptor primarily expressed by the vascular endothelium and involved in cardiovascular disease and cancer. Heterozygous mutations in the endoglin gene (ENG) cause hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 1, a vascular dise Endoglin is a 180-kDa glycoprotein receptor primarily expressed by the vascular endothelium and involved in cardiovascular disease and cancer. Heterozygous mutations in the endoglin gene (ENG) cause hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 1, a vascular disease that presents with nasal and gastrointestinal bleeding, skin and mucosa telangiectases, and arteriovenous malformations in internal organs. A circulating form of endoglin (alias soluble endoglin, sEng), proteolytically released from the membrane-bound protein, has been observed in several inflammation-related pathological conditions and appears to contribute to endothelial dysfunction and cancer development through unknown mechanisms. Membrane-bound endoglin is an auxiliary ...
In the present experiments, AP has been measured in Alk1+/− and in Alk1+/+ mice by both tail-cuff and radiotelemetry methods. We have used both methods to measure AP because movement restriction necessary for tail-cuff measurement can modify vasoactive responses, especially when the sympathetic nervous system is involved, and because acute (minutes) effects can be difficult to assess by the tail-cuff method. Besides, both acute and prolonged effects of the vasoactive substances have been recorded because the acute and the long-standing consequences of inhibiting or stimulating these regulatory pathways can be different (Emanueli et al., 1997). Measurements of AP by the tail-cuff method and by telemetry showed consistently higher SAP in Alk1+/− than in Alk1+/+ mice, with no significant differences in HR. It should be noted that arterial hypertension has not been reported as a common sign in individuals with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 2, a fact that can be explained by the ...
Fig. 4. Hypertrophy response as measured via (A) body weight, (B) muscle weight change from sham group, after 4-wk treatment with ActRIIA-specific Ab, ActRIIB-specific Ab, combination thereof, and bimagrumab in SCID mice (n = 12 per group). Mice were untreated, sham group (white), or treated with weekly s.c. injection of isotype control antibody (20 mg/kg/wk) or of anti-ActRIIA Ab (CSJ089, blue, 6 or 20 mg/kg), an anti-ActRIIB Ab (CQI876, orange, 6 or 20 mg/kg), a combination of CSJ089 and CQI876 (black, 6 or 20 mg/kg of each Ab), or bimagrumab (green, 6 or 20 mg/kg). (C) Invasive muscle contractile function determination in gastrocnemius muscle of sham (white) and bimagrumab (green, 6 and 20 mg/kg)-treated groups, average of three stimulations. Hypertrophy response was measured through gastrocnemius and quadriceps muscle weight changes in SCID mice, (D) after 2-wk treatment with the same antibodies as in A, all dosed at 20 mg/kg, with CQI876 being also dosed at 100 mg/kg (orange crosses), (E) ...
The importance of morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their antagonists in vascular development is increasingly being recognized. BMP-4 is essential for angiogenesis and is antagonized by matrix Gla protein (MGP) and crossveinless 2 (CV2), both induced in a staged fashion by the activin-like kinase receptor 1 (ALK1) after stimulation by BMP-9. In this study, however, we show that CV2 preferentially binds and inhibits BMP-9 thereby providing strong feedback inhibition for BMP-9/ALK1 signaling rather than for BMP-4/ALK2 signaling. CV2 disrupts complex formation by ALK2, ALK1, BMP-4 and BMP-9 required for the induction of both BMP antagonists. It also limits VEGF expression and proliferation of ALK1-expressing endothelial cells. In vivo, CV2 deficiency translates into a dysregulation of vascular BMP signaling, resulting in a thickened, abnormal endothelium with increased markers of endothelial differentiation. Thus, mutual regulation by BMP-9 and CV2 is essential in regulating the development of the ...
ACVRL1 (activin receptor-like kinase 1, or ALK1) gene encodes type I cell-surface receptor on the TGF β signaling pathway , which is consist of a glycine- and serine-rich region (GS domain), serine-threonine kinase sub-domains, and a short C-terminal tail [36]. Mutations in ACVRL1 are responsible for HHT2, a disease manifesting as fragile vessels, capillary overgrowth, and numerous AVMs [37]. In HHT patients, the majority of vessels are normal, however the ACVRL1 mutations could lead to abnormal angiogenetic responses and formation of anormalous arteriovenous connections, ranging from mucomembranous telangiectases to large arteriovenous malformations that can occur in every organ such as lungs, liver and brain [12, 38]. ENG or ACVRL1 mutations were found in more than 80 % of all HHT patients. One to two percent of cases 127 have mutations in SMAD4 [39]. This gene encodes smad proteins which is a member of signal transduction proteins in Smad family. The proteins are phosphorylated by ...
HHT is a genetically heterogeneous disease with at least three causative genes [9-15]. 15% of clinically diagnosed HHT cases cannot be explained by mutations in the coding regions or exon/intron junctions of ACVRL1, ENG, or SMAD4[19, 20]). Yet in some families, linkage data suggests ACVRL1 or ENG to be the causative gene. Therefore, non-coding regions may play a role in the disease. However, previously described mutations in ENG were located only on the coding regions and exon-intron junctions of the gene [29, 30]. So far, no 5UTR mutations or deep intronic mutations have been described. ENG promoter activity was found to be within the upstream 400 bp region from the TIS, and an area near the transcription initiation site of ENG was determined to be essential for promoter function [21, 31]. We therefore chose this critical region to analyze in our unexplained HHT cases. We have identified a 5UTR mutation (c.-127C , T) in 3 unrelated probands, 2 of which had family members evaluated for ...
Endoglin is a transmembrane glycoprotein 633 residues in length expressed at the surface of endothelial cells as a disulphide-linked homodimer; the specific cysteine residues involved in endoglin dimerization are unknown. Mutations in the coding region of the endoglin gene are responsible for hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia type 1 (HHT1), a dominantly inherited vascular disorder. Many of these mutations, if translated, would lead to truncated forms of the protein. It is therefore of interest to assess the protein expression of different truncated forms of endoglin. Infections in vitro or in vivo with recombinant vaccinia virus, as well as transient transfections with expression vectors, were used to express normal and truncated forms of endoglin. Truncated mutants could be classified into three different groups: (1) those that did not produce stable transcripts; (2) those that produced stable transcripts but did not secrete the protein; and (3) those that secreted a soluble dimeric ...
According to scientific study that has been conducted on animal test subjects, the primary purpose of Myostatin HMP is to act as an inhibitor to myostatin.. Myostatin has been determined to be a secreted growth differentiation factor, meaning that it is part of a subfamily of proteins that are part of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily that have functions chiefly associated with development. Specifically, it is part of the TGF beta protein family that blocks the process of muscle differentiation and growth in myogenesis, which is the process in which muscular tissue is formed particularly during embryonic development. The peptide is chiefly produced via skeletal muscle cells. It also circulates throughout the blood and is known to act on muscle tissue by binding a cell-bound receptor that is known as the activin type II receptor.. When the peptide binds to the receptor, it results in the recruitment of a coreceptor known as either Alk-3 or Alk-4. This particular coreceptor in turn ...
On ligand binding, forms a receptor complex consisting of two type II and two type I transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. Type II receptors phosphorylate and activate type I receptors which autophosphorylate, then bind and activate SMAD transcriptional regulators. Receptor for activin A, activin B and inhibin A. Mediates induction of adipogenesis by GDF6.
Using positional cloning and candidate gene testing, we have identified the molecular basis for the cranial vessel dilation observed in vbg mutants. We meiotically mapped the vbg locus to an interval of 0.035 cM on LG23 and established a physical contig across this region containing the acvrl1 gene. The vbgy6 allele of acvrl1 contains a missense mutation in the C-terminal serine/threonine kinase domain, whereas the vbgft09e allele contains a nonsense mutation in the N-terminal ligand binding domain. The former polymorphism exhibited no recombination in 4256 vbgy6 mutants (8512 informative meioses). Furthermore, injection of antisense, morpholino-modified oligonucleotides specific to acvrl1 phenocopies the vascular defect seen in vbg mutants. Finally, at 40 hpf, when the vbg mutant phenotype is first detectable, acvrl1 mRNA is expressed predominantly in vessels that are consistently dilated in vbg mutants: the first aortic arch, internal carotid artery/caudal division, and basal communicating ...
In a recent study (Zhou et al., 2010), the authors defined the mechanism by which ActRIIB and its ligands regulate cachexia by studying multiple mouse models of cancer. They also investigated the potential therapeutic effects on cancer cachexia of blocking signaling through the ActRIIB signaling pathway. To antagonize the ActRIIB pathway, they engineered a decoy receptor containing the extracellular portion of human ActRIIB fused to the Fc region of IgG2, designated sActRIIB (soluble ActRIIB-Fc). The authors administered this decoy receptor to antagonize the ActRIIB pathway in four distinct mouse models of lethal cancer cachexia: colon26 (C26) murine adenocarcinoma-bearing mice, inhibin-α knockout mice (which develop gonadal tumors) and immunocompromised nude mice bearing either human G361 melanoma or TOV-21G ovarian carcinoma xenografts. By testing diverse models of cancer cachexia with tumors of distinct origin, the authors minimized the possibility that the tumor site or type would influence ...
This test involves sequencing and deletionduplication analysis of five genes known to cause Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia: ACVRL1/ALK1, BMP9/GDF2, ENG, RASA1, and SMAD4. Complete and submit the Patient History Form for HHT that is attached to this entry.. ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a partial recombinant ACVRL1. ACVRL1 (AAH42637, 22 a.a. ~ 119 a.a) partial recombinant protein with GST tag. MW of the GST tag alone is 26 KDa. (H00000094-M02) - Products - Abnova
Acvrl1 - mouse gene knockout kit via CRISPR, 1 kit. |dl||dt|Kit Component:|/dt||dd|- |strong|KN300805G1|/strong|, Acvrl1 gRNA vector 1 in |a href=http://www.origene.com/CRISPR-CAS9/Detail.
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a-vail- avail vi. 有用, 有利, 有益 vt. 有用於, 有利於 n. 效用, 利益 availability n. 有效, 有益, 可利用性, 可得性 available a. 可利用的, 在手邊的, 可買到的, 可獲得的, 有效的, 有空 ...
Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение Научный центр биомедицинских технологий РАМН
Художник Геннадий Михайлович Добров - биография, творчество, выставки, работы, фото
Looking for Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia? Find out information about Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. An inherited disease characterized by dilatation of groups of capillaries and a tendency to hemorrhage. Also known as Osler-Rendu-Weber disease Explanation of Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia
misc{08a586d2-6965-44d0-b083-93b1aacff9f7, author = {Magnusson, V and Zunec, R and Odeberg, J and Sturfelt, Gunnar and Truedsson, Lennart and Alarcon-Riquelme, ME}, issn = {1529-0131}, language = {eng}, number = {4}, pages = {1348--1350}, publisher = {John Wiley & Sons}, series = {Arthritis and Rheumatism}, title = {Polymorphisms of the Fc gamma receptor type IIB gene are not associated with systemic lupus erythematosus in the Swedish population}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.20151}, volume = {50}, year = {2004 ...
under the persons skin appears as red to violet, small discolorations, particularly on the toes and fingers tips, face, nose and mouth lining, and lips.. Similar small abnormality can happen in the GI , called gastrointestinal tract. The fragile blood vessel can break, resulting in bleeding from the persons gastrointestinal tract and severe nose bleeding. No certain treatment for Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia exists, but bleeding may be stopped by applying compress or astringent. If bleeding repeats, a laser beam may be useful to destroy blood vessel, which leaks.. Severe bleeding may be stopped by drafting normal tissues or by blocking leaking arteries with a pellet placed through the catheter. Bleeding most likely to recur, causing iron deficiency anemia; individuals with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia require to use iron supplement.. Related Videos:. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - RAP-011, an activin receptor ligand trap, increases hemoglobin concentration in hepcidin transgenic mice. AU - Langdon, Jacqueline M.. AU - Barkataki, Sangjucta. AU - Berger, Alan E.. AU - Cheadle, Chris. AU - Xue, Qian Li. AU - Sung, Victoria. AU - Roy, Cindy N.. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Over expression of hepcidin antimicrobial peptide is a common feature of iron-restricted anemia in humans. We investigated the erythroid response to either erythropoietin or RAP-011, a "murinized" ortholog of sotatercept, in C57BL/6 mice and in hepcidin antimicrobial peptide 1 over expressing mice. Sotatercept, a soluble, activin receptor type IIA ligand trap, is currently being evaluated for the treatment of anemias associated with chronic renal disease, myelodysplastic syndrome, β-thalassemia, and Diamond Blackfan anemia and acts by inhibiting signaling downstream of activin and other Transforming Growth Factor-β superfamily members. We found that erythropoietin and RAP-011 ...
The proposed study aims to understand the factors that influence screening behaviors of adults with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). HHT is a chronic condition, but with early diagnosis followed by adherence to recommended screening guidelines, the major complications of this disorder can be avoided and disability or even death can be prevented. Yet, it has come to the attention of healthcare professionals that the recommended screening is not commonly followed by individuals with HHT, even when the risk of serious complications is known. Nonadherence to screening recommendations is not unique to HHT. It is rather common across chronic conditions, and genetic diseases, such as HHT, are no exception. However, HHT may have an added barrier to screening and treatment adherence in that it is a rare and underdiagnosed condition. Inadequate knowledge of healthcare providers may be a serious barrier to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. The Health Belief Model (HBM) can be used to frame ...
BACKGROUND: There are very few studies about general quality of life parameters, standards for the description of health status and comparison with general population data on patients with Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), a rare disease in which epistaxis is a cardinal symptom. PURPOSE: To assess the quality of life in a population of Spanish patients with HHT and compare it with the general population. DESIGN AND METHODS: Between January 1(st) 2005 and December 31(st) 2013, 187 adult patients diagnosed with HHT who were admitted to the HHT Unit of the Hospital Sierrallana, completed on their first visit, the EuroQol 5D-3L (five dimensions and three levels) quality of life descriptive test and the visual analog scale (VAS ...
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Activin-A and activin-B, members of the TGF-β superfamily, are regulators of reproductive functions, inflammation and wound healing. These dimeric molecules regulate various cellular activities such as proliferation, migration and suvival. Malignant mesothelioma is an asbestos exposure related tumor affecting mainly pleura and it usually has a dismal prognosis. Here, we demonstrate that both activin-A and -B are abundantly expressed in mesothelioma tumor tissue as well as in cultured primary and established mesothelioma cells. Migratory and invasive mesothelioma cells were also found to have attenuated activation of the Smad2/3 pathway in response to activins. Migration and invasive growth of the cells in three-dimentional matrix was prevented by inhibition of activin activity using a soluble activin receptor 2B (sActR2B-Fc). This was associated with decreased ERK activity. Furthermore, migration and invasive growth was significantly inhibited by blocking ERK phosphorylation. Mesothelioma ...
Cell-cell contacts are fundamental to multicellular organisms and are subject to exquisite levels of control. Human RPTPmu is a type IIB receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase that both forms an adhesive contact itself and is involved in regulating adhesion by dephosphorylating components of cadherin-catenin complexes. Here we describe a 3.1 angstrom crystal structure of the RPTPmu ectodomain that forms a homophilic trans (antiparallel) dimer with an extended and rigid architecture, matching the dimensions of adherens junctions. Cell surface expression of deletion constructs induces intercellular spacings that correlate with the ectodomain length. These data suggest that the RPTPmu ectodomain acts as a distance gauge and plays a key regulatory function, locking the phosphatase to its appropriate functional location.
The TGF-β superfamily is a large family of growth and differentiation factors that regulate a wide variety of cellular processes in many different cell types and biological contexts. Different family members regulate cell proliferation (both positively and negatively), migration, extracellular matrix elaboration, adhesion, survival and differentiation, in both developing embryos and adult organisms, ranging from worms to humans (Whitman, 1998; Massagué and Chen, 2000; Massagué et al., 2000). Aberrant signaling by TGF-β, the prototype of the family, has been implicated in a number of human diseases, including cancer, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, atherosclerosis, and fibrotic disease of the kidney, liver, and lung (Blobe et al., 2000). In addition, low levels of TGF-β signaling have been implicated in compromised wound healing, and inappropriately high levels of TGF-β signaling are associated with excessive scarring (Roberts and Sporn, 1993).. The mechanism of signaling by TGF-β ...
This gene encodes a type I cell-surface receptor for the TGF-beta superfamily of ligands. It shares with other type I receptors a high degree of similarity in serine-threonine kinase subdomains, a glycine- and serine-rich region (called the GS domain) preceding the kinase domain, and a short C-terminal tail. The encoded protein, sometimes termed ALK1, shares similar domain structures with other closely related ALK or activin receptor-like kinase proteins that form a subfamily of receptor serine/threonine kinases. Mutations in this gene are associated with hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 2, also known as Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Using a mix of wild-type (WT) and caveolin-2 (Cav-2) knockout along with retroviral reexpression approaches, we offer the data for the negative role of Cav-2 in regulating anti-proliferative function and signaling of changing growth matter (TGF-) in endothelial cells (ECs). evidenced by three unbiased proliferation assays: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), cell count number, and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and correlated with a lack of TGF-mediated upregulation of cell routine inhibitor Rabbit polyclonal to PAI-3 p27 and following Rebastinib reduced amount of the degrees of hyperphosphorylated (inactive) type of the retinoblastoma protein in Cav-2 reexpressing ECs. Mechanistically, Cav-2 inhibits anti-proliferative action of TGF- by suppressing Alk5-Smad2/3 pathway manifested by reduced magnitude and amount of TGF-induced Smad2/3 phosphorylation aswell as activation of activin receptor-like kinase-5 (Alk5)-Smad2/3 target genes plasminogen activator ...
Plans are to recruit patients with HHT from the UCSD Nasal Dysfunction Clinic. The HHT world is connected through the HHT Foundation. The Foundation is interested in VEGF inhibitors. They have carefully watched our work at UCSD for a long time and our two papers on Avastin have been circulated around the world. Those who come for our evaluation and are deemed appropriate for Bevacizumab injection will be recruited for this study. Those agreeing to participate will sign a consent form.. The treatment, regardless of participation in the proposed research, is to bring the patients to the operating room where under general anesthesia the nose is suctioned clean of blood clot, crust and secretion. The mucosa is then injected with a local anesthetic with adrenaline to reduce discomfort and to reduce bleeding. The nasal mucosa is treated with a KTP laser in our standard fashion. A 100mg of Avastin delivered in 4cc is then diluted with 4cc of normal saline to a total volume of 8cc. The dilution is made ...
Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment of Bleeding Due to Abnormal Blood Vessels from the Professional Version of the Merck Manuals.
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Following myocardial infarction (MI), the heart undergoes a pathological process known as remodeling, which in many instances results in cardiac dysfunction and ultimately heart failure and death. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a key m
A fresh water-soluble polysaccharide (longan polysaccharide 1 (LP1)) was extracted and successfully purified from pulp via diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose anion-exchange and Sephacryl S-300 HR gel chromatography. HO8910 tumor cells, with inhibition percentages of Tasquinimod supplier 40% and 50%, respectively. In addition, LP1 significantly stimulated the production of the cytokine interferon- (IFN-), increased the activity of murine […]. ...
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Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia This patient suffers from an inherited bleeding condition, which in this case (rarely) presented as very severe life threatening nose bleeds (epistaxis) which did not respond to radical surgery. Over a 10 year period she underwent hundreds of operations to stop the recurrent nose bleeds, which resulted in total collapse of the nose, and had little effect on the recurrent bleeding problem. Bleeding was so severe that she required an i.v. placed in the right atrium of the heart (Hickman Line) for emergency blood transfusions. She was naturally most reluctant to undergo life saving total nasal amputation, the treatment of choice, for the severity of this condition ...
Type II receptors are considered to be constitutively active kinases. This gene encodes activin A type IIB receptor, which ... and type II receptors are required for binding ligands and for expression of type I receptors. Type I and II receptors form a ... "Truncated activin type II receptors inhibit bioactivity by the formation of heteromeric complexes with activin type I. ... "Truncated activin type II receptors inhibit bioactivity by the formation of heteromeric complexes with activin type I. ...
"Truncated activin type II receptors inhibit bioactivity by the formation of heteromeric complexes with activin type I. ... and type II receptors are required for binding ligands and for expression of type I receptors. Type I and II receptors form a ... resulting in phosphorylation of type I receptors by type II receptors. Type II receptors are considered to be constitutively ... "Truncated activin type II receptors inhibit bioactivity by the formation of heteromeric complexes with activin type I. ...
"Identification of human activin and TGF beta type I receptors that form heteromeric kinase complexes with type II receptors". ... "Entrez Gene: ACVRL1 activin A receptor type II-like 1". Olivieri C, Mira E, Delù G, Pagella F, Zambelli A, Malvezzi L, ... It is also known as activin receptor-like kinase 1, or ALK1. This gene encodes a type I cell-surface receptor for the TGF-beta ... "Mutations in the activin receptor-like kinase 1 gene in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia type 2". Nature Genetics. 13 (2 ...
A two-week treatment of normal mice with soluble activin type IIB receptor, a molecule that is normally attached to cells and ... Myostatin binds to the activin type II receptor, resulting in a recruitment of either coreceptor Alk-3 or Alk-4. This ... "Regulation of muscle growth by multiple ligands signaling through activin type II receptors". Proceedings of the National ... is thought that binding of myostatin to the soluble activin receptor prevents it from interacting with the cell-bound receptors ...
"Identification and characterization of a PDZ protein that interacts with activin type II receptors". J Biol Chem. 275 (8): 5485 ... This encoded protein is characterized by two WW domains, a guanylate kinase-like domain, and multiple PDZ domains. It has ... 1998). "Atrophin-1, the DRPLA gene product, interacts with two families of WW domain-containing proteins". Mol. Cell. Neurosci ... Nakayama M, Kikuno R, Ohara O (2003). "Protein-protein interactions between large proteins: two-hybrid screening using a ...
"Determination of type I receptor specificity by the type II receptors for TGF-beta or activin". Science. 262 (5135): 900-2. doi ... Choy L, Derynck R (November 1998). "The type II transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta receptor-interacting protein TRIP-1 acts ... Oh SP, Seki T, Goss KA, Imamura T, Yi Y, Donahoe PK, Li L, Miyazono K, ten Dijke P, Kim S, Li E (March 2000). "Activin receptor ... "Conserved role for 14-3-3epsilon downstream of type I TGFbeta receptors". FEBS Lett. 490 (1-2): 65-9. doi:10.1016/s0014-5793(01 ...
2005). "The structure of the follistatin:activin complex reveals antagonism of both type I and type II receptor binding". Dev. ... Walsh S, Metter EJ, Ferrucci L, Roth SM (2007). "Activin-type II receptor B (ACVR2B) and follistatin haplotype associations ... 2007). "Activin subunit and receptor expression in normal and cleft human fetal palate tissues". Pediatr. Dev. Pathol. 10 (6): ... Two, FS-288 and FS-315, are known to be created by alternative splicing of the primary mRNA transcript. FS-300 (porcine ...
"Three-finger toxin fold for the extracellular ligand-binding domain of the type II activin receptor serine kinase". Nature ... Ploug, Michael; Ellis, Vincent (1994-08-01). "Structure-function relationships in the receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen ... such as the activin type 2 receptor; and bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type IA. Other LU domain proteins are small ... Other receptors with LU domains include members of the transforming growth factor beta receptor (TGF-beta) superfamily, ...
January 2008). "MicroRNA miR-24 inhibits erythropoiesis by targeting activin type I receptor ALK4". Blood. 111 (2): 588-95. doi ... Recently, miR-24 has been shown to suppress expression of two crucial cell cycle control genes, E2F2 and Myc in hematopoietic ... 199 (2): 347-63. doi:10.1083/jcb.201203134. PMID 23071155. Wang Q, Huang Z, Xue H, et al. ( ...
... and BMPR1B and the type II receptor BMPR2. These receptors are also closely related to the activin receptors, ACVR1 and ACVR2. ... kinase receptors: type I receptors of about 50-55 kD and type II receptors of about 70-80 kD. Type II receptors bind ligands in ... but they require their respective type I receptors for signaling, whereas type I receptors require their respective type II ... "Human type II receptor for bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs): extension of the two-kinase receptor model to the BMPs". Mol. Cell ...
"Regulation of endocytosis of activin type II receptors by a novel PDZ protein through Ral/Ral-binding protein 1-dependent ... II. Doxorubicin transport in lung cancer by RLIP76". Int. J. Oncol. 22 (4): 713-20. doi:10.3892/ijo.22.4.713. PMID 12632060. ... involvement of the Ral pathway in receptor endocytosis". J. Cell Sci. 113 (16): 2837-44. PMID 10910768. Awasthi S, Cheng J, ... 273 (2): 814-21. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.2.814. PMID 9422736. Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, ...
"Regulation of endocytosis of activin type II receptors by a novel PDZ protein through Ral/Ral-binding protein 1-dependent ... "Novel factors in regulation of activin signaling". Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. 225 (1-2): 1-8. doi:10.1016/j.mce. ... "Novel factors in regulation of activin signaling". Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. 225 (1-2): 1-8. doi:10.1016/j.mce. ... "Interactions of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene family with cytosolic adaptor and scaffold proteins suggest diverse ...
"Regulation of endocytosis of activin type II receptors by a novel PDZ protein through Ral/Ral-binding protein 1-dependent ... The product of this gene is part of a protein complex that regulates the endocytosis of growth factor receptors. The encoded ... Its expression can negatively affect receptor internalization and inhibit growth factor signaling. Multiple transcript variants ... "Epsin binds to the EH domain of POB1 and regulates receptor-mediated endocytosis". Oncogene. 18 (43): 5915-22. doi:10.1038/sj. ...
ACE-011 was a chimeric protein, created by fusing the binding portion of the activin type 2 receptor to part of an antibody; ... a protein therapeutic that was an activin type 2 receptor antagonist intended to treat bone loss. ... the resulting protein binds to activin and prevents it from acting. Knopf took over as CEO in 2007. He became known for showing ... At that time, the company had three protein therapeutic candidates being studied in 12 Phase 2 clinical trials, including ...
... also known has Activin A receptor, type I (ACVR1), and the other type II receptors BMPRII and ActRIIA. GDF2 and BMP10 are the ... and activin type II receptors balance BMP9 signals mediated by activin receptor-like kinase-1 in human pulmonary artery ... start with a ligand binding with a high affinty type I receptor (ALK1-7) followed by the recruitment of a type II receptor( ... an endothelial-specific type I receptor of the TGF-beta receptor family. Endoglin, a type I membrane glycoprotein that forms ...
ACVR1 encodes activin receptor type-1, a BMP type-1 receptor. The mutation causes substitution of codon 206 from arginine to ... Two affected individuals can produce unaffected children. The homozygous dominant form is more severe than the heterozygous ... "ACVR1R206H receptor mutation causes fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva by imparting responsiveness to activin A". stm. ... Feldman, G. "A recurrent mutation in the BMP type I receptor ACVR1 ( HSC'13) causes inherited and sporadic fibrodysplasia ...
... activin A receptor type II-like 1f APOF: encoding protein Apolipoprotein F APOLD1: apolipoprotein L domain containing 1 ARL6IP4 ... type II, gamma PIWIL1: encoding protein Piwi-like protein 1 POP5: encoding enzyme Ribonuclease P/MRP protein subunit POP5 ... non-receptor type 11 (Noonan syndrome 1) PUS1: encoding enzyme tRNA pseudouridine synthase A PUS7L: encoding enzyme ... types II and XI cornea plana 2 episodic ataxia hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia hypochondrogenesis ichthyosis bullosa of ...
... error Type II lattice Type II string theory Type-II superconductor Type II supernova Activin type 2 receptors Atelosteogenesis ... a Japanese tank Type II keratin Type II error used in statistics for a "false negative" ... Type II, a Japanese sub-machine gun Type 2 12 cm Mortar, a Japanese weapon Type 2 20 mm AA machine cannon, a Japanese weapon ... Motorola Type II Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 Neurofibromatosis type II Real Personal Trooper Type-2 R-Type II Type I ...
... resulting in phosphorylation of type I receptors by type II receptors. This gene encodes activin A type IB receptor, composed ... and type II receptors are required for binding ligands and for expression of type I receptors. Type I and II receptors form a ... "Truncated activin type II receptors inhibit bioactivity by the formation of heteromeric complexes with activin type I. ... "Truncated activin type II receptors inhibit bioactivity by the formation of heteromeric complexes with activin type I. ...
... resulting in phosphorylation of type I receptors by type II receptors. This gene encodes activin A type I receptor which ... and type II receptors are required for binding ligands and for expression of type I receptors. Type I and II receptors form a ... and two type II (II and IIB) receptors. These receptors are all transmembrane proteins, composed of a ligand-binding ... ACVR1 encodes activin receptor type-1, a BMP type-1 receptor. The mutation causes the ACVR1 protein to have the amino acid ...
Other names in common use include activin receptor kinase, receptor type I serine/threonine protein kinase, receptor type II ... the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and receptor protein, whereas its two products are ADP and receptor protein phosphate ... receptor-protein] ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ADP + [receptor-protein] phosphate Thus, ... In enzymology, a receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC 2.7.11.30) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP ...
In mammals there are seven known type I receptors and five type II receptors. There are three activins: Activin A, Activin B ... It can then either form a receptor complex with activin A receptor, type IB (ACVR1B) or with activin A receptor, type IC ( ... TGFβ superfamily ligands bind to a type II receptor, which recruits and phosphorylates a type I receptor. The type I receptor ... The type II receptor is a serine/threonine receptor kinase, which catalyzes the phosphorylation of the Type I receptor. Each ...
An Activin receptor is a receptor which binds activin. Types include: Activin type 1 receptors Activin type 2 receptors These ... Activin receptors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ... proteins are receptor-type kinases of Ser/Thr type, which have a single transmembrane domain and a specific hydrophilic Cys- ... Wrana JL, Attisano L, Wieser R, Ventura F, Massague J (1994). "Mechanism of activation of the TGF-beta receptor". Nature. 370 ( ...
Transforming growth factor beta receptor I (activin A receptor type II-like kinase, 53kDa) is a membrane-bound receptor protein ... "Determination of type I receptor specificity by the type II receptors for TGF-beta or activin". Science. 262 (5135): 900-2. doi ... beta receptor I (activin A receptor type II-like kinase, 53kDa)". Razani B, Zhang XL, Bitzer M, von Gersdorff G, Böttinger EP, ... "Human type II receptor for bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs): extension of the two-kinase receptor model to the BMPs". Molecular ...
... signaling pathway by repressing the expression of TGF-beta receptor type II". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 27 (23): 8228-42 ... where the TGF-β receptor is located. The receptors for TGF-β, (including nodal, activin, myostatin and other family members) ... The complex of two SMAD3 (or of two SMAD2) and one SMAD4 binds directly to DNA though interactions of the MH1 domain. These ... The MH2 domain mediates the interaction of R-SMADS with activated TGF-β receptors, and with SMAD4 after receptor-mediated ...
It may also be used to treat and prevent certain types of thyroid tumors.[1] It is not indicated for weight loss.[1] ... T4 and T3 bind to thyroid receptor proteins in the cell nucleus and cause metabolic effects through the control of DNA ... 20 (2): 300-13. doi:10.1042/bj0200300. PMC 1251714 . PMID 16743659.. *^ a b King, Tekoa L.; Brucker, Mary C. (2010). ... doi:10.1186/1745-0179-2-23. PMC 1584230 . PMID 16968542.. *^ Sherwood, Lauralee (2010). "19 The Peripheral Endocrine Glands". ...
Buy our Recombinant Human Activin Receptor Type IIB protein. Ab125577 is a protein fragment produced in Baculovirus infected ... forms a receptor complex consisting of two type II and two type I transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. Type II receptors ... Recombinant Human Activin Receptor Type IIB protein. See all Activin Receptor Type IIB proteins and peptides. ... By product type. Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex ...
ACVRL1 (ALK1) encodes activin A receptor type II-like 1, a serine-threonine kinase receptor for the transforming growth factor ... ENG encodes endoglin, a cell surface coreceptor which is a component of the transforming growth factor beta receptor complex. ... Ship all specimen types at room temperature by overnight courier. Do not freeze. ... An additional 1-2% of patients with HHT have mutations in the SMAD4 gene. In addition to HHT, patients with SMAD4 mutations ...
Fst from 2mg/Vial Freeze-Dried Polypeptide Powder Follistatin 344 Activin-Binding Protein - Shanghai Shucan Industrial Co., Ltd ... China 2mg/Vial Freeze-Dried Polypeptide Powder Follistatin 344 Activin-Binding Protein, Find details about China Follistatin ... based on activin receptor type IIB (ActRIIB). The molecule inhibits signaling via the ActRIIB receptor binding ... FS is a high-affinity activin-binding protein that can act as an activin antagonist. Two alternatively spliced ...
There are two activin type two receptors: ACVR2A and ACVR2B. Despite the large amount of processes that these ligands regulate ... inhibin/activin betaA and betaB and the activin type II and inhibin beta-glycan receptors in the developing human testis". ... which recruits and trans-phosphorylates a type I receptor. The type I receptor recruits a receptor regulated SMAD (R-SMAD) ... "Regulation of muscle growth by multiple ligands signaling through activin type II receptors". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 ...
Previous studies have demonstrated that myostatin is capable of binding the two activin type II receptors, ACVR2B and, to a ... Regulation of muscle growth by multiple ligands signaling through activin type II receptors. Se-Jin Lee, Lori A. Reed, Monique ... Finally, we provide genetic evidence that these ligands signal through both activin type II receptors, ACVR2 and ACVR2B, to ... Regulation of muscle growth by multiple ligands signaling through activin type II receptors ...
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1 Antibody. Validated: WB, IHC, IHC-Fr. Tested Reactivity: Mouse ... resulting in phosphorylation of type I receptors by type II receptors. This gene encodes activin A type I receptor which ... and type II receptors are required for binding ligands and for expression of type I receptors. Type I and II receptors form a ... Green: Activin A Receptor type I protein stained by Activin A Receptor type I antibody ...read more ...
What is activin-A receptor type-II-like kinase, 53kD? Meaning of activin-A receptor type-II-like kinase, 53kD medical term. ... What does activin-A receptor type-II-like kinase, 53kD mean? ... activin-A receptor type-II-like kinase, 53kD explanation free. ... Looking for online definition of activin-A receptor type-II-like kinase, 53kD in the Medical Dictionary? ... Activin-A receptor type-II-like kinase, 53kD , definition of activin-A receptor type-II-like kinase, 53kD by Medical dictionary ...
Activin Receptor Like Kinase 2 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Receptor R1 or TGF B Superfamily Receptor Type I or ALK2 or ... Activin A receptor type I (ACVR1) is a protein is encoded by the ACVR1 gene. Type II receptors phosphorylate and activate type ... Assessment by Molecule Type. Activin Receptor Type 1 (Activin Receptor Like Kinase 2 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase ... Activin Receptor Type 1 (Activin Receptor Like Kinase 2 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Receptor R1 or TGF B Superfamily ...
... and BMP receptors type IA (BMPR-IA) and type IB (BMPR-IB) in the presence of activin receptors type II (ActR-II) and type IIB ( ... Osteogenic protein-1 binds to activin type II receptors and induces certain activin-like effects. H Yamashita, H Yamashita ... These results indicate that ActR-II can act as a functional type II receptor for OP-1, as well as for activins. Some of the ... Osteogenic protein-1 binds to activin type II receptors and induces certain activin-like effects.. J Cell Biol 1 July 1995; 130 ...
... The Activin type 2 receptors modulate signals for ligands belonging to the Transforming growth factor ... A ligand binds to a Type two receptor, which recruits and trans-phosphorylate a type I receptor. The type I receptor recruits a ... There are two Activin type two receptors: ACVR2A and ACVR2B. Despite the large amount of processes that these ligands regulate ... TGFBR1: Activin type 1 receptors (ACVR1, ACVR1B, ACVR1C) - ACVRL1 - BMPR1 (BMPR1A - BMPR1B) TGFBR2: Activin type 2 receptors ( ...
A ligand binds to a Type two receptor, which recruits and trans-phosphorylate a type I receptor. The type I receptor recruits a ... There are three type I Activin receptors: ACVR1, ACVR1B, and ACVR1C. Each bind to a specific type II receptor-ligand complex. ... The Activin type I receptors transduce signals for a variety of members of the Transforming growth factor beta superfamily of ... This family of cytokines and hormones include activin, Anti-müllerian hormone (AMH), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), and ...
TGF-B superfamily receptor type I. activin A receptor type II-like 1. activin A receptor type IL. activin A receptor, type II- ... ACVRL1 activin A receptor like type 1 [Homo sapiens] ACVRL1 activin A receptor like type 1 [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:94 ... STKc_ACVR1_ALK1; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinases, Activin Type I Receptor and Activin receptor-Like Kinase 1. ... STKc_ACVR1_ALK1; Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinases, Activin Type I Receptor and Activin receptor-Like Kinase 1. ...
IPR000472 Activin types I and II receptor domain. IPR003605 GS domain. IPR017441 Protein kinase, ATP binding site ... type I serine/threonine-protein kinase receptor, Activin/BMP/TGF-beta types ... Blue cells = expressed in wild-type.. Gray triangles = other expression annotations only. (e.g. absence of expression or data ... 1 human;1 mouse;1 rat;1 chimpanzee;1 cattle;1 dog;1 chicken;2 zebrafish;1 frog, western clawed;1 macaque, rhesus. ...
J:1073 Matzuk MM, et al., Structure of the mouse activin receptor type II gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992 May 29;185(1): ... Blue cells = expressed in wild-type.. Gray triangles = other expression annotations only. (e.g. absence of expression or data ... IPR000472 Activin types I and II receptor domain. IPR000719 Protein kinase domain ...
Activin Receptors, Type II * activin receptor type II-B Grant support * R15 AR055360/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/United States ... Soluble activin receptor type IIB increases forward pulling tension in the mdx mouse Muscle Nerve. 2011 May;43(5):694-9. doi: ... Introduction: In this study we investigated the action of RAP-031, a soluble activin receptor type IIB (ActRIIB) comprised of a ...
Silencing of activin receptor-like kinase 7 alleviates aortic stiffness in type 2 diabetic rats. Acta Diabetol 2015;52:717-726 ... Upon conditioning on these two variants, we identified an additional coding variant: Ile482Val (AF 7%), which associated with ... We identified four variants in the gene ACVR1C (encoding the activin receptor-like kinase 7 receptor expressed on adipocytes ... which encodes the activin receptor-like kinase 7 (ALK7), influence body fat distribution and protect against type 2 diabetes. ...
What is Activin receptor type IIA? Meaning of Activin receptor type IIA medical term. What does Activin receptor type IIA mean? ... Looking for online definition of Activin receptor type IIA in the Medical Dictionary? Activin receptor type IIA explanation ... type-II receptors are required for binding ligands and expression of type-I receptors. After activin binding, type-I receptors ... a receptor that forms a complex with other type-I and two type-II transmembrane serine/threonine kinase receptors for activin, ...
Type IIA (ACVR2A) Protein. Species: Mouse. Source: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Order product ABIN6301677. ... Mouse Activin A Receptor Type II A (ACVR2A) Protein Purity , 95 % Target Details Handling Application Details back to top ... Activin A Receptor, Type IIA (ACVR2A) Protein Activin A Receptor, Type IIA (ACVR2A) Protein. Details for Product No. ... Protein Type Recombinant Application ELISA, Immunoprecipitation (IP), SDS-PAGE (SDS), Western Blotting (WB). Options Bulk ...
Molecular cloning has yielded genes encoding two type II receptors (ActRII and ActRIIB) and at least two type I receptors (ALK2 ... Cloning of a second form of activin-betaA cDNA and regulation of activin-betaA subunits and activin type II receptor mRNA ... Expression of type II activin receptor genes during differentiation of human K562 cells and cDNA cloning of the human type IIB ... Synonyms: ACTR-IIB, ACTRIIB, ActR-IIB, Activin receptor type IIB, Activin receptor type-2B, ... ...
They are dimeric recombinant fusion proteins composed of the extracellular domain of a human activin receptor (ActRIIA or IIB) ... Cell-type-specific expression of a wheat-germ agglutinin gene in embryos and young seedlings of Triticum aestivum ... New therapeutic proteins that trap circulating members of the transforming growth factor (TGF) beta superfamily (activins and ... indifferently type IIA or IIB). A confirmation performed by double-blotting using different antibodies for detection allows a ...
... a new type II receptor displaying homology with vertebrate and Drosophila Activin type II receptors. The use of zebrafish ... three type I receptors but only a single type II receptor. This report describes the characterization of Cg-ActRII, ... Activin Receptors, Type II, Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Central Nervous System, Crassostrea, Embryo, Nonmammalian, Female, ... Structural and functional characterizations of an Activin type II receptor orthologue from the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas ...
Type II receptors phosphorylate and activate type I receptors which autophosphorylate, then bind and activate SMAD ... Receptor for activin A, activin B and inhibin A. Mediates induction of adipogenesis by GDF6. ... forms a receptor complex consisting of two type II and two type I transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. ... forms a receptor complex consisting of two type II and two type I transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. Type II receptors ...
type II activin receptor-like kinase. Additional Information & Resources. Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry. *Tests ... Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 spans the cell membrane, so that one end of the protein is on the outer surface of ... The BMPR2 gene provides instructions for making a protein called bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2. The BMPR2 gene ... Other mutations prevent bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 from reaching the cell surface or alter its structure so it ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Regulation of endocytosis of activin type II receptors by a novel PDZ protein ... Regulation of endocytosis of activin type II receptors by a novel PDZ protein through Ral/Ral-binding protein 1-dependent ...
Atr-I can also bind activin in concert with mammalian activin type II receptors. Two alternative forms of Atr-I have been ... The structural properties, binding specificity, and dependence on type II receptors define Atr-I as an activin type I receptor ... Atr-I binds activin efficiently when coexpressed with the distantly related Drosophila activin receptor Atr-II, with which it ... Two distinct transmembrane serine/threonine kinases from Drosophila melanogaster form an activin receptor complex.. J L Wrana, ...
  • In this study we investigated the action of RAP-031, a soluble activin receptor type IIB (ActRIIB) comprised of a form of the ActRIIB extracellular domain linked to a murine Fc, and the NF-κB inhibitor, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), on the whole body strength of mdx mice. (nih.gov)
  • Sotatercept (ActRIIA-Fc) and Luspatercept (a modified ActRIIB-Fc) in particular are now in phase 2/3 of clinical trials against anemia and included in the prohibited list established by the World Anti-Doping Agency. (pomposity.us)
  • Thus the inhibition of ActRIIB receptor protein results in increased growth of red blood cells and helps to recover anaemic conditions in healthy volunteers as well as in caner or anaemic patients. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Myostatin naturally inhibits skeletal muscle growth by binding to ActRIIB, a receptor on the cell surface of myofibers. (biologists.org)
  • Because blocking myostatin in an adult wild-type mouse induces profound muscle hypertrophy, we applied a soluble ActRIIB receptor to models of disuse (limb immobilization) and denervation (sciatic nerve resection) atrophy. (biologists.org)
  • Interestingly, a second form of HHT known as HHT1 results from loss of endoglin, a coreceptor that modulates signaling by several members of the TGF receptor family, including ALK1 ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • ALK1 deficiency causes hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 2, also known as. (allelebiotech.com)
  • 10. A method according to claim 6 comprising selecting those genes picked by two or more computational prediction algorithms. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This type of mutation may inactivate tumor suppressor genes in cancers with frequent MSI (MSI-H cancers). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we present a brief survey of the use of aptamers in signaling pathways, in particular of polypeptide growth factors, starting with the published as well as potential applications of aptamers targeting Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor signaling. (mdpi.com)
  • In this review, the authors summarize the clinically relevant scenarios in which the BMP and activin/TGF-β pathways reportedly oppose one another and identify several molecular mechanisms proposed to mediate this interaction. (jaoa.org)
  • We then selected studies for further examination on the basis of their clinical relevance and experimental demonstration of antagonism between the BMP and activin/TGF-β signaling pathways. (jaoa.org)
  • 100 µg, ABP-PAB- (100 µg) PDPK1 is a mediator of several signaling pathways coupled to growth factor receptor activation in human cancers. (allelebiotech.com)
  • Activated ALK5 phosphorylates receptor-regulated Smads (Smad2 and Smad3), promotes their association with Smad4, and leads to regulation of transcription ( Feng and Derynck, 2005 ). (rupress.org)
  • Our data show that during PCMO generation pluripotency marker expression is controlled positively by activin/Smad2 and negatively by TGF-β/Smad3 signaling, while relief from growth inhibition is primarily the result of reduced TGF-β/Smad3, and to a lesser extent, activin/Smad2 signaling. (nih.gov)
  • Transforming growth factor β activates Smad2 in the absence of receptor endocytosis," Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 277, no. 33, pp. 29363-29368, 2002. (hindawi.com)
  • S. Hayes, A. Chawla, and S. Corvera, "TGF β receptor internalization into EEA1-enriched early endosomes: role in signaling to Smad2," Journal of Cell Biology , vol. 158, no. 7, pp. 1239-1249, 2002. (hindawi.com)
  • After separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), an initial testing procedure performed by single-blotting can indicate the presence of an ActRII-Fc (indifferently type IIA or IIB). (pomposity.us)
  • A confirmation performed by double-blotting using different antibodies for detection allows a more precise identification of the type of ActRII-Fc (IIA, IIB). (pomposity.us)
  • This report describes the characterization of Cg-ActRII, a new type II receptor displaying homology with vertebrate and Drosophila Activin type II receptors. (mnhn.fr)
  • Signal transduction by transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) coordinates physiological responses in diverse cell types. (rupress.org)
  • We propose that peptide aptamers can provide a very useful and new alternative for interfering with protein-protein interactions in intracellular signal transduction cascades, including those emanating from activated receptors for growth factors. (mdpi.com)
  • Two, FS-288 and FS-315, are known to be created by alternative splicing of the primary mRNA transcript. (wikipedia.org)
  • A) cDNA microarray analysis of SIK mRNA in Smad4-deficient MDA-MB-468 cells after infection with adenovirus expressing LacZ or Smad4 and stimulation with 2 ng/ml TGFβ1 or 300 ng/ml BMP7. (rupress.org)
  • B and C) Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis of SIK and GAPDH mRNA in MDA-MB-468 cells as in A (B) or in response to 2 ng/ml TGFβ1 in HaCaT cells (C). Amplified cDNA sizes are in bp. (rupress.org)
  • The binding affinity of OP-1 to ActR-II was two- to threefold lower than that of activin A. A transcriptional activation signal was transduced after binding of OP-1 to the complex of ActR-I and ActR-II, or that of BMPR-IB and ActR-II. (rupress.org)
  • However, certain effects of activin, like induction of follicle stimulating hormone secretion in rat pituitary cells were not observed for OP-1. (rupress.org)
  • ACVR1C plays an important role in regulating the functional plasticity of pancreatic islets, negatively affecting beta-cell function by mediating the effects of activin B on Ca2+ signaling. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Activin is also thought to have a paracrine or autocrine role in follicular development in the ovary. (genecards.org)
  • Many events in the adult ovary are controlled by two hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), secreted from the anterior pituitary gland under the control of pulses of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus (Figure 1 ). (jci.org)
  • Right: A cross section of a mouse ovary is shown, demonstrating the main cell types and follicle stages. (jci.org)
  • These findings indicate that variants predicted to lead to loss of ACVR1C gene function influence body fat distribution and protect from type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • ACVR1C is dispensable for mouse embryogenesis, which suggests alternative functions for this receptor in postnatal development and tissue homeostasis. (acris-antibodies.com)