Activin Receptors, Type II: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS. They are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. The major type II activin receptors are ActR-IIA and ActR-IIB.Activin Receptors: Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those transmembrane receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily (RECEPTORS, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA), ALK's consist of two different but related protein kinases, Type I and Type II. Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity.Activins: Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.Activin Receptors, Type I: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS or activin receptor-like kinases (ALK'S). There are several type I activin receptors. The major active ones are ALK-2 (ActR-IA) and ALK-4 (ActR-IB).Myostatin: A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyInhibin-beta Subunits: They are glycopeptides and subunits in INHIBINS and ACTIVINS. Inhibins and activins belong to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily.Follistatin: A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.Receptors, Interleukin-1 Type I: An interleukin-1 receptor subtype that is involved in signaling cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The binding of this receptor to its ligand causes its favorable interaction with INTERLEUKIN-1 RECEPTOR ACCESSORY PROTEIN and the formation of an activated receptor complex.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.Smad2 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. It regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.Receptors, Interleukin-1: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA and LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA. It is constitutively expressed in most tissues and is a key mediator of tumor necrosis factor signaling in the vast majority of cells. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Receptors, Interleukin-1 Type II: An interleukin-1 receptor subtype that competes with the INTERLEUKIN-1 RECEPTOR TYPE I for binding to INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The interleukin-1 type II receptor appears to lack signal transduction capability. Therefore it may act as a "decoy" receptor that modulates the activity of its ligands. Both membrane-bound and soluble forms of the receptor have been identified.Nodal Protein: The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Interleukin-1 Receptor Accessory Protein: A protein that takes part in the formation of active interleukin-1 receptor complex. It binds specifically to INTERLEUKIN-1 and the INTERLEUKIN-1 RECEPTOR TYPE I at the cell surface to form a heterotrimeric complex that brings its cytoplasmic domain into contact with the cytoplasm domain of the TYPE-I INTERLEUKIN-1 RECEPTOR. Activation of intracellular signal transduction pathways from the receptor is believed to be driven by this form of cytoplasmic interaction.Smad Proteins: A family of proteins that are involved in the translocation of signals from TGF-BETA RECEPTORS; BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS; and other surface receptors to the CELL NUCLEUS. They were originally identified as a class of proteins that are related to the mothers against decapentaplegic protein, Drosophila and sma proteins from CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein: A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.Mink: Carnivores of genus Mustela of the family MUSTELIDAE. The European mink, which has white upper and lower lips, was widely trapped for commercial purposes and is classified as endangered. The American mink, lacking a white upper lip, is farmed commercially.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Growth Differentiation Factors: A family of BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN-related proteins that are primarily involved in regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mice, Inbred C57BLBone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with low affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are constitutively active PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that can interact with and phosphorylate TYPE I BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Smad3 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. Activated Smad3 can bind directly to DNA, and it regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Smad4 Protein: A signal transducing adaptor protein and tumor suppressor protein. It forms a complex with activated RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS. The complex then translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES.Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Interferon Type I: Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Scavenger Receptors, Class B: A family of scavenger receptors that are predominately localized to CAVEOLAE of the PLASMA MEMBRANE and bind HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Myositis Ossificans: A disease characterized by bony deposits or the ossification of muscle tissue.Receptors, Scavenger: A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Granulosa Cells: Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
(1/587) Crystal structure of the cytoplasmic domain of the type I TGF beta receptor in complex with FKBP12.

Activation of the type I TGFbeta receptor (TbetaR-I) requires phosphorylation of a regulatory segment known as the GS region, located upstream of the serine/threonine kinase domain in the cytoplasmic portion of the receptor. The crystal structure of a fragment of unphosphorylated TbetaR-I, containing both the GS region and the catalytic domain, has been determined in complex with the FK506-binding protein FKBP12. TbetaR-I adopts an inactive conformation that is maintained by the unphosphorylated GS region. FKBP12 binds to the GS region of the receptor, capping the TbetaR-II phosphorylation sites and further stabilizing the inactive conformation of TbetaR-I. Certain structural features at the catalytic center of TbetaR-I are characteristic of tyrosine kinases rather than Ser/Thr kinases.  (+info)

(2/587) Transforming growth factor-beta induces formation of a dithiothreitol-resistant type I/Type II receptor complex in live cells.

Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) binds to and signals via two serine-threonine kinase receptors, the type I (TbetaRI) and type II (TbetaRII) receptors. We have used different and complementary techniques to study the physical nature and ligand dependence of the complex formed by TbetaRI and TbetaRII. Velocity centrifugation of endogenous receptors suggests that ligand-bound TbetaRI and TbetaRII form a heteromeric complex that is most likely a heterotetramer. Antibody-mediated immunofluorescence co-patching of epitope-tagged receptors provides the first evidence in live cells that TbetaRI. TbetaRII complex formation occurs at a low but measurable degree in the absence of ligand, increasing significantly after TGF-beta binding. In addition, we demonstrate that pretreatment of cells with dithiothreitol, which inhibits the binding of TGF-beta to TbetaRI, does not prevent formation of the TbetaRI.TbetaRII complex, but increases its sensitivity to detergent and prevents TGF-beta-activated TbetaRI from phosphorylating Smad3 in vitro. This indicates that either a specific conformation of the TbetaRI. TbetaRII complex, disrupted by dithiothreitol, or direct binding of TGF-beta to TbetaRI is required for signaling.  (+info)

(3/587) Interaction of 5-lipoxygenase with cellular proteins.

5-Lipoxygenase (5LO) plays a pivotal role in cellular leukotriene synthesis. To identify proteins interacting with human 5LO, we used a two-hybrid approach to screen a human lung cDNA library. From a total of 1.5 x 10(7) yeast transformants, nine independent clones representing three different proteins were isolated and found to specifically interact with 5LO. Four 1.7- to 1.8-kb clones represented a 16-kDa protein named coactosin-like protein for its significant homology with coactosin, a protein found to be associated with actin in Dictyostelium discoideum. Coactosin-like protein thus may provide a link between 5LO and the cytoskeleton. Two other yeast clones of 1.5 kb encoded transforming growth factor (TGF) type beta receptor-I-associated protein 1 partial cDNA. TGF type beta receptor-I-associated protein 1 recently has been reported to associate with the activated form of the TGF beta receptor I and may be involved in the TGF beta-induced up-regulation of 5LO expression and activity observed in HL-60 and Mono Mac 6 cells. Finally, three identical 2.1-kb clones contained the partial cDNA of a human protein with high homology to a hypothetical helicase K12H4. 8 from Caenorhabditis elegans and consequently was named DeltaK12H4. 8 homologue. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence revealed the presence of a RNase III motif and a double-stranded RNA binding domain, indicative of a protein of nuclear origin. The identification of these 5LO-interacting proteins provides additional approaches to studies of the cellular functions of 5LO.  (+info)

(4/587) Dominant-negative Smad2 mutants inhibit activin/Vg1 signaling and disrupt axis formation in Xenopus.

Smads are central mediators of signal transduction for the TGFbeta superfamily. However, the precise functions of Smad-mediated signaling pathways in early development are unclear. Here we demonstrate a requirement for Smad2 signaling in dorsoanterior axis formation during Xenopus development. Using two point mutations of Smad2 previously identified in colorectal carcinomas, we show that Smad2 ushers Smad4 to the nucleus to form a transcriptional activation complex with the nuclear DNA-binding protein FAST-1 and that the mutant proteins interact normally with FAST-1 but fail to recruit Smad4 into the nucleus. This mechanism of inhibition specifically restricts the dominant-negative activity of these mutants to the activin/Vg1 signaling pathway without inhibiting BMPs. Furthermore, expression of these mutants in Xenopus animal caps inhibits but does not abolish activin and Vg1 induction of mesoderm and in the embryo results in a truncated dorsoanterior axis. These studies define a mechanism through which mutations in Smad2 may block TGFbeta-dependent signaling and suggest a critical role for inductive signaling mediated by the Smad2 pathway in Xenopus organizer function.  (+info)

(5/587) A short loop on the ALK-2 and ALK-4 activin receptors regulates signaling specificity but cannot account for all their effects on early Xenopus development.

Activin, a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily, signals through a heteromeric complex of type I and type II serine-threonine kinase receptors. The two activin type I receptors previously identified, ALK-2 (ActR-I) and ALK-4 (ActR-IB), have distinct effects on gene expression, differentiation and morphogenesis in the Xenopus animal cap assay. ALK-4 reproduces the effects of activin treatment including the dose-dependent induction of progressively more dorso-anterior mesodermal and endodermal markers, whereas ALK-2 induces only ventral mesodermal markers and counteracts the effects of ALK-4. To identify regions of the receptors that determine signaling specificity we have generated chimeras of the constitutively active ALK-2 and ALK-4 receptors (termed ALK-2* and ALK-4*). The effects of these chimeric receptors on gene expression and morphogenetic movements implicate the loop between kinase subdomains IV and V in mediating the strong dorsal gene-inducing properties of ALK-4*; when the seven amino acids comprising this loop are transferred from ALK-4* to ALK-2*, the resulting chimeric receptor is capable of inducing the expression of dorsal-specific genes. In contrast, when the equivalent region of ALK-2* is transferred to the ALK-4* backbone it cannot effectively counteract the dorsalizing effects of ALK-4*, suggesting that other regions of type I receptors are also involved in determining signal specificity.  (+info)

(6/587) TAKs, thylakoid membrane protein kinases associated with energy transduction.

The phosphorylation of proteins within the eukaryotic photosynthetic membrane is thought to regulate a number of photosynthetic processes in land plants and algae. Both light quality and intensity influence protein kinase activity via the levels of reductants produced by the thylakoid electron transport chain. We have isolated a family of proteins called TAKs, Arabidopsis thylakoid membrane threonine kinases that phosphorylate the light harvesting complex proteins. TAK activity is enhanced by reductant and is associated with the photosynthetic reaction center II and the cytochrome b6f complex. TAKs are encoded by a gene family that has striking similarity to transforming growth factor beta receptors of metazoans. Thus thylakoid protein phosphorylation may be regulated by a cascade of reductant-controlled membrane-bound protein kinases.  (+info)

(7/587) The type I serine/threonine kinase receptor ActRIA (ALK2) is required for gastrulation of the mouse embryo.

ActRIA (or ALK2), one of the type I receptors of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily, can bind both activin and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in conjunction with the activin and BMP type II receptors, respectively. In mice, ActRIA is expressed primarily in the extraembryonic visceral endoderm before gastrulation and later in both embryonic and extraembryonic cells during gastrulation. To elucidate its function in mouse development, we disrupted the transmembrane domain of ActRIA by gene targeting. We showed that embryos homozygous for the mutation were arrested at the early gastrulation stage, displaying abnormal visceral endoderm morphology and severe disruption of mesoderm formation. To determine in which germ layer ActRIA functions during gastrulation, we performed reciprocal chimera analyses. (1) Homozygous mutant ES cells injected into wild-type blastocysts were able to contribute to all three definitive germ layers in chimeric embryos. However, a high contribution of mutant ES cells in chimeras disrupted normal development at the early somite stage. (2) Consistent with ActRIA expression in the extraembryonic cells, wild-type ES cells failed to rescue the gastrulation defect in chimeras in which the extraembryonic ectoderm and visceral endoderm were derived from homozygous mutant blastocysts. Furthermore, expression of HNF4, a key visceral endoderm-specific transcription regulatory factor, was significantly reduced in the mutant embryos. Together, our results indicate that ActRIA in extraembryonic cells plays a major role in early gastrulation, whereas ActRIA function is also required in embryonic tissues during later development in mice.  (+info)

(8/587) Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP)-dependent and -independent effects of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) on endochondral bone formation.

Previously, we showed that expression of a dominant-negative form of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) type II receptor in skeletal tissue resulted in increased hypertrophic differentiation in growth plate and articular chondrocytes, suggesting a role for TGF-beta in limiting terminal differentiation in vivo. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) has also been demonstrated to regulate chondrocyte differentiation in vivo. Mice with targeted deletion of the PTHrP gene demonstrate increased endochondral bone formation, and misexpression of PTHrP in cartilage results in delayed bone formation due to slowed conversion of proliferative chondrocytes into hypertrophic chondrocytes. Since the development of skeletal elements requires the coordination of signals from several sources, this report tests the hypothesis that TGF-beta and PTHrP act in a common signal cascade to regulate endochondral bone formation. Mouse embryonic metatarsal bone rudiments grown in organ culture were used to demonstrate that TGF-beta inhibits several stages of endochondral bone formation, including chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophic differentiation, and matrix mineralization. Treatment with TGF-beta1 also stimulated the expression of PTHrP mRNA. PTHrP added to cultures inhibited hypertrophic differentiation and matrix mineralization but did not affect cell proliferation. Furthermore, terminal differentiation was not inhibited by TGF-beta in metatarsal rudiments from PTHrP-null embryos; however, growth and matrix mineralization were still inhibited. The data support the model that TGF-beta acts upstream of PTHrP to regulate the rate of hypertrophic differentiation and suggest that TGF-beta has both PTHrP-dependent and PTHrP-independent effects on endochondral bone formation.  (+info)

*  TGFBR3
2001). "Type III TGF-β receptor-independent signalling of TGF-β2 via TβRII-B, an alternatively spliced TGF-β type II receptor ... 2000). "Betaglycan binds inhibin and can mediate functional antagonism of activin signalling". Nature. 404 (6776): 411-4. doi: ... "Assignment of human transforming growth factor-beta type I and type III receptor genes (TGFBR1 and TGFBR3) to 9q33-q34 and 1p32 ... Functional modulation of type III TGF-beta receptor expression through interaction with the PDZ domain protein, GIPC". J. Biol ...
*  Follistatin
2005). "The structure of the follistatin:activin complex reveals antagonism of both type I and type II receptor binding". Dev. ... Walsh S, Metter EJ, Ferrucci L, Roth SM (2007). "Activin-type II receptor B (ACVR2B) and follistatin haplotype associations ... 2007). "Activin subunit and receptor expression in normal and cleft human fetal palate tissues". Pediatr. Dev. Pathol. 10 (6): ... In the blood, activin and follistatin are both known to be involved in the inflammatory response following tissue injury or ...
*  INHBB
From these receptors β-glycan (the TGFß type III receptor) and InhBP/p120 (a membrane-tethered proteoglycan) were identified as ... 1997). "Inhibin interferes with activin signaling at the level of the activin receptor complex in Chinese hamster ovary cells ... Mathews LS, Vale WW (1991). "Expression cloning of an activin receptor, a predicted transmembrane serine kinase". Cell. 65 (6 ... 2001). "Localization of activin beta(A)-, beta(B)-, and beta(C)-subunits in humanprostate and evidence for formation of new ...
*  Activin type 2 receptors
A ligand binds to a type 2 receptor, which recruits and trans-phosphorylates a type I receptor. The type I receptor recruits a ... inhibin/activin betaA and betaB and the activin type II and inhibin beta-glycan receptors in the developing human testis". ... There are two activin type two receptors: ACVR2A and ACVR2B. Despite the large amount of processes that these ligands regulate ... The activin type 2 receptors modulate signals for ligands belonging to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily of ...
*  Activin type 1 receptors
A ligand binds to a Type two receptor, which recruits and trans-phosphorylate a type I receptor. The type I receptor recruits a ... There are three type I Activin receptors: ACVR1, ACVR1B, and ACVR1C. Each bind to a specific type II receptor-ligand complex. ... The Activin type I receptors transduce signals for a variety of members of the Transforming growth factor beta superfamily of ... This family of cytokines and hormones include activin, Anti-müllerian hormone (AMH), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), and ...
*  Activin receptor
An Activin receptor is a receptor which binds activin. Types include: Activin type 1 receptors Activin type 2 receptors These ... Activin receptors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ... proteins are receptor-type kinases of Ser/Thr type, which have a single transmembrane domain and a specific hydrophilic Cys- ... Wrana JL, Attisano L, Wieser R, Ventura F, Massague J (1994). "Mechanism of activation of the TGF-beta receptor". Nature. 370 ( ...
*  Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva
ACVR1 encodes activin receptor type-1, a BMP type-1 receptor. The mutation causes substitution of codon 206 from arginine to ... "ACVR1R206H receptor mutation causes fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva by imparting responsiveness to activin A". stm. ... Feldman, G. "A recurrent mutation in the BMP type I receptor ACVR1 ( HSC'13) causes inherited and sporadic fibrodysplasia ... 2006). "A recurrent mutation in the BMP type I receptor ACVR1 causes inherited and sporadic fibrodysplasia ossificans ...
*  ACVR1
... resulting in phosphorylation of type I receptors by type II receptors. This gene encodes activin A type I receptor which ... and type II receptors are required for binding ligands and for expression of type I receptors. Type I and II receptors form a ... ACVR1 encodes activin receptor type-1, a BMP type-1 receptor. The mutation causes the ACVR1 protein to have the amino acid ... Activin A receptor, type I (ACVR1) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ACVR1 gene; also known as ALK-2 (activin ...
*  ACVRL1
"Identification of human activin and TGF beta type I receptors that form heteromeric kinase complexes with type II receptors". ... It is also known as activin receptor-like kinase 1, or ALK1. This gene encodes a type I cell-surface receptor for the TGF-beta ... "Entrez Gene: ACVRL1 activin A receptor type II-like 1". Olivieri C, Mira E, Delù G, Pagella F, Zambelli A, Malvezzi L, ... "Mutations in the activin receptor-like kinase 1 gene in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia type 2". Nature Genetics. 13 (2 ...
*  ACVR2B
Activin receptor type-2B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACVR2B gene. ACVR2B is an activin type 2 receptor. ... and type II receptors are required for binding ligands and for expression of type I receptors. Type I and II receptors form a ... This gene encodes activin A type IIB receptor, which displays a 3- to 4-fold higher affinity for the ligand than activin A type ... resulting in phosphorylation of type I receptors by type II receptors. Type II receptors are considered to be constitutively ...
*  ACVR1B
... resulting in phosphorylation of type I receptors by type II receptors. This gene encodes activin A type IB receptor, composed ... and type II receptors are required for binding ligands and for expression of type I receptors. Type I and II receptors form a ... "Truncated activin type II receptors inhibit bioactivity by the formation of heteromeric complexes with activin type I. ... "Truncated activin type II receptors inhibit bioactivity by the formation of heteromeric complexes with activin type I. ...
*  ACVR2A
... is an activin type 2 receptor. This gene encodes activin A type II receptor. Activins are dimeric growth and ... and type II receptors are required for binding ligands and for expression of type I receptors. Type I and II receptors form a ... resulting in phosphorylation of type I receptors by type II receptors. Type II receptors are considered to be constitutively ... "Truncated activin type II receptors inhibit bioactivity by the formation of heteromeric complexes with activin type I. ...
*  Three-finger protein
... such as the activin type 2 receptor; and bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type IA. Other LU domain proteins are small ... "Three-finger toxin fold for the extracellular ligand-binding domain of the type II activin receptor serine kinase". Nature ... Ploug, Michael; Ellis, Vincent (1994-08-01). "Structure-function relationships in the receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen ... Other receptors with LU domains include members of the transforming growth factor beta receptor (TGF-beta) superfamily, ...
*  Luspatercept
... is a recombinant fusion protein derived from human activin receptor type IIb (ActRIIb) linked to a protein derived ...
*  ACVR1C
2004). "Activin isoforms signal through type I receptor serine/threonine kinase ALK7". Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 220 (1-2): 59-65 ... 2001). "The orphan receptor ALK7 and the Activin receptor ALK4 mediate signaling by Nodal proteins during vertebrate ... "SB-431542 is a potent and specific inhibitor of transforming growth factor-beta superfamily type I activin receptor-like kinase ... The activin A receptor also known as ACVR1C or ALK-7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACVR1C gene. ACVR1C is a ...
*  Mir-24 microRNA precursor family
January 2008). "MicroRNA miR-24 inhibits erythropoiesis by targeting activin type I receptor ALK4". Blood. 111 (2): 588-95. doi ...
*  Myostatin
A two-week treatment of normal mice with soluble activin type IIB receptor, a molecule that is normally attached to cells and ... Myostatin binds to the activin type II receptor, resulting in a recruitment of either coreceptor Alk-3 or Alk-4. This ... "Regulation of muscle growth by multiple ligands signaling through activin type II receptors". Proceedings of the National ... is thought that binding of myostatin to the soluble activin receptor prevents it from interacting with the cell-bound receptors ...
*  GDF2
... also known has Activin A receptor, type I (ACVR1), and the other type II receptors BMPRII and ActRIIA. GDF2 and BMP10 are the ... and activin type II receptors balance BMP9 signals mediated by activin receptor-like kinase-1 in human pulmonary artery ... an endothelial-specific type I receptor of the TGF-beta receptor family. Endoglin, a type I membrane glycoprotein that forms ... start with a ligand binding with a high affinty type I receptor (ALK1-7) followed by the recruitment of a type II receptor( ...
*  MAGI2
"Identification and characterization of a PDZ protein that interacts with activin type II receptors". J Biol Chem. 275 (8): 5485 ... 2003). "PKC regulates the delta2 glutamate receptor interaction with S-SCAM/MAGI-2 protein". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 301 ... 2001). "beta 1-adrenergic receptor association with the synaptic scaffolding protein membrane-associated guanylate kinase ... inverted-2 (MAGI-2). Differential regulation of receptor internalization by MAGI-2 and PSD-95". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (44): 41310- ...
*  Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase
Other names in common use include activin receptor kinase, receptor type I serine/threonine protein kinase, receptor type II ... receptor-protein] phosphate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and receptor protein, whereas its two products are ... In enzymology, a receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC 2.7.11.30) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP ... Wrana JL, Attisano L, Wieser R, Ventura F, Massague J (1994). "Mechanism of activation of the TGF-beta receptor". Nature. 370 ( ...
*  TGF beta receptor 1
Transforming growth factor beta receptor I (activin A receptor type II-like kinase, 53kDa) is a membrane-bound receptor protein ... "Determination of type I receptor specificity by the type II receptors for TGF-beta or activin". Science. 262 (5135): 900-2. doi ... beta receptor I (activin A receptor type II-like kinase, 53kDa)". Razani B, Zhang XL, Bitzer M, von Gersdorff G, Böttinger EP, ... a novel type II serine/threonine kinase receptor through interaction with the type I transforming growth factor-beta receptor ...
*  Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 7
It is a TGFβ type 1 receptor antagonist. It blocks TGFβ1 and activin associating with the receptor, blocking access to SMAD2. ... By occupying type I receptors for Activin and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), it also plays a role in negative feedback of ... "Smurf1 interacts with transforming growth factor-beta type I receptor through Smad7 and induces receptor degradation". J. Biol ... Lebrun JJ, Takabe K, Chen Y, Vale W (January 1999). "Roles of pathway-specific and inhibitory Smads in activin receptor ...
*  Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2
This protein can also be phosphorylated by activin type 1 receptor kinase, and mediates the signal from the activin. ... Lebrun JJ, Takabe K, Chen Y, Vale W (January 1999). "Roles of pathway-specific and inhibitory Smads in activin receptor ... This protein is recruited to the TGF-beta receptors through its interaction with the SMAD anchor for receptor activation (SARA ... O'Neill TJ, Zhu Y, Gustafson TA (April 1997). "Interaction of MAD2 with the carboxyl terminus of the insulin receptor but not ...
*  RALBP1
"Regulation of endocytosis of activin type II receptors by a novel PDZ protein through Ral/Ral-binding protein 1-dependent ... involvement of the Ral pathway in receptor endocytosis". J. Cell Sci. 113 (16): 2837-44. PMID 10910768. Awasthi S, Cheng J, ...
*  SYNJ2BP
"Regulation of endocytosis of activin type II receptors by a novel PDZ protein through Ral/Ral-binding protein 1-dependent ... "Novel factors in regulation of activin signaling". Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. 225 (1-2): 1-8. doi:10.1016/j.mce. ... "Novel factors in regulation of activin signaling". Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. 225 (1-2): 1-8. doi:10.1016/j.mce. ... "Interactions of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene family with cytosolic adaptor and scaffold proteins suggest diverse ...
*  MECOM
As shown in the figure below, the downstream effectors of TGF-β are the Smad receptors (also known as receptor-activated Smads ... As of 2006, Phase I and II clinical trials were being conducted to test this compound on a wide variety of cancer types, and ... and activin are involved in regulating important cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and ... It appears to depend on the specific cell type, cell line and growth conditions being used as to whether EVI1 expression ...
*  REPS2
"Regulation of endocytosis of activin type II receptors by a novel PDZ protein through Ral/Ral-binding protein 1-dependent ... The product of this gene is part of a protein complex that regulates the endocytosis of growth factor receptors. The encoded ... Its expression can negatively affect receptor internalization and inhibit growth factor signaling. Multiple transcript variants ... "Epsin binds to the EH domain of POB1 and regulates receptor-mediated endocytosis". Oncogene. 18 (43): 5915-22. doi:10.1038/sj. ...
Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1 Antibody (NBP1-33500): Novus Biologicals  Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1 Antibody (NBP1-33500): Novus Biologicals
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1 Antibody. Validated: WB, IHC, IHC-Fr. Tested Reactivity: Mouse ... Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1 » Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1 Antibodies » Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin ... Additional Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1 Products. Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1 NBP1-33500 * Activin ... Blogs on Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1. There are no specific blogs for Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1, ...
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Activin Receptor Type IIA抗体|Abcam中国|Anti-Activin Receptor Type IIA抗体  Activin Receptor Type IIA抗体|Abcam中国|Anti-Activin Receptor Type IIA抗体
Activin Receptor Type IIA兔多克隆抗体(ab124072)可与小鼠样本反应并经WB实验严格验证 ... Anti-Activin Receptor Type IIA抗体. 参阅全部 Activin Receptor Type IIA 一抗. ... forms a receptor complex consisting of two type II and two type I transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. Type II receptors ... Anti-Activin Receptor Type IIA antibody (ab124072) at 1/100 dilution + Mouse kidney tissue lysate
more infohttp://www.abcam.cn/activin-receptor-type-iia-antibody-ab124072.html
Computational methods for designing potential inhibitors for activin type IIb (ActRIIB) receptor for treatment of anaemia |...  Computational methods for designing potential inhibitors for activin type IIb (ActRIIB) receptor for treatment of anaemia |...
The Activin receptor type IIB (ActRIIB) is a transmembrane receptor involved in the negative regulation of red blood cells and ... Computational methods for designing potential inhibitors for activin type IIb (ActRIIB) receptor for treatment of anaemia. ... Two compounds ZINC05386901 and ZINC18157167 shows promising results with potent inhibition of the Activin type-II receptor ... The heteromeric complexes consisting of type I and type II receptors belonging to the TGFsuperfamily are involved in various ...
more infohttp://www.alliedacademies.org/abstract/computational-methods-for-designing-potential-inhibitors-for-activin-type-iib-actriib-receptor-for-treatment-of-anaemia-7117.html
Mice overexpressing growth hormone exhibit increased skeletal muscle myostatin and MuRF1 with attenuation of muscle mass |...  Mice overexpressing growth hormone exhibit increased skeletal muscle myostatin and MuRF1 with attenuation of muscle mass |...
7b, respectively), and the myostatin receptor, activin receptor type IIB (AcvR2B) (152%, P , 0.0005, Fig. 7e and 82%, P , 0.01 ... Mature myostatin (26 kDa), premature myostatin (52 kDa), and activin receptor type IIB (AcvR2B) protein levels were increased ... antibody for Activin Receptor Type IIB. Proteins were visualized by horseradish peroxidase-conjugated IgG antibodies (Santa ... type IIb fibers, whereas the soleus consists of 30-40% type I and ~ 3% type IIb [70, 71] allowing us to examine the effects of ...
more infohttps://skeletalmusclejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13395-017-0133-y
China 2mg/Vial Freeze-Dried Polypeptide Powder Follistatin 344 Activin-Binding Protein - China Follistatin 344, Fst  China 2mg/Vial Freeze-Dried Polypeptide Powder Follistatin 344 Activin-Binding Protein - China Follistatin 344, Fst
Fst from 2mg/Vial Freeze-Dried Polypeptide Powder Follistatin 344 Activin-Binding Protein - Shanghai Shucan Industrial Co., Ltd ... China 2mg/Vial Freeze-Dried Polypeptide Powder Follistatin 344 Activin-Binding Protein, Find details about China Follistatin ... based on activin receptor type IIB (ActRIIB). The molecule inhibits signaling via the ActRIIB receptor binding ... FS is a high-affinity activin-binding protein that can act as an activin antagonist. Two alternatively spliced ...
more infohttp://pharmagear.en.made-in-china.com/product/ZKzJMCRAkwWB/China-2mg-Vial-Freeze-Dried-Polypeptide-Powder-Follistatin-344-Activin-Binding-Protein.html
Follistatin - Wikipedia  Follistatin - Wikipedia
2005). "The structure of the follistatin:activin complex reveals antagonism of both type I and type II receptor binding". Dev. ... Walsh S, Metter EJ, Ferrucci L, Roth SM (2007). "Activin-type II receptor B (ACVR2B) and follistatin haplotype associations ... 2007). "Activin subunit and receptor expression in normal and cleft human fetal palate tissues". Pediatr. Dev. Pathol. 10 (6): ... In the blood, activin and follistatin are both known to be involved in the inflammatory response following tissue injury or ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Follistatin
Anti-TGFBR1/Tgf Beta Receptor I Antibody  Anti-TGFBR1/Tgf Beta Receptor I Antibody
TGF BETA RECEPTOR I/TGFBR1 information: Molecular Weight: 55960 MW; Subcellular Localization: Cell membrane; ... Polyclonal antibody for TGF BETA RECEPTOR I/TGFBR1 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: IHC-P. ... TGF-beta receptor type-1;TGFR-1;2.7.11.30;Activin A receptor type II-like protein kinase of 53kD;Activin receptor-like kinase 5 ... TGF-beta type I receptor;Transforming growth factor-beta receptor type I;TGF-beta receptor type I;TbetaR-I;TGFBR1;ALK5, SKR4;. ...
more infohttps://www.bosterbio.com/anti-tgfbr1-antibody-pa1731.html
ACE-031/ACE 031/ACE031 1mg - Fit Peptide Co.,Limited - ecplaza.net  ACE-031/ACE 031/ACE031 1mg - Fit Peptide Co.,Limited - ecplaza.net
Activin receptor type-2B, Activin receptor type IIB, ACTR-IIB, ACVR2B Standard: Medical Grade; Appearance Lyophilized white ...
more infohttps://www.ecplaza.net/products/ace-031ace-031ace031-1mg_4203385
Anti-Activin Receptor Type IIA antibody (ab96793) | Abcam  Anti-Activin Receptor Type IIA antibody (ab96793) | Abcam
Rabbit polyclonal Activin Receptor Type IIA antibody. Validated in WB, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Cited in 1 publication(s). ... Anti-Activin Receptor Type IIA antibody. See all Activin Receptor Type IIA primary antibodies. ... forms a receptor complex consisting of two type II and two type I transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. Type II receptors ... All lanes : Anti-Activin Receptor Type IIA antibody (ab96793) at 1/10000 dilution. Lane 1 : HeLa whole cell lysate. Lane 2 : ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/activin-receptor-type-iia-antibody-ab96793.html
Recombinant Human Activin Receptor Type IIB protein (ab125577)  Recombinant Human Activin Receptor Type IIB protein (ab125577)
Buy our Recombinant Human Activin Receptor Type IIB protein. Ab125577 is a protein fragment produced in Baculovirus infected ... Recombinant Human Activin Receptor Type IIB protein. See all Activin Receptor Type IIB proteins and peptides. ... forms a receptor complex consisting of two type II and two type I transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. Type II receptors ... By product type. Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/recombinant-human-activin-receptor-type-iib-protein-ab125577.html
ACVR1 - Activin receptor type-1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - ACVR1 gene & protein  ACVR1 - Activin receptor type-1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - ACVR1 gene & protein
Activin receptor type-1. Activin receptor type-1, EC 2.7.11.30 (Activin receptor type I, ACTR-I) (Activin receptor-like kinase ... Activin receptor type-1Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> , ... tr,C9J1R3,C9J1R3_HUMAN Activin receptor type-1 (Fragment) OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=ACVR1 PE=4 SV=1 ... 2, ALK-2) (Serine/threonine-protein kinase receptor R1, SKR1) (TGF-B superfamily receptor type I, TSR-I) ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/C9J1R3
ACVR2A - Activin receptor type-2A precursor - Bos taurus (Bovine) - ACVR2A gene & protein  ACVR2A - Activin receptor type-2A precursor - Bos taurus (Bovine) - ACVR2A gene & protein
Type II receptors phosphorylate and activate type I receptors which autophosphorylate, then bind and activate SMAD ... Receptor for activin A, activin B and inhibin A. Mediates induction of adipogenesis by GDF6. ... forms a receptor complex consisting of two type II and two type I transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. ... forms a receptor complex consisting of two type II and two type I transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. Type II receptors ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q28043
Activin receptor type IIA | definition of Activin receptor type IIA by Medical dictionary  Activin receptor type IIA | definition of Activin receptor type IIA by Medical dictionary
What is Activin receptor type IIA? Meaning of Activin receptor type IIA medical term. What does Activin receptor type IIA mean? ... Looking for online definition of Activin receptor type IIA in the Medical Dictionary? Activin receptor type IIA explanation ... type-II receptors are required for binding ligands and expression of type-I receptors. After activin binding, type-I receptors ... redirected from Activin receptor type IIA) ACVR2A. A gene on chromosome 2q22.3 that encodes activin receptor type IIA, a ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Activin+receptor+type+IIA
Activin receptor type-2B | definition of activin receptor type-2B by Medical dictionary  Activin receptor type-2B | definition of activin receptor type-2B by Medical dictionary
What is activin receptor type-2B? Meaning of activin receptor type-2B medical term. What does activin receptor type-2B mean? ... Looking for online definition of activin receptor type-2B in the Medical Dictionary? activin receptor type-2B explanation free ... redirected from activin receptor type-2B) ACVR2B. A gene on chromosome 3p22 that encodes activin receptor type IIB, a receptor ... type-II receptors are required for binding ligands and expression of type-I receptors. After activin binding, type-I receptors ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/activin+receptor+type-2B
Activin receptor type 1C / ACVR1C antibody | acris-antibodies.com  Activin receptor type 1C / ACVR1C antibody | acris-antibodies.com
Activins are dimeric growth and differentiation factors which belong to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) ... Alternative names for Activin receptor type 1C / ACVR1C antibody. ACTR-IC, ACTRIC, ALK7, Activin receptor-like kinase 7 ... activin B and activin AB, all of which can also signal through the ubiquitous activin type I receptor ACVR1B (also known as ... Activin receptor type 1C / ACVR1C (transcript variant 4). Not available. Purified recombinant protein of Homo sapiens activin A ...
more infohttps://www.acris-antibodies.com/target/activin-receptor-type-1c-antibody-acvr1c-antibody.htm
ACVR2A recombinant protein | Activin receptor type-2A (ACVR2A) Recombinant Protein-NP 776652.1  ACVR2A recombinant protein | Activin receptor type-2A (ACVR2A) Recombinant Protein-NP 776652.1
Activin receptor type-2A (ACVR2A) Recombinant Protein-NP_776652.1 (MBS1457250) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Recombinant ... Activin receptor type-2A (ACVR2A), Recombinant Protein. Also Known As Recombinant Bovine Activin receptor type-2A (ACVR2A), ... and type II receptors are required for binding ligands and for expression of type I receptors. Type I and II receptors form a ... resulting in phosphorylation of type I receptors by type II receptors. Type II receptors are considered to be constitutively ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/prods/Recombinant-Protein/Activin-receptor-type-2A-ACVR2A/ACVR2A/datasheet.php?products_id=1457250
anti-Activin Receptor Type IC Primary Antibodies  anti-Activin Receptor Type IC Primary Antibodies
... activin receptor type IC , activin receptor type-1C , activin receptor-like kinase 7 , TGF-beta type 1 receptor , activin A ... anti-Activin Receptor Type IC Anticorps (ACVR1C). Chez www.anticorps-enligne.fr sont 122 Activin Receptor Type IC (ACVR1C) ... anti-Activin Receptor Type IC Anticorps mieux référencés. Show all anti-Activin Receptor Type IC (ACVR1C) Anticorps with Pubmed ... Plus d'anticorps contre Activin Receptor Type IC partenaires d'interaction. Human Activin Receptor Type IC (ACVR1C) interaction ...
more infohttps://www.anticorps-enligne.fr/negative-regulation-of-hormone-secretion-pathway-43/acvr1c-antibody-15309/
Activin Receptor Type 1 (Activin Receptor Like Kinase 2 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Receptor R1 or TGF B Superfamily...  Activin Receptor Type 1 (Activin Receptor Like Kinase 2 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Receptor R1 or TGF B Superfamily...
Activin Receptor Like Kinase 2 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Receptor R1 or TGF B Superfamily Receptor Type I or ALK2 or ... Activin Receptor Type 1 (Activin Receptor Like Kinase 2 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Receptor R1 or TGF B Superfamily ... and molecule type.. Activin Receptor Type 1 (Activin Receptor Like Kinase 2 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Receptor R1 or ... Activin Receptor Type 1 (Activin Receptor Like Kinase 2 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase Receptor R1 or TGF B Superfamily ...
more infohttps://www.marketresearch.com/Global-Markets-Direct-v3480/Activin-Receptor-Type-Kinase-Serine-11712278/
Activin Receptor Type IA (ACVR1) Antibody (Center R147) - Purified Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Pab) WB, IHC-P, E - Buy Now! ...  Activin Receptor Type IA (ACVR1) Antibody (Center R147) - Purified Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Pab) WB, IHC-P, E - Buy Now! ...
Activin Receptor Type IA (ACVR1) Antibody (Center R147), Purified Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Pab) validated in WB, IHC-P, E ( ... Activin receptor type-1, Activin receptor type I, ACTR-I, Activin receptor-like kinase 2, ALK-2, Serine/threonine-protein ... resulting in phosphorylation of type I receptors by type II receptors. ACVR1 (activin A type I receptor) signals a particular ... Activin Receptor Type IA (ACVR1) Antibody (Center R147) Activin Receptor Type IA (ACVR1) Antibody (Center R147). Purified ...
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Activin Receptor Type IA (ACVR1) Antibody (Center N153) - Purified Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Pab) WB, IHC-P, E - Buy Now! ...  Activin Receptor Type IA (ACVR1) Antibody (Center N153) - Purified Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Pab) WB, IHC-P, E - Buy Now! ...
Activin Receptor Type IA (ACVR1) Antibody (Center N153), Purified Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Pab) validated in WB, IHC-P, E ( ... Activin receptor type-1, Activin receptor type I, ACTR-I, Activin receptor-like kinase 2, ALK-2, Serine/threonine-protein ... resulting in phosphorylation of type I receptors by type II receptors. ACVR1 is an activin A type I receptor which signals a ... Activin Receptor Type IA (ACVR1) Antibody (Center N153) Activin Receptor Type IA (ACVR1) Antibody (Center N153). Purified ...
more infohttp://www.abgent.com/products/AP7101a-Activin-Receptor-Type-IA-ACVR1-Antibody-Center-N153
  • Activins are dimeric growth and differentiation factors which belong to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of structurally related signaling proteins. (novusbio.com)
  • Its primary function is the binding and bioneutralization of members of the TGF-β superfamily, with a particular focus on activin, a paracrine hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activin-binding protein follistatin is produced by folliculostellate (FS) cells of the anterior pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the tissues activin has a strong role in cellular proliferation, thereby making follistatin the safeguard against uncontrolled cellular proliferation and also allowing it to function as an instrument of cellular differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the blood, activin and follistatin are both known to be involved in the inflammatory response following tissue injury or pathogenic incursion. (wikipedia.org)
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