Activin Receptors: Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those transmembrane receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily (RECEPTORS, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA), ALK's consist of two different but related protein kinases, Type I and Type II. Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity.Activin Receptors, Type II: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS. They are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. The major type II activin receptors are ActR-IIA and ActR-IIB.Activins: Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.Activin Receptors, Type I: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS or activin receptor-like kinases (ALK'S). There are several type I activin receptors. The major active ones are ALK-2 (ActR-IA) and ALK-4 (ActR-IB).Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyInhibin-beta Subunits: They are glycopeptides and subunits in INHIBINS and ACTIVINS. Inhibins and activins belong to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily.Follistatin: A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.Myostatin: A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.Smad2 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. It regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Nodal Protein: The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Smad Proteins: A family of proteins that are involved in the translocation of signals from TGF-BETA RECEPTORS; BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS; and other surface receptors to the CELL NUCLEUS. They were originally identified as a class of proteins that are related to the mothers against decapentaplegic protein, Drosophila and sma proteins from CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Growth Differentiation Factors: A family of BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN-related proteins that are primarily involved in regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Smad3 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. Activated Smad3 can bind directly to DNA, and it regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Smad4 Protein: A signal transducing adaptor protein and tumor suppressor protein. It forms a complex with activated RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS. The complex then translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Myositis Ossificans: A disease characterized by bony deposits or the ossification of muscle tissue.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with low affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are constitutively active PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that can interact with and phosphorylate TYPE I BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Granulosa Cells: Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Follicle Stimulating Hormone, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Goosecoid Protein: Goosecoid protein is a homeodomain protein that was first identified in XENOPUS. It is found in the SPEMANN ORGANIZER of VERTEBRATES and plays an important role in neuronal CELL DIFFERENTIATION and ORGANOGENESIS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
(1/240) Activin and TGFbeta limit murine primordial germ cell proliferation.

Mammalian primordial germ cells (PGCs) proliferate as they migrate from their initial location in the extraembryonic mesoderm to the genital ridge, the gonadal anlage. Once in the genital ridge, PGCs cease dividing and differentiate according to their gender. To identify ligands that might limit PGC proliferation, we analyzed growth factor receptors encoded in RNA obtained from purified germ cells shortly after their arrival in the genital ridge. Receptors for two members of the TGFbeta superfamily were found, TGFbeta1 and activin. As the signal-transducing domains of both receptor systems are highly conserved, the effects of both TGFbeta1 and activin on PGCs would be expected to be similar. We found that both ligands limited the accumulation of germ cells in primary PGC cultures. BrdU incorporation assays demonstrated that either ligand inhibits PGC proliferation. These results suggest that these signal transduction pathways are important elements of the mechanism that determines germ cell endowment.  (+info)

(2/240) Expression of inhibin/activin subunits and their receptors and binding proteins in human preimplantation embryos.

PURPOSE: Our purpose was to study the role of inhibin/activin during embryogenesis. METHODS: Transcripts of inhibin/activin subunits (alpha, beta A, beta B), activin receptors (types I and II), and follistatin were detected by a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in human reproductive cells and preembryos cultured alone or co-cultured with human endometrial cells. RESULTS: Transcripts of alpha, beta A, beta B subunits were all detected in granulosa luteal cells, but only beta A units were detected in endometrial stromal and decidualized cells. In human preimplantation embryos, none of these subunits were detected in embryos from the four-cell to the morula stage and only beta A subunits were detectable in blastocyst embryos. Activin receptors were detectable in all of the studied embryos and cells. Transcripts of beta A, activin receptors, and follistatin were differentially expressed in human preimplantation embryos cultured in vitro and their expressions were significantly enhanced with the presence of endometrial stromal cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that there is a possible endometrium-embryo interaction via endometrial activins and preimplantation embryo receptors and that the embryonic expressions of these activins, their receptors, and binding proteins are dependent on embryonic stage.  (+info)

(3/240) Assignment of transforming growth factor beta1 and beta3 and a third new ligand to the type I receptor ALK-1.

Germ line mutations in one of two distinct genes, endoglin or ALK-1, cause hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), an autosomal dominant disorder of localized angiodysplasia. Both genes encode endothelial cell receptors for the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) ligand superfamily. Endoglin has homology to the type III receptor, betaglycan, although its exact role in TGF-beta signaling is unclear. Activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK-1) has homology to the type I receptor family, but its ligand and corresponding type II receptor are unknown. In order to identify the ligand and type II receptor for ALK-1 and to investigate the role of endoglin in ALK-1 signaling, we devised a chimeric receptor signaling assay by exchanging the kinase domain of ALK-1 with either the TGF-beta type I receptor or the activin type IB receptor, both of which can activate an inducible PAI-1 promoter. We show that TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3, as well as a third unknown ligand present in serum, can activate chimeric ALK-1. HHT-associated missense mutations in the ALK-1 extracellular domain abrogate signaling. The ALK-1/ligand interaction is mediated by the type II TGF-beta receptor for TGF-beta and most likely through the activin type II or type IIB receptors for the serum ligand. Endoglin is a bifunctional receptor partner since it can bind to ALK-1 as well as to type I TGF-beta receptor. These data suggest that HHT pathogenesis involves disruption of a complex network of positive and negative angiogenic factors, involving TGF-beta, a new unknown ligand, and their corresponding receptors.  (+info)

(4/240) Bone morphogenetic proteins regulate the developmental program of human hematopoietic stem cells.

The identification of molecules that regulate human hematopoietic stem cells has focused mainly on cytokines, of which very few are known to act directly on stem cells. Recent studies in lower organisms and the mouse have suggested that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) may play a critical role in the specification of hematopoietic tissue from the mesodermal germ layer. Here we report that BMPs regulate the proliferation and differentiation of highly purified primitive human hematopoietic cells from adult and neonatal sources. Populations of rare CD34(+)CD38(-)Lin- stem cells were isolated from human hematopoietic tissue and were found to express the BMP type I receptors activin-like kinase (ALK)-3 and ALK-6, and their downstream transducers SMAD-1, -4, and -5. Treatment of isolated stem cell populations with soluble BMP-2, -4, and -7 induced dose-dependent changes in proliferation, clonogenicity, cell surface phenotype, and multilineage repopulation capacity after transplantation in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice. Similar to transforming growth factor beta, treatment of purified cells with BMP-2 or -7 at high concentrations inhibited proliferation yet maintained the primitive CD34(+)CD38(-) phenotype and repopulation capacity. In contrast, low concentrations of BMP-4 induced proliferation and differentiation of CD34(+) CD38(-)Lin- cells, whereas at higher concentrations BMP-4 extended the length of time that repopulation capacity could be maintained in ex vivo culture, indicating a direct effect on stem cell survival. The discovery that BMPs are capable of regulating repopulating cells provides a new pathway for controlling human stem cell development and a powerful model system for studying the biological mechanism of BMP action using primary human cells.  (+info)

(5/240) A quantitative analysis of signal transduction from activin receptor to nucleus and its relevance to morphogen gradient interpretation.

Previous work has shown that Xenopus blastula cells sense activin concentration by assessing the absolute number of occupied receptors per cell (100 and 300 molecules of bound activin activate Xbra and Xgsc transcription, respectively; a difference of only 3-fold). We now ask how quantitative differences in the absolute number of occupied receptors lead to the qualitatively distinct gene responses in the nucleus through SMAD2, a transducer of concentration-dependent gene responses to activin. We show that the injection of 0.2 or 0.6 ng of Smad2 mRNA activates Xbra or Xgsc transcription, respectively, involving, again, only a 3-fold difference. Furthermore, Xbra transcription is down-regulated by overexpression of SMAD2 as it is after activin signaling. We have developed a method to isolate nuclei from animal cap cells and subsequently have quantified the amount of nuclear SMAD2 protein. We find that the injection of 0.2 or 0.6 ng of Smad2 mRNA into an egg leads to only a 3-fold difference in the amount of SMAD2 protein in the nuclei of the blastula cells that express Xbra or Xgsc. We conclude that a 3-fold difference in the absolute number of occupied activin receptors can be maintained only as a 3-fold difference in the level of nuclear SMAD2 protein. Therefore, in this example of morphogen action, there appears to be no amplification of a key cytoplasmic transduction response, and a small but developmentally important change in extracellular signal concentration is relayed directly to the nucleus.  (+info)

(6/240) Activin family members in the developing chick retina: expression patterns, protein distribution, and in vitro effects.

We have investigated whether the activin family of growth factors is involved in the regulation of retinal cell differentiation. Immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization have shown that activin/inhibin subunits alpha, betaA, and betaB; receptors II and IIB; follistatin; and a follistatin-like gene are expressed in different regions of the chick embryo retina in developmentally regulated patterns. When tested in dissociated retinal cultures, activin did not appear to affect cell survival or proliferation, but it exerted marked inhibitory effects on the differentiation of photoreceptors, while stimulating the differentiation of nonphotoreceptor neurons; both effects were concentration-dependent and follistatin-sensitive. The results are consistent with the possibility that activin family members play significant roles in the regulation of retinal development.  (+info)

(7/240) Smad3 inhibits transforming growth factor-beta and activin signaling by competing with Smad4 for FAST-2 binding.

Transcriptional regulation by transforming growth factor-beta and activin is mediated by interaction of Smad2 and Smad3 with specific transcription factors and/or DNA elements. However, Smad3 behaves differently from Smad2 in regulating transcription by a winged-helix transcription factor, FAST-2, on an activin-responsive element (ARE) in the Xenopus Mix.2 promoter. Smad3 alone was able to stimulate the ARE through FAST-2, but inhibited the ARE transactivation mediated by Smad2/Smad4 following receptor activation. We characterized the functional domains that are involved in these two activities of Smad3. Deletion of the MH1 domain as well as mutations of four lysine residues in the MH1 domain abrogated the inhibitory activity of Smad3, but did not compromise the self-stimulatory function. In contrast, deletion of the MH2 domain or a point mutation of glycine 379 within this domain obliterated the self-stimulatory activity of Smad3, but not the inhibitory activity. In an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, we found that Smad3 was able to associate with the FAST-2.ARE complex and that this association was dependent on FAST-2. In addition, Smad3 was not able to directly bind the ARE in a DNase I protection assay, in which FAST-2 binds the ARE around a motif (TGTGTATT) previously characterized to associate with the human FAST-1 protein. Interestingly, Smad4 was also able to directly associate with the FAST-2.ARE complex through binding with FAST-2. In a gel shift assay, the association of FAST-2 with Smad4 was mutually exclusive from the association with Smad3. Taken together, these data indicate that Smad3 exerts the inhibitory activity by competitive association with FAST-2.  (+info)

(8/240) Human activin-A is expressed in the atherosclerotic lesion and promotes the contractile phenotype of smooth muscle cells.

Activin is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, and it modulates the proliferation and differentiation of various target cells. In this study, we investigated the role of activin in the initiation and progression of human atherosclerosis. The expression of activin, its physiological inhibitor follistatin, and activin receptors were assayed in human vascular tissue specimens that represented various stages of atherogenesis. In situ hybridization experiments revealed activin mRNA in endothelial cells and macrophages and a strong induction of activin expression in neointimal smooth muscle cells from the early onset of atherogenesis. We developed an "in situ free-activin binding assay" by using biotinylated follistatin, which allowed us to detect bioactive activin at specific sites in atherosclerotic lesions. The mRNAs encoding the activin receptors are expressed similarly in normal and atherosclerotic tissue, which indicates that activin-A signaling in atherogenesis is most likely dependent on changes in growth factor concentrations rather than on receptor levels. In vitro, activin induces the contractile, nonproliferative phenotype in cultured smooth muscle cells, as is reflected by increased expression of smooth muscle-specific markers (SMalpha-actin and SM22alpha). Our data provide evidence that activin induces redifferentiation of neointimal smooth muscle cells, and we hypothesize that activin is involved in plaque stabilization.  (+info)

*  TGFBR3
2001). "Type III TGF-β receptor-independent signalling of TGF-β2 via TβRII-B, an alternatively spliced TGF-β type II receptor ... 2000). "Betaglycan binds inhibin and can mediate functional antagonism of activin signalling". Nature. 404 (6776): 411-4. doi: ... Massagué J (1992). "Receptors for the TGF-beta family". Cell. 69 (7): 1067-70. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(92)90627-O. PMID 1319842. ... Gao J, Symons AL, Bartold PM (1999). "Expression of transforming growth factor-beta receptors types II and III within various ...
*  Follistatin
2007). "Activin subunit and receptor expression in normal and cleft human fetal palate tissues". Pediatr. Dev. Pathol. 10 (6): ... 2005). "The structure of the follistatin:activin complex reveals antagonism of both type I and type II receptor binding". Dev. ... Walsh S, Metter EJ, Ferrucci L, Roth SM (2007). "Activin-type II receptor B (ACVR2B) and follistatin haplotype associations ... In the blood, activin and follistatin are both known to be involved in the inflammatory response following tissue injury or ...
*  INHBB
1997). "Inhibin interferes with activin signaling at the level of the activin receptor complex in Chinese hamster ovary cells ... Mathews LS, Vale WW (1991). "Expression cloning of an activin receptor, a predicted transmembrane serine kinase". Cell. 65 (6 ... From these receptors β-glycan (the TGFß type III receptor) and InhBP/p120 (a membrane-tethered proteoglycan) were identified as ... 2001). "Localization of activin beta(A)-, beta(B)-, and beta(C)-subunits in humanprostate and evidence for formation of new ...
*  Activin receptor
An Activin receptor is a receptor which binds activin. Types include: Activin type 1 receptors Activin type 2 receptors These ... Activin receptors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ... Wrana JL, Attisano L, Wieser R, Ventura F, Massague J (1994). "Mechanism of activation of the TGF-beta receptor". Nature. 370 ( ... Massague J, Weis-Garcia F (1996). "Serine/threonine kinase receptors: mediators of transforming growth factor beta family ...
*  Activin type 2 receptors
... inhibin/activin betaA and betaB and the activin type II and inhibin beta-glycan receptors in the developing human testis". ... A ligand binds to a type 2 receptor, which recruits and trans-phosphorylates a type I receptor. The type I receptor recruits a ... There are two activin type two receptors: ACVR2A and ACVR2B. Despite the large amount of processes that these ligands regulate ... The activin type 2 receptors modulate signals for ligands belonging to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily of ...
*  Activin type 1 receptors
There are three type I Activin receptors: ACVR1, ACVR1B, and ACVR1C. Each bind to a specific type II receptor-ligand complex. ... A ligand binds to a Type two receptor, which recruits and trans-phosphorylate a type I receptor. The type I receptor recruits a ... The Activin type I receptors transduce signals for a variety of members of the Transforming growth factor beta superfamily of ... This family of cytokines and hormones include activin, Anti-müllerian hormone (AMH), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), and ...
*  ACVRL1
... is a receptor in the TGF beta signaling pathway. It is also known as activin receptor-like kinase 1, or ALK1. This gene ... "Activin receptor-like kinases: a novel subclass of cell-surface receptors with predicted serine/threonine kinase activity". ... "Identification of human activin and TGF beta type I receptors that form heteromeric kinase complexes with type II receptors". ... "Entrez Gene: ACVRL1 activin A receptor type II-like 1". Olivieri C, Mira E, Delù G, Pagella F, Zambelli A, Malvezzi L, ...
*  Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva
ACVR1 encodes activin receptor type-1, a BMP type-1 receptor. The mutation causes substitution of codon 206 from arginine to ... "ACVR1R206H receptor mutation causes fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva by imparting responsiveness to activin A". stm. ... Regeneron announced new insight into the mechanism of disease involving the activation of the ACVR1 receptor by activin A. In ... The ACVR1 gene encodes a bone morphogenic protein (BMP) receptor; this gene is mutated in FOP. This protein is responsible for ...
*  ACVR1
... resulting in phosphorylation of type I receptors by type II receptors. This gene encodes activin A type I receptor which ... Activin A receptor, type I (ACVR1) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ACVR1 gene; also known as ALK-2 (activin ... ACVR1 encodes activin receptor type-1, a BMP type-1 receptor. The mutation causes the ACVR1 protein to have the amino acid ... "Activin receptor-like kinases: a novel subclass of cell-surface receptors with predicted serine/threonine kinase activity". ...
*  INHBC
2003). "Inhibin, activin, follistatin, activin receptors and beta-glycan gene expression in the placental tissue of patients ... Mathews LS, Vale WW (1991). "Expression cloning of an activin receptor, a predicted transmembrane serine kinase". Cell. 65 (6 ... 2003). "Activin betaC-subunit heterodimers provide a new mechanism of regulating activin levels in the prostate". Endocrinology ... 2001). "Localization of activin beta(A)-, beta(B)-, and beta(C)-subunits in humanprostate and evidence for formation of new ...
*  Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2
This protein can also be phosphorylated by activin type 1 receptor kinase, and mediates the signal from the activin. ... Lebrun JJ, Takabe K, Chen Y, Vale W (January 1999). "Roles of pathway-specific and inhibitory Smads in activin receptor ... This protein is recruited to the TGF-beta receptors through its interaction with the SMAD anchor for receptor activation (SARA ... O'Neill TJ, Zhu Y, Gustafson TA (April 1997). "Interaction of MAD2 with the carboxyl terminus of the insulin receptor but not ...
*  Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 7
It is a TGFβ type 1 receptor antagonist. It blocks TGFβ1 and activin associating with the receptor, blocking access to SMAD2. ... By occupying type I receptors for Activin and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), it also plays a role in negative feedback of ... Lebrun JJ, Takabe K, Chen Y, Vale W (January 1999). "Roles of pathway-specific and inhibitory Smads in activin receptor ... "Smurf1 interacts with transforming growth factor-beta type I receptor through Smad7 and induces receptor degradation". J. Biol ...
*  ACVR2B
Activin receptor type-2B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACVR2B gene. ACVR2B is an activin type 2 receptor. ... This gene encodes activin A type IIB receptor, which displays a 3- to 4-fold higher affinity for the ligand than activin A type ... Schneider-Kolsky ME, Manuelpillai U, Waldron K, Dole A, Wallace EM (2002). "The distribution of activin and activin receptors ... II activin receptor genes during differentiation of human K562 cells and cDNA cloning of the human type IIB activin receptor". ...
*  Atrioventricular node
BMP influences AV node development through Alk3 receptor (Activin receptor-like kinase 3). Abnormalities seen in BMP and Alk3 ... and Morphology in the Atrioventricular Node of Mice With Atrioventricular Canal-Targeted Deletion of Alk3/Bmpr1a Receptor". ...
*  Ratchet effect
"The Interpretation of Position in a Morphogen Gradient as Revealed by Occupancy of Activin Receptors". Cell. 93: 557-568. doi: ... The low receptor occupancy permits increases in receptor occupancy which alter the cell fate, but the high receptor affinity ... Receptors which initiate cell fate transduction cascades, in early embryo development, exhibit a ratchet effect in response to ...
*  ACVR1B
... resulting in phosphorylation of type I receptors by type II receptors. This gene encodes activin A type IB receptor, composed ... "Truncated activin type I receptor Alk4 isoforms are dominant negative receptors inhibiting activin signaling". Mol. Endocrinol ... ACVR1B or ALK-4 acts as a transducer of activin or activin like ligands (e.g., inhibin) signals. Activin binds to either ACVR2A ... "The role of activin type I receptors in activin A-induced growth arrest and apoptosis in mouse B-cell hybridoma cells". Cell. ...
*  GDF2
... and activin type II receptors balance BMP9 signals mediated by activin receptor-like kinase-1 in human pulmonary artery ... The physiological receptor of GDF2 is thought to be activin receptor-like kinase 1, ALK1 (also called ACVRL1), an endothelial- ... also known has Activin A receptor, type I (ACVR1), and the other type II receptors BMPRII and ActRIIA. GDF2 and BMP10 are the ... Endoglin, a type I membrane glycoprotein that forms the TGF-beta receptor complex, is a co-receptor of ALK1 for GDF2/BMP-9 ...
*  INHBA
1993). "Activin receptor-like kinases: a novel subclass of cell-surface receptors with predicted serine/threonine kinase ... "Inhibin interferes with activin signaling at the level of the activin receptor complex in Chinese hamster ovary cells". ... Mathews LS, Vale WW (1991). "Expression cloning of an activin receptor, a predicted transmembrane serine kinase". Cell. 65 (6 ... "Entrez Gene: INHBA inhibin, beta A (activin A, activin AB alpha polypeptide)". Lewis, K A; Gray P C; Blount A L; MacConell L A ...
*  Nodal signaling pathway
In the cell surface Dapper2 tightly binds to the active form of the activin type 1 receptors and targets the receptor for ... Activation of the Nodal pathway involves nodal binding to activin and activin-like receptors which leads to phosphorylation of ... The binding of Nodal proteins to activin or activin-like serine/threonine kinase receptors results in the phosphorylation of ... Somehow the reduction of activin receptors would lead to the decrease in activity of different TGFb pathways. Smad proteins are ...
*  FGF and mesoderm formation
A truncated activin receptor inhibits mesoderm induction and formation of axial structures in Xenopus embryos. Nature 359:609 - ... Using dominant negative Activin receptors in Xenopus animal caps, it has been shown that FGF signaling is crucial for mesoderm ... Upon FGF binding to its receptor, FGFR, the receptor pair dimerizes and is transphosphorylated, enabling it to recruit proteins ... Members of the TGF-β superfamily, Activin and Nodal, are essential for mesodermal induction, while FGF and Wnt are in charge of ...
*  ACVR2A
... is an activin type 2 receptor. This gene encodes activin A type II receptor. Activins are dimeric growth and ... "Inhibin interferes with activin signaling at the level of the activin receptor complex in Chinese hamster ovary cells". ... "Variations in activin receptor, inhibin/activin subunit and follistatin mRNAs in human prostate tumour tissues". Br. J. Cancer ... "Truncated activin type II receptors inhibit bioactivity by the formation of heteromeric complexes with activin type I. ...
*  ACVR1C
2001). "The orphan receptor ALK7 and the Activin receptor ALK4 mediate signaling by Nodal proteins during vertebrate ... The activin A receptor also known as ACVR1C or ALK-7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACVR1C gene. ACVR1C is a ... 2006). "Activin receptor-like kinase 7 induces apoptosis through up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Xiap in normal and ... 2004). "Activin receptor-like kinase-7 induces apoptosis through activation of MAPKs in a Smad3-dependent mechanism in hepatoma ...
*  TGF beta 1
"Determination of type I receptor specificity by the type II receptors for TGF-beta or activin". Science. 262 (5135): 900-2. doi ... Oh SP, Seki T, Goss KA, Imamura T, Yi Y, Donahoe PK, Li L, Miyazono K, ten Dijke P, Kim S, Li E (March 2000). "Activin receptor ... It can also decrease the expression levels of cytokine receptors, such as the IL-2 receptor to down-regulate the activity of ... Many cells synthesize TGF-β and almost all of them have specific receptors for this peptide. TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3 all ...
*  NODAL
August 2001). "The orphan receptor ALK7 and the Activin receptor ALK4 mediate signaling by Nodal proteins during vertebrate ... 2003). "Identification of novel isoforms of activin receptor-like kinase 7 (ALK7) generated by alternative splicing and ... Nodal can bind type I and type II Serine/Threonine kinase receptors, with Cripto-1 acting as its co-receptor. Signaling through ... It is tightly regulated by inhibitors Lefty A, Lefty B, Cerberus, and Tomoregulin-1, which can interfere with Nodal receptor ...
*  TGF beta receptor 1
Transforming growth factor beta receptor I (activin A receptor type II-like kinase, 53kDa) is a membrane-bound receptor protein ... beta receptor I (activin A receptor type II-like kinase, 53kDa)". Razani B, Zhang XL, Bitzer M, von Gersdorff G, Böttinger EP, ... "Determination of type I receptor specificity by the type II receptors for TGF-beta or activin". Science. 262 (5135): 900-2. doi ... Oh SP, Seki T, Goss KA, Imamura T, Yi Y, Donahoe PK, Li L, Miyazono K, ten Dijke P, Kim S, Li E (March 2000). "Activin receptor ...
*  MECOM
As shown in the figure below, the downstream effectors of TGF-β are the Smad receptors (also known as receptor-activated Smads ... and activin are involved in regulating important cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and ... HSCs secrete angiopoietin, and its receptor molecule Tie2 has been implicated in angiogenesis of tumors in both humans and mice ... the presence of EVI1 in cancer has not been linked to aberrant production of any hormones or hormone receptors. It is likely ...
*  Bone morphogenetic protein 4
Feijen A, Goumans MJ, van den Eijnden-van Raaij AJ (December 1994). "Expression of activin subunits, activin receptors and ... Feijen A, Goumans MJ, van den Eijnden-van Raaij AJ (December 1994). "Expression of activin subunits, activin receptors and ... TGF-β family receptors most commonly use the Smad signaling pathway to tranduce signals. Type 2 receptors are responsible for ... TGF-β receptors induce the MAPK signaling pathways of ERK, JNK and p38. BMP4 is also known to activate the ERK, JNK and p38 ...
Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1 Antibody (NBP1-33500): Novus Biologicals  Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1 Antibody (NBP1-33500): Novus Biologicals
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1 Antibody. Validated: WB, IHC, IHC-Fr. Tested Reactivity: Mouse ... Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1 » Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1 Antibodies » Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin ... Additional Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1 Products. Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1 NBP1-33500 * Activin ... Blogs on Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1. There are no specific blogs for Activin RIA/ALK-2/Activin Receptor Type 1, ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/products/activin-ria-alk-2-activin-receptor-type-1-antibody_nbp1-33500
Activin Receptor Type IA (ACVR1) Antibody (Center N153) - Purified Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Pab) WB, IHC-P, E - Buy Now! ...  Activin Receptor Type IA (ACVR1) Antibody (Center N153) - Purified Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Pab) WB, IHC-P, E - Buy Now! ...
Activin Receptor Type IA (ACVR1) Antibody (Center N153), Purified Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Pab) validated in WB, IHC-P, E ( ... Activin receptor type-1, Activin receptor type I, ACTR-I, Activin receptor-like kinase 2, ALK-2, Serine/threonine-protein ... resulting in phosphorylation of type I receptors by type II receptors. ACVR1 is an activin A type I receptor which signals a ... Autophagy Receptor Motif Plotter. The Autophagy Receptor Motif Plotter predicts and scores autophagy receptor binding sites in ...
more infohttp://www.abgent.com/products/AP7101a-Activin-Receptor-Type-IA-ACVR1-Antibody-Center-N153
Activin Receptor Type IIA抗体|Abcam中国|Anti-Activin Receptor Type IIA抗体  Activin Receptor Type IIA抗体|Abcam中国|Anti-Activin Receptor Type IIA抗体
Activin Receptor Type IIA兔多克隆抗体(ab124072)可与小鼠样本反应并经WB实验严格验证 ... Anti-Activin Receptor Type IIA抗体. 参阅全部 Activin Receptor Type IIA 一抗. ... Anti-Activin Receptor Type IIA antibody (ab124072) at 1/100 dilution + Mouse kidney tissue lysate at 35 µg. Predicted band size ... Synthetic peptide conjugated to KLH, corresponding to a region within N terminal amino acids
more infohttp://www.abcam.cn/activin-receptor-type-iia-antibody-ab124072.html
Mice overexpressing growth hormone exhibit increased skeletal muscle myostatin and MuRF1 with attenuation of muscle mass |...  Mice overexpressing growth hormone exhibit increased skeletal muscle myostatin and MuRF1 with attenuation of muscle mass |...
7b, respectively), and the myostatin receptor, activin receptor type IIB (AcvR2B) (152%, P , 0.0005, Fig. 7e and 82%, P , 0.01 ... Mature myostatin (26 kDa), premature myostatin (52 kDa), and activin receptor type IIB (AcvR2B) protein levels were increased ... antibody for Activin Receptor Type IIB. Proteins were visualized by horseradish peroxidase-conjugated IgG antibodies (Santa ... growth hormone receptor gene disruption on mouse hindlimb muscle fiber type composition. Growth Hormon IGF Res. 2008;18:479-86. ...
more infohttps://skeletalmusclejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13395-017-0133-y
China 2mg/Vial Freeze-Dried Polypeptide Powder Follistatin 344 Activin-Binding Protein - China Follistatin 344, Fst  China 2mg/Vial Freeze-Dried Polypeptide Powder Follistatin 344 Activin-Binding Protein - China Follistatin 344, Fst
Fst from 2mg/Vial Freeze-Dried Polypeptide Powder Follistatin 344 Activin-Binding Protein - Shanghai Shucan Industrial Co., Ltd ... China 2mg/Vial Freeze-Dried Polypeptide Powder Follistatin 344 Activin-Binding Protein, Find details about China Follistatin ... based on activin receptor type IIB (ActRIIB). The molecule inhibits signaling via the ActRIIB receptor binding ... FS is a high-affinity activin-binding protein that can act as an activin antagonist. Two alternatively spliced ...
more infohttp://pharmagear.en.made-in-china.com/product/ZKzJMCRAkwWB/China-2mg-Vial-Freeze-Dried-Polypeptide-Powder-Follistatin-344-Activin-Binding-Protein.html
Follistatin - Wikipedia  Follistatin - Wikipedia
2007). "Activin subunit and receptor expression in normal and cleft human fetal palate tissues". Pediatr. Dev. Pathol. 10 (6): ... 2005). "The structure of the follistatin:activin complex reveals antagonism of both type I and type II receptor binding". Dev. ... Walsh S, Metter EJ, Ferrucci L, Roth SM (2007). "Activin-type II receptor B (ACVR2B) and follistatin haplotype associations ... In the blood, activin and follistatin are both known to be involved in the inflammatory response following tissue injury or ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Follistatin
Anti-TGFBR1/Tgf Beta Receptor I Antibody  Anti-TGFBR1/Tgf Beta Receptor I Antibody
TGF BETA RECEPTOR I/TGFBR1 information: Molecular Weight: 55960 MW; Subcellular Localization: Cell membrane; ... Polyclonal antibody for TGF BETA RECEPTOR I/TGFBR1 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: IHC-P. ... TGF-beta receptor type-1;TGFR-1;2.7.11.30;Activin A receptor type II-like protein kinase of 53kD;Activin receptor-like kinase 5 ... Background for TGF-beta receptor type-1(TGFR-1). TGFBR1, Transforming growth factor, beta receptor I is a TGF beta receptor. ...
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Follistatin-344 Peptide Steroid Hormones Inhibits Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Release - gearsteroids  Follistatin-344 Peptide Steroid Hormones Inhibits Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Release - gearsteroids
It was originally discovered as activin antagonists whose activity suppresses expression and secretion of the pituitary hormone ... that binds to ligands of the TGF-Beta family and regulates their activity by inhibiting their access to signaling receptors. ...
more infohttp://gearsteroids.sale.spintoband.com/pz6b089cb-follistatin-344-peptide-steroid-hormones-inhibits-follicle-stimulating-hormone-release.html
ACE-031/ACE 031/ACE031 1mg - Fit Peptide Co.,Limited - ecplaza.net  ACE-031/ACE 031/ACE031 1mg - Fit Peptide Co.,Limited - ecplaza.net
Activin receptor type-2B, Activin receptor type IIB, ACTR-IIB, ACVR2B Standard: Medical Grade; Appearance Lyophilized white ...
more infohttps://www.ecplaza.net/products/ace-031ace-031ace031-1mg_4203385
Activin receptor - Wikipedia  Activin receptor - Wikipedia
An Activin receptor is a receptor which binds activin. Types include: Activin type 1 receptors Activin type 2 receptors These ... Activin receptors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ... Wrana JL, Attisano L, Wieser R, Ventura F, Massague J (1994). "Mechanism of activation of the TGF-beta receptor". Nature. 370 ( ... Massague J, Weis-Garcia F (1996). "Serine/threonine kinase receptors: mediators of transforming growth factor beta family ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Activin_receptor
Anti-Activin Receptor Type IIA antibody (ab96793) | Abcam  Anti-Activin Receptor Type IIA antibody (ab96793) | Abcam
Rabbit polyclonal Activin Receptor Type IIA antibody. Validated in WB, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Cited in 1 publication(s). ... Anti-Activin Receptor Type IIA antibody. See all Activin Receptor Type IIA primary antibodies. ... All lanes : Anti-Activin Receptor Type IIA antibody (ab96793) at 1/10000 dilution. Lane 1 : HeLa whole cell lysate. Lane 2 : ... Recombinant protein fragment corresponding to a region within amino acids 267 and 509 of Human Activin receptor type IIA ( ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/activin-receptor-type-iia-antibody-ab96793.html
Recombinant Human Activin Receptor Type IIB protein (ab125577)  Recombinant Human Activin Receptor Type IIB protein (ab125577)
Buy our Recombinant Human Activin Receptor Type IIB protein. Ab125577 is a protein fragment produced in Baculovirus infected ... Recombinant Human Activin Receptor Type IIB protein. See all Activin Receptor Type IIB proteins and peptides. ... Type II receptors phosphorylate and activate type I receptors which autophosphorylate, then bind and activate SMAD ... On ligand binding, forms a receptor complex consisting of two type II and two type I transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/recombinant-human-activin-receptor-type-iib-protein-ab125577.html
Activin receptor-like kinase 2 can mediate atrioventricular cushion transformation.  - PubMed - NCBI  Activin receptor-like kinase 2 can mediate atrioventricular cushion transformation. - PubMed - NCBI
Activin receptor-like kinase 2 can mediate atrioventricular cushion transformation.. Lai YT1, Beason KB, Brames GP, ... we cloned and characterized the chicken homologues of two mammalian activin receptor-like kinases (ALK), ALK2 and ALK5, and ... These data establish that ChALK2 and ChALK5 are the chicken homologues of the mammalian receptors ALK2 and ALK5. Both ChALK2 ... To investigate the expression and function of specific Type I TGFbeta receptors during AV cushion transformation, ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10885742?dopt=Abstract
Acvr2b MGI Mouse Gene Detail - MGI:87912 - activin receptor IIB  Acvr2b MGI Mouse Gene Detail - MGI:87912 - activin receptor IIB
J:1073 Matzuk MM, et al., Structure of the mouse activin receptor type II gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992 May 29;185(1): ...
more infohttp://www.informatics.jax.org/marker/MGI:87912
Acvr2a MGI Mouse Gene Detail - MGI:102806 - activin receptor IIA  Acvr2a MGI Mouse Gene Detail - MGI:102806 - activin receptor IIA
J:245961 Goh BC, et al., Activin receptor type 2A (ACVR2A) functions directly in osteoblasts as a negative regulator of bone ... J:11226 Mathews LS, et al., Expression cloning of an activin receptor, a predicted transmembrane serine kinase. Cell. 1991 Jun ...
more infohttp://www.informatics.jax.org/marker/MGI:102806
ACVR1 - Activin receptor type-1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - ACVR1 gene & protein  ACVR1 - Activin receptor type-1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - ACVR1 gene & protein
Activin receptor type-1. Activin receptor type-1, EC 2.7.11.30 (Activin receptor type I, ACTR-I) (Activin receptor-like kinase ... Activin receptor type-1Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> , ... tr,C9J1R3,C9J1R3_HUMAN Activin receptor type-1 (Fragment) OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=ACVR1 PE=4 SV=1 ... transmembrane receptor protein serine/threonine kinase activity Source: InterPro. View the complete GO annotation on QuickGO ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/C9J1R3
ACVR2A - Activin receptor type-2A precursor - Bos taurus (Bovine) - ACVR2A gene & protein  ACVR2A - Activin receptor type-2A precursor - Bos taurus (Bovine) - ACVR2A gene & protein
Receptor for activin A, activin B and inhibin A. Mediates induction of adipogenesis by GDF6. ... Type II receptors phosphorylate and activate type I receptors which autophosphorylate, then bind and activate SMAD ... forms a receptor complex consisting of two type II and two type I transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. ... Receptor for activin A, activin B and inhibin A. Mediates induction of adipogenesis by GDF6.By similarity. ,p>Manually curated ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q28043
ALKs (Activin Receptor-like Kinases) Research Area: R&D Systems  ALKs (Activin Receptor-like Kinases) Research Area: R&D Systems
Activin Receptor-like Kinases) research products from R&D Systems. Learn more. ... Activin Receptor-like Kinases) research area related information and ALKs ( ... ALKs (Activin Receptor-like Kinases). ALKs 1-7 are type I serine/threonine kinase receptors for TGF-beta superfamily members. ... They undergo hetero-oligomerization with type II serine/threonine kinase receptors to transduce signals, usually through Smad ...
more infohttps://www.rndsystems.com/research-area/alks--activin-receptor--like-kinases
Activin receptor type IIA | definition of Activin receptor type IIA by Medical dictionary  Activin receptor type IIA | definition of Activin receptor type IIA by Medical dictionary
What is Activin receptor type IIA? Meaning of Activin receptor type IIA medical term. What does Activin receptor type IIA mean? ... Looking for online definition of Activin receptor type IIA in the Medical Dictionary? Activin receptor type IIA explanation ... redirected from Activin receptor type IIA) ACVR2A. A gene on chromosome 2q22.3 that encodes activin receptor type IIA, a ... type-II receptors are required for binding ligands and expression of type-I receptors. After activin binding, type-I receptors ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Activin+receptor+type+IIA
Activin receptor type-2B | definition of activin receptor type-2B by Medical dictionary  Activin receptor type-2B | definition of activin receptor type-2B by Medical dictionary
What is activin receptor type-2B? Meaning of activin receptor type-2B medical term. What does activin receptor type-2B mean? ... Looking for online definition of activin receptor type-2B in the Medical Dictionary? activin receptor type-2B explanation free ... redirected from activin receptor type-2B) ACVR2B. A gene on chromosome 3p22 that encodes activin receptor type IIB, a receptor ... type-II receptors are required for binding ligands and expression of type-I receptors. After activin binding, type-I receptors ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/activin+receptor+type-2B
  • We sought to determine whether expression of MSTN, its receptor activin RIIb (ActRIIb), or its binding protein follistatin-like-3 (FSTL3) are altered in subcutaneous or visceral adipose or in skeletal muscle in response to obesity. (nih.gov)
  • We thus aimed to inhibit TGF-beta signaling using a novel orally active TGF-beta type I receptor [activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5)] inhibitor (GW788388) to attenuate left ventricular remodeling and cardiac dysfunction in a rat model of MI. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In brief, treatment with a novel TGF-beta type I receptor inhibitor, GW788388, significantly reduced TGF-beta activity, leading to the attenuation of systolic dysfunction and left ventricular remodeling in an experimental rat model of MI. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These data establish that ChALK2 and ChALK5 are the chicken homologues of the mammalian receptors ALK2 and ALK5. (nih.gov)
  • Myostatin, activin receptor IIb, and follistatin-like-3 gene expression are altered in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle of obese mice. (nih.gov)
  • ACVR1C is dispensable for mouse embryogenesis, which suggests alternative functions for this receptor in postnatal development and tissue homeostasis. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • ACVR1C plays an important role in regulating the functional plasticity of pancreatic islets, negatively affecting beta-cell function by mediating the effects of activin B on Ca2+ signaling. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • We identified four variants in the gene ACVR1C , encoding the activin-receptor like kinase 7 receptor expressed on adipocytes and pancreatic beta cells, which independently associated with reduced WHRadjBMI: Asn150His (-0.09 standard deviations, p=3.4*10 -17 ), Ile195Thr (-0.15 SD, p=1.0*10 -9 ), Ile482Val (-0.019 SD, p=1.6*10 -5 ) and rs72927479 (-0.035 SD, p=2.6*10 -12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Chez www.anticorps-enligne.fr sont 122 Activin Receptor Type IC (ACVR1C) Anticorps de 29 de différents fournisseurs disponibles. (anticorps-enligne.fr)
  • Type I and II receptors form a stable complex after ligand binding, resulting in phosphorylation of type I receptors by type II receptors. (novusbio.com)
  • Cellular signaling is initialized by ligand-induced heterotetrameric complex formation of type I and type II receptors. (rupress.org)
  • In addition to intricate ligand-receptor combinations, more complexity is added by the existence of membrane-bound and soluble forms of accessory receptors, such as endoglin and betaglycan, which harbor the potential to modulate signaling specificity and intensity. (rupress.org)
  • Activin-recp domain: a specific hydrophilic Cys-rich ligand-binding domain characterized by 9 amino acid cysteine box, with the consensus CCX{4-5}CN and 7 extracellular residues preceding the cysteine box. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Despite the large amount of processes that these ligands regulate, they all operate through essentially the same pathway: A ligand binds to a type 2 receptor, which recruits and trans-phosphorylates a type I receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • ACVR2 receptors are present in the testis during testicular development. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a lab, it has been shown that truncated mutations in the ACVR2 gene causes a significant reduction in activin mediated cell signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • ACE-011, a soluble form of the activin receptor type IIA (ActRIIA), is a biologic therapeutic that binds to and prevents signaling of several members of the TGF-beta protein super family, and has been shown to stimulate red blood cell production, promote bone formation, and inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The results from the oral presentation titled "ACE-011, A Soluble Activin Receptor Type IIA Fusion Protein, Increases BMD and Improves Microarchitecture in Cynomolgus Monkeys" were presented at The American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR) 29th Annual Meeting held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, September 16 - 19, 2007. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • When expressed alone in test cells, Atr-I is unable to bind TGF-beta, activin, or bone morphogenetic protein 2. (asm.org)
  • The morphological defect is not observed in mutants for the TGFβ receptor baboon , and epistasis tests showed that baboon is epistatic to Smad2 for disc overgrowth. (biologists.org)
  • The spacing of extracellular cysteines and the cytoplasmic domain of Atr-I resemble most closely those of the recently described mammalian type I receptors for TGF-beta and activin. (asm.org)
  • These cells are responsive to both autocrine and paracrine activin B signaling, which controls their proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Activin/Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling family plays diverse roles in growth and patterning in mammals. (biologists.org)
  • Starting from the observation of larval patterning defects observed in a null mutant for Smad2 , we describe here how mutation in the Activin pathway can impinge on the BMP patterning system to profoundly perturb wing disc growth and patterning. (biologists.org)