Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A thin lining of closed cavities of the body, consisting of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells (MESOTHELIUM) resting on a thin layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and covered with secreted clear fluid from blood and lymph vessels. Major serous membranes in the body include PERICARDIUM; PERITONEUM; and PLEURA.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The quality of surface form or outline of the CELL NUCLEUS.
The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A saprophytic bacterium widely distributed in soil and dust and on plants.
The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of arsenic acid.
Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.
Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).
The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.
A number of different cardioactive glycosides obtained from Strophanthus species. OUABAIN is from S. gratus and CYMARINE from S. kombe. They are used like the digitalis glycosides.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
A pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. It receives a large projection from the contralateral half of the CEREBELLUM via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral MOTOR CORTEX.
The quantity of volume or surface area of a CELL NUCLEUS.
An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Chloride and mercury-containing derivatives of benzoic acid.
Nuclei of the trigeminal nerve situated in the brain stem. They include the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), the principal sensory nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus, and the motor nucleus.
Microscopy in which the image is formed by ultraviolet radiation and is displayed and recorded by means of photographic film.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Hypothalamic nucleus overlying the beginning of the OPTIC TRACT.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Galactosides in which the oxygen atom linking the sugar and aglycone is replaced by a sulfur atom.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium such as the aqueous humor.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A family of proteins involved in NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
A ketose sugar that is commonly used in the commercial synthesis of ASCORBIC ACID.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Structures that are part of or contained in the CELL NUCLEUS.
Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.
Stable sodium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sodium, but differ in atomic weight. Na-23 is a stable sodium isotope.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Used as an electron carrier in place of the flavine enzyme of Warburg in the hexosemonophosphate system and also in the preparation of SUCCINIC DEHYDROGENASE.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.
A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Proteins involved in the transport of nucleobases such as PYRIMIDINES and PURINES across membranes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The passive movement of molecules exceeding the rate expected by simple diffusion. No energy is expended in the process. It is achieved by the introduction of passively diffusing molecules to an enviroment or path that is more favorable to the movement of those molecules. Examples of facilitated diffusion are passive transport of hydrophilic substances across a lipid membrane through hydrophilic pores that traverse the membrane, and the sliding of a DNA BINDING PROTEIN along a strand of DNA.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.

Inhibition of NFkappaB by methyl chlorogenate from Eriobotrya japonica. (1/5043)

Methylchlorogenic acid (MC) is one of the main components in the leaves of Eriobotrya japonica. We previously reported that MC is the most potent antioxidant among several components of Eriobotrya japonica, and its antioxidant activity is stronger than that of chlorogenic acid. Antioxidants are expected to inhibit redox-sensitive NFkappaB activation since NFkappaB is readily influenced by cellular oxidative state. Based on these findings, in vivo experiments with MC were conducted to determine its ability to downregulate the NFkappaB activation in mouse liver. Results clearly showed that MC is a potent suppressor of BHP-induced NFkappaB activation. We observed a significant reduction by MC on BHP-induced translocation of p65 subunit of NFkappaB. This may be due to formation of p50/p65 heterodimer, which is mainly inducible NFkappaB. MC slightly blocked the BHP-induced IkappaB alpha degradation. There is a possibility of IkappaB alpha resynthesis via activated NFkappaB during a 5 h waiting period following BHP injection. The present results suggest that MC may inhibit NFkappaB activation, exhibiting its ability to downregulate the NFkappaB-dependent gene expression. Thus, it can be expected that MC may have potential for therapeutic intervention on various NFkappaB-dependent pathological conditions such as inflammatory or possibly mutagenic processes.  (+info)

Activation of protein kinase C induces nuclear translocation of RFX1 and down-regulates c-myc via an intron 1 X box in undifferentiated leukemia HL-60 cells. (2/5043)

Treatment of human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) is known to decrease c-myc mRNA by blocking transcription elongation at sites near the first exon/intron border. Treatment of HL-60 cells with either PMA or bryostatin 1, which acutely activates protein kinase C (PKC), decreased the levels of myc mRNA and Myc protein. The inhibition of Myc synthesis accounted for the drop in Myc protein, because PMA treatment had no effect on Myc turnover. Treatment with PMA or bryostatin 1 increased nuclear protein binding to MIE1, a c-myc intron 1 element that defines an RFX1-binding X box. RFX1 antiserum supershifted MIE1-protein complexes. Increased MIE1 binding was independent of protein synthesis and abolished by a selective PKC inhibitor, which also prevented the effect of PMA on myc mRNA and protein levels and Myc synthesis. PMA treatment increased RFX1 in the nuclear fraction and decreased it in the cytosol without affecting total RFX1. Transfection of HL-60 cells with myc reporter gene constructs showed that the RFX1-binding X box was required for the down-regulation of reporter gene expression by PMA. These findings suggest that nuclear translocation and binding of RFX1 to the X box cause the down-regulation of myc expression, which follows acute PKC activation in undifferentiated HL-60 cells.  (+info)

Active aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are present in nuclei as a high molecular weight multienzyme complex. (3/5043)

Recent studies suggest that aminoacylation of tRNA may play an important role in the transport of these molecules from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. However, there is almost no information regarding the status of active aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases within the nuclei of eukaryotic cells. Here we show that at least 13 active aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are present in purified nuclei of both Chinese hamster ovary and rabbit kidney cells, although their steady-state levels represent only a small percentage of those found in the cytoplasm. Most interestingly, all the nuclear aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases examined can be isolated as part of a multienzyme complex that is more stable, and consequently larger, than the comparable complex isolated from the cytoplasm. These data directly demonstrate the presence of active aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in mammalian cell nuclei. Moreover, their unexpected structural organization raises important questions about the functional significance of these multienzyme complexes and whether they might play a more direct role in nuclear to cytoplasmic transport of tRNAs.  (+info)

Maternally controlled (beta)-catenin-mediated signaling is required for organizer formation in the zebrafish. (4/5043)

We have identified and characterized a zebrafish recessive maternal effect mutant, ichabod, that results in severe anterior and dorsal defects during early development. The ichabod mutation is almost completely penetrant, but exhibits variable expressivity. All mutant embryos fail to form a normal embryonic shield; most fail to form a head and notochord and have excessive development of ventral tail fin tissue and blood. Abnormal dorsal patterning can first be observed at 3.5 hpf by the lack of nuclear accumulation of (beta)-catenin in the dorsal yolk syncytial layer, which also fails to express bozozok/dharma/nieuwkoid and znr2/ndr1/squint. At the onset of gastrulation, deficiencies in expression of dorsal markers and expansion of expression of markers of ventral tissues indicate a dramatic alteration of dorsoventral identity. Injection of (beta)-catenin RNA markedly dorsalized ichabod embryos and often completely rescued the phenotype, but no measurable dorsalization was obtained with RNAs encoding upstream Wnt pathway components. In contrast, dorsalization was obtained when RNAs encoding either Bozozok/Dharma/Nieuwkoid or Znr2/Ndr1/Squint were injected. Moreover, injection of (beta)-catenin RNA into ichabod embryos resulted in activation of expression of these two genes, which could also activate each other. RNA injection experiments strongly suggest that the component affected by the ichabod mutation acts on a step affecting (beta)-catenin nuclear localization that is independent of regulation of (beta)-catenin stability. This work demonstrates that a maternal gene controlling localization of (beta)-catenin in dorsal nuclei is necessary for dorsal yolk syncytial layer gene activity and formation of the organizer in the zebrafish.  (+info)

Nuclear translocation of mismatch repair proteins MSH2 and MSH6 as a response of cells to alkylating agents. (5/5043)

Mammalian mismatch repair has been implicated in mismatch correction, the prevention of mutagenesis and cancer, and the induction of genotoxicity and apoptosis. Here, we show that treatment of cells specifically with agents inducing O(6)-methylguanine in DNA, such as N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, elevates the level of MSH2 and MSH6 and increases GT mismatch binding activity in the nucleus. This inducible response occurs immediately after alkylation, is long-lasting and dose-dependent, and results from translocation of the preformed MutSalpha complex (composed of MSH2 and MSH6) from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. It is not caused by an increase in MSH2 gene activity. Cells expressing the DNA repair protein O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), thus having the ability to repair O(6)-methylguanine, showed no translocation of MutSalpha, whereas inhibition of MGMT by O(6)-benzylguanine provoked the translocation. The results demonstrate that O(6)-methylguanine lesions are involved in triggering nuclear accumulation of MSH2 and MSH6. The finding that treatment of cells with O(6)-methylguanine-generating mutagens results in an increase of MutSalpha and GT binding activity in the nucleus indicates a novel type of genotoxic stress response.  (+info)

Three leucine-rich sequences and the N-terminal region of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) are responsible for its cytoplasmic localization. (6/5043)

The double-stranded RNA-activated-protein kinase PKR was originally identified as a ribosomal protein that regulates protein synthesis at the translational level. While PKR locates predominantly to the cytoplasm, nuclear or nucleolar species of PKR have been detected. Here, we demonstrate that PKR possesses three leucine-rich sequences resembling nuclear export signals (NESs). Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fused to one of these sequences and transfected in COS-1 cells exhibited predominant cytoplasmic staining, which was abrogated by a leucine to alanine substitution. In addition, Leptomycin B (LMB), an inhibitor of NES-mediated nuclear export, inhibited the cytoplasmic localization of EGFP-NES, indicating the potential activity of these stretches as NESs. Although EGFP fused to a PKR with three NES mutations still located to the cytoplasm, an additional N-terminal deletion impaired the cytoplasmic predominance, suggesting that the N-terminal region is also required for localization. These results suggest that the cytoplasmic localization of PKR is regulated by NESs as well as the N-terminal sequence.  (+info)

Evidence that the beta-catenin nuclear translocation assay allows for measuring presenilin 1 dysfunction. (7/5043)

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the presenilin (PSEN) genes are responsible for the majority of early-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) cases. PSEN1 is a component of a high molecular weight, endoplasmic reticulum, membrane-bound protein complex, including beta-catenin. Pathogenic PSEN1 mutations were demonstrated to have an effect on beta-catenin and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta(GSK-3beta), two members of the wingless Wnt pathway. The nuclear translocation and the stability of beta-catenin, and the interaction between GSK3beta and PSEN1 were influenced. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stably transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells overexpressing wild-type (wt) and mutant (mt) PSEN1, treated with and without LiCl, were used to isolate cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions. By Western blot analysis, endogenous beta-catenin levels were examined. By analyzing cytosolic fractions of PSEN1, transfected and nontransfected HEK 293 cells, and total brain extracts of AD patients and controls, we evaluated the effect of PSEN1 overexpression on beta-catenin stability. Finally, we analyzed the effect of pathogenic PSEN1 mutations on the interaction between PSEN1 and GSK3beta by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. RESULTS: We report reduced nuclear translocation of beta-catenin in cells stably expressing I143T, G384A, and T113-114ins PSEN1. The G384A PSEN1 mutation showed a similar pronounced effect on nuclear translocation of beta-catenin, as reported for processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) into amyloid beta(Abeta). Overexpression of PSEN1 and the presence of pathogenic mutations in PSEN1 had no significant effect on the stability of beta-catenin. Nonspecific binding of overexpressed PSEN1 to endogenous GSK3beta was observed when GSK3beta was immunoprecipitated. Immunoprecipitation of PSEN1 in cells overexpressing PSEN1 and in native cells, however, did not result in co-immunoprecipitation of endogenous GSK3beta. CONCLUSION: Our results further establish the nuclear translocation assay of beta-catenin as an adequate alternative for traditional Abeta measurement to evaluate the effect of PSEN1 mutations on biochemical processes. We detected no significant effect of overexpressed wt or mt PSEN1 on the stability of beta-catenin. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation between PSEN1 and GSK3beta was not observed in our experimental setup.  (+info)

Bradykinin activates the Janus-activated kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway in vascular endothelial cells: localization of JAK/STAT signalling proteins in plasmalemmal caveolae. (8/5043)

Bradykinin (BK) is an important physiological regulator of endothelial cell function. In the present study, we have examined the role of the Janus-activated kinase (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathway in endothelial signal transduction through the BK B2 receptor (B2R). In cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs), BK activates Tyk2 of the JAK family of tyrosine kinases. Activation results in the tyrosine phosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation of STAT3. BK also activates the mitogen-activated p44 and p42 protein kinases, resulting in STAT3 serine phosphorylation. Furthermore, Tyk2 and STAT3 form a complex with the B2R in response to BK stimulation. Under basal conditions, Tyk2, STAT3 and the B2R are localized either partially or entirely in endothelial plasmalemmal caveolae. Following BK stimulation of BAECs, however, the B2R and STAT3 are translocated out of caveolae. Taken together, these data suggest that BK activates the JAK/STAT pathway in endothelial cells and that JAK/STAT signalling proteins are localized in endothelial caveolae. Moreover, caveolar localization of the B2R and STAT3 appears to be regulated in an agonist-dependent manner.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Influenza A virus NS1 protein promotes efficient nuclear export of unspliced viral M1 mRNA. AU - Pereira, Carina F.. AU - Read, Eliot K. C.. AU - Wise, Helen M.. AU - Amorim, Maria J.. AU - Digard, Paul. PY - 2017/8. Y1 - 2017/8. N2 - Influenza A virus mRNAs are transcribed by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in the cell nucleus before being exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Segment 7 produces two major transcripts: an unspliced mRNA that encodes the M1 matrix protein and a spliced transcript that encodes the M2 ion channel. Export of both mRNAs is dependent on the cellular NXF1/TAP pathway, but it is unclear how they are recruited to the export machinery or how the introncontaining but unspliced M1 mRNA bypasses the normal quality-control checkpoints. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization to monitor segment 7 mRNA localization, we found that cytoplasmic accumulation of unspliced M1 mRNA was inefficient in the absence of NS1, both in the context of segment 7 RNPs ...
Kosan Biosciences Incorporated presented preclinical data on its proprietary nuclear export inhibitors (NEI) showing potent in vitro and in vivo activity as wel
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Transport of macromolecules into and out of the nucleus is generally effected by targeting signals that are recognized by specific members of the importin/exportin transport receptor family. The latter mediate passage through the nuclear envelope-embedded nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) by conferring interaction with NPC constituents, as well as with other components of the nuclear transport machinery, including the guanine nucleotide-binding protein Ran. Importantly, nuclear transport is regulated at multiple levels via a diverse range of mechanisms, such as the modulation of the accessibility and affinity of target signal recognition by importins/exportins, with phosphorylation/dephosphorylation as a major mechanism. Alteration of the level of the expression of components of the nuclear transport machinery also appears to be a key determinant of transport efficiency, having central importance in development, differentiation and transformation ...
context: https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json, id: http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/nuclear-transport, rdfs:label: Nuclear transport, sdDataset: onto_subjects, skos:altLabel: [ { @language: en, @value: Nucleo cytoplasmic Transport }, { @language: en, @value: Nuclear Import }, { @language: en, @value: Nucleo-cytoplasmic Transport }, { @language: en, @value: Nucleocytoplasmic Transport }, { @language: en, @value: Nuclear Export } ], skos:broader: [ { id: http://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/cell-biology } ], skos:definition: [ { @language: en, @value: While nuclear transport of small molecules happens by diffusion, that of macromolecules carrying specific recognition signals happens through nuclear pore complexes. Nuclear transport is regulated by the availability of these signals to the transport machinery, changes in the levels or modifications of the ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
The results described in this paper indicate that HIV unspliced RNA export and Gag trafficking to the plasma membrane are linked. By simply changing the RNA export element from the RRE to 4 × CTE, we can restore Gag assembly and budding in murine cells (Figures 3 and 5). To explain how a pretranslational event, RNA export, could modulate a post‐translational event, membrane trafficking, we hypothesize that HIV RNA is marked at (or by) nuclear export such that the cytosolic fate of the encoded Gag is predetermined. Based on our findings, both the RRE/Rev/Crm1 and 4 × CTE/NXF1 nuclear export pathways successfully mark unspliced gag‐pol mRNA in human cells and promote proper assembly. However, in murine cells, marking through the action of RRE/Rev/Crm1 is defective and HIV assembly is inhibited. Possibilities for the mark include the structure of the mRNA itself or proteins that comprise the mRNP; these could be added or removed as the export complex is formed, as it transits the NPC, ...
In this study, we have shown that (a) although 14-3-3 proteins are predominantly localized in the cytoplasm, a large number of ligands are localized within the nucleus; (b) endogenous 14-3-3, fully competent to bind ligands, can be trapped in the nucleus by inhibiting Crm1-dependent nuclear export with LMB; (c) the leucine-rich putative NES sequence in 14-3-3, despite its structural homology to known NES sequences (Rittinger et al., 1999) and its ability to function as an NES in isolation when fused to GFP (unpublished data), functions primarily in phosphoprotein binding and not as an NES in the context of the intact 14-3-3 molecule; (d) a mutant 14-3-3, which cannot bind to ligands, homes to the nucleus; (e) the nuclear 14-3-3 ligand FKHRL1 is phosphorylated at its major 14-3-3 binding site within the nucleus before its export into the cytoplasm; and (f) at least for FKHRL1, rapid export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm requires both phosphorylation/14-3-3 binding and NES sequences within the ...
Although there appears to be some discrepancy between these new findings and our previous reports that importins are dispensable for the nuclear import of Smads, these observations can be reconciled (Xu et al., 2002, 2003). Our present and previous studies, based on different approaches, may have revealed different nuclear import mechanisms used by basal and activated Smads to enter the nucleus. There are important differences comparing Smads import with or without TGF-β stimulation. Unphosphorylated Smads are monomers, but phosphorylated Smads are assembled into complexes with Smad4 and are thus much larger in size (Wu et al., 2001; Chacko et al., 2004). Moreover, as phospho-Smads accumulate in the nucleus they have to move across the nuclear pore against an ascending concentration gradient of Smads already in the nucleus, whereas unphosphorylated Smads never reach a higher concentration in the nucleus than in the cytoplasm. Thus, importing phospho-Smad complexes and unphosphorylated Smad ...
The nuclear export of Foxo can be inhibited by LMB (Fig. 11), which binds to and thus removes the availability of CRM1 for nuclear export. In the presence of a fully blocking concentration of LMB, any Foxo that enters the nucleus is unable to leave and becomes trapped in the nucleus. Inhibition of nuclear export via LMB thus provides a powerful tool for measuring the rate of unidirectional nuclear influx and for calculating its rate constant of cytoplasmic efflux. The change in the rate constant for unidirectional efflux out of the cytoplasm due to treatment with phosphorylation modulators demonstrates the importance of cytoplasmic phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of Foxo1 in regulation of its rate of cytoplasmic efflux (Figs. 6, 9, and 10). Furthermore, the increase in the rate of nuclear influx that resulted from staurosporine addition in the presence of LMB (Fig. 9A) indicates that the nuclear import machinery is not saturated at the level of expression of Foxo1-GFP employed under our ...
There are two types of protein transport processes evident during nucleocytoplasmic exchange being nuclear import and export. The majority of proteins are synthesised in the cytoplasm, therefore nuclear import is a dominant form of protein transportation into the nucleus. Moreover, nuclear export is equally crucial in nucleocytoplasmic transport during later parts of protein processing to return products into the cytoplasm such as tRNA, rRNA and mRNA. In addition, some proteins may be required to move across the NE several times to be fully developed into a functional subunit. In comparison to the nucleus, after importing proteins into the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER), they cannot exit due to the absence of specific signals to initiate transportation back across the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm. Nucleus therefore has a unique means of transportation, having equally important import and export process. Most protein carriers involving NPCs are the members karyopherins family. This ...
In this study, we have reported a means to specifically prevent p42/p44MAPK nuclear translocation without affecting its activation. Different methods can theoretically be used to achieve the blockage of MAPK nuclear translocation. The one we employed here was to create an artificial anchor for MAPK based on two criteria: a specific interaction with MAPK and a cytoplasmic localization. Several proteins could possibly fulfil the criteria to create a cytoplasmic anchor for MAPK. For instance, the activator of MAPK, MKK1, is a cytoplasmic protein that also binds specifically to MAPK (Bardwell et al., 1996; Fukuda et al., 1997) and has therefore been proposed to play the role of an MAPK anchor in vivo (Fukuda et al., 1997). Moreover expression of MKK1 in Xenopus has been shown to impair MAPK nuclear translocation (Fukuda et al., 1997). However, in our fibroblast CCL39 cell line, the ability of MKK1 expression to prevent MAPK nuclear translocation was much weaker than that of inactive MKP‐3. This ...
Hey-mutant mouse hearts at embryonic day E14.5 were shown to react to the knock out of Hey2 with several up-regualted genes. This up-regulation is due to the lack of Hey2 and cannot be explained by the structural changes in heart morphology as shown using control animals. Part of the gene regulation was further validated using in situ hybridization. Hey1 was located to the nucleus in immunofluorescence experiments. However, experiments on protein level showed also amount of Hey1 within the cytoplasm. The nuclear localization of Hey1 was unchanged during all cell cycle phases as well as when CaMKII was co-expressed or other cellular pathways were inhibited or stimulated. Hey1 does not seem to interact with the nuclear transport proteins importin-alpha and -beta, therefore it still needs to be elucidated how Hey1 is transported into the nucleus ...
We are interested in transport processes and in photosynthesis. Within the realm of photosynthesis we are mainly concerned with dynamic processes that accompany the life cycle of the thylakoid network, including its response to different stresses and its formation and dismantling. Regarding nucleo-cytoplasmic transport, we are particularly interested in its selectivity, the behavior of the ensemble of transporting molecules as it relates to the transport of a single molecule and in applications to gene therapy. In both fields of study, we combine different approaches and methodologies including ensemble and single-molecule biophysical methods, biochemical and molecular biology techniques, statistical mechanical modeling and state-of-the-art electron microscopy.. ...
1JN5: Structural basis for the recognition of a nucleoporin FG repeat by the NTF2-like domain of the TAP/p15 mRNA nuclear export factor.
Principal nameRanBP9 / Importin-9 antibodyAlternative names for RanBP9 / Importin-9 antibodyIMP9, IPO9, IMP9, KIAA1192, Ran binding protein 9,…
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繼承對種族主義的批判. 印度種姓制度以血緣世襲的方式區分人的貴賤,達利特人(賤民)最低等被視為不可接觸,至今仍存。另一邊廂,美國上幾個世紀的黑奴制度以膚色區劃奴隸階級,即使後來黑奴解放,深膚色人種仍然受著嚴重的經濟和文化歧視。. 人為地建構身份階層,對特定族群作出有違人性的區分,是鞏固權力和維持優勢地位的一貫做法。但這做法也反向操作,用來挑戰某些價值和社會規範。例如,應用於性傾向,可得出異性戀中心主義:異性戀是一種由人建構出來的階級體制,令社會裡不是異性戀的人受到排拒,剝削了同性戀的人性和尊嚴……藉由建構同性戀和被壓迫的身份,他們聚集了群眾和得到某種道德力量。在建構出假想敵後,同性戀政治份子批判異性戀中心主義的社會,製作仇恨名單(The Export of ...
The cowpox virus-encoded anti-apoptotic protein cytokine response modifier A (CrmA) is a member of the serpin family that specifically inhibits the cellular proteins caspase 1, caspase 8 and granzyme B. In this study, we have used Flag- and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-tagged versions of CrmA to investigate the mechanisms that regulate its subcellular localization. We show that CrmA can actively enter and exit the nucleus and we demonstrate the role of the nuclear export receptor CRM1 in this shuttling process. CrmA contains a novel leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) that is functionally conserved in the anti-apoptotic cellular serpin PI-9. Besides this leucine-rich export signal, additional sequences mapping to a 103-amino-acid region flanking the NES contribute to the CRM1-dependent nuclear export of CrmA. Although YFP-tagged CrmA is primarily located in the cytoplasm, shifting its localization to be predominantly nuclear by fusion of a heterologous nuclear localization signal did ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Significant Proportions of Nuclear Transport Proteins with Reduced Intracellular Mobilities Resolved by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy. AU - Paradise, Allison. AU - Levin, Mikhail K.. AU - Korza, George. AU - Carson, John H.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by NIH grants NS15190, RR13186 and RR22232 (to J.H.C.). Initial FCS experiments on Ran protein in B104 cells were performed by students (Nancy Skoura, Cheryl Habrukowich, Matt Buckwalter) in the Biochemistry II course at UCHC (Farmington, CT). Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2007/1/5. Y1 - 2007/1/5. N2 - Nuclear transport requires freely diffusing nuclear transport proteins to facilitate movement of cargo molecules through the nuclear pore. We analyzed dynamic properties of importin α, importin β, Ran and NTF2 in nucleus, cytoplasm and at the nuclear pore of neuroblastoma cells using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Mobile components were quantified by global ...
Recent investigations have elucidated several molecular pathways for the nuclear import and export of proteins (Kau and Silver, 2003; Weis, 2003) across transport passageways or nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) (Dreger, 2003). The NPC is a large (125 MDa) multimeric protein structure that perforates the nuclear envelope and channels proteins greater than 60 kDa into or out of the nucleus. The constituents of the NPC have been described in yeast (Rout et al., 2000) and mammalian cells (Cronshaw et al., 2002). Proteins targeted for receptor-mediated transport across the NPC must either contain a nuclear localization signal (NLS) or a nuclear export signal (NES). Protein NLS are typically short clusters of basic amino acids, often preceded by an acidic amino acid or proline residue. However, a NLS may also consist of bipartite clusters of basic amino acids separated by a spacer region of approximately ten amino acids, often flanked by a neutral or acidic amino acid. Previously described NLSs are ...
The nuclear export receptor Crm1 cooperatively binds its HIV Rev-RRE cargo as a dimer using a species-specific interface that supports viral replication by enhancing nuclear export of HIV RNA.
Author Summary Herpesviruses hijack cellular components to enhance viral gene expression. This is particularly important for the efficient nuclear export of herpesvirus intronless mRNAs to allow the production of viral proteins. We have previously demonstrated that Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus encodes a conserved protein, ORF57, which recruits essential cellular mRNA export proteins onto the viral intronless mRNAs to form an export competent viral ribonucleoprotein particle. Specifically, we have shown that ORF57 interacts directly with the cellular export adaptor protein, Aly, to recruit other cellular mRNA export proteins. Surprisingly however, depletion of Aly has a limited effect on both cellular and viral mRNA nuclear export levels, suggesting a degree of redundancy in the export pathways and the existence of other export adaptor proteins. Here we have identified a novel interaction between ORF57 and a second export adaptor protein, UIF. We show for the first time that the ORF57-UIF
Nucleophosmin (NPM) is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein, normally enriched in nucleoli, that performs several activities related to cell growth. NPM mutations are characteristic of a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), where mutant NPM seems to play an oncogenic role. AML-associated NPM mutants exhibit altered subcellular traffic, being aberrantly located in the cytoplasm of leukoblasts. Exacerbated export of AML variants of NPM is mediated by the nuclear export receptor CRM1, and due, in part, to a mutationally acquired novel nuclear export signal (NES). To gain insight on the molecular basis of NPM transport in physiological and pathological conditions, we have evaluated the export efficiency of NPM in cells, and present new data indicating that, in normal conditions, wild type NPM is weakly exported by CRM1. On the other hand, we have found that AML-associated NPM mutants efficiently form complexes with CRM1HA (a mutant CRM1 with higher affinity for NESs), and we have quantitatively ...
During gene expression, RNA export factors are mainly known for driving nucleo-cytoplasmic transport. While early studies suggested that the exon junction complex (EJC) provides a binding platform for them, subsequent work proposed that they are only recruited by the cap binding complex to the 5 end of RNAs, as part of TREX. Using iCLIP, we show that the export receptor Nxf1 and two TREX subunits, Alyref and Chtop, are recruited to the whole mRNA co-transcriptionally via splicing but before 3 end processing. Consequently, Alyref alters splicing decisions and Chtop regulates alternative polyadenylation. Alyref is recruited to the 5 end of RNAs by CBC, and our data reveal subsequent binding to RNAs near EJCs. We demonstrate that eIF4A3 stimulates Alyref deposition not only on spliced RNAs close to EJC sites but also on single-exon transcripts. Our study reveals mechanistic insights into the co-transcriptional recruitment of mRNA export factors and how this shapes the human transcriptome.
It is an interesting phenomenon that a significant number of signaling molecules including p65 NF-κB, IκBα, Smad proteins and many others contain both nuclear localization and nuclear export sequences that counteract each other (Arenzana-Seisdedos et al., 1997; Gama-Carvalho and Carmo-Fonseca, 2001; Harhaj and Sun, 1999; Huang et al., 2000; Johnson et al., 1999; Reguly and Wrana, 2003). Signaling molecules such as transcription factors, which have roles both in the nucleus and in the cytosol, clearly require nuclear import and nuclear export mechanisms. However, more and more proteins without an obvious nuclear function are being found to shuttle between cytosol and nucleus (Gama-Carvalho and Carmo-Fonseca, 2001). Most of these proteins contain both NLS and NES domains, raising the question of how these opposing localization mechanisms are balanced and dynamically regulated. Several possibilities appear significant for regulating the equilibrium between counteracting localization signals. ...
Our results define a bipartite NLS that is integrated within the DNA-recognition region of IRF3. We mapped the NLS of IRF3 to aa 64-130, partially overlapping with the DBD. Basic amino acids KR77/78 and RK86/87 are required for efficient nuclear import of IRF3. Significantly, we demonstrate that the NLS of IRF3 also plays an important role in the DNA-binding activity.. The IRF family contains nine mammalian members (IRF1, IRF2, IRF3, IRF4, IRF5, IRF6, IRF7, IRF8, and IRF9), which are most conserved in their DBD. IRF1 and IRF2, which are closely related to each other, contain a conserved NLS located immediately C-terminal to the DBD, involving aa 120-138 (33). IRF4, IRF8, and IRF9 are highly conserved with each other and use the homologous NLS (aa 66-85) to direct their accumulation in the nucleus (34). Interestingly, IRF5 contains two monopartite consensus NLSs, a N-terminal NLS and a C-terminal NLS (35). Our study, together with previous reports, demonstrated that the NLSs of IRFs are generally ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nuclear import and export signals are essential for proper cellular trafficking and function of ZIC3. AU - Bedard, James E J. AU - Purnell, Jennifer D.. AU - Ware, Stephanie. PY - 2007/1/15. Y1 - 2007/1/15. N2 - Missense, frameshift and nonsense mutations in the zinc finger transcription factor ZIC3 cause heterotaxy as well as isolated congenital heart disease. Previously, we developed transactivation and subcellular localization assays to test the function of ZIC3 point mutations. Aberrant cytoplasmic localization suggested that the pathogenesis of ZIC3 mutations results, at least in part, from failure of appropriate cellular trafficking. To further investigate this hypothesis, the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling properties of ZIC3 have been examined. Subcellular localization assays designed to span the entire open-reading frame of wild-type and mutant ZIC3 proteins identified the presence of nucleocytoplasmic transport signals. ZIC3 domain mapping indicates that a relatively large ...
Combining with a nuclear export signal (NES) to mediate transport of the NES-containing protein through the nuclear pore to the cytoplasm.
In eukaryotic cells, pre-mRNAs undergo extensive processing in the nucleus prior to export. Processing is subject to a quality-control mechanism that retains improperly processed transcripts at or near sites of transcription. A poly(A) tail added by the normal 3′-processing machinery is necessary but not sufficient for export. Retention depends on the exosome. In this study, we identify the poly(A)-binding protein, Pab1, and the poly(A) nuclease, PAN, as important factors that couple 3′ processing to export. Pab1 contains a nonessential leucine-rich nuclear export signal and shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. It can exit the nucleus either as cargo of exportin 1 or bound to mRNA. Pab1 is essential but several bypass suppressors have been identified. Deletion of PAB1 from these bypass suppressor strains results in exosome-dependent retention at sites of transcription. Retention is also seen in cells lacking PAN, which Pab1 is thought to recruit and which may be responsible for ...
Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and MAPK kinases (MEKs) leads to their translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Once the transduced signal has abated, the kinases shuttle back to the cytoplasm. However, MAPKs do not appear to have nuclear export signal (NES) motifs coded within their amino acid sequences. Adachi et al. resolve this enigma by showing that MAPK binds to MEK in the nucleus, and both utilize the NES motif found on MEK to relocalize to the cytoplasm. The nuclear export of MAPK was blocked by the specific NES inhibitor leptomycin B. Also, when injected into the nucleus, MAPK relocalized to the cytoplasm with coinjected MEK, but not with a MEK mutant in which the NES was disrupted. Finally, nuclear injection of a protein fragment that includes the MAPK-binding site on MEK decreased MAPK export. Thus, transport of MAPK from the nucleus to the cytoplasm appears to require association of MAPK with MEK.. Adachi, M., Fukuda, M., and Nishida, E. (2000) Nuclear ...
Pakistan Exports Stats, NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Pakistan/Economy/Exports. Pakistan Exports Stats, NationMaster. 2009-2013. ,http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Pakistan/Economy/Exports,.. Pakistan Exports Stats, NationMaster, ,http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Pakistan/Economy/Exports, [assessed 2009-2013]. Pakistan Exports Stats, NationMaster [Internet]. 2009-2013. Avaliable from: ,http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Pakistan/Economy/Exports,.. Pakistan Exports Stats, NationMaster. Avaliable at: nationmaster.com. Assessed 2009-2013.. Pakistan Exports Stats, NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Pakistan/Economy/Exports (assessed 2009-2013). Pakistan Exports Stats, NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Pakistan/Economy/Exports (last visited 2009-2013). Pakistan Exports Stats, NationMaster, ...
Required for pre-mRNA splicing. Can also modulate alternative splicing in vitro. Represses the splicing of MAPT/Tau exon 10. May function as export adapter involved in mRNA nuclear export such as of histone H2A. Binds mRNA which is thought to be transferred to the NXF1-NXT1 heterodimer for export (TAP/NXF1 pathway); enhances NXF1-NXT1 RNA-binding activity. RNA-binding is semi-sequence specific.
View Notes - BIO 320 Lecture10slides_2009 from BIO 50160 at University of Texas. BIO320 - Lecture 10 02/19/2009 NUCLEAR TRANSPORT Optional Reading on Blackboard Science (2006) 314: 766-767 The
Analysis of TNF-α-induced p65 nuclear entry, phosphorylation (Ser 536), promoter activity and IκBα degradation during DMF treatment. a Nuclear p65 translocat
According to Statistics Netherlands, the volume of exports of goods was 6.4 percent up in September 2014 from September 2013. In the preceding month, exports grew by more than 1 percent. Higher exports of Dutch products and higher re-exports contributed to the growth.
Types of Export   The Service offers data export of three types: as general statistics link Download statistics in  section
Types of Export   The Service offers data export of three types: as general statistics link Download statistics in  section
View and download the latest detailed of HS code 32050000 Export data with product, price, date, quantity, major Indian export ports, exporting countries.
Studies of maser sources with the aid of ultralong-baseline radiointerferometry, Kogan L.R., Matveenko L.I., Moiseev I.G., Sorochenko R.L. Export as Medline
Qatar s trade surplus as a proportion of GDP is forecast to continue to decline in the coming years. The government is looking to reverse this trend with a stronger focus on non-oil exports and bilateral trade
China Triacetonediamine Monthly Export Monitoring The analysis is based on the original complete China Customs transaction records, we conduct a series of research& analysis to locate the target...
Akoumianaki T, Kardassis D, Polioudaki H, Georgatos SD, Theodoropoulos PA. (2009) Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of soluble tubulin in mammalian cells. J...
Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria 증후군을 유발하는 SLC25A15 유전자의 새로운 변이 - HHH syndrome;Urea cycle disorders;SLC25A15;Genetics
Recent studies have established that glucose deprivation causes inhibition of the nuclear tRNA export process in S. cerevisiae (30, 46). While the mechanism responsible for regulating nuclear tRNA export in response to the glucose level is not understood, findings from this study strongly suggest that it is most likely due to the function of the nuclear tRNA export receptors and the intranuclear tRNA chaperone Utp8p being controlled by glucose availability (Fig. 4). How the glucose level influences Utp8p function in nuclear tRNA export is not known, but evidence obtained suggests that the ability of the tRNA export receptors to function in nuclear tRNA export in response to glucose availability is most likely related to regulation of nuclear reimport of the tRNA export receptors after a round of tRNA export to the cytoplasm (Fig. 3). This conclusion is in accordance with previous studies showing cytoplasmic accumulation of several nuclear export receptors, including the nuclear tRNA export ...
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are ∼100 MDa transport channels assembled from multiple copies of ∼30 nucleoporins (Nups). One-third of these Nups contain phenylalanine-glycine (FG)-rich repeats, forming a diffusion barrier, which is selectively permeable for nuclear transport receptors that interact with these repeats. Here, we identify an additional function of FG repeats in the structure and biogenesis of the yeast NPC. We demonstrate that GLFG-containing FG repeats directly bind to multiple scaffold Nups in vitro and act as NPC-targeting determinants in vivo. Furthermore, we show that the GLFG repeats of Nup116 function in a redundant manner with Nup188, a nonessential scaffold Nup, to stabilize critical interactions within the NPC scaffold needed for late steps of NPC assembly. Our results reveal a previously unanticipated structural role for natively unfolded GLFG repeats as Velcro to link NPC subcomplexes and thus add a new layer of connections to current models of the NPC architecture. ...
A phosphoprotein adapter involved in the XPO1-mediated U snRNA export from the nucleus. Bridge components required for U snRNA export, the cap binding complex (CBC)-bound snRNA on the one hand and the GTPase Ran in its active GTP-bound form together with the export receptor XPO1 on the other. Its phosphorylation in the nucleus is required for U snRNA export complex assembly and export, while its dephosphorylation in the cytoplasm causes export complex disassembly. It is recycled back to the nucleus via the importin alpha/beta heterodimeric import receptor. The directionality of nuclear export is thought to be conferred by an asymmetric distribution of the GTP- and GDP-bound forms of Ran between the cytoplasm and nucleus. Its compartmentalized phosphorylation cycle may also contribute to the directionality of export. Binds strongly to m7G-capped U1 and U5 small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) in a sequence-unspecific manner and phosphorylation-independent manner (By similarity). Plays also a role in the biogenesis
The RS1 protein (gene RSC1A1) participates in regulation of Na+-D-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 and some other solute carriers. In subconfluent LLC-PK1 cells, RS1 inhibits release of SGLT1 from the trans-Golgi network and transcription of SGLT1. In subconfluent cells, RS1 is localized in the nucleus and the cytoplasm whereas confluent cells contain predominantly cytoplasmic RS1. In the present study, the mechanism and regulation of confluence-dependent nuclear location of RS1 was investigated. Confluence dependent nuclear location of RS1 was shown to be regulated by the cell cycle. A nuclear shuttling signal (NS) in pRS1 was identified that ensures confluence-dependent distribution of pRS1 and comprises nuclear localization signal (NLS) and nuclear export signal (NES). The NLS and NES of RS1 mediate translocation into and out of the nucleus via importin ß1 and CRM1, respectively, and the nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution of the RS1 protein is determined by the nuclear export activity. The adjacent ...
We have characterized the nuclear localization signal (NLS) of XRCC1 structurally using X-ray crystallography and functionally using fluorescence imaging. Crystallography and binding studies confirm the bipartite nature of the XRCC1 NLS interaction with Importin α (Impα) in which the major and minor binding motifs are separated by ,20 residues, and resolve previous inconsistent determinations. Binding studies of peptides corresponding to the bipartite NLS, as well as its major and minor binding motifs, to both wild-type and mutated forms of Impα reveal pronounced cooperative binding behavior that is generated by the proximity effect of the tethered major and minor motifs of the NLS. The cooperativity stems from the increased local concentration of the second motif near its cognate binding site that is a consequence of the stepwise binding behavior of the bipartite NLS. We predict that the stepwise dissociation of the NLS from Impα facilitates unloading by providing a partially complexed ...
In this study, we used multiple functional assays to characterize NXT1, a protein that we identified based on its sequence relatedness to NTF2. The similarities of NXT1 and NTF2 include their amino acid identity (26% within a species), low molecular sizes (NTF2, 127 amino acids; NXT1, 140 amino acids), acidic isoelectric points (NTF2, 5.1; NXT1, 5.0), steady-state nuclear localization (45), interaction with the NPC (6, 31, 36), and direct binding to Ran (31, 34). However, NXT1 and NTF2 also have distinct properties that provide insights into their respective functions. NTF2 binds to Ran-GDP and mediates its import into the nucleus (38, 43,45), thereby functioning as a nuclear import factor. In contrast, NXT1 binds to Ran-GTP. The precise function of this interaction is unknown, but it clearly suggests a role in nuclear export. Indeed, using a permeabilized cell assay (16), we have shown here that NXT1 stimulates nuclear export of PKI. The logical interpretation of this result is that NXT1 ...
Nuclear factor B (NF-B) represents a family group of dimeric DNA binding proteins, the pleotropic type of which really is a heterodimer made up of RelA and p50 subunits. of heterologous protein. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic distribution of RelA can be delicate to a nuclear export inhibitor, leptomycin B, recommending that RelA Bortezomib cost goes through constant nuclear export. Oddly enough, manifestation of p50 prevents the cytoplasmic manifestation of RelA, resulting in the nuclear build up of both RelA and p50. Collectively, these results claim that the nuclear and cytoplasmic shuttling of RelA can be controlled by both an intrinsic NES-like series as well as the p50 subunit of NF-B. Nuclear element B (NF-B) signifies a family group of eukaryotic transcription elements taking part in the rules of Bortezomib cost various mobile genes mixed up in immediate early procedures of immune system, acute-phase, and inflammatory reactions aswell as Bortezomib cost genes involved with cell success (for ...
Although several SR proteins were reported to shuttle poorly in HeLa cells (Cáceres et al., 1998; Lin et al., 2005; Sapra et al., 2009), we have recently shown that all SR proteins act as NXF1 adapters in pluripotent P19 cells (Müller-McNicoll et al., 2016). To investigate this discrepancy, we developed a quantitative shuttling assay to measure the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of seven canonical family members. Key technical advances were the use of stable clonal cell lines expressing similar and near-endogenous levels of GFP-tagged proteins (donor) and a membrane-bound marker protein (recipient). Quantification of total nuclear fluorescence in a large number of donor and recipient cells allowed for the first time the determination of mean shuttling capacities of individual SR proteins. We could show that all seven SR proteins shuttle in P19 cells; however, they shuttle to different extents, suggesting a differential participation in nuclear export and retention of mRNAs. SR proteins were ...
Efficient Nuclear Delivery of Antisense Oligonucleotides or siRNA In Vitro and In Vivo by Nano-Transforming Polymersomes - diagram, schematic, and image 02 ...
In higher eukaryotes, messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm via factors deposited near the 5 end of the transcript during splicing. The signal sequence coding region (SSCR) can support an alternative mRNA export (ALREX) pathway that does not require splicing. However …
Protein crystallization is an attractive method for protein processing and formulation. Anti-idiotype RNAs that mimic the leucine-rich nuclear export signal and specifically bind to CRM1/exportin 1. A questionnaire eliciting responses on characteristics, post-exposure practices, and impacts was sent to 2500 operating ...
Azar WJ, Zivkovic S, Werther GA, Russo VC. IGFBP-2 nuclear translocation is mediated by a functional NLS sequence and is essential for its pro-tumorigenic actions in cancer cells. Oncogene (2013) PubMed ...
Tertiary folding of the Rev-response element (RRE) in HIV RNA ensures the rapid formation of the Rev-RRE viral ribonucleoprotein particle via a two-step process.
The nuclear translocation of ERKs is normally regulated by the phosphorylation status of MEK1 (Whitmarsh and Davis, 1999). MEK1 binds to ERKs and prevents nuclear translocation of ERKs by its nucleus export signal. Phosphorylation of MEK1 leads to the activation of ERKs and the dissociation of MEK1-ERK complexes, which results in the subsequent nuclear translocation of activated ERKs. In several Gq-coupled GPCR systems, the G protein-dependent pathway activates ERKs through PKC, and the activated ERKs translocate into the nucleus, whereas the β-arrestin functions as a scaffold for both MEK1 and ERKs, thereby preventing the nuclear translocation of β-arrestin-activated ERKs (Tohgo et al., 2002; Shenoy and Lefkowitz, 2005). In addition, the prevention of the nuclear translocation of β-arrestin-activated ERKs is related to the interaction between receptor and β-arrestin. With the reduction in receptor-β-arrestin interaction allowing the recycling of the internalized receptor, a certain amount ...
Export Data And Price Of Protein , www.eximpulse.com Eximpulse Services is the place where you can find the recent and updated Trade intelligence report of Protein Export Data. Whole information is based on updated Export shipment data of Indian Customs. All the compilation is done on the basis of All India ports data and has been done on daily basis. This helps you to get all India Protein Export data. You can find previous two days Protein Export data on Eximpulse Services. Protein Export data can be useful in different kind of analysis such as: Export price, Quantity, market scenarios, Price trends, Duty optimization and many more. Some Sample Shipment records for Protein Export Data of India are mentioned above. Further for Free sample and pricing of detailed reports contact on [email protected] Data post 2012 as per Notification No.18/2012 - Customs(N.T.) and does not have names of Indian companies and Foreign Companies.. ...
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Export Data And Price Of Cytokine , www.eximpulse.com Eximpulse Services is the place where you can find the recent and updated Trade intelligence report of Cytokine Export Data. Whole information is based on updated Export shipment data of Indian Customs. All the compilation is done on the basis of All India ports data and has been done on daily basis. This helps you to get all India Cytokine Export data. You can find previous two days Cytokine Export data on Eximpulse Services. Cytokine Export data can be useful in different kind of analysis such as: Export price, Quantity, market scenarios, Price trends, Duty optimization and many more. Some Sample Shipment records for Cytokine Export Data of India are mentioned above. Further for Free sample and pricing of detailed reports contact on [email protected] Data post 2012 as per Notification No.18/2012 - Customs(N.T.) and does not have names of Indian companies and Foreign Companies.. ...
I am looking for NLS for lac-Z gene. I believe the NLS is now available commercially, but I have looked up some common suppliers with no success. I would appreciate if anyone can help me out with this. Or if knows of any source where I can get hold of NLS-LacZ plasmid. Thanks Obaid Khan ...
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Exports of Electrical Machinery & Apparatus Nes in Singapore increased to 699.96 SGD Million in June from 588.71 SGD Million in May of 2020. Exports of Electrical Machinery & Apparatus Nes in Singapore averaged 632.02 SGD Million from 1999 until 2020, reaching an all time high of 960.38 SGD Million in March of 2017 and a record low of 249.09 SGD Million in February of 1999. This page includes a chart with historical data for Singapore Exports of Electrical Machinery & Apparatus Nes.
Synonyms for cell nucleus in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for cell nucleus. 2 synonyms for cell nucleus: karyon, nucleus. What are synonyms for cell nucleus?
Group Leader Nucleocytoplasmic Transport Lab Institute for Molecular Biology & Tumor Research (IMT) Department of Molecular Tumor Biology & Cancer Gene Therapy Philipps-University Marburg, ...
The purpose of this research study is to find out more information relating to the highest dose of KCP-330 that can be given safely and side effects it may cause, to examine how the body affects KCP-330 concentrations in the blood (pharmacokinetics or PK), to examine the effects of KCP-330 on the body (pharmacodynamics or PDn) and to obtain information on its effectiveness in treating cancer ...
export LESS=-R export LESS_TERMCAP_me=$(printf \e[0m) export LESS_TERMCAP_se=$(printf \e[0m) export LESS_TERMCAP_ue=$(printf \e[0m) export LESS_TERMCAP_mb=$(printf \e[1;32m) export LESS_TERMCAP_md=$(printf \e[1;34m) export LESS_TERMCAP_us=$(printf \e[1;32m) export LESS_TERMCAP_so=$(printf \e[1;44;1m ...
Get Orbit Exports latest Consolidated Quarterly Results, Financial Statements and Orbit Exports detailed profit and loss accounts.
Exports to Cameroon in the United States decreased to 7.85 USD Million in January from 8.96 USD Million in December of 2016. Exports to Cameroon in the United States averaged 10.23 USD Million from 1988 until 2017, reaching an all time high of 110.10 USD Million in January of 2001 and a record low of 0.80 USD Million in January of 1990. This page includes a chart with historical data for the United States Exports to Cameroon.
Kit Component:- KN211049G1, IPO4 gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN211049G2, IPO4 gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN211049D, donor vector…
Insulin (Ins) and various other hormones and growth factors have been shown to be rapidly internalized and translocated to the cell nucleus. This review summarizes the mechanisms that are involved in
2003, Efficient active transport of gene nanocarriers to the cell nucleus, in: PNAS. Vol. 100, nº 7; 3878-3882. 2002, ... Tight coupling between nucleus and cell migration through the perinuclear actin cap, in: Journal of Cell Science. Vol. 127; ... The distinct roles of the nucleus and nucleus-cytoskeleton connections in three-dimensional cell migration, in: Scientific ... Cell and Nuclear Mechanics Wirtz developed novel tools and concepts to study the role of nucleus and nuclear connections to the ...
Additionally it has been proposed that the directed transport of active signaling complexes to the nucleus might be required to ... "Cell. 166 (4): 907-919. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.07.004. PMC 5418658. PMID 27499021.. ... To achieve internalisation of nanoparticles into cells, such as T cells, antibodies can be used to target the nanoparticles to ... receptor-mediated endocytosis is also actively implicated in transducing signals from the cell periphery to the nucleus. This ...
"Chromosomal proteins HMG-14 and HMG-17 are released from mitotic chromosomes and imported into the nucleus by active transport ... 2002). "A fragment of the HMGN2 protein homes to the nuclei of tumor cells and tumor endothelial cells in vivo". Proc. Natl. ... Cell. Biol. 19 (5): 3466-73. doi:10.1128/MCB.19.5.3466. PMC 84139. PMID 10207070. Kazmierczak B, Dal Cin P, Rogalla P, et al. ( ... Cell. Biol. 21 (15): 5169-78. doi:10.1128/MCB.21.15.5169-5178.2001. PMC 87241. PMID 11438671. Porkka K, Laakkonen P, Hoffman JA ...
The two main pathways are passive transport and active transport. Passive transport is more direct and does not require the use ... Their mechanisms are simpler than later-evolved eukaryotes, which contain a nucleus that envelops the cell's DNA and some ... Endocytosis is a form of active transport where a cell takes in molecules, using the plasma membrane, and packages them into ... Active transport uses adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to transport a substance that moves against its concentration gradient.[page ...
... active transport) from the cytoplasm into the cell nucleus, and binding to specific sequences of DNA known as hormone response ... or nucleus (type II NR) of the cell. Binding causes a conformational change in the receptor which, depending on the class of ... which causes a change in cell function. Type II receptors, in contrast to type I, are retained in the nucleus regardless of the ... In the field of molecular biology, nuclear receptors are a class of proteins found within cells that are responsible for ...
... protein transport MeSH G06.535.166.700.100 - active transport, cell nucleus MeSH G06.535.166.775 - respiratory transport MeSH ... biological transport, active MeSH G06.535.166.310.100 - active transport, cell nucleus MeSH G06.535.166.310.657 - membrane ... axonal transport MeSH G06.535.166.500 - ion transport MeSH G06.535.166.500.100 - calcium signaling MeSH G06.535.166.700 - ... electron transport MeSH G06.535.335.531.587 - lipid peroxidation MeSH G06.535.335.631 - oxidative phosphorylation MeSH G06.535. ...
"Chromosomal proteins HMG-14 and HMG-17 are released from mitotic chromosomes and imported into the nucleus by active transport ... DNA and Cell Biology. 14 (12): 997-1005. doi:10.1089/dna.1995.14.997. PMID 8534374. Hock R, Scheer U, Bustin M (Dec 1998). " ... Leffak M, Trempe JP (Jul 1985). "Histone H1 and HMG 14/17 are deposited nonrandomly in the nucleus". Nucleic Acids Research. 13 ... "Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ...
The transport of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells is mediated by the nuclear pore complex ( ... larger molecules are transported by an active process. Most nuclear proteins contain short basic amino acid sequences known as ... "p17 and p17-containing gag precursors of input human immunodeficiency virus are transported into the nuclei of infected cells ... 1992). "Active nuclear import of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 preintegration complexes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ...
... s can be neutral or charged, and particle transport can be active or passive. The latter can be facilitated by pressure ... which cover a cell nucleus; and tissue membranes, such as mucosae and serosae. Synthetic membranes are made by humans for use ... Biological membranes include cell membranes (outer coverings of cells or organelles that allow passage of certain constituents ... Metaphysical numerical models have been introduced in order to optimize transport phenomena Membrane alteration. Recent efforts ...
... s exit their cell of origin via exocytosis or another means of membrane transport. The hierarchical model is an ... To release active hormones quickly into the circulation, hormone biosynthetic cells may produce and store biologically inactive ... The combined hormone-receptor complex then moves across the nuclear membrane into the nucleus of the cell, where it binds to ... Hormones affect distant cells by binding to specific receptor proteins in the target cell, resulting in a change in cell ...
The products of the cell are mostly for transport into the osteoid, the non-mineralized matrix. Active osteoblasts can be ... The osteoblast's nucleus is spherical and large. An active osteoblast is characterized morphologically by a prominent Golgi ... Bone is a highly vascular tissue, and active formation of blood vessel cells, also from mesenchymal stem cells, is essential to ... Individual cells cannot make bone. A group of organized osteoblasts together with the bone made by a unit of cells is usually ...
exocytosis A form of active transport and bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules out of the cell by expelling them ... cell nucleus The "control room" for the cell. The nucleus gives out all the orders. cell plate Grown in the cell's center, it ... endocytosis A form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules such as proteins into the cell's interior by ... active transport Transport of a substance (such as a protein or drug) across a cell membrane against a concentration gradient. ...
The nucleus of the dark cell is displaced toward the surface. Vestibular dark cells transport potassium ions into the inner ear ... Dark cell regions of the vestibular system are involved in active (energy consuming) ion transport to maintain the unusual ... which transports all three ions into the cell. The transport of sodium ions into the cell enhances the effect of the Na+/K+- ... dark cells utilize the Na+/K+-ATPase pump in order to transport potassium. The basolateral membranes of vestibular dark cells ...
... is thought to penetrate cell membranes in its ionised form by either passive diffusion or carrier-mediated active transport. ... This allows the drug to remain intact, facilitating its entry into the cell's nucleus to effectively exert its anticancer ... Phenanthriplatin has been reported to have increased selectivity to cancerous cells compared to healthy cells, thereby reducing ... residing primarily in the cell's nucleus. The ultimate target of the drug is nuclear DNA. Phenanthriplatin forms monofunctional ...
... which require active transport via specific membrane transport proteins to enter cells. The ERs are nuclear receptors that are ... mostly present in the cell nucleus. Upon binding of estradiol to an ER, the receptor dimerizes (combines) with another ... As a result, it readily enters cells via simple passive diffusion through the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane. This is in ... ERα is relatively stable in the cell with a half-life of up to 5 days, however once bound to ligand this time shortens to 3-4 ...
The cells can no longer regulate salt and water concentrations resulting in the symptoms typical of the disease. Additional ... Channels perform passive transport of materials also known as facilitated diffusion. Transporters can carry out either passive ... Transmembrane channels are also found in the membranes of organelles including the nucleus, the endoplasmic reticulum, the ... or active transfer of materials while pumps require energy to act. There are several modes by which membrane channels operate. ...
In turn, transferrin transports Cr3+ to insulin sensitive cells (i.e. adipocytes) where it binds to apochromodulin to form ... The apochromodulin is stored in insulin sensitive cells in the nucleus. When blood glucose levels rise, insulin is released ... Another way that Cr(III) may prolong the insulin receptor's kinase activity is through the oxidation of a critical active site ... This activates the receptor and allows it to transmit the signal from insulin to the cell. As mentioned above, absorbed ...
... active genes from the periphery of the nucleus to the nucleoplasmic region has also been observed in human cell lines. The ... "Dynamics of single mRNP nucleocytoplasmic transport and export through the nuclear pore in living cells". Nature Cell Biology. ... Nup98 seems to be responsible for the transport of many RNAs from the center of the nucleus to the nuclear lamina. Nup98 ... RNAi knockdown of Nup210 prevents myogenesis in mouse stem cells, but has no effect on nuclear transport, though it has been ...
Evidence suggests that the altered protein is not transported into the cell nucleus, where it normally interacts with DNA. This ... WRN is active in homologous recombination. Cells defective in the WRN gene have a 23-fold reduction in spontaneous mitotic ... WRN defective cells, when exposed to x-rays, have more chromosome breaks and micronuclei than cells with wild-type WRN. Cells ... Without normal Werner protein in the nucleus, cells cannot perform the tasks of DNA replication, repair, and transcription. ...
A direct mechanism of action involves homodimerization of the receptor, translocation via active transport into the nucleus, ... 2006). "Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr-regulated cell death: insights into mechanism". Cell Death Differ. 12 ( ... and proto-oncogenes in normal human osteoblast-like cells". J. Cell. Biochem. 50 (4): 411-24. doi:10.1002/jcb.240500410. PMID ... Cell. Biol. 21 (3): 781-93. doi:10.1128/MCB.21.3.781-793.2001. PMC 86670. PMID 11154266. Tazawa H, Osman W, Shoji Y, Treuter E ...
The soma is usually about 10-25 micrometers in diameter and often is not much larger than the cell nucleus it contains. The ... involved in protein synthesis and their prominence can be explained by the fact that nerve cells are very metabolically active ... include ion channels that permit electrically charged ions to flow across the membrane and ion pumps that chemically transport ... researchers have converted connective tissue cells found in skin into heart cells, blood cells, and liver cells. Wang Z, Tang B ...
The ion transport system moves potassium across the cell membrane using two mechanisms. One is active and pumps sodium out of, ... It is mediated by a circadian oscillator in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the brain (central clock), which causes the kidney ( ... Kernan, Roderick P. (1980). Cell potassium (Transport in the life sciences). New York: Wiley. pp. 40, 48. ISBN 978-0-471-04806- ... This ion pump uses ATP to pump three sodium ions out of the cell and two potassium ions into the cell, creating an ...
Bulk transport Endocytosis - It is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the ... Cell nucleus - A membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. It contains most of the cell's genetic material, ... Exocytosis - It is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) out of the cell by ... Meristemic cell - Undifferentiated plants cells analogous to animal stem cells. Stem cell - Undifferentiated cells found in ...
Russell bodies clump together in large numbers displacing the cell nucleus to the edge, and the cell is then called a Mott cell ... This often has fatal effects, especially if the intent of cloning is to produce a biologically active protein. For example, ... eukaryotic systems for carbohydrate modification and membrane transport are not found in prokaryotes. The internal ... Polychromatophilic red cells - young red cells that no longer have nucleus but still contain some RNA. Cabot rings - ring-like ...
Subsequently, the generated DNA is translocated into the nucleus of the host cell where it is integrated in its genome by the ... It is similar in many ways to lamivudine and is active against both HIV-1 and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Carbocyclic analogues of ... reverse-transcriptase inhibitors is primarily dependent on cellular entry by passive diffusion or carrier-mediated transport. ... This drug is the only approved antiretroviral that is active as a guanosine analogue in vivo. First it is monophosphorylated by ...
The localization of GEFs can determine where in the cell a particular GTPase will be active. For example, the Ran GEF, RCC1, is ... and nuclear transport. GTPases are active when bound to GTP and inactive when bound to GDP, allowing their activity to be ... It localizes to the nucleus and catalyzes the activation of Ran to allow nuclear export of proteins. Ras-GRF1 Kalirin PLEKHG2 ... The most well-known GTPases comprise the Ras superfamily and are involved in essential cell processes such as cell ...
... V is involved in the transport of cargo (e.g. RNA, vesicles, organelles, mitochondria) from the center of the cell to ... Known functions include: transporting phagosomes to the nucleus and perturbing the developmentally regulated elimination of the ... Note that not all of these genes are active. Class I: MYO1A, MYO1B, MYO1C, MYO1D, MYO1E, MYO1F, MYO1G, MYO1H Class II: MYH1, ... Myosin VI is thought to transport endocytic vesicles into the cell. Myosin VII is an unconventional myosin with two FERM ...
Similar active transport, and accumulation processes likely occur in human brain and may concentrate DMT in brain by several- ... subthalamic nucleus, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, amygdala, substantia nigra, and corpus callosum). Immunohistochemistry ... It is assumed that more than half of the amount of DMT produced by the acidophilic cells of the pineal gland is secreted before ... However, several studies have described active transport and accumulation of DMT into rat and dog brain following peripheral ...
DL1 is expressed only in the nucleus of plant cells, which indicates that both reactions take place inside the nucleus. Before ... The duplex is then transported out of the nucleus to the cytoplasm by a protein called Hasty (HST), an Exportin 5 homolog, ... The mature miRNA is part of an active RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) containing Dicer and many associated proteins. RISC ... and cell cycle in mice lacking miRNA-1-2". Cell. 129 (2): 303-17. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.03.030. PMID 17397913. Thum T, ...
About 95% of bile acids are reabsorbed by active transport in the ileum and recycled back to the liver for further secretion ... Cell signallingEdit. Bile acids have metabolic actions in the body resembling those of hormones, acting through two specific ... The rate-limiting step in synthesis is the addition of a hydroxyl group of the 7th position of the steroid nucleus by the ... Bile acid synthesis occurs in liver cells, which synthesize primary bile acids (cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid in humans ...
The cells met to read Marxist texts and hold self-criticism sessions.[51] Sâr joined a cell that met on the rue Lacepède; his ... forming the nucleus of a future Cambodian regime.[325] The Cambodian government also readied itself for war. Plans for a ... the Khmer Rouge claimed it had 40,000 troops active in Cambodia.[365] From 1981, Pol Pot's main goal was to attract popular ... Private motor transport was requisitioned.[176] Cooperative stores selling goods like medicines, cloth, and kerosene were ...
Films in annular ring mounts on gas-tight cells, will readily deform into spherical mirrors. Photomultiplier cosmic-ray ... 6 psi). Another important consequence of the molecular orientation is that it induces the formation of many crystal nuclei. The ... Route information signs, called rollsigns or destination blinds, displayed by public transport vehicles ... detector ring and the patient allowing negligible attenuation of the xray beam when active. ...
Because the cell acquiring a chloroplast already had mitochondria (and peroxisomes, and a cell membrane for secretion), the new ... In land plants, some 11-14% of the DNA in their nuclei can be traced back to the chloroplast,[32] up to 18% in Arabidopsis, ... 4.2 Phosphorylation, chaperones, and transport. *4.3 The translocon on the outer chloroplast membrane (TOC) *4.3.1 Toc34 and 33 ... This is important because it prevents chloroplast proteins from assuming their active form and carrying out their chloroplast ...
cell nucleus. • kinetochore. • centrosome. • rough endoplasmic reticulum. • dendritic shaft. • aggresome. • cell surface. • ... protein transport. • cerebral cortex cell migration. • positive regulation of proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic ... "Photoactivated gamma-secretase inhibitors directed to the active site covalently label presenilin 1". Nature. 405 (6787): 689- ... cell cortex. • integral component of membrane. • azurophil granule membrane. • Z disc. • neuronal cell body. • perinuclear ...
ACTH is transported by the blood to the adrenal cortex of the adrenal gland, where it rapidly stimulates biosynthesis of ... The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, which contains neuroendocrine neurons that synthesize and secrete vasopressin ... Serotonin (5HT) appeared to be the active neurotransmitter involved in mediating stress responses, and increases in serotonin ... There, CRH and vasopressin act synergistically to stimulate the secretion of stored ACTH from corticotrope cells. ...
Active transport and Passive transport - Movement of molecules into and out of cells. ... and protozoa cells which all have a nucleus enclosed by a membrane, with various shapes and sizes.[10] Prokaryotic cells, ... Cell movement - Chemotaxis, contraction, cilia and flagella.. *Cell signaling - Regulation of cell behavior by signals from ... Prokaryotic cells are much smaller than eukaryotic cells, making prokaryotic cells the smallest form of life.[11] Cytologists ...
for "their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"[۸۱] ... "for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the ... "for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active ... "for their discovery of جی پروتئینs and the role of these proteins in ورارسانی پیام in cells"[۷۳] ...
cell-cell signaling. • positive regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor signaling pathway. • collateral ... Neurotrophins are proteins that help to stimulate and control neurogenesis, BDNF being one of the most active.[16][17][18] Mice ... Yoshii A, Constantine-Paton M (June 2007). "BDNF induces transport of PSD-95 to dendrites through PI3K-AKT signaling after NMDA ... TrkB inhibition results in a 2-3 fold increase in cortical precursors displaying EGFP-positive condensed apoptotic nuclei and a ...
The cells are different with mitral having low firing-rates and being easily inhibited by neighboring cells, while tufted have ... The anterior olfactory nucleus distributes reciprocal signals between the olfactory bulb and piriform cortex.[23] The anterior ... amyloidogenesis-related diseases and there may even be a causal link through the disruption of multivalent metal ion transport ... 1: Olfactory bulb 2: Mitral cells 3: Bone 4: Nasal epithelium 5: Glomerulus 6: Olfactory receptor cells ...
A form of active transport and bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules out of the cell by expelling them through an ... cell nucleus. The "control room" for the cell. The nucleus gives out all the orders.. cell plate. Grown in the cell's center, ... A form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules such as proteins into the cell's interior by engulfing them in ... See cell biology.. cytoplasm. All of the material within a cell and enclosed by the cell membrane, except for the nucleus. The ...
JNK translocates to the nucleus and activates transcription factors such as c-Jun and ATF2. The JNK pathway is involved in cell ... positive regulation of protein transport. • negative regulation of glucose import. • receptor biosynthetic process. • ... Both the secreted and the membrane bound forms are biologically active, although the specific functions of each is ... positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion. • negative regulation of mitotic cell cycle. • endothelial cell ...
These core proteins and vRNA form a complex that is transported into the cell nucleus, where the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase ... The vaccine is reformulated each season for a few specific flu strains but does not include all the strains active in the world ... "Cell. 136 (3): 402-10. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.01.029. PMC 2971533. PMID 19203576.. ... HA is a lectin that mediates binding of the virus to target cells and entry of the viral genome into the target cell, while NA ...
"for his discovery of the جوہری انشقاق of heavy nuclei"[36] 1945 ارٹوری المری ورٹنن فن لینڈ "for his research and inventions in ... "for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase"[89] ... "for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes [...] for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels"[95] ... "for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active ...
Upon view, the myocardial cells are observed to have large densely packed chromosomes within the nucleus.[69] ... but may be active on moonlit nights. They are most active early and late in the day.[7] The male common ostrich territory is ... "Ostrich Welfare and Transport" (PDF). Ostrich Welfare. Ratite Science Newsletter: 1-4.. ... The red blood cell count per unit volume in the ostrich is about 40% of that of a human; however, the red blood cells of the ...
Chloroplasts, like other types of plastid, contain a genome separate from that in the cell nucleus. The existence of ... Phosphorylation, chaperones, and transport[edit]. After a chloroplast polypeptide is synthesized on a ribosome in the cytosol, ... This is important because it prevents chloroplast proteins from assuming their active form and carrying out their chloroplast ... Because the cell acquiring a chloroplast already had mitochondria (and peroxisomes, and a cell membrane for secretion), the new ...
The threadlike muscle fibers are the individual muscle cells (myocytes), and each cell is encased within its own endomysium of ... Deeper muscles such as those involved in posture often are controlled from nuclei in the brain stem and basal ganglia. ... Approximately 95 percent of the ATP required for resting or moderately active muscles is provided by aerobic respiration, which ... or transported to the liver where it is converted back to pyruvate. In addition to increasing the level of lactic acid, ...
In contrast, eukaryotes make mRNA in the cell nucleus and then translocate it across the nuclear membrane into the cytoplasm, ... Transmembrane proteins can also serve as ligand transport proteins that alter the permeability of the cell membrane to small ... Such changes are often induced by the binding of a substrate molecule to an enzyme's active site, or the physical region of the ... Other proteins are important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, and the cell cycle. In animals, proteins are ...
"for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei"[43] 1945 Artturi Ilmari Virtanen பின்லாந்து "for his research and inventions ... "for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase"[96] ... "for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes […] for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels"[102] ... "for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active ...
Unlike in mammals, the circulating red blood cells in birds retain their nucleus.[81] ... Most birds are diurnal, but some birds, such as many species of owls and nightjars, are nocturnal or crepuscular (active during ... MacLean, Gordon L. (1 June 1983). "Water Transport by Sandgrouse". BioScience. 33 (6): 365-369. JSTOR 1309104. doi:10.2307/ ... Birds have specialised light-sensing cells deep in their brains[permanent dead link] that respond to light without input from ...
This process is typically active when freezing rain occurs. A stationary front is often present near the area of freezing rain ... Like other precipitation, hail forms in storm clouds when supercooled water droplets freeze on contact with condensation nuclei ... Owen E. Thompson (1996). Hadley Circulation Cell. Archived 2009-03-05 at the Wayback Machine Channel Video Productions. ... warmth and moisture are transported upward, condensing into vertically oriented clouds (see satellite picture) which produce ...
... the nucleus is lost in mammalian red blood cells, but not in birds and many other species. Even after the loss of the nucleus ... moʊ-/[1][2][3]); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells ( ... In heavy smokers, up to 20% of the oxygen-active sites can be blocked by CO. ... Presence in nonerythroid cells[edit]. Some nonerythroid cells (i.e., cells other than the red blood cell line) contain ...
Nucleus. Red blood cells in mammals anucleate when mature, meaning that they lack a cell nucleus. In comparison, the red blood ... Red blood cells are cells present in blood in order to transport oxygen. The only known vertebrates without red blood cells are ... Blood is often transfused when there is known anaemia, active bleeding, or when there is an expectation of serious blood loss, ... The difficult step was to induce the cells to eject their nucleus; this was achieved by growing the cells on stromal cells from ...
The "life cycle" of an mRNA in a eukaryotic cell. RNA is transcribed in the nucleus; after processing, it is transported to the ... In this way, translationally inactive messages can be destroyed quickly, while active messages remain intact. The mechanism by ... and they are impermeable to the cell membrane.[39] Once within the cell, they must then leave the cell's transport mechanism to ... "Cell. 146 (4): 645-658. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.06.051. ISSN 0092-8674. PMC 3160626. PMID 21854988.. ...
2 diffuses through membranes in the lungs and into red blood cells. Hemoglobin binds O. 2, changing color from bluish red to ... Oxygen is the chemical element with the symbol O and atomic number 8, meaning its nucleus has 8 protons. The number of neutrons ... For reasons of economy, oxygen is often transported in bulk as a liquid in specially insulated tankers, since one liter of ... and by the immune system as a source of active oxygen.[32] Carotenoids in photosynthetic organisms (and possibly animals) play ...
Cerebellar purjinke cells also reported a 40% downregulation, suggesting that affected cerebellar nuclei may disrupt output to ... It is also believed that GAD67 is present at higher amounts in tonically active neurons.[14] ... "Demonstration of functional coupling between gamma -aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis and vesicular GABA transport into ... The bilateral delivery of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) by an adeno-associated viral vector into the subthalamic nucleus of ...
These interactions between active T cells and myelin antigens provoke a massive destructive inflammatory response and promote ... She was later transported to Mystic Aquarium & Institute for Exploration for lifelong care as an ambassador to the public.[34] ... MRI makes use of the property of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to image nuclei of atoms inside the body. This method is ... Acquired immune system cells called T-cells are known to be present at the site of lesions. Other immune-system cells called ...
Stem cell transplants are a recent research target, because stem cells are easy to manipulate and stem cells transplanted into ... There is little prospect of significant new PD treatments in the near future.[129] Currently active research directions include ... Hirsch EC (December 2009). "Iron transport in Parkinson's disease". Parkinsonism & Related Disorders. 15 Suppl 3 (Suppl 3): ... the globus pallidus or the subthalamic nucleus.[88] Deep brain stimulation is the most commonly used surgical treatment, ...
This information is then transported to the nucleus. Phosphorylation of Jacob does not take place with extrasynaptic NMDA ... Granule cell precursors (GCPs) of the cerebellum, after undergoing symmetric cell division[47] in the external granule-cell ... N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA), which the NMDA receptor was named after, is a partial agonist of the active or glutamate ... ions into the cell and potassium (K+) out of the cell.[5][6][7][8] Ca2+ flux through NMDA receptors in particular is thought to ...
Görlich, Dirk (1999). "Transport between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm". Ann. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. (15): 607-660. doi: ... "Active and inactive genes localize preferentially in the periphery of chromosome territories". The Journal of Cell Biology ... Görlich, Dirk; Kutay, U (1999). "Transport between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm". Ann. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 15 (15): 607- ... ವಿಕಿಮೀಡಿಯ ಕಣಜದಲ್ಲಿ Cell nucleus ವಿಷಯಕ್ಕೆ ಸಂಬಂಧಿಸಿದ ಮಾಧ್ಯಮಗಳಿವೆ .. *cellnucleus.com ಬೀಜಕಣಗಳ ಕಾರ್ಯವೈಖರಿಯ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಮತ್ತು ರಚನೆಗಳ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ...
Subcellular Localization of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Controls Embryonic Stem Cell Self-Renewal Matthew Bechard, Stephen ... of the Serine 307 of LKB1 as a Novel Phosphorylation Site Essential for Its Nucleocytoplasmic Transport and Endothelial Cell ... Transforming Growth Factor β/NR4A1-Inducible Breast Cancer Cell Migration and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition Is p38α ( ...
... are activated by receptors and translocate into the nucleus, where they regulate transcription. Alt … ... proteins regulate cell function, and have key roles in development and carcinogenesis. The intracellular effectors of TGF-beta ... Active Transport, Cell Nucleus * Animals * DNA-Binding Proteins / chemistry * DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism* ... Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) proteins regulate cell function, and have key roles in development and ...
... and infect terminally differentiated non-dividing cells, but how they do this is unclear. The cytoplasmic NPC protein Nup358/ ... Active Transport, Cell Nucleus / physiology * Blotting, Western * Capsid Proteins / metabolism* * Cell Line ... Both groups of CA mutants are impaired in replication in HeLa cells and human monocyte derived macrophages. Our findings link ... Lentiviruses such as HIV-1 traverse nuclear pore complexes (NPC) and infect terminally differentiated non-dividing cells, but ...
Active Transport, Cell Nucleus. *Risk Factors. *Chromosome 1. *Protein Kinases. *DNA Damage ... but not in SUP-B15 cells. Since there was no mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain of BCR-ABL1 in cell line SUP-B15, the cells ... cells undergo apoptosis. CD133+ tumor cells increase cancer stem cell and epithelial-mesenchymal transition properties. ... Following genotoxic stress, cells activate a complex signalling network to arrest the cell cycle and initiate DNA repair or ...
However, a few reports have suggested it may also be present in the nucleus. To explore this in more detail, we used a highly ... Active Transport, Cell Nucleus. Antibody Specificity. Cell Fractionation. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Nucleus / enzymology*. ... Although the vast majority of TS was in the cytoplasm, some TS also was seen in the nucleus. TS in parental HeLa cells and in ... We conclude that small amounts of TS protein is present in the nucleus of some cell types but further work is needed to ...
In normal cells, Apoptin remains in the cytoplasm; whereas in cancerous cells, it migrates into the nucleus and kills the cell ... Active Transport, Cell Nucleus. Amino Acid Sequence. Capsid Proteins / genetics, metabolism*. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Nucleus / ... In normal cells, Apoptin remains in the cytoplasm; whereas in cancerous cells, it migrates into the nucleus and kills the cell ... Apoptin, a small protein encoded by chicken anemia virus (CAV), induces cell death specifically in cancer cells. ...
Chemicals are able to pass both in and out of the cell membrane without the cell expending any energy when... ... Diffusion allows the cell to replenish chemicals needed for cellular metabolic processes. ... This is form of transport is called active transport.. Similar Articles. What Process Divides the Cell Nucleus and Its Contents ... Movement across the cell membrane without the expenditure of energy is known as passive transport. ...
Active Transport, Cell Nucleus Human papillomavirus 11 Humans Karyopherins Membrane Glycoproteins Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins ... Characterization of the transport signals that mediate the nucleocytoplasmic traffic of low risk HPV11 E7. Courtney H McKee, ... Characterization of the transport signals that mediate the nucleocytoplasmic traffic of low risk HPV11 E7. Virology. 2013 Aug ...
Sodium inside the cells binds to the proteins. ... A cell interior and exterior are explained in the video very ... New Cell Model - Cell Membrane & Nucleus. 02:43 , 15313 views Watch VIDEO. 19051 views ... Active Transport Inside a Cell Membrane A cell interior and exterior are explained in the video very clearly. Sodium inside the ... Tags: Cell Membrane Active Transport Uploaded by: RobertHooke ( Send Message ) on 13-11-2010. ...
3D Reconstruction of VZV Infected Cell Nuclei and PML Nuclear Cages‎ (14 F) ... Brefeldin A Inhibition of Intracellular Vesicle Transport.png 591 × 271; 23 KB. ... cell biology (sco); Эсийн биологи (mn); cellebiologi (nn); cytologi (nb); sitologiya (az); cell biology (en); علم الأحياء ... Comparison of single cell methylation sequencing methods in terms of coverage as at 2015.png 823 × 871; 112 KB. ...
MeSH Terms: Active Transport, Cell Nucleus/drug effects; Active Transport, Cell Nucleus/genetics; Animals; Animals, Genetically ...
Source for information on Cell Membranes: Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health dictionary. ... is a thin semifluid structure that separates the contents of a cell or organelle from its surroundings. ... Cell MembranesDefinitionA cell membrane (also known as a plasma membrane) ... Active transport occurs when a substance is moved against its concentration gradient, from a low concentration to a high ...
Cell Cycle. *Mutation. *Active Transport, Cell Nucleus. *Base Sequence. *Cell Movement. *Cell Nucleus ... ion transport, mRNA transport, plasma membrane to endosome transport, potassium ion transport, protein transport, vesicle- ... mediated transport, anion transport, intracellular transport, androgen receptor signaling pathway, cell surface receptor-linked ... natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity directed against tumor cell target, protein ubiquitination, sodium ion transport, ...
Active transport‎ (6 C, 7 F). *. ► Cell adhesion‎ (7 C, 1 119 F) ... 3D Reconstruction of VZV Infected Cell Nuclei and PML Nuclear Cages‎ (8 C, 14 F) ... biología celular (es); frumulíffræði (is); biologi sel (ms); cell biology (en-gb); Клетъчна биология (bg); Cell biology (simple ... cell biology (sco); Эсийн биологи (mn); cellebiologi (nn); cytologi (nb); sitologiya (az); cell biology (en); علم الأحياء ...
Active Transport, Cell Nucleus/genetics. *Cytoplasm/metabolism. *Embryonic Stem Cells/cytology/metabolism ... Here we show at a genome-wide level that the nuclear pore protein NUP98 associates with developmentally regulated genes active ... Here we show at a genome-wide level that the nuclear pore protein NUP98 associates with developmentally regulated genes active ... Affiliation: Salk Institute for Biological Studies, Molecular and Cell Biology Laboratory, La Jolla, California, USA. ...
Active Transport, Cell Nucleus/physiology. *Genes, Reporter. *Guanosine Triphosphate/metabolism. *Immunoblotting. *Microscopy, ... Denning D, Mykytka B, Allen NP, Huang L - J. Cell Biol. (2001) ... Denning D, Mykytka B, Allen NP, Huang L - J. Cell Biol. (2001) ...
... sorting to the nucleus Friday, November 6, 2009 Today: How proteins move through Nuclear proteins ... Ran-GTP in nucleus → cargo unloading; GTP hydrolysis in cytosol drives the active transport cycle • Ran is a regulatory GTPase ... Cell Biology 341 Friday, November 6, 2009 Today: • How proteins move through a translocator to enter the mitochondrion • ... sorting to the nucleus • Nuclear proteins must pass through nuclear pore complexes • nuclear localization signal → nuclear ...
... cell motility, cell survival, and metabolisms of WI-38 cells. The survivability of WI-38 cells, in particular, was ... The analysis results suggested that the regulatory effect of rCFES was at least involved in cell proliferation, ... suggesting that these proteins may play an essential role in the cytotoxic process in the rCFES-treated WI-38 cells. ... on WI-38 cells, an integrative analysis approach, combining time-course microarray data and annotated pathway databases, was ...
1997) Nuclear localization of IkBa promotes active transport of NF-kB from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. J Cell Sci 110:369-378 ... These results led to the suggestion that IκBα can enter the nucleus and remove NF-κB from the DNA by an "active dissociation" ... measurements of IκBα-mediated active dissociation of NF-κB from specific promoters in cells will be required. ... concentration of IκBα in the active dissociation of NF-κB(p50(19-363)/p65(1-325)) (•) or NF-κB(p50(19-363)/p65(1-325)R304A ...
... and metabolically active substances; an otologic therapeutic device includes the same categories of substances and ... Diagnosing or treating a human ear includes transporting a conjugated nanoparticle or a magnetically responsive nanoparticle ... Junghae Suh et al.; Efficient active transport of gene nanocarriers to the cell nucleus; PNAS vol. 100 No. 7 Apr. 1, 2003, pp. ... Treating cells US20020086842A1 (en) 2000-06-26. 2002-07-04. Christian Plank. Method for transfecting cells using a magnetic ...
... condensation/protection and guided intracellular trafficking are necessary for exogenous nucleic acids to function inside cells ... Suh, J.; Wirtz, D.; Hanes, J. Efficient active transport of gene nanocarriers to the cell nucleus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA ... CHO cells: Chinese hamster ovary cell line; SKOV-3 cells: ovarian cancer cell line; PC3 cells: human prostate cancer cell line ... DC 2.4 cells: mouse dendritic cells; HuH7 cells: hepatocyte-derived carcinoma cell line; THP-1: human monocytic cell line; iPS ...
Active Transport, Cell Nucleus. 1. 2013. 85. 0.580. Why? Chromosomes, Mammalian. 1 ...
Cell Nucleolus/*metabolism; Cell Compartmentation; *Active Transport, Cell Nucleus; *RNA-Binding Proteins; *Saccharomyces ...
Cell Cycle Proteins. 1. 2006. 276. 0.020. Why? Active Transport, Cell Nucleus. 1 ...
... material through phloem tissue relies on solute gradients and some active transport that require the activity of living cells. ... Leptoids are elongate cells that have nuclei and living protoplasts and thus closely resemble the most generalized phloem cells ... Xylem cells are dead and empty of cell contents at maturity and essentially form tubes for water transport. However, plants ... Plant Cell and Tissue Types. PARENCHYMA. Parenchyma cells, the progenitor of all other cell types, are composed of thin walled ...
Cell. *Describe the basic structure of the cell: cell membrane, cellular organelles, cytoplasm, and nucleus. Define ... and active transport and vesicular transport (endocytosis and exocytosis).. *Explain the importance of particles (solutes) in ... B cells and T cells: *Compare the sites where B cells and T cells originate and where they mature and achieve immunocompetence ... Prokaryotic Cell Anatomy. *Contrast between eukaryotic cells, prokaryotic cells and viruses with regards to size, cell wall, ...
Cell Nucleus Active Transport Life Cycle Stages Drosophila melanogaster Neurodegenerative Diseases Genes ... keywords = "Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, C9orf72, Drosophila, Nucleocytoplasmic transport, RNA metabolism, Stress granule", ... unbiased genetic screens have identified key pathways that contribute to ALS pathogenesis such as nucleocytoplasmic transport ... unbiased genetic screens have identified key pathways that contribute to ALS pathogenesis such as nucleocytoplasmic transport ...
Cell Nucleus Active Transport 17 Scopus citations Archaeal RNA polymerase. Hirata, A. & Murakami, K. S., Dec 1 2009, In : ... Cell competition and its possible relation to cancer. Baker, N. E. & Li, W., Jul 15 2008, In : Cancer Research. 68, 14, p. 5505 ... Calcium signalling in T cells. Trebak, M. & Kinet, J. P., Mar 1 2019, In : Nature Reviews Immunology. 19, 3, p. 154-169 16 p.. ... Xiong, N., Fu, Y., Hu, S., Xia, M. & Yang, J., Aug 2012, In : Protein and Cell. 3, 8, p. 571-580 10 p.. Research output: ...
Cell Nucleus Active Transport DNA Damage Ubiquitination Degradation Phosphorylation DNA Embryonic Development ...
Eukaryotic Cells A cell having DNA inside a distinct membrane-enclosed nucleus. Mycology Study of fungi. Active Transport Net ... Prokaryotic Cells A cell whose genetic material is not enclosed in a nuclear envelope. ... mast cells and basophils. Acute Infection Rapid onset but resolves within days. Chronic Infection Same as persistent infection. ... Lytic Virus Mechanism of phage multiplication that results in host cell lysis. Lysogenic Virus Mechanism of phage ...
  • Although the vast majority of TS was in the cytoplasm, some TS also was seen in the nucleus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • TS in parental HeLa cells and in normal human fibroblasts was seen exclusively in the cytoplasm. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Ppil3 could bind Apoptin directly, and held Apoptin in cytoplasm even in tumor cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Transporters allow the cell to be selective in which molecules it allows into its cytoplasm. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In resting cells, NF-κB transcriptional activity is strongly inhibited by IκBs that keep the NF-κB in the cytoplasm, preventing its nuclear localization and association with DNA ( 4 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • All material moving between the nucleus and the cytoplasm passes through these channels. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The main structural elements of the nucleus are the nuclear envelope, a double membrane that encloses the entire organelle and keeps its contents separated from the cellular cytoplasm , and the nuclear lamina, a meshwork within the nucleus that adds mechanical support much like the cytoskeleton supports the cell as a whole. (bionity.com)
  • The main structures making up the nucleus are the nuclear envelope , a double membrane that encloses the entire organelle and separates its contents from the cellular cytoplasm , and the nuclear lamina , a meshwork within the nucleus that adds mechanical support, much like the cytoskeleton supports the cell as a whole. (wikidoc.org)
  • Taken together, these results are consistent with a model in which newly synthesized IκBα proteins can enter the nucleus, displace dimeric Rel proteins from DNA, and export Rel proteins from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. (asm.org)
  • Nuclear localization of IkBa promotes active transport of NF-kB from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. (springer.com)
  • Inside the cell membrane is a jelly-like substance called cytoplasm, in which many small structures are found, the organelles. (wikieducator.org)
  • Cytoplasm the liquid that makes up the majority of the cell, it is where chemical reactions take place. (scienceaid.co.uk)
  • Cell Membrane - This surrounds the cytoplasm in the cell, enclosing its contents. (majortests.com)
  • Inside the nucleus, the import reaction is terminated by binding of nuclear Ran in its GTP-bound form to importin β, which results in the dissociation of the ternary importin α/β-cargo complex and the subsequent return of importin α and importin β but not the NLS-bearing protein to the cytoplasm ( 16 , 45 , 30 ). (asm.org)
  • We will test the hypothesis that the binding of TNPO3 to the HIV-1 core in the cytoplasm allows the occurrence of a process that is required for productive infection when the pre-integration complex reaches the nucleus. (elsevier.com)
  • His work in nuclear export while at Penn established that rather than proteins moving from the cell nucleus to the cytoplasm by means of diffusion, as many believed at that time, a signal-mediated, active transport pathway was actually responsible for nuclear export. (harvard.edu)
  • Golgi membranes in Drosophila embryos and tissue culture cells are found as discrete units dispersed in the cytoplasm. (pnas.org)
  • Similarly, the nuclear envelope also breaks down into small vesicles at the onset of mitosis, which then assemble into a nucleus around the chromatin in the cytoplasm of each daughter cell after cytokinesis ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • In plant cells, Golgi stacks also are found dispersed in the cytoplasm (i.e., are not pericentriolarly located). (pnas.org)
  • Why Golgi membranes vesiculate in the cytoplasm of mammalian tissue culture cells with each mitotic cycle but not in S. cerevisiae or in plant cells is not known. (pnas.org)
  • All of the experimental data gathered so far have been based on studies with maspin localized cytoplasmically, while maspin in breast cancer tumor cells may be located in the cytoplasm, nucleus or both. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aerobic cellular respiration takes place in the cytoplasm (glycolysis), and mitochondria (Krebs cycle and electron transport chain). (answers.com)
  • Glycolisis takes place in cytoplasm.Kreb cycle in mitochondrial stroma.Electron transport chain in inner membrane. (answers.com)
  • 1. No cytoplasm, organelles or nucleus to obstruct the flow of water.2. (brainscape.com)
  • The transport of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells is mediated by the nuclear pore complex (NPC), which consists of 60-100 proteins. (genetex.com)
  • TDP-43 and FUS are normally localized in the nucleus, in sites affected by ALS and FTLD-U, but both are mislocalized to the cytoplasm and form cytoplasmic inclusions. (elsevier.com)
  • C-terminal truncations of TDP-43 eliminate the nuclear transport signal and cause mislocalization of the protein to the cytoplasm, where it accumulates and forms SGs. (elsevier.com)
  • ALS-associated FUS mutations impair nuclear transport and cause mislocalization of FUS to the cytoplasm, where it also contributes to assembly of SGs. (elsevier.com)
  • If you imagine a cell looking somewhat like a fried egg, the nucleus is the yolk and the cytoplasm, the rest of the cell, is the white. (fredhutch.org)
  • They found that in the cytoplasm, Wash helps build the scaffolding that shapes cells and traffics important cargo from place to place. (fredhutch.org)
  • But so far, nobody has found proteins that shape the scaffolding of both the nucleus and cytoplasm, so the researchers were surprised to find that Wash is also present in abundance in the nucleus. (fredhutch.org)
  • As such, the researchers may be able to infer a lot about the nucleus' structure and transport from Wash's activity in the cytoplasm, where that activity is better understood. (fredhutch.org)
  • KPNA5 protein belongs to the importin alpha protein family and is thought to be involved in NLS-dependent protein import into the nucleus.The transport of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells is mediated by the nuclear pore complex (NPC) which consists of 60-100 proteins and is probably 120 million daltons in molecular size. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Immunofluorescent staining of human cell line U-2 OS shows positivity in cytoplasm.This validation was performed by Protein Atlas and the presentation of data is for informational purposes only. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The similarities among these proteins suggest that karyopherin alpha-3 may be involved in the nuclear transport system.The transport of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells is mediated by the nuclear pore complex (NPC) which consists of 60-100 proteins and is probably 120 million daltons in molecular size. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) proteins regulate cell function, and have key roles in development and carcinogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • The intracellular effectors of TGF-beta signalling, the Smad proteins, are activated by receptors and translocate into the nucleus, where they regulate transcription. (nih.gov)
  • Some molecules necessary for cellular function are too large to pass through the cell membrane without the assistance of proteins. (reference.com)
  • For example, cell membranes of structures predominantly involved in energy production (e.g., the mitochondria) have a higher percentage of proteins, while membranes acting as insulators (e.g., the Schwann cell , which insulates some nerve fibers) have a higher proportion of lipids. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Sodium inside the cells binds to the proteins. (dnatube.com)
  • The import of proteins into the nucleus is a process that involves at least 2 steps. (cancerindex.org)
  • KPNA2 protein interacts with the NLSs of DNA helicase Q1 and SV40 T antigen and may be involved in the nuclear transport of proteins. (cancerindex.org)
  • Whether the unexpected role of nuclear pore proteins in transcription regulation, which initially has been described in fungi and flies, also applies to human cells is unknown. (nih.gov)
  • Using qRT-PCR, we have confirmed the changes in the expression levels of LAMA4, PIK3R3, BIRC3, and NFKBIA, suggesting that these proteins may play an essential role in the cytotoxic process in the rCFES-treated WI-38 cells. (hindawi.com)
  • These two proteins have also been shown to be virulence factors with cytotoxic effects on macrophages, lung epithelial cells, and dendritic cells [ 8 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • They allow passive transport (diffusion) of ions and small molecules and active transport (energy dependent) of proteins and RNAs (ribonucleic acids). (sciencephoto.com)
  • The movement of larger molecules such as proteins is carefully controlled, and requires active transport facilitated by carrier proteins. (bionity.com)
  • Although the interior of the nucleus does not contain any membrane-delineated bodies, its contents are not uniform, and a number of subnuclear bodies exist, made up of unique proteins, RNA molecules, and DNA conglomerates. (bionity.com)
  • Receptor-mediated endocytosis ( RME ), also called clathrin-mediated endocytosis , is a process by which cells absorb metabolites , hormones , proteins - and in some cases viruses - by the inward budding of the plasma membrane ( invagination ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The cargo ligand and receptor will then recruit adaptor proteins and clathrin triskelions to the outside membrane of the cell around where budding will form. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, membrane proteins selectively move specific substances through the cell membrane by active or passive transport. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Embedded in the cell membrane are a wide range of molecules that vary with the cell type and are typically composed of proteins or glycoproteins that have a cytoplasmic transmembrane and external domains. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • IκBα can also act in the nucleus as a postinduction repressor of NF-κB/Rel proteins. (asm.org)
  • Directional transport of proteins through the nuclear pore complex provides a powerful regulatory mechanism for controlling gene expression, as illustrated by the NF-κB/Rel family of transcription factors (for reviews, see references 3 , 5 , and 30 ). (asm.org)
  • Finally, IκBα can inhibit NF-κB-dependent transcription in the nucleus in vivo and can remove Rel proteins from functional preinitiation complexes in vitro ( 73 ). (asm.org)
  • Implicit in this model is the ability of both Rel and IκBα proteins to enter the nucleus. (asm.org)
  • Compared to conventional quantum dots, these nanoparticles are similar in size to globular proteins and are optimized for single-molecule brightness, stability against photodegradation, and resistance to nonspecific binding to proteins and cells. (jove.com)
  • Proteins are synthesized at the ribosomes in plant cells only 4. (assignmentgrade.com)
  • Proteins are synthesized by the nuclei in animal cells only. (assignmentgrade.com)
  • Proteins have a variety of functions within a living cell. (assignmentgrade.com)
  • A number of viruses, including herpes-, influenza, and retroviruses, replicate in the host cell nucleus, and thus, as for the cellular macromolecules, viral proteins must traverse the nuclear envelope in order to participate in virus replication (reviewed in reference 58 ). (asm.org)
  • The nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of proteins occurs through the nuclear pore complex (NPC) and is mediated by an active and selective mechanism that is controlled by saturable transport receptors and the corresponding cis- acting transport signals that are termed nuclear localization signals (NLSs) and nuclear export signals (NESs) (reviewed in reference 15 ). (asm.org)
  • Overall, picornaviruses, via the action of virally encoded proteins, exercise intricate control over and subvert cell death pathways, specifically apoptosis, thereby allowing viral replication to continue. (asm.org)
  • The direct cleavage of caspases ( 2 ), disruption of nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking ( 3 , 4 ), relocalization of proapoptotic proteins ( 5 , 6 ), and cleavage of essential apoptotic adaptor proteins ( 7 , 8 ) have all been shown to occur as a result of action of Picornavirus protease activity and together suggest mechanisms by which picornaviruses can alter host cell apoptotic death pathways. (asm.org)
  • The viral proteases not only participate in the maturation of the viral proteins but also act against cellular factors, resulting in host cell shutoff and increased virus replication. (asm.org)
  • Apoptosis is a process of selective, controlled cell death ( 15 - 17 ), which utilizes a cascade of signaling proteins after the activation of a death signal. (asm.org)
  • The large amphibious egg contains all the proteins important for the basic cell biology processes. (harvard.edu)
  • The Golgi body sorts and packages proteins for transport. (answers.com)
  • In his work, he has identified most of the proteins and pathways involved in the process ( 3 ), demonstrated how they are regulated by proteins that sense cells' metabolic states ( 4 ), and started to outline the fine mechanistic details of autophagosome formation in yeast ( 5 , 6 ). (rupress.org)
  • Proteins are synthesised in the cytosol, so they must travel across membranes to reach other cell compartments. (eu.org)
  • Proteins which function in the nucleus pass through the nuclear envelope via the nuclear pores. (eu.org)
  • Therefore, almost all well studied nuclear proteins are transported into the nucleus using active translocation through the pore. (eu.org)
  • Proteins that enter the nucleus in preformed complexes may not require their own targeting motif ( Dingwall,1982 ). (eu.org)
  • It's rare for proteins to carry out tasks in both compartments, and it's never been seen before for a structural protein like Wash, Parkhurst said, except in cases where such proteins play a different role in the nucleus. (fredhutch.org)
  • The lamin proteins form a mesh that lines the inside of the nucleus, helping to keep its shape. (fredhutch.org)
  • KPNA3 is a protein similar to certain nuclear transport proteins of Xenopus and human. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The similarities among these proteins suggests that karyopherin alpha-3 may be involved in the nuclear transport system. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Mitochondria release energy from food Most cells contain mitochondria. (wikieducator.org)
  • The more active a cell, the more mitochondria it has. (wikieducator.org)
  • Unit 3 - Cell Structure and Function This unit discusses cell organelles, the nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes, cell theory, eukaryotes versus prokaryotes golgi apparatus - endoplasmic reticulum, vacuoles and lysosome, and chloroplast. (science.edu)
  • In eukaryotic cells, the mitochondria is the organelle that does cellular respiration. (answers.com)
  • This section covers the transport of a protein into a specific organelle--the mitochondria. (answers.com)
  • However, the organelle that carries out cellular respiration in animal cells is the mitochondria. (answers.com)
  • Lack of organelles like nuclei, mitochondria, ribosomes. (brainscape.com)
  • This article reviews these latest advances and presents our current understanding on the mechanisms of TGF-beta signaling from cell membrane to the nucleus. (nih.gov)
  • Chemicals are able to pass both in and out of the cell membrane without the cell expending any energy when diffusion occurs. (reference.com)
  • Movement across the cell membrane without the expenditure of energy is known as passive transport. (reference.com)
  • The cell membrane serves as a barrier between the contents of the cell and external molecules. (reference.com)
  • The cell membrane is semipermeable and allows some molecules through but not others. (reference.com)
  • The concentration of the fluids around the cell is adjusted in situations where the molecules cannot pass through the membrane by a process known as osmosis. (reference.com)
  • A cell membrane (also known as a plasma membrane) is a thin semifluid structure that separates the contents of a cell or organelle from its surroundings. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A membrane is actually two layers of lipids that form a shell around the cell. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Thus the membrane forms a stable yet flexible configuration with a certain amount of fluidity: individual phospholipids can move rapidly across the surface of the membrane, and part to allow molecules soluble in organic media (e.g., other lipids, dissolved gases, etc.) to enter the cell. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Although some lipid-soluble molecules can permeate the cell membrane, many of the nutrients that a cell needs to function are too large to readily enter the cell. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Only lipid-soluble molecules and some small particles (e.g., biologically important gases such as oxygen and nitrogen) can readily permeate the cell membrane. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Passive transport or facilitated diffusion occurs when water-soluble molecules and ions move through the membrane with the help of transporters (also called permeases). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Eukaryotic Cells A cell having DNA inside a distinct membrane-enclosed nucleus. (coursehero.com)
  • from Latin nucleus or nuculeus , kernel) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells . (bionity.com)
  • Clathrin-mediated endocytosis of many receptor types begins with the cargo ligands in the luminal compartment of the cell binding to receptors on the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process which uses energy to move substances against a concentration gradient or across a partially permeable membrane using a special transport protein. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • All cells are bounded by a structure called the cell membrane or plasma membrane , which is a lipid bilayer composed of two layers of phospholipids. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The nucleus is bounded by a nuclear membrane, which is composed of two lipid bilayer membranes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Prokaryotic cells, the bacteria, have no nucleus, and their genetic material, consisting of a single circular naked DNA molecule, is not separated from the rest of the cell by a nuclear membrane. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Water, gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, and nonpolar compounds pass through the cell membrane by diffusion . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Materials can also be engulfed and taken into the cell enclosed in a portion of the cell membrane. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • from Latin [ nucleus ] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup ( help ) or [ nuculeus ] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup ( help ) , "little nut" or kernel) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells . (wikidoc.org)
  • Most cells contain vacuoles A vacuole is a space in a cell, surrounded by a membrane. (wikieducator.org)
  • The vacuole membrane in plant cells is called the tonoplast. (wikieducator.org)
  • Surrounded by double membrane called nuclear envelope, similar to cell membrane. (wikieducator.org)
  • Whatever type of animal or plant they come from, all cells have a cell surface membrane surrounding the cell. (wikieducator.org)
  • The cell membrane sometimes is also called the plasma membrane. (wikieducator.org)
  • In plant cellist is difficult to see the membrane because it is right against the cell wall. (wikieducator.org)
  • The cell surface membrane is a very thin layer of protein and fat. (wikieducator.org)
  • It controls the transport over the membrane. (wikieducator.org)
  • Return of that ion across the membrane down its electrochemical gradient is mediated by a second transport system so as to link the "downhill" flux of the ion to the performance of some useful work, such as the "uphill" transport of another solute. (plantcell.org)
  • The plasma membrane H + -ATPase (PM H + -ATPase) extrudes H + from the cell to generate a proton motive force with a membrane potential of -120 to -160 mV (negative inside) and a pH gradient of 1.5 to 2 units (acid outside). (plantcell.org)
  • Cell membrane this is a layer covering the cell that controls what goes in and out of it. (scienceaid.co.uk)
  • 5. What is the role of the cell membrane? (majortests.com)
  • The cell membrane helps maintain ________ in the cell by controlling what comes in and out of the cell. (assignmentgrade.com)
  • It is a virus about 150-200 nm in diameter, with icosahedral nucleocapsid DNA double helix containing an envelope which derives from the nuclear membrane of the host cell with viral glycoproteins that protrude on the surface. (intechopen.com)
  • it wraps it up in its cell membrane and pulls it inside. (studystack.com)
  • Nucleus is membrane bound organelle has nucleoplasm, nucleolus and Genomic DNA and RNAs in it. (answers.com)
  • At that time, many people were studying the transport of ions and small molecules at the plasma membrane, but few people had started looking at transport across other organelle membranes. (rupress.org)
  • Using these preparations, I was able to find many active transport systems in the vacuolar membrane, including the vacuolar-type ATPase that pumps protons into the vacuole. (rupress.org)
  • Immunohistochemical staining of human cerebellum shows distinct nuclear membrane positivity in purkinje cells.This validation was performed by Protein Atlas and the presentation of data is for informational purposes only. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Topics discussed include nuclear, organelle and membrane structures and associated functions, including DNA replication, transcription, RNA functions, translation, protein trafficking, membrane functions, cell signaling and the cell cycle, in addition to the regulation of these functions and processes. (douglascollege.ca)
  • The part of a cell that controls the cell function and contains the chromosomes. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • This is contained in the DNA that is packaged into 23 pairs of chromosomes inside the nucleus of each body cell. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • Look inside the cells to see the structure of chromosomes and the DNA that controls cell activities. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • Eukaryotic cells have a true nucleus, which contains the genetic material, composed of the chromosomes , each of which is a long linear deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule associated with protein. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The nucleus stores inherited information The nucleus stores the chromosomes. (wikieducator.org)
  • However, when a cell divides, the chromosomes become short and thick and can be seen with a good light microscope. (wikieducator.org)
  • In eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that froms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes. (studystack.com)
  • Chromosomes and Nucleus 4. (assignmentgrade.com)
  • Normally, DNA is organized not only linearly on chromosomes, but in 3-D compartments inside the nucleus. (fredhutch.org)
  • Eukaryotic cells are larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Plant Cell There are two classes of cells that exist in biology today, there are prokaryotic cells and there are eukaryotic cells. (majortests.com)
  • Cells Plant Cell Animal Cell Both plant and animal cells are eukaryotic cells which mean they have a 'true' nucleus. (majortests.com)
  • The nuclear envelope divides eukaryotic cells into a nuclear and a cytoplasmic compartment. (asm.org)
  • 341lecture24nov6sakai - Cell Biology 341 Last lecture. (coursehero.com)
  • The Cell Biology chapter of this High School Biology Homework Help course helps students complete their cell biology homework and earn better grades. (study.com)
  • Identify which concepts are covered on your cell biology homework. (study.com)
  • Finish your cell biology homework with ease! (study.com)
  • The Cell Biology chapter of this College Biology Help and Review course is the simplest way to master cell biology. (study.com)
  • This chapter uses simple and fun videos that are about five minutes long, plus lesson quizzes and a chapter exam to ensure students learn the essentials of cell biology. (study.com)
  • Verify you're ready by completing the Cell Biology chapter exam. (study.com)
  • Use the Cell Biology chapter exam to be prepared. (study.com)
  • Ask our subject-matter experts any cell biology question. (study.com)
  • AEPA Biology (07) Secrets Study Guide includes: A detailed overview of the AEPA Biology (07), A breakdown of the nature of science, An in-depth look at biochemistry and cell biology, A full study of genetics and evolution, An analysis of biological unity and diversity, A guide to ecology and environment, Comprehensive practice questions with detailed answer explanations. (iberlibro.com)
  • Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. (northwestern.edu)
  • American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology. (northwestern.edu)
  • Journal of Cell Biology. (northwestern.edu)
  • Happily, Michael discovered his true calling-cell biology and the basic pathways and processes that govern how cells work-when he was a graduate student with Gideon Dreyfuss at the University of Pennsylvania. (harvard.edu)
  • A major question in biology that remains poorly understood is the mechanism by which organelles such as the Golgi are partitioned into daughter cells during cell division. (pnas.org)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics where Department of Molecular Biology is active. (elsevier.com)
  • Laughs] As a graduate student I had worked on E. coli , but in Dr. Edelman's lab I switched to working on mammalian cell and developmental biology. (rupress.org)
  • Parkhurst led a study describing Wash's role in the nucleus, which was published today in the journal Current Biology . (fredhutch.org)
  • Classical cell biology experiments are described along with their contributions to understanding cell structure and functions. (douglascollege.ca)
  • The function of the nucleus as carrier of genetic information became clear only later, after mitosis was discovered and the Mendelian rules were rediscovered at the beginning of the 20th century: the chromosome theory of heredity was developed. (bionity.com)
  • The cells produced by this process, called cell division or mitosis, are all genetically identical. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • All living cells arise from other cells, either by division of one cell to make two, as in mitosis and meiosis, or by fusion of two cells to make one, as in the union of the sperm and ovum to make the zygote in sexual reproduction. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • On the left a cell is going through mitosis and its nucleus has disintegrated in preparation of division. (wikidoc.org)
  • If DNA replication is blocked in some way, the cell cycle stops, and the cell fails to enter mitosis. (harvard.edu)
  • He found that when replication was inhibited at an early step, the system didn't recognize a problem and the cell entered mitosis. (harvard.edu)
  • By contrast, in Drosophila tissue culture cells, the Golgi membranes undergo complete fragmentation during mitosis. (pnas.org)
  • At the onset of mitosis, protein transport along the secretory pathway is blocked and Golgi stacks break down into small vesicular structures ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • On the left a cell is going through mitosis and its DNA has condensed ready for division. (wikibooks.org)
  • They are involved in active, facilitated and passive transport of molecules in and out of the CELL NUCLEUS. (harvard.edu)
  • passage of materials across cell membranes: passive transport (facilitated diffusion and simple), osmosis, directly and indirectly active transport, co-transport. (univr.it)
  • It is a type of cellular passive transport. (answers.com)
  • Diffusion is one of the types of cellular passive transport. (answers.com)
  • Interaction with Ppil3 leads to the cytoplasmic localization of Apoptin in tumor cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We determined that NUP88 and the nuclear transport factors NUP98 and RAE1 comprise a regulatory network that inhibits premitotic activity of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). When overexpressed, NUP88 sequesters NUP98-RAE1 away from APC/CCDH1, triggering proteolysis of polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), a tumor suppressor and multitasking mitotic kinase. (elsevier.com)
  • Other molecules essential for cellular function require the cell to expend energy to transport them. (reference.com)
  • Outside the cell, water-soluble ions and molecules create a harsh and toxic environment. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It acts as a gate, controlling the flow of molecules in and out of the cell. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Examples of transporters are channels, which facilitate free movement of molecules across the membranes, and pumps, which require a certain amount of energy in order to transport molecules. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The cell is constantly bombarded by ions and molecules of different type and size. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These molecules serve as cell receptors and are involved in signal transduction for a wide range of ligands, including hormones, cytokines and incidentally serve as receptors for viruses and drugs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Fibres have big spaces that make it easy for large molecules to go through the cellulose cell wall. (wikieducator.org)
  • Using fluorescent or EM visible dyes to tag specific molecules in living cells, it is possible to follow the internalization of cargo molecules and the evolution of a clathrin-coated pit by fluorescence microscopy and immuno electron microscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleus conduct transport of molecules across the nuclear membranes and transport out the mRNA for protein synthesis. (answers.com)
  • Small molecules (up to 70 kD) can pass through the nuclear pore by nonselective diffusion while larger molecules are transported by an active process. (genetex.com)
  • larger molecules are transported by an active process. (thermofisher.com)
  • Protein highways crisscross the fluid, keeping the cell from collapsing on itself, shuttling molecules from point A to point B and helping cells divide in two. (fredhutch.org)
  • Higher-level cells known as eukaryotes contain specialized components, called organelles, that play dedicated roles in its growth and development. (encyclopedia.com)
  • transport channels have been shown to exist in the organelles of yeast cells and are essential to cell viability. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Write an analogy for the organelles in the space provided, telling what role the organelle would play, and how the function of the organelle and the function of the role are alike (Example: The nucleus would be like the human brain because it controls the cell and the brain controls the body) a. (majortests.com)
  • Plant cells have organelles in each cell that helps then function and go through processes such as photosynthesis. (majortests.com)
  • Which cell organelles are most closely associated with energy changes in a plant? (assignmentgrade.com)
  • Plant cells and fungal cells have many of the same types of organelles. (mass.edu)
  • We provide evidence that Golgi membranes do not undergo any dramatic change in their organization during the rapid mitotic divisions of the nuclei in the syncitial embryo or during cell division postcellularization. (pnas.org)
  • Our studies show that the mechanism of Golgi partitioning during cell division is cell type-specific. (pnas.org)
  • In mammalian tissue culture cells stacks of Golgi cisternae are located in the pericentriolar region through association with the microtubule organizing center (MTOC). (pnas.org)
  • At the time of budding the nucleus undergoes a closed type of division while the Golgi in the new bud is acquired by migration of intact individual units ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • During cell division, although the nuclear envelope vesiculates, the Golgi stacks remain intact analogous to the budding yeast ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • In mammalian cells there are about 30-40 stacks interconnected to make a single Golgi complex in the pericentriolar region. (pnas.org)
  • The resulting monoclonal antibodies were characterized as being anti-Golgi based on the fact that they colocalized with rabbit anti Drosophila β-COP antibodies by fluorescence microscopy in Drosophila S2 cells. (pnas.org)
  • Chloroplasts trap energy of sunlight Chloroplasts are never found in animal cells. (wikieducator.org)
  • All green parts of plants contain cells with chloroplasts that contain the green pigment chlorophyll. (wikieducator.org)
  • Explain the role of cell membranes as a highly selective barrier (diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, and active transport). (mass.edu)
  • However, phospholipids are the principle component of organelle and cell membranes in both unicellular and multicellular organisms, but they can't be called cellular for the same reason we don't call bricks buildings. (answers.com)
  • What Is the Importance of Diffusion in Cell Metabolism? (reference.com)
  • Diffusion allows the cell to replenish chemicals needed for cellular metabolic processes. (reference.com)
  • Additionally it has been proposed that the directed transport of active signaling complexes to the nucleus might be required to enable signaling as random diffusion is too slow [4] and mechanisms permanently downregulating incoming signals are strong enough to shut down signaling completely without additional signal-transducing mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is an expert in the molecular and biophysical mechanisms of cell motility and adhesion and nuclear dynamics in health and disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knowing the molecular processes that underlie functions of cell and organism. (univr.it)
  • Knowing bioenergetics and metabolism of the cell and of the entire organism. (univr.it)
  • The cholecalciferol formed by the UV irradiation of 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin is removed from the skin into the circulatory system by the blood transport protein for vitamin D, the vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) (Norman and Henry, 2007) then becomes immediately available for further metabolism (Imawari et al. (dsm.com)
  • Here we show at a genome-wide level that the nuclear pore protein NUP98 associates with developmentally regulated genes active during human embryonic stem cell differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • We randomly selected 24 genes from the 54 genes in the 'nervous system development' gene ontology category that showed specific enrichment in NeuPCs (Figure 2B) together with GAPDH as well as additional genes that did not bind NUP98 as negative controls, and examined how their expression levels were affected by NUP98 overexpression in neural progenitor cells using qRT-PCR (Figure 5A, 5B, Figure S8A). (nih.gov)
  • NF-κB then enters the nucleus, binds DNA, and regulates transcription of its numerous target genes ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • The function of the nucleus is to maintain the integrity of these genes and to control the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression . (bionity.com)
  • Dr Kantidakis research has been published in many prestigious journals, including Cell, Genes & Development, PNAS, Nucleic Acids Research. (aston.ac.uk)
  • We developed cell line HeLa-55, a HeLa derivative that grossly overexpresses TS. (biomedsearch.com)
  • HeLa-55 cells exposed to 5-fluorodeoxyuridine were fractionated and examined by Western blotting. (biomedsearch.com)
  • HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. (wikidoc.org)
  • ICC/IF analysis of HeLa cells using GTX31811 SRP1 antibody. (genetex.com)
  • WB analysis of HeLa cell lysate using GTX31811 SRP1 antibody. (genetex.com)
  • Oxidative damage to DNA bases in isolated HeLa nuclei occurs upon treatment with rhodium intercalators and photoactivation. (caltech.edu)
  • This process forms vesicles containing the absorbed substances and is strictly mediated by receptors on the surface of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although receptors and their ligands can be brought into the cell through a few mechanisms (e.g. caveolin ), clathrin -mediated endocytosis remains the best studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • To achieve internalisation of nanoparticles into cells, such as T cells , antibodies can be used to target the nanoparticles to specific receptors on the cell surface (such as CCR5 ). (wikipedia.org)
  • They are transported to the nucleus via nuclear import receptors, but also contribute to the formation of stress granules (SGs), which are intracytoplasmic structures incorporating RNA. (elsevier.com)
  • The nucleus contains the cell's genetic information in the form of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). (sciencephoto.com)
  • HIV can perform functions that its relatives can't, such as gain access to the cell's nucleus through active transport rather than having to wait for the cell to divide. (phys.org)
  • Prokaryotic Cells A cell whose genetic material is not enclosed in a nuclear envelope. (coursehero.com)
  • Nucleus this contains genetic material and controls the actions of the cell. (scienceaid.co.uk)
  • Although the rapidity of postinduction repression is explained partly by the fact that the gene for IκBα is strongly induced by NF-κB, the newly synthesized IκBα still must enter the nucleus and compete for binding to NF-κB with the very large number of κB sites in the DNA. (pnas.org)
  • The mechanism by which IκBα enters the nucleus is not known, as IκBα lacks a discernible classical nuclear localization sequence (NLS). (asm.org)
  • The NFκB family of transcription factors responds to inflammatory cytokines with rapid transcriptional activation, in which NFκB enters the nucleus and binds DNA. (springer.com)
  • Just as rapidly as transcription is activated, it is subsequently repressed by newly synthesized IκBα?that also enters the nucleus and removes NFκB from the DNA. (springer.com)
  • Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of the nucleus (blue, round) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (sciencephoto.com)
  • KPNA5 protein belongs to the importin alpha protein family and is thought to be involved in NLS-dependent protein import into the nucleus. (thermofisher.com)
  • What Process Divides the Cell Nucleus and Its Contents? (reference.com)
  • Coloured atomic force micrograph (AFM) of the surface of an oocyte (egg cell) nucleus showing the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Proteomic experiments, reported here, demonstrate that HP1α complexes with importin α (IMPα), a protein necessary for its nuclear transport. (elsevier.com)
  • NF-κB is then freed and its steady state localization is shifted to the nucleus where it binds to specific sequences on chromosomal DNA. (biologists.org)
  • Because collenchyma cell walls are not lignified, the collenchyma strands are flexible, thus ideal for structural support and protection in growing shoots or flexible structures like leaves. (berkeley.edu)
  • The diagram below represents a plant cell with three structures labeled X, Y, and Z. (mass.edu)
  • Structures X and Y are found in both plant cells and fungal cells. (mass.edu)
  • [4] In mammalian cells, the average diameter typically varies from 11 to 22 micrometers (μm) and occupies about 10% of the total volume. (bionity.com)
  • For multiplexed optical encoding, we have prepared large microbeads with sizes similar to that of mammalian cells, and small nanobeads with sizes similar to that of viruses. (jove.com)
  • Unlike mammalian red blood cells, those of other vertebrates still possess nuclei. (wikibooks.org)
  • It has been shown previously that the transcription factor NF-κB and its inhibitor IκBα shuttle constitutively between cytosol and nucleus. (biologists.org)
  • Recent evidence suggests that nucleoporins, well known components that control nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking, have wide-ranging functions in developmental gene regulation that potentially extend beyond their role in nuclear transport. (nih.gov)
  • In further studies, we created constructs for transient transfection of maspin into breast cancer cells with targeted cytoplasmic and nuclear location. (biomedcentral.com)
  • No such differences were observed in cells with cytoplasmic maspin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The anti-proliferative effect of nuclear maspin on breast cancer cells was statistically significant in comparison to cytoplasmic maspin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Active transport occurs when a substance is moved against its concentration gradient, from a low concentration to a high concentration. (encyclopedia.com)
  • If sexual reproduction occurs, vegetative cells act as asci. (kenyon.edu)
  • In asexual reproduction, bud grows to reach the size of the mother cell while nuclear division occurs. (kenyon.edu)
  • After a nucleus is passed to the daughter cells, separation occurs. (kenyon.edu)
  • ATDC/TRIM29 phosphorylation by ATM/MAPKAP kinase 2 mediates radioresistance in pancreatic cancer cells. (cancerindex.org)
  • We demonstrate that phosphorylation of the HP1α linker likely regulates its association with IMPα, which has implications for HP1α access to the nucleus, where it functions. (elsevier.com)
  • Appearance of apparently ubiquitin-conjugated I kappa B-alpha during its phosphorylation-induced degradation in intact cells. (springer.com)
  • Oxidative phosphorylation: mitochondrial respiratory chain, standard reduction potential, electron transport and proton pumps, mitochondrial ATP synthase. (univr.it)
  • Differentiate among plant and animal cells and eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. (explorelearning.com)
  • In conjunction with p38 MAP kinase, this kinase is known to be involved in many cellular processes including stress and inflammatory responses, nuclear export, gene expression regulation and cell proliferation. (cancerindex.org)
  • All of these processes permit the cell to maintain an internal environment different from its exterior. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α) is a protein that mediates cancer-associated processes in the cell nucleus. (elsevier.com)
  • Importin-alpha is itself an adaptor for the nuclear transport receptor importin-beta. (eu.org)
  • Importin-alpha is an adaptor protein for importin-beta which interacts with nuclear pore components to effect transport into the nucleus. (eu.org)
  • However, receptor-mediated endocytosis is also actively implicated in transducing signals from the cell periphery to the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The EV-derived AR was able to bind the androgen-responsive promoter region of prostate specific antigen, and recruit RNA Pol II, an indication of active transcription. (urotoday.com)
  • Nuclear expression of IκBα correlates with inhibition of NF-κB-dependent transcription and disappearance of NF-κB from the nucleus ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • In Drosophila ovarian germ cells, PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) direct Aubergine and Argonaute3 to cleave transposon transcripts and instruct Piwi to repress transposon transcription, thereby safeguarding the germline genome. (umassmed.edu)
  • Herein, we report a novel mechanism by which cancer cells can directly transport EGFR to the nucleus of other cells via extracellular vesicles (EVs). (urotoday.com)
  • Ohsumi and colleagues found that vesicles accumulate in the vacuole of starving yeast cells ( 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • This lab reviews plant structure, especially cell and tissue types, and the arrangement of the vascular system. (berkeley.edu)
  • Sclerenchyma cells have thick, lignified secondary walls, lack cell contents at maturity, and occur throughout all plant tissues. (berkeley.edu)
  • All plant cells are surrounded by cell wall made of cellulose. (wikieducator.org)
  • Most plant cells have a big vacuole filled with a fluid called the cell sap. (wikieducator.org)
  • Small vacuoles in young plant cell untie to form a large vacuole, filling up to 80% of cell volume. (wikieducator.org)
  • What are the parts of a plant cell? (study.com)
  • Animal cells can come in an array of sizes and unusual shapes, unlike a plant cell which is typically rectangular or cube shaped. (majortests.com)
  • What can be found in a Plant Cell and an Animal Cell? (majortests.com)
  • Structure Z is found in plant cells, but not in fungal cells. (mass.edu)
  • Anchoring, tight and gap cell junctions in animal and plant cells. (univr.it)
  • Then why are stacks not partitioned into daughter cells as their counterparts in the budding yeast or plant cells? (pnas.org)
  • Plant cells don't carry out cellular respiration. (answers.com)
  • Importin β is the transport receptor that promotes the interaction of the resulting heterotrimer with the NPC and subsequently the translocation into the nucleus ( 17 , 39 , 41 , 56 ). (asm.org)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics where James E Hoffman is active. (elsevier.com)
  • Only the receptor-specific substances can enter the cell through this process. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is widely used for the specific uptake of certain substances required by the cell (examples include LDL via the LDL receptor or iron via transferrin ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Controls the substances that can get in and out of the cell. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • Amongst different cell lines examined, HCT-15 and normal fibroblasts showed no nuclear TS, HCC-2998 and SW-620 showed a small amount of nuclear TS, and HT-29, RKO, and HCT-116 showed a strong nuclear TS signal. (biomedsearch.com)
  • During the early stages of human tuberculosis, MTB induces an immune response [ 2 ] and subsequently leads to the development of lung granulomas consisting of macrophages, T cells, B cells, and fibroblasts [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Individually, the cytotoxic effect of ESAT-6 protein has been found to evoke apoptosis of macrophages, dendritic cells, and fibroblasts [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The vacuole was thought to be just a garbage can in the cell, and not very many people were interested in its physiology, so I thought it would be good to study transport in the vacuole because I would not have much competition. (rupress.org)
  • Another reason I chose to study vacuole physiology is that, while I was in Dr. Edelman's lab, we had tried to isolate nuclei from yeast cells, and along the way we discovered that it was easy to get pure preparations of vacuoles. (rupress.org)
  • Between 1876 and 1878 Oscar Hertwig published several studies on the fertilization of sea urchin eggs, showing that the nucleus of the sperm enters the oocyte and fuses with its nucleus. (bionity.com)
  • Cdc14 family phosphatases are highly conserved regulators of cell-cycle progression. (umassmed.edu)
  • The cell cycle and its regulation. (univr.it)
  • The Picornavirus replication cycle is initiated by attachment of the virus to the host cell receptor, followed by internalization and uncoating of the virus genome ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • That's how I got involved in cell cycle control and DNA replication. (harvard.edu)
  • The Michael lab is endeavoring to bring some understanding to this critical moment in the cell cycle by studying the mechanisms and pathways that affect genome stability. (harvard.edu)
  • Yeast cells used in brewing produce compounds for flavor and taste such as ethyl esters and dimethyl sulphide. (kenyon.edu)
  • It is easy to remove yeast cells after fermentation, because they flocculate and clump as the process ends. (kenyon.edu)
  • That was another huge leap for me, but it was also my first introduction to yeast cells, which I have worked with ever since. (rupress.org)
  • The analysis results suggested that the regulatory effect of rCFES was at least involved in cell proliferation, cell motility, cell survival, and metabolisms of WI-38 cells. (hindawi.com)
  • The nuclear-translocated AR via EVs enhanced the proliferation of acceptor cells in the absence of androgen. (urotoday.com)
  • We analyzed the effect of maspin location in normal epithelial cell line MCF10A and three breast cancer cell lines - MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and SKBR-3 - by immunofluorescence and proliferation assay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, the necessity of the sperm nucleus for fertilization was discussed for quite some time. (bionity.com)
  • A fertilised cell produced as the result of the combination of an ovum and a sperm. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • Our results suggest a new direction for the localization mechanism study of Apoptin in cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This work demonstrates that a maternal gene controlling localization of ß-catenin in dorsal nuclei is necessary for dorsal yolk syncytial layer gene activity and formation of the organizer in the zebrafish. (zfin.org)
  • The localization and expression level of maspin were correlated with estimated patient overall survival and percent of Ki-67-positive cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Characterization of the transport signals that mediate the nucleocytoplasmic traffic of low risk HPV11 E7. (nextbio.com)
  • Importantly, unbiased genetic screens have identified key pathways that contribute to ALS pathogenesis such as nucleocytoplasmic transport and stress granule assembly. (elsevier.com)
  • Moreover, we have recently demonstrated nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the NF-κB-inducing kinase NIK, a component of the NF-κB pathway, which is essential for lymph node development and B-cell function. (biologists.org)
  • Picornavirus proteases also cleave nucleoporins, disrupting the orchestrated manner in which signaling pathways use active nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, including those involved in apoptosis. (asm.org)
  • Stained stem cells in an embryo. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • The syncytial embryo containing about 6,000 nuclei then undergoes a synchronous cellularization process to form a cellularized blastoderm ( 13 ). (pnas.org)