Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Serous Membrane: A thin lining of closed cavities of the body, consisting of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells (MESOTHELIUM) resting on a thin layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and covered with secreted clear fluid from blood and lymph vessels. Major serous membranes in the body include PERICARDIUM; PERITONEUM; and PLEURA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Thalamic Nuclei: Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Solitary Nucleus: GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Cell Nucleus Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of the CELL NUCLEUS.Nuclear Envelope: The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Mycobacterium phlei: A saprophytic bacterium widely distributed in soil and dust and on plants.MethylglucosidesCochlear Nucleus: The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.MethylglycosidesCyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.PhlorhizinAdenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone: A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Raphe Nuclei: Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Uncoupling Agents: Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Arsenates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of arsenic acid.Cerebellar Nuclei: Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Nuclear Transfer Techniques: Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.Septal Nuclei: Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Rubidium: An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Arcuate Nucleus: A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Valinomycin: A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Anion Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.Aminoisobutyric Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Ion Exchange: Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Transport Vesicles: Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Bicycling: The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).Cloning, Organism: The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Periplasmic Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.MethylgalactosidesStrophanthins: A number of different cardioactive glycosides obtained from Strophanthus species. OUABAIN is from S. gratus and CYMARINE from S. kombe. They are used like the digitalis glycosides.TritiumLactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Red Nucleus: A pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. It receives a large projection from the contralateral half of the CEREBELLUM via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral MOTOR CORTEX.Cell Nucleus Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of a CELL NUCLEUS.Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Chloromercuribenzoates: Chloride and mercury-containing derivatives of benzoic acid.Trigeminal Nuclei: Nuclei of the trigeminal nerve situated in the brain stem. They include the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), the principal sensory nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus, and the motor nucleus.Microscopy, Ultraviolet: Microscopy in which the image is formed by ultraviolet radiation and is displayed and recorded by means of photographic film.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Probenecid: The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Subthalamic Nucleus: Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Supraoptic Nucleus: Hypothalamic nucleus overlying the beginning of the OPTIC TRACT.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Thiogalactosides: Galactosides in which the oxygen atom linking the sugar and aglycone is replaced by a sulfur atom.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Fluorescein: A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium such as the aqueous humor.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Karyopherins: A family of proteins involved in NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Sorbose: A ketose sugar that is commonly used in the commercial synthesis of ASCORBIC ACID.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Cell Nucleus Structures: Structures that are part of or contained in the CELL NUCLEUS.Potassium Isotopes: Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.ThioglycosidesSodium Isotopes: Stable sodium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sodium, but differ in atomic weight. Na-23 is a stable sodium isotope.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cell Nucleolus: Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.Mannitol: A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Methylphenazonium Methosulfate: Used as an electron carrier in place of the flavine enzyme of Warburg in the hexosemonophosphate system and also in the preparation of SUCCINIC DEHYDROGENASE.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Vesicular Transport Proteins: A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Ethylmaleimide: A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Amiloride: A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)RNA Transport: The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.PhloretinDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Spheroplasts: Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide: A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Nuclear Localization Signals: Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.ArabinosePermeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Antimetabolites: Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Chromosome Positioning: The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.XyloseIons: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Trityl CompoundsHistidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Nucleobase Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of nucleobases such as PYRIMIDINES and PURINES across membranes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Facilitated Diffusion: The passive movement of molecules exceeding the rate expected by simple diffusion. No energy is expended in the process. It is achieved by the introduction of passively diffusing molecules to an enviroment or path that is more favorable to the movement of those molecules. Examples of facilitated diffusion are passive transport of hydrophilic substances across a lipid membrane through hydrophilic pores that traverse the membrane, and the sliding of a DNA BINDING PROTEIN along a strand of DNA.Kidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.

Inhibition of NFkappaB by methyl chlorogenate from Eriobotrya japonica. (1/5043)

Methylchlorogenic acid (MC) is one of the main components in the leaves of Eriobotrya japonica. We previously reported that MC is the most potent antioxidant among several components of Eriobotrya japonica, and its antioxidant activity is stronger than that of chlorogenic acid. Antioxidants are expected to inhibit redox-sensitive NFkappaB activation since NFkappaB is readily influenced by cellular oxidative state. Based on these findings, in vivo experiments with MC were conducted to determine its ability to downregulate the NFkappaB activation in mouse liver. Results clearly showed that MC is a potent suppressor of BHP-induced NFkappaB activation. We observed a significant reduction by MC on BHP-induced translocation of p65 subunit of NFkappaB. This may be due to formation of p50/p65 heterodimer, which is mainly inducible NFkappaB. MC slightly blocked the BHP-induced IkappaB alpha degradation. There is a possibility of IkappaB alpha resynthesis via activated NFkappaB during a 5 h waiting period following BHP injection. The present results suggest that MC may inhibit NFkappaB activation, exhibiting its ability to downregulate the NFkappaB-dependent gene expression. Thus, it can be expected that MC may have potential for therapeutic intervention on various NFkappaB-dependent pathological conditions such as inflammatory or possibly mutagenic processes.  (+info)

Activation of protein kinase C induces nuclear translocation of RFX1 and down-regulates c-myc via an intron 1 X box in undifferentiated leukemia HL-60 cells. (2/5043)

Treatment of human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) is known to decrease c-myc mRNA by blocking transcription elongation at sites near the first exon/intron border. Treatment of HL-60 cells with either PMA or bryostatin 1, which acutely activates protein kinase C (PKC), decreased the levels of myc mRNA and Myc protein. The inhibition of Myc synthesis accounted for the drop in Myc protein, because PMA treatment had no effect on Myc turnover. Treatment with PMA or bryostatin 1 increased nuclear protein binding to MIE1, a c-myc intron 1 element that defines an RFX1-binding X box. RFX1 antiserum supershifted MIE1-protein complexes. Increased MIE1 binding was independent of protein synthesis and abolished by a selective PKC inhibitor, which also prevented the effect of PMA on myc mRNA and protein levels and Myc synthesis. PMA treatment increased RFX1 in the nuclear fraction and decreased it in the cytosol without affecting total RFX1. Transfection of HL-60 cells with myc reporter gene constructs showed that the RFX1-binding X box was required for the down-regulation of reporter gene expression by PMA. These findings suggest that nuclear translocation and binding of RFX1 to the X box cause the down-regulation of myc expression, which follows acute PKC activation in undifferentiated HL-60 cells.  (+info)

Active aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are present in nuclei as a high molecular weight multienzyme complex. (3/5043)

Recent studies suggest that aminoacylation of tRNA may play an important role in the transport of these molecules from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. However, there is almost no information regarding the status of active aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases within the nuclei of eukaryotic cells. Here we show that at least 13 active aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are present in purified nuclei of both Chinese hamster ovary and rabbit kidney cells, although their steady-state levels represent only a small percentage of those found in the cytoplasm. Most interestingly, all the nuclear aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases examined can be isolated as part of a multienzyme complex that is more stable, and consequently larger, than the comparable complex isolated from the cytoplasm. These data directly demonstrate the presence of active aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in mammalian cell nuclei. Moreover, their unexpected structural organization raises important questions about the functional significance of these multienzyme complexes and whether they might play a more direct role in nuclear to cytoplasmic transport of tRNAs.  (+info)

Maternally controlled (beta)-catenin-mediated signaling is required for organizer formation in the zebrafish. (4/5043)

We have identified and characterized a zebrafish recessive maternal effect mutant, ichabod, that results in severe anterior and dorsal defects during early development. The ichabod mutation is almost completely penetrant, but exhibits variable expressivity. All mutant embryos fail to form a normal embryonic shield; most fail to form a head and notochord and have excessive development of ventral tail fin tissue and blood. Abnormal dorsal patterning can first be observed at 3.5 hpf by the lack of nuclear accumulation of (beta)-catenin in the dorsal yolk syncytial layer, which also fails to express bozozok/dharma/nieuwkoid and znr2/ndr1/squint. At the onset of gastrulation, deficiencies in expression of dorsal markers and expansion of expression of markers of ventral tissues indicate a dramatic alteration of dorsoventral identity. Injection of (beta)-catenin RNA markedly dorsalized ichabod embryos and often completely rescued the phenotype, but no measurable dorsalization was obtained with RNAs encoding upstream Wnt pathway components. In contrast, dorsalization was obtained when RNAs encoding either Bozozok/Dharma/Nieuwkoid or Znr2/Ndr1/Squint were injected. Moreover, injection of (beta)-catenin RNA into ichabod embryos resulted in activation of expression of these two genes, which could also activate each other. RNA injection experiments strongly suggest that the component affected by the ichabod mutation acts on a step affecting (beta)-catenin nuclear localization that is independent of regulation of (beta)-catenin stability. This work demonstrates that a maternal gene controlling localization of (beta)-catenin in dorsal nuclei is necessary for dorsal yolk syncytial layer gene activity and formation of the organizer in the zebrafish.  (+info)

Nuclear translocation of mismatch repair proteins MSH2 and MSH6 as a response of cells to alkylating agents. (5/5043)

Mammalian mismatch repair has been implicated in mismatch correction, the prevention of mutagenesis and cancer, and the induction of genotoxicity and apoptosis. Here, we show that treatment of cells specifically with agents inducing O(6)-methylguanine in DNA, such as N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, elevates the level of MSH2 and MSH6 and increases GT mismatch binding activity in the nucleus. This inducible response occurs immediately after alkylation, is long-lasting and dose-dependent, and results from translocation of the preformed MutSalpha complex (composed of MSH2 and MSH6) from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. It is not caused by an increase in MSH2 gene activity. Cells expressing the DNA repair protein O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), thus having the ability to repair O(6)-methylguanine, showed no translocation of MutSalpha, whereas inhibition of MGMT by O(6)-benzylguanine provoked the translocation. The results demonstrate that O(6)-methylguanine lesions are involved in triggering nuclear accumulation of MSH2 and MSH6. The finding that treatment of cells with O(6)-methylguanine-generating mutagens results in an increase of MutSalpha and GT binding activity in the nucleus indicates a novel type of genotoxic stress response.  (+info)

Three leucine-rich sequences and the N-terminal region of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) are responsible for its cytoplasmic localization. (6/5043)

The double-stranded RNA-activated-protein kinase PKR was originally identified as a ribosomal protein that regulates protein synthesis at the translational level. While PKR locates predominantly to the cytoplasm, nuclear or nucleolar species of PKR have been detected. Here, we demonstrate that PKR possesses three leucine-rich sequences resembling nuclear export signals (NESs). Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fused to one of these sequences and transfected in COS-1 cells exhibited predominant cytoplasmic staining, which was abrogated by a leucine to alanine substitution. In addition, Leptomycin B (LMB), an inhibitor of NES-mediated nuclear export, inhibited the cytoplasmic localization of EGFP-NES, indicating the potential activity of these stretches as NESs. Although EGFP fused to a PKR with three NES mutations still located to the cytoplasm, an additional N-terminal deletion impaired the cytoplasmic predominance, suggesting that the N-terminal region is also required for localization. These results suggest that the cytoplasmic localization of PKR is regulated by NESs as well as the N-terminal sequence.  (+info)

Evidence that the beta-catenin nuclear translocation assay allows for measuring presenilin 1 dysfunction. (7/5043)

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the presenilin (PSEN) genes are responsible for the majority of early-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) cases. PSEN1 is a component of a high molecular weight, endoplasmic reticulum, membrane-bound protein complex, including beta-catenin. Pathogenic PSEN1 mutations were demonstrated to have an effect on beta-catenin and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta(GSK-3beta), two members of the wingless Wnt pathway. The nuclear translocation and the stability of beta-catenin, and the interaction between GSK3beta and PSEN1 were influenced. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stably transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells overexpressing wild-type (wt) and mutant (mt) PSEN1, treated with and without LiCl, were used to isolate cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions. By Western blot analysis, endogenous beta-catenin levels were examined. By analyzing cytosolic fractions of PSEN1, transfected and nontransfected HEK 293 cells, and total brain extracts of AD patients and controls, we evaluated the effect of PSEN1 overexpression on beta-catenin stability. Finally, we analyzed the effect of pathogenic PSEN1 mutations on the interaction between PSEN1 and GSK3beta by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. RESULTS: We report reduced nuclear translocation of beta-catenin in cells stably expressing I143T, G384A, and T113-114ins PSEN1. The G384A PSEN1 mutation showed a similar pronounced effect on nuclear translocation of beta-catenin, as reported for processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) into amyloid beta(Abeta). Overexpression of PSEN1 and the presence of pathogenic mutations in PSEN1 had no significant effect on the stability of beta-catenin. Nonspecific binding of overexpressed PSEN1 to endogenous GSK3beta was observed when GSK3beta was immunoprecipitated. Immunoprecipitation of PSEN1 in cells overexpressing PSEN1 and in native cells, however, did not result in co-immunoprecipitation of endogenous GSK3beta. CONCLUSION: Our results further establish the nuclear translocation assay of beta-catenin as an adequate alternative for traditional Abeta measurement to evaluate the effect of PSEN1 mutations on biochemical processes. We detected no significant effect of overexpressed wt or mt PSEN1 on the stability of beta-catenin. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation between PSEN1 and GSK3beta was not observed in our experimental setup.  (+info)

Bradykinin activates the Janus-activated kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway in vascular endothelial cells: localization of JAK/STAT signalling proteins in plasmalemmal caveolae. (8/5043)

Bradykinin (BK) is an important physiological regulator of endothelial cell function. In the present study, we have examined the role of the Janus-activated kinase (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathway in endothelial signal transduction through the BK B2 receptor (B2R). In cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs), BK activates Tyk2 of the JAK family of tyrosine kinases. Activation results in the tyrosine phosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation of STAT3. BK also activates the mitogen-activated p44 and p42 protein kinases, resulting in STAT3 serine phosphorylation. Furthermore, Tyk2 and STAT3 form a complex with the B2R in response to BK stimulation. Under basal conditions, Tyk2, STAT3 and the B2R are localized either partially or entirely in endothelial plasmalemmal caveolae. Following BK stimulation of BAECs, however, the B2R and STAT3 are translocated out of caveolae. Taken together, these data suggest that BK activates the JAK/STAT pathway in endothelial cells and that JAK/STAT signalling proteins are localized in endothelial caveolae. Moreover, caveolar localization of the B2R and STAT3 appears to be regulated in an agonist-dependent manner.  (+info)

Kosan Biosciences Incorporated presented preclinical data on its proprietary nuclear export inhibitors (NEI) showing potent in vitro and in vivo activity as wel
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Transport of macromolecules into and out of the nucleus is generally effected by targeting signals that are recognized by specific members of the importin/exportin transport receptor family. The latter mediate passage through the nuclear envelope-embedded nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) by conferring interaction with NPC constituents, as well as with other components of the nuclear transport machinery, including the guanine nucleotide-binding protein Ran. Importantly, nuclear transport is regulated at multiple levels via a diverse range of mechanisms, such as the modulation of the accessibility and affinity of target signal recognition by importins/exportins, with phosphorylation/dephosphorylation as a major mechanism. Alteration of the level of the expression of components of the nuclear transport machinery also appears to be a key determinant of transport efficiency, having central importance in development, differentiation and transformation ...
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The results described in this paper indicate that HIV unspliced RNA export and Gag trafficking to the plasma membrane are linked. By simply changing the RNA export element from the RRE to 4 × CTE, we can restore Gag assembly and budding in murine cells (Figures 3 and 5). To explain how a pretranslational event, RNA export, could modulate a post‐translational event, membrane trafficking, we hypothesize that HIV RNA is marked at (or by) nuclear export such that the cytosolic fate of the encoded Gag is predetermined. Based on our findings, both the RRE/Rev/Crm1 and 4 × CTE/NXF1 nuclear export pathways successfully mark unspliced gag‐pol mRNA in human cells and promote proper assembly. However, in murine cells, marking through the action of RRE/Rev/Crm1 is defective and HIV assembly is inhibited. Possibilities for the mark include the structure of the mRNA itself or proteins that comprise the mRNP; these could be added or removed as the export complex is formed, as it transits the NPC, ...
In this study, we have shown that (a) although 14-3-3 proteins are predominantly localized in the cytoplasm, a large number of ligands are localized within the nucleus; (b) endogenous 14-3-3, fully competent to bind ligands, can be trapped in the nucleus by inhibiting Crm1-dependent nuclear export with LMB; (c) the leucine-rich putative NES sequence in 14-3-3, despite its structural homology to known NES sequences (Rittinger et al., 1999) and its ability to function as an NES in isolation when fused to GFP (unpublished data), functions primarily in phosphoprotein binding and not as an NES in the context of the intact 14-3-3 molecule; (d) a mutant 14-3-3, which cannot bind to ligands, homes to the nucleus; (e) the nuclear 14-3-3 ligand FKHRL1 is phosphorylated at its major 14-3-3 binding site within the nucleus before its export into the cytoplasm; and (f) at least for FKHRL1, rapid export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm requires both phosphorylation/14-3-3 binding and NES sequences within the ...
Although there appears to be some discrepancy between these new findings and our previous reports that importins are dispensable for the nuclear import of Smads, these observations can be reconciled (Xu et al., 2002, 2003). Our present and previous studies, based on different approaches, may have revealed different nuclear import mechanisms used by basal and activated Smads to enter the nucleus. There are important differences comparing Smads import with or without TGF-β stimulation. Unphosphorylated Smads are monomers, but phosphorylated Smads are assembled into complexes with Smad4 and are thus much larger in size (Wu et al., 2001; Chacko et al., 2004). Moreover, as phospho-Smads accumulate in the nucleus they have to move across the nuclear pore against an ascending concentration gradient of Smads already in the nucleus, whereas unphosphorylated Smads never reach a higher concentration in the nucleus than in the cytoplasm. Thus, importing phospho-Smad complexes and unphosphorylated Smad ...
The nuclear export of Foxo can be inhibited by LMB (Fig. 11), which binds to and thus removes the availability of CRM1 for nuclear export. In the presence of a fully blocking concentration of LMB, any Foxo that enters the nucleus is unable to leave and becomes trapped in the nucleus. Inhibition of nuclear export via LMB thus provides a powerful tool for measuring the rate of unidirectional nuclear influx and for calculating its rate constant of cytoplasmic efflux. The change in the rate constant for unidirectional efflux out of the cytoplasm due to treatment with phosphorylation modulators demonstrates the importance of cytoplasmic phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of Foxo1 in regulation of its rate of cytoplasmic efflux (Figs. 6, 9, and 10). Furthermore, the increase in the rate of nuclear influx that resulted from staurosporine addition in the presence of LMB (Fig. 9A) indicates that the nuclear import machinery is not saturated at the level of expression of Foxo1-GFP employed under our ...
There are two types of protein transport processes evident during nucleocytoplasmic exchange being nuclear import and export. The majority of proteins are synthesised in the cytoplasm, therefore nuclear import is a dominant form of protein transportation into the nucleus. Moreover, nuclear export is equally crucial in nucleocytoplasmic transport during later parts of protein processing to return products into the cytoplasm such as tRNA, rRNA and mRNA. In addition, some proteins may be required to move across the NE several times to be fully developed into a functional subunit. In comparison to the nucleus, after importing proteins into the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER), they cannot exit due to the absence of specific signals to initiate transportation back across the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm. Nucleus therefore has a unique means of transportation, having equally important import and export process. Most protein carriers involving NPCs are the members karyopherins family. This ...
In this study, we have reported a means to specifically prevent p42/p44MAPK nuclear translocation without affecting its activation. Different methods can theoretically be used to achieve the blockage of MAPK nuclear translocation. The one we employed here was to create an artificial anchor for MAPK based on two criteria: a specific interaction with MAPK and a cytoplasmic localization. Several proteins could possibly fulfil the criteria to create a cytoplasmic anchor for MAPK. For instance, the activator of MAPK, MKK1, is a cytoplasmic protein that also binds specifically to MAPK (Bardwell et al., 1996; Fukuda et al., 1997) and has therefore been proposed to play the role of an MAPK anchor in vivo (Fukuda et al., 1997). Moreover expression of MKK1 in Xenopus has been shown to impair MAPK nuclear translocation (Fukuda et al., 1997). However, in our fibroblast CCL39 cell line, the ability of MKK1 expression to prevent MAPK nuclear translocation was much weaker than that of inactive MKP‐3. This ...
Hey-mutant mouse hearts at embryonic day E14.5 were shown to react to the knock out of Hey2 with several up-regualted genes. This up-regulation is due to the lack of Hey2 and cannot be explained by the structural changes in heart morphology as shown using control animals. Part of the gene regulation was further validated using in situ hybridization. Hey1 was located to the nucleus in immunofluorescence experiments. However, experiments on protein level showed also amount of Hey1 within the cytoplasm. The nuclear localization of Hey1 was unchanged during all cell cycle phases as well as when CaMKII was co-expressed or other cellular pathways were inhibited or stimulated. Hey1 does not seem to interact with the nuclear transport proteins importin-alpha and -beta, therefore it still needs to be elucidated how Hey1 is transported into the nucleus ...
We are interested in transport processes and in photosynthesis. Within the realm of photosynthesis we are mainly concerned with dynamic processes that accompany the life cycle of the thylakoid network, including its response to different stresses and its formation and dismantling. Regarding nucleo-cytoplasmic transport, we are particularly interested in its selectivity, the behavior of the ensemble of transporting molecules as it relates to the transport of a single molecule and in applications to gene therapy. In both fields of study, we combine different approaches and methodologies including ensemble and single-molecule biophysical methods, biochemical and molecular biology techniques, statistical mechanical modeling and state-of-the-art electron microscopy.. ...
1JN5: Structural basis for the recognition of a nucleoporin FG repeat by the NTF2-like domain of the TAP/p15 mRNA nuclear export factor.
Principal nameRanBP9 / Importin-9 antibodyAlternative names for RanBP9 / Importin-9 antibodyIMP9, IPO9, IMP9, KIAA1192, Ran binding protein 9,…
ASP.NET GridView to Excel conversion.; Author: pramod.hegde; Updated: 15 Apr 2012; Section: Office Development; Chapter: Enterprise Systems; Updated: 15 Apr 2012
繼承對種族主義的批判. 印度種姓制度以血緣世襲的方式區分人的貴賤,達利特人(賤民)最低等被視為不可接觸,至今仍存。另一邊廂,美國上幾個世紀的黑奴制度以膚色區劃奴隸階級,即使後來黑奴解放,深膚色人種仍然受著嚴重的經濟和文化歧視。. 人為地建構身份階層,對特定族群作出有違人性的區分,是鞏固權力和維持優勢地位的一貫做法。但這做法也反向操作,用來挑戰某些價值和社會規範。例如,應用於性傾向,可得出異性戀中心主義:異性戀是一種由人建構出來的階級體制,令社會裡不是異性戀的人受到排拒,剝削了同性戀的人性和尊嚴……藉由建構同性戀和被壓迫的身份,他們聚集了群眾和得到某種道德力量。在建構出假想敵後,同性戀政治份子批判異性戀中心主義的社會,製作仇恨名單(The Export of ...
The cowpox virus-encoded anti-apoptotic protein cytokine response modifier A (CrmA) is a member of the serpin family that specifically inhibits the cellular proteins caspase 1, caspase 8 and granzyme B. In this study, we have used Flag- and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-tagged versions of CrmA to investigate the mechanisms that regulate its subcellular localization. We show that CrmA can actively enter and exit the nucleus and we demonstrate the role of the nuclear export receptor CRM1 in this shuttling process. CrmA contains a novel leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) that is functionally conserved in the anti-apoptotic cellular serpin PI-9. Besides this leucine-rich export signal, additional sequences mapping to a 103-amino-acid region flanking the NES contribute to the CRM1-dependent nuclear export of CrmA. Although YFP-tagged CrmA is primarily located in the cytoplasm, shifting its localization to be predominantly nuclear by fusion of a heterologous nuclear localization signal did ...
Recent investigations have elucidated several molecular pathways for the nuclear import and export of proteins (Kau and Silver, 2003; Weis, 2003) across transport passageways or nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) (Dreger, 2003). The NPC is a large (125 MDa) multimeric protein structure that perforates the nuclear envelope and channels proteins greater than 60 kDa into or out of the nucleus. The constituents of the NPC have been described in yeast (Rout et al., 2000) and mammalian cells (Cronshaw et al., 2002). Proteins targeted for receptor-mediated transport across the NPC must either contain a nuclear localization signal (NLS) or a nuclear export signal (NES). Protein NLS are typically short clusters of basic amino acids, often preceded by an acidic amino acid or proline residue. However, a NLS may also consist of bipartite clusters of basic amino acids separated by a spacer region of approximately ten amino acids, often flanked by a neutral or acidic amino acid. Previously described NLSs are ...
The nuclear export receptor Crm1 cooperatively binds its HIV Rev-RRE cargo as a dimer using a species-specific interface that supports viral replication by enhancing nuclear export of HIV RNA.
Author Summary Herpesviruses hijack cellular components to enhance viral gene expression. This is particularly important for the efficient nuclear export of herpesvirus intronless mRNAs to allow the production of viral proteins. We have previously demonstrated that Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus encodes a conserved protein, ORF57, which recruits essential cellular mRNA export proteins onto the viral intronless mRNAs to form an export competent viral ribonucleoprotein particle. Specifically, we have shown that ORF57 interacts directly with the cellular export adaptor protein, Aly, to recruit other cellular mRNA export proteins. Surprisingly however, depletion of Aly has a limited effect on both cellular and viral mRNA nuclear export levels, suggesting a degree of redundancy in the export pathways and the existence of other export adaptor proteins. Here we have identified a novel interaction between ORF57 and a second export adaptor protein, UIF. We show for the first time that the ORF57-UIF
Nucleophosmin (NPM) is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein, normally enriched in nucleoli, that performs several activities related to cell growth. NPM mutations are characteristic of a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), where mutant NPM seems to play an oncogenic role. AML-associated NPM mutants exhibit altered subcellular traffic, being aberrantly located in the cytoplasm of leukoblasts. Exacerbated export of AML variants of NPM is mediated by the nuclear export receptor CRM1, and due, in part, to a mutationally acquired novel nuclear export signal (NES). To gain insight on the molecular basis of NPM transport in physiological and pathological conditions, we have evaluated the export efficiency of NPM in cells, and present new data indicating that, in normal conditions, wild type NPM is weakly exported by CRM1. On the other hand, we have found that AML-associated NPM mutants efficiently form complexes with CRM1HA (a mutant CRM1 with higher affinity for NESs), and we have quantitatively ...
It is an interesting phenomenon that a significant number of signaling molecules including p65 NF-κB, IκBα, Smad proteins and many others contain both nuclear localization and nuclear export sequences that counteract each other (Arenzana-Seisdedos et al., 1997; Gama-Carvalho and Carmo-Fonseca, 2001; Harhaj and Sun, 1999; Huang et al., 2000; Johnson et al., 1999; Reguly and Wrana, 2003). Signaling molecules such as transcription factors, which have roles both in the nucleus and in the cytosol, clearly require nuclear import and nuclear export mechanisms. However, more and more proteins without an obvious nuclear function are being found to shuttle between cytosol and nucleus (Gama-Carvalho and Carmo-Fonseca, 2001). Most of these proteins contain both NLS and NES domains, raising the question of how these opposing localization mechanisms are balanced and dynamically regulated. Several possibilities appear significant for regulating the equilibrium between counteracting localization signals. ...
Our results define a bipartite NLS that is integrated within the DNA-recognition region of IRF3. We mapped the NLS of IRF3 to aa 64-130, partially overlapping with the DBD. Basic amino acids KR77/78 and RK86/87 are required for efficient nuclear import of IRF3. Significantly, we demonstrate that the NLS of IRF3 also plays an important role in the DNA-binding activity.. The IRF family contains nine mammalian members (IRF1, IRF2, IRF3, IRF4, IRF5, IRF6, IRF7, IRF8, and IRF9), which are most conserved in their DBD. IRF1 and IRF2, which are closely related to each other, contain a conserved NLS located immediately C-terminal to the DBD, involving aa 120-138 (33). IRF4, IRF8, and IRF9 are highly conserved with each other and use the homologous NLS (aa 66-85) to direct their accumulation in the nucleus (34). Interestingly, IRF5 contains two monopartite consensus NLSs, a N-terminal NLS and a C-terminal NLS (35). Our study, together with previous reports, demonstrated that the NLSs of IRFs are generally ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nuclear import and export signals are essential for proper cellular trafficking and function of ZIC3. AU - Bedard, James E J. AU - Purnell, Jennifer D.. AU - Ware, Stephanie. PY - 2007/1/15. Y1 - 2007/1/15. N2 - Missense, frameshift and nonsense mutations in the zinc finger transcription factor ZIC3 cause heterotaxy as well as isolated congenital heart disease. Previously, we developed transactivation and subcellular localization assays to test the function of ZIC3 point mutations. Aberrant cytoplasmic localization suggested that the pathogenesis of ZIC3 mutations results, at least in part, from failure of appropriate cellular trafficking. To further investigate this hypothesis, the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling properties of ZIC3 have been examined. Subcellular localization assays designed to span the entire open-reading frame of wild-type and mutant ZIC3 proteins identified the presence of nucleocytoplasmic transport signals. ZIC3 domain mapping indicates that a relatively large ...
Combining with a nuclear export signal (NES) to mediate transport of the NES-containing protein through the nuclear pore to the cytoplasm.
In eukaryotic cells, pre-mRNAs undergo extensive processing in the nucleus prior to export. Processing is subject to a quality-control mechanism that retains improperly processed transcripts at or near sites of transcription. A poly(A) tail added by the normal 3′-processing machinery is necessary but not sufficient for export. Retention depends on the exosome. In this study, we identify the poly(A)-binding protein, Pab1, and the poly(A) nuclease, PAN, as important factors that couple 3′ processing to export. Pab1 contains a nonessential leucine-rich nuclear export signal and shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. It can exit the nucleus either as cargo of exportin 1 or bound to mRNA. Pab1 is essential but several bypass suppressors have been identified. Deletion of PAB1 from these bypass suppressor strains results in exosome-dependent retention at sites of transcription. Retention is also seen in cells lacking PAN, which Pab1 is thought to recruit and which may be responsible for ...
Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and MAPK kinases (MEKs) leads to their translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Once the transduced signal has abated, the kinases shuttle back to the cytoplasm. However, MAPKs do not appear to have nuclear export signal (NES) motifs coded within their amino acid sequences. Adachi et al. resolve this enigma by showing that MAPK binds to MEK in the nucleus, and both utilize the NES motif found on MEK to relocalize to the cytoplasm. The nuclear export of MAPK was blocked by the specific NES inhibitor leptomycin B. Also, when injected into the nucleus, MAPK relocalized to the cytoplasm with coinjected MEK, but not with a MEK mutant in which the NES was disrupted. Finally, nuclear injection of a protein fragment that includes the MAPK-binding site on MEK decreased MAPK export. Thus, transport of MAPK from the nucleus to the cytoplasm appears to require association of MAPK with MEK.. Adachi, M., Fukuda, M., and Nishida, E. (2000) Nuclear ...
Pakistan Exports Stats", NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Pakistan/Economy/Exports. "Pakistan Exports Stats, NationMaster." 2009-2013. ,http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Pakistan/Economy/Exports,.. Pakistan Exports Stats, NationMaster, ,http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Pakistan/Economy/Exports, [assessed 2009-2013]. "Pakistan Exports Stats", NationMaster [Internet]. 2009-2013. Avaliable from: ,http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Pakistan/Economy/Exports,.. "Pakistan Exports Stats", NationMaster. Avaliable at: nationmaster.com. Assessed 2009-2013.. "Pakistan Exports Stats, NationMaster," http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Pakistan/Economy/Exports (assessed 2009-2013). "Pakistan Exports Stats", NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Pakistan/Economy/Exports (last visited 2009-2013). "Pakistan Exports Stats", NationMaster, ...
Required for pre-mRNA splicing. Can also modulate alternative splicing in vitro. Represses the splicing of MAPT/Tau exon 10. May function as export adapter involved in mRNA nuclear export such as of histone H2A. Binds mRNA which is thought to be transferred to the NXF1-NXT1 heterodimer for export (TAP/NXF1 pathway); enhances NXF1-NXT1 RNA-binding activity. RNA-binding is semi-sequence specific.
View Notes - BIO 320 Lecture10slides_2009 from BIO 50160 at University of Texas. BIO320 - Lecture 10 02/19/2009 NUCLEAR TRANSPORT Optional Reading on Blackboard Science (2006) 314: 766-767 The
Analysis of TNF-α-induced p65 nuclear entry, phosphorylation (Ser 536), promoter activity and IκBα degradation during DMF treatment. a Nuclear p65 translocat
According to Statistics Netherlands, the volume of exports of goods was 6.4 percent up in September 2014 from September 2013. In the preceding month, exports grew by more than 1 percent. Higher exports of Dutch products and higher re-exports contributed to the growth.
The nucleo-cytoplasmic localization of KLF6 alongside one another with the presence of a purposeful NLS supported the idea that KLF6 could also harbor a
Types of Export   The Service offers data export of three types: as general statistics link Download statistics in  section
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View and download the latest detailed of HS code 32050000 Export data with product, price, date, quantity, major Indian export ports, exporting countries.
Akoumianaki T, Kardassis D, Polioudaki H, Georgatos SD, Theodoropoulos PA. (2009) Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of soluble tubulin in mammalian cells. J...
Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria 증후군을 유발하는 SLC25A15 유전자의 새로운 변이 - HHH syndrome;Urea cycle disorders;SLC25A15;Genetics
Recent studies have established that glucose deprivation causes inhibition of the nuclear tRNA export process in S. cerevisiae (30, 46). While the mechanism responsible for regulating nuclear tRNA export in response to the glucose level is not understood, findings from this study strongly suggest that it is most likely due to the function of the nuclear tRNA export receptors and the intranuclear tRNA chaperone Utp8p being controlled by glucose availability (Fig. 4). How the glucose level influences Utp8p function in nuclear tRNA export is not known, but evidence obtained suggests that the ability of the tRNA export receptors to function in nuclear tRNA export in response to glucose availability is most likely related to regulation of nuclear reimport of the tRNA export receptors after a round of tRNA export to the cytoplasm (Fig. 3). This conclusion is in accordance with previous studies showing cytoplasmic accumulation of several nuclear export receptors, including the nuclear tRNA export ...
A phosphoprotein adapter involved in the XPO1-mediated U snRNA export from the nucleus. Bridge components required for U snRNA export, the cap binding complex (CBC)-bound snRNA on the one hand and the GTPase Ran in its active GTP-bound form together with the export receptor XPO1 on the other. Its phosphorylation in the nucleus is required for U snRNA export complex assembly and export, while its dephosphorylation in the cytoplasm causes export complex disassembly. It is recycled back to the nucleus via the importin alpha/beta heterodimeric import receptor. The directionality of nuclear export is thought to be conferred by an asymmetric distribution of the GTP- and GDP-bound forms of Ran between the cytoplasm and nucleus. Its compartmentalized phosphorylation cycle may also contribute to the directionality of export. Binds strongly to m7G-capped U1 and U5 small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) in a sequence-unspecific manner and phosphorylation-independent manner (By similarity). Plays also a role in the biogenesis
The RS1 protein (gene RSC1A1) participates in regulation of Na+-D-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 and some other solute carriers. In subconfluent LLC-PK1 cells, RS1 inhibits release of SGLT1 from the trans-Golgi network and transcription of SGLT1. In subconfluent cells, RS1 is localized in the nucleus and the cytoplasm whereas confluent cells contain predominantly cytoplasmic RS1. In the present study, the mechanism and regulation of confluence-dependent nuclear location of RS1 was investigated. Confluence dependent nuclear location of RS1 was shown to be regulated by the cell cycle. A nuclear shuttling signal (NS) in pRS1 was identified that ensures confluence-dependent distribution of pRS1 and comprises nuclear localization signal (NLS) and nuclear export signal (NES). The NLS and NES of RS1 mediate translocation into and out of the nucleus via importin ß1 and CRM1, respectively, and the nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution of the RS1 protein is determined by the nuclear export activity. The adjacent ...
We have characterized the nuclear localization signal (NLS) of XRCC1 structurally using X-ray crystallography and functionally using fluorescence imaging. Crystallography and binding studies confirm the bipartite nature of the XRCC1 NLS interaction with Importin α (Impα) in which the major and minor binding motifs are separated by ,20 residues, and resolve previous inconsistent determinations. Binding studies of peptides corresponding to the bipartite NLS, as well as its major and minor binding motifs, to both wild-type and mutated forms of Impα reveal pronounced cooperative binding behavior that is generated by the proximity effect of the tethered major and minor motifs of the NLS. The cooperativity stems from the increased local concentration of the second motif near its cognate binding site that is a consequence of the stepwise binding behavior of the bipartite NLS. We predict that the stepwise dissociation of the NLS from Impα facilitates unloading by providing a partially complexed ...
In this study, we used multiple functional assays to characterize NXT1, a protein that we identified based on its sequence relatedness to NTF2. The similarities of NXT1 and NTF2 include their amino acid identity (26% within a species), low molecular sizes (NTF2, 127 amino acids; NXT1, 140 amino acids), acidic isoelectric points (NTF2, 5.1; NXT1, 5.0), steady-state nuclear localization (45), interaction with the NPC (6, 31, 36), and direct binding to Ran (31, 34). However, NXT1 and NTF2 also have distinct properties that provide insights into their respective functions. NTF2 binds to Ran-GDP and mediates its import into the nucleus (38, 43,45), thereby functioning as a nuclear import factor. In contrast, NXT1 binds to Ran-GTP. The precise function of this interaction is unknown, but it clearly suggests a role in nuclear export. Indeed, using a permeabilized cell assay (16), we have shown here that NXT1 stimulates nuclear export of PKI. The logical interpretation of this result is that NXT1 ...
Nuclear factor B (NF-B) represents a family group of dimeric DNA binding proteins, the pleotropic type of which really is a heterodimer made up of RelA and p50 subunits. of heterologous protein. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic distribution of RelA can be delicate to a nuclear export inhibitor, leptomycin B, recommending that RelA Bortezomib cost goes through constant nuclear export. Oddly enough, manifestation of p50 prevents the cytoplasmic manifestation of RelA, resulting in the nuclear build up of both RelA and p50. Collectively, these results claim that the nuclear and cytoplasmic shuttling of RelA can be controlled by both an intrinsic NES-like series as well as the p50 subunit of NF-B. Nuclear element B (NF-B) signifies a family group of eukaryotic transcription elements taking part in the rules of Bortezomib cost various mobile genes mixed up in immediate early procedures of immune system, acute-phase, and inflammatory reactions aswell as Bortezomib cost genes involved with cell success (for ...
Although several SR proteins were reported to shuttle poorly in HeLa cells (Cáceres et al., 1998; Lin et al., 2005; Sapra et al., 2009), we have recently shown that all SR proteins act as NXF1 adapters in pluripotent P19 cells (Müller-McNicoll et al., 2016). To investigate this discrepancy, we developed a quantitative shuttling assay to measure the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of seven canonical family members. Key technical advances were the use of stable clonal cell lines expressing similar and near-endogenous levels of GFP-tagged proteins (donor) and a membrane-bound marker protein (recipient). Quantification of total nuclear fluorescence in a large number of donor and recipient cells allowed for the first time the determination of mean shuttling capacities of individual SR proteins. We could show that all seven SR proteins shuttle in P19 cells; however, they shuttle to different extents, suggesting a differential participation in nuclear export and retention of mRNAs. SR proteins were ...
Efficient Nuclear Delivery of Antisense Oligonucleotides or siRNA In Vitro and In Vivo by Nano-Transforming Polymersomes - diagram, schematic, and image 02 ...
In higher eukaryotes, messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm via factors deposited near the 5 end of the transcript during splicing. The signal sequence coding region (SSCR) can support an alternative mRNA export (ALREX) pathway that does not require splicing. However …
Protein crystallization is an attractive method for protein processing and formulation. Anti-idiotype RNAs that mimic the leucine-rich nuclear export signal and specifically bind to CRM1/exportin 1. A questionnaire eliciting responses on characteristics, post-exposure practices, and impacts was sent to 2500 operating ...
Azar WJ, Zivkovic S, Werther GA, Russo VC. IGFBP-2 nuclear translocation is mediated by a functional NLS sequence and is essential for its pro-tumorigenic actions in cancer cells. Oncogene (2013) PubMed ...
Tertiary folding of the Rev-response element (RRE) in HIV RNA ensures the rapid formation of the Rev-RRE viral ribonucleoprotein particle via a two-step process.
2003, Efficient active transport of gene nanocarriers to the cell nucleus, in: PNAS. Vol. 100, nº 7; 3878-3882. 2002, ... Tight coupling between nucleus and cell migration through the perinuclear actin cap, in: Journal of Cell Science. Vol. 127; ... The distinct roles of the nucleus and nucleus-cytoskeleton connections in three-dimensional cell migration, in: Scientific ... Cell and Nuclear Mechanics Wirtz developed novel tools and concepts to study the role of nucleus and nuclear connections to the ...
"Chromosomal proteins HMG-14 and HMG-17 are released from mitotic chromosomes and imported into the nucleus by active transport ... 2002). "A fragment of the HMGN2 protein homes to the nuclei of tumor cells and tumor endothelial cells in vivo". Proc. Natl. ... Cell. Biol. 19 (5): 3466-73. PMC 84139 . PMID 10207070. Kazmierczak B, Dal Cin P, Rogalla P, et al. (2000). "Regional fine ... Cell. Biol. 21 (15): 5169-78. doi:10.1128/MCB.21.15.5169-5178.2001. PMC 87241 . PMID 11438671. Porkka K, Laakkonen P, Hoffman ...
Additionally it has been proposed that the directed transport of active signaling complexes to the nucleus might be required to ... "Cell. 166 (4): 907-919. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.07.004. PMC 5418658. PMID 27499021.. ... To achieve internalisation of nanoparticles into cells, such as T cells, antibodies can be used to target the nanoparticles to ... receptor-mediated endocytosis is also actively implicated in transducing signals from the cell periphery to the nucleus. This ...
"Chromosomal proteins HMG-14 and HMG-17 are released from mitotic chromosomes and imported into the nucleus by active transport ... DNA and Cell Biology. 14 (12): 997-1005. doi:10.1089/dna.1995.14.997. PMID 8534374. Hock R, Scheer U, Bustin M (Dec 1998). " ... Leffak M, Trempe JP (Jul 1985). "Histone H1 and HMG 14/17 are deposited nonrandomly in the nucleus". Nucleic Acids Research. 13 ... "Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ...
... active transport) from the cytoplasm into the cell nucleus, and binding to specific sequences of DNA known as hormone response ... or nucleus (type II NR) of the cell. Binding causes a conformational change in the receptor which, depending on the class of ... which causes a change in cell function. Type II receptors, in contrast to type I, are retained in the nucleus regardless of the ... Cell. Biol. 23 (3): 864-72. doi:10.1128/mcb.23.3.864-872.2003. PMC 140718 . PMID 12529392. Wu W, Niles EG, El-Sayed N, Berriman ...
The transport of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells is mediated by the nuclear pore complex ( ... larger molecules are transported by an active process. Most nuclear proteins contain short basic amino acid sequences known as ... "p17 and p17-containing gag precursors of input human immunodeficiency virus are transported into the nuclei of infected cells ... 1992). "Active nuclear import of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 preintegration complexes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ...
... biological transport, active MeSH G06.535.166.310.100 --- active transport, cell nucleus MeSH G06.535.166.310.657 --- membrane ... protein transport MeSH G06.535.166.700.100 --- active transport, cell nucleus MeSH G06.535.166.775 --- respiratory transport ... axonal transport MeSH G06.535.166.500 --- ion transport MeSH G06.535.166.500.100 --- calcium signaling MeSH G06.535.166.700 ... electron transport MeSH G06.535.335.531.587 --- lipid peroxidation MeSH G06.535.335.631 --- oxidative phosphorylation MeSH ...
The products of the cell are mostly for transport into the osteoid, the non-mineralized matrix. Active osteoblasts can be ... The osteoblast's nucleus is spherical and large. An active osteoblast is characterized morphologically by a prominent Golgi ... Bone is a highly vascular tissue, and active formation of blood vessel cells, also from mesenchymal stem cells, is essential to ... Individual cells cannot make bone. A group of organized osteoblasts together with the bone made by a unit of cells is usually ...
... s can be neutral or charged, and particle transport can be active or passive. The latter can be facilitated by pressure ... which cover a cell nucleus; and tissue membranes, such as mucosae and serosae. Synthetic membranes are made by humans for use ... Biological membranes include cell membranes (outer coverings of cells or organelles that allow passage of certain constituents ...
... is thought to penetrate cell membranes in its ionised form by either passive diffusion or carrier-mediated active transport. ... This allows the drug to remain intact, facilitating its entry into the cell's nucleus to effectively exert its anticancer ... Phenanthriplatin has been reported to have increased selectivity to cancerous cells compared to healthy cells, thereby reducing ... residing primarily in the cell's nucleus. The ultimate target of the drug is nuclear DNA. Phenanthriplatin forms monofunctional ...
The nucleus of the dark cell is displaced toward the surface. Vestibular dark cells transport potassium into the inner ear ... Dark cell regions of the vestibular system are involved in active (energy consuming) ion transport to maintain the unusual ... which transports all three ions into the cell. The transport of sodium into the cell enhances the effect of the Na+/K+-ATPase ... In other words, dark cells utilize the Na+/K+-ATPase pump in order to transport potassium. As mentioned in dark cell structure ...
A direct mechanism of action involves homodimerization of the receptor, translocation via active transport into the nucleus, ... 2006). "Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr-regulated cell death: insights into mechanism". Cell Death Differ. 12 ( ... and proto-oncogenes in normal human osteoblast-like cells". J. Cell. Biochem. 50 (4): 411-24. doi:10.1002/jcb.240500410. PMID ... Cell. Biol. 21 (3): 781-93. doi:10.1128/MCB.21.3.781-793.2001. PMC 86670 . PMID 11154266. Tazawa H, Osman W, Shoji Y, Treuter E ...
The cells can no longer regulate salt and water concentrations resulting in the symptoms typical of the disease. Additional ... Channels perform passive transport of materials also known as facilitated diffusion. Transporters can carry out either passive ... Transmembrane channels are also found in the membranes of organelles including the nucleus, mitochondria and lysosome. ... or active transfer of materials while pumps require energy to act. There are several modes by which membrane channels operate. ...
In turn, transferrin transports Cr3+ to insulin sensitive cells (i.e. adipocytes) where it binds to apochromodulin to form ... The apochromodulin is stored in insulin sensitive cells in the nucleus. When blood glucose levels rise, insulin is released ... Another way that Cr(III) may prolong the insulin receptor's kinase activity is through the oxidation of a critical active site ... However, a similar study on the same types of ovary cells showed contradictory results (i.e. no cell toxicity). This ...
... active genes from the periphery of the nucleus to the nucleoplasmic region has also been observed in human cell lines. The ... "Dynamics of single mRNP nucleocytoplasmic transport and export through the nuclear pore in living cells". Nature Cell Biology. ... Nup98 seems to be responsible for the transport of many RNAs from the center of the nucleus to the nuclear lamina. Nup98 ... RNAi knockdown of Nup210 prevents myogenesis in mouse stem cells, but has no effect on nuclear transport, though it has been ...
... V is involved in the transport of cargo (e.g. RNA, vesicles, organelles, mitochondria) from the center of the cell to ... Known functions include: transporting phagosomes to the nucleus and perturbing the developmentally regulated elimination of the ... Note that not all of these genes are active. Class I: MYO1A, MYO1B, MYO1C, MYO1D, MYO1E, MYO1F, MYO1G, MYO1H Class II: MYH1, ... Myosin VI is thought to transport endocytic vesicles into the cell. Myosin VII is an unconventional myosin with two FERM ...
Evidence suggests that the altered protein is not transported into the cell nucleus, where it normally interacts with DNA. This ... WRN is active in homologous recombination. Cells defective in the WRN gene have a 23-fold reduction in spontaneous mitotic ... WRN defective cells, when exposed to x-rays, have more chromosome breaks and micronuclei than cells with wild-type WRN. Cells ... Without normal Werner protein in the nucleus, cells cannot perform the tasks of DNA replication, repair, and transcription. ...
... "active", requiring the cell to expend energy in transporting it. The membrane also maintains the cell potential. The cell ... If a cell's nucleus is more active in transcription, its membrane will have more pores. The protein composition of the nucleus ... "Molecular Cell Biology (4th ed.).. *^ Cooper, Geoffrey M. (2000). "Transport of Small Molecules". The Cell: A Molecular ... In eukaryotic cells, the nuclear membrane separates the contents of the nucleus from the cytoplasm of the cell.[38] The nuclear ...
Bulk transport Endocytosis - It is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the ... Cell nucleus - A membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. It contains most of the cell's genetic material, ... Exocytosis - It is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) out of the cell by ... Meristemic cell - Undifferentiated plants cells analogous to animal stem cells. Stem cell - Undifferentiated cells found in ...
Subsequently, the generated DNA is translocated into the nucleus of the host cell where it is integrated in its genome by the ... It is similar in many ways to lamivudine and is active against both HIV-1 and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Carbocyclic analogues of ... reverse-transcriptase inhibitors is primarily dependent on cellular entry by passive diffusion or carrier-mediated transport. ... This drug is the only approved antiretroviral that is active as a guanosine analogue in vivo. First it is monophosphorylated by ...
The localization of GEFs can determine where in the cell a particular GTPase will be active. For example, the Ran GEF, RCC1, is ... and nuclear transport. GTPases are active when bound to GTP and inactive when bound to GDP, allowing their activity to be ... It localizes to the nucleus and catalyzes the activation of Ran to allow nuclear export of proteins. Ras-GRF1 Kalirin Ephexin5 ... The most well-known GTPases comprise the Ras superfamily and are involved in essential cell processes such as cell ...
Axonemal dynein, found in cilia and flagella, is crucial to cell motility, for example in spermatozoa, and fluid transport, for ... Motor proteins are the driving force behind most active transport of proteins and vesicles in the cytoplasm. Kinesins and ... intracellular transport toward the minus end of microtubules which lies in the microtubule organizing center near the nucleus. ... Plant cells differ from animal cells in that they have a cell wall. During mitosis, the new cell wall is built by the formation ...
The binding and cyclizing of adenosine 5' triphosphate (ATP) to the catalytic active site of the enzyme is coordinated by two ... Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a regulatory cytosolic enzyme present in almost every cell. sAC is a source of cyclic ... Hydrogencarbonate and calcium activates sAC in the nucleus. sAC inside mitochondria is activated by metabolically generated CO2 ... CO2 metabolism Enters through membrane-transporting proteins or cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulators. Calcium ...
Cell membrane - Cell nucleus - Cell theory - Center of gravity - Center of mass - Center of pressure - Central force motion - ... Active transport - Actuator - Acute angle - Adenosine triphosphate - Adhesion - Adiabatic process - Aerobic digestion - ... Galvanic cell - Gamma rays - Gas - Geiger counter - General relativity - Geometric mean - Geometry - Geophysics - Geotechnical ...
DL1 is expressed only in the nucleus of plant cells, which indicates that both reactions take place inside the nucleus. Before ... The duplex is then transported out of the nucleus to the cytoplasm by a protein called Hasty (HST), an Exportin 5 homolog, ... The mature miRNA is part of an active RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) containing Dicer and many associated proteins. RISC ... and cell cycle in mice lacking miRNA-1-2". Cell. 129 (2): 303-17. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.03.030. PMID 17397913. Thum T, ...
The cells met to read Marxist texts and hold self-criticism sessions.[51] Sâr joined a cell that met on the rue Lacepède; his ... forming the nucleus of a future Cambodian regime.[325] The Cambodian government also readied itself for war. Plans for a ... the Khmer Rouge claimed it had 40,000 troops active in Cambodia.[365] From 1981, Pol Pot's main goal was to attract popular ... Private motor transport was requisitioned.[176] Cooperative stores selling goods like medicines, cloth, and kerosene were ...
... are activated by receptors and translocate into the nucleus, where they regulate transcription. Alt … ... proteins regulate cell function, and have key roles in development and carcinogenesis. The intracellular effectors of TGF-beta ... Active Transport, Cell Nucleus * Animals * DNA-Binding Proteins / chemistry * DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism* ... Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) proteins regulate cell function, and have key roles in development and ...
... and infect terminally differentiated non-dividing cells, but how they do this is unclear. The cytoplasmic NPC protein Nup358/ ... Active Transport, Cell Nucleus / physiology * Blotting, Western * Capsid Proteins / metabolism* * Cell Line ... Both groups of CA mutants are impaired in replication in HeLa cells and human monocyte derived macrophages. Our findings link ... Lentiviruses such as HIV-1 traverse nuclear pore complexes (NPC) and infect terminally differentiated non-dividing cells, but ...
Active Transport, Cell Nucleus. *Risk Factors. *Chromosome 1. *Protein Kinases. *DNA Damage ... but not in SUP-B15 cells. Since there was no mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain of BCR-ABL1 in cell line SUP-B15, the cells ... cells undergo apoptosis. CD133+ tumor cells increase cancer stem cell and epithelial-mesenchymal transition properties. ... Following genotoxic stress, cells activate a complex signalling network to arrest the cell cycle and initiate DNA repair or ...
However, a few reports have suggested it may also be present in the nucleus. To explore this in more detail, we used a highly ... Active Transport, Cell Nucleus. Antibody Specificity. Cell Fractionation. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Nucleus / enzymology*. ... Although the vast majority of TS was in the cytoplasm, some TS also was seen in the nucleus. TS in parental HeLa cells and in ... We conclude that small amounts of TS protein is present in the nucleus of some cell types but further work is needed to ...
In normal cells, Apoptin remains in the cytoplasm; whereas in cancerous cells, it migrates into the nucleus and kills the cell ... Active Transport, Cell Nucleus. Amino Acid Sequence. Capsid Proteins / genetics, metabolism*. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Nucleus / ... In normal cells, Apoptin remains in the cytoplasm; whereas in cancerous cells, it migrates into the nucleus and kills the cell ... Apoptin, a small protein encoded by chicken anemia virus (CAV), induces cell death specifically in cancer cells. ...
Chemicals are able to pass both in and out of the cell membrane without the cell expending any energy when... ... Diffusion allows the cell to replenish chemicals needed for cellular metabolic processes. ... This is form of transport is called active transport.. Similar Articles. What Process Divides the Cell Nucleus and Its Contents ... Movement across the cell membrane without the expenditure of energy is known as passive transport. ...
Active Transport, Cell Nucleus Human papillomavirus 11 Humans Karyopherins Membrane Glycoproteins Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins ... Characterization of the transport signals that mediate the nucleocytoplasmic traffic of low risk HPV11 E7. Courtney H McKee, ... Characterization of the transport signals that mediate the nucleocytoplasmic traffic of low risk HPV11 E7. Virology. 2013 Aug ...
3D Reconstruction of VZV Infected Cell Nuclei and PML Nuclear Cages‎ (14 F) ... Brefeldin A Inhibition of Intracellular Vesicle Transport.png 591 × 271; 23 KB. ... cell biology (sco); Эсийн биологи (mn); cellebiologi (nn); cytologi (nb); sitologiya (az); cell biology (en); علم الأحياء ... Comparison of single cell methylation sequencing methods in terms of coverage as at 2015.png 823 × 871; 112 KB. ...
Source for information on Cell Membranes: Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health dictionary. ... is a thin semifluid structure that separates the contents of a cell or organelle from its surroundings. ... Cell MembranesDefinitionA cell membrane (also known as a plasma membrane) ... Active transport occurs when a substance is moved against its concentration gradient, from a low concentration to a high ...
Cell Cycle. *Mutation. *Active Transport, Cell Nucleus. *Base Sequence. *Cell Movement. *Cell Nucleus ... ion transport, mRNA transport, plasma membrane to endosome transport, potassium ion transport, protein transport, vesicle- ... mediated transport, anion transport, intracellular transport, androgen receptor signaling pathway, cell surface receptor-linked ... natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity directed against tumor cell target, protein ubiquitination, sodium ion transport, ...
Active transport‎ (6 C, 7 F). *. ► Cell adhesion‎ (7 C, 1 119 F) ... 3D Reconstruction of VZV Infected Cell Nuclei and PML Nuclear Cages‎ (8 C, 14 F) ... biología celular (es); frumulíffræði (is); biologi sel (ms); cell biology (en-gb); Клетъчна биология (bg); Cell biology (simple ... cell biology (sco); Эсийн биологи (mn); cellebiologi (nn); cytologi (nb); sitologiya (az); cell biology (en); علم الأحياء ...
Active Transport, Cell Nucleus/genetics. *Cytoplasm/metabolism. *Embryonic Stem Cells/cytology/metabolism ... Here we show at a genome-wide level that the nuclear pore protein NUP98 associates with developmentally regulated genes active ... Here we show at a genome-wide level that the nuclear pore protein NUP98 associates with developmentally regulated genes active ... Affiliation: Salk Institute for Biological Studies, Molecular and Cell Biology Laboratory, La Jolla, California, USA. ...
Active Transport, Cell Nucleus/physiology. *Genes, Reporter. *Guanosine Triphosphate/metabolism. *Immunoblotting. *Microscopy, ... Denning D, Mykytka B, Allen NP, Huang L - J. Cell Biol. (2001) ... Denning D, Mykytka B, Allen NP, Huang L - J. Cell Biol. (2001) ...
... sorting to the nucleus Friday, November 6, 2009 Today: How proteins move through Nuclear proteins ... Ran-GTP in nucleus → cargo unloading; GTP hydrolysis in cytosol drives the active transport cycle • Ran is a regulatory GTPase ... Cell Biology 341 Friday, November 6, 2009 Today: • How proteins move through a translocator to enter the mitochondrion • ... sorting to the nucleus • Nuclear proteins must pass through nuclear pore complexes • nuclear localization signal → nuclear ...
... cell motility, cell survival, and metabolisms of WI-38 cells. The survivability of WI-38 cells, in particular, was ... The analysis results suggested that the regulatory effect of rCFES was at least involved in cell proliferation, ... suggesting that these proteins may play an essential role in the cytotoxic process in the rCFES-treated WI-38 cells. ... on WI-38 cells, an integrative analysis approach, combining time-course microarray data and annotated pathway databases, was ...
1997) Nuclear localization of IkBa promotes active transport of NF-kB from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. J Cell Sci 110:369-378 ... These results led to the suggestion that IκBα can enter the nucleus and remove NF-κB from the DNA by an "active dissociation" ... measurements of IκBα-mediated active dissociation of NF-κB from specific promoters in cells will be required. ... concentration of IκBα in the active dissociation of NF-κB(p50(19-363)/p65(1-325)) (•) or NF-κB(p50(19-363)/p65(1-325)R304A ...
... and metabolically active substances; an otologic therapeutic device includes the same categories of substances and ... Diagnosing or treating a human ear includes transporting a conjugated nanoparticle or a magnetically responsive nanoparticle ... Junghae Suh et al.; Efficient active transport of gene nanocarriers to the cell nucleus; PNAS vol. 100 No. 7 Apr. 1, 2003, pp. ... Treating cells US20020086842A1 (en) 2000-06-26. 2002-07-04. Christian Plank. Method for transfecting cells using a magnetic ...
... condensation/protection and guided intracellular trafficking are necessary for exogenous nucleic acids to function inside cells ... Suh, J.; Wirtz, D.; Hanes, J. Efficient active transport of gene nanocarriers to the cell nucleus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA ... CHO cells: Chinese hamster ovary cell line; SKOV-3 cells: ovarian cancer cell line; PC3 cells: human prostate cancer cell line ... DC 2.4 cells: mouse dendritic cells; HuH7 cells: hepatocyte-derived carcinoma cell line; THP-1: human monocytic cell line; iPS ...
Active Transport, Cell Nucleus. 1. 2013. 85. 0.580. Why? Chromosomes, Mammalian. 1 ...
Cell Nucleolus/*metabolism; Cell Compartmentation; *Active Transport, Cell Nucleus; *RNA-Binding Proteins; *Saccharomyces ...
Cell Cycle Proteins. 1. 2006. 276. 0.020. Why? Active Transport, Cell Nucleus. 1 ...
... material through phloem tissue relies on solute gradients and some active transport that require the activity of living cells. ... Leptoids are elongate cells that have nuclei and living protoplasts and thus closely resemble the most generalized phloem cells ... Xylem cells are dead and empty of cell contents at maturity and essentially form tubes for water transport. However, plants ... Plant Cell and Tissue Types. PARENCHYMA. Parenchyma cells, the progenitor of all other cell types, are composed of thin walled ...
Cell Nucleus Active Transport Life Cycle Stages Drosophila melanogaster Neurodegenerative Diseases Genes ... keywords = "Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, C9orf72, Drosophila, Nucleocytoplasmic transport, RNA metabolism, Stress granule", ... unbiased genetic screens have identified key pathways that contribute to ALS pathogenesis such as nucleocytoplasmic transport ... unbiased genetic screens have identified key pathways that contribute to ALS pathogenesis such as nucleocytoplasmic transport ...
Cell Nucleus Active Transport 17 Scopus citations Archaeal RNA polymerase. Hirata, A. & Murakami, K. S., Dec 1 2009, In : ... Cell competition and its possible relation to cancer. Baker, N. E. & Li, W., Jul 15 2008, In : Cancer Research. 68, 14, p. 5505 ... Calcium signalling in T cells. Trebak, M. & Kinet, J. P., Mar 1 2019, In : Nature Reviews Immunology. 19, 3, p. 154-169 16 p.. ... Xiong, N., Fu, Y., Hu, S., Xia, M. & Yang, J., Aug 2012, In : Protein and Cell. 3, 8, p. 571-580 10 p.. Research output: ...
Cell Nucleus Active Transport DNA Damage Ubiquitination Degradation Phosphorylation DNA Embryonic Development ...
  • The role of hyaluronan binding protein 1 (HABP1) in cell signaling was investigated and in vitro kinase assay demonstrated that it is a substrate for MAP kinase. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we report that the DNA and p53-binding protein ATDC/TRIM29, which is highly expressed in PDAC, plays a critical role in DNA damage signaling and radioresistance in pancreatic cancer cells. (cancerindex.org)
  • The cholecalciferol formed by the UV irradiation of 7-dehydrocholesterol is removed from the skin into the circulatory system by the blood transport protein for vitamin D, the vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) (Norman and Henry, 2007). (dsm.com)
  • Kiebler and his group had previously shown that the brain-specific RNA-binding protein Staufen2 (Stau2) plays a central role in the transport of mRNAs from the cell nucleus to synaptic ribosomes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Our studies show that the mechanism of Golgi partitioning during cell division is cell type-specific. (pnas.org)
  • In mammalian tissue culture cells stacks of Golgi cisternae are located in the pericentriolar region through association with the microtubule organizing center (MTOC). (pnas.org)
  • At the time of budding the nucleus undergoes a closed type of division while the Golgi in the new bud is acquired by migration of intact individual units ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • During cell division, although the nuclear envelope vesiculates, the Golgi stacks remain intact analogous to the budding yeast ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • In mammalian cells there are about 30-40 stacks interconnected to make a single Golgi complex in the pericentriolar region. (pnas.org)
  • The resulting monoclonal antibodies were characterized as being anti-Golgi based on the fact that they colocalized with rabbit anti Drosophila β-COP antibodies by fluorescence microscopy in Drosophila S2 cells. (pnas.org)
  • Additionally it has been proposed that the directed transport of active signaling complexes to the nucleus might be required to enable signaling as random diffusion is too slow and mechanisms permanently downregulating incoming signals are strong enough to shut down signaling completely without additional signal-transducing mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The function of the nucleus is to maintain the integrity of these genes and to control the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression . (bionity.com)
  • Here we show at a genome-wide level that the nuclear pore protein NUP98 associates with developmentally regulated genes active during human embryonic stem cell differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • We randomly selected 24 genes from the 54 genes in the 'nervous system development' gene ontology category that showed specific enrichment in NeuPCs (Figure 2B) together with GAPDH as well as additional genes that did not bind NUP98 as negative controls, and examined how their expression levels were affected by NUP98 overexpression in neural progenitor cells using qRT-PCR (Figure 5A, 5B, Figure S8A). (nih.gov)
  • NF-κB then enters the nucleus, binds DNA, and regulates transcription of its numerous target genes ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Dr Kantidakis research has been published in many prestigious journals, including Cell, Genes & Development, PNAS, Nucleic Acids Research. (aston.ac.uk)
  • KPNA5 protein belongs to the importin alpha protein family and is thought to be involved in NLS-dependent protein import into the nucleus. (thermofisher.com)
  • Because collenchyma cell walls are not lignified, the collenchyma strands are flexible, thus ideal for structural support and protection in growing shoots or flexible structures like leaves. (berkeley.edu)
  • The diagram below represents a plant cell with three structures labeled X, Y, and Z. (mass.edu)
  • Structures X and Y are found in both plant cells and fungal cells. (mass.edu)
  • Before digging deep into how individual cell structures handle these functions, it's helpful to review what those structures are and where they can be found. (sciencing.com)
  • Phosphorylation of endogenous HABP1 was also observed following treatment of J774 cells with PMA. (nih.gov)
  • ATDC/TRIM29 phosphorylation by ATM/MAPKAP kinase 2 mediates radioresistance in pancreatic cancer cells. (cancerindex.org)
  • We demonstrate that phosphorylation of the HP1α linker likely regulates its association with IMPα, which has implications for HP1α access to the nucleus, where it functions. (elsevier.com)
  • Appearance of apparently ubiquitin-conjugated I kappa B-alpha during its phosphorylation-induced degradation in intact cells. (springer.com)
  • Oxidative phosphorylation: mitochondrial respiratory chain, standard reduction potential, electron transport and proton pumps, mitochondrial ATP synthase. (univr.it)
  • In Drosophila ovarian germ cells, PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) direct Aubergine and Argonaute3 to cleave transposon transcripts and instruct Piwi to repress transposon transcription, thereby safeguarding the germline genome. (umassmed.edu)
  • The fate of dsRNA in the nucleus: a p54(nrb)-containing complex mediates the nuclear retention of promiscuously A-to-I edited RNAs. (nih.gov)
  • We have developed a Xenopus oocyte model system which shows that a variety of hyperedited, inosine-containing RNAs are specifically retained in the nucleus. (nih.gov)
  • Nuclear transport is of paramount importance to cell function, as movement through the pores is required for both gene expression and chromosomal maintenance. (bionity.com)
  • Nuclear transport is crucial to cell function, as movement through the pores is required for both gene expression and chromosomal maintenance. (wikidoc.org)
  • Surprisingly, NUP88 overexpression did not alter global nuclear transport, but was a potent inducer of aneuploidy and chromosomal instability. (elsevier.com)
  • We determined that NUP88 and the nuclear transport factors NUP98 and RAE1 comprise a regulatory network that inhibits premitotic activity of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). When overexpressed, NUP88 sequesters NUP98-RAE1 away from APC/CCDH1, triggering proteolysis of polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), a tumor suppressor and multitasking mitotic kinase. (elsevier.com)
  • Importin-alpha is itself an adaptor for the nuclear transport receptor importin-beta. (eu.org)
  • In contrast to many other tumor suppressors, which appear to have only nuclear roles, PTEN also appears to function in regulating dynamic cell surface interactions that involve integrins, FAK, cell migration, and the cytoskeleton [ 21 - 23 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Importin-alpha is an adaptor protein for importin-beta which interacts with nuclear pore components to effect transport into the nucleus. (eu.org)
  • Although the rapidity of postinduction repression is explained partly by the fact that the gene for IκBα is strongly induced by NF-κB, the newly synthesized IκBα still must enter the nucleus and compete for binding to NF-κB with the very large number of κB sites in the DNA. (pnas.org)
  • Cdc14 family phosphatases are highly conserved regulators of cell-cycle progression. (umassmed.edu)
  • The cell cycle and its regulation. (univr.it)
  • The Picornavirus replication cycle is initiated by attachment of the virus to the host cell receptor, followed by internalization and uncoating of the virus genome ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • PTEN contributes to cell cycle regulation by blocking cells entering the S-phase of the cell cycle and by upregulation of p27kip1, which is recruited into the cyclin E/cdk2 complex [ 17 ], and downregulation of cyclin D1 [ 18 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Yeast cells used in brewing produce compounds for flavor and taste such as ethyl esters and dimethyl sulphide. (kenyon.edu)
  • It is easy to remove yeast cells after fermentation, because they flocculate and clump as the process ends. (kenyon.edu)
  • That was another huge leap for me, but it was also my first introduction to yeast cells, which I have worked with ever since. (rupress.org)
  • Another reason I chose to study vacuole physiology is that, while I was in Dr. Edelman's lab, we had tried to isolate nuclei from yeast cells, and along the way we discovered that it was easy to get pure preparations of vacuoles. (rupress.org)
  • abstract = "Heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α) is a protein that mediates cancer-associated processes in the cell nucleus. (elsevier.com)
  • Between 1876 and 1878 Oscar Hertwig published several studies on the fertilization of sea urchin eggs, showing that the nucleus of the sperm enters the oocyte and fuses with its nucleus. (bionity.com)
  • Therefore, the necessity of the sperm nucleus for fertilization was discussed for quite some time. (bionity.com)
  • A fertilised cell produced as the result of the combination of an ovum and a sperm. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • This segregation requires specific mechanisms for the continuous transport of large numbers of macromolecules between both compartments. (asm.org)
  • Importantly, unbiased genetic screens have identified key pathways that contribute to ALS pathogenesis such as nucleocytoplasmic transport and stress granule assembly. (elsevier.com)
  • Moreover, we have recently demonstrated nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the NF-κB-inducing kinase NIK, a component of the NF-κB pathway, which is essential for lymph node development and B-cell function. (biologists.org)
  • Picornavirus proteases also cleave nucleoporins, disrupting the orchestrated manner in which signaling pathways use active nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, including those involved in apoptosis. (asm.org)