Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Myosin Light Chains: The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.Darkness: The absence of light.Light Signal Transduction: The conversion of absorbed light energy into molecular signals.Curing Lights, Dental: Light sources used to activate polymerization of light-cured DENTAL CEMENTS and DENTAL RESINS. Degree of cure and bond strength depends on exposure time, wavelength, and intensity of the curing light.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase: An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.Photoperiod: The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.Dark Adaptation: Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Phytochrome: A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Adaptation, Ocular: The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Cryptochromes: Flavoproteins that function as circadian rhythm signaling proteins in ANIMALS and as blue-light photoreceptors in PLANTS. They are structurally-related to DNA PHOTOLYASES and it is believed that both classes of proteins may have originated from an earlier protein that played a role in protecting primitive organisms from the cyclical exposure to UV LIGHT.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Immunoglobulin lambda-Chains: One of the types of light chain subunits of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Photobiology: The branch of biology dealing with the effect of light on organisms.Reflex, Pupillary: Constriction of the pupil in response to light stimulation of the retina. It refers also to any reflex involving the iris, with resultant alteration of the diameter of the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)PhotochemistryPhotic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Photochemotherapy: Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 14: A member of tumor necrosis factor superfamily found on activated LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It occurs as transmembrane protein that can be cleaved to release a secreted form that specifically binds to LYMPHOTOXIN BETA RECEPTOR and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR SUPERFAMILY, MEMBER 14.Melatonin: A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Photosensitizing Agents: Drugs that are pharmacologically inactive but when exposed to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight are converted to their active metabolite to produce a beneficial reaction affecting the diseased tissue. These compounds can be administered topically or systemically and have been used therapeutically to treat psoriasis and various types of neoplasms.Photoreceptor Cells, Invertebrate: Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Phytochrome B: A plant photo regulatory protein that exists in two forms that are reversibly interconvertible by LIGHT. In response to light it moves to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates transcription of target genes. Phytochrome B plays an important role in shade avoidance and mediates plant de-etiolation in red light.Infrared Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.Microscopy, Polarization: Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.Rod Opsins: Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Clathrin Light Chains: The light chain subunits of clathrin.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Photochemical Processes: Chemical reactions effected by light.Phytochrome A: The primary plant photoreceptor responsible for perceiving and mediating responses to far-red light. It is a PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASE that is translocated to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to light signals.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Phototropism: The directional growth of organisms in response to light. In plants, aerial shoots usually grow towards light. The phototropic response is thought to be controlled by auxin (= AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Photosystem II Protein Complex: A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.Hypocotyl: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Retinal Rod Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate: Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.Light-Harvesting Protein Complexes: Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins: Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Retinal Pigments: Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.Pupil: The aperture in the iris through which light passes.Refractometry: Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).Radiation Injuries, Experimental: Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Retinal Degeneration: A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)Sunlight: Irradiation directly from the sun.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Halogens: A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Diuron: A pre-emergent herbicide.Hematoporphyrins: Iron-free derivatives of heme with 4 methyl groups, 2 hydroxyethyl groups and 2 propionic acid groups attached to the pyrrole rings. Some of these PHOTOSENSITIZING AGENTS are used in the PHOTOTHERAPY of malignant NEOPLASMS.Myosin Subfragments: Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).Cyanobacteria: A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Luminescence: Emission of LIGHT when ELECTRONS return to the electronic ground state from an excited state and lose the energy as PHOTONS. It is sometimes called cool light in contrast to INCANDESCENCE. LUMINESCENT MEASUREMENTS take advantage of this type of light emitted from LUMINESCENT AGENTS.Immunoglobulin Light Chains, Surrogate: An immunolglobulin light chain-like protein composed of an IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION-like peptide (such as light chain like lambda5 peptide) and an IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGION-like peptide (such as Vpreb1 peptide). Surrogate light chains associate with MU IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS in place of a conventional immunoglobulin light chains to form pre-B cell receptors.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Seasonal Affective Disorder: A syndrome characterized by depressions that recur annually at the same time each year, usually during the winter months. Other symptoms include anxiety, irritability, decreased energy, increased appetite (carbohydrate cravings), increased duration of sleep, and weight gain. SAD (seasonal affective disorder) can be treated by daily exposure to bright artificial lights (PHOTOTHERAPY), during the season of recurrence.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Photometry: Measurement of the various properties of light.Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Mollusca: A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Biological Clocks: The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.Photons: Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Rod Cell Outer Segment: The portion of a retinal rod cell situated between the ROD INNER SEGMENT and the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. It contains a stack of photosensitive disk membranes laden with RHODOPSIN.Myosin-Light-Chain Phosphatase: A phosphoprotein phosphatase that is specific for MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. It is composed of three subunits, which include a catalytic subunit, a myosin binding subunit, and a third subunit of unknown function.Optical Processes: Behavior of LIGHT and its interactions with itself and materials.Pineal Gland: A light-sensitive neuroendocrine organ attached to the roof of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain. The pineal gland secretes MELATONIN, other BIOGENIC AMINES and NEUROPEPTIDES.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Ocular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.Amyloidosis: A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of AMYLOID. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Thylakoids: Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.Photophobia: Abnormal sensitivity to light. This may occur as a manifestation of EYE DISEASES; MIGRAINE; SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE; MENINGITIS; and other disorders. Photophobia may also occur in association with DEPRESSION and other MENTAL DISORDERS.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Xanthophylls: Oxygenated forms of carotenoids. They are usually derived from alpha and beta carotene.Photoreceptors, Plant: Plant proteins that mediate LIGHT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They are involved in PHOTOTROPISM and other light adaption responses during plant growth and development . They include the phototropins, phytochromes (PHYTOCHROME), and members of the ubiquitous cryptochrome family.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Photoreceptors, Microbial: Light absorbing proteins and protein prosthetic groups found in certain microorganisms. Some microbial photoreceptors initiate specific chemical reactions which signal a change in the environment, while others generate energy by pumping specific ions across a cellular membrane.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Circadian Clocks: Biological mechanism that controls CIRCADIAN RHYTHM. Circadian clocks exist in the simplest form in cyanobacteria and as more complex systems in fungi, plants, and animals. In humans the system includes photoresponsive RETINAL GANGLION CELLS and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS that acts as the central oscillator.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Light-Curing of Dental Adhesives: The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via exposure to light.Phototropins: Blue-light receptors that regulate a range of physiological responses in PLANTS. Examples include: PHOTOTROPISM, light-induced stomatal opening, and CHLOROPLAST movements in response to changes in light intensity.Opsins: Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Cotyledon: A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Eye ProteinsTolonium Chloride: A phenothiazine that has been used as a hemostatic, a biological stain, and a dye for wool and silk. Tolonium chloride has also been used as a diagnostic aid for oral and gastric neoplasms and in the identification of the parathyroid gland in thyroid surgery.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Birefringence: The property of nonisotropic media, such as crystals, whereby a single incident beam of light traverses the medium as two beams, each plane-polarized, the planes being at right angles to each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Photolysis: Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Radiation Effects: The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
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  • Light affects the circadian system via both photoreceptors, such as phytochromes and cryptochromes, and sugar production by photosynthesis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In the present study, we introduce a constitutively active version of phytochrome B-Y276H (YHB) into both wild-type and phytochrome null backgrounds of Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) to distinguish the effects of photoreceptor signaling on clock function from those of photosynthesis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Our findings indicate that phytochrome signaling in the nucleus plays a critical role in sustaining robust clock function under red light, even in the absence of photosynthesis or exogenous sources of energy. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Primary production is synonymous with the rate of photosynthesis and, as such, it is a process forced by light. (esa-par.net)
  • Moisturizing cream light texture that offers an optimal hydration in the deeper layers of the epidermis thanks to Gluco-glycerol, an ingredient which stimulates the own hydration of the skin (theEucerin. (thejukeboxradio.gq)
  • The Eucerin Aquaporin active range comprises: A light texture variant for normal to combination skin.The ingredient: The innovative formulas contain nature-identical gluco glycerol, an enhanced glycerol derivative whose excellent moisturising properties have been scientifically proven. (thejukeboxradio.gq)
  • 8. The device according to claim 1, wherein the active ingredient in the active ingredient container is selected from the group consisting of a fragrance, an air sanitizer, an air deodorizer, an insecticide, an insect repellant, an insect attractant, a medicine, an aromatherapy oil, and combinations thereof. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Questran light sachets contain the active ingredient colestyramine (previously spelt cholestyramine in the UK), which is a type of medicine called a bile acid sequestrant. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • This Featured Ingredient Boosts Hydration While Helping Even Skin Tone, Smooth Fine Lines and Soothe the Complexion\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003ePhyto-Active Formulas Feature Plant Stem Cell Technology to Harness Nature's Regenerative Properties. (thegildedgirl.com)
  • In the screen for upstream regulators we identified a LONG PALE HYPOCOTYL (LPH) gene whose activity is indispensable for spatiotemporally correct expression of CYTOKININ INDEPENDENT-1 (CKI1), encoding the constitutively active sensor histidine kinase that activates MSP signaling. (muni.cz)
  • Our Active Adult 50+ formula supports your choice to stay energetic, sharp & healthy as you age- delivering research-based, age specific levels of key nutrients compatible with many prescription medications. (vitasprings.com)
  • VitaSprings does not imply any medical claims from the customer reviews on this Active Adult 50+, Food Based Multi-Vitamin, Value Size product on this website. (vitasprings.com)
  • Write a Review on this Active Adult 50+, Food Based Multi-Vitamin, Value Size product and share your experience or opinion with other customers. (vitasprings.com)
  • Indoor flower and vegetable growers typically use high-pressure sodium (HPS/SON) and metal halide (MH) HID lights, but fluorescents and LEDs are replacing metal halides due to their efficiency and economy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its LEDs can guide you at night when lights go off and you can simply turn it on/off by directly pressing. (avforums.com)
  • 6. The device of claim 1 wherein the light source comprises one or more white light emitting diodes (LEDs). (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 7. The device of claim 1 wherein the base comprises a sidewall that comprises at least one socket for mounting an accessory to the base, the accessory being selected from the group consisting of a volatile active dispenser comprising a heating element, a volatile active dispenser comprising a fan, and a colored light device that comprises a plurality of colored LEDs. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • A total of 12 Lumen Tech LEDs provide plenty of light, and four different modes let it serve as a low-power spotlight, high-power floodlight, a red light for better nighttime visibility, and as a high visibility signal beacon - making it great for keeping in your car for hazard light duties, or for using as a makeshift Bat Signal. (uncrate.com)
  • I have a 2000 Chevrolet Corvette and the Service Active Handling, ABS and Traction Control lights come on and read in the information bar. (fixya.com)
  • 2000 corvette ABS and traction lights will not go out, is there away to disconnect the lights so they do not stay lit up on the dashboard all the time, perhaps by disconnecting a fuse? (fixya.com)
  • On my 2000 model focus, when the light is on permanently, this means the traction control has been turned off. (answers.com)
  • It gives insights into the interactions between light and molecules and discusses sophisticated molecular designs, self-assembly and self-organization strategies, and state-of-the-art unconventional analytical methods. (routledge.com)
  • Superior to existing molecular transport systems, the light-induced active ion transport reported in this work does not rely on lipid or liquid membranes, which significantly improves its robustness and compatibility. (nanowerk.com)
  • In a recent study, a team of researchers at Argonne, Northwestern University and the Technical University of Denmark used the ultrafast high-intensity pulsed X-rays produced by the Linac Coherent Light Source to take molecular snapshots of these molecules. (phys.org)
  • In a recent study, a team of researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory, Northwestern University and the Technical University of Denmark used the ultrafast high-intensity pulsed X-rays produced by the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), a DOE Office of Science User Facility at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, to take molecular snapshots of these molecules. (phys.org)
  • The circadian system is typically conceptualized as a core molecular oscillator reset by light and temperature stimuli that regulates the expression of multiple output pathways ( Harmer, 2009 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • However, the molecular mechanism underlying the interaction between light and cytokinin signaling remains elusive. (muni.cz)
  • Most remarkable is the prolonged effect a short light treatment has on their preference to bite, with suppression lasting as long as four hours after the pulse," says Giles Duffield, associate professor of biology in the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Notre Dame and the Eck Institute for Global Health, who specializes in the molecular biology of circadian rhythms and photobiology in mammals and mosquitoes. (sciscape.org)
  • At the time, we knew only a few details about the car, including the fact that it has active aerodynamics and more power than your average Huracán. (motorauthority.com)
  • Perhaps above all else it's the active aerodynamics, the so-called Aerodinamica Lamborghini Attiva (ALA), that allowed the Huracán Performante to break that record at the Nürburgring. (motorauthority.com)
  • In new work led by Guo, reported in Nature Communications ( 'Photo-induced ultrafast active ion transport through graphene oxide (GO) membranes' ), the researchers demonstrate a coupled photon-electron-ion transport phenomenon through graphene oxide membranes. (nanowerk.com)
  • whereas phyB is the predominant red light sensor in Arabidopsis ( Whitelam and Devlin, 1997 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Here we describe that dynamic changes in higher-order nuclear organization occurring in cotyledons (embryonic leaves) upon germination are impacted by light availability in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana . (pnas.org)
  • Here, we determined that light perception triggers a switch between two different nuclear architectural schemes during Arabidopsis postembryonic development. (pnas.org)
  • Unlike the traditional bulkier ring flash units, the Orbis is made of durable, lightweight ABS plastic and works by clipping on to a photographer's existing detachable flash, redirecting the flash light around the ring shaped unit. (techradar.com)
  • The goal of Light2CAT is to develop new, highly efficient visible-light-activated titanium dioxide for inclusion in concretes to be used in structures across the whole of Europe to improve ambient air quality independent, for the first time, of local climate conditions. (europa.eu)
  • The other visible light activated photocatalysts did not produce any OH radicals primarily as a result of their electronic structure. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Bright light entering our eyes is increasing our alertness, and decreasing sleepiness, and makes us feel more energetic. (philips.co.uk)
  • 4 . A method of making polymer blend light active particles according to claim 1 , further including the step of forming nano-particles from said multi-layered particles. (google.es)
  • 5 . A method of making polymer blend light active particles according to claim 4 , wherein said nano-particles are formed using a microfluidizer. (google.es)
  • Designing simple synthetic active model systems such as self-propelled particles (SPPs) or artificial microswimmers is currently a topic of substantial interest in the active soft matter for a variety of reasons. (nature.com)
  • This movie demonstrates the switchable nature of interactions between the active and passive particles from repulsive to attractive by light modulation. (nature.com)
  • The dynamic response of passive particles to the disturbance velocity flow fields driven by immobilized active particle. (nature.com)
  • Moreover, the SPPs can act as nucleation sites, and switch the interactions between active and passive particles rapidly, leading to reconfigurable assembly and disassembly. (nature.com)
  • Fusion: Time-evolution and dynamic growth show the fusion of the active particles into a single cluster. (nature.com)
  • Outdoor conditions are mimicked with varying colour, temperatures and spectral outputs from the grow light, as well as varying the intensity of the lamps. (wikipedia.org)
  • We demonstrate the particle assemblies to undergo both fusion and fission transitions (see Movie3), depending on their relative orientation and the colour of illuminating light. (nature.com)
  • Some of the non-image forming effects of light exposure depend on the colour of light in combination with timing of exposure. (philips.co.uk)
  • Wittingly and unwittingly, we all encounter the beautiful collective motion of living or active matter systems in our daily life, e.g., flocks of birds, schools of fish, and colonies of bacteria. (nature.com)
  • Here, using 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing (cDNA) we determined the composition of actively transcribing bacteria from spring waters experimentally exposed through the day (morning, noon, and afternoon) to variable levels of solar radiation and light quality, and evaluated their influence on nutrient recycling. (frontiersin.org)
  • In total, our results reveal that both the structure and the diversity of the active bacteria community was extremely dynamic through the day, and showed marked shifts in composition that influenced nutrient recycling, highlighting how abiotic variation affects potential ecosystem functioning. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the morning, when the eyes are still adapted to darkness, relatively moderate intensity of light, such as the one of Wake-up Light can be sufficient to activate the body and reduce sleepiness. (philips.co.uk)
  • However, the titanium oxide based photocatalytic building materials are activated by ultraviolet light so, to date, such environmental benefits are limited to countries with a high incidence of sunlight. (europa.eu)
  • Researchers have developed light-sensitive concrete that can be used to build public infrastructures and buildings capable of reducing air pollution in outdoor and indoor environments. (europa.eu)
  • Following the mechanism proposed in this work, as shown in the figure below, the researchers constructed photonic ion switches (PIS), photonic ion diodes (PID), and photonic ion transistors (PIT) as the fundamental elements for light-controlled nanofluidic circuits. (nanowerk.com)
  • By using the LCLS, the researchers were able to capture atomic and electronic arrangements within the molecule that had lifetimes as short as 50 femtoseconds-which is about the amount of time it takes light to travel the width of a human hair. (phys.org)
  • Researchers have made the first demonstration of rapidly switching on and off "slow light" in specially designed materials at room temperature. (nanotech-now.com)
  • The effects of strong light-matter coupling used in slowing down light might create entangled photon pairs that lead to quantum computing capabilities beyond those of modern computers, the researchers say. (nanotech-now.com)
  • According to a new study recently published by researchers at the University of Notre Dame , just 10 minutes of light exposure can be enough to suppress biting and manipulate flight behavior in mosquitoes of the species Anopheles gambiae . (sciscape.org)
  • During the study, Notre Dame researchers tested the mosquitoes' preference to bite during their active host-seeking period by separating them into multiple control and test batches. (sciscape.org)
  • What the researchers found was that the mosquitoes that had been exposed to the light were much less eager to feed compared to the mosquitoes that had been kept in the dark. (sciscape.org)
  • In another experiment, researchers turned the light pulse on for 10 minutes every two hours throughout the 12 hour long night. (sciscape.org)
  • A study by researchers in Australia and the United Kingdom suggests that autoantibodies to fat binding proteins significantly increase in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with active disease. (innovations-report.com)
  • What does it mean when the TCS light in a 2002 Acura flashes on when you are about to move? (answers.com)
  • With time, blue light is getting more attention and companies are beginning to focus on premature skin aging, which is associated with symptoms such as hyperpigmentation, wrinkle formation and loss of elasticity and firmness. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • The sensitivity of the circadian system to light allows entrainment of the clock, permitting coordination of plant metabolic function and flowering time across seasons. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The "slow light" behavior can be controlled at an ultrafast time scale by integrating appropriate semiconductor materials with conventional metamaterial designs. (nanotech-now.com)
  • The crosstalk between cytokinin response and light is known for a long time. (muni.cz)
  • A , Both control (n=27 active phase) (n=22 inactive phase) and Fmr1 KO (n=33 active phase) (n=21 inactive phase) mice show sociability based on a preference for time spent in the chamber with a stranger mouse compared with an object. (eneuro.org)
  • There was also a near significant preference in the time spent in the chamber with the novel mouse compared with the familiar mouse in the Fmr1 KO mice during the active phase only. (eneuro.org)
  • The app brings some items found in other Hue companion apps timed lighting changes, sleep timers, and "sunrise" alarms, which gradually increase the light in the room as the user's wake-up time approaches and wraps them in a user interface that looks at home in iOS 7. (appleinsider.com)
  • Why does the traction light keeps coming on every time the car is turned on? (answers.com)
  • The Traction Control Light comes on every time you turn on the ignition. (answers.com)
  • In the first few months, most babies spend about 40 to 60 minutes of every 60 to 90 minutes of sleep time in active sleep. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Time-lapsed overlaid bright-field microscopy movie shows the propulsion direction switchable half-gold coated anatase Titania particle by light modulation. (nature.com)
  • If one recognizes the annual pattern in feelings of fatigue, increased sleep need and mild mood disturbances in winter, it seems optimal to start exposure to 20-30 minutes of bright light in the morning around breakfast time, as soon as the first signs in autumn appear. (philips.co.uk)
  • List your event on ACTIVE.com and gain more participants via search results and a custom landing page. (active.com)
  • We have introduced organic-dispersed reduced graphene oxides (rGO) in light-emitting diodes and photovoltaic devices. (rsc.org)
  • Interaction between light and organic matter is the basis of biological phenomena and materials science, and nowadays many materials scientists are interested in how their own organic molecules can be exploited for applications using light. (routledge.com)
  • Published by Light Wave Venture LLC Updated in June 2019 Fiber Optic Gyroscopes & Lasers Lead. (photonics.com)
  • MENAFN - Online PR News) Zylight showcases the new LED Go-Panel with Active Diffusion to offer customers flexibility in the field.Online PR News 11-September-2019 Cypress, Calif. (wn.com)
  • SAN DIEGO, Aug. 27, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- Environmental Lights, a leader in LED lighting solutions, announced the launch of LiteLinks LED Light Bars. (wn.com)
  • Dublin, Sept. 09, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- The "LED Panel Light Market: Global Industry Trends, Share, Size, Growth, Opportunity and Forecast 2019-2024" report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering. (wn.com)
  • Interestingly, ξ-potential data and cumulative release measurements demonstrate that the nanobubbles undergo charge-switchable behaviors and pH-/light-sensitive drug-release behaviors after surface engineering, which could facilitate deep tumor penetration and accelerate drug release for efficient killing of cancer cells. (nature.com)
  • It provides a completely new way for remote, non-invasive, and active control of the transport behaviors in synthetic membrane materials. (nanowerk.com)
  • While TiO2-containing concrete can remove up to 80 % of air pollution, its requirement for ultraviolet (UV) light limits its application to areas with high sunshine. (europa.eu)
  • Bench-scale tests were conducted in the laboratory, using ultraviolet (UV) light (low-pressure and medium-pressure lamps), and the results were compared with those for the disinfection efficiency of free chlorine and chloramines. (iwaponline.com)
  • Metal halide lights are regularly used for the vegetative phase of plant growth, as they emit larger amounts of blue and ultraviolet radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dynamic light scenes, which the company says are composed of colors chosen by artists, work by slowly shifting and combining the light of each Hue bulb as the scene is running, much like natural light shifts as the sun moves or clouds roll overhead. (appleinsider.com)
  • Light in the morning induces our rhythms to shift to an earlier phase, light in the evening shifts our rhythms to a later phase. (philips.co.uk)
  • Kids have a ton of energy, and they crave active indoor toys to burn through it, things they can play with no matter what the weather outside is doing. (cafemom.com)
  • Moisturizing Cream for All Skin Types.Description Description: Eucerin AQUAporin ACTIVE with SPF 25 and UVA protection is an innovative face moisturiser that enhances skins own hydration system to leave skin supple, smooth and radiant. (thejukeboxradio.gq)
  • In various embodiments of the invention, an interferometric display device is provided having an external film with a plurality of structures that redirect light from an inactive area of the display to an active area of the display. (google.ca)
  • Fluorescent lighting was formerly the most common type of indoor grow light but HID lights have surpassed them. (wikipedia.org)
  • A substitute for a conventional incandescent light bulb includes a CFL with a specially equipped base structure disposed between the male connector and the coiled fluorescent tube. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • While faster-than-light speeds are considered impossible, it is entirely reasonable to guide light through a material that slows or delays the motion of the photons as they move through the medium. (nanotech-now.com)
  • By expressing both these effects as low pass filters, we derive an approximate invariant that can be used to separate them without explicitly modeling the light transport. (cmu.edu)
  • In six states, state legislation or a governor's executive order explicitly allows or requires active purchasing strategies. (nashp.org)
  • From marketing exposure to actionable data insights, ACTIVE Works® is the race management software for managing & marketing your events. (active.com)