Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Itraconazole: A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.MycosesCandidiasis: Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)Aspergillosis: Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.Flucytosine: A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.Deoxycholic Acid: A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.Fluconazole: Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.TriazolesCandida: A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)Echinocandins: Cyclic hexapeptides of proline-ornithine-threonine-proline-threonine-serine. The cyclization with a single non-peptide bond can lead them to be incorrectly called DEPSIPEPTIDES, but the echinocandins lack ester links. Antifungal activity is via inhibition of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase production of BETA-GLUCANS.Nystatin: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces noursei, S. aureus, and other Streptomyces species. The biologically active components of the complex are nystatin A1, A2, and A3.Mucormycosis: Infection in humans and animals caused by any fungus in the order Mucorales (e.g., Absidia, Mucor, Rhizopus etc.) There are many clinical types associated with infection of the central nervous system, lung, gastrointestinal tract, skin, orbit and paranasal sinuses. In humans, it usually occurs as an opportunistic infection in patients with a chronic debilitating disease, particularly uncontrolled diabetes, or who are receiving immunosuppressive agents. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Aspergillus fumigatus: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic fumigatin is obtained. Its spores may cause respiratory infection in birds and mammals.Aspergillus: A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Lung Diseases, Fungal: Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.Meningitis, Cryptococcal: Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)Phosphatidylglycerols: A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.Lipopeptides: Compounds consisting of a short peptide chain conjugated with an acyl chain.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Leishmaniasis, Visceral: A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.Ergosterol: A steroid of interest both because its biosynthesis in FUNGI is a target of ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS, notably AZOLES, and because when it is present in SKIN of animals, ULTRAVIOLET RAYS break a bond to result in ERGOCALCIFEROL.Miconazole: An imidazole antifungal agent that is used topically and by intravenous infusion.Cryptococcus neoformans: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Cryptococcosis: Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.Zygomycosis: Infection in humans and animals caused by fungi in the class Zygomycetes. It includes MUCORMYCOSIS and entomophthoramycosis. The latter is a tropical infection of subcutaneous tissue or paranasal sinuses caused by fungi in the order Entomophthorales. Phycomycosis, closely related to zygomycosis, describes infection with members of Phycomycetes, an obsolete classification.Rhizopus: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, a common saprophyte and facultative parasite of mature fruits and vegetables. It may cause cerebral mycoses in diabetes and cutaneous infection in severely burned patients.Fungemia: The presence of fungi circulating in the blood. Opportunistic fungal sepsis is seen most often in immunosuppressed patients with severe neutropenia or in postoperative patients with intravenous catheters and usually follows prolonged antibiotic therapy.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Histoplasmosis: Infection resulting from inhalation or ingestion of spores of the fungus of the genus HISTOPLASMA, species H. capsulatum. It is worldwide in distribution and particularly common in the midwestern United States. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Mucorales: An order of zygomycetous fungi, usually saprophytic, causing damage to food in storage, but which may cause respiratory infection or MUCORMYCOSIS in persons suffering from other debilitating diseases.Polyenes: Hydrocarbons with more than one double bond. They are a reduced form of POLYYNES.Natamycin: Amphoteric macrolide antifungal antibiotic from Streptomyces natalensis or S. chattanoogensis. It is used for a variety of fungal infections, mainly topically.Neutropenia: A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.Tuftsin: N(2)-((1-(N(2)-L-Threonyl)-L-lysyl)-L-prolyl)-L-arginine. A tetrapeptide produced in the spleen by enzymatic cleavage of a leukophilic gamma-globulin. It stimulates the phagocytic activity of blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes and neutrophils in particular. The peptide is located in the Fd fragment of the gamma-globulin molecule.Scedosporium: A mitosporic fungal genus previously called Monosporium. Teleomorphs include PSEUDALLESCHERIA.Ketoconazole: Broad spectrum antifungal agent used for long periods at high doses, especially in immunosuppressed patients.Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Immunocompromised Host: A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.Trichosporon: A mitosporic fungal genus causing opportunistic infections, endocarditis, fungemia, a hypersensitivity pneumonitis (see TRICHOSPORONOSIS) and white PIEDRA.Central Nervous System Fungal Infections: MYCOSES of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges which may result in ENCEPHALITIS; MENINGITIS, FUNGAL; MYELITIS; BRAIN ABSCESS; and EPIDURAL ABSCESS. Certain types of fungi may produce disease in immunologically normal hosts, while others are classified as opportunistic pathogens, causing illness primarily in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME).Coccidioidomycosis: Infection with a fungus of the genus COCCIDIOIDES, endemic to the SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES. It is sometimes called valley fever but should not be confused with RIFT VALLEY FEVER. Infection is caused by inhalation of airborne, fungal particles known as arthroconidia, a form of FUNGAL SPORES. A primary form is an acute, benign, self-limited respiratory infection. A secondary form is a virulent, severe, chronic, progressive granulomatous disease with systemic involvement. It can be detected by use of COCCIDIOIDIN.Absidia: A genus of zygomycetous fungi, family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, which sometimes causes infection in humans.Azoles: Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.Blastomycosis: A fungal infection that may appear in two forms: 1, a primary lesion characterized by the formation of a small cutaneous nodule and small nodules along the lymphatics that may heal within several months; and 2, chronic granulomatous lesions characterized by thick crusts, warty growths, and unusual vascularity and infection in the middle or upper lobes of the lung.Meningitis, Fungal: Meningitis caused by fungal agents which may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.Colloids: Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutations.Fat Emulsions, Intravenous: Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.Candida glabrata: A species of MITOSPORIC FUNGI commonly found on the body surface. It causes opportunistic infections especially in immunocompromised patients.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Candida tropicalis: A species of MITOSPORIC FUNGI that is a major cause of SEPTICEMIA and disseminated CANDIDIASIS, especially in patients with LYMPHOMA; LEUKEMIA; and DIABETES MELLITUS. It is also found as part of the normal human mucocutaneous flora.Paecilomyces: A mitosporic fungal genus occasionally causing human diseases such as pulmonary infections, mycotic keratitis, endocarditis, and opportunistic infections. Its teleomorph is BYSSOCHLAMYS.Mycetoma: A chronic progressive subcutaneous infection caused by species of fungi (eumycetoma), or actinomycetes (actinomycetoma). It is characterized by tumefaction, abscesses, and tumor-like granules representing microcolonies of pathogens, such as MADURELLA fungi and bacteria ACTINOMYCETES, with different grain colors.Aspergillus flavus: A species of imperfect fungi which grows on peanuts and other plants and produces the carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. It is also used in the production of the antibiotic flavicin.Opportunistic Infections: An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.Dermatomycoses: Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Cryptococcus: A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.Leishmania donovani: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.Fusarium: A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.Histoplasma: A mitosporic Onygenales fungal genus causing HISTOPLASMOSIS in humans and animals. Its single species is Histoplasma capsulatum which has two varieties: H. capsulatum var. capsulatum and H. capsulatum var. duboisii. Its teleomorph is AJELLOMYCES capsulatus.Eye Infections, Fungal: Infection by a variety of fungi, usually through four possible mechanisms: superficial infection producing conjunctivitis, keratitis, or lacrimal obstruction; extension of infection from neighboring structures - skin, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx; direct introduction during surgery or accidental penetrating trauma; or via the blood or lymphatic routes in patients with underlying mycoses.Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis: Lung infections with the invasive forms of ASPERGILLUS, usually after surgery, transplantation, prolonged NEUTROPENIA or treatment with high-doses of CORTICOSTEROIDS. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis can progress to CHRONIC NECROTIZING PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS or hematogenous spread to other organs.Coccidioides: A mitosporic fungal genus which causes COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS.Pseudallescheria: Ascomycetous fungi, family Microascaceae, order Microascales, commonly found in the soil. They are causative agents of mycetoma, maduromycosis, and other infections in humans.Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Cryptococcus gattii: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella bacillispora.Chills: The sudden sensation of being cold. It may be accompanied by SHIVERING.Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections: Infections of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges by single celled organisms of the former subkingdom known as protozoa. The central nervous system may be the primary or secondary site of protozoal infection. These diseases may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Pulmonary Aspergillosis: Infections of the respiratory tract with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS. Infections may result in allergic reaction (ALLERGIC BRONCHOPULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS), colonization in pulmonary cavities as fungus balls (MYCETOMA), or lead to invasion of the lung parenchyma (INVASIVE PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS).Antimony Sodium Gluconate: Antimony complex where the metal may exist in either the pentavalent or trivalent states. The pentavalent gluconate is used in leishmaniasis. The trivalent gluconate is most frequently used in schistosomiasis.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Endocarditis: Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart (ENDOCARDIUM), the continuous membrane lining the four chambers and HEART VALVES. It is often caused by microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and rickettsiae. Left untreated, endocarditis can damage heart valves and become life-threatening.Aspergillosis, Allergic Bronchopulmonary: Hypersensitivity reaction (ALLERGIC REACTION) to fungus ASPERGILLUS in an individual with long-standing BRONCHIAL ASTHMA. It is characterized by pulmonary infiltrates, EOSINOPHILIA, elevated serum IMMUNOGLOBULIN E, and skin reactivity to Aspergillus antigen.Filipin: A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Meglumine: 1-Deoxy-1-(methylamino)-D-glucitol. A derivative of sorbitol in which the hydroxyl group in position 1 is replaced by a methylamino group. Often used in conjunction with iodinated organic compounds as contrast medium.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Agranulocytosis: A decrease in the number of GRANULOCYTES; (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS).Naegleria fowleri: A species of parasitic protozoa having both an ameboid and flagellate stage in its life cycle. Infection with this pathogen produces PRIMARY AMEBIC MENINGOENCEPHALITIS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Drug Antagonism: Phenomena and pharmaceutics of compounds that inhibit the function of agonists (DRUG AGONISM) and inverse agonists (DRUG INVERSE AGONISM) for a specific receptor. On their own, antagonists produce no effect by themselves to a receptor, and are said to have neither intrinsic activity nor efficacy.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Suspensions: Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.Antimony: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75. It is used as a metal alloy and as medicinal and poisonous salts. It is toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.Meningoencephalitis: An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.Prototheca: A genus of achlorophyllic algae in the family Chlorellaceae, and closely related to CHLORELLA. It is found in decayed matter; WATER; SEWAGE; and SOIL; and produces cutaneous and disseminated infections in various VERTEBRATES including humans.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Colorimetry: Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mycology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.Meningitis: Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)
Amphotericin B is another option. Among individuals being treated in intensive care units, the mortality rate is about 30-50% ... No benefit from probiotics has been found for active infections. Systemic candidiasis occurs when Candida yeast enters the ... A number of weeks of intravenous amphotericin B may be used as an alternative. In certain groups at very high risk, antifungal ... By mouth or intravenous fluconazole, itraconazole, or amphotericin B may be used if these do not work. A number of topical ...
A range of antifungal agents including caspofungin, voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and amphotericin B are active ...
... but resistance develops quickly during long-term treatment of active infections, so the drug is always used against active ... It has been used with amphotericin B in largely unsuccessful attempts to treat primary amoebic meningoencephalitis caused by ... It is part of the recommended treatment of active tuberculosis during pregnancy, even though its safety in pregnancy is not ... Rifampicin can be used alone in patients with latent tuberculosis infections to prevent or prolong the development of active ...
... than amphotericin B and fluconazole against yeast infections Disadvantages of echinocandins: embryotoxic in animal studies ( ... and modestly or minimally active against dimorphic fungi (Blastomyces and Histoplasma). These have some activity against the ... especially in synergistic activity with amphotericin B and additive activity with fluconazole. Echinocandins are fungistatic ...
Amphotericin B deoxycholate is the most common treatment antifungal agent used to treat Candida infections. Topical antifungal ... Other azoles that are highly active against C. tropicalis are itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, ravuconazole and ... Micafungin, compared to amphotericin B, it is more efficient. Anidulafungin results are similar to Caspofungin and Micafungin. ... For invasive disease, treatments include amphotericin B, echinocandins, or extended-spectrum triazole antifungals. In the ...
... is active against the following microorganisms: Candida spp. Aspergillus spp. Zygomycetes spp. Posaconazole is ... Amphotericin B Voriconazole Isavuconazole Schiller DS, Fung HB (September 2007). "Posaconazole: an extended-spectrum triazole ...
Atomically monodisperse nickel nanoclusters as highly active electrocatalysts for water oxidation' Nanoscale, 2016. 'Design and ... and evaluation of lecithin based nanocarriers for enhanced pharmacological and oral pharmacokinetic profile of amphotericin B' ... "Atomically monodisperse nickel nanoclusters as highly active electrocatalysts for water oxidation". Nanoscale. 8 (18). doi: ... and evaluation of lecithin-based nanocarriers for the enhanced pharmacological and oral pharmacokinetic profile of amphotericin ...
Amphotericin B is a mainstay of antifungal treatment, with a recommended dose of 1 mg/kg/day, culminating in a minimum dose of ... Treatment for HIV positive individuals should run in parallel to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Even though ... A multi-month course of Amphotericin B followed by itraconazole has been suggested for complicated infection in immunodeficient ...
Significance of Bioenhancers Due to an increased bioavailability, the dose and cost of active drug can be reduced, making the ... Allicin from garlic enhances the effect of the fungicide amphotericin B on yeast cells by affecting the transport of the ... It increases the bioavailability of the active agent paclitaxel used to treat cancer. The bioenhancer technology is primarily ... In combination with curcumin an increased bioavailability of the active compounds celiprolol and midazolam was detected. Ginger ...
Extracts of some natural products led to modern discovery of their active ingredients and eventually to the development of new ... This, in turn, led to the development of an impressive arsenal of antibacterial and antifungal agents including amphotericin B ... Usually, the natural product compound has some form of biological activity and that compound is known as the active principle ... Though the number of plants that have been extensively studied is relatively small, many pharmacologically active natural ...
Its active metabolite, cidofovir diphosphate, inhibits viral replication by selectively inhibiting viral DNA polymerases. It ... amphotericin B, foscarnet, IV aminoglycosides, IV pentamide, vancomycin, tacrolimus, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, etc ... Bradbury, J (March 2002). "Orally available cidofovir derivative active against smallpox". Lancet. 359 (9311): 1041. doi: ...
... may refer to: Active magnetic bearing Advanced Memory Buffer, used in Fully Buffered DIMM memory Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, ... a humanitarian institution operating during the Spanish Civil War Amphotericin B, an anti-fungal drug Axe Murder Boyz, a two- ...
... amphotericin A and amphotericin B, are known, but only B is used clinically, because it is significantly more active in vivo. ... Amphotericin A is almost identical to amphotericin B (having a C=C double bond between the 27th and 28th carbons), but has ... This is amphotericin B's primary effect as an antifungal agent. It has been found that the amphotericin B/ergosterol ... As the original formulation of amphotericin, it is often referred to as "conventional" amphotericin. In order to improve the ...
The Nicolaou group is active in the field of organic chemistry with research interests in methodology development and total ... Endiandric acids A-D (1982) Amphoteronolide B and Amphotericin B (1987) Calicheamicin γ1 (1992) Sirolimus (1993) Taxol (1994) ...
The fungus has exhibited tolerance to amphotericin B and flucytosine. It is not thought to be a significant pathogen of humans ... P. marquandii produces highly active, specific keratinases. In presence of keratin chips with phosphate and magnesium ions, it ...
CMT-3, a chemically modified tetracycline, has also shown to be active in vitro against P. boydii. In the United States, P. ... or on media containing cycloheximide or amphotericin B. Optimal incubation is at a temperature of 25-35 °C (77-95 °F). ... Pseudallescheria boydii is resistant to amphotericin B and nearly all other antifungal drugs. Consequently, there is currently ...
... the active compound being moenomycins A and C) Clavulanic acid (from S. clavuligerus) is a drug used in combination with some ... amphotericin B (from S. nodosus), and natamycin (from S. natalensis). Members of the Streptomyces genus are the source for ...
and shown to have antifungal activity against T. rubrum, C. neoformans and C. albicans, better than amphotericin B. Although ... It is the simplest member and the biosynthetic precursor of a large family of biologically active prenylated tryptophan-proline ...
Family 1.D.31 The Amphotericin B Family 1.D.32 The Pore-forming Novicidin Family 1.D.33 The Channel-forming Polytheonamide B ... mediated Active Transport 3.A.1 ABC transporters including BtuCD, molybdate uptake transporter, Cystic fibrosis transmembrane ... Family 1.D.44 The Synthetic Ion Channel with Redox-active Ferrocene (ICRF) Family 1.D.45 The Sonoporation and Electroporation ...
The structure of this active compound is characterized as a polyene macrolide with a deoxysugar D-mycosamine, an aminoglycoside ... liposomal nystatin appears to cause fewer cases of and less severe nephrotoxicity than observed with amphotericin B. In the UK ... but investigational use has shown greater in vitro activity than colloidal formulations of amphotericin B, and demonstrated ... burning and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis Like amphotericin B and natamycin, nystatin binds to ergosterol, a major ...
... is active in vitro as well as in vivo against some strains of Candida and Cryptococcus. Limited studies demonstrate ... Flucytosine may increase the toxicity of amphotericin B and vice versa, although the combination may be life-saving and should ... It is specifically used, together with amphotericin B, for serious Candida infections and cryptococcosis. It may be used by ... particular with amphotericin B, may be higher. In animal models (rats), flucytosine has been found to be teratogenic. ...
Thr-Arg-Pro-Arg, Thr-Lys-Pro-Lys, Thr-Arg-Pro-Lys are as active as Thr-Lys-Pro-Arg. Thr-Lys-Pro-Pro-Arg is a potent inhibitor. ... Tuftsin enhances the action of rifampin-bearing liposomes in the treatment of tuberculosis, and that amphotericin B - bearing ... It is a highly active enzyme with pH optimum:6,8. The half-maximum stimulation is attained at about 100 nM. Stimulation of ... The peptide Thr-Arg-Pro-Arg is biologically active pancreatic polypeptide 32-35 with gastrointestinal functions. ...
May 2007). "Liposomal amphotericin B as initial therapy for invasive mold infection: a randomized trial comparing a high- ... Active Antifungal Therapy: A Case‐Control Observational Study of 27 Recent Cases". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 191 (8 ... "Voriconazole versus amphotericin B for primary therapy of invasive aspergillosis". N Engl J Med. 347 (6): 408-15. doi:10.1056/ ... such as amphotericin B, caspofungin (in combination therapy only), flucytosine (in combination therapy only), or itraconazole, ...
Amphotericin B is nephrotoxic when given intravenously. As a polyene's hydrophobic chain is shortened, its sterol binding ... is a hydroxypyridone antifungal that interferes with active membrane transport, cell membrane integrity, and fungal respiratory ... Amphotericin B Candicidin Filipin - 35 carbons, binds to cholesterol (toxic) Hamycin Natamycin - 33 carbons, binds well to ... However, at therapeutic doses, some amphotericin B may bind to animal membrane cholesterol, increasing the risk of human ...
The sandfly is most active at dusk and dawn; keeping dogs indoors during those peak times will help minimize exposure. ... Polyene antibiotic amphotericin B. L. infantum[23] *Amphotericin B. *Meglumine antimoniate. *Pentavalent antimonials ...
... can be treated with topical anti-fungal drugs, such as nystatin, miconazole, Gentian violet or amphotericin B ... Other forms of immunodeficiency which may cause oral candidiasis include HIV/AIDS, active cancer and treatment, chemotherapy or ...
Of this group, itraconazole is the most active. A separate antifungal compound, amphotericin B, has been employed in ...
AmBisome infusion contains the active ingredient amphotericin, which is a type of medicine called an antifungal. It is used to ... AmBisome (amphotericin). AmBisome infusion contains the active ingredient amphotericin, which is a type of medicine called an ... AmBisome infusion contains the active ingredient amphotericin, which is a type of medicine called an antifungal. It is used to ... amphotericin must be given by a drip into a vein (intravenous infusion). Unfortunately amphotericin given in this way commonly ...
Fungizone infusion contains the active ingredient amphotericin, which is a type of medicine called an antifungal. It is used to ... Fungizone (amphotericin). Fungizone infusion contains the active ingredient amphotericin, which is a type of medicine called an ... Fungizone infusion contains the active ingredient amphotericin, which is a type of medicine called an antifungal. It is used to ... Fungizone infusion is a conventional water-based form of amphotericin. Unfortunately, this form of amphotericin commonly causes ...
... amphotericin b - Answer: According to manufacturer it should be used in 24 hours of reconstitution ... Active. 7 Mar 2011. Topics. fungizone, amphotericin b. Details:. Diluted to 0.15% to be taken as eye drops? and is it harmful ... Home › Q & A › Questions › Amphotericin B - What is the.... Amphotericin B - What is the stability duration of IV fungizone if ... What is the difference between Amphotericin B lipid complex and liposomal Amphotericin B?. Posted 29 Apr 2010 • 1 answer ...
Active hepatitis (viral, drug-induced, or other) defined by progressive worsening of hepatic enzymes to grade 3 or 4 toxicity ... Amphotericin B. Liposomal amphotericin B. Flucytosine. Antifungal Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. 14-alpha Demethylase ... A Randomized Double Blind Protocol Comparing Amphotericin B With Flucytosine to Amphotericin B Alone Followed by a Comparison ... A Randomized Double Blind Protocol Comparing Amphotericin B With Flucytosine to Amphotericin B Alone Followed by a Comparison ...
... amphotericin A and amphotericin B, are known, but only B is used clinically, because it is significantly more active in vivo. ... Amphotericin A is almost identical to amphotericin B (having a C=C double bond between the 27th and 28th carbons), but has ... This is amphotericin Bs primary effect as an antifungal agent. It has been found that the amphotericin B/ergosterol ... As the original formulation of amphotericin, it is often referred to as "conventional" amphotericin. In order to improve the ...
Active Comparator: Standard Therapy Amphotericin B 0.7 mg/kg for 14 day followed by fluconazole 400 mg daily for 8 weeks. For ... Drug: Amphotericin B Amphotericin B 0.7 mg/kg IV for the first 14 days of treatment. This period may be extended up to an ... Drug: Amphotericin B Amphotericin B 0.7 mg/kg IV for the first 14 days of treatment. This period may be extended up to an ... Drug: Amphotericin B Amphotericin B 0.7 mg/kg IV for the first 14 days of treatment. This period may be extended up to an ...
Active Comparator: Liposomal Amphotericin B Liposomal amphotericin B once a day: 3 mg/kg/day ... Drug: Liposomal amphotericin B Liposomal amphotericin B once a day for 14 days: 3 mg/kg/day. IV administration during 60 ... Amphotericin B. Liposomal amphotericin B. Anidulafungin. Amebicides. Antiprotozoal Agents. Antiparasitic Agents. Anti-Infective ... Anidulafungin vs Amphotericin B Safety in High Risk Hepatic Transplant Recipients (AVALTRA). The safety and scientific validity ...
Drug information on Amphotericin B Injection (powder, lyophilized, for solution; amphotericin B deoxycholate) for health care ... of a given dose being excreted in the biologically active form. Details of possible metabolic pathways are not known. After ... Amphotericin B. Amphotericin B< Audio icon Audio icon Other Names: ABLC, Abelcet, AmBisome, Amphotec, amphotericin B ... Amphotericin B for Injection USP. Available as single vials providing 50 mg amphotericin B as a yellow to orange lyophilized ...
Liposomal amphotericin B may be effective in controlling fever and granulocytopenia. It is not yet known which r... ... Allocation: Randomized, Control: Active Control, Primary Purpose: Supportive Care. Conditions. Cancer. Intervention. liposomal ... Intermittent Liposomal Amphotericin B Primary Prophylaxis. The purpose of this trial is to see which dose of liposomal ... Amphotericin B (AMB) is a polyene macrolide antibiotic used for treating invasive fungal infections. Liposomal AMB (L-AMB) is a ...
PARADIGM - Patients Active in Research and Dialogues for an Improved Generation of Medicines. ... Short course, high dose liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) in combination with high dose fluconazole effectively treats HIV- ... This short course treatment strategy is now being tested against amphotericin B deoxycholate in a clinical end point trial. ... Short course high-dose liposomal amphotericin B for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: A phase-II randomized controlled ...
Existing active substance. *Biocidal Products Committee opinions on active substance approval. *List of approved active ... Amphotericin B. Regulatory process names 1 IUPAC names 8 Other identifiers 1 ...
Amphotericin B solution for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and ... Amphotericin B remains active for 3 days in culture at 37°C. ... Amphotericin B solution 250 μg/mL in deionized water, sterile- ... This product is supplied as 250 μg/mL Amphotericin B in deionized water. It is a solution containing Amphotericin B, and the ... Amphotericin B solution has been used-. • as an intraperitoneal injection for the treatment of Aspergillus fumigatus infection ...
Amphotericin B is another option. Among individuals being treated in intensive care units, the mortality rate is about 30-50% ... No benefit from probiotics has been found for active infections. Systemic candidiasis occurs when Candida yeast enters the ... A number of weeks of intravenous amphotericin B may be used as an alternative. In certain groups at very high risk, antifungal ... By mouth or intravenous fluconazole, itraconazole, or amphotericin B may be used if these do not work. A number of topical ...
All tested agents were less active against these filamentous fungi than against Aspergillus spp. Caspofungin, which is not ... at ≤1 μg/ml compared to 83% for itraconazole and 91% for amphotericin B. Amphotericin B inhibited only 38% of Aspergillus ... None of the agents except amphotericin B had good in vitro activity against Fusarium spp. (90% MIC [MIC90] or MEC90 of ,8 μg/ml ... Voriconazole versus amphotericin B for primary therapy of invasive aspergillosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 347:408-415. ...
Amphotericin B, the active ingredient in amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC), binds to sterols in cell membranes of both fungal ... NOTE: Amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC) is not dosed the same as conventional amphotericin B (amphotericin B deoxycholate) or ... amphotericin B cholesteryl sulfate complex (ABCD), amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC), amphotericin B liposomal (LAmB)) can ... Amphotericin B lipid complex may also be given as a single agent for patients unable to tolerate flucytosine. If amphotericin B ...
Less active at acidic pH.Less active at acidic pH. •• Adverse effect :Adverse effect : •• GIT - Nausea, vomiting, bad taste, ... Amphotericin-BAmphotericin-B •• HamycinHamycin •• Azole derivativesAzole derivatives •• MiconazoleMiconazole •• ... Most active against gram+ve cocci, C.diphtheriae, ActinomycesMost active against gram+ve cocci, C.diphtheriae, Actinomyces •• ... More active against anaerobes.More active against anaerobes. -- ParenteralParenteral OralOral •• CEFUROXIMECEFUROXIME ...
that exhibit resistance to fluconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B and was much more active than the other triazoles ... Although POS was slightly less active than VRC against Candida spp., it was more active than either ITC or AMB. Against ... POS was far more active than either FLC (34) or CSP (8) and slightly more active than ITC (34). In the clinic, POS has been ... it was no more active than ITC against Candida spp. (26) or Cryptococcus neoformans (25). POS has also proved more active than ...
Discovery of mycelial forms in fresh preparations of sputa or bronchial washings is a valuable clue to active infections. ... Aspergillosis in Four Renal Transplant Recipients: Diagnosis and Effective Treatment with Amphotericin B JOHN R. BURTON, M.D.; ... All four were effectively treated with amphotericin B in low, widely spaced doses. Early diagnosis was apparently the key to ... Aspergillosis in Four Renal Transplant Recipients: Diagnosis and Effective Treatment with Amphotericin B. Ann Intern Med. 1972; ...
The main reason for amphotericin B to be replaced by the newer, equally active agents is renal toxicity [5]. Monotherapy with ... amphotericin B is used less often [5, 6]. However, until a few years ago, amphotericin B was the gold standard and the low ... Treatment is unsuccessful in 30-60% of patients [1, 3]. A number of highly active new agents have recently become available [4 ... Bennett JE, Dismukes WE, Duma RJ, et al (1979) A comparison of amphotericin B alone and combined with flucytosine in the ...
Amphotericin B) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related ... Amphotericin B, the active ingredient of AmBisome, acts by binding to the sterol component, ergosterol, of the cell membrane of ... Amphotericin B. AmBisome. Amphotericin B. Total number of patients receiving at least one dose of study drug. 48. 47. 295. 297 ... Amphotericin B is a macrocyclic, polyene, antifungal antibiotic produced from a strain of Streptomyces nodosus. Amphotericin B ...
Polyene antifungals (amphotericin B). nephrotoxicity. Proton pump inhibitors. loss of active magnesium absorption via transient ... Magnesium also plays a key role in the active transport of calcium and potassium ions across cell membranes, a process that is ... Transmembrane electrolyte flux, active transport of potassium and calcium across cell membranes, regulation of cell adhesion ... EGFR blockade in the nephron impairs the active transport of magnesium (→ magnesium wasting). ...
July 2014: Active, laboratory-based surveillance identified an outbreak of candidaemia in a neonatal intensive care unit in ... Decreasing overcrowding and amphotericin B treatment were recommended.. *January 2014: Investigation of diarrhea outbreak among ...
July 2014: Active, laboratory-based surveillance identified an outbreak of candidaemia in a neonatal intensive care unit in ... Decreasing overcrowding and amphotericin B treatment were recommended.. * January 2014: Investigation of diarrhea outbreak ...
Adequate aqueous solubility has been one of the desired properties while selecting drug molecules and other bio-actives for ... Adequate aqueous solubility has been one of the desired properties while selecting drug molecules and other bio-actives for ... 5-FU, 5-Fluorouracil; ABZ, Albendazole; AmB, Amphotericin-B; API, Active pharmaceutical ingredient; ASD, Autism spectrum ... Amphotericin-B. Amphotericin-B (AmB) is a polyene antibiotic, commonly used for systemic fungal infections. The clinical use of ...
  • Because ABLC has a 1/1 molar ratio for the active product versus the phospholipids (see Table 2 ), the weekly dose was about the double compared to AMB-d. (hindawi.com)
  • A biologically active composition made up of core particles or surfaces which are coated with a layer which is designed to allow attachment of biochemically reactive pairs (BRP's) without denaturing the BRP to the microparticles. (google.com)
  • The in vitro activities of dihydroartemisinin (the biologically active metabolite of artemisinin derivatives), chloroquine, monodesethylamodiaquine (the biologically active metabolite of amodiaquine), quinine, mefloquine, halofantrine, and pyrimethamine were assessed in 65 African isolates of Plasmodium falciparum from Yaounde, Cameroon using an isotopic microtest. (ajtmh.org)
  • Search the Australian Sports Anti-Doping Authority (ASADA) database that provides information about the prohibited status of specific medications and/or the active ingredient based on the current World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List. (healthdirect.gov.au)
  • This product strategy is the basis of our lead product, SinuNase™, in which the active pharmaceutical ingredient is the approved antifungal, amphotericin B, and which we were able to advance directly into a Fast Tracked Phase 3 clinical trial for chronic sinusitis," said Dr. Frank E. O'Donnell, Jr., Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Accentia Biopharmaceuticals. (eurekalert.org)
  • Caspofungin and amphotericin B inhibited 93% and 89% of isolates at ≤1 μg/ml, respectively, with caspofungin demonstrating an MEC 90 of 0.12 μg/ml. (asm.org)
  • Search [email protected] to access more information on amphotericin B, including additional drug labels and any generic equivalents. (nih.gov)
  • After discharge, he started highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), however the patient referred that he was complying with anti-tuberculostatic drugs but he was not taking HAART nor prophylactic antibiotics/antifungals. (elsevier.es)
  • Many drugs are on prevention, in the following its active against several cYP450. (musicaenlamochila.net)
  • The amphipathic nature of amphotericin along with its low solubility and permeability has posed major hurdles for oral administration given its low bioavailability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adequate aqueous solubility has been one of the desired properties while selecting drug molecules and other bio-actives for product development. (frontiersin.org)
  • Each vial contains a sterile, nonpyrogenic, lyophilized cake (which may partially reduce to powder following manufacture) providing 50 mg amphotericin B and 41 mg sodium desoxycholate buffered with 20.2 mg sodium phosphates (consisting of mono and dibasic sodium phosphate, phosphoric acid and sodium hydroxide). (nih.gov)