Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Adaptive Immunity: Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Mice, Inbred C57BLMice, Inbred BALB CImmunity, Herd: The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.APUD Cells: Cells with the capacity to take up and decarboxylate the amine precursors DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE or 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN. This is a property of endocrine cells of neural and non-neural origin. APUDOMA is a general term collectively applied to tumors associated with APUD cells.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Receptors, Pattern Recognition: A large family of cell surface receptors that bind conserved molecular structures (PAMPS) present in pathogens. They play important roles in host defense by mediating cellular responses to pathogens.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Toll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Listeriosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Bacteriocins: Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Mice, Inbred C3HOrthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Melanoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.Protozoan Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Cross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Immunotherapy, Adoptive: Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Colicins: Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Pseudomonas syringae: A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Immune Evasion: Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Lymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88: An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Immunotherapy, Active: Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Measles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.Smallpox: An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Toll-Like Receptor 2: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.Mycobacterium bovis: The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Plasmodium yoelii: A species of PLASMODIUM causing malaria in rodents.Alum Compounds: Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.Tetanus: A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.Fungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.Mice, Inbred CBAVirulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Eimeria: A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Various species are parasitic in the epithelial cells of the liver and intestines of man and other animals.Cross-Priming: Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Immunomodulation: Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.Plasmodium berghei: A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles dureni.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.beta-Defensins: DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Chlamydia muridarum: Species of CHLAMYDIA causing pneumonitis in mice and hamsters. These isolates formerly belonged to CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.Strongylida Infections: Infections with nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA.Leishmania major: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Plasmodium: A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Immunocompetence: The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.Parasitemia: The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Toll-Like Receptor 9: A pattern recognition receptor that binds unmethylated CPG CLUSTERS. It mediates cellular responses to bacterial pathogens by distinguishing between self and bacterial DNA.Tumor Escape: The ability of tumors to evade destruction by the IMMUNE SYSTEM. Theories concerning possible mechanisms by which this takes place involve both cellular immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and humoral immunity (ANTIBODY FORMATION), and also costimulatory pathways related to CD28 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD28) and CD80 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD80).Whooping Cough: A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically ... However, even a partial, late, or weak immunity, such as a one resulting from cross-immunity to a strain other than the target ... Even if the host does develop antibodies, protection might not be adequate; immunity might develop too slowly to be effective ... Recombinant Vector - by combining the physiology of one micro-organism and the DNA of the other, immunity can be created ...
The primary significance of passively acquired antibody is that it interferes with the development of active immunity. High ... also suggest an acquired immunotolerance. A possible example of an infected, immunotolerant, sexually active boar was reported ... and as a result they develop an active immunity that probably persists throughout life. Collectively, the seroepidemiological ... Sometimes passively acquired antibody persists for a longer interval. Moreover, levels of antibody too low to be detected by ...
Long-term active memory is acquired following infection by activation of B and T cells. Active immunity can also be generated ... This process of acquired immunity is the basis of vaccination. Disorders of the immune system can result in autoimmune diseases ... Prokaryotes also possess acquired immunity, through a system that uses CRISPR sequences to retain fragments of the genomes of ... Adaptive (or acquired) immunity creates immunological memory after an initial response to a specific pathogen, leading to an ...
Adaptive immune system
In general, active immunity is long-term and can be acquired by infection followed by B cells and T cells activation, or ... Immunity can be acquired either actively or passively. Immunity is acquired actively when a person is exposed to foreign ... Both actively acquired and passively acquired immunity can be obtained by natural or artificial means. Naturally Acquired ... Artificially Acquired Active Immunity- is done by vaccination (introducing dead or weakened antigen to the host's cell). ...
Index of HIV/AIDS-related articles
... acquired immunity - acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) - AIDSinfo - ACT UP/Golden Gate - active immunity - acupuncture ... cell-mediated immunity (CMI) - cellular immunity - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) - Centers for Medicare and ... mucosal immunity - mucous membrane - Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study - multi-drug rescue therapy - multiple drug-resistant ... division of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (DAIDS) - DNA - Domain (biology) - dose-ranging study - dose-response ...
Monoclonal antibody therapy
Monoclonal antibodies can be acquired in the immune system via passive immunity or active immunity.The advantage of active ... ISBN 0-443-07310-4. Baxter, David (December 2007). "Active and passive immunity, vaccine types, excipients and licensing". ... Baxter, David (December 2007). "Active and passive immunity, vaccine types, excipients and licensing". Occupational Medicine. ... In mice expressing APP, both active and passive immunization of anti-Aβ antibodies has been shown to be effective in clearing ...
... as they had no acquired immunity, and silenced most of the protest. The HBC abandoned the fort in 1849 after the area's stocks ... In 1868, the U.S. built a military post called Fort Wrangell at the site, and it remained active until 1877. The community ... While on business travels, Waters began to acquire Indian artifacts and make valuable contacts with Indian artisans. He ...
Plant Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR)
... "acquired physiological immunity", "resistance displacement", "plant immune function" and "induced system resistance." ( ... Over the past decade, the study of induced system resistance has become a very active field. The biological factors of plant- ... "system of acquired resistance." After this description of the phenomenon, several different terms have been used, namely, " ...
... to use DiCAST to screen patient-derived biological samples acquired after those patients have gained anti-cancer immunity in ... January 30, 1999). "Active specific immunotherapy for stage II and stage III human colon cancer: a randomised trial". Lancet. ... This product was evaluated in Phase III in colon cancer in the 1990s and another Phase III study, called ACTIVE, is currently ... Hanna founded a company to develop what became OncoVAX and this was acquired by a company from Seattle called Intracel, but ...
Colostrum present in mothers milk is an example of active immunity. Artificially acquired passive immunity is a short-term ... Maternal passive immunity is a type of naturally acquired passive immunity, and refers to antibody-mediated immunity conveyed ... both acquired and congenital forms) and immunosuppression. Artificially acquired active immunity can be induced by a vaccine, a ... active immunity' and lasts long-term, sometimes lifelong. 'Passive immunity' is acquired through transfer (injection or ...
... therefore the patient is at risk of being infected by the same pathogen later unless they acquire active immunity or ... Passive immunity is the transfer of active humoral immunity in the form of ready-made antibodies. Passive immunity can occur ... Maternal passive immunity is a type of naturally acquired passive immunity, and refers to antibody-mediated immunity conveyed ... Passive immunity is effective, but ephemeral (lasting a short amount of time). Active immunity Immunity (medical) "Vaccines: ...
Specific acquired immunity against infectious diseases may be mediated by antibodies and/or T lymphocytes. Immunity mediated by ... The host harbors and agent in a mature, or sexually active stage phase called the definitive host. The intermediate host comes ... Resistance to infection (immunity) may be acquired following a disease, by asymptomatic carriage of the pathogen, by harboring ... Some viruses once acquired never leave the body. A typical example is the herpes virus, which tends to hide in nerves and ...
Đái Duy Ban
Immunity can possibly be acquired naturally against SBV. It is possible that the seasonality of the infection cycle would not ... It appears to be transmitted by midges (Culicoides spp.) which are likely to have been most active in causing the infection in ... are active, during the summer and autumn of 2011, mainly affecting cattle. Stillbirths and birth defects in sheep, cattle and ...
He further formalised the theory in his 1959 book The Clonal Selection Theory of Acquired Immunity. He explained immunological ... The descendents will be capable of active liberation of soluble antibody and lymphocytes which can fulfil the same functions as ... The idea turned out to be the foundation of molecular immunology, especially in adaptive immunity. The clonal selection theory ... Forsdyke D.R. (1995). "The Origins of the Clonal Selection Theory of Immunity". FASEB Journal. 9: 164-66. Animation of clonal ...
Conversely, immunity acquired by American students while living in Mexico disappeared, in one study, as quickly as eight weeks ... Boiling rapidly kills all active bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Prolonged boiling is usually unnecessary; most microorganisms ... The extent and duration of exposure necessary to acquire immunity has not been determined; it may vary with each individual ... A study among expatriates in Nepal suggests that immunity may take up to seven years to develop-presumably in adults who avoid ...
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically ... However, even a partial, late, or weak immunity, such as a one resulting from cross-immunity to a strain other than the target ... Developing immunity. The immune system recognizes vaccine agents as foreign, destroys them, and "remembers" them. When the ... Beside the active vaccine itself, the following excipients and residual manufacturing compounds are present or may be present ...
Within the first 2 days after parturition, kittens acquire passive immunity from their mother's milk. Milk within the first few ... The enzymes that breakdown amino acids are constantly active in cats and thus, cats need a constant source of protein in their ... Biotin and niacin are also active in the metabolism of fats, carbs and protein. Riboflavin is also necessary for the digestion ...
The extent and duration of exposure necessary to acquire immunity has not been determined; it may vary with each individual ... Boiling rapidly kills all active bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Prolonged boiling is usually unnecessary; most microorganisms ... Main article: Wilderness acquired diarrhea. Wilderness diarrhea, also called wilderness-acquired diarrhea (WAD) or backcountry ... immunity acquired by American students while living in Mexico disappeared, in one study, as quickly as eight weeks after ...
An upgraded version with active radar seeker, called Active Sky Flash was proposed by BAe and Thomson-CSF, but did not receive ... The Soviet Union acquired an AIM-7 in 1968 and a Vympel team started copying it as the K-25. The missile did not enter ... production as the R-23 was perceived to have better versatility, range, signal processing logic and immunity from interference ... To accommodate the active radar guidance system, the AAM-N-3 Sparrow II had a much greater volume than its predecessor. Its ...
Nerve growth factor
In acquired immunity, NGF is produced by the Thymus as well as CD4+ T cell clones, inducing a cascade of maturation of T cells ... The active Ras protein phosphorylates several proteins, along with the serine/threonine kinase, Raf. Raf in turn activates the ... NGF plays a critical role in the regulation of both innate and acquired immunity. In the process of inflammation, NGF is ... Centenarian Rita Levi-Montalcini took a daily solution in the form of eye drops, and has stated that her brain is more active ...
... be an active member of its society, acquire real estate, pursue their specified economic activity or occupation, access social ... exemptions and immunities, especially that of the "grand" burghership (German: Großbürgerschaft). Grand Burghers held rich ... shopkeepers and others who were obliged according to city or town constitution to acquire the ordinary petty-burghership, and ... foreign or migrant workers and other civil employees who were neither able nor eligible to acquire the ordinary petty- ...
As the Caddo peoples had no acquired immunity to such new diseases, they suffered epidemics with high fatalities that decimated ... The Caddo tribe remains very active in the Native American Church today. Congress passed the Dawes Act to promote assimilation ... and an active NAGPRA office, located south of Binger. As of 2012, 5,757 people are enrolled in the nation, with 3,044 living ...
This generally produced a less severe infection than naturally acquired smallpox, but still induced immunity to it. This first ... In winter, the material has yang potency within it, so it remains active even after being kept from thirty to forty days. But ... The rising immunity terminates the infection. So the twofold effect is to ensure the less fatal form of the disease is the one ... Jenner was not the first person to inoculate with cowpox nor the first to realize that infection with cowpox gave immunity to ...
University of Birmingham
His research focused predominantly on carbohydrate chemistry in which he confirmed a number of structures of optically active ... Taking the earlier research of R. D. Owen into consideration, they concluded that actively acquired tolerance of homografts ... His work involved investigating the phenomenon of tolerance and transplantation immunity. He collaborated with Rupert E. ... where he continued his research on transplantation immunity. He was a recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in ...
Its active ingredient is a live myxoma-vectored RHD virus strain 009 and it offers a duration of immunity of 1 year against ... and descendants of the survivors acquired partial immunity in the first two decades. Resistance has been increasing slowly ... Many pet rabbits in Australia continue to die from the disease due to their lack of immunity. There is at least one campaign to ... virus in the vaccine has the potential to spread into the wild rabbit population which could result in wild rabbit immunity to ...
The development of acquired immunity to tapeworms and progress towards active immunization, with special reference to...
Active v. Passive v. Acquired Immunity | The Leading Business Education Network for Doctors, Financial Advisors and Health...
Acquired Immunity develops during a persons lifetime. There are two types of acquired immunity: active immunity and passive ... www.CertifiedMedicalPlanner.org Active Immunity develops after exposure to a disease-causing infectious microorganism or other ... immunity. LINK: https://www.amazon.com/Dictionary-Health-Insurance-Managed-Care/dp/0826149944/ref=sr_1_4?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid= ... Acquired Immunity develops during a persons lifetime. There are two types of acquired immunity: active immunity and passive ...
Skin diseases and internal infections: caused by Bacterial, virus, fungi? | Yahoo Answers
Unit IVB: Immune System - Basic Concepts of Immunology - Types of Immunity - Innate Immunity, Acquired Immunity, Active and...
Innate Immunity, Acquired Immunity, Active and Passive Immunity, Cell mediated Immunity and Humoral Immunity, Interferon, HIV ... Innate Immunity, Acquired Immunity, Active and Passive Immunity, Cell mediated Immunity and Humoral Immunity, Interferon, HIV ... Innate Immunity, Acquired Immunity, Active and Passive Immunity, Cell mediated Immunity and Humoral Immunity, Interferon, HIV ... Innate Immunity, Acquired Immunity, Active and Passive Immunity, Cell mediated Immunity and Humoral Immunity, Interferon, HIV ...
Definition of ACTIVE IMMUNITY (Meaning of ACTIVE IMMUNITY) in the Online Dictionary
Immune System facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Immune System
Acquired immunity may be either active or passive. Active immunity comes from having the disease or by inoculation with ... the less perfect natural immunity and the more specific acquired immunity.. Natural immunity. Those defence mechanisms that ... Immunity, active, passive and delayed; Immunity, cell mediated; Immunity, humoral regulation; Immunochemistry; Immunodeficiency ... Humoral and cellular immunity are thus the two types of acquired or specific immunity.. Following exposure to an antigen, the ...
immunity pt 2 Flashcards by Brooke Niles | Brainscape
active acquired immunity protection acquired by introduction of an Ag. intended to last a lifetime BUT some mutate too quickly ... changes are observed in both innate and acquired immunity defenses. end result is reduced resistance to pathogens and increased ... Study immunity pt 2 flashcards from Brooke Niles ... immunity pt 2 Flashcards Preview Gen Med , immunity pt 2 , ...
Free Medical Flashcards about Chapters19and21
Frontiers | Zebra Fish Lacking Adaptive Immunity Acquire an Antiviral Alert State Characterized by Upregulated Gene Expression...
... zebrafish acquire an antiviral alert state while they reach adulthood in the absence of adaptive immunity. This antiviral state ... zebrafish acquire an antiviral alert state while they reach adulthood in the absence of adaptive immunity. This antiviral ... ... From this and other studies, it might be concluded that some of the characteristics of mammalian trained immunity are present ... acquired increased resistance to SVCV with age, correlating with elevated transcript levels of immune genes in skin/fins and ...
A&P Chapter 21 Lymphatics and Immune Flashcards by Justin Carroll | Brainscape
Describe the ACTIVE Naturally Acquired Immunity Where you get an infection, come in direct contact with a pathogen and actually ... It can be EITHER Naturally Acquired or Artificially Acquired. Within each it can be actively or passively acquired. ... Humoral immunity is effective against both isolated antigens AND cells.. It begins when an immunocompetent B-Lymphocyte ... Inferons: Proteins that are active against viruses. They prevent viruses from entering a cell, they tag viruses and mark them ( ...
what is immunity definition and give examples and explain the examples. explain the types of acquired immunity find out what :...
explain the types of acquired immunity find out what : passive and active... ... Answer to what is immunity definition and give examples and explain the examples. ... explain the types of acquired immunity find out what : passive and active... *what is immunity definition and give examples and ... find out what : passive and active immunity mean and artificial and natural. ...
Understand How Your Immune System Works - Natural Health - MOTHER EARTH NEWS
Understanding how your immune system works could help you boost your immunity. ... Active immunity can last a lifetime when naturally acquired. Immunizations, however, often require booster shots to maintain ... Active immunity. This immunity development entails exposure to the microbe. The microbe can be whole and alive, as usually ... Passive immunity. This second immunity-acquiring process results from the receipt of antibodies from a person or animal ...
Free Nursing Flashcards about Microbiology
Acquired immunity has the hallmark of. memory and specificity. Immunity with attenuated microbial vaccine produces active ... Concerning the lac operon of E.coli, when the ____ is bound to the ______, the operon is active.. inducer; repressor. ... A _____ drug is active against a broad range of different microbes. broad spectrum. ... Genetic defects in immunity, immunosuppressive therapy, malnutrition predispose people to. opportunistic infections. ...
244 Medical Quizzes Online, Trivia, Questions & Answers - Page 10 by ProProfs
Types of Immunity to a Disease | Vaccines and Immunizations | CDC
There are two types of immunity: active and passive. ... Immunity to a disease is achieved when there are antibodies to ... A newborn baby acquires passive immunity from its mother through the placenta. A person can also get passive immunity through ... There are two types of immunity: active and passive.. Active Immunity. Active immunity results when exposure to a disease ... Active immunity is long-lasting, and sometimes life-long.. Passive Immunity. Passive immunity is provided when a person is ...
Vaccine Glossary of Terms | CDC
Active immunity: The production of antibodies against a specific disease by the immune system. Active immunity can be acquired ... Immunity: Protection against a disease. There are two types of immunity, passive and active. Immunity is indicated by the ... See active and passive immunity.. Immunization: Listen media icon[MP3]. The process of being made immune or resistant to an ... Active immunity is usually permanent, meaning an individual is protected from the disease for the duration of their lives. ...
Immunity (medical) - wikidoc
Naturally acquired active immunity. Further information: Immune system. Naturally acquired active immunity occurs when a person ... Artificially acquired passive immunity. see also: Temporarily-induced immunity Artificially acquired passive immunity is a ... Passive immunity. Main article: Passive immunity. Passive immunity is the transfer of active immunity, in the form of readymade ... Naturally acquired passive immunity. Maternal passive immunity is a type of naturally acquired passive immunity, and refers to ...
Why is vaccination so important? - NIPH
This is artificially acquired active immunity.. A good vaccine will provide adequate and prolonged protection against the ... Herd immunity. When the majority of the population has been vaccinated against a disease, there will be few people left to whom ... What is immunity?. When the body is infected with a microbe (virus, bacterium, parasite or fungus), it stimulates the ... When the active substances in the vaccine meet the bodys immune system, immune cells and antibodies are produced that will ...
Vaccine - Biology-Online Dictionary
immunity: Active and Passive Immunity | Infoplease
Artificially acquired active immunity can be induced by a vaccine, a substance ... Naturally acquired active immunity occurs when the person is exposed to a live pathogen, develops the disease, and becomes ... immunity: Active and Passive Immunity. Naturally acquired active immunity occurs when the person is exposed to a live pathogen ... Artificially acquired active immunity can be induced by a vaccine, a substance that contains the antigen. A vaccine stimulates ...
Acquired Immunity | Definition | AIDSinfo
There are two types of acquired immunity: active immunity and passive immunity. ... Acquired Immunity Speaker Immunity that develops during a persons lifetime. There are two types of acquired immunity: active ... Related Term(s): Active Immunity, Immunity, Passive Immunity Image(s):. (Click to enlarge) ... Immunity that develops during a persons lifetime. ...
What Is Adaptive Immunity? - Definition and Types - Video & Lesson Transcript | Study.com
This lesson will help you distinguish between several different types of immunity. This includes passive immunity, active ... Explain the two types of active immunity: naturally acquired active immunity and artificially acquired active immunity ... This includes passive immunity, active immunity, naturally acquired immunity and artificially acquired immunity. ... Natural and Artificial Acquired Active Immunity. Now, active immunity has two components, just like passive immunity: natural ...
Protective immunity - definition of protective immunity by The Free Dictionary
protective immunity synonyms, protective immunity pronunciation, protective immunity translation, English dictionary definition ... His above-average size during adolescence did not purchase immunity from the depredations... ... of protective immunity. n. pl. im·mu·ni·ties 1. The quality or condition of being immune: ... acquired immunity - immunity to a particular disease that is not innate but has been acquired during life; immunity can be ...
Infectious disease - Natural and acquired immunity | Britannica.com
Natural and acquired immunity: Every animal species possesses some natural resistance to disease. Humans have a high degree of ... Active immunity can be induced by three injections given eight weeks apart. ... Natural and acquired immunity. Every animal species possesses some natural resistance to disease. Humans have a high degree of ... In many cases, acquired immunity is lifelong, as with measles or rubella. In other instances, it can be short-lived, lasting ...
Recombinant Cell Culture Supplements Market Growing Demand
Rapid Active Sampling Surveys as a Tool to Evaluate Factors Associated with Acute Gastroenteritis and Norovirus Infection among...
... cohort and two cross-sectional rapid active sampling (RAS) surveys, conducted from April 2015 to February 2016. Epidemiologic ... Norovirus infection and acquired immunity in 8 countries: results from the MAL-ED study. Clin Infect Dis 62: 1210-1217. ... f Rapid Active Sampling Surveys as a Tool to Evaluate Factors Associated with Acute Gastroenteritis and Norovirus Infection ... Rapid Active Sampling Surveys as a Tool to Evaluate Factors Associated with Acute Gastroenteritis and Norovirus Infection among ...
Specific Defences - Humoral and Cell Immunity | Immune System | Antibody
Immunity: ³Free from burden´. Ability of an organism to rec... ... Naturally Acquired Active Immunity: Immunity: Antigens or ... Innate human immunity to canine distemper. Immunity of mice to poliovirus. Acquired Immunity:Immunity that an Immunity:Immunity ... 1. Artificially Acquired Active Immunity: Immunity: Antigens are introduced in vaccines (immunization). Host immune system does ... Naturally Acquired Immunity: Obtained in Immunity: the course of daily life. Immunity is usually short-lived (weeks to months ...
Addressing Parents' Concerns: Do Multiple Vaccines Overwhelm or Weaken the Infant's Immune System? | Special Articles |...
Active Immunity. Neonates are capable of generating both humoral and cellular immune responses to pathogens at the time of ... Passively Acquired Immunity. The neonate is, in part, protected against disease by maternal immunoglobulins (Ig). Maternal IgG ... 9 Active immunity in the newborn includes the full range of B-cell responses including the production of IgM, IgG, and ... Passively acquired maternal IgG declines during the first few months of life,6 and most infants are not breastfed beyond ...
Genital herpes in pregnancy may raise autism risk for offspring
At any time, HSV-2 can become active and cause flare-ups. As the body acquires immunity to the virus, the frequency of flare- ... Lead author Milada Mahic, of the Center for Infection and Immunity and the Norwegian Institute of Public Health in Norway, and ... Children born to mothers who have active genital herpes during pregnancy may be at twice the risk of developing autism spectrum ... Researchers suggest a link between active HSV-2 in early pregnancy and autism risk in offspring. ...
VaccinationImmune responseForm of acquired immunityHumoralExposureAntigensInfectious diseasesArtificial immunityDiseaseImmunizationOccursInvolvesDefinitionTetanusImmunologyColostrumDevelopsInfection and ImmuMechanisms of immunityShort livedNaturalNonspecificMicroorganismsLymphocytesNaturally acquiredAntibodyLastsCellsPassivelyMaternalDestroyMeaslesTypes of acquired
- Aged individuals often respond differently to vaccination, however, sometimes resulting in a lack of protective immunity. (encyclopedia.com)
- Vaccination and herd immunity to infectious diseases. (cdc.gov)
- Active immunity can be acquired in two ways, either by contracting the disease or through vaccination. (cdc.gov)
- The aim of vaccination is to obtain this immunity without any of the risks of having the disease. (fhi.no)
- Immunity can also be induced artificially, especially by vaccination. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Development of immunity to measles in response to infection or vaccination. (scribd.com)
- This process of acquired immunity is the basis of vaccination. (wikiversity.org)
- Active immunity occurs when the body generates its own protection, either naturally (after surviving an infection) or following vaccination. (uspharmacist.com)
- Widespread immunity due to vaccination is largely responsible for the worldwide eradication of smallpox and restriction of diseases such as polio, measles and tetanus. (marketresearch.com)
- His invaluable experiments beginning in 1796 with the vaccination of eight-year-old James Phipps proved that cowpox provided immunity against smallpox. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Passive immunity acquired artificially is done by injecting antibodies or sensitized lymphocytes to an organism via a vaccination . (biology-online.org)
- Adaptive immunity can be sub-divided depending on how the immunity was introduced in 'naturally acquired'through chance contact with a disease causing agent, whereas 'artificially acquired immunity' develops through deliberate actions such as vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
- Immunity obtained either from the development of antibodies in response to exposure to an antigen, as from vaccination or an attack of an infectious disease, or from the transmission of antibodies, as from mother to fetus through the placenta or the injection of antiserum. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Acquired immunity allows the body to respond more rapidly and with greater force to second and subsequent exposures to the same pathogen, and forms the basis of vaccination. (thefreedictionary.com)
- In other words, the T and B cells are important in the immunity that vaccination promotes. (healthofchildren.com)
- Natural immunity is present when a person is immune to a disease despite not having either the disease itself nor any vaccination against it. (healthofchildren.com)
- The aim of vaccination is to stimulate and train the body immunity to recognize and destroy the microbial threat in later encounters. (medgadget.com)
- An example of acquired immunity against varicella is through vaccination with the live attenuated varicella vaccine. (statpearls.com)
- Vaccination stimulates and train the body immunity to recognize and destroy the microbial threat in any future encounters. (sbwire.com)
- Immunity refers to the state of protection against infectious disease conferred either through an immune response generated. (coursehero.com)
- Naturally acquired active immunity occurs when the person is exposed to a live pathogen, develops the disease, and becomes immune as a result of the primary immune response. (infoplease.com)
- Types of Acquired Immunity I. Body generates an immune response to antigens. (scribd.com)
- 7 More importantly, maternal antibodies offer limited immunologic protection when compared with protection afforded by an infant's active immune response. (aappublications.org)
- There are several types involved in cell-mediated immunity, delayed hypersensitivity, production of lymphokines, and the regulation of the immune response of other T and B cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
- In this learning activity you'll evaluate the immune response including active, passive, natural, and artificial immunity. (wisc-online.com)
- Artificial Active: Inducing immune response without individual suffering symptoms of disease. (getrevising.co.uk)
- This is a natural, active immune response. (statpearls.com)
Form of acquired immunity1
- Unit IVB: Immune System - Basic Concepts of Immunology - Types of Immunity - Innate Immunity, Acquired Immunity, Active and Passive Immunity, Cell mediated Immunity and Humoral Immunity, Interferon, HIV and AIDS. (andhrajyothy.com)
- humoral immunity is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by secreted antibodies, whereas the protection provided by cell mediated immunity involves T-lymphocytes alone. (wikidoc.org)
- Humoral (Antibody-Mediated) Immunity (Antibody Involves production of antibodies against foreign antigens. (scribd.com)
- They mature into plasma cells that are primarily responsible for forming antibodies, thereby providing humoral immunity. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Humoral Immunity. (thefreedictionary.com)
- In the treatise, Al Razi describes the clinical presentation of smallpox and measles and goes on to indicate that that exposure to these specific agents confers lasting immunity (although he does not use this term). (wikidoc.org)
- Exposure to an infectious disease often gives lifelong protection (immunity) so we do not contract the same disease again. (fhi.no)
- The absence of serious disease in the residents is due not to natural resistance, however, but to resistance acquired after repeated exposure to poliovirus from infancy onward. (britannica.com)
- Active natural immunity occurs when the body produces antibodies after natural exposure to an antigen, and passive natural immunity occurs when antibodies are passed from mother to offspring. (coursehero.com)
- 1. Active response to infection or exposure to certain substances. (tamu.edu)
- To determine which CD4+ T cell subsets and which CD4+ T cell immune responses are important, we will compare individuals with prior exposure (immunity) to MTB to individuals with active tuberculosis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Immunity acquired as a result of deliberate exposure to antigens or by the injection of antibodies. (getrevising.co.uk)
- Deliberate exposure to antibodies and antigens to cause immunity. (getrevising.co.uk)
- Active immunity plays an important role in immune responses in the event of re-exposure and our utilization of vaccines. (statpearls.com)
- 1. Artificially Acquired Active Immunity: Immunity: Antigens are introduced in vaccines (immunization). (scribd.com)
- Cell Mediated Immunity Involves specialized set of lymphocytes called T cells that recognize foreign antigens on the surface of cells. (scribd.com)
- Active immunity comes from having the disease or by inoculation with antigens, such as dead organisms, weakened organisms, or toxins of organisms. (healthofchildren.com)
- they become active, and begin to multiply, if they encounter specific molecules called antigens that are associated with foreign organisms. (thesportjournal.org)
- But acquired immunity also has a hallmark trait, immunologic memory, arising from DNA-based mechanisms that allow lymphocytes collectively to recognize a great diversity of antigens, even though a single lymphocyte recognizes only one type of antigen. (thesportjournal.org)
- Natural immunity occurs through contact with a disease causing agent, when the contact was not deliberate, whereas artificial immunity develops only through deliberate actions . (wikidoc.org)
- Both natural and artificial immunity can be further subdivided, depending on the amount of time the protection lasts. (wikidoc.org)
- Immunity to a disease is achieved through the presence of antibodies to that disease in a person's system. (cdc.gov)
- Passive immunity is provided when a person is given antibodies to a disease rather than producing them through his or her own immune system. (cdc.gov)
- A person can also get passive immunity through antibody-containing blood products such as immune globulin , which may be given when immediate protection from a specific disease is needed. (cdc.gov)
- Active immunity is usually permanent, meaning an individual is protected from the disease for the duration of their lives. (cdc.gov)
- Immunity is a medical term that describes a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection , disease , or other unwanted biological invasion. (wikidoc.org)
- Other components of the immune system adapt themselves to each new disease encountered and are able to generate pathogen-specific immunity. (wikidoc.org)
- We often develop lifelong immunity when we have had a disease. (fhi.no)
- You are born with an innate immunity against disease, in large part thanks to your microbiome - healthy bacteria residing in your gut, on your skin, and in various mucosas, such as your nose and mouth. (mercola.com)
- In humans, immunodeficiency can either be the result of a genetic disease such as severe combined immunodeficiency , acquired conditions such as HIV /AIDS, or the use of immunosuppressive medication. (wikiversity.org)
- One approach to obtaining greater understanding of MTB immunity is to study these individuals to discover mechanisms of immunity that mediate their protection from disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Because HIV infection interferes with the CD4+ T cell response to MTB, it dramatically increases the risks for acquiring MTB infection and for developing disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases. (wikipedia.org)
- The first written descriptions of the concept of immunity may have been made by the Athenian Thucydides who, in 430 BC, described that when the plague hit Athens: "the sick and the dying were tended by the pitying care of those who had recovered, because they knew the course of the disease and were themselves free from apprehensions. (wikipedia.org)
- Acquiring trachoma does not provide immunity against re-infection, so repeat infections are the norm in many communities where the disease circulates continuously among family members. (encyclopedia.com)
- The active stage of the disease is most prevalent in children ages three to five. (encyclopedia.com)
- Immunity from disease is actually conferred by two cooperative defense systems, called nonspecific, innate immunity and specific, acquired immunity. (britannica.com)
- A Schick test is a skin test for previously acquired immunity to which disease? (thefreedictionary.com)
- Natural Active: Results from body becoming infected with disease. (getrevising.co.uk)
- Disease and immunity. (getrevising.co.uk)
- The economics of developing or available antimalarial drugs, the distribution and new pharmaceuticals for tropical diseases, includ- efficiency of mosquito vectors, climate and other ing malaria, are such that there is a great disparity environmental conditions and the behaviour and between the public health importance of the level of acquired immunity of the exposed human disease and the amount of resources invested in populations. (who.int)
- A potentially fatal lung disease, tuberculosis is estimated to cause 1.8 million deaths annually and especially impacts those with reduced immunity such as HIV-infected individuals, according to the World Health Organization. (chiro.org)
- Immunosuppression may reactivate the virus causing either a CMV-active infection or a CMV disease with attributable symptoms. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Our aim is to study the risk factors for developing viremia or CMV disease in ICU patients in septic shock without previous immunodepression and determine the relationship between viral reactivation and this acquired immunity alteration. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Immunosuppression statuses causing both CMV active infection or disease are mainly consecutive to HIV infection, bone marrow or solid organ transplantation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Herd immunity: basic concept and relevance to public health immunization practices. (cdc.gov)
- Artificially acquired passive immunity is a short-term immunization by the injection of antibodies, such as gamma globulin, that are not produced by the recipient's cells. (infoplease.com)
- In your own words, briefly explain what the difference is between active and passive immunization. (sellfy.com)
- The data suggest a silent oral immunization by tetanus bacilli thus boosting under unhygienic conditions the tetanus immunity with advancing age. (nih.gov)
- 2. Immunity acquired against the effect of these substances depends partly upon an active immunization of the tumor cells themselves against the action of these substances, and this immunity is transmitted to the following generations of tumor cells. (rupress.org)
- Naturally acquired passive immunity occurs during pregnancy, in which certain antibodies are passed from the maternal into the fetal bloodstream. (infoplease.com)
- This type of immunity is called passive immunity , which is a type of short-term immunity that occurs via the transfer of antibodies to an individual devoid of them. (study.com)
- Immunodeficiency occurs when the immune system is less active than normal, resulting in recurring and life-threatening infections. (wikiversity.org)
- That is until some other minor mishap occurs or the immunity wears off and the balance shifts in favor of the infestation, resulting in a full-blown infestation once again. (reefkeeping.com)
- Immunity involves both specific and non-specific components. (wikidoc.org)
- and cell-mediated or cellular immunity, which involves a variety of activities designed to destroy or at least contain cells that are recognized by the body as alien and harmful. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Immunity involves both specific and nonspecific components. (wikipedia.org)
- Active transport usually involves the use of transport proteins. (getrevising.co.uk)
- Naturally Acquired Passive Immunity: Immunity: Antibodies pass from mother to fetus via placenta or breast feeding (colostrum). (scribd.com)
- Passive immunity acquired naturally happens when a mother transfer antibodies to her offspring via placental route during pregnancy and via colostrum during breastfeeding . (biology-online.org)
- Compared with the prompt but nonspecific innate immune system, the acquired immune system develops reactions more slowly but creates a specific, enduring response to each type of intruder. (motherearthnews.com)
- Immunity that develops during a person's lifetime. (nih.gov)
- 1,7 Passive immunity develops when a person receives already-formed antibodies. (uspharmacist.com)
Infection and Immu1
Mechanisms of immunity2
- The mechanisms of immunity are essentially concerned with the body's ability to recognize and dispose of substances which it interprets as foreign and harmful to its well-being. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The various and complex mechanisms of immunity are basic to the body's ability to protect itself against specific infectious agents and parasites, to accept or reject cells and tissues from other individuals, as in blood transfusions and organ transplants, and to protect against cancer, as when the immune system recognizes malignant cells as not-self and destroys them. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Passive immunity is short lived, and usually lasts only a few months, whereas protection via active immunity lasts much longer, and is sometimes life-long. (wikidoc.org)
- Immunity is usually short-lived (weeks to months). (scribd.com)
- Immunity is short lived (half life three weeks). (scribd.com)
- Passive immunity is relatively short lived and is acquired by transferring antibodies from mother to child in the uterus or by inoculation with serum that contains antibodies from immune persons or animals. (healthofchildren.com)
- find out what : passive and active immunity mean and artificial and natural. (coursehero.com)
- Immunity is the natural state of a multicellular. (coursehero.com)
- The phenomenon of natural immunity can be illustrated equally well with examples from the respiratory, intestinal, or genital tracts, where large surface areas are exposed to potentially infective agents and yet infection does not occur. (britannica.com)
- In addition, this agent may both reduce the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-10, and potentiate natural and acquired immunity. (cancer.gov)
- Acquire immunity through natural life processes. (getrevising.co.uk)
- This fast cellular response is sometimes called natural or innate immunity, because the cells that execute it are already active in the body. (thesportjournal.org)
- It is this natural immunity that makes evaluating the effectiveness of various treatment options so difficult. (reefkeeping.com)
- While it is possible that this could work, natural immunity is not totally foolproof. (reefkeeping.com)
- In the studies cited above, some of the fish were not completely protected by their own natural immunity. (reefkeeping.com)
- In this situation, a low-level infestation, held in check by natural immunity but not totally eradicated, could continue to survive but be misdiagnosed, or missed all together, by the hobbyist. (reefkeeping.com)
- If you are considering natural immunity as a treatment option, ask yourself a few simple questions. (reefkeeping.com)
- I would hope for acquired or innate natural immunity to kick in when used with other less aggressive but pro-active treatments, such as using biological cleaners, medicated foods, UV, ozone, and garlic. (reefkeeping.com)
- Innate immunity is furnished by relatively nonspecific mechanisms, such as the rapid inflammation experienced shortly after injury or infection. (encyclopedia.com)
- The following sections provide a detailed explanation of how nonspecific and specific immunity function and how the immune system evolved. (britannica.com)
- The acquired immune system contains white blood cells of its own called "lymphocytes. (motherearthnews.com)
- The two kinds of lymphocytes that are important to establishment of immunity are T lymphocytes (T cells) and B lymphocytes (B cells). (thefreedictionary.com)
- The soldiers of acquired immunity are specialized white blood cells called lymphocytes that function together as an army. (thesportjournal.org)
- Lack of naturally acquired active immunity. (yahoo.com)
- This includes passive immunity, active immunity, naturally acquired immunity and artificially acquired immunity. (study.com)
- Naturally Acquired Immunity: Obtained in Immunity: the course of daily life. (scribd.com)
- They can both be artificially and naturally acquired. (prezi.com)
- 1) naturally acquired passive immunity and (2) artificially acquired passive immunity. (biology-online.org)
- White blood cells (called "leukocytes") form another component of innate immunity. (motherearthnews.com)
- Unlike active immunity, in which memory B cells are activated, passive immunity only provides short-term protection. (coursehero.com)
- Genetic tests may be performed on blood cells to help interpret special tests of immunity. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Because it is already known that CD4+ T cells are a critical component of MTB immunity, studying CD4+ T cell responses to MTB infection in immune individuals is a reasonable starting point. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Passively acquired maternal IgG declines during the first few months of life, 6 and most infants are not breastfed beyond several months of age. (aappublications.org)
- Immunity may be actively or passively acquired. (uspharmacist.com)
- We consider an age-structured epidemiological model that accounts for both passively acquired maternal antibodies that decay and active immunity that wanes, permitting re-infection. (aimsciences.org)