Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Complement C4: A glycoprotein that is important in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C4 is cleaved by the activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C4A and COMPLEMENT C4B.Complement Activation: The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Complement C5: C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement C1q: A subcomponent of complement C1, composed of six copies of three polypeptide chains (A, B, and C), each encoded by a separate gene (C1QA; C1QB; C1QC). This complex is arranged in nine subunits (six disulfide-linked dimers of A and B, and three disulfide-linked homodimers of C). C1q has binding sites for antibodies (the heavy chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M). The interaction of C1q and immunoglobulin activates the two proenzymes COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S, thus initiating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION via the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.Complement C4a: The smaller fragment formed when complement C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. It is an anaphylatoxin that causes symptoms of immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE) but its activity is weaker than that of COMPLEMENT C3A or COMPLEMENT C5A.Complement C2: A component of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C2 is cleaved by activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C2B and COMPLEMENT C2A. C2a, the COOH-terminal fragment containing a SERINE PROTEASE, combines with COMPLEMENT C4B to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Complement C6: A 105-kDa serum glycoprotein with significant homology to the other late complement components, C7-C9. It is a polypeptide chain cross-linked by 32 disulfide bonds. C6 is the next complement component to bind to the membrane-bound COMPLEMENT C5B in the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. It is encoded by gene C6.Complement C3a: The smaller fragment generated from the cleavage of complement C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. C3a, a 77-amino acid peptide, is a mediator of local inflammatory process. It induces smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION, and HISTAMINE RELEASE from MAST CELLS and LEUKOCYTES. C3a is considered an anaphylatoxin along with COMPLEMENT C4A; COMPLEMENT C5A; and COMPLEMENT C5A, DES-ARGININE.Complement C3b: The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.Complement C9: A 63-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by gene C9. Monomeric C9 (mC9) binds the C5b-8 complex to form C5b-9 which catalyzes the polymerization of C9 forming C5b-p9 (MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX) and transmembrane channels leading to lysis of the target cell. Patients with C9 deficiency suffer from recurrent bacterial infections.Complement C5a: The minor fragment formed when C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and COMPLEMENT C5B. C5a is a 74-amino-acid glycopeptide with a carboxy-terminal ARGININE that is crucial for its spasmogenic activity. Of all the complement-derived anaphylatoxins, C5a is the most potent in mediating immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE), smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; HISTAMINE RELEASE; and migration of LEUKOCYTES to site of INFLAMMATION.Complement C4b: The large fragment formed when COMPLEMENT C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. The membrane-bound C4b binds COMPLEMENT C2A, a SERINE PROTEASE, to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Complement C7: A 93-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by C7 gene. It is a polypeptide chain with 28 disulfide bridges. In the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX; C7 is the next component to bind the C5b-6 complex forming a trimolecular complex C5b-7 which is lipophilic, resembles an integral membrane protein, and serves as an anchor for the late complement components, C8 and C9.Complement Factor B: A glycine-rich, heat-labile serum glycoprotein that contains a component of the C3 CONVERTASE ALTERNATE PATHWAY (C3bBb). Bb, a serine protease, is generated when factor B is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR D into Ba and Bb.Receptors, Complement: Molecules on the surface of some B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that recognize and combine with the C3b, C3d, C1q, and C4b components of complement.Complement C3c: A 206-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c (749-954), and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H.Complement Membrane Attack Complex: A product of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION cascade, regardless of the pathways, that forms transmembrane channels causing disruption of the target CELL MEMBRANE and cell lysis. It is formed by the sequential assembly of terminal complement components (COMPLEMENT C5B; COMPLEMENT C6; COMPLEMENT C7; COMPLEMENT C8; and COMPLEMENT C9) into the target membrane. The resultant C5b-8-poly-C9 is the "membrane attack complex" or MAC.Complement Pathway, Classical: Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement C1: The first complement component to act in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. It is a calcium-dependent trimolecular complex made up of three subcomponents: COMPLEMENT C1Q; COMPLEMENT C1R; and COMPLEMENT C1S at 1:2:2 ratios. When the intact C1 binds to at least two antibodies (involving C1q), C1r and C1s are sequentially activated, leading to subsequent steps in the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Complement C3d: A 302-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c, and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H. Serum proteases further degrade C3dg into C3d (1002-1303) and C3g (955-1001).Complement Pathway, Alternative: Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement C1s: A 77-kDa subcomponent of complement C1, encoded by gene C1S, is a SERINE PROTEASE existing as a proenzyme (homodimer) in the intact complement C1 complex. Upon the binding of COMPLEMENT C1Q to antibodies, the activated COMPLEMENT C1R cleaves C1s into two chains, A (heavy) and B (light, the serine protease), linked by disulfide bonds yielding the active C1s. The activated C1s, in turn, cleaves COMPLEMENT C2 and COMPLEMENT C4 to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL C3 CONVERTASE).Complement Inactivator Proteins: Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.Complement C8: A 150-kDa serum glycoprotein composed of three subunits with each encoded by a different gene (C8A; C8B; and C8G). This heterotrimer contains a disulfide-linked C8alpha-C8gamma heterodimer and a noncovalently associated C8beta chain. C8 is the next component to bind the C5-7 complex forming C5b-8 that binds COMPLEMENT C9 and acts as a catalyst in the polymerization of C9.Complement C3-C5 Convertases: Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.Complement Activating Enzymes: Enzymes that activate one or more COMPLEMENT PROTEINS in the complement system leading to the formation of the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX, an important response in host defense. They are enzymes in the various COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION pathways.Complement C1r: A 80-kDa subcomponent of complement C1, existing as a SERINE PROTEASE proenzyme in the intact complement C1 complex. When COMPLEMENT C1Q is bound to antibodies, the changed tertiary structure causes autolytic activation of complement C1r which is cleaved into two chains, A (heavy) and B (light, the serine protease), connected by disulfide bonds. The activated C1r serine protease, in turn, activates COMPLEMENT C1S proenzyme by cleaving the Arg426-Ile427 bond. No fragment is released when either C1r or C1s is cleaved.Complement Factor H: An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).Receptors, Complement 3b: Molecular sites on or in some B-lymphocytes and macrophages that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3B. The primary structure of these receptors reveal that they contain transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, with their extracellular portion composed entirely of thirty short consensus repeats each having 60 to 70 amino acids.Complement Hemolytic Activity Assay: A screening assay for circulating COMPLEMENT PROTEINS. Diluted SERUM samples are added to antibody-coated ERYTHROCYTES and the percentage of cell lysis is measured. The values are expressed by the so called CH50, in HEMOLYTIC COMPLEMENT units per milliliter, which is the dilution of serum required to lyse 50 percent of the erythrocytes in the assay.Complement C5b: The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of C5 by C5 CONVERTASE that yields COMPLEMENT C5A and C5b (beta chain + alpha' chain, the residual alpha chain, bound by disulfide bond). C5b remains bound to the membrane and initiates the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components to form C5b-8-poly-C9, the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Complement Inactivating Agents: Compounds that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host.Complement Factor D: A serum protein which is important in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. This enzyme cleaves the COMPLEMENT C3B-bound COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form C3bBb which is ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.Receptor, Anaphylatoxin C5a: A G-protein-coupled receptor that signals an increase in intracellular calcium in response to the potent ANAPHYLATOXIN peptide COMPLEMENT C5A.Complement C1 Inactivator Proteins: Serum proteins that inhibit, antagonize, or inactivate COMPLEMENT C1 or its subunits.Complement C3b Inactivator Proteins: Endogenous proteins that inhibit or inactivate COMPLEMENT C3B. They include COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and COMPLEMENT FACTOR I (C3b/C4b inactivator). They cleave or promote the cleavage of C3b into inactive fragments, and thus are important in the down-regulation of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and its cytolytic sequence.Receptors, Complement 3d: Molecular sites on or in B-lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, lymphoid cells, and epithelial cells that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3D. Human complement receptor 2 (CR2) serves as a receptor for both C3dg and the gp350/220 glycoprotein of HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN, and binds the monoclonal antibody OKB7, which blocks binding of both ligands to the receptor.Complement Factor I: A plasma serine proteinase that cleaves the alpha-chains of C3b and C4b in the presence of the cofactors COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and C4-binding protein, respectively. It is a 66-kDa glycoprotein that converts C3b to inactivated C3b (iC3b) followed by the release of two fragments, C3c (150-kDa) and C3dg (41-kDa). It was formerly called KAF, C3bINF, or enzyme 3b inactivator.Anaphylatoxins: Serum peptides derived from certain cleaved COMPLEMENT PROTEINS during COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They induce smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; mast cell HISTAMINE RELEASE; PLATELET AGGREGATION; and act as mediators of the local inflammatory process. The order of anaphylatoxin activity from the strongest to the weakest is C5a, C3a, C4a, and C5a des-arginine.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Complement C2a: The COOH-terminal fragment of COMPLEMENT 2, released by the action of activated COMPLEMENT C1S. It is a SERINE PROTEASE. C2a combines with COMPLEMENT C4B to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Complement C4b-Binding Protein: A serum protein that regulates the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It binds as a cofactor to COMPLEMENT FACTOR I which then hydrolyzes the COMPLEMENT C4B in the CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C4bC2a).Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Properdin: A 53-kDa protein that is a positive regulator of the alternate pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It stabilizes the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) and protects it from rapid inactivation, thus facilitating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Individuals with mutation in the PFC gene exhibit properdin deficiency and have a high susceptibility to infections.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Cobra Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein: An endogenous 105-kDa plasma glycoprotein produced primarily by the LIVER and MONOCYTES. It inhibits a broad spectrum of proteases, including the COMPLEMENT C1R and the COMPLEMENT C1S proteases of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY, and the MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. C1-INH-deficient individuals suffer from HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA TYPES I AND II.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Complement Pathway, Mannose-Binding Lectin: Complement activation triggered by the interaction of microbial POLYSACCHARIDES with serum MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN resulting in the activation of MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. As in the classical pathway, MASPs cleave COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 to form C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Macrophage-1 Antigen: An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Complement C3 Convertase, Alternative Pathway: A serine protease that is the complex of COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT FACTOR BB. It cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C3B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Complement C2b: The N-terminal fragment of COMPLEMENT 2, released by the action of activated COMPLEMENT C1S.Complement C5a, des-Arginine: A derivative of complement C5a, generated when the carboxy-terminal ARGININE is removed by CARBOXYPEPTIDASE B present in normal human serum. C5a des-Arg shows complete loss of spasmogenic activity though it retains some chemotactic ability (CHEMOATTRACTANTS).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Macular Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.Mice, Inbred C57BLZymosanAntibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Complement C3-C5 Convertases, Classical Pathway: Important enzymes in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. They cleave COMPLEMENT C3 and COMPLEMENT C5.Glomerulonephritis: Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Mannose-Binding Lectin: A specific mannose-binding member of the collectin family of lectins. It binds to carbohydrate groups on invading pathogens and plays a key role in the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Cryoglobulins: Abnormal immunoglobulins, especially IGG or IGM, that precipitate spontaneously when SERUM is cooled below 37 degrees Celsius. It is characteristic of CRYOGLOBULINEMIA.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immune Complex Diseases: Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Collectins: A class of C-type lectins that target the carbohydrate structures found on invading pathogens. Binding of collectins to microorganisms results in their agglutination and enhanced clearance. Collectins form trimers that may assemble into larger oligomers. Each collectin polypeptide chain consists of four regions: a relatively short N-terminal region, a collagen-like region, an alpha-helical coiled-coil region, and carbohydrate-binding region.Integrin alphaXbeta2: A major adhesion-associated heterodimer molecule expressed by MONOCYTES; GRANULOCYTES; NK CELLS; and some LYMPHOCYTES. The alpha subunit is the CD11C ANTIGEN, a surface antigen expressed on some myeloid cells. The beta subunit is the CD18 ANTIGEN.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Complement C3 Convertase, Classical Pathway: A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT 3 into COMPLEMENT 3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT 3B in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is a complex of COMPLEMENT 4B and COMPLEMENT 2A (C4b2a).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mannose-Binding Protein-Associated Serine Proteases: Serum serine proteases which participate in COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They are activated when complexed with the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN, therefore also known as Mannose-binding protein-Associated Serine Proteases (MASPs). They cleave COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 to form C4b2a, the CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Complement C3-C5 Convertases, Alternative Pathway: Important enzymes in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. They cleave COMPLEMENT C3 and COMPLEMENT C5.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Arthus Reaction: A dermal inflammatory reaction produced under conditions of antibody excess, when a second injection of antigen produces intravascular antigen-antibody complexes which bind complement, causing cell clumping, endothelial damage, and vascular necrosis.Complement C5 Convertase, Classical Pathway: A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT 5 into COMPLEMENT 5A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT 5B in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is a complex of CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C4b2a) with an additional COMPLEMENT C3B, or C4b2a3b.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Trypanosoma lewisi: A trypanosome found in the blood of adult rats and transmitted by the rat flea. It is generally non-pathogenic in adult rats but can cause lethal infection in suckling rats.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Complement C5 Convertase, Alternative Pathway: A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C5B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is the complex of ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) with an additional COMPLEMENT C3B, or C3bBb3b.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Mice, Inbred BALB CAngioedema: Swelling involving the deep DERMIS, subcutaneous, or submucosal tissues, representing localized EDEMA. Angioedema often occurs in the face, lips, tongue, and larynx.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.gamma-Globulins: Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Serum: The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal: A condition characterized by the recurrence of HEMOGLOBINURIA caused by intravascular HEMOLYSIS. In cases occurring upon cold exposure (paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria), usually after infections, there is a circulating antibody which is also a cold hemolysin. In cases occurring during or after sleep (paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria), the clonal hematopoietic stem cells exhibit a global deficiency of cell membrane proteins.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Glomerulonephritis, Membranoproliferative: Chronic glomerulonephritis characterized histologically by proliferation of MESANGIAL CELLS, increase in the MESANGIAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, and a thickening of the glomerular capillary walls. This may appear as a primary disorder or secondary to other diseases including infections and autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Various subtypes are classified by their abnormal ultrastructures and immune deposits. Hypocomplementemia is a characteristic feature of all types of MPGN.Beta-Globulins: Serum proteins with an electrophoretic mobility that falls between ALPHA-GLOBULINS and GAMMA-GLOBULINS.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.alpha-Macroglobulins: Glycoproteins with a molecular weight of approximately 620,000 to 680,000. Precipitation by electrophoresis is in the alpha region. They include alpha 1-macroglobulins and alpha 2-macroglobulins. These proteins exhibit trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, thrombin-, and plasmin-binding activity and function as hormonal transporters.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Meningococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Blood Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the BLOOD.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Sharks: A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.Macroglobulins: Serum globulins with high molecular weight. (Dorland, 28th ed)Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Serum Globulins: All blood proteins except albumin ( = SERUM ALBUMIN, which is not a globulin) and FIBRINOGEN (which is not in the serum). The serum globulins are subdivided into ALPHA-GLOBULINS; BETA-GLOBULINS; and GAMMA-GLOBULINS on the basis of their electrophoretic mobilities. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Schistosoma: A genus of trematode flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. There are over a dozen species. These parasites are found in man and other mammals. Snails are the intermediate hosts.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Trypanosomiasis, Bovine: Infection in cattle caused by various species of trypanosomes.Trypanosomiasis: Infection with protozoa of the genus TRYPANOSOMA.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.p-Chloromercuribenzoic Acid: An organic mercurial used as a sulfhydryl reagent.Hagfishes: Common name for a family of eel-shaped jawless fishes (Myxinidae), the only family in the order MYXINIFORMES. They are not true vertebrates.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Proteinuria: The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Mannans: Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Enzyme Precursors: Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Neisseria meningitidis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.Arteriolosclerosis: Thickening of the walls of small ARTERIES or ARTERIOLES due to cell proliferation or HYALINE deposition.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.

*Classical complement pathway

Obesity in turn results in an abnormally high level of complement activation via production of the c1 component of the ... Subsequent interactions between C5b and other terminal components C6, C7, C8, and C9 form the membrane attack complex or the ... This process involves creating synthetic peptides that target conserved regions in HIV specific proteins and induce an antibody ... Activation of the complement pathway through the classical, lectin or alternative complement pathway is followed by a cascade ...

*Eculizumab

... specifically binds to the terminal complement component 5, or C5, which acts at a late stage in the complement ... and C5b, which then forms the terminal complement complex C5b-9 which also has prothrombotic and proinflammatory effects. Both ... Eculizumab inhibits terminal complement activation and therefore makes people vulnerable to infection with encapsulated ... which involves doctors counseling people to whom they are prescribing the drug, giving them educational materials, and ensuring ...
... is produced by our E.coli expression system and the target gene encoding Asn679-Arg755 is expressed.
We have examined the relative roles of the macrophage (M phi) plasma membrane receptor for the cleaved third complement component (iC3b, CR3) and of the mannosyl/fucosyl receptor (MFR) in binding and ingestion of Leishmania donovani. In the absence of exogenous complement, the binding and ingestion of promastigotes, which are good activators of the alternative complement pathway, were inhibited by the anti-CR3 monoclonal antibody M1/70, by the Fab portion of ...
It is the practice of Ken Rodgers to personally meet with his potential clients and to give them advice about what to do following any serious injury. Generally the Law Office of Kenneth M. Rodgers represents injured persons under a Contingent Fee Agreement which means that there is no fee for the initial meeting and no fee for the legal work that must be undertaken to produce a recovery unless and until a recovery results. In the event that under the rules concerning jurisdictional cases or conflict Ken Rodgers cannot personally represent an injured person, he will see to it that the client is represented by the very best and most ...
Complement C3-C5 Convertases: Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ...
AB - A fundamental dilemma of steroid hormone regulation is how specific transcription is attained in vivo when several receptors recognize the same DNA sequence in vitro. We have identified an enhancer of the mouse sex-limited protein (Slp) gene that
CD11b (integrin alphaM subunit) is a 165-170 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein that non-covalently associates with integrin beta2 subunit (CD18); expression of the CD11b chain on the cell surface requires the presence of the CD18 antigen. CD11b/CD18 integrin (Mac-1, CR3) is highly expressed on NK cells, neutrophils, monocytes and less on macrophages. CD11b/CD18 integrin is implicated in various adhesive interactions of monocytes, macrophages and ...
CD11b (integrin alphaM subunit) is a 165-170 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein that non-covalently associates with integrin beta2 subunit (CD18); expression of the CD11b chain on the cell surface requires the presence of the CD18 antigen. CD11b/CD18 integrin (Mac-1, CR3) is highly expressed on NK cells, neutrophils, monocytes and less on macrophages. CD11b/CD18 integrin is implicated in various adhesive interactions of monocytes, macrophages and ...
wistar complement wistar rat complement serum | order wistar complement wistar rat complement serum | How to use: wistar complement wistar rat complement serum | su
wistar complement wistar rat complement serum | order wistar complement wistar rat complement serum | How to use: wistar complement wistar rat complement serum | su
Test results may vary depending on your age, gender, health history, the method used for the test, and other things. Your test results may not mean you have a problem. Ask your healthcare provider what your test results mean for you. The normal range for a complement C4 blood test is 16 to 48 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 0.16 to 0.48 grams per liter (g/L). Your complement levels will often shoot up dramatically just after an infection or injury. When your complement system is activated in response to ongoing disease such as lupus, levels usually go down. You can inherit a deficiency in your ...
A complement receptor is a receptor of the complement system, part of the innate immune system. Complement receptors bind proteins of the complement system, and can thus detect pathogens without mediation by antibodies. Complement activity is not antigen sensitive, but can be triggered by specific antigens. Many white blood cells express complement receptors on their surface, ...
GREEN BAY, Wis. - Aaron Rodgers threw for 326 yards and three touchdowns, Davante Adams and Ty Montgomery emerged as playmakers in the second half, and the Green Bay Packers beat the offensively challenged Chicago Bears, 26-10, on Thursday night.. Rodgers was 39 of 56, setting a franchise record for completions in a game in the Packers first contest without injured running back Eddie Lacy (left ankle).. The Packers (4-2) moved effectively on short gains most of the night, but couldnt break into the end zone until Adams caught the first of his two touchdown receptions with ...
According to The Rodgers and Hammerstein encyclopedia this is the last lyric that Lorenz Hart wrote but this is not totaly true: for the revival of A Connecticut Yankee Rodgers asked Hart to write some new material to make the show more apealing (Herbert Fields wrote a new book as well), even if the partnership with Hart was already broken (in 1942 Rodgers worte Oklahoma! with Oscar Hammerstein II ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Complement activation in acquired and hereditary amyloid neuropathy. AU - Hafer-Macko, Charlene E.. AU - Dyck, Peter J. AU - Koski, Carol Lee. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - The pathogenesis of the axonal degeneration in acquired or hereditary amyloidosis is unknown. In this immunohistochemistry study, we examined 20 sural nerve biopsies from individuals with amyloid neuropathy (14 acquired and 6 hereditary) for evidence of complement activation. Complement activation products were detected on and around amyloid deposits within peripheral nerves. ...
Human umbilical vein endothelial cells grown in vitro under standard conditions contain a high level of mRNA specific for the complement regulatory factors H and I. An additional 1.8-kb mRNA encoding a truncated form of factor H is also present. IFN-gamma stimulation of the cells causes a 6-7 fold increase in both factor H mRNA species, and a greater than 10-fold increase in factor I mRNA. IL-1 and LPS slightly suppressed factor H mRNA, while TNF had no effect. mRNA for factor B is also detectable in IFN-gamma-stimulated ...
Abstract: : Purpose: Terminal complement components (C5,C5b-9)and several complement inhibitors are ubiquitous drusen components. This implies that complement activation may be a key element in drusen formation; but the specific complement activator(s) and activation pathway are unknown. The classical pathway is triggered by the binding of immune complexes to C1q. ...
highlighting the link between complement gene expression and IQ, in both schizophrenic patients and healthy controls. The study demonstrated a broad association between variations in complement gene expression and perturbed neurodevelopment. We were particularly interested to see that the final sentence of the paper stated that When complement gene-sets are taken as a whole, their relevance is to neurodevelopment, not illness . Their conclusion rightly touches on the emerging understanding of non-immune roles for complement in diverse ...
Prior absorption of normal human serum (NHS) or C2-deficient human serum (C2D) with zymosan at 0 degrees C results in diminished consumption of C3 and factor B during subsequent incubation of the sera in Mg-EGTA buffer with zymosan at 37 degrees C for 30 min. An acid eluate from the zymosan restores the defect of absorbed NHS and C2D, and also enhances C3 and factor B utilization in hypogammaglobulinemic serum (H gamma S) in a dose-dependent fashion. The activity is specific in that the eluate from zymosan fails to enhance ...
Purpose.: Increasing evidence supports a role for complement in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This study evaluated retinal microglia, T-lymphocytes, and complement deposition in a light-induced retinopathy model. The effect of a serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT1A) agonist on these processes was investigated. Methods.: Rats were dark adapted for 24 hours before a 6-hour blue light exposure. Some animals were predosed subcutaneously with AL-8309A. Retinas were evaluated at different times after light exposure. Paraffin sections were stained with antibody for a microglial marker (Iba1), a ...
Looking for online definition of Complement factor b in the Medical Dictionary? Complement factor b explanation free. What is Complement factor b? Meaning of Complement factor b medical term. What does Complement factor b mean?
Enhanced classical complement pathway activation and altered phagocytosis signaling molecules in human epilepsy. Exp Neurol. 2017 Jun 07;: Authors: Wyatt SK, Witt T, Barbaro NM, Cohen-Gadol AA, Brewster AL Abstract Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is widely associated with seizures and epilepsy. Although microglial cells are professional phagocytes, less is known about th...
Human Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from normal human proximal tubular tissue. Human Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based coating solution for 2 min and incubated in Creative Bioarrays Culture Complete Growth Medium generally for 3-7 days. Cultures are then expanded. Prior to shipping, cells at passage 3 are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 0.5x10^6 cells per ml. Cells can be expanded for 3-7 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunoglobulin G monoclonal antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans protect mice deficient in complement component C3. AU - Shapiro, Scott. AU - Beenhouwer, David O.. AU - Feldmesser, Marta. AU - Taborda, Carlos. AU - Carroll, Michael C.. AU - Casadevall, Arturo. AU - Scharff, Matthew D.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Passive administration of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the capsular polysaccharide of ...
The complement system is an enzyme cascade that is a collection of blood and cell surface proteins to help the abilities of antibodies to clear pathogens from an organism. The complement system that comprises 30 different proteins, including serum proteins, serosal proteins, and cell membrane receptors is an important part of the innate immune system. There are three different complement pathways, the classical complement pathway, the alternative complement pathway, and the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Critical role for serum opsonins and complement receptors CR3 (CD11b/CD18) and CR4 (CD11c/CD18) in phagocytosis of Francisella tularensis by human dendritic cells (DC). T2 - Uptake of Francisella leads to activation of immature DC and intracellular survival of the bacteria. AU - Nasr, Abdelhakim Ben. AU - Haithcoat, Judith. AU - Masterson, Joseph E.. AU - Gunn, John S.. AU - Eaves-Pyles, Tonyia. AU - Klimpel, Gary R.. PY - 2006/10/1. Y1 - 2006/10/1. N2 - Francisella ...
The optimal reaction conditions for hemolytic assay of alternative complement pathway activity in mouse serum were investigated. A microtiter system was used, in which a number of 7.5×106 rabbit erythrocytes per test well appeared to be optimal. Rabbit erythrocytes were superior as target cells over erythtocytes from a number of ... read more other animal species. The optimal conditions were as follows: an incubation temperature of 39°C, an ionic strength of about 200 mM, and a magnesium concentration of 2.5 mM. ...
Background: Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) express and release protein components of the complement pathways, as well as secreting and anchoring ultra-large von Willebrand factor (ULVWF) multimers in long string-like structures that initiate platelet adhesion during hemostasis and thrombosis. The alternative complement pathway (AP) is an important nonantibody- requiring host defense system. Thrombotic microangiopathies can be associated with defective regulation of the AP (atypical hemolytic-uremic ...
What is Complement Component Gene? Definition of Complement Component Gene. Complement Component Gene FAQ. Learn more about Complement Component Gene. Complement Component Gene facts.
BACKGROUND Recently published data suggest that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may increase cardiovascular risk during the early months of therapy. Activation of the immune system is known to be involved in several types of cardiovascular disease. In this cross-sectional study, serum C3, C4, IgG and IgM levels were evaluated in healthy post-menopausal women receiving two different short-term HRT regimens, and in untreated women. METHODS Serum C3, C4, IgM and IgG levels were assessed in 18 women receiving transdermal 17beta-estradiol (50 micro g/day) + continuous oral medroxyprogesterone ...
In this study, we showed that blocking complement activation accelerates the early healing rate in a mouse model of cutaneous wound healing. We also found that the components of the complement system responsible for this effect include C3, C5, and signaling through C5aR1, but not C5aR2 or C3aR. Furthermore, reconstitution of C3-deficient animals with purified human C3 or serum from C3+/+ mice abrogated the effect, confirming the involvement of ...
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Being a major first line of immune defense, the complement system keeps a constant vigil against viruses. Its ability to recognize a large panoply of viruses and virus-infected cells, and trigger the effector pathways, results in neutralization of viruses and killing of the infected cells. This selection pressure exerted by complement on viruses has made them evolve a multitude of countermeasures. These include targeting the recognition molecules for avoidance of detection, targeting key enzymes and complexes of the complement pathways like ...
Title: CH50: A Revisited Hemolytic Complement Consumption Assay for Evaluation of Nanoparticles and Blood Plasma Protein Interaction. VOLUME: 8 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Ameena Meerasa, Jasper G. Huang and Frank X. Gu. Affiliation:Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1.. Keywords:CH50 assay, complement activation, hemolytic assay, nanoparticles, opsonization, protein interaction, stealth, toxicity, Plasma Protein, vasculature. Abstract: The use of nanoparticles as platforms or vehicles for ...
The neuronal microtubule-associated protein tau becomes hyperphosphorylated and forms aggregates in tauopathies but the processes leading to this pathological hallmark are not understood. Because tauopathies are accompanied by neuroinflammation and the complement cascade forms a key innate immune pathway, we asked whether the complement system has a role in the development of tau pathology. We tested this hypothesis in two mouse models, which expressed either a central inhibitor of complement or lacked an inhibitor of the ...
AMD is strongly associated with the over-activation of complement pathways [16]. Supporting evidence comes from the detection of various complement proteins in the drusen of patients with AMD [9] and the close association between AMD and the alternative pathway. Furthermore, the association of genetic variants in complement genes, including the human factor B gene, is a risk factor for all forms of AMD [5,9,22,24]. In addition, it has been shown that polymorphisms of genes encoding the alternative pathway proteins CFH, factor ...
AMYNDAS is developing a novel peptidic complement inhibitor AMY-101, based on the third-generation compstatin analogue Cp40. AMY-101 is a selective inhibitor of complement activation in humans and in NHP. It binds to the complement component C3, the central functional hub that controls the upstream activation/amplification and downstream effector functions of complement. By binding to C3, ...
Activation of the complement cascade is clearly implicated in the pathology of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the extent and nature of its involvement in specific athological processes remains uncertain. We describe a detailed immunohistochemical study to localise a strategically selected set of complement proteins, activation products and regulators in brain and spinal cord tissue of 17 patients with progressive MS, examining 35 different plaques, and 16 control donors, ...
Objective: Complement proteins have been associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors. Recent data suggest a potential role of complement protein C3 in clot stability with hypofibrinolytic and prothrombotic features. Women after menopause are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease and have significantly higher levels of C3 compared with younger women. To better understand the association between complement proteins and ...
The complement system is an important part of the humoral response in innate immunity, consisting of three different pathways. The third complement
Aim: Here we investigated the role of complement activation in phagocytosis and the release of cytokines and chemokines in response to two clinical isolates: Borrelia afzelii K78, which is resistant to complement-mediated lysis, and Borrelia garinii LU59, which is complement-sensitive.. Methods: Borrelia spirochetes were incubated in hirudin plasma, or hirudin-anticoagulated whole blood. Complement activation was measured as the generation of C3a and ...
The complement system is a potent effector of innate immunity. To elucidate the pathophysiological role of the complement system in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), we evaluated the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in genetically complement C5-deficient mice. We used DBA2/J mice, which are genetically deficient in complement C5. DBA1/J mice have a normal complement system, and were used as ...
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is frequently associated in humans with loss-of-function mutations in complement-regulating proteins or gain-of-function mutations in complement-activating proteins. Thus, aHUS provides an archetypal complement-mediated disease with which to model new therapeutic strategies and treatments. Herein, we show that, when transferred to mice, an aHUS-associated gain-of-function change (D1115N) to the complement-activation protein C3 results in aHUS. Homozygous C3 p.D1115N ...
OP28 The complement component C3 is expressed by the endometrial ectopic tissue and is involved in the endometriotic lesion formation C. Agostinis 1, G. Zito 1, D. De Santo1, R. Vidergar2, O. Radillo 1, F. Bossi 1, S. Zorzet2, G. Ricci 1, R. Bulla 2 1 Institute for Maternal and Child Health, IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Trieste, Italy 2 Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy E-mail address: c[email protected]burlo.trieste.it (C. Agostinis). Background: The complement (C) system is one of ...
Previous studies from this laboratory have demonstrated that Mycobacterium leprae, an obligate intracellular bacterial parasite, enters human mononuclear phagocytes via complement receptors on these host cells and bacterium-bound C3. The present study investigates the role of M. leprae surface molecules in C3 fixation and phagocytosis. By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, C3 binds selectively to phenolic glycolipid-1 (PGL-1), a major surface molecule of the leprosy ...
Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate complement activation and associated inflammatory mechanisms in normal, aged human retina. in the choriocapillaris, and in BM. Lectin binding of RCA-I was Rabbit polyclonal to CREB1 strong throughout the neuroretina. Conclusions Robust immunostaining for APP in older donor eyes suggested that amyloid beta peptides may be one of the triggers of complement activation during the normal aging process. Microglial markers CD11b ...
The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) phenomenon is utilized in a number of new real time biosensors. In this study, we have used this technique to study interactions between the central complement component C3b and its multiple ligands by using the Biacore equipment. The SPR technique is particularly suitable for analysis of the alternative complement pathway (AP) because the inherent nature of the latter is to amplify deposition of C3b on various surfaces. C3b was coupled ...
C1-INH is a heavily glycosylated, single chain, plasma glycoprotein with an apparent molecular weight of 105 kd on sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. It consists of 478 amino acids comprising a backbone molecular weight of 52,880 (1). The protein acts as a serine protease inhibitor (serpin) binding to and forming covalent bonds with a variety of plasma proteases and thus inhibiting their activity (2, 3). The protein is known to inhibit C1s and C1r, two subcomponents of the complement protein C1. It is for these ...
The complement system is a major humoral component of vertebrate defenses for tagging and killing target microorganisms. Recent molecular analyses have uncovered a striking feature of bony fish complement, namely that several complement components are encoded by multiple genes. In this review, the structural diversity of C3, C4, C5, factor B, C2, C1r/s and MASP are discussed with special reference to their functional differentiation, mainly ...
A casein kinase released from activated human platelets has been shown to phosphorylate a number of plasma proteins. When platelets are activated they release substantial amounts of ATP and divalent cations which are necessary for phosphorylation of proteins. The aim of this study was to elucidate the optimal conditions for phosphorylation of the human complement component C4, identify phosphorylation site in the molecule and to investigate possible impact on the functions of phosphorylated C4. For this purpose, C4 must be prepared from human plasma, which was done using a ...
Background Glaucoma is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder involving the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), which results in blindness. Studies in animal models have shown that activation of inflammatory processes occurs early in the disease. In particular, the complement cascade is activated very early in DBA/2J mice, a widely used mouse model of glaucoma. A comprehensive analysis of the role of the complement cascade in DBA/2J glaucoma has not been possible ...
Ischemia and reperfusion of organs is an unavoidable consequence of transplantation. Inflammatory events associated with reperfusion injury are in part attributed to excessive complement activation. Systemic administration of complement inhibitors reduces reperfusion injury but leaves patients vulnerable to infection. Here, we report a novel therapeutic strategy that decorates cells with an anti-complement peptide. An analog of the C3 convertase inhibitor Compstatin (C) was ...
The complement system provides a fundamental component of the body's immune response to invading microorganisms. This chapter highlights the various roles of the complement system in the orchestration of the immune response towards microbial infections, gives examples of microbial strategies to evade complement-mediated clearance, and discusses how acquired and inherited complement deficiencies may predispose an organism to infectious disease. ...
Each pathway follows a sequence of reactions to generate a protease called a C3 convertase. The active protease is retained at the pathogen surface, and this ensures that the next complement zymogen in the pathway is also cleaved and activated at the pathogen surface. By contrast, the small peptide fragment is released from the site of the reaction and can act as a soluble mediator.. The early events of all three pathways of complement activation involve a series of cleavage reactions that culminate in the formation of an ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in association with germline variation in complement genes. AU - Cerhan, James R. AU - Novak, Anne J. AU - Fredericksen, Zachary S.. AU - Wang, Alice H.. AU - Liebow, Mark. AU - Call, Timothy G.. AU - Dogan, Ahmet. AU - Witzig, Thomas Elmer. AU - Ansell, Stephen Maxted. AU - Habermann, Thomas Matthew. AU - Kay, Neil Elliot. AU - Slager, Susan L. PY - 2009/6. Y1 - 2009/6. N2 - Germline mutations in complement genes have been associated with susceptibility to infections and autoimmune diseases, conditions that are associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk. To test the hypothesis that common ...
C5a is a protein fragment released from cleavage of complement component C5 by protease C5-convertase into C5a and C5b fragments. C5b is important in late events of the complement cascade, an orderly series of reactions which coordinates several basic defense mechanisms, including formation of the Membrane Attack Complex (MAC), one of the most basic weapons of the innate immune system, formed as an automatic response to ...
Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a relatively-rare, immune-mediated glomerular disease. There is no accepted therapy and all current therapies are inadequate. Current therapeutic options include immunosuppression with corticosteroids alone or in combination with alkylating agents, antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and/or dipyridamole and/or warfarin, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin receptor blockers. As with other glomerular diseases the amount of protein in the urine correlates well with the long-term prognosis. Thus, this parameter has been used in previous studies, and will be used in this study, as the primary indicator ...
Fulminant meningococcal sepsis has been termed the prototypical lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated gram-negative septic shock. Systemic inflammation by activated complement and cytokines is important in the pathogenesis of this disease. We investigated the involvement of meningococcal LPS in complement activation, complement-dependent inflammatory effects, and cytokine or chemokine production. Whole blood anticoagulated with lepirudin was stimulated with ...
Looking for Complement system? Find out information about Complement system. The sequential activation of complement proteins resulting in lysis of a target cell Explanation of Complement system
Properdin or complement factor P is a conserved serum glycoprotein of the immune defence. It plays a role in strengthening the activation of complement, a system of proteins essential in the first line defence against infection. Properdin is the only positive regulator and plays a major role in regulating the alternative pathway of the complement system, an effector system of the innate immune response, by binding and stabilising two specific converting enzyme complexes, which are normally labile ...
... The activated complement system recognizes and eliminates invading microorganisms and thus is beneficial for the host.
Complement component C9 binds to the C5b-8 complex as the final protein of the membrane attack complex. After binding, it undergoes a conformational change and inserts itself into the cell membrane, forming transmembrane channels.
Rooryck C, Diaz-Font A, Osborn DP, Chabchoub E, Hernandez-Hernandez V, Shamseldin H, Kenny J, Waters A, Jenkins D, Kaissi AA, Leal GF, Dallapiccola B, Carnevale F, Bitner-Glindzicz M, Lees M, Hennekam R, Stanier P, Burns AJ, Peeters H, Alkuraya FS, Beales PL. Mutations in lectin complement pathway genes COLEC11 and MASP1 cause 3MC syndrome. Nat Genet. 2011 Mar;43(3):197-203.. ...
We reported inhibition of growth of primary rat mammary carcinomas after infusions of tumor-bearer plasma absorbed with Protein A-Sepharose or inactivated CNBr Sepharose. Absorbed plasmas were depleted of the third component of complement (C3) (other complement components defined similarly) and C5 but not C1, C4, or C2. These results suggested that activation of the alternative pathway of complement might be involved in the observed ...
This gene is a member of a small complement factor H (CFH) gene cluster on chromosome 1. Each member of this gene family contains multiple short consensus repeats (SCRs) typical of regulators of complement activation. The protein encoded by this gene has nine SCRs with the first two repeats having heparin binding properties, a region within repeats 5-7 having heparin binding and C reactive protein binding properties, and the C-terminal repeats being similar to a complement ...
A Novel Protocol Allowing Oral Delivery of a Protein Complement Inhibitor that Subsequently Targets to Inflamed Colon Mucosa and Ameliorates Murine Colitis. Elvington, M; Blichmann, P; Qiao, F; Scheiber, M; Wadsworth, C; et al. A novel protocol allowing oral delivery of a protein complement inhibitor that subsequently targets to inflamed colon mucosa and ameliorates murine colitis. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 177.2 (Aug 2014): 500-508. While there is evidence of a pathogenic role for complement in ...
Secretion of complement component C3 by U937 cells was studied. Preliminary evidence for a cell-associated proteolytic activity specific for C3 is given, as well as for a covalent-like binding of C3 fragments to the cell membranes. Secretion of C3, in the presence of 10 ng of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/ml, is 120-140 ng/10(6) cells per 24 h on the third day after addition of the activator. As shown by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, the ...
When I started my business in 1977, Theological College purchased the first Rodgers Organ I installed. The chapel was larger then and had very favorable acoustics. Father Lobo, P.S.S., who was rector at that time, was a wonderful friend and supporter. He allowed us to bring prospective organ customers to see and hear that excellent example of our work. His kindness is one of my fondest memories. Forty years later, we are now in the process of installing a new Infinity Series three manual 61 stop pipe/digital hybrid organ. The façade has a mix of polished copper and shiny tin/lead pipes in the display. The exquisite casework is constructed of wood with a finish that ...
Packers quarterback Aaron Rodgers (shoulder) remains under medical evaluation, coach Mike McCarthy said. No decision has been made on when he might return to playing.
Its a scenario most Packers fans dont want to think about but one coaches and front office personnel must prepare for. If the disastrous happens, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel writer Bob McGinn thinks Green Bay would be ready for life without Rodgers.
Its a scenario most Packers fans dont want to think about but one coaches and front office personnel must prepare for. If the disastrous happens, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel writer Bob McGinn thinks Green Bay would be ready for life without Rodgers.
We previously described a simplified quantitative hemolytic assay for classical pathway (CP) hemolytic function in serum that has been shown to correlate with the 50% hemolytic complement (CH50) assay. In the present study, we used this assay to compare CP functions; plasma levels of C3, C4, and C3dg; and ratios of C3dg to C3 in healthy individuals and patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with different degrees of complement activation. A significant depression in ...
The structure of the human C5aR antagonist, C5a-A8, reveals a three-helix bundle conformation similar to that observed for human C5a-desArg, whereas murine C5a and C5a-desArg both form the canonical four-helix bundle. These conformational differences are discussed in light of the differential C5aR activation properties observed for the human and murine complement anaphylatoxins across species. Complement is an ancient part of the innate immune system that plays a pivotal role in protection against invading ...
Cerebral IR injury produces a profound inflammatory response characterized by neutrophil, macrophage, and platelet accumulation, upregulation of adhesion molecules, blood-brain barrier destruction, and cytokine production.5 During central nervous system inflammation, complement activation plays a direct role in neuronal cell death6 and has been implicated in many disease processes, including subarachnoid hemorrhage,9 Alzheimer disease,10 trauma,11 and stroke.12,13 In a study of patients who died after ...
A specific hypoglycosylated isoform of the complement regulator membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46) is expressed on the inner acrosomal membrane (IAM) of spermatozoa. This membrane is exposed after the acrosome reaction, an exocytosis event that occurs upon contact with the zona pellucida. We initiated this investigation to assess MCPs regulatory function in situ on spermatozoa. Upon exposure of human spermatozoa to autologous serum or follicular fluid, we unexpectedly observed that acrosome-reacted spermatozoa ...
A specific hypoglycosylated isoform of the complement regulator membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46) is expressed on the inner acrosomal membrane (IAM) of spermatozoa. This membrane is exposed after the acrosome reaction, an exocytosis event that occurs upon contact with the zona pellucida. We initiated this investigation to assess MCPs regulatory function in situ on spermatozoa. Upon exposure of human spermatozoa to autologous serum or follicular fluid, we unexpectedly observed that acrosome-reacted spermatozoa ...
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Radioimmune assays were developed to assay the binding of complement components C1q, C1s and C4 to antibody aggregates and to cell-bound antibody. The binding of the components was compared with the haemolytic activity and with the capacity to form the C3 convertase activity in the presence of excess C2. The destruction of whole complement and of C4 activity is similar per 1,000 molecules of antibody in aggregates and ...
The present invention provides modified IgG3 containing human constant regions which has a shorter total-hinge region compared with normal human IgG3. Also described is a method for assaying an antibody against a specific antigen or hapten for its effectiveness in complement activation in an animal species, wherein the antibody is contacted with the immobilized antigen or hapten to form an immobilized antibody/antigen or hapten complex which is then contacted with complement from the relevant animal species, ...
Kőhalmi, Kinga Viktória and Veszeli, Nóra and Luczay, Andrea and Varga, Lilian and Farkas, Henriette (2017) A danazolkezelés hatása C1-inhibitor-hiány okozta hereditaer angiooedemás gyermekek növekedésére , Effect of danazol treatment on growth in pediatric patients with hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency. Orvosi Hetilap, 158 (32). pp. 1269-1276. ISSN 0030-6002 Csuka, Dorottya and Veszeli, Nóra and Varga, Lilian and Prohászka, Zoltán and Farkas, Henriette (2017) The role of the complement system in hereditary angioedema. Molecular Immunology, 89. pp. 59-68. ISSN 0161-5890 Horváth, Zsófia and Csuka, Dorottya and Vargova, Katarina and Kovács, Andrea and Lee, Sarolta and Varga, Lilian and Prohászka, Zoltán and Kiss, ...
Outer retinal and renal glomerular functions rely on specialized vasculature maintained by VEGF that is produced by neighboring epithelial cells, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and podocytes, respectively. Dysregulation of RPE- and podocyte-derived VEGF is associated with neovascularization in wet age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), choriocapillaris degeneration, and glomerular thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Since complement activation and genetic variants in inhibitory complement ...
Outer retinal and renal glomerular functions rely on specialized vasculature maintained by VEGF that is produced by neighboring epithelial cells, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and podocytes, respectively. Dysregulation of RPE- and podocyte-derived VEGF is associated with neovascularization in wet age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), choriocapillaris degeneration, and glomerular thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Since complement activation and genetic variants in inhibitory complement ...
This gene encodes a serine protease that functions as a component of the lectin pathway of complement activation. The complement pathway plays an essential role in the innate and adaptive immune response. The encoded protein is synthesized as a zymogen and is activated when it complexes with the pathogen recognition molecules of lectin pathway, the mannose-binding lectin and the ficolins. This protein is not directly involved in complement activation but may play a role as an amplifier of ...
A method and a package for identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms in complement receptor is useful in identifying individual susceptibility to a disease. Complement receptors CR1 and CR2 are active in the immune response and autoimmune diseases. The susceptibility and severity of autoimmune disease is determined by genotyping or phenotyping an individual for complement receptor.
Host defense mechanisms can counteract the antiphagocytic bacterial capsule. Unlike classical complement pathway, the alternative complement pathway is not antibody-mediated and can easily overwhelm encapsulated bacteria. It is triggered by the cleavage of C3 into C3a and C3b and the attachment of C3b to MAMPs (Microbe Associated Molecular Patterns), such as the capsular ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Decay accelerating factor regulates complement activation on glomerular epithelial cells. AU - Quigg, R. J.. AU - Nicholson-Weller, A.. AU - Cybulsky, A. V.. AU - Badalamenti, John. AU - Salant, D. J.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - Epithelial cells of the glomerular capillary are the site of C5b-9 mediated injury in rat membranous nephropathy. We investigated the regulation of C activation by cultured glomerular epithelial cells (GEC). Rat and human GEC were more resistant to C injury by homologous ...
Severe forms of chronic periodontitis affect up to 10% of adults. Tumour necrosis factor and lymphotoxin-alpha genes in the major histocompatibility complex are associated with severe periodontitis. Complement factor C4 is a nearby, polymorphic, functionally relevant gene region. Although associated with chronic mucosal infections, C4 deficiencies have not been assessed in adult periodontitis patients. We tested whether complement levels are systemically altered and C4 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Low serum complement 3 level is associated with severe ANCA-associated vasculitis at diagnosis. AU - Choi, Hyeok. AU - Kim, Youhyun. AU - Jung, Seung Min. AU - Song, Jason Jungsik. AU - Park, Yong Beom. AU - Lee, Sang Won. PY - 2019/2/15. Y1 - 2019/2/15. N2 - Objectives: We investigated whether low serum C3 level can cross-sectionally estimate severe antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) in immunosuppressive drug-naïve patients at diagnosis. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 139 patients with AAV, who were first ...
The first indication is paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), a rare disease of the bone marrow. Apellis drug candidate APL-2, an inhibitor of complement component C3, is designed to provide PNH patients with an alternative to the current standard-of-care. In its second program, Apellis is testing whether APL-1, another inhibitor of complement component C3, can affect the underlying disease mechanism in COPD and slow down disease progression. Finally, Apellis third program aims to reduce the growth of retinal lesions through the intravitreal ...
Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is inflammation of the filtering units of the kidney (glomerulonephritis or GN) that occurs with activation of the complement system of immunity. The Complement System The complement system of proteins provides immunity through 2 pathways. In the classical pathway (blue half of cartoon), an antigen-antibody forms an immune complex that activates C1.…
There is wide variation of infections associated with complement deficiency depending on which complement protein and activation pathway is affected(Skattum et al 2011). Some complement deficiencies caries risk of infection, other mainly associated with autoimmune diseases. Some genetic and molecular defects has been identified to be associated complement deficiencies. The deficiencies in alternative pathway and terminal ...
The complement system constitutes a critical component of the innate immune response. The lectin pathway is one of the three activation pathways of the complement activation cascade that can recognise and respond to structures on oxygen deprived cells and contribute to ischaemia and reperfusion injury (IRI). Cerebral IRI mediated inflammation is known to be responsible for secondary damage in the penumbra region surrounding the initial area of infarct and the prevention of ...
I have been |b|diagnosed to have idiopathic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN)|/b| Type 1. I am taking one drug daily (Renitec- an ACE-inhibitor). What are your recommendations on my condition? Will this eventually lead to renal failure, even if I take the drug religiously? My 24-hour urine protein count is aroung 1.8 to 2g. Is this manageable? Is there a possibility that my protein count will normalize? What are the critical signs/factors that I should watch out for? Do I need to take any special diet?
Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN), also known as mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis, is a pattern of glomerular injury viewed by light microscopy. Its name is derived from the characteristic histologic changes including hypercellulari
Pemphigoid gestationis (PG) is a skin condition that usually presents in the second trimester of pregnancy; however, it may occur at any time during the pregnancy, as well as in the days post-partum. PG was formerly called herpes gestationis, but it not related to the herpes virus. PG is caused by the production of autoantibodies to proteins found in the skin. It is not surprising that this condition occurs more frequently in those with other autoimmune diseases such as Graves disease. Other risk factors include older age, Caucasian race, and multiple pregnancies. PG occurs in approximately 1 in 50,000 ...
SR GROUP - Exporter, Importer, Manufacturer, Distributor, Supplier, Trading Company of Rat CFH(Complement Factor H) ELISA Kit based in Delhi, India
Herpes Gestations is also commonly referred to as Pemphigoid Gestationis. Unlike what you may have heard, the condition is not linked to viruses. Herpes Gestationis is a rare condition that is typified with itchy feeling. The condition is an autoimmune infection that commonly occurs between the 3rd and 4th trimester. According to the CDC (Center […]. ...
The information concerning non-invasive, easily obtainable, and accurate biomarkers for diagnosis of lupus nephritis (LN) is extremely limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of cystatin C (CysC) and complement component 1q (C1q) for LN. A case-control study that included 905 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) without LN (group SLE), 334 patients with active lupus nephritis (group LNA), 255 patients with inactive lupus nephritis (group LNI), and 497 healthy individuals (group HC) was performed in Mianyang ...
Twenty patients with invasive cervical cancer of the squamous cell type were treated by radiotherapy and/or radical hysterectomy. During a follow-up period of approximately 2 yr in 10 of these patients a recurrence was established. Serial determinations of three acute phase reactants (α1-acid glycoprotein, haptoglobin and C-reactive protein) and of ... read more three complement components (C4, C3-proactivator and C9) were performed before and after therapy and either at the time of recurrence ...
Eculizumab is a monoclonal antibody that prevents complement activation. It has been found to be an effective treatment for atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome (aHUS). This retrospective study is the largest collection of previously published and unpublished cases to date. Eculizumab was effective at both preventing and treating recurrence of aHUS.. ...

The Importance of C4d in Biopsies of Kidney Transplant RecipientsThe Importance of C4d in Biopsies of Kidney Transplant Recipients

... which act by cleaving the C5 component of the complement system into C5a and C5b, whereas C5a is a potent anaphylatoxin, C5b is ... a complement activation pathway that does not involve C3 convertases-in which the cleavage of C3 is triggered by the ... C. D. Collard, A. Vakeva, M. A. Morrissey et al., "Complement activation after oxidative stress: role of the lectin complement ... and it is the main effector component of adaptive humoral immunity. Its activation involves a cascade of sequential cleavage of ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2013/678180/

Novel treatments in the management of myositis | Hospital Healthcare EuropeNovel treatments in the management of myositis | Hospital Healthcare Europe

In DM, there is activation and deposition of complement C5b-9 attack complex on the endothelial cells and activation of B cells ... In addition to the inflammatory component in IBM, other pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed suggesting a multifactorial ... it is believed that the pathologic mechanism involves an autoimmune process. ... interfere with B-cell proliferation and prevent its activation, and downregulate macrophage activity by interrupting complement ...
more infohttp://www.hospitalhealthcare.com/connective-tissue-disorders/novel-treatments-management-myositis

Platelet activation leads to activation and propagation of the complement system | JEMPlatelet activation leads to activation and propagation of the complement system | JEM

Complement is a multi-component system that involves several plasma and cell-expressed proteins, and has been conserved ... C5b-9 complex forms on activated platelets. We investigated whether complement activation on the platelet surface proceeded to ... Platelet activation leads to activation and propagation of the complement system. Ian del Conde, Miguel A. Crúz, Hui Zhang, ... Platelet activation leads to activation and propagation of the complement system. Ian del Conde, Miguel A. Crúz, Hui Zhang, ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/201/6/871?ijkey=20e80ea3aa0c5a0e9b45d1b1b8cc8267e54d9fb8&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Classical complement pathway - WikipediaClassical complement pathway - Wikipedia

Obesity in turn results in an abnormally high level of complement activation via production of the c1 component of the ... Subsequent interactions between C5b and other terminal components C6, C7, C8, and C9 form the membrane attack complex or the ... This process involves creating synthetic peptides that target conserved regions in HIV specific proteins and induce an antibody ... Activation of the complement pathway through the classical, lectin or alternative complement pathway is followed by a cascade ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_complement_pathway

Expression of Complement 3 and Complement 5 in Newt Limb and Lens Regeneration | The Journal of ImmunologyExpression of Complement 3 and Complement 5 in Newt Limb and Lens Regeneration | The Journal of Immunology

... all of which converge in the activation of C3, the third component of complement. C3 can interact with a wide spectrum of ... Complement (C5b-9) induces glomerular epithelial cell DNA synthesis but not proliferation in vitro. Kidney Int. 56: 538. ... through processes that involve dedifferentiation, transdifferentiation into different phenotypes, and extensive tissue ... A novel role of complement: mice deficient in the fifth component of complement (C5) exhibit impaired liver regeneration. J. ...
more infohttps://www.jimmunol.org/content/170/5/2331?ijkey=4fc88d8cfda920b6fc12acc544dd84f869c54769&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Complement in Immune and Inflammatory Disorders: Pathophysiological Mechanisms | The Journal of ImmunologyComplement in Immune and Inflammatory Disorders: Pathophysiological Mechanisms | The Journal of Immunology

Continuous deposition of C3b favors generation of C5 convertases that convert component C5 into C5b, which initiates formation ... complement activation was found significantly elevated in preterm birth, and complement activation products such as Bb or C3a ... Despite the variety of disease manifestations, the involvement of complement typically follows a common scheme that involves ... It becomes evident that excessive activation or insufficient control of complement activation on host cells can cause an immune ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/190/8/3831

Compositions, kits and methods for treatment of complement-related     disorders - Patent applicationCompositions, kits and methods for treatment of complement-related disorders - Patent application

... activation events. One such activation event initiates component C5b. Activation of C5b initiates the membrane attack pathway, ... The classical complement pathway typically involves antibodies for activation (specific immune response), while the alternative ... that specifically inhibit activation of the C5b-9 pore upon C9 complement protein binding to membrane C5b-8 (Holguin et al. ... bacterial cells as a result of activation of the complement system. MAC is a complex of four complement system proteins (C5b, ...
more infohttp://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20130143953

Patent US7999081 - Anti-C5 alpha antibodies - Google PatentsPatent US7999081 - Anti-C5 alpha antibodies - Google Patents

... in particular for the therapy of diseases involving tissue damage deriving from uncontrolled activation of the complement ... of the activated complement and characterised by the ability to inhibit the conversion of the C5 alpha chain to C5a and C5b. ... The present invention refers to recombinant antibodies of human origin specific for the C5 component ... Fredslund, F., et al., "Structure of and influence of a tick complement inhibitor on human complement component 5," Nat. ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US7999081?dq=5,579,517

The complement system and innate immunity - Immunobiology - NCBI BookshelfThe complement system and innate immunity - Immunobiology - NCBI Bookshelf

Indeed, it now seems clear that complement first evolved as part of the innate immune system, where it still plays an important ... Although first discovered as an effector arm of the antibody response, complement can also be activated early in infection in ... This activity was said to complement the antibacterial activity of antibody, hence the name. ... Complement was discovered many years ago as a heat-labile component of normal plasma that augments the opsonization of bacteria ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK27100/

Proteome and Metabolome of Subretinal Fluid in Central Serous Chorioretinopathy and Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment: A Pilot...Proteome and Metabolome of Subretinal Fluid in Central Serous Chorioretinopathy and Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment: A Pilot...

... such as C5b-8 and C5b-9.35 This mechanism involves CD59 protein, also found in our study as downregulated. Impaired activation ... including serum amyloid P component, versican), alternative complement pathway (complement factor H and complement factor H- ... Retinal pigment epithelial cells mitigate the effects of complement attack by endocytosis of C5b-9. J Immunol. 2015; 195: 3382- ... CD59 blocks not only the insertion of C9 into MAC but inhibits ion channel formation by homologous C5b-8 as well as C5b-9. J ...
more infohttps://tvst.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2668511

Vinicio de Jesus Perez MD | Stanford Medicine ProfilesVinicio de Jesus Perez MD | Stanford Medicine Profiles

C5b-9. Elafin was also found to promote angiogenesis through activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) ... In conclusion, this protocol will allow researchers to complement available in vitro assays for the study of endothelial- ... Excessive vascular cell proliferation is an important component of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Perlecan is the major heparan ... Perlecan HS deficiency also attenuates hypoxia-induced PH, where the underlying mechanisms involve impaired FGF2/FGFR1 ...
more infohttps://med.stanford.edu/profiles/vinicio-de-jesus-perez?tab=teaching

High Expression of Complement Component 5 (C5) at Tumor Site Associates with Superior Survival in Ewings Sarcoma Family of...High Expression of Complement Component 5 (C5) at Tumor Site Associates with Superior Survival in Ewing's Sarcoma Family of...

The activation of complement system results in the cleavage of C5 to its active subcomponents C5a and C5b. C5a is an ... These particular genes might involve, for example, chemokines, chemokine receptors, suppressive factors, or danger-associated ... High expression of complement component 5 (C5) correlated with better event-free (. 𝑃. =. 0. .. 0. 1. ). and overall survival ( ... High Expression of Complement Component 5 (C5) at Tumor Site Associates with Superior Survival in Ewings Sarcoma Family of ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2011/168712/

Vinicio de Jesus Perez MD | Stanford Medicine ProfilesVinicio de Jesus Perez MD | Stanford Medicine Profiles

C5b-9. Elafin was also found to promote angiogenesis through activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) ... In conclusion, this protocol will allow researchers to complement available in vitro assays for the study of endothelial- ... Excessive vascular cell proliferation is an important component of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Perlecan is the major heparan ... Perlecan HS deficiency also attenuates hypoxia-induced PH, where the underlying mechanisms involve impaired FGF2/FGFR1 ...
more infohttps://med.stanford.edu/profiles/vinicio-de-jesus-perez

AMD and the alternative complement pathway: genetics and functional implications | Human Genomics | Full TextAMD and the alternative complement pathway: genetics and functional implications | Human Genomics | Full Text

... and we explore the possible mechanistic links between photoreceptor degeneration and the alternative complement pathway, a ... Low levels of constitutive complement activation via the AP allows for immediate immune response. It involves the central ... and C5b, a component of the lytic pore which combines with C6-C9 to form the membrane attack complex (MAC) resulting in cell ... Cigarette smoke can activate the alternative pathway of complement in vitro by modifying the third component of complement. J ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=cluster&id=10649

Buy Levitra with Dapoxetine online no RX - Proven Levitra with Dapoxetine online OTCBuy Levitra with Dapoxetine online no RX - Proven Levitra with Dapoxetine online OTC

Up to C5, activation involves prote- The term complement refers to the ability of olytic cleavage, liberating smaller ... The C5b component protein, which binds sugar residues like man- is extremely labile and becomes inactive nose, found on ... The Complement Activation activation of complement system is regulated at different stages. Complement plays an important role ... Following the activation of the complement, Non-immunological classical pathway acti- its components and split products are ...
more infohttps://gurmeeteater.ee/structure/proven-levitra-with-dapoxetine-online-otc/

Frontiers | The Complement System: A Prey of Trypanosoma cruzi | MicrobiologyFrontiers | The Complement System: A Prey of Trypanosoma cruzi | Microbiology

... a key step in the activation of complement. Moreover, T. cruzi promotes secretion of plasma membrane-derived vesicles from host ... cruzi in order to circumvent the activation of complement and, consequently, its biological effects. ... The complement consists of at least 35 or more plasma proteins and cell surface receptors/regulators, which can be activated by ... The complement consists of at least 35 or more plasma proteins and cell surface receptors/regulators, which can be activated by ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00607/full

Most recent papers with the keyword poly trauma | Read by QxMDMost recent papers with the keyword poly trauma | Read by QxMD

Severe trauma initiates a systemic inflammatory cascade and that involves early activation of complement and cleavage of C5 ... Generation of complement molecular complex C5b-9 (C5b-9) in response to poly-traumatic hemorrhagic shock and evaluation of C5 ... METHODS: Sixty-two patients with MLKI that occurred either as a component of polytrauma or had occurred in isolation were ... www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156357/generation-of-complement-molecular-complex-c5b-9-c5b-9-in-response-to-poly-traumatic- ...
more infohttps://www.readbyqxmd.com/keyword/95217

Staphylococcus Aureus: Structure and FunctionsStaphylococcus Aureus: Structure and Functions

The human complement system is discussed in more detail below. One outcome of complement activation is the production of ... 1.4.2 The human complement system. The human complement system is a sequentially activated proteolytic cascade that involves ... 1.4). C1q was found to be the complement component targeted by SSL14, as evidenced by both affinity pull down and direct ... C5 cleavage produces C5a and C5b. The latter mediates the formation of the membrane attack complex C5b-9 (MAC), which inserts ...
more infohttps://www.ukessays.com/essays/biology/a-review-of-staphylococcus-aureus-biology-essay.php

Complement | definition of complement by Medical dictionaryComplement | definition of complement by Medical dictionary

... complement explanation free. What is complement? Meaning of complement medical term. What does complement mean? ... Looking for online definition of complement in the Medical Dictionary? ... The late phase of complement activation begins when the C5 convertase cleaves C5 to the active form C5b (G). C5b remains at the ... and involves components other than C1, C4, and C2 in the activation of C3. The terminal complement components form a membrane ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/complement

Complemental | definition of complemental by Medical dictionaryComplemental | definition of complemental by Medical dictionary

The late phase of complement activation begins when the C5 convertase cleaves C5 to the active form C5b (G). C5b remains at the ... and involves components other than C1, C4, and C2 in the activation of C3. The terminal complement components form a membrane ... and C2 in the activation of C3. See also: component of complement ... activation of complement causes cell lysis. Complement is also ... terminal complement pathway. the final stages of complement activation in which C5, C6, C7, C8 and C9 are activated; common to ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/complemental

Application # 2018/0016327. A Combination of Two or More Anti-C5 Antibodies and Methods of Use - Patents.comApplication # 2018/0016327. A Combination of Two or More Anti-C5 Antibodies and Methods of Use - Patents.com

0007] Mature C5 is cleaved into the C5a and C5b fragments during activation of the complement pathways. C5a is cleaved from the ... 0289] In certain embodiments, a complement-mediated disease or condition which involves excessive or uncontrolled activation of ... where complement component C3 is cleaved by an active protease to yield C3a and C3b. [0005] C3a is an anaphylatoxin. C3b binds ... generation of the terminal complement complex C5b-9. Both C5a and C5b-9 cause the terminal complement-mediated events that are ...
more infohttp://patents.com/us-20180016327.html

Human complement component 5Human complement component 5

The next step in MAC formation involves C5b-C7 interaction with the beta chain of C8 to form C5b-8. This newly formed complex ... The danger of systemic complement activation in the case of sepsis lies in the powerful inflammatory response illicited by ... C5b begins the assembly of complement components by binding C6 and C7 to its C5-C345C domain, creating a C5b-7 complex which ... C5b. The C5b protein consists of an α (104 kDa) and a β chain (75 kDa). After cleavage C5b interacts nonenzymatically with ...
more infohttp://www.bio.davidson.edu/courses/Immunology/Students/spring2006/Fiser/C5.html

Atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome and mutations in complement regulator genes | SpringerLinkAtypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome and mutations in complement regulator genes | SpringerLink

... uremic syndrome involves the concurrence of different susceptibility alleles in the regulators of complement activation gene ... Wiedmer T, Sims PJ (1991) Participation of protein kinases in complement C5b-9-induced shedding of platelet plasma membrane ... Murphy B, Georgiou T, Machet D et al (2002) Factor H-related protein-5: a novel component of human glomerular immune deposits. ... Human genes for three complement components that regulate the activation of C3 are tightly linked. J Exp Med 161(5):1189-1195 ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00281-005-0003-2

Eculizumab - WikipediaEculizumab - Wikipedia

Eculizumab specifically binds to the terminal complement component 5, or C5, which acts at a late stage in the complement ... and C5b, which then forms the terminal complement complex C5b-9 which also has prothrombotic and proinflammatory effects. Both ... Eculizumab inhibits terminal complement activation and therefore makes people vulnerable to infection with encapsulated ... which involves doctors counseling people to whom they are prescribing the drug, giving them educational materials, and ensuring ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eculizumab

ASMscience | ComplementASMscience | Complement

Three pathways of complement activation are now known: the alternative pathway, the classical pathway, and the lectin pathway. ... The third are cell surface receptors that bind to the products of complement activation and signal host cells to participate in ... A third pathway of complement activation, the lectin pathway, has recently been defined but, like the alternative pathway of ... although some complement proteins may actually fit into two of these categories. The first category encompasses the complement ...
more infohttp://www.asmscience.org/content/book/10.1128/9781555816148.chap5
  • Activation of the complement pathway through the classical, lectin or alternative complement pathway is followed by a cascade of reactions eventually leading to the membrane attack complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein and metabolites notably deregulated in CSCR were related to glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, inflammation (including serum amyloid P component, versican), alternative complement pathway (complement factor H and complement factor H-related protein), cellular adhesion, biliary acid metabolism (farnesoid X receptor/retinoid X receptor), and gluco- and mineralocorticoid systems (aldosterone, angiotensin, and corticosteroid-binding globulin). (arvojournals.org)
  • Here, we review the genetic architecture of AMD, considering the contribution of both common and rare alleles to susceptibility, and we explore the possible mechanistic links between photoreceptor degeneration and the alternative complement pathway, a cascade that has emerged as the most potent genetic driver of this disorder. (cdc.gov)
  • Notably, the subsequent association of common and rare alleles at or near several additional complement genes ( CFH , C2/CFB , C3 , CFI , and C9) has had a significant impact of the formation of pathomechanistic hypotheses, with the cumulative evidence both from human genetics but also from histopathological studies highlighting a major role of the alternative complement pathway as a driver of AMD [ 9 - 21 ]. (cdc.gov)
  • zilucoplan is a novel, potentially best-in-class investigational molecule also being evaluated in other complement-mediated diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM). (perssupport.nl)
  • The C5b fragment first exposes a binding site having high affinity for C6 and C7 with an associated half life of 2.3 minutes (Dalmasso, 1998). (davidson.edu)
  • C5b begins the assembly of complement components by binding C6 and C7 to its C5-C345C domain, creating a C5b-7 complex which remains loosely associated with C3b (Dalmasso, 1998). (davidson.edu)
  • This newly formed complex has a greater phospholipid affinity than C5b-7 which has already bound to the pathogen surface. (davidson.edu)
  • C5 consists of two chains, but most of the funcional activity for C5 converase and other complement binding occurs on the α-chain. (davidson.edu)
  • C1-inhibitor plays the role of inactivating C1r and C1s to prevent further downstream classical complement activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further indications that are potentially addressable by zilucoplan include immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and other tissue-based complement-mediated disorders with high unmet medical need. (perssupport.nl)
  • The present invention refers to recombinant antibodies of human origin specific for the C5 component of the activated complement and characterised by the ability to inhibit the conversion of the C5 alpha chain to C5a and C5b. (google.com)
  • When injected into target tissue encourages recruitment of C1q and activates downstream events, eventually leading to the formation of the C5b-9 complex which damages tumor cells, killing them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complement has sev- mains bound to the complex is termed C2a, eral main effects: the smaller fragments are by the letter 'a' 1. (gurmeeteater.ee)