Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.
A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.
The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.
The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.
A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.
A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.
The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.
Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.
A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.
An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.
A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).
A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.
A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.
Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein oncogene protein v-ets of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
A general transcription factor that is involved in basal GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. It consists of nine subunits including ATP-DEPENDENT DNA HELICASES; CYCLIN H; and XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM GROUP D PROTEIN.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.
A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.
Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.
A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE III and aid in transcription. They include the assembly factors TFIIIA and TFIIIC and the initiation factor TFIIIB. All combine to form a preinitiation complex at the promotor that directs the binding of RNA POLYMERASE III.
A heterotetrameric transcription factor composed of two distinct proteins. Its name refers to the fact it binds to DNA sequences rich in GUANINE and ADENINE. GA-binding protein integrates a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and regulates expression of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE control, PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS, and cellular METABOLISM.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway. The activity of the protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN. Transcription factor 7-like 2 protein plays an important role in the embryogenesis of the PANCREAS and ISLET CELLS.
An ets proto-oncogene expressed primarily in adult LYMPHOID TISSUE; BRAIN; and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that was originally identified in DROSOPHILA as essential for proper gastrulation and MESODERM formation. It plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MUSCLE CELLS, and is found in a wide variety of organisms.
A tissue-specific subunit of NF-E2 transcription factor that interacts with small MAF PROTEINS to regulate gene expression. P45 NF-E2 protein is expressed primarily in MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; and MAST CELLS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. TFIIIB recruits and positions pol III over the initiation site and remains stably bound to the DNA through multiple rounds of re-initiation by RNA POLYMERASE III.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
One of the BASIC-LEUCINE ZIPPER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that is synthesized as a membrane-bound protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. In response to endoplasmic reticulum stress it translocates to the GOLGI APPARATUS. It is activated by PROTEASES and then moves to the CELL NUCLEUS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in the unfolded protein response.
A family of mammalian POU domain factors that are expressed predominately in NEURONS.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates GLOBIN gene expression and is related to TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1. NF-E2 consists of a small MAF protein subunit and a tissue-restricted 45 kDa subunit.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subfamily have been implicated in regulating the differentiation of OLIGODENDROCYTES during neural crest formation and in CHONDROGENESIS.
Ubiquitously expressed basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF transcription factors. They bind CANNTG sequences in the promoters of a variety of GENES involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Factors that form a preinitiation complex at promoters that are specifically transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE I.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in determining cell fate during embryogenesis. It forms a heterodimer with TWIST TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and ACHAETE-SCUTE GENE COMPLEX-related TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A POU domain factor that regulates expression of GROWTH HORMONE; PROLACTIN; and THYROTROPIN-BETA in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of the group have been found expressed in developing neuronal tissue, LYMPHOCYTES, and during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.

Human SWI-SNF component BRG1 represses transcription of the c-fos gene. (1/192)

Yeast and mammalian SWI-SNF complexes regulate transcription through active modification of chromatin structure. Human SW-13 adenocarcinoma cells lack BRG1 protein, a component of SWI-SNF that has a DNA-dependent ATPase activity essential for SWI-SNF function. Expression of BRG1 in SW-13 cells potentiated transcriptional activation by the glucocorticoid receptor, which is known to require SWI-SNF function. BRG1 also specifically repressed transcription from a transfected c-fos promoter and correspondingly blocked transcriptional activation of the endogenous c-fos gene. Mutation of lysine residue 798 in the DNA-dependent ATPase domain of BRG1 significantly reduced its ability to repress c-fos transcription. Repression by BRG1 required the cyclic AMP response element of the c-fos promoter but not nearby binding sites for Sp1, YY1, or TFII-I. Using human C33A cervical carcinoma cells, which lack BRG1 and also express a nonfunctional Rb protein, transcriptional repression by BRG1 was weak unless wild-type Rb was also supplied. Interestingly, Rb-dependent repression by BRG1 was found to take place through a pathway that is independent of transcription factor E2F.  (+info)

Human Cdc34 and Rad6B ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes target repressors of cyclic AMP-induced transcription for proteolysis. (2/192)

Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis controls diverse physiological processes in eukaryotes. However, few in vivo targets of the mammalian Cdc34 and Rad6 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes are known. A yeast-based genetic assay to identify proteins that interact with human Cdc34 resulted in three cDNAs encoding bZIP DNA binding motifs. Two of these interactants are repressors of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-induced transcription: hICERIIgamma, a product of the CREM gene, and hATF5, a novel ATF homolog. Transfection assays with mammalian cells demonstrate both hCdc34- and hRad6B-dependent ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of hICERIIgamma and hATF5. This degradation requires an active ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and results in abrogation of ICERIIgamma- and ATF5-mediated repression of cAMP-induced transcription. Consistent with these results, the endogenous ICER protein is elevated in cells which are null for murine Rad6B (mHR6B-/-) or transfected with dominant negative and antisense constructs of human CDC34. Based on the requirement for CREM/ICER and Rad6B proteins in spermatogenesis, we determined expression of Cdc34, Rad6B, CREM/ICER isoforms, and the Skp1-Cullin-F-box ubiquitin protein ligase subunits Cul-1 and Cul-2, which are associated with Cdc34 activity during murine testicular development. Cdc34, Rad6B, and the Cullin proteins are expressed in a developmentally regulated manner, with distinctly different patterns for Cdc34 and the Cullin proteins in germ cells. The Cdc34 and Rad6B proteins are significantly elevated in meiotic and postmeiotic haploid germ cells when chromatin modifications occur. Thus, the stability of specific mammalian transcription factors is the result of complex targeting by multiple ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes and may have an impact on cAMP-inducible gene regulation during both meiotic and mitotic cell cycles.  (+info)

Identification of an erythroid active element in the transferrin receptor gene. (3/192)

Hemoglobin synthesis consumes most of the iron that is taken up by cells from plasma transferrin, and this process requires very high expression of transferrin receptors (TfR) at the membranes of erythroid cells. Studies in our and other laboratories indicate that a dramatic increase in TfR levels during erythroid differentiation occurs at the transcriptional level. In this study, we investigated the transcriptional regulation of the TfR in terms of its promoter activity and DNA-protein binding in murine erythroleukemia cells. Reporter gene assays revealed that the TfR promoter activity was stimulated 6-8-fold in murine erythroleukemia cells induced to differentiate into hemoglobin-synthesizing cells by either Me(2)SO or N,N'-hexamethylene-bis-acetamide. A minimal region (-118 to +14) was required for the differentiation-induced promoter activity. Mutation of either an Ets-binding site or an activator protein-1/cyclic AMP-response element-like motif within this region, but not disruption of the adjacent GC-rich/specificity protein-1 sequence, inhibited the inducible promoter activity. Electrophoresis mobility shift assays suggest that the cyclic AMP-response element-binding proteins/activating transcription factor-like factors and Ets-like factors bind constitutively to this bipartite element. Upon induction of differentiation, a shift in the pattern of the cyclic AMP-response element-binding protein/activating transcription factor-like binding factors was observed. Our data indicate that the TfR gene promoter contains an erythroid active element that stimulates the receptor gene transcription upon induction of hemoglobin synthesis.  (+info)

Aca1 and Aca2, ATF/CREB activators in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are important for carbon source utilization but not the response to stress. (4/192)

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the family of ATF/CREB transcriptional regulators consists of a repressor, Acr1 (Sko1), and two activators, Aca1 and Aca2. The AP-1 factor Gen4 does not activate transcription through ATF/CREB sites in vivo even though it binds these sites in vitro. Unlike ATF/CREB activators in other species, Aca1- and Aca2-dependent transcription is not affected by protein kinase A or by stress, and Aca1 and Aca2 are not required for Hog1-dependent salt induction of transcription through an optimal ATF/CREB site. Aca2 is important for a variety of biological functions including growth on nonoptimal carbon sources, and Aca2-dependent activation is modestly regulated by carbon source. Strains lacking Aca1 are phenotypically normal, but overexpression of Aca1 suppresses some defects associated with the loss of Aca2, indicating a functional overlap between Aca1 and Aca2. Acr1 represses transcription both by recruiting the Cyc8-Tup1 corepressor and by directly competing with Aca1 and Aca2 for target sites. Acr1 does not fully account for osmotic regulation through ATF/CREB sites, and a novel Hog1-dependent activator(s) that is not a bZIP protein is required for ATF/CREB site activation in response to high salt. In addition, Acr1 does not affect a number of phenotypes that arise from loss of Aca2. Thus, members of the S. cerevisiae ATF/CREB family have overlapping, but distinct, biological functions and target genes.  (+info)

Protein kinase A and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways antagonistically regulate fission yeast fbp1 transcription by employing different modes of action at two upstream activation sites. (5/192)

A significant challenge to our understanding of eukaryotic transcriptional regulation is to determine how multiple signal transduction pathways converge on a single promoter to regulate transcription in divergent fashions. To study this, we have investigated the transcriptional regulation of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe fbp1 gene that is repressed by a cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) pathway and is activated by a stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. In this study, we identified and characterized two cis-acting elements in the fbp1 promoter required for activation of fbp1 transcription. Upstream activation site 1 (UAS1), located approximately 900 bp from the transcriptional start site, resembles a cAMP response element (CRE) that is the binding site for the atf1-pcr1 heterodimeric transcriptional activator. Binding of this activator to UAS1 is positively regulated by the MAPK pathway and negatively regulated by PKA. UAS2, located approximately 250 bp from the transcriptional start site, resembles a Saccharomyces cerevisiae stress response element. UAS2 is bound by transcriptional activators and repressors regulated by both the PKA and MAPK pathways, although atf1 itself is not present in these complexes. Transcriptional regulation of fbp1 promoter constructs containing only UAS1 or UAS2 confirms that the PKA and MAPK regulation is targeted to both sites. We conclude that the PKA and MAPK signal transduction pathways regulate fbp1 transcription at UAS1 and UAS2, but that the antagonistic interactions between these pathways involve different mechanisms at each site.  (+info)

Cartilage degradation and invasion by rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts is inhibited by gene transfer of a cell surface-targeted plasmin inhibitor. (6/192)

OBJECTIVE: Joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a result of degradation and invasion of the articular cartilage by the pannus tissue. The present study was undertaken to examine the role of the plasminogen activation system in cartilage degradation and invasion by synovial fibroblasts and investigate a novel gene therapeutic approach using a cell surface-targeted plasmin inhibitor (ATF.BPTI). METHODS: Adenoviral vectors were used for gene transfer. The effects of ATF.BPTI gene transfer on RA synovial fibroblast-dependent cartilage degradation were studied in vitro, and cartilage invasion was studied in vivo in the SCID mouse coimplantation model. RESULTS: The results indicate that cartilage matrix degradation by rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts is plasmin mediated and depends on urokinase-type plasminogen activator for activation. Targeting plasmin inhibition to the cell surface of the fibroblasts by gene transfer of a cell surface-binding plasmin inhibitor resulted in a significant reduction of cartilage matrix degradation in vitro and of cartilage invasion in vivo. Compared with uninfected rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts, the mean +/-SEM cartilage degradation in vitro was reduced to 87.9+/-0.9% after LacZ gene transfer versus a reduction to 24.0+/-1.6% after ATF.BPTI gene transfer (P<0.0001). The mean +/- SEM in vivo cartilage invasion score was 3.1+/-0.4 in the control-transduced fibroblasts and 1.8+/-0.4 in the ATF.BPTI-transduced fibroblasts (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: These results indicate a role of the plasminogen activation system in synovial fibroblast-dependent cartilage degradation and invasion in RA, and demonstrate an effective way to inhibit this by gene transfer of a cell surface-targeted plasmin inhibitor.  (+info)

Construction and in vitro characterization of attenuated feline immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat mutant viruses. (7/192)

AP-1- and ATF-binding sites are cis-acting transcriptional elements within the U3 domain of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) long terminal repeat (LTR) that serve as targets for cellular activation pathways and may regulate virus replication. We report that FIV LTR mutant proviruses encoding U3 deletions of the ATF-binding sequence exhibited restricted virus expression and replication in both feline lymphocytes and macrophages. In contrast, deletion of the AP-1 site had negligible effects on virus expression and replication. FIV LTR mutant proviruses encoding deletions of both the AP-1 and ATF sites or a 72-bp deletion encompassing the AP-1 site, duplicated C/EBP sites, and ATF sites were severely restricted for virus expression. These results demonstrate that deletion of either the ATF-binding site or multiple cis-acting transcriptional elements attenuates FIV. These attenuated FIV mutants provide opportunities to characterize the role of cis-acting elements in virus replication in vivo and to test LTR mutants as attenuated virus vaccines.  (+info)

CREB/ATF-dependent repression of cyclin a by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax protein. (8/192)

Expression of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) oncoprotein Tax is correlated with cellular transformation contributing to the development of adult T-cell leukemia. Tax has been shown to modulate the activities of several cellular promoters. Existing evidence suggests that Tax need not directly bind to DNA to accomplish these effects but rather that it can act through binding to cellular factors, including members of the CREB/ATF family. Exact mechanisms of HTLV-1 transformation of cells have yet to be fully defined, but the process is likely to include both activation of cellular-growth-promoting factors and repression of cellular tumor-suppressing functions. While transcriptional activation has been well studied, transcriptional repression by Tax, reported recently from several studies, remains less well understood. Here, we show that Tax represses the TATA-less cyclin A promoter. Repression of the cyclin A promoter was seen in both ts13 adherent cells and Jurkat T lymphocytes. Two other TATA-less promoters, cyclin D3 and DNA polymerase alpha, were also found to be repressed by Tax. Interestingly, all three promoters share a common feature of at least one conserved upstream CREB/ATF binding site. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we observed that Tax altered the formation of a complex(es) at the cyclin A promoter-derived ATF site. Functionally, we correlated removal of the CREB/ATF site from the promoter with loss of repression by Tax. Furthermore, since a Tax mutant protein which binds CREB repressed the cyclin A promoter while another mutant protein which does not bind CREB did not, we propose that this Tax repression occurs through protein-protein contact with CREB/ATF.  (+info)

Transcriptional regulation in HCMV-infected cells relies on a complex interaction between cellular and viral transactivators (13, 23, 28, 37, 41, 43, 46). Several studies have implicated a role for the transcription factors ATF/CREB in early gene regulation (25, 30, 35, 37, 39). For example, several early promoters can be regulated by ATF/CREB sites in transient assays (30, 35, 37, 39). In addition, a role for ATF/CREB in the activation of the UL54 and UL112-113 promoters at early times in the context of the viral genome has been demonstrated (25,35). Our present analysis of the US11 promoter revealed that expression of this early gene is also regulated by two ATF/CREB sites within the promoter. The primary regulatory element of the US11 promoter, both in transient assays and in the context of the viral genome, is an ATF site located immediately upstream of the TATA element. In addition to the ATF site, the CREB site at −83 was also involved in US11 promoter activation. In the context of the ...
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The AP-1 transcription factor is mainly composed of Jun, Fos and ATF protein dimers. It mediates gene regulation in response to a plethora of physiological and ...
Mitochondrial dysfunction is pervasive in human pathologies such as neurodegeneration, diabetes, cancer, and pathogen infections as well as during normal aging. Cells sense and respond to mitochondrial dysfunction by activating a protective transcriptional program known as the mitochondrial unfolded …
AFTX has announced today that Julian Courtney will join its Board of Directors as a non-executive director for its UK operations.
CREB Gel Shift Oligonucleotide contains a consensus binding site for cAMP response element (CRE) binding proteins of the CREB/ATF family
Foreign exchange trading comes with high level of risk. Before investing in foreign exchange, carefully consider your level of experience and risk appetite. CFDs are complex instruments and bring high risk of losing money because of the leverage they provide. No information or opinion contained on this site should not be taken as investment advice, personal recommendation, or an offer of, or solicitation to buy or sell, any financial instruments. Past performance is and should not be considered evidence or guarantee for future performance. Between 74 and 89% of retail investors accounts lose money. ...
Learn the history of the pro-life movement & the two legal decisions that created legalized abortion in the U.S. Plus pro-life answers to pro-choice rhetoric.
In The Womb, White, Touch of Life, In the Womb Item: 7560WV Group: Touch of Life, In the Womb Price: $279.00 - $349.00 The development of an unborn baby is both beautiful and amazing. Gods design for the protection, growth, and nourishment of the baby while in the mothers womb is nothing short of miraculous. It is this splendor and grace that is captured for you to share in the...Touch of Life in the Womb fetal ... ...
Over? Dont count on it. Im Pro-Life all of the way. I am against abortion in all situations. If a woman has willing sex, then she should except...
Oh, the future like ours guy? Most of the male members of this forum are killing potential babies every day and depriving them of a future like ours...
Eiri, remember way back when I first started posting on ehealth, we had those debates about definitions of words? Well, I am curious to know what your definiti
Greitai ir pasiutęs yra gunwalking gaila operaciją, atliktų biuras alkoholio, tabako ir šaunamųjų ginklų (ATF) stebėti srautų ginklus iš Jungtinių Amerikos Valstijų į Meksikos narkotikų karteliai rankas. Gunwalking arba nuoma vaikščioti ginklus buvo naudojama ATF sąmoningai leisti ginklai įsigijo ...
A Joint Statement by Pro-Life Leaders. Recently some environmentalists have portrayed certain of their causes as intrinsic to the pro-life movement. The tactic often involves appealing to a seamless garment of support for life, or to being consistently pro-life or completely pro-life.. As leaders of the pro-life movement, we reject that portrayal as disingenuous and dangerous to our efforts to protect the lives of unborn children.. The term pro-life originated historically in the struggle to end abortion on demand and continues to be used in public discourse overwhelmingly in that sense. To ignore that is at best sloppy communication and at worst intentional deception. The life in pro-life denotes not quality of life but life itself. The term denotes opposition to a procedure that intentionally results in dead babies.. In stark contrast, most environmental causes promoted as pro-life involve little threat to human life itself, and no intent to kill anyone. For example, even if one grants ...
The Four Classes of People Sabotaging the Pro-Life Movement. When evaluating this threat, it is not necessary to think that the damage these people cause is always intentional or driven by malice. In some cases it is and in others it isnt. But regardless of its motivation, internal subversion has a greater capacity to destroy the pro-life effort than any of our external enemies.. In any environment, including the pro-life movement, the first line of defense against internal sabotage is to recognize the forces behind it.. Grandstanders are people who show up in the pro-life movement from time to time to proclaim that their convictions are more pure than anyone elses and their commitment to the cause is more sincere. Armed with an inexhaustible supply of self-righteousness, they will readily accuse those whove been on the front lines for decades of not being truly pro-life, not having any idea what they are doing, and only being involved in the pro-life effort for fame and fortune. Among the ...
OTTAWA, ON-There is a sense of urgency this year as the pro-life movement prepares for the annual national March For Life in Ottawa. Although grassroots support for the pro-life cause has grown dramatically in the past few years, abortion advocates are working much harder to censure public debate, especially in federal politics.. When I see the response of the pro-life MPs, as they look at the [March For Life] crowd, I know they are encouraged for the fight, says pro-life lobbyist Johanne Brownrigg. When they see 20,000 or more people who are grateful to them and share their vision of respect for life, it gives them the courage they need to go back and face the opposition.. In the past three years, March For Life attendance has grown from 19,000 to 25,000, by far the largest annual protest in Canada. Yet despite the crowds, the past year has been difficult for pro-life MPs. Pro-life views have been suppressed and derided in every federal party and on the eve of last years march, Justin ...
The 84th Texas Legislative Session proved to be challenging for the Pro-Life movement. As we previously reported in detail, while there were a few legislative victories, most Pro-Life advocates were disappointed by the missed opportunities and political games that shaped the session. Nevertheless, because of the tireless efforts and relentless commitment of a handful of elected officials, multiple votes on Pro-Life policies were brought to the House and Senate floors.. The one priority Pro-Life bill that passed this session was House Bill 3994, which substantially reforms the judicial bypass process by which a pregnant teen may petition a judge for permission to undergo an abortion without parental knowledge or consent. In both chambers, anti-Life legislators attempted to weaken this legislation by floor amendments.. Multiple Pro-Life votes were also taken this session on the states budget bill, including two amendments that keep the abortion industry out of sex education programs and one that ...
Children reared in unfavorable socioeconomic circumstances show increased susceptibility to the chronic diseases of aging when they reach the fifth and sixth decades of life. One mechanistic hypothesis for this phenomenon suggests that social adversity in early life programs biological systems in a manner that persists across decades and thereby accentuates vulnerability to disease. Here we examine the basic tenets of this hypothesis by performing genome-wide transcriptional profiling in healthy adults who were either low or high in socioeconomic status (SES) in early life. Among subjects with low early-life SES, there was significant up-regulation of genes bearing response elements for the CREB/ATF family of transcription factors that conveys adrenergic signals to leukocytes, and significant down-regulation of genes with response elements for the glucocorticoid receptor, which regulates the secretion of cortisol and transduces its antiinflammatory actions in the immune system. Subjects from ...
Help promote the Pro-Life Action Calls which are put out by Pro-Life organizations nationwide. .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address). to email us and we will send you the Action Code & sign you up as a member of Pro-Life Unity. Your site will be listed on the Members page. ...
Help promote the Pro-Life Action Calls which are put out by Pro-Life organizations nationwide. .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address). to email us and we will send you the Action Code & sign you up as a member of Pro-Life Unity. Your site will be listed on the Members page. ...
Gallup said on Friday that a new poll, conducted May 7 to 10, found 51 percent of Americans calling themselves pro-life on the issue of abortion and 42 percent pro-choice. This is the first time a majority of U.S. adults have identified themselves as pro-life since Gallup began asking this question in 1995.. The new results, obtained from Gallups annual Values and Beliefs survey, represent a significant shift from a year ago, when 50 percent were pro-choice and 44 percent pro-life. Prior to now, the highest percentage identifying as pro-life was 46 percent, in both August 2001 and May 2002.. Underscoring how divisive the issue remains, the poll further found that 23 percent of Americans felt abortion should be illegal in all circumstances and 22 percent said it should be legal in all circumstances.. Still, it found that 53 percent held to a middle view - that is should be legal in certain circumstances. That figure, Gallup said, has been steady since 1975.. A few other things stand out. ...
J:191236 Wang SZ, Ou J, Zhu LJ, Green MR, Transcription factor ATF5 is required for terminal differentiation and survival of olfactory sensory neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Nov 6;109(45):18589-94 ...
2. Opposing the sale of military style assault weapons and ammunition (or tax it out of affordability) that are killing thousands of young people whore either in the wrong place at the wrong time, or being victimized due to their race or sexual orientation. It makes no sense to be Pro-life but also Pro-Assault Weapons. Its a classic oxymoron. ...
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I get it. You dont like abortions. You dont want me, or anyone else, to be able to get one. You dont want them to happen in the country, or anywhere. However. To the pro-life women who want to defund Planned Parenthood: Why do you value the lives…
Thank you, Pro-Life Action League! I always enjoy when the opposition commentary proves my point. The fixation on one sub point from my last piece - Picketers vs Patients - is just the latest example of anti-choice activists knowing their position is untenable and unpopular. They fear the truth: They are the minority. The
Thank you, Pro-Life Action League! I always enjoy when the opposition commentary proves my point. The fixation on one sub point from my last piece - Picketers vs Patients - is just the latest example of anti-choice activists knowing their position is untenable and unpopular. They fear the truth: They are the minority. The
Leftists are outwardly hostile toward conservatives in the film industry. Any film with a whiff of a conservative message gets tamped down. But leftists have kicked into overdrive to suppress one pro-life movie.
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Every election cycle, we are witnesses to the frustrating spectacle of candidates for public office who miss a great opportunity - to campaign as pro-lifers. Many of them avoid the life issue because they are operating under the misapprehension that it is a vote-loser. We can tell that the issue is important to many of them, but they just dont seem to be able to talk about it.. Contrary to the received wisdom, the exit polls from previous elections clearly show that taking a pro-life position is a winner - it will gain more votes than it loses. For example, in the 2004 presidential election, the National Right to Life Committee documented that abortion affected the vote of 42% of the electorate, and of those people, the pro-life candidate had an advantage of 25% to 13%. (Original data is here).. Whats especially frustrating is that it really isnt that hard to bring pro-life views into the political arena, and to persuade people to agree with them. Here is a simple script that anyone can ...
Our pro-life organization orders thousands of white and brown Precious Ones a year to give out in NYC and Yonkers, NY street festivals, conferences, outside Planned Parenthood, during educational presentations and randomly on sidewalks. We know of AT LEAST 2 babies who were saved from abortion because their mothers, who were pregnant at the time and going for an abortion, were given one of these models by one of our volunteers (only one of the women told us they were considering abortion at the time we gave them the models - the other mom just told us she was pregnant). The funny thing about it is that we did not know about the effect the models had when we were handing them out but both women told us much later that because of the models they changed their minds and had their babies: one told us 4 years after we gave her the Precious One, another 2 years later. Because of their life-like touch some people recoil when you give them the model - but most dont and gladly accept it. We even have ...
My religious roommate and her friends recently approached me and asked if I was pro-life. I told them I most definitely am! That I believe human beings have a responsibility to conserve and protect wildlife. They then told me if I was for the murdering of innocent babies, and said if a baby was a tree, would I save it? Am I the only one that finds the term (Pro-Life) a little misleading?
Thank you to whoever nominated Causa Nostrae Laetitiae for American Life Leagues 2010 Pro-life Blog Awards. I am honored to be among some of the best blogs out there, and to be nominated after winning the Pro-life Unity Award in 2009. It would be an honor to win again, though part of me wants someone else to have a turn, but I had a wonderful time at the ALL Conference last year and would welcome a return visit ...
How far will you go to be granted the most precious gift of life? So many mothers and fathers face the daunting reality of not having children - and yet everywhere in the world, even in our own streets and back allies, women throw away their babies, or consult abortionists and murder these little angels in cold blood. This video, entitled Hangad, is brought to you by Pro-Life Philippines and the creative minds of Y&R Philippines. It shows us the anguish of couples everywhere, especially women, who have done their utmost in order to conceive the child they have always yearned for, only for…. ...
Multiple Pro-Life medical and legal experts demonstrated the need for and defended the bill against one of the most pro-abortion members of the Texas House of Representatives.
Were asked today to reflect on the future of the pro-life movement in an increasingly secular age. A few years ago, I wrote a book called How th...
Some say what I did was crazy. I was standing alone on a stage at Central Michigan University. My job was simple: Present the pro-life view and then debate any challengers from the audience. Simple? Yes. Easy? Not entirely, but Ill tell you how I made the engagement more manageable...
Some say what I did was crazy. I was standing alone on a stage at Central Michigan University. My job was simple: Present the pro-life view and then debate any challengers from the audience. Simple? Yes. Easy? Not entirely, but Ill tell you how I made the engagement more manageable...
WASHINGTON (BP) - Pro-life advocates have praised recent actions by the Trump administration to protect newly born children and to broaden the ban on funds for international abortion rights organizations.
Did Norma McCorvey-better known by her pseudonym Jane Roe in the Roe v. Wade abortion case-somehow fake her pro-life conversion?…. Uncategorized ...
Kentucky Gov. Matt Bevin signed into law four pieces of pro-life legislation as a court heard an ACLU challenge over an abortion safety law.
You may think that the answer to that question is pretty straightforward, a simple matter of opinions held or asserted, or not, but theres more to it than meets the eye. Many think that its simply a question of whether you hold a certain political view or not: for or against the right to kill others in certain situations, like saying, its ok to kill a person who is in an embryonic, fetal or otherwise unborn state. Or, its ok to kill others who are just born, very old, very disabled, genetically-different, chronically-ill or who take up too much time in the hospital, who cost too much for the taxpayer-funded government services. Or not.
How does a pro-choice doctor who once performed abortions for Planned Parenthood wind up on the opposite side of this embattled issue?. ...
How does a pro-choice doctor who once performed abortions for Planned Parenthood wind up on the opposite side of this embattled issue?. ...
Ive been thinking about the fight for womens healthcare a lot lately, mainly due to the influx of messages weve been getting to Skepchick in the pa
Shop Anti A.G.E with Antioxidants & Q10 online. We promise good ingredients at great prices, helping you make better choices. Get Rewards & fast delivery.
Plasmid pKS104 from Dr. Jay Keaslings lab contains the insert fadD (M3351), atfA and is published in Nature. 2010 Jan 28;463(7280):559-62. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
As Oregons leading pro-life organization, we receive no government funds and the vast majority of our resources come from individuals and families ...
Mobil ATF™ 3309 is an exceptionally high performance lubricant that meets original equipment manufacturers specifications for use in certain slip-controlled lock-up automatic transmissions.
Expression of the ATF in the ECV304 cells. Immunofluorescence was performed, and the resulting cells were observed under a laser scanning confocal microscope. (
The UCLA Library Digital Collections includes rare and unique digital materials developed by the UCLA Library to support education, research, service, and creative expression. This website is our new interface for discovery and engagement of these collections. See collections of historic photographs and manuscripts. More collections added weekly.
... , ATF, is a group of bZIP transcription factors, which act as homodimers or heterodimers with a ... biology and nomenclature of the activating transcription factor/cAMP responsive element binding family of transcription factors ... Activating+Transcription+Factors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e (Articles with ... activating transcription factor proteins and homeostasis". Gene. 273 (1): 1-11. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(01)00551-0. ISSN 0378- ...
... , also known as ATF2, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ATF2 gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: ATF2 activating transcription factor 2". Ozawa K, Sudo T, Soeda E, Yoshida MC, Ishii S (1991). "Assignment of the ... Activating transcription factor 2 has been shown to interact with C-jun, Casein kinase 2, alpha 1, CREB binding protein, ... "Phosphorylation of two eukaryotic transcription factors, Jun dimerization protein 2 and activation transcription factor 2, in ...
"Activating Transcription Factor 7 Interacting Protein". Retrieved 23 April 2011. "AceView: Homo sapiens complex locus QRICH1, ... Interacting Proteins: ATXN1, Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 protein, and ATF7IP, activating transcription factor 7-interacting ... ATF7IP is a recruiter protein that couples transcriptional factors to the general transcription apparatus, thereby modulating ... transcription regulation and chromatin formation. QRICH1 is expressed at a high level, 3.3 times the average gene. It is ...
"Entrez Gene: ATF7 activating transcription factor 7". Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P, Mann M (2006 ... a novel variant of the ATF/CREB transcription factor family, forms a dominant transcription inhibitor in ATF-a heterodimers". J ... Cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ATF7 gene. In 2001, Peters et al ... Transcription factors, All stub articles, Human chromosome 12 gene stubs). ...
"Entrez Gene: ATF1 activating transcription factor 1". Zucman J, Delattre O, Desmaze C, Epstein AL, Stenman G, Speleman F, ... 1993). "Activating transcription factor-1 can mediate Ca(2+)- and cAMP-inducible transcriptional activation". J. Biol. Chem. ... Sun P, Lou L, Maurer RA (1996). "Regulation of activating transcription factor-1 and the cAMP response element-binding protein ... This gene encodes an activating transcription factor, which belongs to the ATF subfamily and bZIP (basic-region leucine zipper ...
Activating transcription factor 3 is a member of the mammalian activation transcription factor/cAMP responsive element-binding ... ATF3 activating transcription factor 3". Chen BP, Wolfgang CD, Hai T (March 1996). "Analysis of ATF3, a transcription factor ... Activating transcription factor ATF3 has been shown to interact with: C-jun, DDIT3 JunD, P53, and SMAD3. GRCh38: Ensembl ... Chu HM, Tan Y, Kobierski LA, Balsam LB, Comb MJ (January 1994). "Activating transcription factor-3 stimulates 3',5'-cyclic ...
"Entrez Gene: transcription factor AP-2 beta (activating enhancer binding protein 2 beta)". Tsukada S, Tanaka Y, Maegawa H, et ... 2006). "Transcription factor activating enhancer-binding protein-2beta. A negative regulator of adiponectin gene expression". J ... Transcription factor AP-2 beta also known as AP2-beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TFAP2B gene. AP-2 beta is a ... 2009). "The transcription factor TFAP2B is associated with insulin resistance and adiposity in healthy adolescents". Obesity ( ...
"Distinct Roles of Transcription Factors KLF4, Krox20, and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ in Adipogenesis". ... Kim JH, Song J, Park KW (March 2015). "The multifaceted factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in ... is a type II nuclear receptor functioning as a transcription factor that in humans is encoded by the PPARG gene. PPARG is ... "Activation of PPARgamma coactivator-1 through transcription factor docking". Science. 286 (5443): 1368-71. doi:10.1126/science. ...
Activating transcription factor 7-interacting protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ATF7IP gene. ATF7IP has ... "Entrez Gene: ATF7IP activating transcription factor 7 interacting protein". Fujita, Naoyuki; Watanabe Sugiko; Ichimura Takaya; ... PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available in the PDB for Human Activating transcription factor 7- ... Gunther M, Laithier M, Brison O (Dec 2000). "A set of proteins interacting with transcription factor Sp1 identified in a two- ...
"The DEXD/H-box RNA helicase RHII/Gu is a co-factor for c-Jun-activated transcription". The EMBO Journal. 21 (3): 451-60. doi: ... nuclear factor-kappaB, and serum response factor as novel target molecules of the cancer-amplified transcription coactivator ... as a novel transcriptional corepressor molecule of activating protein-1, nuclear factor-kappaB, and serum response factor". The ... Transcription factor Jun is a protein that in humans is encoded by the JUN gene. c-Jun, in combination with protein c-Fos, ...
March 1995). "Cdk-activating kinase complex is a component of human transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 283-7. ... March 1995). "Cdk-activating kinase complex is a component of human transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 283-7. ... "From androgen receptor to the general transcription factor TFIIH. Identification of cdk activating kinase (CAK) as an androgen ... "Association of Cdk-activating kinase subunits with transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 280-2. Bibcode:1995Natur. ...
P-TEFb also phosphorylates and activates SPT5 and TAT-SF1. SPT5 is a universal transcription factor that helps recruit 5'- ... General transcription factors are a group of proteins involved in transcription initiation and regulation. These factors ... The transcription, a complete set of general transcription factors and RNA polymerase need to be assembled at the core promoter ... After escaping the promoter and shedding most of the transcription factors for initiation, the polymerase acquires new factors ...
It is hypothesized that VegT also activates the Xnr-1,2,4 proteins. VegT acts as a transcription factor to activate genes ... These transcription factors regulate other transcription factors, cell surface molecules with roles in cell adhesion, and other ... β-catenin activates the transcription factor stat3. Stat3 coordinates cell movements during gastrulation and contributes to ... β-catenin in the nucleus activates two transcription factors: siamois and twin. β-catenin also acts synergistically with VegT ...
The inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB and CD38 are mutually activating. Secretions from senescent cells induce high ... As a receptor, CD38 can attach to CD31 on the surface of T cells, thereby activating those cells to produce a variety of ... Zhao ZY, Xie XJ, Li WH, Zhao YJ (2016). "A Cell-Permeant Mimetic of NMN Activates SARM1 to Produce Cyclic ADP-Ribose and Induce ... The cytokine tumor necrosis factor strongly induces CD38 on airway smooth muscle cells inducing cADPR-mediated Ca2+, thereby ...
... shows decreased expression when activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) is knocked out. Since ATF2 was not predicted to ... "Suppressor role of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) in skin cancer". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105 (5): 1674-9. ...
FoxO transcription factors can activate expression of RICTOR. FoxO has been shown to inhibit mTORC1, while activating Akt ... to mediate the ubiquitination of growth-promoting factors cyclin E and c-Myc. Furthermore, elevated growth factor signaling may ... This phosphorylation activates Akt/PKB, where deregulation of Akt/PKB has been implicated in cancer and diabetes. RICTOR and ... Chen CC, Jeon SM, Bhaskar PT, Nogueira V, Sundararajan D, Tonic I, Park Y, Hay N (2010). "FoxOs inhibit mTORC1 and activate Akt ...
... is a transcription factor that assists in regulating cell growth. When activated, Pho4 is translocated to the nucleus. ... transcription factor. It is found in S. cerevisiae and other yeasts. It functions as a transcription factor to regulate ... Additionally, another transcription factor known as Pho2, binds to Pho4 and assists in Pho4's ability to bind tightly to its ... This completes the addition of the binding partners that Pho4 needs in order to be capable of acting as a transcription factor ...
AP-1 was first discovered as a TPA-activated transcription factor that bound to a cis-regulatory element of the human ... "The AP-1 transcription factor regulates breast cancer cell growth via cyclins and E2F factors". Oncogene. 27 (3): 366-77. doi: ... The AP-1 transcription factor has been shown to play numerous roles in cell growth and proliferation. In particular, c-Fos and ... AP-1 transcription factor has been shown to have a hand in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell growth, ...
ATF6 (activating transcription factor 6) is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor. Upon Grp78 dissociation, the entire ... is upregulated downstream of the bZIP transcription factor ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4) and uniquely responsive to ... The activated domain is able to activate the transcription factor XBP1(Xbox binding protein) mRNA (the mammalian equivalent of ... The activated transcription factor upregulates UPR 'stress genes' by directly binding to stress element promoters in the ...
... promoted β1 integrin expression by activating a transcription factor called SRF. A continually active form of the ... Activated Cdc42 activates by causing conformational changes in p21-activated kinases PAK1 and PAK2, which in turn initiate ... and it also modulates the transcription factors SRF, STAT3, and NFkB. It has been hypothesized that targeting Cdc42 in ... transcription factor was also capable of restoring endothelial insertion to cancer cells lacking Cdc42. Normal cancer cells and ...
"TFAP2C (transcription Factor AP-2 Gamma (activating Enhancer Binding Protein 2 Gamma))." TFAP2C (transcription Factor AP-2 ... AP2-gamma is a member of the activating protein 2 family of transcription factors. Transcription factor AP-2 gamma is involved ... "Transcription Factor AP-2 Gamma - TFAP2C - Homo sapiens (Human)." Transcription Factor AP-2 Gamma - TFAP2C - Homo sapiens ( ... Transcription factor AP-2 gamma also known as AP2-gamma is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TFAP2C gene. ...
"Cdk-activating kinase complex is a component of human transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 283-7. Bibcode:1995Natur ... "Cdk-activating kinase complex is a component of human transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 283-7. Bibcode:1995Natur ... General transcription factor IIH subunit 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GTF2H1 gene. GTF2H1 has been shown to ... Tong X, Drapkin R, Reinberg D, Kieff E (1995). "The 62- and 80-kDa subunits of transcription factor IIH mediate the interaction ...
Activating transcription factor 3 (Atf3) is a known RAG with numerous promoters. Atf3 expression increases after nerve injury ... Cis-regulatory elements in the promoter contain sequences recognized by transcription factors and the basal transcription ... For example, the same transcription factor (TF) can direct gene expression in different tissues simply by binding with ... predicting interaction between transcription factors in human tissues". Nucleic Acids Res. 34 (17): 4925-36. doi:10.1093/nar/ ...
Transcription factor AP-4 (activating enhancer binding protein 4), also known as TFAP4, is a protein which in humans is encoded ... Transcription factor AP4 is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, which bind to the E-box ... "Entrez Gene: TFAP4 transcription factor AP-4 (activating enhancer binding protein 4)". Hu YF, Lüscher B, Admon A, et al. (1991 ... "Enhancer binding factors AP-4 and AP-1 act in concert to activate SV40 late transcription in vitro". Nature. 332 (6164): 557-61 ...
It was later identified by the yeast-two hybrid system to bind to activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) to repress ATF- ... "Phosphorylation of two eukaryotic transcription factors, Jun dimerization protein 2 and activation transcription factor 2, in ... JDP2 (gene) has been shown to interact with Activating transcription factor 2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000140044 - ... c-Jun dimerization protein 2 and activating transcription factor 3, recruit multiple HDAC members to the ATF3 promoter". ...
Activating transcription factor 4 (tax-responsive enhancer element B67), also known as ATF4, is a protein that in humans is ... "Entrez Gene: ATF4 activating transcription factor 4 (tax-responsive enhancer element B67)". Franceschi RT, Ge C, Xiao G, Roca H ... He CH, Gong P, Hu B, Stewart D, Choi ME, Choi AM, Alam J (June 2001). "Identification of activating transcription factor 4 ( ... Activating transcription factor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000128272 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
"Cdk-activating kinase complex is a component of human transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 283-7. Bibcode:1995Natur ... and the CDK-activating kinase (CAK) assembly factor MAT1 (MNAT1) to chromosome bands 5q13.3-q14 and 14q23, respectively". ... the fifth subunit of the core of the transcription/DNA repair factor TFIIH". The EMBO Journal. 16 (5): 1093-102. doi:10.1093/ ... a subunit of the human general transcription/DNA repair factor TFIIH". Protein Expression and Purification. 9 (2): 153-8. doi: ...
These phosphorylated receptors in turn recruit STAT transcription factors which modulate gene transcription. The first JAK ... Many cytokines function by binding to and activating type I cytokine receptors and type II cytokine receptors. These receptors ... The committee also recommends using JAK inhibitors with caution in people with risk factors for blood clots in the lungs and in ... More specifically, Janus kinases phosphorylate activated cytokine receptors. ...
... which is in fact a transcription factor) binds to the DNA. The complex can inhibit or activate unknown genes. Chloracne, an ... However, there are not many studies on humans that assess the health risk factors of HpCDD. HpCDD seems to be more potent once ... but when DNA-synthesis is stimulated by epidermal growth factor, HpCDD acts as a co-mitogen. These effects are observed for ...
SREBF2- a transcription factor precursor which is imbedded in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane; activates genes involved with ...
Three methods of preventing Cdk activity are found in G1 phase: pRB binding to E2F family transcription factors downregulate ... These complexes then activate S-Cdk complexes that move forward with DNA replication in the S phase. Concurrently, anaphase- ... In order for the cell to continue through the G1-pm, there must be a high amount of growth factors and a steady rate of protein ... G1 phase and the other subphases of the cell cycle may be affected by limiting growth factors such as nutrient supply, ...
"Entrez Gene: NFIX nuclear factor I/X (CCAAT-binding transcription factor)". Singh SK, Bhardwaj R, Wilczynska KM, Dumur CI, ... Müller K, Mermod N (2000). "The histone-interacting domain of nuclear factor I activates simian virus 40 DNA replication in ... for the human transcription factor nuclear factor I by FISH". Genomics. 28 (1): 66-73. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.1107. PMID 7590749 ... "Thyroglobulin repression of thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) gene expression is mediated by decreased DNA binding of ...
... which has been attributed to the activation of specific transcription factors. It also depends on the activity of a protein or ... October 2005). "The contribution of apoptosis-inducing factor, caspase-activated DNase, and inhibitor of caspase-activated ... Caspase-activated DNase (CAD) or DNA fragmentation factor subunit beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DFFB gene ... It is also known as caspase activated nuclease (CPAN), dna fragmentation factor 40 (DFF-40), DFF2 and DFFB. Besides, there are ...
Daxx can interact and suppress several transcription factors, such as p53, p73, and NF-κB. Proteins other than transcription ... When the cell is treated with TGF-β, HIPK2, a nuclear kinase, phosphorylates Daxx and the activated Daxx in turn activates the ... the encoded protein functions as a potent transcription repressor that binds to sumoylated transcription factors. Its ... The omnipresence of Daxx in the cell nucleus suggests that the protein may also function as a transcription factor. Although it ...
Many viruses have an RNA genome, such as HIV, which uses reverse transcription to create a DNA template from its viral RNA ... Binding of the hormone to insulin receptors on cells then activates a cascade of protein kinases that cause the cells to take ... These signals are usually in the form of water-soluble messengers such as hormones and growth factors and are detected by ... Proteins are made from amino acids that have been activated by attachment to a transfer RNA molecule through an ester bond. ...
... β-catenin becomes a coactivator for TCF and LEF to activate Wnt genes by displacing Groucho and HDAC transcription repressors. ... Yi ZY, Feng LJ, Xiang Z, Yao H (2011). "Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 activation mediates epithelial to ... On the other hand, a lack of α-catenin can promote aberrant transcription, which can lead to cancer. As a result, it can be ... Keratinocytes engineered to not express alpha-catenin have disrupted cell adhesion and activated NF-κB. A tumor cell line with ...
Splicing factor, arginine/serine-rich 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SFRS6 gene. The protein encoded by this ... Ramchatesingh J, Zahler AM, Neugebauer KM, Roth MB, Cooper TA (September 1995). "A subset of SR proteins activates splicing of ... Monsalve M, Wu Z, Adelmant G, Puigserver P, Fan M, Spiegelman BM (August 2000). "Direct coupling of transcription and mRNA ... The encoded nuclear protein belongs to the splicing factor SR family and has been shown to bind with and modulate another ...
June 2012). "Nucleophosmin (NPM1/B23) interacts with activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) protein and promotes proteasome- ... This protein is deactivated by binding ATP, and activated by its dephosphorylation to ADP, which requires a potassium ion to ... Rauch JN, Gestwicki JE (January 2014). "Binding of human nucleotide exchange factors to heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) generates ... Rauch JN, Gestwicki JE (January 2014). "Binding of human nucleotide exchange factors to heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) generates ...
IFNs activate signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) complexes; STATs are a family of transcription factors ... As a result, an IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) complex forms-this contains STAT1, STAT2 and a third transcription factor ... Type I IFNs further activate p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) to induce gene transcription. Antiviral and ... this receptor activates the transcription factors IRF3 and NF-κB, which are important for initiating synthesis of many ...
... represses the transcription of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor by a mechanism involving activator protein ... "Identification and characterization of a novel activated RhoB binding protein containing a PDZ domain whose expression is ... Arthur WT, Ellerbroek SM, Der CJ, Burridge K, Wennerberg K (November 2002). "XPLN, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for ... Gampel A, Parker PJ, Mellor H (September 1999). "Regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor traffic by the small GTPase ...
Phosphorylation of the transcription factor may activate it and that activated transcription factor may then activate the ... An activated enhancer begins transcription of its RNA before activating a promoter to initiate transcription of messenger RNA ... Several cell function specific transcription factors (there are about 1,600 transcription factors in a human cell) generally ... which enable activating transcription factors to recruit RNA polymerase. As promoters are typically immediately adjacent to the ...
The expression profiles of these transcription factors are driven by the transcription factors that peak in the prior phase, ... them from transcription), activating E2F. Activation of E2F results in transcription of various genes like cyclin E, cyclin A, ... One screen of single-gene knockouts identified 48 transcription factors (about 20% of all non-essential transcription factors) ... of cell cycle transcription factors by Cdk1 may alter the localization or activity of the transcription factors in order to ...
This may be due to BadA's inducing the transcription of proangiogenic factors, as it activates of NF-κB as well as hypoxia- ... In essence, they are virulence factors, factors that make the bacteria harmful and infective to the host organism. TAAs are ... All Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesins are crucial virulence factors that cause serious disease in humans. The most-studied and ... YadA bacterial adhesin protein domain Type V secretion system Virulence factor Cell adhesion Outer membrane Gram negative ...
... users with access to smartphones may also activate the on-screen braille input keyboard, to type braille symbols on to ... Some portions of the transcription rules are not fully codified and rely on the judgment of the transcriber. Thus, when the ... There are numerous factors that influence access to braille literacy, including school budget constraints, technology ... Holland, B. F. (1934). "Speed and Pressure Factors in Braille Reading", Teachers Forum, Vol. 7. pp. 13-17 Lowenfield, B.; Abel ...
... phosphorylates INSIG to activate SREBP and lipogenesis in cancer cells. Lu demonstrated that growth factor receptor activation ... "PKM2 phosphorylates histone H3 and promotes gene transcription and tumorigenesis". Cell. 150 (4): 685-696. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... In addition, he showed that activation of growth factor receptors, expression of K-Ras G12V and B-Raf V600E, and hypoxia induce ... He also showed that the glycolytic enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) phosphorylates and activates pyruvate dehydrogenase ...
Transcription of csrC increases as the culture approaches the stationary phase of growth and is indirectly activated by CsrA ... The 245 nucleotide sRNA of Escherichia coli, CsrC, was discovered using a genetic screen for factors that regulate glycogen ...
... transcription and transcription factor regulation, cell signaling, histone modification, and DNA repair. Most other UBLs have ... Typically, UBLs are expressed as inactive precursors and must be activated by proteolysis of the C-terminus to expose the ... The process of ubiquitination is a tightly regulated three-step sequence: activation, performed by ubiquitin-activating enzymes ... transcription, DNA repair, RNA splicing, and cellular differentiation. Ubiquitin itself was first discovered in the 1970s and ...
PGD2, PGJ2, Δ12-PGJ2, and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 activate the transcription factor, PPARγ, with 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 being the ... This PG directly binds with and activates PPARγ thereby inducing the transcription of genes containing the PPARγ response ... KEAP1: cytosolic KEAP1 serves to promote the degradation of Nrf2 by proteasomes thereby inhibiting this transcription factor ... to retain NFκB in the cell cytoplasm thereby inhibiting it from entering the nucleus and acting as a transcription factor (see ...
... the HIF transcription factor is responsible for the expression of a protein. The HIF stabilizer activates the activity of EPO ... Co2+ induces this response by binding to the N-terminus (loop helix loop domain) of the Hypoxia inducing transcription factors ... they cannot then bind and activate transcription of genes encoding Erythropoietin (EPO). With Co2+ stabilization, degradation ... Hypoxia-inducible factor stabilizer (HIF stabilizer) is a pharmaceutical used to treat chronic kidney disease. Like most ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor. GLI2 belongs to the C2H2-type zinc finger protein subclass of the ... When inappropriately activated causes hair follicle derived tumors, the most clinically significant being the BCC. Of the four ... Members of this subclass are characterized as transcription factors which bind DNA through zinc finger motifs. These motifs ... Transgenic mice over-expressing the transcription factor Gli2 under the K5 promoter in cutaneous keratinocytes develop multiple ...
... with beta-catenin and T-cell factor 4 may bypass canonical Wnt signaling to down-regulate adipogenic transcription factors". ... To further test the role of activated androgen receptors on AHN, flutamide, an antiandrogen drug that competes with ... Androgens bind to and activate androgen receptors (ARs) to mediate most of their biological effects. Determined by ... "Recruitment of the androgen receptor via serum response factor facilitates expression of a myogenic gene". The Journal of ...
... /Max dimers activate gene transcription, while Mad/Max and Mnt/Max dimers inhibit the activity of Myc. c-MYC is over ... MYC proto-oncogene, bHLH transcription factor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYC gene which is a member of the ... The encoded protein forms a heterodimer with the related transcription factor MAX. This complex binds to the E box DNA ... "MYC MYC proto-oncogene, bHLH transcription factor [ Homo sapiens (human) ]". Retrieved 2020-03-02. Dang CV, McGuire M, Buckmire ...
... to activate the transcription factor NF-κB. Mal (also known as TIRAP) is necessary to recruit Myd88 to TLR 2 and TLR 4, and ... these proteins activate two important transcription factors: NF-κB is a dimeric protein responsible for expression of various ... TLR7 and TLR9 activate both NF-κB and IRF3 through MyD88-dependent and TRIF-independent pathway, respectively. The human ... Another adaptor protein, which is activated by TLR3 and TLR4, is called TIR domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-β (TRIF). ...
She worked in the lab of Alanna Schepartz, completing a thesis on the recognition of DNA by natural transcription factors. Her ... She develops stable, activate fluorinated phosphotriesterase (PTE) variants by combining PTE with non-canonical amino acids. ...
However activated GR can complex with these other transcription factors and prevent them from binding their target genes and ... The biological response depends on the cell type.[citation needed] In the absence of activated GR, other transcription factors ... Chang CJ, Chen YL, Lee SC (October 1998). "Coactivator TIF1beta interacts with transcription factor C/EBPbeta and ... June 1998). "Recruitment of octamer transcription factors to DNA by glucocorticoid receptor". Molecular and Cellular Biology. ...
Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ... The proteolytic capacity of 20S core particle (CP) can be activated when CP associates with one or two regulatory particles (RP ... Besides RPs, the 20S proteasomes can also be effectively activated by other mild chemical treatments, such as exposure to low ... gene transcription, signal transduction and apoptosis. Subsequently, a compromised proteasome complex assembly and function ...
It can stimulate transcription factor c‑myc (activation of gene expression) and Ras pathway (suppression of apoptosis). In the ... Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and IL-6. IL-3 is secreted by basophils and activated T cells to ... Sometimes also called colony-stimulating factor, multi-CSF, mast cell growth factor, MULTI-CSF, MCGF; MGC79398, MGC79399: the ... Activated T cells can either induce their own proliferation and differentiation (autocrine signaling), or that of other T cells ...
Moreover, G6PD is one of a number of glycolytic enzymes activated by the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1 ... The isoform, G6PDH, is regulated by transcription and posttranscription factors. ... Xu SN, Wang TS, Li X, Wang YP (September 2016). "SIRT2 activates G6PD to enhance NADPH production and promote leukaemia cell ... G6PD is hypomethylated at K403 in acute myeloid leukemia, SIRT2 activates G6PD to enhance NADPH production and promote leukemia ...
However, all other transcription factors in the MSL family-maleless, MSL-1, and MSL-3-are able to act when SXL is not expressed ... SXL is activated to repress increased transcription, while in XY animals SXL is inactive and allows male development to proceed ... In the case of two-fold increased transcription of a single male X chromosome, there is no use for a Barr body, and the male ... These factors act to increase male X chromosome transcriptional activity. Histone acetylation and the consequent upregulation ...
... methylation can lead to the recruitment of transcription factors that repress transcription. Both mechanisms cause the same end ... These pathways are activated in the cellular response to reduce senescence. Mutations resulting in deletion or reduction of ... Regulation of p16 is complex and involves the interaction of several transcription factors, as well as several proteins ... p16 through the interaction of various transcription factors that execute methylation patterns that can repress transcription ...
... is an anti-apoptotic factor and has been implicated in enhancing the survival of cancer cells under stress and in regulating ... is an anti-apoptotic factor, and has been implicated in enhancing the survival of cancer cells under stress and in regulating ... Activating transcription factor-5 (ATF5) is an anti-apoptotic factor and has been implicated in enhancing the survival of ... is a member of the ATF/cAMP response element-binding family of transcription factors (14). This transcription factor is an anti ...
Two Sides of the Same Coin : Unravelling the role of transcription factors and miRNAs in activated monocytes, macrophages and ... Unravelling the role of transcription factors and miRNAs in activated monocytes, macrophages and microglia. Erasmus University ... This thesis focusses on understanding the role of three transcriptions factors, namely ATF3, EGR3 and PU.1, and also microRNA- ... In the introduction the immune cells, the diseases and the transcription factors + pathways will be introduced subsequently. ...
Prostaglandin Pair Activates Nurr1 Nuclear Receptor Transcription Factor & Boosts Dopamine Production, Offers Potential for ... Nurr1 is a member of the nuclear receptor family of intracellular transcription factors. Image shows Nurr1 interacting with DNA ... The binding of these prostaglandins causes Nurr1 to be activated, resulting in a marked increase in dopamine production, while ...
... dc.contributor.advisor. Braus, Gerhard Prof. Dr. ... Oxygen-dependent regulation of the activating transcription factor-4 (ATF-4). de. ... the activating transcription factor-4 (ATF-4) was identified as a novel interaction partner of the oxygen sensor PHD3. ATF-4 is ... The interaction of ATF 4 is restricted to PHD3 whereas no interaction was observed with PHD1, PHD2 or factor inhibiting HIF-1 ( ...
Adapting to such challenges requires metabolic rearrangement, partially mediated by transcription factor control over ... Regulation of the Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cell (NFAT) Family of Transcription Factors in the Freeze Tolerant Wood Frog, ... Here, involvement of the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) transcription factors, isoforms c1-c4, was analyzed in ... Adapting to such challenges requires metabolic rearrangement, partially mediated by transcription factor control over gene ...
"Activating Transcription Factor 6" by people in this website by year, and whether "Activating Transcription Factor 6" was a ... "Activating Transcription Factor 6" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Activating Transcription Factor 6" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Activating Transcription Factor 6". ...
The adenovirus major late transcription factor activates the rat gamma-fibrinogen promoter (English) ... The adenovirus major late transcription factor activates the rat gamma-fibrinogen promoter. scientific article ...
title = "Transcription factor FnrP from Paracoccus denitrificans contains an iron-sulfur cluster and is activated by anoxia: ... T1 - Transcription factor FnrP from Paracoccus denitrificans contains an iron-sulfur cluster and is activated by anoxia: ... Transcription factor FnrP from Paracoccus denitrificans contains an iron-sulfur cluster and is activated by anoxia: ... Transcription factor FnrP from Paracoccus denitrificans contains an iron-sulfur cluster and is activated by anoxia: ...
... is activated by the Brn-3b POU family transcription factor but not by the closely related factors Brn-3a and Brn-3c. This ... is activated by the Brn-3b POU family transcription factor but not by the closely related factors Brn-3a and Brn-3c. This ... is activated by the Brn-3b POU family transcription factor but not by the closely related factors Brn-3a and Brn-3c. This ... is activated by the Brn-3b POU family transcription factor but not by the closely related factors Brn-3a and Brn-3c. This ...
Transcription Factors * Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System * Mixed Function Oxygenases * CYP3A protein, human ... The human orphan nuclear receptor PXR is activated by compounds that regulate CYP3A4 gene expression and cause drug ... that binds to a response element in the CYP3A4 promoter and is activated by a range of drugs known to induce CYP3A4 expression ...
FOXO transcription factors activate alternative major immediate early promoters to induce human cytomegalovirus reactivation.. ... Here, we find that forkhead family (FOXO) transcription factors are critical for activation of alternative MIE promoters during ...
The TFAP2A gene provides instructions for making a protein called transcription factor AP-2 alpha (AP-2α). Learn about this ... transcription factor AP-2 alpha (activating enhancer binding protein 2 alpha). *transcription factor AP-2-alpha ... Transcription factor AP-2α is one of a group of related proteins called AP-2 transcription factors. These proteins regulate ... Transcription factor AP-2α is involved in development before birth. In particular, this protein is active in the neural crest, ...
Among the identified elements in this process are the following transcription factors:. * Peroxisome proliferator-activated ... PPAR-gamma is a transcription factor that is involved in adipocyte differentiation. All humans with mutations of the receptor ( ... Factors that modulate the morbidity and mortality associated with obesity include the following:. * Age of onset and duration ... Genetic factors are presumed to explain 40-70% of the variance in obesity, within a limited range of BMI (18-30 kg/m2). ...
A kinase-deficient transcription factor TFIIH is functional in basal and activated transcription. In: Proceedings of the ... A kinase-deficient transcription factor TFIIH is functional in basal and activated transcription. Proceedings of the National ... A kinase-deficient transcription factor TFIIH is functional in basal and activated transcription. / Mäkelä, Tomi P.; Parvin, ... A kinase-deficient transcription factor TFIIH is functional in basal and activated transcription. ...
MAPK induces the transcription of WRKY and other transcription factors which potentially turn on multiple defense-related genes ... Many of the same genes were activated in both species, but genetic regulation shifted towards defense in lemon, together with ... Functional analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) indicated that genes involved in the mitogen activated protein ... Transcription factors. A total of 68 transcription factors were identified (Table 4). Eighteen transcription factors (TFs) were ...
The selective autophagy substrate p62 activates the stress responsive transcription factor Nrf2 through inactivation of Keap1. ... activating transcription factor 6α(ATF-6α), and inositol-requiring protein-1α (IRE-1α), as well as ER chaperones (protein ... McMahon, M.; Itoh, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Hayes, J.D. Keap1-dependent proteasomal degradation of transcription factor Nrf2 ... a key transcription factor [51]. Recent data have shown that the physical and functional interaction of p62, which is a binding ...
Rat ATF6 (Activating Transcription Factor 6) ELISA Kit , G-EC-05966 Rat ATF6 (Activating Transcription Factor 6) ELISA Kit , G- ... Rat RUNX2 (Runt Related Transcription Factor 2) ELISA Kit , G-EC-05632 ... Rat HSF2 (Heat Shock Transcription Factor 2) ELISA Kit , G-EC-05418 ... Rat NFE2L2 (Nuclear Factor, Erythroid Derived 2, Like 2) ELISA Kit , G-EC-05753 ...
... activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3; n = 7), family with sequence similarity, member A (FAM71A; n = 2), tachykinin receptor ... Asthma; Occupational asthma; Genetic factors; Genes; Diisocyanates; Occupational exposure; Genetic predisposition; Bioassays; ...
A cytokine-responsive IκB kinase that activates the transcription factor NF-κB. *J. DiDonato, M. Hayakawa, D. Rothwarf, E. ... In vivo stimulation of I kappa B phosphorylation is not sufficient to activate NF-kappa B. *I. Alkalay, A. Yaron, +5 authors. Y ... The IKKβ Subunit of IκB Kinase (IKK) is Essential for Nuclear Factor κB Activation and Prevention of Apoptosis. *Zhi-wei Li, W ... IKKβ-deficient mice are defective in activation of IKK and NF-κB in response to either tumor necrosis factor α or interleukin 1 ...
Our findings, which include a large set of identified enhancers and transcription factors linked to those enhancers in breast, ... We further characterized several transcription factors linked to a large number of enhancers in each tumor type, including ... Our studies characterized tumor-specific enhancers and revealed key transcription factors involved in enhancer networks for ... We found more than 1200 transcription factors to be involved in these tumor-specific enhancer networks. ...
Transcription factor FnrP from Paracoccus denitrificans contains an iron-sulfur cluster and is activated by anoxia: ... Transcription factor FnrP from Paracoccus denitrificans contains an iron-sulfur cluster and is activated by anoxia: ... The Paracoccus denitrificans transcription factor FnrP has been characterized using artificial FNR-dependent promoter-lacZ ... FnrP can activate both class I and class II FNR-dependent promoters in response to anoxia but shows a marked preference for the ...
Preliminary data suggests that programming transcription factors synergize to activate cell-specific transcriptional programs. ... Synergistic binding of transcription factors to cell-specific enhancers programs motor neuron identity.. Nat Neurosci (2013 Sep ... We take advantage of sets of transcription factors that program mouse ESC to two types of human neurons with different ... Therefore, our long term goal is to understand how extracellular signals and transcription factors control cell fate and apply ...
Calcineurin normally exerts phosphatase activity on the nuclear factor of activated T cells. This factor then migrates to the ... nucleus to start IL-2 transcription. Studies have shown that cyclosporine and tacrolimus were associated with similar rates of ... complex inhibits calcineurin phosphatase and T-cell activation by dephosphorylation of inactive nuclear factor of activated T ... Risk factors for PTLD include primary EBV infection; [21] the use of cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and MMF; and an exposure to ...
David Johnson - Transcription factor responses in DNA damage and tumor development. Ellen Richie - Regulation of thymus ... ZNF410 Uniquely Activates the NuRD Component CHD4 to Silence Fetal Hemoglobin Expression. Mol Cell. 2021 Jan 21;81(2):239-254. ... 2019) Structural basis of specific DNA binding by the transcription factor ZBTB24. Nucleic Acids Res. 47(16):8388-8398. ... 2015) Dynamic regulation of transcription factors by nucleosome remodeling. Elife. 4. doi: 10.7554/eLife.06249. ...
transcription factor AP-2 alpha (activating enhancer binding protein 2 alpha). TFAP2A. ... hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor). HIF1A. ... nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2. NFE2L2. 82. NFKB1. nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1. ... eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1. EEF1A1. 266. EEF1E1. eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 epsilon 1. ...
activating transcription factor 4. ISO. RGD. PMID:20444431. RGD:13464322. NCBI chrNW_004936492:2,114,478...2,115,969 Ensembl ... apoptosis inducing factor mitochondria associated 1. ISO. RGD. PMID:14526224. RGD:10047409. NCBI chrNW_004936479:1,441,508... ...
The ETV3 expression was strongly induced by the STAT3 pathway regulated by IL-10 but not by STAT3 signaling activated by IL-6, ... ETS variant transcription factor 3provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:3492 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000117036 MIM: ... enables DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. ... enables DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific ISA Inferred from Sequence Alignment. more info ...
Akt: protein kinase B; ATF6: activating transcription factor 6; BDNF: brain derived neurotrophic factor; CHOP: CCAAT/enhancer- ... GRP78 is always combined with several critical transmembrane ER signaling proteins, i.e. activating transcription factor 6 ( ... 5. Hiltunen JO, Laurikainen A, Vakeva A, Meri S, Saarma M. Nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNAs are ... Keywords: ischemia/reperfusion injury, nerve growth factor, endoplasmic reticulum, apoptosis. Introduction. Nerve growth factor ...
  • In addition, statins have antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects, potentiate nitric oxide production, and upregulate transforming growth factor beta receptor III, leading to less collagen deposition and pulmonary fibrosis. (medscape.com)
  • Functional analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) indicated that genes involved in the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway were highly upregulated in rough lemon. (nature.com)
  • Increased expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) has been found in the myocardium suffered from ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). The pro-survival activity of NGF on ischemic heart has been supposed to be mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway. (medsci.org)
  • Basic region/leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors play important roles in the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway and abiotic stress response in plants. (usda.gov)
  • Receptor activator of nuclear factor- B ligand (RANKL) and its receptor RANK are components in a signaling pathway that is essential for osteoclast differentiation, activation, and survival [ 1 - 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We also sought to identify the role of cytoplasmic protein kinases and transcription factors downstream of the RANKL-RANK signaling pathway and of IL-1 in osteoclast formation. (hindawi.com)
  • IRF9 is an important regulatory factor within the JAK-STAT signaling pathway, associated with cell immunity and other homeostatic processes. (unl.edu)
  • These receptors trigger inflammation through the NFkB-dependent and interferon regulatory factor-dependent signaling pathway. (medscape.com)
  • Involvement of the mitogen activated protein kinase Hog1p in the response of Candida albicans to iron availability. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • Regulation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HOG1 mitogen-activated protein kinase by the PTP2 and PTP3 protein tyrosine phosphatases. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • Interestingly, gene expression analysis between CD24-positive and -negative Mvt1 cells revealed activating transcription factor-5 (ATF5) as one of the top 10 genes that were upregulated in the aggressive CD24-positive cells over CD24-negative cells ( 13 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • It is activated by PROTEASES and then moves to the CELL NUCLEUS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in the unfolded protein response. (rush.edu)
  • A transcription factor is a protein that attaches (binds) to specific regions of DNA and helps control the activity of particular genes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • MAPK induces the transcription of WRKY and other transcription factors which potentially turn on multiple defense-related genes. (nature.com)
  • Thus, understanding how Hox genes interact and synergize with MN resident factors to control subtype identity is the key to manipulating MN identity. (nyu.edu)
  • Upon fertilization, the two proteins heterodimerize and translocate to both male and female pronuclei to activate the expression of early zygote-specific genes. (elifesciences.org)
  • Activation of PPAR-gamma receptors regulates the transcription of insulin-responsive genes involved in the control of glucose production, transport, and utilization. (drugbank.com)
  • Phosphorylated Smo recruited more of the catalytic subunit of PKA, which prevented the interaction between PKA and Ci, enabling Ci to activate Hedgehog-regulated genes. (science.org)
  • Several transcription factors and regulators of iron uptake genes were identified, but the knowledge of signaling pathways is still limited. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • Multifunctional transcription factor that exhibits positive and negative control on a large number of cellular and viral genes by binding to sites overlapping the transcription start site. (abbkine.com)
  • In fact, diabetes reduces the rate of angiogenesis by alteration in the expression angiogenic genes such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) [6] . (eg.net)
  • The E2F family of transcription factors regulates the expression of a number of genes whose products are involved in cell cycle control, DNA replication and apoptosis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We show here that E2F-1 binds in vivo the promoters of ASPP1 and ASPP2 genes, two activators of p53-mediated apoptosis, E2F-1, E2F-2 and E2F-3 all activate the isolated ASPP1 and ASPP2 promoters. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The master transcription factor Sry-type HMG box (Sox) 9 has an essential role in the expression of chondrogenic genes through the association with Sox9-binding sites on its target genes{thus to grow taller it's essential that Sox9 is working properl} . (heightquest.com)
  • One observation that's particularly illustrative may be the altered amount of transcription of over 900 genes (2-fold transformation in appearance), following deletion of (a PPIP5K homologue) in person in the inositol phosphate kinase signaling family members. (immune-source.com)
  • Compared with glucose-limited condition, under Pi-limited aerobic condition, the budding yeast S. cerevisiae up-regulated 292 genes and activated a regulatory mechanism known as the PHO pathway, leading to an increased expression of multiple genes involved in Pi acquisition and uptake [ 16 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Surprisingly, unlike T-cells, where T-bet turns on the inflammatory gene program, T-bet repressed or turned off more than 2,000 genes in the Th1-activated B-cells. (drugtargetreview.com)
  • We recently showed that when activated, these core PKS genes from A. fumigatus and N. fischeri can synthesize a prenylated, tricyclic polyketide neosartoricin 11 . (cdc.gov)
  • Freezing activated NFATc3 in liver, leading to increased osteopontin expression and glycogen synthase kinase 3β repression (the latter potentially linked with glucose production as a cryoprotectant). (carleton.ca)
  • A kinase activity specific for CTD is a component of the general transcription factor TFIIH. (ewha.ac.kr)
  • Wei K, Liu L, Xie F, Hao X, Luo J, Min S. Nerve Growth Factor Protects the Ischemic Heart via Attenuation of the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Induced Apoptosis by Activation of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase. (medsci.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to explore potential sites for signal integration mediating synergism, focusing on extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and transcription factors involved in proliferation and inflammation as likely candidates. (ersjournals.com)
  • In summary, extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation is required for many transcription factor responses to lysophosphatidic acid and epidermal growth factor, however it is not synergistic. (ersjournals.com)
  • These include heat shock protein GRP78 (glucose regulated protein 78, also called BiP, immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein) and three ER transmembrane proteins PERK (protein kinase activated by double-stranded RNA-like ER kinase), IRE1 (inositol-requiring enzyme 1) and ATF6 (activating transcription factor 6). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study we investigated the circadian and photic regulation of phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) 1/2, and the transcription factor Elk-1 in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the Syrian hamster. (jneurosci.org)
  • ERKs are members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase superfamily that become active after their own phosphorylation on threonine/tyrosine residues by a MAP kinase kinase ( Sweatt, 2001 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Hedgehog binds to the transmembrane receptor Patched to relieve inhibition of the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo), which in turn activates the transcription factor Ci by inhibiting its phosphorylation by the kinase PKA. (science.org)
  • In Drosophila , protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylates and activates Smo in cells stimulated with Hh. (science.org)
  • Gene expression profiling of the Deltahog1 deletion mutant indicated an involvement of the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase Hog1p. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • Protein kinase A-induced phosphorylation of Sox9 enhances Sox9-dependent transcription by increasing the DNA-binding affinity of Sox9. (heightquest.com)
  • Avapritinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that binds to and inhibits specific mutant forms of platelet-driven growth factor receptor (PDGFR)?alpha and c-Kit, including the PDGFR-alpha D842V mutant and various KIT exon 17 mutants. (medscape.com)
  • Ripretinib is platelet-driven growth factor receptor (PDGFR)?alpha inhibitor that is indicated for advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumor in adults previously treated with 3 or more kinase inhibitors, including imatinib. (medscape.com)
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors that function as ligand activated transcription factors. (bl.uk)
  • Like other thiazolidinediones, the mechanism of action of rosiglitazone is by activation of the intracellular receptor class of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), specifically PPARγ. (drugbank.com)
  • Rosiglitazone acts as a highly selective and potent agonist at peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) in target tissues for insulin action such as adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver. (drugbank.com)
  • Transcription factor AP-2β is one of a group of related proteins called AP-2 transcription factors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which is activated initially as a defensive response to eliminate the accumulated unfolded proteins, has shown a critical involvement in the ischemia induced myocardial apoptosis. (medsci.org)
  • In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, KNOX and BELL proteins are inherited by gametes of the opposite mating types and heterodimerize in zygotes to activate diploid development. (elifesciences.org)
  • During low to moderate levels of ERS various pro-survival UPR pathway proteins are activated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • At the same time, the freed UPR proteins become activated and initiate signaling pathways that serve to correct or neutralize ERS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These include elevated expression of transcription factor CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein, also called GADD153), inhibition of anti-apoptotic proteins (e.g. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The SRY -related, HMG box SoxB1 transcription factors are highly homologous, evolutionarily conserved proteins that are expressed in neuroepithelial cells throughout neural development. (xenbase.org)
  • In this mechanism, the transcription of period and its partner gene timeless are repressed by their own gene products - the PERIOD (PER) and TIME- LESS (TIM) proteins, generating an autonomous oscillation. (nobelprize.org)
  • Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES . (bvsalud.org)
  • YY1 is a ubiquitously distributed transcription factor belonging to the GLI-Kruppel class of zinc finger proteins. (abbkine.com)
  • 1] Neutrophils move to the site of invasion by means of chemotaxis, which occurs in response to microbial products, activated complement proteins, and cytokines. (medscape.com)
  • Notably, he discerned the journey tail-anchored proteins make from the ribosome to insertion in the endoplasmic reticulum-which he and colleagues dubbed the guided entry of tail-anchored proteins (GET) pathway-and discovered that certain autophagy targets signal they are ready to be recycled by activating the enzyme responsible for initiating vesicle formation. (harvard.edu)
  • Once activated, caspases -3 and -7 cleave downstream proteins. (smpdb.ca)
  • ADP ribosylation factors (ARFs), which are members of the Ras superfamily of GTP-binding proteins, are critical components of vesicular trafficking pathways in eukaryotes. (embl.de)
  • Like Ras, ARFs are active in their GTP-bound form, and their duration of activity is controlled by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), which assist ARFs in hydrolyzing GTP to GDP. (embl.de)
  • The prolyl-4 hydroxylase domain enzymes 1-3 (PHD1-3) are involved in regulating the protein stability of the alpha subunit of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), which is the master regulator of oxygen-dependent gene expression. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • The regulatory region of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α2 subunit gene, which contains six copies of the octamer-related sequence CCCCATGCAAT, is activated by the Brn-3b POU family transcription factor but not by the closely related factors Brn-3a and Brn-3c. (leedstrinity.ac.uk)
  • Phosphorylation of the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II has been suggested to be critical for transcription initiation, activation, or elongation. (ewha.ac.kr)
  • The receptor is composed of a ligand specific alpha subunit and a signal transducing beta subunit shared by the receptors for interleukin 3 (IL3), colony stimulating factor 2 (CSF2/GM-CSF), and interleukin 5 (IL5). (wikipedia.org)
  • The beta subunit is activated by the ligand binding, and is required for the biological activities of IL5. (wikipedia.org)
  • found that, in fruit flies, activated Smo directly bound to and was phosphorylated by the catalytic subunit of PKA. (science.org)
  • Sox9 interacts with the Med12/Trap230 subunit of the mediator complex to stimulate RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription in chondrocytes. (heightquest.com)
  • Furthermore, CCL2 is involved in alleviating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in MAC-T cells by reducing LPS-induced expression of IL8, IL6, and nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1 (NFKB1). (ewha.ac.kr)
  • miR156a-targeted SBP-Box transcription factor SlSPL13 regulates inflorescence morphogenesis by directly activating SFT in tomato. (uidaho.edu)
  • In order to understand the mechanism of AGE-mediated angiogenesis, the possibility of involvement of peroxisome prolifeator activated receptor (PPAR) , a ligand activated transcription factor was examined. (who.int)
  • OEA is synthesized from membrane glycerophospholipids and is a high-affinity agonist of the nuclear transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α). (elsevier.com)
  • To understand cell differentiation and to gain control of cell fate during direct programming, it is necessary to rationalize how selector factors recognize their genomic targets and control gene expression. (nyu.edu)
  • During in vivo and in vitro differentiation, members of the Hox family of transcription factors impose subtype identity and control motor neuron (MN) connectivity. (nyu.edu)
  • Predicted to be involved in cell differentiation and regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II. (nih.gov)
  • PE-1/METS, an antiproliferative Ets repressor factor, is induced by CREB-1/CREM-1 during macrophage differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • Treatment with both MSU crystals and RANKL induced osteoclast differentiation by activating downstream molecules in the RANKL-RANK pathway including tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF-6), JNK, c-Jun, and NFATc1. (hindawi.com)
  • This binding initiates a cascade of events that culminates in differentiation into Th1 cells, by increasing the transcription factor T-bet 12 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Th2 cells have a differentiation process which is dependent on IL-4, which causes the activation of the transcription factor STAT 6 . (bvsalud.org)
  • The transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily also plays a key role in chondrocyte differentiation. (heightquest.com)
  • Colony Stimulating Factor 1(CSF1) is known to promote osteoclast progenitor survival but its role in osteoclast differentiation and mature osteoclast function are less well understood. (divbiolchem.org)
  • Key control points for this differentiation in B-cells, or other immune cells, are transcription factors. (drugtargetreview.com)
  • In the introduction the immune cells, the diseases and the transcription factors + pathways will be introduced subsequently. (eur.nl)
  • Activation of the inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding protein and of ERK signalling pathways were required for most transcription factor responses to LPA. (ersjournals.com)
  • Understanding the signalling pathways involved in the synergistic mitogenesis, seen when cells are treated with multiple stimuli, is an important aspect of understanding how cells respond in vivo , where cells must integrate the signalling pathways activated by multiple stimuli. (ersjournals.com)
  • Treatment-induced cell death was ERS-dependent, apoptotic pathways were not activated following knockdown of ERS protein CHOP. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conversely, during severe and persistent ERS pro-apoptotic UPR signaling pathways are activated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phosphorylation of translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) attenuates global protein synthesis but enhances translation of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and is a crucial evolutionarily conserved adaptive pathway during cellular stresses. (diamond.ac.uk)
  • Here we will give a brief overview of the roles of IgE in allergic pathophysiology, and the molecular and cellular factors that ultimately regulate IgE production and Th2 expansion. (jci.org)
  • KNOX and BELL transcription factors regulate distinct steps of diploid development in plants. (elifesciences.org)
  • The WRKY transcription factor, WRKY13, activates PDR8 expression to positively regulate cadmium tolerance in Arabidopsis. (uidaho.edu)
  • Adenovirus E2 promoter can be divided into early and late promoters, used to regulate the E2 transcription unit, the late E2 promoter region contains Y-box, the binding site of transcription factor YB-1 (Y-box binding protein-1). (medicaltrend.org)
  • Numerous transcription factors are known to be activated downstream of both GPCRs and RTKs. (ersjournals.com)
  • The downstream signaling cascade from activated c-fms involves the MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathway. (divbiolchem.org)
  • These results indicate that CTD phosphorylation is not required for transcription with a highly purified system. (ewha.ac.kr)
  • One of these is the ternary complex factor Elk-1, a member of the Ets family of transcription factors that after phosphorylation strongly upregulate transcription mediated via serum response elements (SREs) on gene promoter sequences. (jneurosci.org)
  • The Paracoccus denitrificans transcription factor FnrP has been characterized using artificial FNR-dependent promoter-lacZ fusion plasmids in Escherichia coli. (uea.ac.uk)
  • FnrP can activate both class I and class II FNR-dependent promoters in response to anoxia but shows a marked preference for the class II promoter, where the FNR binding site is centered at -41.5 with respect to the transcription start site. (uea.ac.uk)
  • We report the identification of a human (h) orphan nuclear receptor, termed the pregnane X receptor (PXR), that binds to a response element in the CYP3A4 promoter and is activated by a range of drugs known to induce CYP3A4 expression. (nih.gov)
  • YY1 may direct histone deacetylases and histone acetyltransferases to a promoter in order to activate or repress the promoter, thus implicating histone modification in the function of YY1. (abbkine.com)
  • As there are no reports on the transcriptional regulation of this gene, the DNA sequence from -2612 to +682 bp (relative to the transcription start site) of the JDP2 gene was cloned and promoter activity analyzed. (divbiolchem.org)
  • Overexpression of Tbx3 induced JDP2 promoter activity while suppressing Tbx3 expression substantially attenuated CSF1-induced transcription. (divbiolchem.org)
  • This effect is in contrast to the previously documented inhibitory effect of Brn-3b on octamer- containing promoters that are activated by Brn-3a and Brn-3c. (leedstrinity.ac.uk)
  • FOXO transcription factors activate alternative major immediate early promoters to induce human cytomegalovirus reactivation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Here, we find that forkhead family (FOXO) transcription factors are critical for activation of alternative MIE promoters during HCMV reactivation, as mutating FOXO binding sites in alternative MIE promoters decreased HCMV IE gene expression upon reactivation and significantly decreased the production of infectious virus from latently infected primary CD34+ HPCs. (bvsalud.org)
  • The protein is involved in repressing and activating a diverse number of promoters. (abbkine.com)
  • Adapting to such challenges requires metabolic rearrangement, partially mediated by transcription factor control over gene expression. (carleton.ca)
  • Therefore, the expression of few factors programs ESC into neurons at high efficiency allowing us to apply biochemical interrogation techniques to study gene expression, physiological properties, chromatin status and genomic occupancy of transcription factors. (nyu.edu)
  • The mechanisms responsible for the increased adipos- of Patient with ity are changes in gene expression of multiple enzymes and transcription factors by the virus ( 8-15 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The Sox9-related transcriptional apparatus activates its target gene expression through p300-mediated histone acetylation on chromatin. (heightquest.com)
  • Finally, we will test variants for effects on transcriptional activity and transcription factor binding, and determine the effects on gene expression by deleting or activating regulatory elements in a human adipocyte cell strain. (grantome.com)
  • This thesis focusses on understanding the role of three transcriptions factors, namely ATF3, EGR3 and PU.1, and also microRNA-146a, involved in the activation of monocytes, macrophages and microglia in pathological conditions, which are thought to be driven - at least in part - by special inflammatory reactions. (eur.nl)
  • Activator protein (AP)‐1, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element-binding protein (CREB), nuclear factor of activated T‐cells (NFAT), nuclear factor (NF)‐κB, the serum response element (SRE) complex and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) are all known to be involved in proliferation and/or inflammation and have been implicated in the inflammatory state causing asthma and related airway diseases 8 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Apart from its effect on insulin resistance, it appears to have an anti-inflammatory effect: nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB) levels fall and inhibitor (IκB) levels increase in patients on rosiglitazone. (drugbank.com)
  • Activated inflammatory cel s, in- persistent inflammation cluding neutrophils and macrophag- es, produce reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. (who.int)
  • Bacteria are capable of damaging directly the host tissue, but it can also be destroyed by inflammatory processes resulting from this aggression as consequence of the exaggerated immunoinflammatory and proteolytic processes 2 that activate osteoclasts 3 . (bvsalud.org)
  • In T-cell development, T-bet activates inflammatory gene programmes that allow the T-cells to become T helper-1, or Th1, cells that can kill viruses and bacteria. (drugtargetreview.com)
  • The binding of these prostaglandins causes Nurr1 to be activated, resulting in a marked increase in dopamine production, while preventing dopamine-producing brain cells from dying. (bioquicknews.com)
  • Cross-linking of IgE bound to mast cells by FcεRI triggers the release of preformed vasoactive mediators, synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes, and the transcription of cytokines. (jci.org)
  • Hilger-Eversheim K, Moser M, Schorle H, Buettner R. Regulatory roles of AP-2 transcription factors in vertebrate development, apoptosis and cell-cycle control. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Clone REA516 recognizes the human and mouse interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF-8) antigen, a 50 kDa transcription factor, which is also known as interferon consensus sequence-binding protein (ICSBP). (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • IRF-8 belongs to the family of interferon regulatory transcription factors, which consists of nine members in both human and mice and is characterized by a conserved N-terminal DNA-binding domain with a unique tryptophan pentad repeat. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) are transcription factors that activate Type I interferons. (unl.edu)
  • Data show that BACH2 and STAT5B are activated by viral insertions, generating chimeric mRNAs specifically enriched in T regulatory cells favoring their persistence. (cusabio.com)
  • Homeodomain transcription factors (HD TFs) are developmental regulators that are evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotes. (elifesciences.org)
  • The replication of adenovirus in cells activates the TP53-mediated apoptosis pathway. (medicaltrend.org)
  • Predicted to act upstream of or within negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II. (nih.gov)
  • 5] Nurr1 is a member of the nuclear receptor family of intracellular transcription factors. (bioquicknews.com)
  • IKKβ-deficient mice are defective in activation of IKK and NF-κB in response to either tumor necrosis factor α or interleukin 1, and IKKα is unresponsive to IKK activators. (semanticscholar.org)
  • However, effectively normalizing the expression and regaining tumor suppressive functions of silenced TSGs by artificial transcription factors (ATFs) still remains a major challenge. (oncotarget.com)
  • Thus, VEGFR-signaling acts as a direct growth factor for tumor cells in CAC, providing a molecular link between inflammation and the development of colon cancer. (perkinelmer.com)
  • Fas ligand is a transmembrane protein part of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family. (smpdb.ca)
  • Purification and molecular cloning of the APO-1 cell surface antigen, a member of the tumor necrosis factor/nerve growth factor receptor superfamily. (smpdb.ca)
  • In tumor cells with mutations or disorders of pRB, E2F is no longer negatively regulated by pRB and can activate viral gene transcription to replicate. (medicaltrend.org)
  • In unstimulated cells, PKA phosphorylates and inhibits the transcription factor Cubitus interruptus (Ci). (science.org)
  • USP1 inhibition by ML323 promoted fracture healing in nonunion rats and facilitated the expression of osteogenesis-related factors and the signaling of PI3K/Akt pathway. (bvsalud.org)
  • Whereas the inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has shown promising results in sporadic colon cancer, the role of VEGF signaling in colitis-associated cancer (CAC) has not been addressed. (perkinelmer.com)
  • The degree of chromatin folding affects transcriptional activity and less folding is better for activating transcription activity. (heightquest.com)
  • the BMP-2 inhibitor Noggin represses Sox9 expression in limb bud chondrogenic precursors while inducing the ligament/tendon-specific transcription factor Scx" "the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity of p300 has the potential to facilitate transcriptional activity by modulating the chromatin structure. (heightquest.com)
  • Our results indicate that zygote activation is the ancestral role of KNOX/BELL transcription factors, which shifted toward meristem maintenance as land plants evolved. (elifesciences.org)
  • Transcription factor activation was assessed using HASM cells transduced with luciferase reporter gene constructs. (ersjournals.com)
  • In contrast, nuclear factor (NF)‐κB was activated by LPA but not EGF and NF‐κB activation was completely blocked only when Rho was inhibited. (ersjournals.com)
  • However, ERK activation and transcription factors regulated by ERK are not the only mechanisms involved in proliferation. (ersjournals.com)
  • This protein has been found to interact with syndecan binding protein ( syntenin ), which is required for IL5 mediated activation of the transcription factor SOX4 . (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposed cells also demonstrated an increase in the activation of the transcription activating factor Nuclear-Factor-kappa-B (NF-kB). (cdc.gov)
  • The IAA19 transcription activation by MYB73 is enhanced by direct interaction between MYB73 and PYL8 (PubMed:24894996). (gao-lab.org)
  • Carries out a dual signal transduction and activation of transcription. (cusabio.com)
  • Our data suggest that Pi limitation activates Pi-related metabolism, RNA degradation, and TAG biosynthesis while inhibits ribosome biosynthesis and TCA cycle, leading to enhanced carbon fluxes into lipids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They induce transcription factors that limit inflammation and prothrombotic functions of activated endothelial cells. (medscape.com)
  • Binding of complement to a foreign substance, or antigen, amplifies and augments the body's innate immune system by means of its role as an opsonin (a factor that enhances phagocytosis of unwanted particles) and as a chemoattractant (a factor that recruits cells to areas of inflammation). (medscape.com)
  • The purpose of this research was to investigate whether asbestos (1332214) induces an active endothelial cell phenotype, resulting in the increased expression of growth factors and proteases, which are relevant to the development of fibrosis. (cdc.gov)
  • The cells respond to both chrysotile (12001295) and crocidolite (12001284) asbestos fibers by changing cell morphology in focal areas of fiber contact, assuming a spindled appearance, indicative of the activated endothelial cell. (cdc.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to clarify the role of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand- (RANKL-) RANK-induced osteoclast formation. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, involvement of the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) transcription factors, isoforms c1-c4, was analyzed in liver and skeletal muscle over freeze/thaw and anoxia/re-oxygenation cycles. (carleton.ca)
  • Anoxia activated NFATc4 in liver, leading to increased atrial natriuretic peptide levels. (carleton.ca)
  • In addition, higher levels of serum RANKL, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), and soluble interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor, which is also related to bone metabolism, were found in patients with chronic erosive gouty arthritis, rather than nonerosive gout [ 6 , 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is a key nuclear receptor in the control of lipid metabolism. (avhandlingar.se)
  • To fulfill those expectations, ESCs have to be directed at high efficiency to disease relevant cell types, either by the application of extracellular signals or direct programming by forced expression of transcription factors. (nyu.edu)
  • Therefore, our long term goal is to understand how extracellular signals and transcription factors control cell fate and apply that knowledge to differentiate ESC into disease relevant neuronal cell types. (nyu.edu)
  • The effects of ER stress were transcriptional because of downregulation of CAAT/enhancer binding protein-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ transcriptional activators and upregulation of the transcriptional repressor CAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein-10 (CHOP10). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Hedgehog (Hh) is a secreted glycoprotein that binds its receptor Patched to activate the G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein)-coupled receptor-like protein Smoothened (Smo). (science.org)
  • Binds to the GAS element and activates PRL-induced transcription. (cusabio.com)
  • Studies using these samples found associations between fatal outcomes and elevated liver enzyme levels, renal dysfunction, cytokine dysregulation, and genetic factors. (cdc.gov)
  • Nonetheless, these mutant TFIIH preparations were fully functional (in vitro) in both basal and activated transcription. (ewha.ac.kr)
  • HASM cells grown in vitro proliferate in response to a variety of stimuli, including G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists as well as peptide growth factors acting via receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) 1 , 2 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Recently, we have shown that insulin or IGF-I stimulation of Mvt1 cells leads to the upregulation of several mRNA transcripts, associated with cell proliferation and migration, such as Cyclin D1 and the transcription factor ETS2, as well as to the downregulation of transcriptional repressor, high mobility group (HMG) box-containing protein 1 (HBP1) ( 12 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • High incidence of activating STAT5B mutations in CD4-positive T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia. (cusabio.com)
  • Activating transcription factor-5 (also known as ATFx) is a member of the ATF/cAMP response element-binding family of transcription factors ( 14 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Nerve growth factor (NGF) is one of the representative members of the neurotrophin family, which includes brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5). (medsci.org)
  • FOXP2 is a member of the large FOX family of transcription factors . (bionity.com)
  • They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN. (bvsalud.org)
  • One family has been reported with a mutation in the gene encoding the glial cells missing homolog b (GCMB) transcription factor. (cdc.gov)