Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.Transcription Factor AP-2: A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors: A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.Transcription Factors, TFII: The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.YY1 Transcription Factor: A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.GATA4 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.Transcription Factor TFIID: The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Activating Transcription Factor 3: An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.NFATC Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.Sp3 Transcription Factor: A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.Transcription Initiation Site: The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Activating Transcription Factor 2: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.Transcription Factor TFIIB: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.MEF2 Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.GATA3 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.GATA1 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.GATA2 Transcription Factor: An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.TCF Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.GATA Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.STAT1 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Activating Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.Transcription Factor RelA: A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs: Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.GATA6 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Activating Transcription Factor 4: An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Transcription Factor 7-Like 1 Protein: A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.Activating Transcription Factor 1: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Transcription Factor TFIIIA: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.NFI Transcription Factors: Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets: A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein oncogene protein v-ets of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Transcription Factor TFIIH: A general transcription factor that is involved in basal GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. It consists of nine subunits including ATP-DEPENDENT DNA HELICASES; CYCLIN H; and XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM GROUP D PROTEIN.Mice, Inbred C57BLSOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Transcription Factor TFIIA: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.STAT5 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Transcription Factor DP1: A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.T-Box Domain Proteins: Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Leucine Zippers: DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.Octamer Transcription Factor-1: A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.Regulatory Elements, Transcriptional: Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.TATA-Box Binding Protein: A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.Erythroid-Specific DNA-Binding Factors: A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Transcription Factors, TFIII: Factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE III and aid in transcription. They include the assembly factors TFIIIA and TFIIIC and the initiation factor TFIIIB. All combine to form a preinitiation complex at the promotor that directs the binding of RNA POLYMERASE III.GA-Binding Protein Transcription Factor: A heterotetrameric transcription factor composed of two distinct proteins. Its name refers to the fact it binds to DNA sequences rich in GUANINE and ADENINE. GA-binding protein integrates a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and regulates expression of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE control, PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS, and cellular METABOLISM.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Early Growth Response Protein 1: An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.High Mobility Group Proteins: A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Protein: A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway. The activity of the protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN. Transcription factor 7-like 2 protein plays an important role in the embryogenesis of the PANCREAS and ISLET CELLS.Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-1: An ets proto-oncogene expressed primarily in adult LYMPHOID TISSUE; BRAIN; and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Reverse Transcription: The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Twist Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that was originally identified in DROSOPHILA as essential for proper gastrulation and MESODERM formation. It plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MUSCLE CELLS, and is found in a wide variety of organisms.NF-E2 Transcription Factor, p45 Subunit: A tissue-specific subunit of NF-E2 transcription factor that interacts with small MAF PROTEINS to regulate gene expression. P45 NF-E2 protein is expressed primarily in MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; and MAST CELLS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Nerve Tissue ProteinsOligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Transcription Factor TFIIIB: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. TFIIIB recruits and positions pol III over the initiation site and remains stably bound to the DNA through multiple rounds of re-initiation by RNA POLYMERASE III.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Activating Transcription Factor 6: One of the BASIC-LEUCINE ZIPPER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that is synthesized as a membrane-bound protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. In response to endoplasmic reticulum stress it translocates to the GOLGI APPARATUS. It is activated by PROTEASES and then moves to the CELL NUCLEUS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in the unfolded protein response.Transcription Factor Brn-3: A family of mammalian POU domain factors that are expressed predominately in NEURONS.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.SOXB1 Transcription Factors: A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)NF-E2 Transcription Factor: A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates GLOBIN gene expression and is related to TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1. NF-E2 consists of a small MAF protein subunit and a tissue-restricted 45 kDa subunit.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.CCAAT-Binding Factor: A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.SOXE Transcription Factors: A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subfamily have been implicated in regulating the differentiation of OLIGODENDROCYTES during neural crest formation and in CHONDROGENESIS.Upstream Stimulatory Factors: Ubiquitously expressed basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF transcription factors. They bind CANNTG sequences in the promoters of a variety of GENES involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Myogenic Regulatory Factors: A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).RNA Polymerase III: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Pol1 Transcription Initiation Complex Proteins: Factors that form a preinitiation complex at promoters that are specifically transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE I.Transcription Factor 3: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in determining cell fate during embryogenesis. It forms a heterodimer with TWIST TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and ACHAETE-SCUTE GENE COMPLEX-related TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Transcription Factor Pit-1: A POU domain factor that regulates expression of GROWTH HORMONE; PROLACTIN; and THYROTROPIN-BETA in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.

Human SWI-SNF component BRG1 represses transcription of the c-fos gene. (1/192)

Yeast and mammalian SWI-SNF complexes regulate transcription through active modification of chromatin structure. Human SW-13 adenocarcinoma cells lack BRG1 protein, a component of SWI-SNF that has a DNA-dependent ATPase activity essential for SWI-SNF function. Expression of BRG1 in SW-13 cells potentiated transcriptional activation by the glucocorticoid receptor, which is known to require SWI-SNF function. BRG1 also specifically repressed transcription from a transfected c-fos promoter and correspondingly blocked transcriptional activation of the endogenous c-fos gene. Mutation of lysine residue 798 in the DNA-dependent ATPase domain of BRG1 significantly reduced its ability to repress c-fos transcription. Repression by BRG1 required the cyclic AMP response element of the c-fos promoter but not nearby binding sites for Sp1, YY1, or TFII-I. Using human C33A cervical carcinoma cells, which lack BRG1 and also express a nonfunctional Rb protein, transcriptional repression by BRG1 was weak unless wild-type Rb was also supplied. Interestingly, Rb-dependent repression by BRG1 was found to take place through a pathway that is independent of transcription factor E2F.  (+info)

Human Cdc34 and Rad6B ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes target repressors of cyclic AMP-induced transcription for proteolysis. (2/192)

Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis controls diverse physiological processes in eukaryotes. However, few in vivo targets of the mammalian Cdc34 and Rad6 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes are known. A yeast-based genetic assay to identify proteins that interact with human Cdc34 resulted in three cDNAs encoding bZIP DNA binding motifs. Two of these interactants are repressors of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-induced transcription: hICERIIgamma, a product of the CREM gene, and hATF5, a novel ATF homolog. Transfection assays with mammalian cells demonstrate both hCdc34- and hRad6B-dependent ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of hICERIIgamma and hATF5. This degradation requires an active ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and results in abrogation of ICERIIgamma- and ATF5-mediated repression of cAMP-induced transcription. Consistent with these results, the endogenous ICER protein is elevated in cells which are null for murine Rad6B (mHR6B-/-) or transfected with dominant negative and antisense constructs of human CDC34. Based on the requirement for CREM/ICER and Rad6B proteins in spermatogenesis, we determined expression of Cdc34, Rad6B, CREM/ICER isoforms, and the Skp1-Cullin-F-box ubiquitin protein ligase subunits Cul-1 and Cul-2, which are associated with Cdc34 activity during murine testicular development. Cdc34, Rad6B, and the Cullin proteins are expressed in a developmentally regulated manner, with distinctly different patterns for Cdc34 and the Cullin proteins in germ cells. The Cdc34 and Rad6B proteins are significantly elevated in meiotic and postmeiotic haploid germ cells when chromatin modifications occur. Thus, the stability of specific mammalian transcription factors is the result of complex targeting by multiple ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes and may have an impact on cAMP-inducible gene regulation during both meiotic and mitotic cell cycles.  (+info)

Identification of an erythroid active element in the transferrin receptor gene. (3/192)

Hemoglobin synthesis consumes most of the iron that is taken up by cells from plasma transferrin, and this process requires very high expression of transferrin receptors (TfR) at the membranes of erythroid cells. Studies in our and other laboratories indicate that a dramatic increase in TfR levels during erythroid differentiation occurs at the transcriptional level. In this study, we investigated the transcriptional regulation of the TfR in terms of its promoter activity and DNA-protein binding in murine erythroleukemia cells. Reporter gene assays revealed that the TfR promoter activity was stimulated 6-8-fold in murine erythroleukemia cells induced to differentiate into hemoglobin-synthesizing cells by either Me(2)SO or N,N'-hexamethylene-bis-acetamide. A minimal region (-118 to +14) was required for the differentiation-induced promoter activity. Mutation of either an Ets-binding site or an activator protein-1/cyclic AMP-response element-like motif within this region, but not disruption of the adjacent GC-rich/specificity protein-1 sequence, inhibited the inducible promoter activity. Electrophoresis mobility shift assays suggest that the cyclic AMP-response element-binding proteins/activating transcription factor-like factors and Ets-like factors bind constitutively to this bipartite element. Upon induction of differentiation, a shift in the pattern of the cyclic AMP-response element-binding protein/activating transcription factor-like binding factors was observed. Our data indicate that the TfR gene promoter contains an erythroid active element that stimulates the receptor gene transcription upon induction of hemoglobin synthesis.  (+info)

Aca1 and Aca2, ATF/CREB activators in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are important for carbon source utilization but not the response to stress. (4/192)

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the family of ATF/CREB transcriptional regulators consists of a repressor, Acr1 (Sko1), and two activators, Aca1 and Aca2. The AP-1 factor Gen4 does not activate transcription through ATF/CREB sites in vivo even though it binds these sites in vitro. Unlike ATF/CREB activators in other species, Aca1- and Aca2-dependent transcription is not affected by protein kinase A or by stress, and Aca1 and Aca2 are not required for Hog1-dependent salt induction of transcription through an optimal ATF/CREB site. Aca2 is important for a variety of biological functions including growth on nonoptimal carbon sources, and Aca2-dependent activation is modestly regulated by carbon source. Strains lacking Aca1 are phenotypically normal, but overexpression of Aca1 suppresses some defects associated with the loss of Aca2, indicating a functional overlap between Aca1 and Aca2. Acr1 represses transcription both by recruiting the Cyc8-Tup1 corepressor and by directly competing with Aca1 and Aca2 for target sites. Acr1 does not fully account for osmotic regulation through ATF/CREB sites, and a novel Hog1-dependent activator(s) that is not a bZIP protein is required for ATF/CREB site activation in response to high salt. In addition, Acr1 does not affect a number of phenotypes that arise from loss of Aca2. Thus, members of the S. cerevisiae ATF/CREB family have overlapping, but distinct, biological functions and target genes.  (+info)

Protein kinase A and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways antagonistically regulate fission yeast fbp1 transcription by employing different modes of action at two upstream activation sites. (5/192)

A significant challenge to our understanding of eukaryotic transcriptional regulation is to determine how multiple signal transduction pathways converge on a single promoter to regulate transcription in divergent fashions. To study this, we have investigated the transcriptional regulation of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe fbp1 gene that is repressed by a cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) pathway and is activated by a stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. In this study, we identified and characterized two cis-acting elements in the fbp1 promoter required for activation of fbp1 transcription. Upstream activation site 1 (UAS1), located approximately 900 bp from the transcriptional start site, resembles a cAMP response element (CRE) that is the binding site for the atf1-pcr1 heterodimeric transcriptional activator. Binding of this activator to UAS1 is positively regulated by the MAPK pathway and negatively regulated by PKA. UAS2, located approximately 250 bp from the transcriptional start site, resembles a Saccharomyces cerevisiae stress response element. UAS2 is bound by transcriptional activators and repressors regulated by both the PKA and MAPK pathways, although atf1 itself is not present in these complexes. Transcriptional regulation of fbp1 promoter constructs containing only UAS1 or UAS2 confirms that the PKA and MAPK regulation is targeted to both sites. We conclude that the PKA and MAPK signal transduction pathways regulate fbp1 transcription at UAS1 and UAS2, but that the antagonistic interactions between these pathways involve different mechanisms at each site.  (+info)

Cartilage degradation and invasion by rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts is inhibited by gene transfer of a cell surface-targeted plasmin inhibitor. (6/192)

OBJECTIVE: Joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a result of degradation and invasion of the articular cartilage by the pannus tissue. The present study was undertaken to examine the role of the plasminogen activation system in cartilage degradation and invasion by synovial fibroblasts and investigate a novel gene therapeutic approach using a cell surface-targeted plasmin inhibitor (ATF.BPTI). METHODS: Adenoviral vectors were used for gene transfer. The effects of ATF.BPTI gene transfer on RA synovial fibroblast-dependent cartilage degradation were studied in vitro, and cartilage invasion was studied in vivo in the SCID mouse coimplantation model. RESULTS: The results indicate that cartilage matrix degradation by rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts is plasmin mediated and depends on urokinase-type plasminogen activator for activation. Targeting plasmin inhibition to the cell surface of the fibroblasts by gene transfer of a cell surface-binding plasmin inhibitor resulted in a significant reduction of cartilage matrix degradation in vitro and of cartilage invasion in vivo. Compared with uninfected rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts, the mean +/-SEM cartilage degradation in vitro was reduced to 87.9+/-0.9% after LacZ gene transfer versus a reduction to 24.0+/-1.6% after ATF.BPTI gene transfer (P<0.0001). The mean +/- SEM in vivo cartilage invasion score was 3.1+/-0.4 in the control-transduced fibroblasts and 1.8+/-0.4 in the ATF.BPTI-transduced fibroblasts (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: These results indicate a role of the plasminogen activation system in synovial fibroblast-dependent cartilage degradation and invasion in RA, and demonstrate an effective way to inhibit this by gene transfer of a cell surface-targeted plasmin inhibitor.  (+info)

Construction and in vitro characterization of attenuated feline immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat mutant viruses. (7/192)

AP-1- and ATF-binding sites are cis-acting transcriptional elements within the U3 domain of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) long terminal repeat (LTR) that serve as targets for cellular activation pathways and may regulate virus replication. We report that FIV LTR mutant proviruses encoding U3 deletions of the ATF-binding sequence exhibited restricted virus expression and replication in both feline lymphocytes and macrophages. In contrast, deletion of the AP-1 site had negligible effects on virus expression and replication. FIV LTR mutant proviruses encoding deletions of both the AP-1 and ATF sites or a 72-bp deletion encompassing the AP-1 site, duplicated C/EBP sites, and ATF sites were severely restricted for virus expression. These results demonstrate that deletion of either the ATF-binding site or multiple cis-acting transcriptional elements attenuates FIV. These attenuated FIV mutants provide opportunities to characterize the role of cis-acting elements in virus replication in vivo and to test LTR mutants as attenuated virus vaccines.  (+info)

CREB/ATF-dependent repression of cyclin a by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax protein. (8/192)

Expression of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) oncoprotein Tax is correlated with cellular transformation contributing to the development of adult T-cell leukemia. Tax has been shown to modulate the activities of several cellular promoters. Existing evidence suggests that Tax need not directly bind to DNA to accomplish these effects but rather that it can act through binding to cellular factors, including members of the CREB/ATF family. Exact mechanisms of HTLV-1 transformation of cells have yet to be fully defined, but the process is likely to include both activation of cellular-growth-promoting factors and repression of cellular tumor-suppressing functions. While transcriptional activation has been well studied, transcriptional repression by Tax, reported recently from several studies, remains less well understood. Here, we show that Tax represses the TATA-less cyclin A promoter. Repression of the cyclin A promoter was seen in both ts13 adherent cells and Jurkat T lymphocytes. Two other TATA-less promoters, cyclin D3 and DNA polymerase alpha, were also found to be repressed by Tax. Interestingly, all three promoters share a common feature of at least one conserved upstream CREB/ATF binding site. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we observed that Tax altered the formation of a complex(es) at the cyclin A promoter-derived ATF site. Functionally, we correlated removal of the CREB/ATF site from the promoter with loss of repression by Tax. Furthermore, since a Tax mutant protein which binds CREB repressed the cyclin A promoter while another mutant protein which does not bind CREB did not, we propose that this Tax repression occurs through protein-protein contact with CREB/ATF.  (+info)

Transcriptional regulation in HCMV-infected cells relies on a complex interaction between cellular and viral transactivators (13, 23, 28, 37, 41, 43, 46). Several studies have implicated a role for the transcription factors ATF/CREB in early gene regulation (25, 30, 35, 37, 39). For example, several early promoters can be regulated by ATF/CREB sites in transient assays (30, 35, 37, 39). In addition, a role for ATF/CREB in the activation of the UL54 and UL112-113 promoters at early times in the context of the viral genome has been demonstrated (25,35). Our present analysis of the US11 promoter revealed that expression of this early gene is also regulated by two ATF/CREB sites within the promoter. The primary regulatory element of the US11 promoter, both in transient assays and in the context of the viral genome, is an ATF site located immediately upstream of the TATA element. In addition to the ATF site, the CREB site at −83 was also involved in US11 promoter activation. In the context of the ...
Reagents, Tools and Custom Services for molecular biology, specializing in the fields of Nano-Antibody development (nAb), Cellular Reprogramming (iPSC), Genome Editing, Fluorescent Proteins, RNAi, Viral Packaging and Protein expression.
The AP-1 transcription factor is mainly composed of Jun, Fos and ATF protein dimers. It mediates gene regulation in response to a plethora of physiological and ...
Mitochondrial dysfunction is pervasive in human pathologies such as neurodegeneration, diabetes, cancer, and pathogen infections as well as during normal aging. Cells sense and respond to mitochondrial dysfunction by activating a protective transcriptional program known as the mitochondrial unfolded …
Learn the history of the pro-life movement & the two legal decisions that created legalized abortion in the U.S. Plus pro-life answers to pro-choice rhetoric.
Over? Dont count on it. Im Pro-Life all of the way. I am against abortion in all situations. If a woman has willing sex, then she should except...
Eiri, remember way back when I first started posting on ehealth, we had those debates about definitions of words? Well, I am curious to know what your definiti
A Joint Statement by Pro-Life Leaders. Recently some environmentalists have portrayed certain of their causes as intrinsic to the pro-life movement. The tactic often involves appealing to a "seamless garment" of support for life, or to being "consistently pro-life" or "completely pro-life.". As leaders of the pro-life movement, we reject that portrayal as disingenuous and dangerous to our efforts to protect the lives of unborn children.. The term pro-life originated historically in the struggle to end abortion on demand and continues to be used in public discourse overwhelmingly in that sense. To ignore that is at best sloppy communication and at worst intentional deception. The life in pro-life denotes not quality of life but life itself. The term denotes opposition to a procedure that intentionally results in dead babies.. In stark contrast, most environmental causes promoted as pro-life involve little threat to human life itself, and no intent to kill anyone. For example, even if one grants ...
The Four Classes of People Sabotaging the Pro-Life Movement. When evaluating this threat, it is not necessary to think that the damage these people cause is always intentional or driven by malice. In some cases it is and in others it isnt. But regardless of its motivation, internal subversion has a greater capacity to destroy the pro-life effort than any of our external enemies.. In any environment, including the pro-life movement, the first line of defense against internal sabotage is to recognize the forces behind it.. Grandstanders are people who show up in the pro-life movement from time to time to proclaim that their convictions are more pure than anyone elses and their commitment to the cause is more sincere. Armed with an inexhaustible supply of self-righteousness, they will readily accuse those whove been on the front lines for decades of not being truly pro-life, not having any idea what they are doing, and only being involved in the pro-life effort for fame and fortune. Among the ...
OTTAWA, ON-There is a sense of urgency this year as the pro-life movement prepares for the annual national March For Life in Ottawa. Although grassroots support for the pro-life cause has grown dramatically in the past few years, abortion advocates are working much harder to censure public debate, especially in federal politics.. "When I see the response of the pro-life MPs, as they look at the [March For Life] crowd, I know they are encouraged for the fight," says pro-life lobbyist Johanne Brownrigg. "When they see 20,000 or more people who are grateful to them and share their vision of respect for life, it gives them the courage they need to go back and face the opposition.". In the past three years, March For Life attendance has grown from 19,000 to 25,000, by far the largest annual protest in Canada. Yet despite the crowds, the past year has been difficult for pro-life MPs. Pro-life views have been suppressed and derided in every federal party and on the eve of last years march, Justin ...
The 84th Texas Legislative Session proved to be challenging for the Pro-Life movement. As we previously reported in detail, while there were a few legislative victories, most Pro-Life advocates were disappointed by the missed opportunities and political games that shaped the session. Nevertheless, because of the tireless efforts and relentless commitment of a handful of elected officials, multiple votes on Pro-Life policies were brought to the House and Senate floors.. The one priority Pro-Life bill that passed this session was House Bill 3994, which substantially reforms the judicial bypass process by which a pregnant teen may petition a judge for permission to undergo an abortion without parental knowledge or consent. In both chambers, anti-Life legislators attempted to weaken this legislation by floor amendments.. Multiple Pro-Life votes were also taken this session on the states budget bill, including two amendments that keep the abortion industry out of sex education programs and one that ...
Children reared in unfavorable socioeconomic circumstances show increased susceptibility to the chronic diseases of aging when they reach the fifth and sixth decades of life. One mechanistic hypothesis for this phenomenon suggests that social adversity in early life programs biological systems in a manner that persists across decades and thereby accentuates vulnerability to disease. Here we examine the basic tenets of this hypothesis by performing genome-wide transcriptional profiling in healthy adults who were either low or high in socioeconomic status (SES) in early life. Among subjects with low early-life SES, there was significant up-regulation of genes bearing response elements for the CREB/ATF family of transcription factors that conveys adrenergic signals to leukocytes, and significant down-regulation of genes with response elements for the glucocorticoid receptor, which regulates the secretion of cortisol and transduces its antiinflammatory actions in the immune system. Subjects from ...
Gallup said on Friday that a new poll, conducted May 7 to 10, found "51 percent of Americans calling themselves pro-life on the issue of abortion and 42 percent pro-choice. This is the first time a majority of U.S. adults have identified themselves as pro-life since Gallup began asking this question in 1995.". "The new results, obtained from Gallups annual Values and Beliefs survey, represent a significant shift from a year ago, when 50 percent were pro-choice and 44 percent pro-life. Prior to now, the highest percentage identifying as pro-life was 46 percent, in both August 2001 and May 2002.". Underscoring how divisive the issue remains, the poll further found that 23 percent of Americans felt abortion should be illegal in all circumstances and 22 percent said it should be legal in all circumstances.. Still, it found that 53 percent held to a middle view - that is should be legal in certain circumstances. That figure, Gallup said, has been steady since 1975.. A few other things stand out. ...
J:191236 Wang SZ, Ou J, Zhu LJ, Green MR, Transcription factor ATF5 is required for terminal differentiation and survival of olfactory sensory neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Nov 6;109(45):18589-94 ...
2. Opposing the sale of military style assault weapons and ammunition (or tax it out of affordability) that are killing thousands of young people whore either in the wrong place at the wrong time, or being victimized due to their race or sexual orientation. It makes no sense to be "Pro-life" but also "Pro-Assault Weapons". Its a classic oxymoron. ...
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I get it. You dont like abortions. You dont want me, or anyone else, to be able to get one. You dont want them to happen in the country, or anywhere. However. To the pro-life women who want to defund Planned Parenthood: Why do you value the lives…
Thank you, Pro-Life Action League! I always enjoy when the opposition commentary proves my point. The fixation on one sub point from my last piece - Picketers vs Patients - is just the latest example of anti-choice activists knowing their position is untenable and unpopular. They fear the truth: They are the minority. The
Thank you, Pro-Life Action League! I always enjoy when the opposition commentary proves my point. The fixation on one sub point from my last piece - Picketers vs Patients - is just the latest example of anti-choice activists knowing their position is untenable and unpopular. They fear the truth: They are the minority. The
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Every election cycle, we are witnesses to the frustrating spectacle of candidates for public office who miss a great opportunity - to campaign as pro-lifers. Many of them avoid "the life issue" because they are operating under the misapprehension that it is a vote-loser. We can tell that the issue is important to many of them, but they just dont seem to be able to talk about it.. Contrary to the received wisdom, the exit polls from previous elections clearly show that taking a pro-life position is a winner - it will gain more votes than it loses. For example, in the 2004 presidential election, the National Right to Life Committee documented that abortion affected the vote of 42% of the electorate, and of those people, the pro-life candidate had an advantage of 25% to 13%. (Original data is here).. Whats especially frustrating is that it really isnt that hard to bring pro-life views into the political arena, and to persuade people to agree with them. Here is a simple script that anyone can ...
My religious roommate and her friends recently approached me and asked if I was pro-life. I told them I most definitely am! That I believe human beings have a responsibility to conserve and protect wildlife. They then told me if I was for the murdering of innocent babies, and said if a baby was a tree, would I save it? Am I the only one that finds the term (Pro-Life) a little misleading?
Thank you to whoever nominated Causa Nostrae Laetitiae for American Life Leagues 2010 Pro-life Blog Awards. I am honored to be among some of the best blogs out there, and to be nominated after winning the Pro-life Unity Award in 2009. It would be an honor to win again, though part of me wants someone else to have a turn, but I had a wonderful time at the ALL Conference last year and would welcome a return visit ...
Description: From the time you find out youre pregnant, you will want to give your baby the best start at life. However, unhealthy lifestyle choices and addictions can have a serious impact on the growth and development of your unborn baby. This impact can sometimes happen before you even know youre pregnant. Its hard to imagine how everything you put in your body - whether its inhaled, swallowed or absorbed through the skin - can affect her! Changing lifestyle habits and overcoming addictions is tough and takes strength, perseverance, and often outside help. This video will cover the effects of smoking, drinking alcohol, and using drugs during pregnancy. It will cover how these activities affect your developing baby, your pregnancy, and you. It will also cover some of the long-term, developmental issues your child may face from exposure to these harmful chemicals. This video will offer tips on how to successfully quit smoking, drinking, or using drugs, as well as when you should consider ...
Were asked today to reflect on the future of the pro-life movement in an increasingly secular age. A few years ago, I wrote a book called How th...
Some say what I did was crazy. I was standing alone on a stage at Central Michigan University. My job was simple: Present the pro-life view and then debate any challengers from the audience. Simple? Yes. Easy? Not entirely, but Ill tell you how I made the engagement more manageable...
Some say what I did was crazy. I was standing alone on a stage at Central Michigan University. My job was simple: Present the pro-life view and then debate any challengers from the audience. Simple? Yes. Easy? Not entirely, but Ill tell you how I made the engagement more manageable...
Did Norma McCorvey-better known by her pseudonym "Jane Roe" in the Roe v. Wade abortion case-somehow fake her pro-life conversion?…. Uncategorized ...
You may think that the answer to that question is pretty straightforward, a simple matter of opinions held or asserted, or not, but theres more to it than meets the eye. Many think that its simply a question of whether you hold a certain political view or not: for or against the right to kill others in certain situations, like saying, its ok to kill a person who is in an embryonic, fetal or otherwise unborn state. Or, its ok to kill others who are just born, very old, very disabled, genetically-different, chronically-ill or who take up too much time in the hospital, who cost too much for the taxpayer-funded government services. Or not.
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Plasmid pKS104 from Dr. Jay Keaslings lab contains the insert fadD (M3351), atfA and is published in Nature. 2010 Jan 28;463(7280):559-62. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Expression of the ATF in the ECV304 cells. Immunofluorescence was performed, and the resulting cells were observed under a laser scanning confocal microscope. (
Hi! Are you here for the Pro-Life Youth Conference? Do you like cupcakes and birthdays? Here, have a cupcake! Did you know that one in three babies never gets to have a birthday because of abortion?" Actress and playwright Madeline Burrows greeted audience members with TastyKakes and energy on Monday evening as they entered Olde Club, posing as a bubbly "pro-life teen" before the Monday performance of her play Mom Baby God, a pro-choice, one-person play depicting the events that unfold at a pro-life conference at a crisis pregnancy center.. Mom Baby God centers around Jessica, a perky, Justin Bieber-loving, pro-life teen attending a pro-life youth conference and interacting with different personalities there - including other pro-life teens, a minister who preaches with thinly-veiled racism, and a "New Wave pro-life feminist" who is an enthusiastic advocate of "hot, marital sex." Meeting this diverse cast of characters sheds lights on the different mentalities, propaganda, and rhetoric that make ...
Hi! Are you here for the Pro-Life Youth Conference? Do you like cupcakes and birthdays? Here, have a cupcake! Did you know that one in three babies never gets to have a birthday because of abortion?" Actress and playwright Madeline Burrows greeted audience members with TastyKakes and energy on Monday evening as they entered Olde Club, posing as a bubbly "pro-life teen" before the Monday performance of her play Mom Baby God, a pro-choice, one-person play depicting the events that unfold at a pro-life conference at a crisis pregnancy center.. Mom Baby God centers around Jessica, a perky, Justin Bieber-loving, pro-life teen attending a pro-life youth conference and interacting with different personalities there - including other pro-life teens, a minister who preaches with thinly-veiled racism, and a "New Wave pro-life feminist" who is an enthusiastic advocate of "hot, marital sex." Meeting this diverse cast of characters sheds lights on the different mentalities, propaganda, and rhetoric that make ...
Despite the positive working relationships that some have found, both pro-life and pro-choice advocates have something else in common-not all parties on either side are thrilled with the latest developments.. Although some pro-choice politicians support abortion clinic regulations, the clinics themselves have argued that the laws are little more than an attempt to shut them down. Day says the issue is also divisive among Democrats, even though the concept of promoting better health care is a traditional value of the party.. Lingering tensions from the argument over the federal health care bill have also caused a lack of trust between pro-life Republicans and Democrats, which Day warns could spell trouble for future pro-life initiatives. "As a pro-life movement, we need to look at what our strategy is and not put all our faith in one party," she says.. Pro-life advocates have also long been divided over the incremental approach to legislative regulation of abortion. Organizations such as the ...
See related photo at The Catholic Virginian. Those pro-life advocates on the front lines trying to deter women from having an abortion have not always had the same zeal and energy for the pro-life cause.. One of them is Leslie Blackwell, a member of St. Bridget Parish in Richmond, who shared her story of how she turned from actively supporting abortion for women to now being an advocate for people who she knows has been harmed by abortion and its effects.. She was one of four speakers at a Jubilee Year of Mercy seminar Oct. 1 at St. Bridgets with the theme "Mercy and Healing in the Jubilee Year.". "Less than 10 years ago I had no idea what the word mercy meant," Mrs. Davis said. "I had committed the unforgiveable sin of an abortion.. "I couldnt forgive myself. How could I expect God to forgive me?" She has since experienced Gods mercy and healing.. She is now is an active member of Silent No More, a pro-life support group for women and men who have experienced the harmful effects of ...
ADL Says Pro-Life Wailing Wall Planned for Witchita, Kan. Would Pervert Meaning of Judaisms Holiest Site: The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) today said an effort led by two pastors to build an international pro-life "memorial" in Wichita, Kansas -- encompassing what is being described as an exact replica of the Wailing Wall in Jerusalem - is "an outrageous affront to the Jewish people" and a perversion of Judaisms holiest site ...
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To end abortion in Houston, we all need to work together. That is what Unite for Life-Houston is all about. Texas Right to Life is joining forces with other Pro-Life organizations to hold what could be the largest Pro-Life gathering aimed at stopping abortion in Houston.. On October 23, 2010 from 9:30 AM to 1:30 PM, Pro-Life advocates from across the Houston metro area will come together for this historic event. The mission of Unite for Life-Houston is to: 1) Mobilize Pro-Life Houstonians by connecting them with resources that support Life affirming choices 2) Represent a unified voice of prayer against abortion 3) Commit to making a difference by voting for Pro-Life candidates in November. The target attendees for this event are those who already consider themselves to be Pro-Life but who are unsure of how they can make a difference.. The first part of the event will be held on the grounds of the Catholic Charismatic Center in Houston. This location was selected based on its close proximity to ...
Heres everything you need to know about Nick Loebs bizarre pro-life Roe v. Wade movie, which includes graphic scenes featuring
National Right to Life PAC has endorsed pro-life Republican Josh Mandel in his bid to unseat pro-abortion incumbent Senator Sherrod Brown in Ohio.
This is what I mean by "open-minded" when I suggest that it is a virtuous thing: being open-minded about a view is being open to considering evidence in favour of that view in an unbiased way. I dont think that acting in the way I just described suggests that the actor is someone whos brain has fallen out. If Im correct in that assumption, then the response "dont be so open-minded that your brain falls out" has a major flaw. Open-mindedness, as used in the cliché, has a different meaning than the one I use when I suggest that open-mindedness is a virtuous thing. To illustrate this issue we can consider the following example: Jill claimed that Bobs diamond studded steering wheel was about two pounds. Bob responds by saying "thats ridiculous, because two pounds is only about $3.35 and diamonds cost considerably more than that". Bobs response is faulty because when Jill used the word "pounds" she was referring to the a unit of weight and Bob responded by using the word "pounds" to refer to a ...
Ok so this is something I just found out yesterday. Well the event is today. Im not sure where Id psot it, so thill probably get moved, but I just
No that is not disingenuous, what is disingenuous is the idea that one can tell if the zygote is alive, human or capable of living to birth. While it is true that 70 percent of zygotes die on their own it is also true that 42 percent are not human enough to live to birth. it is also true one cannot tell which will die and when. So the idea of when an abortion takes place on a zygote or embryo is moot when the fact that one cannot tell if it is human and capable of life is the controlling factor ...
Definition of The Pro-Life Movement and the Courts in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is The Pro-Life Movement and the Courts? Meaning of The Pro-Life Movement and the Courts as a legal term. What does The Pro-Life Movement and the Courts mean in law?
I have been a labor and delivery nurse since 1980. During my thirty-six year nursing career, I have also worked in medical units and for hospice. Being a nurse has allowed me to be present with people through their early beginnings of intrauterine life, and with others through their last breaths. It has been an amazing and rewarding journey. Life is precious and life is fleeting, and life should be respected. I am pro-life. I am also a nursing instructor and have taught obstetrics to hundreds of young men and women, our future nurses. My students often ask me what my opinion is regarding abortion. "Are you pro-life or pro-choice?" they ask me. I do not ask them the same, as I dont want them to fear that their position might affect how I grade them. When I answer that I am pro-life, the students often assume that my position is based on my religious beliefs, and so they respond that "you cant force your religious beliefs on everyone else." I explain that my argument against abortion is based on ...
Kelowna will be among 1,600 communities across North America taking part in the Life Chain pro-life public demonstration simultaneously. The Life Chain, where people line up together at the intersection of Gordon Drive and Harvey Avenue, linked arm in arm, from 2 to 3:30 p.m. on Sunday. The local organizer for the event, the Kelowna Right to Life Society, anticipates up to 300 people will take part this year.. "Life Chain is an opportunity for the local pro-life community to proclaim the truths that abortion kills pre-born children and hurts women, and that healing is available for those women and men who have been emotionally damaged by a past abortion," said Life Chain media spokesperson Marietta Egan.. "Its been over 47 years now that there has been no legal protection at all for pre-born children in Canada. Eventually, society will come to recognize the humanity of the tiny children killed in abortion, and this injustice will end ...
"Activating Transcription Factor 7 Interacting Protein". Retrieved 23 April 2011. "AceView: Homo sapiens complex locus QRICH1, ... Interacting Proteins: ATXN1, Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 protein, and ATF7IP, activating transcription factor 7-interacting ... ATF7IP is a recruiter protein that couples transcriptional factors to the general transcription apparatus, thereby modulating ... transcription regulation and chromatin formation. QRICH1 is expressed at a high level, 3.3 times the average gene. It is ...
"Entrez Gene: ATF7 activating transcription factor 7". Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P, Mann M (2006 ... a novel variant of the ATF/CREB transcription factor family, forms a dominant transcription inhibitor in ATF-a heterodimers". J ... Cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ATF7 gene. In 2001, Peters et al ... "Sumoylation delays the ATF7 transcription factor subcellular localization and inhibits its transcriptional activity". Nucleic ...
1993). "Activating transcription factor-1 can mediate Ca(2+)- and cAMP-inducible transcriptional activation". J. Biol. Chem. ... Sun P, Lou L, Maurer RA (1996). "Regulation of activating transcription factor-1 and the cAMP response element-binding protein ... This gene encodes an activating transcription factor, which belongs to the ATF subfamily and bZIP (basic-region leucine zipper ... This gene has a pseudogene on chromosome 6. Activating transcription factor ATF1 has been shown to interact with: BRCA1, ...
Activating transcription factor 3 is a member of the mammalian activation transcription factor/cAMP responsive element-binding ... ATF3 activating transcription factor 3". Chen BP, Wolfgang CD, Hai T (Mar 1996). "Analysis of ATF3, a transcription factor ... Activating transcription factor ATF3 has been shown to interact with: C-jun, DDIT3 JunD, P53, and SMAD3. GRCh38: Ensembl ... Chu HM, Tan Y, Kobierski LA, Balsam LB, Comb MJ (January 1994). "Activating transcription factor-3 stimulates 3',5'-cyclic ...
"Entrez Gene: transcription factor AP-2 beta (activating enhancer binding protein 2 beta)". Tsukada S, Tanaka Y, Maegawa H, et ... 2006). "Transcription factor activating enhancer-binding protein-2beta. A negative regulator of adiponectin gene expression". J ... Transcription factor AP-2 beta also known as AP2-beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TFAP2B gene. AP-2 beta is a ... 2009). "The transcription factor TFAP2B is associated with insulin resistance and adiposity in healthy adolescents". Obesity ( ...
Activating transcription factor 7-interacting protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ATF7IP gene. ATF7IP has ... "Entrez Gene: ATF7IP activating transcription factor 7 interacting protein". Fujita, Naoyuki; Watanabe Sugiko; Ichimura Takaya; ... "A set of proteins interacting with transcription factor Sp1 identified in a two-hybrid screening". Mol Cell Biochem. 210 (1-2 ... 2005). "Activation of Sp1-mediated transcription by Rta of Epstein-Barr virus via an interaction with MCAF1". Nucleic Acids Res ...
Syk activates transcription factor NFκB. This transcription factor is responsible for the production of numerous inflammatory ... Ahrén IL, Eriksson E, Egesten A, Riesbeck K (2003). "Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae activates human eosinophils through ...
"Cdk-activating kinase complex is a component of human transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 283-7. doi:10.1038/ ... "Cdk-activating kinase complex is a component of human transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 283-7. doi:10.1038/ ... "From androgen receptor to the general transcription factor TFIIH. Identification of cdk activating kinase (CAK) as an androgen ... "Association of Cdk-activating kinase subunits with transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 280-2. doi:10.1038/374280a0 ...
It is hypothesized that VegT also activates the Xnr-1,2,4 proteins. VegT acts as a transcription factor to activate genes ... These transcription factors regulate other transcription factors, cell surface molecules with roles in cell adhesion, and other ... β-catenin activates the transcription factor stat3. Stat3 coordinates cell movements during gastrulation and contributes to ... β-catenin in the nucleus activates two transcription factors: siamois and twin. β-catenin also acts synergistically with VegT ...
... which activates MAP2K, which activates MAPK. MAPK can now activate a transcription factor, such as Myc. Receptor-linked ... MAPK regulates the activities of several transcription factors. MAPK can phosphorylate C-myc. MAPK phosphorylates and activates ... MAPK also regulates the transcription of the C-Fos gene. By altering the levels and activities of transcription factors, MAPK ... Activated Ras activates the protein kinase activity of RAF kinase. RAF kinase phosphorylates and activates MEK (MEK1 and MEK2 ...
... shows decreased expression when activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) is knocked out. Since ATF2 was not predicted to ... "Suppressor role of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) in skin cancer". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105 (5): 1674-9. doi ...
This kinase is activated by various cell stimuli, and targets specific transcription factors, and thus mediates immediate-early ... MAPK8 has been shown to interact with: Activating transcription factor 2, C-jun, CRK, DUSP10, DUSP1, DUSP22, GSTP1, IRS1, ... A scaffolding protein that tethers JNK/p38MAPK signaling modules and transcription factors". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 ( ... "c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases target the ubiquitination of their associated transcription factors". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (51): 32163 ...
FoxO transcription factors can activate expression of RICTOR. FoxO has been shown to inhibit mTORC1, while activating Akt ... to mediate the ubiquitination of growth-promoting factors cyclin E and c-Myc. Furthermore, elevated growth factor signaling may ... This phosphorylation activates Akt/PKB, where deregulation of Akt/PKB has been implicated in cancer and diabetes. RICTOR and ... Chen CC, Jeon SM, Bhaskar PT, Nogueira V, Sundararajan D, Tonic I, Park Y, Hay N (2010). "FoxOs inhibit mTORC1 and activate Akt ...
Calcineurin, in turn, activates NFAT, which then translocates to the nucleus. NFAT is a transcription factor that activates the ... DAG binds and activates some PKCs. Most important in T cells is PKCθ, critical for activating the transcription factors NF-κB ... Both subsets require the expression of the transcription factor FOXP3 which can be used to identify the cells. Mutations of the ... Activated T cells also change their cell surface glycosylation profile.[44] The T cell receptor exists as a complex of several ...
... promoted β1 integrin expression by activating a transcription factor called SRF. A continually active form of the ... Activated Cdc42 activates by conformational changes p21-activated kinases PAK1 and PAK2, which in turn initiate actin ... and it also modulates the transcription factors SRF, STAT3, and NFkB. It has been hypothesized that targeting Cdc42 in ... transcription factor was also capable of restoring endothelial insertion to cancer cells lacking Cdc42. Normal cancer cells and ...
"TFAP2C (transcription Factor AP-2 Gamma (activating Enhancer Binding Protein 2 Gamma))." TFAP2C (transcription Factor AP-2 ... AP2-gamma is a member of the activating protein 2 family of transcription factors. Transcription factor AP-2 gamma is involved ... "Transcription Factor AP-2 Gamma - TFAP2C - Homo sapiens (Human)." Transcription Factor AP-2 Gamma - TFAP2C - Homo sapiens ( ... Transcription factor AP-2 gamma also known as AP2-gamma is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TFAP2C gene. ...
"Cdk-activating kinase complex is a component of human transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 283-7. doi:10.1038/ ... "Cdk-activating kinase complex is a component of human transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 283-7. doi:10.1038/ ... General transcription factor IIH subunit 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GTF2H1 gene. GTF2H1 has been shown to ... Tong X, Drapkin R, Reinberg D, Kieff E (1995). "The 62- and 80-kDa subunits of transcription factor IIH mediate the interaction ...
Activating transcription factor 3 (Atf3) is a known RAG with numerous promoters. Atf3 expression increases after nerve injury ... Cis-regulatory elements in the promoter contain sequences recognized by transcription factors and the basal transcription ... For example, the same transcription factor (TF) can direct gene expression in different tissues simply by binding with ... predicting interaction between transcription factors in human tissues". Nucleic Acids Res. 34 (17): 4925-36. doi:10.1093/nar/ ...
Transcription factor AP-4 (activating enhancer binding protein 4), also known as TFAP4, is a protein which in humans is encoded ... Transcription factor AP4 is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, which bind to the E-box ... activating enhancer binding protein 4)". Hu YF, Lüscher B, Admon A, et al. (1991). "Transcription factor AP-4 contains multiple ... "Enhancer binding factors AP-4 and AP-1 act in concert to activate SV40 late transcription in vitro". Nature. 332 (6164): 557-61 ...
It was later identified by the yeast-two hybrid system to bind to activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) to repress ATF- ... "Phosphorylation of two eukaryotic transcription factors, Jun dimerization protein 2 and activation transcription factor 2, in ... JDP2 (gene) has been shown to interact with Activating transcription factor 2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000140044 - ... c-Jun dimerization protein 2 and activating transcription factor 3, recruit multiple HDAC members to the ATF3 promoter". ...
Activating transcription factor 4 (tax-responsive enhancer element B67), also known as ATF4, is a protein that in humans is ... "Entrez Gene: ATF4 activating transcription factor 4 (tax-responsive enhancer element B67)". Franceschi RT, Ge C, Xiao G, Roca H ... He CH, Gong P, Hu B, Stewart D, Choi ME, Choi AM, Alam J (2001). "Identification of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) as ... Activating transcription factor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000128272 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
"Cdk-activating kinase complex is a component of human transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 283-7. doi:10.1038/ ... and the CDK-activating kinase (CAK) assembly factor MAT1 (MNAT1) to chromosome bands 5q13.3-q14 and 14q23, respectively". ... the fifth subunit of the core of the transcription/DNA repair factor TFIIH". The EMBO Journal. 16 (5): 1093-102. doi:10.1093/ ... a subunit of the human general transcription/DNA repair factor TFIIH". Protein Expression and Purification. 9 (2): 153-8. doi: ...
MvfR is a gene which produces a transcription factor which activates phnAB genes. These genes produce the molecule quinolone ... PKA II is activated by cAMP which is produced from ATP. Both these processes are impaired when ATP is depleted by pyocyanin. ... Pyocyanin inactivates catalase by reducing its gene's transcription as well as directly targeting the enzyme itself. ...
These phosphorylated receptors in turn recruit STAT transcription factors which modulate gene transcription. The first JAK ... Many cytokines function by binding to and activating type I and type II cytokine receptors. These receptors in turn rely on the ... More specifically, Janus kinases phosphorylate activated cytokine receptors. ... a selective Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling pathway inhibitor with potent antitumor ...
Transcription factor AP-2 epsilon (activating enhancer binding protein 2 epsilon), also known as TFAP2E, is a human gene. The ... protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor. Activating protein 2 Tummala R, Romano RA, Fuchs E, Sinha S (December ...
Differentiation of mature B cells into plasma cells is dependent upon the transcription factors Blimp-1/PRDM1 and IRF4. ... First, the B cells have to encounter a foreign antigen, and are then required to be activated by T helper cells before they ... This is a type of safeguard to the system, almost like a two-factor authentication method. ... the activated B cell begins to differentiate into more specialized cells. Germinal center B cells may differentiate into memory ...
Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E... ... Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC) - Pipeline Review, H2 2017 report by Global ... Myc protein is a transcription factor that activates expression of many genes through binding enhancer box sequences and ... Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC) - Myc (c-Myc) protein ...
It is transcribed in two types of mRNAs (activating transcription factor 5 isoform 1 and activating transcription factor 5 ... activating transcription factor 5, transcript variant 1: NM_012068.5) and ATF5 isoform 2 (activating transcription factor 5, ... Activating transcription factor 5 is a transcription factor of the ATF/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) family. ... Potential Role of Activating Transcription Factor 5 during Osteogenesis. Luisa Vicari,1 Giovanna Calabrese,1 Stefano Forte,1 ...
Activating transcription factor, ATF, is a group of bZIP transcription factors, which act as homodimers or heterodimers with a ... "Classification of Human Transcription Factors (TFClass)". Activating Transcription Factors at the US National Library of ... Karin M1, Smeal T (1992). "Control of transcription factors by signal transduction pathways: the beginning of the end". Trends ... whereas it turned out later that some of them might be more similar to AP-1-like factors such as c-Jun or c-Fos. Genes include ...
Activating transcription factor 2, also known as ATF2, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ATF2 gene. This gene ... Activating transcription factor 2 has been shown to interact with C-jun, Casein kinase 2, alpha 1, CREB binding protein, ... "Phosphorylation of two eukaryotic transcription factors, Jun dimerization protein 2 and activation transcription factor 2, in ... Activating transcription factor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000115966 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
Activating Transcription Factors. Activating Transcription Factors were originally identified as DNA-Binding Proteins that ... They are a Family of Basic Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors that bind to the Consensus site TGACGTCA of the Cyclic AMP ...
Distinct spatial Ca2+ signatures selectively activate different NFAT transcription factor isoforms.. Kar P1, Parekh AB2. ... Distinct Spatial Ca2+ Signatures Selectively Activate Different NFAT Transcription Factor Isoforms. Mol Cell. 2015 Apr 16;58(2 ... Distinct Spatial Ca2+ Signatures Selectively Activate Different NFAT Transcription Factor Isoforms. Mol Cell. 2015 Apr 16;58(2 ... Distinct Spatial Ca2+ Signatures Selectively Activate Different NFAT Transcription Factor Isoforms. Mol Cell. 2015 Apr 16;58(2 ...
Compare activating transcription factor 6 beta ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, ... activating transcription factor 6 beta ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody ... Your search returned 13 activating transcription factor 6 beta ELISA ELISA Kit across 3 suppliers. ... Bovine Cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-6 beta (ATF6B) ELISA Kit ...
In molecular biology, Activating Transcription Factor, ATF, is a class of AP-1 transcription factor dimers.[1] ... Activating+Transcription+Factors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Retrieved from "https://www.wikidoc.org/index.php?title=Activating_transcription_factor&oldid=279739" ...
A Basal Transcription Factor That Activates or Represses Transcription Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... A Basal Transcription Factor That Activates or Represses Transcription. By Patricia J. Willy, Ryuji Kobayashi, James T. ... A Basal Transcription Factor That Activates or Represses Transcription. By Patricia J. Willy, Ryuji Kobayashi, James T. ... is a bifunctional basal transcription factor that differentially regulates gene transcription through DPE or TATA box motifs. ...
Of the transcription factors that regulate these changes in gene expression, the function of c-jun is best understood but ATF-3 ... Of the transcription factors that regulate these changes in gene expression, the function of c-jun is best understood but ATF-3 ... That transcription factors must play an important role in enabling neurons to regrow their axons is implicit to the observation ... That transcription factors must play an important role in enabling neurons to regrow their axons is implicit to the observation ...
... an Nrf2 activating agent, and a food according to the present invention comprise isohumulones or isomerized hop extract as an ... Agents for Activating the Transcription Factor Nrf2 and Foods Having Such Function ... A transcription factor Nrf2 activating agent, comprising isohumulones or isomerized hop extract as an active ingredient. 16. ... A method of activating the transcription factor Nrf2, comprising the step of administering an effective amount of isohumulones ...
Chromium (VI) induces antioxidant gene HO-1 by activating the CNC BZIP transcription factor NRF2.. ... Expression of a dominant negative form of Nrf2, a cap n collar basic leucine zipper transcription factor, in the cells blocks ... implicating Nrf2 as the key transcription factor in the induction. Mechanistic analysis reveals that Cr (VI) increases the ... These results provide the first evidence that Cr (VI) induces antioxidant gene HO-1 important in ROS defense by activating Nrf2 ...
A cellular protein, activating transcription factor, activates transcription of multiple E1a-inducible adenovirus early ... Negative regulation of TLR-signaling pathways by activating transcription factor-3. J Immunol. 2007;179:3622-30.PubMedCrossRef ... Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) represses the expression of CCL4 in murine macrophages. Mol Immunol. 2007;44:1598-605. ... The induction of STAT1 gene by activating transcription factor 3 contributes to pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis and its ...
"Activating Transcription Factor 6" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Activating Transcription Factor ... "Activating Transcription Factor 6" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Activating Transcription Factor 6" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Activating Transcription Factor 6". ...
Here we report the identification of the Cdk-activating kinase (Cak) complex (Cdk7 and cyclin H) as a component of TFIIH after ... Transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) contains a kinase capable of phosphorylating the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest ... Cdk-activating kinase complex is a component of human transcription factor TFIIH Nature. 1995 Mar 16;374(6519):283-7. doi: ... Transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) contains a kinase capable of phosphorylating the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest ...
Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) stabilizes p53 in genotoxic response. Chunhong Yan, Tsonwin Hai and Douglas Boyd ... Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) stabilizes p53 in genotoxic response Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... As a consequence, target genes including p21, PIG3 or PUMA are transcriptionally activated, leading to cell growth arrest or ... ATF3-stabilized p53 was functional as evidenced by its ability to trans-activate p53 downstream targets including MDM2, p21, ...
... activating transcription factor 7 interacting protein), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. ... negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II transcription corepressor activity protein binding nucleus nucleus ... negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II transcription corepressor activity protein binding nucleus nucleus ... nucleoplasm nucleoplasm transcription factor complex cytosol DNA methylation viral process nuclear body ATPase activity ...
High-yield expression in E. coli and refolding of the bZIP domain of activating transcription factor 5.. Ciaccio NA1, Moreno ML ... Activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) recently has been demonstrated to play a critical role in promoting the survival of ... High-Yield Expression in E. coli and Refolding of the bZIP Domain of Activating Transcription Factor 5 ... High-Yield Expression in E. coli and Refolding of the bZIP Domain of Activating Transcription Factor 5 ...
ACE1, a copper-dependent transcription factor, activates expression of the yeast copper, zinc superoxide dismutase gene. E B ... ACE1, a copper-dependent transcription factor, activates expression of the yeast copper, zinc superoxide dismutase gene ... ACE1, a copper-dependent transcription factor, activates expression of the yeast copper, zinc superoxide dismutase gene ... ACE1, a copper-dependent transcription factor, activates expression of the yeast copper, zinc superoxide dismutase gene ...
... believed to be involved in the response to regulators during transcription initiation. The CTD is phosphorylated on a portion ... Association of Cdk-activating kinase subunits with transcription factor TFIIH Nature. 1995 Mar 16;374(6519):280-2. doi: 10.1038 ... on a portion of RNA polymerase II molecules in vivo and it can be phosphorylated by the general transcription factor TFIIH in ... believed to be involved in the response to regulators during transcription initiation. The CTD is phosphorylated ...
Decreased immediate inflammatory gene induction in activating transcription factor-2 mutant mice * * REIMOLD Andreas M. ... Identification of the cyclin D1 gene as a target of activating transcription factor 2 in chondrocytes BEIER F. ... Association of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme hUBC9 Implication of the ... A specific member of the ATF transcription factor family can mediate transcription activation by the adenovirus E1a protein LIU ...
Anthocyanin-activating R2R3 MYB transcription factorImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database ... tr,W8EB73,W8EB73_ERYLE Anthocyanin-activating R2R3 MYB transcription factor OS=Erythranthe lewisii OX=69919 GN=NEGAN PE=4 SV=1 ... Transcription factor, Myb superfamily. Handroanthus impetiginosus. 249. Anthocyanin-activating R2R3 MYB transcription factor. ...
Metal-activated transcription factor 1 (MTF1) mediates the induction of metallothioneins I and II by zinc and stress signals. ... Metal-activated transcription factor 1 (MTF1) mediates the induction of metallothioneins I and II by zinc and stress signals. ... Induction of metallothionein I by arsenic via metal-activated transcription factor 1. Critical role of c-terminal cysteine ... The findings demonstrate a critical role of the C-terminal cysteine cluster of MTF1 in arsenic sensing and gene transcription ...
Activating transcription factor 6-dependent sestrin 2 induction ameliorates ER stress-mediated liver injury.. [Kyung Hwan Jegal ... Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) bound to unfolded protein response elements of SESN2 promoter, transactivated SESN2, ...
... and noradrenaline induce the transcription factors CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)-beta and C/EBP delta in mouse ... Vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide, and noradrenaline induce the transcription ... Vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide, and noradrenaline induce the transcription ... Vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide, and noradrenaline induce the transcription ...
  • Also, since BCL6 interacts with several co-repressor complexes to inhibit transcription, and its gene is frequently trans-located and hyper-mutated in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), miR-155 acts to enhance transcription and contribute to the pathogenesis of DLBCL. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we show that repeated swim stress caused activation of both κ-opioid receptor (KOR) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) coexpressed in GABAergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens, cortex, and hippocampus. (jneurosci.org)
  • Growing evidence suggests that the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade represents a pivotal molecular circuitry participating directly or indirectly in prostate cancer evolution. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway has long been identified as a convergence point for numerous (normal and pathologic) signaling inputs, rendering it an appealing target for therapeutic intervention ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • For example, the PKR phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), leading to global translation suppression and thus inhibition of viral replication ( 17 , 18 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Here, we compare the regulatory mechanism of two closely related transcription factor isoforms, NFAT1 and NFAT4, that migrate from the cytoplasm to the nucleus following the increase in intracellular Ca(2+) that accompanies the opening of store-operated Orai1/CRAC channels. (nih.gov)
  • We propose that ER stress-induced proteolysis of membrane-bound p90ATF6 releases soluble p50ATF6, leading to induced transcription in the nucleus. (psu.edu)
  • In this report, we describe the presence of constitutively activated STAT factors in peripheral blood cells from patients with acute leukemia. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Leukemias expressing the constitutively activated tyrosine kinases (TK) BCR-ABL1 and FLT3/ITD activate signaling pathways that increase genomic instability through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), and error-prone repair. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Constitutively activated tyrosine kinases (TK) BCR-ABL1 and FLT3/ITD generate increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage including double-strand breaks (DSB), and abnormal repair that is highly error-prone. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our results suggest that PPARα deficiency, in mice, is implicated in the modulation of insulin gene transcription and inflammatory status in adipose tissues. (ebscohost.com)