Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.
A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.
The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.
The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.
A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.
A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.
The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.
Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.
A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.
An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.
A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).
A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.
A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.
Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein oncogene protein v-ets of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
A general transcription factor that is involved in basal GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. It consists of nine subunits including ATP-DEPENDENT DNA HELICASES; CYCLIN H; and XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM GROUP D PROTEIN.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.
A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.
Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.
A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE III and aid in transcription. They include the assembly factors TFIIIA and TFIIIC and the initiation factor TFIIIB. All combine to form a preinitiation complex at the promotor that directs the binding of RNA POLYMERASE III.
A heterotetrameric transcription factor composed of two distinct proteins. Its name refers to the fact it binds to DNA sequences rich in GUANINE and ADENINE. GA-binding protein integrates a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and regulates expression of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE control, PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS, and cellular METABOLISM.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway. The activity of the protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN. Transcription factor 7-like 2 protein plays an important role in the embryogenesis of the PANCREAS and ISLET CELLS.
An ets proto-oncogene expressed primarily in adult LYMPHOID TISSUE; BRAIN; and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that was originally identified in DROSOPHILA as essential for proper gastrulation and MESODERM formation. It plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MUSCLE CELLS, and is found in a wide variety of organisms.
A tissue-specific subunit of NF-E2 transcription factor that interacts with small MAF PROTEINS to regulate gene expression. P45 NF-E2 protein is expressed primarily in MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; and MAST CELLS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. TFIIIB recruits and positions pol III over the initiation site and remains stably bound to the DNA through multiple rounds of re-initiation by RNA POLYMERASE III.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
One of the BASIC-LEUCINE ZIPPER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that is synthesized as a membrane-bound protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. In response to endoplasmic reticulum stress it translocates to the GOLGI APPARATUS. It is activated by PROTEASES and then moves to the CELL NUCLEUS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in the unfolded protein response.
A family of mammalian POU domain factors that are expressed predominately in NEURONS.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates GLOBIN gene expression and is related to TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1. NF-E2 consists of a small MAF protein subunit and a tissue-restricted 45 kDa subunit.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subfamily have been implicated in regulating the differentiation of OLIGODENDROCYTES during neural crest formation and in CHONDROGENESIS.
Ubiquitously expressed basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF transcription factors. They bind CANNTG sequences in the promoters of a variety of GENES involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Factors that form a preinitiation complex at promoters that are specifically transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE I.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in determining cell fate during embryogenesis. It forms a heterodimer with TWIST TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and ACHAETE-SCUTE GENE COMPLEX-related TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A POU domain factor that regulates expression of GROWTH HORMONE; PROLACTIN; and THYROTROPIN-BETA in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of the group have been found expressed in developing neuronal tissue, LYMPHOCYTES, and during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.

Human SWI-SNF component BRG1 represses transcription of the c-fos gene. (1/192)

Yeast and mammalian SWI-SNF complexes regulate transcription through active modification of chromatin structure. Human SW-13 adenocarcinoma cells lack BRG1 protein, a component of SWI-SNF that has a DNA-dependent ATPase activity essential for SWI-SNF function. Expression of BRG1 in SW-13 cells potentiated transcriptional activation by the glucocorticoid receptor, which is known to require SWI-SNF function. BRG1 also specifically repressed transcription from a transfected c-fos promoter and correspondingly blocked transcriptional activation of the endogenous c-fos gene. Mutation of lysine residue 798 in the DNA-dependent ATPase domain of BRG1 significantly reduced its ability to repress c-fos transcription. Repression by BRG1 required the cyclic AMP response element of the c-fos promoter but not nearby binding sites for Sp1, YY1, or TFII-I. Using human C33A cervical carcinoma cells, which lack BRG1 and also express a nonfunctional Rb protein, transcriptional repression by BRG1 was weak unless wild-type Rb was also supplied. Interestingly, Rb-dependent repression by BRG1 was found to take place through a pathway that is independent of transcription factor E2F.  (+info)

Human Cdc34 and Rad6B ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes target repressors of cyclic AMP-induced transcription for proteolysis. (2/192)

Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis controls diverse physiological processes in eukaryotes. However, few in vivo targets of the mammalian Cdc34 and Rad6 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes are known. A yeast-based genetic assay to identify proteins that interact with human Cdc34 resulted in three cDNAs encoding bZIP DNA binding motifs. Two of these interactants are repressors of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-induced transcription: hICERIIgamma, a product of the CREM gene, and hATF5, a novel ATF homolog. Transfection assays with mammalian cells demonstrate both hCdc34- and hRad6B-dependent ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of hICERIIgamma and hATF5. This degradation requires an active ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and results in abrogation of ICERIIgamma- and ATF5-mediated repression of cAMP-induced transcription. Consistent with these results, the endogenous ICER protein is elevated in cells which are null for murine Rad6B (mHR6B-/-) or transfected with dominant negative and antisense constructs of human CDC34. Based on the requirement for CREM/ICER and Rad6B proteins in spermatogenesis, we determined expression of Cdc34, Rad6B, CREM/ICER isoforms, and the Skp1-Cullin-F-box ubiquitin protein ligase subunits Cul-1 and Cul-2, which are associated with Cdc34 activity during murine testicular development. Cdc34, Rad6B, and the Cullin proteins are expressed in a developmentally regulated manner, with distinctly different patterns for Cdc34 and the Cullin proteins in germ cells. The Cdc34 and Rad6B proteins are significantly elevated in meiotic and postmeiotic haploid germ cells when chromatin modifications occur. Thus, the stability of specific mammalian transcription factors is the result of complex targeting by multiple ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes and may have an impact on cAMP-inducible gene regulation during both meiotic and mitotic cell cycles.  (+info)

Identification of an erythroid active element in the transferrin receptor gene. (3/192)

Hemoglobin synthesis consumes most of the iron that is taken up by cells from plasma transferrin, and this process requires very high expression of transferrin receptors (TfR) at the membranes of erythroid cells. Studies in our and other laboratories indicate that a dramatic increase in TfR levels during erythroid differentiation occurs at the transcriptional level. In this study, we investigated the transcriptional regulation of the TfR in terms of its promoter activity and DNA-protein binding in murine erythroleukemia cells. Reporter gene assays revealed that the TfR promoter activity was stimulated 6-8-fold in murine erythroleukemia cells induced to differentiate into hemoglobin-synthesizing cells by either Me(2)SO or N,N'-hexamethylene-bis-acetamide. A minimal region (-118 to +14) was required for the differentiation-induced promoter activity. Mutation of either an Ets-binding site or an activator protein-1/cyclic AMP-response element-like motif within this region, but not disruption of the adjacent GC-rich/specificity protein-1 sequence, inhibited the inducible promoter activity. Electrophoresis mobility shift assays suggest that the cyclic AMP-response element-binding proteins/activating transcription factor-like factors and Ets-like factors bind constitutively to this bipartite element. Upon induction of differentiation, a shift in the pattern of the cyclic AMP-response element-binding protein/activating transcription factor-like binding factors was observed. Our data indicate that the TfR gene promoter contains an erythroid active element that stimulates the receptor gene transcription upon induction of hemoglobin synthesis.  (+info)

Aca1 and Aca2, ATF/CREB activators in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are important for carbon source utilization but not the response to stress. (4/192)

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the family of ATF/CREB transcriptional regulators consists of a repressor, Acr1 (Sko1), and two activators, Aca1 and Aca2. The AP-1 factor Gen4 does not activate transcription through ATF/CREB sites in vivo even though it binds these sites in vitro. Unlike ATF/CREB activators in other species, Aca1- and Aca2-dependent transcription is not affected by protein kinase A or by stress, and Aca1 and Aca2 are not required for Hog1-dependent salt induction of transcription through an optimal ATF/CREB site. Aca2 is important for a variety of biological functions including growth on nonoptimal carbon sources, and Aca2-dependent activation is modestly regulated by carbon source. Strains lacking Aca1 are phenotypically normal, but overexpression of Aca1 suppresses some defects associated with the loss of Aca2, indicating a functional overlap between Aca1 and Aca2. Acr1 represses transcription both by recruiting the Cyc8-Tup1 corepressor and by directly competing with Aca1 and Aca2 for target sites. Acr1 does not fully account for osmotic regulation through ATF/CREB sites, and a novel Hog1-dependent activator(s) that is not a bZIP protein is required for ATF/CREB site activation in response to high salt. In addition, Acr1 does not affect a number of phenotypes that arise from loss of Aca2. Thus, members of the S. cerevisiae ATF/CREB family have overlapping, but distinct, biological functions and target genes.  (+info)

Protein kinase A and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways antagonistically regulate fission yeast fbp1 transcription by employing different modes of action at two upstream activation sites. (5/192)

A significant challenge to our understanding of eukaryotic transcriptional regulation is to determine how multiple signal transduction pathways converge on a single promoter to regulate transcription in divergent fashions. To study this, we have investigated the transcriptional regulation of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe fbp1 gene that is repressed by a cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) pathway and is activated by a stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. In this study, we identified and characterized two cis-acting elements in the fbp1 promoter required for activation of fbp1 transcription. Upstream activation site 1 (UAS1), located approximately 900 bp from the transcriptional start site, resembles a cAMP response element (CRE) that is the binding site for the atf1-pcr1 heterodimeric transcriptional activator. Binding of this activator to UAS1 is positively regulated by the MAPK pathway and negatively regulated by PKA. UAS2, located approximately 250 bp from the transcriptional start site, resembles a Saccharomyces cerevisiae stress response element. UAS2 is bound by transcriptional activators and repressors regulated by both the PKA and MAPK pathways, although atf1 itself is not present in these complexes. Transcriptional regulation of fbp1 promoter constructs containing only UAS1 or UAS2 confirms that the PKA and MAPK regulation is targeted to both sites. We conclude that the PKA and MAPK signal transduction pathways regulate fbp1 transcription at UAS1 and UAS2, but that the antagonistic interactions between these pathways involve different mechanisms at each site.  (+info)

Cartilage degradation and invasion by rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts is inhibited by gene transfer of a cell surface-targeted plasmin inhibitor. (6/192)

OBJECTIVE: Joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a result of degradation and invasion of the articular cartilage by the pannus tissue. The present study was undertaken to examine the role of the plasminogen activation system in cartilage degradation and invasion by synovial fibroblasts and investigate a novel gene therapeutic approach using a cell surface-targeted plasmin inhibitor (ATF.BPTI). METHODS: Adenoviral vectors were used for gene transfer. The effects of ATF.BPTI gene transfer on RA synovial fibroblast-dependent cartilage degradation were studied in vitro, and cartilage invasion was studied in vivo in the SCID mouse coimplantation model. RESULTS: The results indicate that cartilage matrix degradation by rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts is plasmin mediated and depends on urokinase-type plasminogen activator for activation. Targeting plasmin inhibition to the cell surface of the fibroblasts by gene transfer of a cell surface-binding plasmin inhibitor resulted in a significant reduction of cartilage matrix degradation in vitro and of cartilage invasion in vivo. Compared with uninfected rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts, the mean +/-SEM cartilage degradation in vitro was reduced to 87.9+/-0.9% after LacZ gene transfer versus a reduction to 24.0+/-1.6% after ATF.BPTI gene transfer (P<0.0001). The mean +/- SEM in vivo cartilage invasion score was 3.1+/-0.4 in the control-transduced fibroblasts and 1.8+/-0.4 in the ATF.BPTI-transduced fibroblasts (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: These results indicate a role of the plasminogen activation system in synovial fibroblast-dependent cartilage degradation and invasion in RA, and demonstrate an effective way to inhibit this by gene transfer of a cell surface-targeted plasmin inhibitor.  (+info)

Construction and in vitro characterization of attenuated feline immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat mutant viruses. (7/192)

AP-1- and ATF-binding sites are cis-acting transcriptional elements within the U3 domain of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) long terminal repeat (LTR) that serve as targets for cellular activation pathways and may regulate virus replication. We report that FIV LTR mutant proviruses encoding U3 deletions of the ATF-binding sequence exhibited restricted virus expression and replication in both feline lymphocytes and macrophages. In contrast, deletion of the AP-1 site had negligible effects on virus expression and replication. FIV LTR mutant proviruses encoding deletions of both the AP-1 and ATF sites or a 72-bp deletion encompassing the AP-1 site, duplicated C/EBP sites, and ATF sites were severely restricted for virus expression. These results demonstrate that deletion of either the ATF-binding site or multiple cis-acting transcriptional elements attenuates FIV. These attenuated FIV mutants provide opportunities to characterize the role of cis-acting elements in virus replication in vivo and to test LTR mutants as attenuated virus vaccines.  (+info)

CREB/ATF-dependent repression of cyclin a by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax protein. (8/192)

Expression of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) oncoprotein Tax is correlated with cellular transformation contributing to the development of adult T-cell leukemia. Tax has been shown to modulate the activities of several cellular promoters. Existing evidence suggests that Tax need not directly bind to DNA to accomplish these effects but rather that it can act through binding to cellular factors, including members of the CREB/ATF family. Exact mechanisms of HTLV-1 transformation of cells have yet to be fully defined, but the process is likely to include both activation of cellular-growth-promoting factors and repression of cellular tumor-suppressing functions. While transcriptional activation has been well studied, transcriptional repression by Tax, reported recently from several studies, remains less well understood. Here, we show that Tax represses the TATA-less cyclin A promoter. Repression of the cyclin A promoter was seen in both ts13 adherent cells and Jurkat T lymphocytes. Two other TATA-less promoters, cyclin D3 and DNA polymerase alpha, were also found to be repressed by Tax. Interestingly, all three promoters share a common feature of at least one conserved upstream CREB/ATF binding site. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we observed that Tax altered the formation of a complex(es) at the cyclin A promoter-derived ATF site. Functionally, we correlated removal of the CREB/ATF site from the promoter with loss of repression by Tax. Furthermore, since a Tax mutant protein which binds CREB repressed the cyclin A promoter while another mutant protein which does not bind CREB did not, we propose that this Tax repression occurs through protein-protein contact with CREB/ATF.  (+info)

Transcriptional regulation in HCMV-infected cells relies on a complex interaction between cellular and viral transactivators (13, 23, 28, 37, 41, 43, 46). Several studies have implicated a role for the transcription factors ATF/CREB in early gene regulation (25, 30, 35, 37, 39). For example, several early promoters can be regulated by ATF/CREB sites in transient assays (30, 35, 37, 39). In addition, a role for ATF/CREB in the activation of the UL54 and UL112-113 promoters at early times in the context of the viral genome has been demonstrated (25,35). Our present analysis of the US11 promoter revealed that expression of this early gene is also regulated by two ATF/CREB sites within the promoter. The primary regulatory element of the US11 promoter, both in transient assays and in the context of the viral genome, is an ATF site located immediately upstream of the TATA element. In addition to the ATF site, the CREB site at −83 was also involved in US11 promoter activation. In the context of the ...
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The AP-1 transcription factor is mainly composed of Jun, Fos and ATF protein dimers. It mediates gene regulation in response to a plethora of physiological and ...
Mitochondrial dysfunction is pervasive in human pathologies such as neurodegeneration, diabetes, cancer, and pathogen infections as well as during normal aging. Cells sense and respond to mitochondrial dysfunction by activating a protective transcriptional program known as the mitochondrial unfolded …
CREB Gel Shift Oligonucleotide contains a consensus binding site for cAMP response element (CRE) binding proteins of the CREB/ATF family
Learn the history of the pro-life movement & the two legal decisions that created legalized abortion in the U.S. Plus pro-life answers to pro-choice rhetoric.
In The Womb, White, Touch of Life, In the Womb Item: 7560WV Group: Touch of Life, In the Womb Price: $279.00 - $349.00 The development of an unborn baby is both beautiful and amazing. Gods design for the protection, growth, and nourishment of the baby while in the mothers womb is nothing short of miraculous. It is this splendor and grace that is captured for you to share in the...Touch of Life in the Womb fetal ... ...
Over? Dont count on it. Im Pro-Life all of the way. I am against abortion in all situations. If a woman has willing sex, then she should except...
Eiri, remember way back when I first started posting on ehealth, we had those debates about definitions of words? Well, I am curious to know what your definiti
A Joint Statement by Pro-Life Leaders. Recently some environmentalists have portrayed certain of their causes as intrinsic to the pro-life movement. The tactic often involves appealing to a seamless garment of support for life, or to being consistently pro-life or completely pro-life.. As leaders of the pro-life movement, we reject that portrayal as disingenuous and dangerous to our efforts to protect the lives of unborn children.. The term pro-life originated historically in the struggle to end abortion on demand and continues to be used in public discourse overwhelmingly in that sense. To ignore that is at best sloppy communication and at worst intentional deception. The life in pro-life denotes not quality of life but life itself. The term denotes opposition to a procedure that intentionally results in dead babies.. In stark contrast, most environmental causes promoted as pro-life involve little threat to human life itself, and no intent to kill anyone. For example, even if one grants ...
The Four Classes of People Sabotaging the Pro-Life Movement. When evaluating this threat, it is not necessary to think that the damage these people cause is always intentional or driven by malice. In some cases it is and in others it isnt. But regardless of its motivation, internal subversion has a greater capacity to destroy the pro-life effort than any of our external enemies.. In any environment, including the pro-life movement, the first line of defense against internal sabotage is to recognize the forces behind it.. Grandstanders are people who show up in the pro-life movement from time to time to proclaim that their convictions are more pure than anyone elses and their commitment to the cause is more sincere. Armed with an inexhaustible supply of self-righteousness, they will readily accuse those whove been on the front lines for decades of not being truly pro-life, not having any idea what they are doing, and only being involved in the pro-life effort for fame and fortune. Among the ...
OTTAWA, ON-There is a sense of urgency this year as the pro-life movement prepares for the annual national March For Life in Ottawa. Although grassroots support for the pro-life cause has grown dramatically in the past few years, abortion advocates are working much harder to censure public debate, especially in federal politics.. When I see the response of the pro-life MPs, as they look at the [March For Life] crowd, I know they are encouraged for the fight, says pro-life lobbyist Johanne Brownrigg. When they see 20,000 or more people who are grateful to them and share their vision of respect for life, it gives them the courage they need to go back and face the opposition.. In the past three years, March For Life attendance has grown from 19,000 to 25,000, by far the largest annual protest in Canada. Yet despite the crowds, the past year has been difficult for pro-life MPs. Pro-life views have been suppressed and derided in every federal party and on the eve of last years march, Justin ...
The 84th Texas Legislative Session proved to be challenging for the Pro-Life movement. As we previously reported in detail, while there were a few legislative victories, most Pro-Life advocates were disappointed by the missed opportunities and political games that shaped the session. Nevertheless, because of the tireless efforts and relentless commitment of a handful of elected officials, multiple votes on Pro-Life policies were brought to the House and Senate floors.. The one priority Pro-Life bill that passed this session was House Bill 3994, which substantially reforms the judicial bypass process by which a pregnant teen may petition a judge for permission to undergo an abortion without parental knowledge or consent. In both chambers, anti-Life legislators attempted to weaken this legislation by floor amendments.. Multiple Pro-Life votes were also taken this session on the states budget bill, including two amendments that keep the abortion industry out of sex education programs and one that ...
Children reared in unfavorable socioeconomic circumstances show increased susceptibility to the chronic diseases of aging when they reach the fifth and sixth decades of life. One mechanistic hypothesis for this phenomenon suggests that social adversity in early life programs biological systems in a manner that persists across decades and thereby accentuates vulnerability to disease. Here we examine the basic tenets of this hypothesis by performing genome-wide transcriptional profiling in healthy adults who were either low or high in socioeconomic status (SES) in early life. Among subjects with low early-life SES, there was significant up-regulation of genes bearing response elements for the CREB/ATF family of transcription factors that conveys adrenergic signals to leukocytes, and significant down-regulation of genes with response elements for the glucocorticoid receptor, which regulates the secretion of cortisol and transduces its antiinflammatory actions in the immune system. Subjects from ...
Gallup said on Friday that a new poll, conducted May 7 to 10, found 51 percent of Americans calling themselves pro-life on the issue of abortion and 42 percent pro-choice. This is the first time a majority of U.S. adults have identified themselves as pro-life since Gallup began asking this question in 1995.. The new results, obtained from Gallups annual Values and Beliefs survey, represent a significant shift from a year ago, when 50 percent were pro-choice and 44 percent pro-life. Prior to now, the highest percentage identifying as pro-life was 46 percent, in both August 2001 and May 2002.. Underscoring how divisive the issue remains, the poll further found that 23 percent of Americans felt abortion should be illegal in all circumstances and 22 percent said it should be legal in all circumstances.. Still, it found that 53 percent held to a middle view - that is should be legal in certain circumstances. That figure, Gallup said, has been steady since 1975.. A few other things stand out. ...
J:191236 Wang SZ, Ou J, Zhu LJ, Green MR, Transcription factor ATF5 is required for terminal differentiation and survival of olfactory sensory neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Nov 6;109(45):18589-94 ...
2. Opposing the sale of military style assault weapons and ammunition (or tax it out of affordability) that are killing thousands of young people whore either in the wrong place at the wrong time, or being victimized due to their race or sexual orientation. It makes no sense to be Pro-life but also Pro-Assault Weapons. Its a classic oxymoron. ...
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Submission of product reviews indicates that you agree that the the content of the review may be used online, in print, and any advertising in part or whole. All product reviews will be reviewed for appropriate language. Approval is at the sole discretion of the editors. We may correct spelling or grammar or fix wording for clarity of thought but the purpose will not be changed ...
Submission of product reviews indicates that you agree that the the content of the review may be used online, in print, and any advertising in part or whole. All product reviews will be reviewed for appropriate language. Approval is at the sole discretion of the editors. We may correct spelling or grammar or fix wording for clarity of thought but the purpose will not be changed ...
I get it. You dont like abortions. You dont want me, or anyone else, to be able to get one. You dont want them to happen in the country, or anywhere. However. To the pro-life women who want to defund Planned Parenthood: Why do you value the lives…
Thank you, Pro-Life Action League! I always enjoy when the opposition commentary proves my point. The fixation on one sub point from my last piece - Picketers vs Patients - is just the latest example of anti-choice activists knowing their position is untenable and unpopular. They fear the truth: They are the minority. The
Thank you, Pro-Life Action League! I always enjoy when the opposition commentary proves my point. The fixation on one sub point from my last piece - Picketers vs Patients - is just the latest example of anti-choice activists knowing their position is untenable and unpopular. They fear the truth: They are the minority. The
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ATF-4兔多克隆抗体(ab23760)可与人样本反应并经WB, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被7篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
ATF-4兔多克隆抗体(ab105383)可与小鼠样本反应并经WB, IHC实验严格验证,被2篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Every election cycle, we are witnesses to the frustrating spectacle of candidates for public office who miss a great opportunity - to campaign as pro-lifers. Many of them avoid the life issue because they are operating under the misapprehension that it is a vote-loser. We can tell that the issue is important to many of them, but they just dont seem to be able to talk about it.. Contrary to the received wisdom, the exit polls from previous elections clearly show that taking a pro-life position is a winner - it will gain more votes than it loses. For example, in the 2004 presidential election, the National Right to Life Committee documented that abortion affected the vote of 42% of the electorate, and of those people, the pro-life candidate had an advantage of 25% to 13%. (Original data is here).. Whats especially frustrating is that it really isnt that hard to bring pro-life views into the political arena, and to persuade people to agree with them. Here is a simple script that anyone can ...
My religious roommate and her friends recently approached me and asked if I was pro-life. I told them I most definitely am! That I believe human beings have a responsibility to conserve and protect wildlife. They then told me if I was for the murdering of innocent babies, and said if a baby was a tree, would I save it? Am I the only one that finds the term (Pro-Life) a little misleading?
Our pro-life organization orders thousands of white and brown Precious Ones a year to give out in NYC and Yonkers, NY street festivals, conferences, outside Planned Parenthood, during educational presentations and randomly on sidewalks. We know of AT LEAST 2 babies who were saved from abortion because their mothers, who were pregnant at the time and going for an abortion, were given one of these models by one of our volunteers (only one of the women told us they were considering abortion at the time we gave them the models - the other mom just told us she was pregnant). The funny thing about it is that we did not know about the effect the models had when we were handing them out but both women told us much later that because of the models they changed their minds and had their babies: one told us 4 years after we gave her the Precious One, another 2 years later. Because of their life-like touch some people recoil when you give them the model - but most dont and gladly accept it. We even have ...
Thank you to whoever nominated Causa Nostrae Laetitiae for American Life Leagues 2010 Pro-life Blog Awards. I am honored to be among some of the best blogs out there, and to be nominated after winning the Pro-life Unity Award in 2009. It would be an honor to win again, though part of me wants someone else to have a turn, but I had a wonderful time at the ALL Conference last year and would welcome a return visit ...
How far will you go to be granted the most precious gift of life? So many mothers and fathers face the daunting reality of not having children - and yet everywhere in the world, even in our own streets and back allies, women throw away their babies, or consult abortionists and murder these little angels in cold blood. This video, entitled Hangad, is brought to you by Pro-Life Philippines and the creative minds of Y&R Philippines. It shows us the anguish of couples everywhere, especially women, who have done their utmost in order to conceive the child they have always yearned for, only for…. ...
Multiple Pro-Life medical and legal experts demonstrated the need for and defended the bill against one of the most pro-abortion members of the Texas House of Representatives.
Were asked today to reflect on the future of the pro-life movement in an increasingly secular age. A few years ago, I wrote a book called How th...
Some say what I did was crazy. I was standing alone on a stage at Central Michigan University. My job was simple: Present the pro-life view and then debate any challengers from the audience. Simple? Yes. Easy? Not entirely, but Ill tell you how I made the engagement more manageable...
Some say what I did was crazy. I was standing alone on a stage at Central Michigan University. My job was simple: Present the pro-life view and then debate any challengers from the audience. Simple? Yes. Easy? Not entirely, but Ill tell you how I made the engagement more manageable...
WASHINGTON (BP) - Pro-life advocates have praised recent actions by the Trump administration to protect newly born children and to broaden the ban on funds for international abortion rights organizations.
Kentucky Gov. Matt Bevin signed into law four pieces of pro-life legislation as a court heard an ACLU challenge over an abortion safety law.
Did Norma McCorvey-better known by her pseudonym Jane Roe in the Roe v. Wade abortion case-somehow fake her pro-life conversion?…. Uncategorized ...
You may think that the answer to that question is pretty straightforward, a simple matter of opinions held or asserted, or not, but theres more to it than meets the eye. Many think that its simply a question of whether you hold a certain political view or not: for or against the right to kill others in certain situations, like saying, its ok to kill a person who is in an embryonic, fetal or otherwise unborn state. Or, its ok to kill others who are just born, very old, very disabled, genetically-different, chronically-ill or who take up too much time in the hospital, who cost too much for the taxpayer-funded government services. Or not.
How does a pro-choice doctor who once performed abortions for Planned Parenthood wind up on the opposite side of this embattled issue?. ...
Ive been thinking about the fight for womens healthcare a lot lately, mainly due to the influx of messages weve been getting to Skepchick in the pa
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Plasmid pKS104 from Dr. Jay Keaslings lab contains the insert fadD (M3351), atfA and is published in Nature. 2010 Jan 28;463(7280):559-62. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
As Oregons leading pro-life organization, we receive no government funds and the vast majority of our resources come from individuals and families ...
Expression of the ATF in the ECV304 cells. Immunofluorescence was performed, and the resulting cells were observed under a laser scanning confocal microscope. (
Mobil ATF™ 3309 is an exceptionally high performance lubricant that meets original equipment manufacturers specifications for use in certain slip-controlled lock-up automatic transmissions.
The UCLA Library Digital Collections includes rare and unique digital materials developed by the UCLA Library to support education, research, service, and creative expression. This website is our new interface for discovery and engagement of these collections. See collections of historic photographs and manuscripts. More collections added weekly.
Hi! Are you here for the Pro-Life Youth Conference? Do you like cupcakes and birthdays? Here, have a cupcake! Did you know that one in three babies never gets to have a birthday because of abortion? Actress and playwright Madeline Burrows greeted audience members with TastyKakes and energy on Monday evening as they entered Olde Club, posing as a bubbly pro-life teen before the Monday performance of her play Mom Baby God, a pro-choice, one-person play depicting the events that unfold at a pro-life conference at a crisis pregnancy center.. Mom Baby God centers around Jessica, a perky, Justin Bieber-loving, pro-life teen attending a pro-life youth conference and interacting with different personalities there - including other pro-life teens, a minister who preaches with thinly-veiled racism, and a New Wave pro-life feminist who is an enthusiastic advocate of hot, marital sex. Meeting this diverse cast of characters sheds lights on the different mentalities, propaganda, and rhetoric that make ...
Hi! Are you here for the Pro-Life Youth Conference? Do you like cupcakes and birthdays? Here, have a cupcake! Did you know that one in three babies never gets to have a birthday because of abortion? Actress and playwright Madeline Burrows greeted audience members with TastyKakes and energy on Monday evening as they entered Olde Club, posing as a bubbly pro-life teen before the Monday performance of her play Mom Baby God, a pro-choice, one-person play depicting the events that unfold at a pro-life conference at a crisis pregnancy center.. Mom Baby God centers around Jessica, a perky, Justin Bieber-loving, pro-life teen attending a pro-life youth conference and interacting with different personalities there - including other pro-life teens, a minister who preaches with thinly-veiled racism, and a New Wave pro-life feminist who is an enthusiastic advocate of hot, marital sex. Meeting this diverse cast of characters sheds lights on the different mentalities, propaganda, and rhetoric that make ...
That made me pro-life, he says. Hentoff encourages anyone who wants to find secular information to support the pro-life argument to read works written by doctors who operate on babies in utero. Read them in terms of what they do-surgeons who deal with the child before the child is actually a child, according to the law, he said. Being an atheist pro-lifer often can have its costs. Hentoff has lost lecture-circuit jobs and the opportunity to have a journalism school named after him and was delayed in getting a Lifetime Achievement Award from the National Press Foundation because of his pro-life views. Being pro-life has cost me a lot, but these are losses I am proud of, he said. According to some atheist and secular pro-lifers on the Internet, not all Christians have welcomed their collaboration. Some believers have even urged them to go get their own events. This type of response does not help advance the cause of the pro-life movement, according to Dr. Francis Beckwith, who teaches ...
Despite the positive working relationships that some have found, both pro-life and pro-choice advocates have something else in common-not all parties on either side are thrilled with the latest developments.. Although some pro-choice politicians support abortion clinic regulations, the clinics themselves have argued that the laws are little more than an attempt to shut them down. Day says the issue is also divisive among Democrats, even though the concept of promoting better health care is a traditional value of the party.. Lingering tensions from the argument over the federal health care bill have also caused a lack of trust between pro-life Republicans and Democrats, which Day warns could spell trouble for future pro-life initiatives. As a pro-life movement, we need to look at what our strategy is and not put all our faith in one party, she says.. Pro-life advocates have also long been divided over the incremental approach to legislative regulation of abortion. Organizations such as the ...
See related photo at The Catholic Virginian. Those pro-life advocates on the front lines trying to deter women from having an abortion have not always had the same zeal and energy for the pro-life cause.. One of them is Leslie Blackwell, a member of St. Bridget Parish in Richmond, who shared her story of how she turned from actively supporting abortion for women to now being an advocate for people who she knows has been harmed by abortion and its effects.. She was one of four speakers at a Jubilee Year of Mercy seminar Oct. 1 at St. Bridgets with the theme Mercy and Healing in the Jubilee Year.. Less than 10 years ago I had no idea what the word mercy meant, Mrs. Davis said. I had committed the unforgiveable sin of an abortion.. I couldnt forgive myself. How could I expect God to forgive me? She has since experienced Gods mercy and healing.. She is now is an active member of Silent No More, a pro-life support group for women and men who have experienced the harmful effects of ...
ADL Says Pro-Life Wailing Wall Planned for Witchita, Kan. Would Pervert Meaning of Judaisms Holiest Site: The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) today said an effort led by two pastors to build an international pro-life memorial in Wichita, Kansas -- encompassing what is being described as an exact replica of the Wailing Wall in Jerusalem - is an outrageous affront to the Jewish people and a perversion of Judaisms holiest site ...
The worlds first wiki where authorship really matters. Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts.
AA147 is a specific, small molecule agonist of transcription factor ATF6, activates ATF6 and influences differentiation of stem cells.
I’d like to call our readers’ attention to two worthy new enterprises which look to fill significant gaps in the Catholic internet. First is a pro-life crowdfunding site called WonderWe. At first I wondered what the need for such a site would be, but as it turns out, mainstream sites like GoFundMe and Kickstarter have often taken down pro-life campaigns while allowing pro-abortion ones (even fundraising for a specific individual’s abortion). Of course, you can
A rereleased video from 2007 shows an incensed Mitt Romney give a radio host an off-air piece of his mind re: his faith & pro-life stance.
Heres everything you need to know about Nick Loebs bizarre pro-life Roe v. Wade movie, which includes graphic scenes featuring
Pro-life groups are free to advertise on Twitter -- as long as they dont talk about what abortion is, show pictures of ultrasounds or criticize Planned Parenthood.
Keep up to date with the latest pro-life news through Oregon Right to Lifes own quarterly newspaper, Life in Oregon, as well as Lifenews.com.
National Right to Life PAC has endorsed pro-life Republican Josh Mandel in his bid to unseat pro-abortion incumbent Senator Sherrod Brown in Ohio.
This is what I mean by open-minded when I suggest that it is a virtuous thing: being open-minded about a view is being open to considering evidence in favour of that view in an unbiased way. I dont think that acting in the way I just described suggests that the actor is someone whos brain has fallen out. If Im correct in that assumption, then the response dont be so open-minded that your brain falls out has a major flaw. Open-mindedness, as used in the cliché, has a different meaning than the one I use when I suggest that open-mindedness is a virtuous thing. To illustrate this issue we can consider the following example: Jill claimed that Bobs diamond studded steering wheel was about two pounds. Bob responds by saying thats ridiculous, because two pounds is only about $3.35 and diamonds cost considerably more than that. Bobs response is faulty because when Jill used the word pounds she was referring to the a unit of weight and Bob responded by using the word pounds to refer to a ...
No that is not disingenuous, what is disingenuous is the idea that one can tell if the zygote is alive, human or capable of living to birth. While it is true that 70 percent of zygotes die on their own it is also true that 42 percent are not human enough to live to birth. it is also true one cannot tell which will die and when. So the idea of when an abortion takes place on a zygote or embryo is moot when the fact that one cannot tell if it is human and capable of life is the controlling factor ...
Ok so this is something I just found out yesterday. Well the event is today. Im not sure where Id psot it, so thill probably get moved, but I just
How can two human parents create offspring that isnt human, but later becomes so? To review, the pro-life argument is formally stated as follows: Premise #
"Activating Transcription Factor 7 Interacting Protein". Retrieved 23 April 2011. "AceView: Homo sapiens complex locus QRICH1, ... Interacting Proteins: ATXN1, Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 protein, and ATF7IP, activating transcription factor 7-interacting ... ATF7IP is a recruiter protein that couples transcriptional factors to the general transcription apparatus, thereby modulating ... transcription regulation and chromatin formation. QRICH1 is expressed at a high level, 3.3 times the average gene. It is ...
"Entrez Gene: ATF7 activating transcription factor 7". Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P, Mann M (2006 ... a novel variant of the ATF/CREB transcription factor family, forms a dominant transcription inhibitor in ATF-a heterodimers". J ... Cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ATF7 gene. In 2001, Peters et al ... "Sumoylation delays the ATF7 transcription factor subcellular localization and inhibits its transcriptional activity". Nucleic ...
"Entrez Gene: ATF1 activating transcription factor 1". Zucman J, Delattre O, Desmaze C, Epstein AL, Stenman G, Speleman F, ... 1993). "Activating transcription factor-1 can mediate Ca(2+)- and cAMP-inducible transcriptional activation". J. Biol. Chem. ... Sun P, Lou L, Maurer RA (1996). "Regulation of activating transcription factor-1 and the cAMP response element-binding protein ... This gene encodes an activating transcription factor, which belongs to the ATF subfamily and bZIP (basic-region leucine zipper ...
Activating transcription factor 3 is a member of the mammalian activation transcription factor/cAMP responsive element-binding ... ATF3 activating transcription factor 3". Chen BP, Wolfgang CD, Hai T (March 1996). "Analysis of ATF3, a transcription factor ... Activating transcription factor ATF3 has been shown to interact with: C-jun, DDIT3 JunD, P53, and SMAD3. GRCh38: Ensembl ... Chu HM, Tan Y, Kobierski LA, Balsam LB, Comb MJ (January 1994). "Activating transcription factor-3 stimulates 3',5'-cyclic ...
"Entrez Gene: transcription factor AP-2 beta (activating enhancer binding protein 2 beta)". Tsukada S, Tanaka Y, Maegawa H, et ... 2006). "Transcription factor activating enhancer-binding protein-2beta. A negative regulator of adiponectin gene expression". J ... Transcription factor AP-2 beta also known as AP2-beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TFAP2B gene. AP-2 beta is a ... 2009). "The transcription factor TFAP2B is associated with insulin resistance and adiposity in healthy adolescents". Obesity ( ...
Activating transcription factor 7-interacting protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ATF7IP gene. ATF7IP has ... "Entrez Gene: ATF7IP activating transcription factor 7 interacting protein". Fujita, Naoyuki; Watanabe Sugiko; Ichimura Takaya; ... PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available in the PDB for Human Activating transcription factor 7- ... Gunther M, Laithier M, Brison O (Dec 2000). "A set of proteins interacting with transcription factor Sp1 identified in a two- ...
Syk activates transcription factor NFκB. This transcription factor is responsible for the production of numerous inflammatory ... Ahrén IL, Eriksson E, Egesten A, Riesbeck K (November 2003). "Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae activates human eosinophils ...
March 1995). "Cdk-activating kinase complex is a component of human transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 283-7. ... March 1995). "Cdk-activating kinase complex is a component of human transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 283-7. ... "From androgen receptor to the general transcription factor TFIIH. Identification of cdk activating kinase (CAK) as an androgen ... "Association of Cdk-activating kinase subunits with transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 280-2. Bibcode:1995Natur. ...
It is hypothesized that VegT also activates the Xnr-1,2,4 proteins. VegT acts as a transcription factor to activate genes ... These transcription factors regulate other transcription factors, cell surface molecules with roles in cell adhesion, and other ... β-catenin activates the transcription factor stat3. Stat3 coordinates cell movements during gastrulation and contributes to ... β-catenin in the nucleus activates two transcription factors: siamois and twin. β-catenin also acts synergistically with VegT ...
... shows decreased expression when activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) is knocked out. Since ATF2 was not predicted to ... "Suppressor role of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) in skin cancer". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105 (5): 1674-9. ...
FoxO transcription factors can activate expression of RICTOR. FoxO has been shown to inhibit mTORC1, while activating Akt ... to mediate the ubiquitination of growth-promoting factors cyclin E and c-Myc. Furthermore, elevated growth factor signaling may ... This phosphorylation activates Akt/PKB, where deregulation of Akt/PKB has been implicated in cancer and diabetes. RICTOR and ... Chen CC, Jeon SM, Bhaskar PT, Nogueira V, Sundararajan D, Tonic I, Park Y, Hay N (2010). "FoxOs inhibit mTORC1 and activate Akt ...
ATF6 (activating transcription factor 6) is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor. Upon Grp78 dissociation, the entire ... is upregulated downstream of the bZIP transcription factor ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4) and uniquely responsive to ... The activated domain is able to activate the transcription factor XBP1(Xbox binding protein) mRNA (the mammalian equivalent of ... The activated transcription factor upregulates UPR 'stress genes' by directly binding to stress element promoters in the ...
... promoted β1 integrin expression by activating a transcription factor called SRF. A continually active form of the ... Activated Cdc42 activates by causing conformational changes in p21-activated kinases PAK1 and PAK2, which in turn initiate ... and it also modulates the transcription factors SRF, STAT3, and NFkB. It has been hypothesized that targeting Cdc42 in ... transcription factor was also capable of restoring endothelial insertion to cancer cells lacking Cdc42. Normal cancer cells and ...
"TFAP2C (transcription Factor AP-2 Gamma (activating Enhancer Binding Protein 2 Gamma))." TFAP2C (transcription Factor AP-2 ... AP2-gamma is a member of the activating protein 2 family of transcription factors. Transcription factor AP-2 gamma is involved ... "Transcription Factor AP-2 Gamma - TFAP2C - Homo sapiens (Human)." Transcription Factor AP-2 Gamma - TFAP2C - Homo sapiens ( ... Transcription factor AP-2 gamma also known as AP2-gamma is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TFAP2C gene. ...
"Cdk-activating kinase complex is a component of human transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 283-7. Bibcode:1995Natur ... "Cdk-activating kinase complex is a component of human transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 283-7. Bibcode:1995Natur ... General transcription factor IIH subunit 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GTF2H1 gene. GTF2H1 has been shown to ... Tong X, Drapkin R, Reinberg D, Kieff E (1995). "The 62- and 80-kDa subunits of transcription factor IIH mediate the interaction ...
Activating transcription factor 3 (Atf3) is a known RAG with numerous promoters. Atf3 expression increases after nerve injury ... Cis-regulatory elements in the promoter contain sequences recognized by transcription factors and the basal transcription ... For example, the same transcription factor (TF) can direct gene expression in different tissues simply by binding with ... predicting interaction between transcription factors in human tissues". Nucleic Acids Res. 34 (17): 4925-36. doi:10.1093/nar/ ...
Transcription factor AP-4 (activating enhancer binding protein 4), also known as TFAP4, is a protein which in humans is encoded ... Transcription factor AP4 is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, which bind to the E-box ... "Entrez Gene: TFAP4 transcription factor AP-4 (activating enhancer binding protein 4)". Hu YF, Lüscher B, Admon A, et al. (1991 ... "Enhancer binding factors AP-4 and AP-1 act in concert to activate SV40 late transcription in vitro". Nature. 332 (6164): 557-61 ...
It was later identified by the yeast-two hybrid system to bind to activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) to repress ATF- ... "Phosphorylation of two eukaryotic transcription factors, Jun dimerization protein 2 and activation transcription factor 2, in ... JDP2 (gene) has been shown to interact with Activating transcription factor 2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000140044 - ... c-Jun dimerization protein 2 and activating transcription factor 3, recruit multiple HDAC members to the ATF3 promoter". ...
Activating transcription factor 4 (tax-responsive enhancer element B67), also known as ATF4, is a protein that in humans is ... "Entrez Gene: ATF4 activating transcription factor 4 (tax-responsive enhancer element B67)". Franceschi RT, Ge C, Xiao G, Roca H ... He CH, Gong P, Hu B, Stewart D, Choi ME, Choi AM, Alam J (June 2001). "Identification of activating transcription factor 4 ( ... Activating transcription factor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000128272 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
"Cdk-activating kinase complex is a component of human transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 283-7. doi:10.1038/ ... and the CDK-activating kinase (CAK) assembly factor MAT1 (MNAT1) to chromosome bands 5q13.3-q14 and 14q23, respectively". ... the fifth subunit of the core of the transcription/DNA repair factor TFIIH". The EMBO Journal. 16 (5): 1093-102. doi:10.1093/ ... a subunit of the human general transcription/DNA repair factor TFIIH". Protein Expression and Purification. 9 (2): 153-8. doi: ...
These phosphorylated receptors in turn recruit STAT transcription factors which modulate gene transcription. The first JAK ... Many cytokines function by binding to and activating type I and type II cytokine receptors. These receptors in turn rely on the ... More specifically, Janus kinases phosphorylate activated cytokine receptors. ... a selective Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling pathway inhibitor with potent antitumor ...
... which is in fact a transcription factor) binds to the DNA. The complex can inhibit or activate unknown genes. Chloracne, an ... However, there are not many studies on humans that assess the health risk factors of HpCDD. HpCDD seems to be more potent once ... but when DNA-synthesis is stimulated by epidermal growth factor, HpCDD acts as a co-mitogen. These effects are observed for ...
Transcription factor AP-2 epsilon (activating enhancer binding protein 2 epsilon), also known as TFAP2E, is a human gene. The ... protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor. Activating protein 2 Tummala R, Romano RA, Fuchs E, Sinha S (December ...
2005). "Mitosin/CENP-F as a negative regulator of activating transcription factor-4". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (14): 13973-7. doi: ...
"Menin interacts with the AP1 transcription factor JunD and represses JunD-activated transcription". Cell. 96 (1): 143-52. doi: ... "Menin interacts with the AP1 transcription factor JunD and represses JunD-activated transcription". Cell. 96 (1): 143-52. doi: ... Chu HM, Tan Y, Kobierski LA, Balsam LB, Comb MJ (January 1994). "Activating transcription factor-3 stimulates 3',5'-cyclic ... Chu HM, Tan Y, Kobierski LA, Balsam LB, Comb MJ (1994). "Activating transcription factor-3 stimulates 3',5'-cyclic adenosine ...
... is a transcription factor that contains a bZip domain. Activating transcription factor ATF5 has been shown to interact ... biology and nomenclature of the activating transcription factor/cAMP responsive element binding family of transcription factors ... "Cyclin D3 interacts with human activating transcription factor 5 and potentiates its transcription activity". Biochem. Biophys ... Activating transcription factor 5, also known as ATF5, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ATF5 gene. First ...
ETS1 activates MET transcription in vitro. MET transcription is activated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1), which is ... "Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor activates the ETS1 transcription factor by a RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway". ... Hypoxia also activates transcription factor AP-1, which is involved in MET transcription. MET pathway plays an important role ... MET activates the STAT3 transcription factor directly, through an SH2 domain. The beta-catenin pathway, a key component of the ...
EMT is determined by a dynamic gene regulatory network (GRN). snail and twist are two key transcription factors that makes up ... Within an hour of ingression, numerous transcript factors are activated. It is known that beta-catenin (β-catenin) plays a key ... The vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) is also necessary for the PMCs to function as mesenchymal cells. Lastly ...
It is controlled by receptor γ (peroxisome proliferator activated) directly. This receptor γ is the principal transcription ... factor for the differentiation of adipocytes. Cytosolic lipid droplets are organelles that are composed of a core that is ... is being differentiated which shows resemblance to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) at a specific ...
A putative human transcription factor implicated in mitogen-activated signaling". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (9 ... which contains at least five additional protein factors and is required for the second catalytic step of pre-mRNA splicing. ...
Differentiation of mature B cells into plasma cells is dependent upon the transcription factors Blimp-1/PRDM1 and IRF4. ... First, the B cells have to encounter a foreign antigen, and are then required to be activated by T helper cells before they ... This is a type of safeguard to the system, almost like a two-factor authentication method. ... the activated B cell begins to differentiate into more specialized cells. Germinal center B cells may differentiate into memory ...
transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA ... The homeobox genes encode a highly conserved family of transcription factors that play an important role in morphogenesis in ... regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • positive ... "The thyroid transcription factor-1 gene is a candidate target for regulation by Hox proteins". EMBO J. 13 (14): 3339-47. PMC ...
... β-catenin becomes a coactivator for TCF and LEF to activate Wnt genes by displacing Groucho and HDAC transcription repressors. ... Yi ZY, Feng LJ, Xiang Z, Yao H (2011). "Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 activation mediates epithelial to ... On the other hand, a lack of α-catenin can promote aberrant transcription, which can lead to cancer. As a result, it can be ... Keratinocytes engineered to not express alpha-catenin have disrupted cell adhesion and activated NF-κB. A tumor cell line with ...
2D3-regulated transcription factor MN1 stimulates vitamin D receptor-mediated transcription and inhibits osteoblastic cell ... 2007). "The MN1 oncoprotein activates transcription of the IGFBP5 promoter through a CACCC-rich consensus sequence". J. Mol. ... MN1 is a transcription coregulator that enhances or represses RAR/RXR-mediated gene transcription through interaction with RAC3 ... "The MN1 oncoprotein synergizes with coactivators RAC3 and p300 in RAR-RXR-mediated transcription". Oncogene. 22 (5): 699-709. ...
... proteins including interferon regulatory factor 3 and interferon regulatory factor 7 trigger a signalling cascade that leads to ... the signalling proteins STAT1 and STAT2 are activated and move to the cell's nucleus.[51] This triggers the expression of ... whose concentration in the host cell determines when L switches from gene transcription to genome replication. Replication of ... Education of the general public about the risk factors for Ebola infection and of the protective measures individuals may take ...
SP can induce the cytokines that are capable of inducing NK-1 transcription factors.[14] ... Fiebich BL, Schleicher S, Butcher RD, Craig A, Lieb K (Nov 2000). "The neuropeptide substance P activates p38 mitogen-activated ... "Metalloproteinases and transforming growth factor-alpha mediate substance P-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation ... The molecule, which is rapidly inactivated (or at times further activated by peptidases) is rapidly released - repetitively and ...
"An essential transcription factor, SciP, enhances robustness of Caulobacter cell cycle regulation". Proceedings of the National ... Each process activated by the proteins of the cell cycle engine involve a cascade of many reactions. The longest subsystem ... in addition to many extracytoplasmic function sigma factors, providing the organism with the ability to respond to a wide range ...
The key events mediating rod versus S cone versus M cone differentiation are induced by several transcription factors, ... Each transducin then activates the enzyme cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE).. *PDE then catalyzes the hydrolysis of cGMP to ... When light activates the melanopsin signaling system, the melanopsin-containing ganglion cells discharge nerve impulses that ... This structural change causes it to activate a regulatory protein called transducin, which leads to the activation of cGMP ...
... containing factor Pax8 and the homeodomain-containing factor TTF-1 directly interact and synergistically activate transcription ... containing factor Pax8 and the homeodomain-containing factor TTF-1 directly interact and synergistically activate transcription ... Paramutation & Pax Transcription Factors. 44: 97-106. doi:10.1016/j.semcdb.2015.09.016. PMID 26410163.. ... This gene is a member of the paired box (PAX) family of transcription factors. Members of this gene family typically encode ...
transcription factor complex. • cell-cell adherens junction. • Z disc. • stress fiber. • filamentous actin. ... binds to alpha-actinin-1 and associates with actin filaments and stress fibers in activated platelets and endothelial cells.". ... "Ubiquitination-dependent cofactor exchange on LIM homeodomain transcription factors.". Nature. 416 (6876): 99-103. PMID ... transcription coactivator activity. • ربط أيون فلزي. • cadherin binding involved in cell-cell adhesion. • actin binding. • ...
... with beta-catenin and T-cell factor 4 may bypass canonical Wnt signaling to down-regulate adipogenic transcription factors". ... To further test the role of activated androgen receptors on AHN, flutamide, an antiandrogen drug that competes with ... Androgens bind to and activate androgen receptors (ARs) to mediate most of their biological effects. ... "Recruitment of the androgen receptor via serum response factor facilitates expression of a myogenic gene". The Journal of ...
RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, ligand-activated sequence-specific DNA binding. • identical protein binding. • ... transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • ATPase binding. • zinc ion binding. • transcriptional activator ... RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcriptional activator activity, RNA ... regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • cell-cell signaling. • negative regulation of gene expression. • transcription, ...
Fluorescent signal strength depends on many factors such as probe labeling efficiency, the type of probe, and the type of dye. ... In-Solution Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization and Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting for Single Cell and Population Genome ... "The lncRNA Malat1 is Dispensable for Mouse Development but Its Transcription Plays a cis-Regulatory Role in the Adult". Cell ... "Microfluidics-assisted fluorescence in situ hybridization for advantageous human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 assessment ...
regulation of epidermal growth factor-activated receptor activity. • regulation of resting membrane potential. • regulation of ... negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • proteolysis. • regulation of synaptic plasticity. • ... negative regulation of epidermal growth factor-activated receptor activity. • cell adhesion. • hematopoietic progenitor cell ... positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • heart development. • negative regulation of axonogenesis. • embryonic ...
This gene is a transcription factor that regulates the cell cycle and hence functions as a tumor suppressor. By inducing G ( ... Moreover, BaP has been found to activate a transposon, LINE1, in humans.[31] ... This process increases transcription of certain genes, notably CYP1A1, followed by increased CYP1A1 protein production.[28] ...
Sigurdsson S, Van Komen S, Petukhova G, Sung P (Nov 2002). "Homologous DNA pairing by human recombination factors Rad51 and ... "The Rad51/RadA N-terminal domain activates nucleoprotein filament ATPase activity". Structure. 14 (6): 983-92. doi:10.1016/j. ... "DNA repair and recombination factor Rad51 is over-expressed in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma". Oncogene. 19 (23): 2791-5. doi ... Transcription-coupled repair *ERCC6. *ERCC8. *Homology directed repair. *Non-homologous end joining *Ku ...
... high levels of calcium in mitochondria elevates activity of nuclear factor kappa B NF-κB and transcription of CACNA1c and ...
... the general transcription factors) directing the binding of the RNA polymerase to a gene's promoter.[144] However, other ... In the Halobacteria, light-activated ion pumps like bacteriorhodopsin and halorhodopsin generate ion gradients by pumping ions ... Transcription in archaea more closely resembles eukaryotic than bacterial transcription, with the archaeal RNA polymerase being ... Circular chromosomes, unique translation and transcription. Multiple, linear chromosomes, similar translation and transcription ...
... selectivity and Initiator-dependent bi-directionality of serum response factor-activated transcription". Biochimica et ... Transcription factors, TATA binding protein (TBP), and RNA polymerase II are all recruited to begin transcription. ... bind to the transcription factor II D (TFIID), initiating transcription in TATA-less promoters. The DPE has been identified in ... it only gives a low level of transcription. Other factors must stimulate the BTC to increase transcription levels.[2] One such ...
... is a transcription factor which activates histone gene transcription on chromosomes 1 and 6 of human cells. NPAT is also a ... SBF is a transcription factor that is activated in late G1 phase, when it dissociates from its repressor Whi5. This occurs when ... Histone gene transcription is controlled by multiple gene regulatory proteins such as transcription factors which bind to ... The serotonylation potentiates the binding of the general transcription factor TFIID to the TATA box.[49] ...
A scaffolding protein that tethers JNK/p38MAPK signaling modules and transcription factors". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ... 1998). "Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 by the activated MEKK1 --> SEK1/MKK4 --> p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway". J ... "Human mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase mediates the stress-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase ... Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP2K4 gene. This gene ...
The cleaved SREBP then migrates to the nucleus and acts as a transcription factor to bind to the SRE (sterol regulatory element ... SREBP-cleavage activating protein) and Insig1. When cholesterol levels fall, Insig-1 dissociates from the SREBP-SCAP complex, ... regulation of cholesterol metabolism by proteolysis of a membrane-bound transcription factor". Cell 89: 331. doi:10.1016/S0092- ... of a number of genes to stimulate their transcription. Among the genes transcribed are the LDL receptor and HMG-CoA reductase. ...
The N terminus interacts with other cellular transcription factors in a ligand-independent manner; and, depending on these ... Not every ligand that binds to a receptor also activates that receptor. The following classes of ligands exist: *(Full) ... The main receptors in the immune system are pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), toll-like receptors (TLRs), killer activated ... Antagonists bind to receptors but do not activate them. This results in a receptor blockade, inhibiting the binding of agonists ...
... granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) - granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) - granulocytopenia ... transcription - transfusion - translation - transmission - transplacental - treatment IND - triglycerides - tuberculin skin ... lymphokine-activated killer cells (LAK) - lymphokines - lymphoma - lymphopenia - lymphoproliferative response - lysis ... host factors - HPTN - HPV - HRSA - HTLV-I - HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) - HTLV-II - ...
转录激活因子(英语:Activating transcription factor)(AATF(英语:Apoptosis-antagonizing transcription factor)、1、2、3、4、5、6、7) · AP-1(c-Fos、 ... sequence-specific enhancer binding RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity. · transcription factor binding. · zinc ion ... Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor)(I、II)、Ear-2(英语:V-erbA-related gene)、HNF4(英语:Hepatocyte nuclear factor ... GATA(英语:GATA transcription factor)(1、2、3、4、5、6) · MTA(1、2、3) · TRPS1(英语:Tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome Type 1) ...
RNA polymerase II transcription coactivator activity. • transcription factor binding. • activating transcription factor binding ... positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • cell aging. • positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor ... transcription coactivator activity. • protein kinase inhibitor activity. • histone binding. • Tat protein binding. • NF-kappaB ... regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • cellular response to UV. • ribosomal large subunit export from ...
"Ca2+ influx regulates BDNF transcription by a CREB family transcription factor-dependent mechanism". Neuron. 20 (4): 709-26. ... Once activated, Fyn can bind to NR2B through its SH2 domain and mediate phosphorylation of its Tyr-1472 site.[49] Similar ... BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ANON2, BULN2, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, brain derived neurotrophic factor. ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or abrineurin,[5] is a protein[6] that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.[7][8] ...
U3 is a sequence between PPT and R, which serves as a signal that the provirus can use in transcription. R is the terminal ... Some provirus remains latent in the cell for a long period of time before it is activated by the change in cell environment. ... "Cell-to-cell transmission of retroviruses: Innate immunity and interferon-induced restriction factors". Virology. 411 (2): 251 ... While transcription was classically thought to occur only from DNA to RNA, reverse transcriptase transcribes RNA into DNA. The ...
... which are transcription factors (or are factors which activate or localize transcription factors), is transferred through the ... body pattern along the longitudinal axis of the Drosophila embryo is established by a cascade of specific transcription factor ... The initial long-range positional information of the maternal factors, ... maternal proteins and transcripts that guide the early steps of development prior to the activation of zygotic transcription.. ...
One approach used by tumors to upregulate growth and survival is through autocrine production of growth and survival factors. ... In colorectal cancer, for example, mutations in APC, axin, or β-catenin promote β-catenin stabilization and transcription of ... In addition, drugs may be developed that activate autocrine signaling in cancer cells that would not otherwise occur. For ... For example, despite widespread expression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) and EGF family ligands in non-small- ...
... activating transcription factor/cyclic AMP response element binding protein) family of basic region-leucine zipper (bZip) ... transcription factors, which have the consensus binding site cAMP responsive element (CRE). ATF4 has numerous di … ... Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) belongs to the ATF/CREB ( ... Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) belongs to the ATF/CREB (activating transcription factor/cyclic AMP response element ...
It is transcribed in two types of mRNAs (activating transcription factor 5 isoform 1 and activating transcription factor 5 ... activating transcription factor 5, transcript variant 1: NM_012068.5) and ATF5 isoform 2 (activating transcription factor 5, ... Activating transcription factor 5 is a transcription factor of the ATF/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) family. ... Potential Role of Activating Transcription Factor 5 during Osteogenesis. Luisa Vicari,1 Giovanna Calabrese,1 Stefano Forte,1 ...
... sensor activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Repaglinide blocked this interaction and enhanced ATF6 processing and nuclear ... the factors that disrupt homeostasis are not fully understood. Here, we determined that expression of downstream regulatory ...
Activating transcription factor, ATF, is a group of bZIP transcription factors, which act as homodimers or heterodimers with a ... biology and nomenclature of the activating transcription factor/cAMP responsive element binding family of transcription factors ... Activating+Transcription+Factors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e. ... activating transcription factor proteins and homeostasis". Gene. 273 (1): 1-11. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(01)00551-0. ISSN 0378- ...
Activating transcription factor 2, also known as ATF2, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ATF2 gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: ATF2 activating transcription factor 2". Ozawa K, Sudo T, Soeda E, Yoshida MC, Ishii S (1991). "Assignment of the ... Activating transcription factor 2 has been shown to interact with C-jun, Casein kinase 2, alpha 1, CREB binding protein, ... "Phosphorylation of two eukaryotic transcription factors, Jun dimerization protein 2 and activation transcription factor 2, in ...
Compare activating transcription factor 6 beta ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, ... activating transcription factor 6 beta ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody ... Your search returned 13 activating transcription factor 6 beta ELISA ELISA Kit across 3 suppliers. ... Bovine Cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-6 beta (ATF6B) ELISA Kit ...
In molecular biology, Activating Transcription Factor, ATF, is a class of AP-1 transcription factor dimers.[1] ... Activating+Transcription+Factors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Retrieved from "https://www.wikidoc.org/index.php?title=Activating_transcription_factor&oldid=279739" ...
Distinct spatial Ca2+ signatures selectively activate different NFAT transcription factor isoforms.. Kar P1, Parekh AB2. ... Distinct Spatial Ca2+ Signatures Selectively Activate Different NFAT Transcription Factor Isoforms. Mol Cell. 2015 Apr 16;58(2 ... Distinct Spatial Ca2+ Signatures Selectively Activate Different NFAT Transcription Factor Isoforms. Mol Cell. 2015 Apr 16;58(2 ... Distinct Spatial Ca2+ Signatures Selectively Activate Different NFAT Transcription Factor Isoforms. Mol Cell. 2015 Apr 16;58(2 ...
... believed to be involved in the response to regulators during transcription initiation. The CTD is phosphorylated on a portion ... Association of Cdk-activating kinase subunits with transcription factor TFIIH Nature. 1995 Mar 16;374(6519):280-2. doi: 10.1038 ... on a portion of RNA polymerase II molecules in vivo and it can be phosphorylated by the general transcription factor TFIIH in ... believed to be involved in the response to regulators during transcription initiation. The CTD is phosphorylated ...
Of the transcription factors that regulate these changes in gene expression, the function of c-jun is best understood but ATF-3 ... Of the transcription factors that regulate these changes in gene expression, the function of c-jun is best understood but ATF-3 ... That transcription factors must play an important role in enabling neurons to regrow their axons is implicit to the observation ... That transcription factors must play an important role in enabling neurons to regrow their axons is implicit to the observation ...
A Basal Transcription Factor That Activates or Represses Transcription Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... A Basal Transcription Factor That Activates or Represses Transcription. By Patricia J. Willy, Ryuji Kobayashi, James T. ... A Basal Transcription Factor That Activates or Represses Transcription. By Patricia J. Willy, Ryuji Kobayashi, James T. ... is a bifunctional basal transcription factor that differentially regulates gene transcription through DPE or TATA box motifs. ...
... an Nrf2 activating agent, and a food according to the present invention comprise isohumulones or isomerized hop extract as an ... Agents for Activating the Transcription Factor Nrf2 and Foods Having Such Function ... A transcription factor Nrf2 activating agent, comprising isohumulones or isomerized hop extract as an active ingredient. 16. ... A method of activating the transcription factor Nrf2, comprising the step of administering an effective amount of isohumulones ...
Chromium (VI) induces antioxidant gene HO-1 by activating the CNC BZIP transcription factor NRF2.. ... Expression of a dominant negative form of Nrf2, a cap n collar basic leucine zipper transcription factor, in the cells blocks ... implicating Nrf2 as the key transcription factor in the induction. Mechanistic analysis reveals that Cr (VI) increases the ... These results provide the first evidence that Cr (VI) induces antioxidant gene HO-1 important in ROS defense by activating Nrf2 ...
A cellular protein, activating transcription factor, activates transcription of multiple E1a-inducible adenovirus early ... Negative regulation of TLR-signaling pathways by activating transcription factor-3. J Immunol. 2007;179:3622-30.PubMedCrossRef ... Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) represses the expression of CCL4 in murine macrophages. Mol Immunol. 2007;44:1598-605. ... The induction of STAT1 gene by activating transcription factor 3 contributes to pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis and its ...
"Activating Transcription Factor 6" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Activating Transcription Factor ... "Activating Transcription Factor 6" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Activating Transcription Factor 6" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Activating Transcription Factor 6". ...
May belong to a complex that represses transcription and couples DNA methylation and histone H3 Lys-9 trimethylation (H3K9me3 ... Recruiter that couples transcriptional factors to general transcription apparatus and thereby modulates transcription ... Activating transcription factor 7-interacting protein 1Add BLAST. 815. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). ... sp,A0JME2,MCAF1_DANRE Activating transcription factor 7-interacting protein 1 OS=Danio rerio OX=7955 GN=atf7ip PE=1 SV=2 ...
Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) stabilizes p53 in genotoxic response. Chunhong Yan, Tsonwin Hai and Douglas Boyd ... Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) stabilizes p53 in genotoxic response Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... As a consequence, target genes including p21, PIG3 or PUMA are transcriptionally activated, leading to cell growth arrest or ... ATF3-stabilized p53 was functional as evidenced by its ability to trans-activate p53 downstream targets including MDM2, p21, ...
... activating transcription factor 7 interacting protein), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. ... negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II transcription corepressor activity protein binding nucleus nucleus ... negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II transcription corepressor activity protein binding nucleus nucleus ... nucleoplasm nucleoplasm transcription factor complex cytosol DNA methylation viral process nuclear body ATPase activity ...
High-yield expression in E. coli and refolding of the bZIP domain of activating transcription factor 5.. Ciaccio NA1, Moreno ML ... Activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) recently has been demonstrated to play a critical role in promoting the survival of ... High-Yield Expression in E. coli and Refolding of the bZIP Domain of Activating Transcription Factor 5 ... High-Yield Expression in E. coli and Refolding of the bZIP Domain of Activating Transcription Factor 5 ...
They find that in T2E tumors, there is a distinct regulatory landscape resulting from the co-option of transcription factors by ... Taken together, our work shows that overexpressed ERG co-opts master transcription factors to deploy a unique cis-regulatory ... of prostate tumors and result in overexpression of the ERG transcription factor. Using chromatin, genomic and expression data, ... Kron, K., Murison, A., Zhou, S. et al. TMPRSS2-ERG fusion co-opts master transcription factors and activates NOTCH signaling in ...
Decreased immediate inflammatory gene induction in activating transcription factor-2 mutant mice * * REIMOLD Andreas M. ... Identification of the cyclin D1 gene as a target of activating transcription factor 2 in chondrocytes BEIER F. ... Association of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme hUBC9 Implication of the ... A specific member of the ATF transcription factor family can mediate transcription activation by the adenovirus E1a protein LIU ...
Anthocyanin-activating R2R3 MYB transcription factorImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database ... tr,W8EB73,W8EB73_ERYLE Anthocyanin-activating R2R3 MYB transcription factor OS=Erythranthe lewisii OX=69919 GN=NEGAN PE=4 SV=1 ... Transcription factor, Myb superfamily. Handroanthus impetiginosus. 249. Anthocyanin-activating R2R3 MYB transcription factor. ...
Activating transcription factor 3, cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-3, FLJ41705. ... The longer isoform represses transcription from promoters with ATF binding elements instead of activating it. The shorter ... ATF3 belongs to the mammalian activation transcription factor/cAMP responsive element-binding (CREB) protein family of ... which stimulates transcription by sequestering inhibitory co-factors away from the promoter has no leucine zipper protein- ...
ACE1, a copper-dependent transcription factor, activates expression of the yeast copper, zinc superoxide dismutase gene. E B ... ACE1, a copper-dependent transcription factor, activates expression of the yeast copper, zinc superoxide dismutase gene ... ACE1, a copper-dependent transcription factor, activates expression of the yeast copper, zinc superoxide dismutase gene ... ACE1, a copper-dependent transcription factor, activates expression of the yeast copper, zinc superoxide dismutase gene ...
Activating transcription factor 6-dependent sestrin 2 induction ameliorates ER stress-mediated liver injury.. [Kyung Hwan Jegal ... Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) bound to unfolded protein response elements of SESN2 promoter, transactivated SESN2, ...
Induction depends upon the presence of MTF-1, a transcription factor that is required for metal-induced transcription of Mt1, ... a transcription factor that is required for metal-induced transcription of Mt1, but does not require Nrf2, a tBHQ-activated CNC ... Induction of metallothionein I by phenolic antioxidants requires metal-activated transcription factor 1 (MTF-1) and zinc.. ... These findings establish that phenolic antioxidants activate Mt1 transcription by a zinc-dependent mechanism that involves MTF- ...
The activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1) is a member of a well-known transcription factor family, the cyclic AMP (cAMP) ... Reverse transcription-PCR and subcloning of transcription factors and cdk3. The cdk3 (pBIND-cdk3) and transcription factor ( ... Activating transcription factor-1 can mediate Ca(2+)- and cAMP-inducible transcriptional activation. J Biol Chem 1993; 268: ... Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 3-Mediated Activating Transcription Factor 1 Phosphorylation Enhances Cell Transformation. Duo Zheng, ...
In contrast, mutant ATF6 representing the cytoplasmic region translocates into the nucleus and activates transcription of the ... We recently isolated ATF6 as a candidate for mammalian UPR-specific transcription factor. We report here that ATF6 ... leading to induced transcription in the nucleus. Unlike yeast UPR, mammalian UPR appears to use a system similar to that ... Mammalian transcription factor ATF6 is synthesized as a transmembrane protein and activated by proteolysis in response to ...
Activating Transcription Factor 4 Is Translationally Regulated by Hypoxic Stress. Jaime D. Blais, Vasilisa Filipenko, Meixia Bi ... Activating Transcription Factor 4 Is Translationally Regulated by Hypoxic Stress. Jaime D. Blais, Vasilisa Filipenko, Meixia Bi ... Activating Transcription Factor 4 Is Translationally Regulated by Hypoxic Stress. Jaime D. Blais, Vasilisa Filipenko, Meixia Bi ... Activating Transcription Factor 4 Is Translationally Regulated by Hypoxic Stress Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) is important for protective cell response to accumulation of unfolded and misfolded ... Association of Amino Acid Variants in the Activating Transcription Factor 6 Gene (ATF6) on 1q21-q23 With Type 2 Diabetes in ... Association of Amino Acid Variants in the Activating Transcription Factor 6 Gene (ATF6) on 1q21-q23 With Type 2 Diabetes in ... Association of Amino Acid Variants in the Activating Transcription Factor 6 Gene (ATF6) on 1q21-q23 With Type 2 Diabetes in ...
  • Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) belongs to the ATF/cyclic AMP responsive element binding family of transcription factors and is often described as an adaptive response gene whose activity is usually regulated by stressful stimuli. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although expressed in a number of splice variants and generally recognized as a transcriptional repressor, ATF3 has the ability to interact with a number of other transcription factors including c-Jun to form complexes which not only repress, but can also activate various genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), also known as LRF-1, LRG-21, CRG-5, and TI-241, is also upregulated in most of the neurons (Figure 1 ) as well as in Schwann cells that express c-Jun. (frontiersin.org)
  • Kang Y, Chen CR, Massague J. A self-enabling TGFβ response coupled to stress signaling: Smad engages stress response factor ATF3 for Id1 repression in epithelial cells. (springer.com)
  • Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) represses the expression of CCL4 in murine macrophages. (springer.com)
  • ATF3-stabilized p53 was functional as evidenced by its ability to trans-activate p53 downstream targets including MDM2, p21, PIG3 and PUMA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • ATF3 belongs to the mammalian activation transcription factor/cAMP responsive element-binding (CREB) protein family of transcription factors. (prospecbio.com)
  • ATF3, a member of the ATF/CREB transcription factor family, plays an important role on regulation of apoptosis and is regarded as a potential molecular target for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of colon cancer. (umd.edu)
  • Furthermore, we observed that ATF3 overexpression downregulated expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related transcription factors. (umd.edu)
  • Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is required for the formation of pre-neoplastic lesions in acute pancreatitis. (uwo.ca)
  • This body of work examines the role of a protein called Activating Transcription Factor 3 (ATF3) in experimental models of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer in mice. (uwo.ca)
  • Our lab has shown that Activating Transcription Factor 3 (ATF3), a factor upregulated during pancreatic injury, contributes to the development of acinar-to-ductal cell metaplasia (ADM), a precursor phenotype of PDAC. (uwo.ca)
  • BACKGROUND Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a member of the ATF/cAMP-responsive element binding (CREB) family of transcription factors, regulates cellular response to stress including oxidative stress. (uzh.ch)
  • METHODS ATF3 was analysed by reverse transcription quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. (uzh.ch)
  • RESULTS Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) upregulates the expression of ATF3 in SSc fibroblasts. (uzh.ch)
  • Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a stress-inducible gene and encodes a member of the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors. (garvan.org.au)
  • Second, induction of ATF3 is mediated in part by the NF-kappaB and Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase signaling pathways, two stress-induced pathways implicated in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. (garvan.org.au)
  • We found that activating transcription factor 3 ( atf3 ) was highly expressed in the CPs, HPs, and mesoderm, in zebrafish. (sciencemag.org)
  • Immunoblot assays of activating transcription factor (ATF) 3 immunoprecipitates with tyrosine specific antibodies revealed that IL-10 stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of ATF3 to activate binding to the CREB domain and suppress MMP-2 expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Considering that blocking Hsp90 induces ATF3 expression, Hsp90 inhibition may represent a valid strategy to treat metastatic colon cancer by up-regulating this anti-metastatic transcription factor. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) in uninjured dorsal root ganglion neurons in a lower trunk avulsion pain model in rats. (painresearchforum.org)
  • To investigate the possible role of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) neuroprotection and optic nerve regeneration after optic nerve crush (ONC). (arvojournals.org)
  • Using Drosophila genetics and systems biology, this study shows that the bZIP transcription factor Atf3 links metabolic and innate immune responses to safeguard homeostasis. (cas.cz)
  • Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a member of the mammalian activation transcription factor/cAMP, physiologically important in the regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory target genes. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): 3 samples with low, middle and high level Activating Transcription Factor 3 (ATF3) were tested 20 times on one plate, respectively. (biomatik.com)
  • Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): 3 samples with low, middle and high level Activating Transcription Factor 3 (ATF3) were tested on 3 different plates, 8 replicates in each plate. (biomatik.com)
  • This assay has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Activating Transcription Factor 3 (ATF3). (biomatik.com)
  • The microtiter plate provided in this kit has been pre-coated with an antibody specific to Activating Transcription Factor 3 (ATF3). (biomatik.com)
  • Standards or samples are then added to the appropriate microtiter plate wells with a biotin-conjugated antibody specific to Activating Transcription Factor 3 (ATF3). (biomatik.com)
  • After TMB substrate solution is added, only those wells that contain Activating Transcription Factor 3 (ATF3), biotin-conjugated antibody and enzyme-conjugated Avidin will exhibit a change in color. (biomatik.com)
  • The concentration of Activating Transcription Factor 3 (ATF3) in the samples is then determined by comparing the O.D. of the samples to the standard curve. (biomatik.com)
  • Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) belongs to the ATF/CREB (activating transcription factor/cyclic AMP response element binding protein) family of basic region-leucine zipper (bZip) transcription factors, which have the consensus binding site cAMP responsive element (CRE). (nih.gov)
  • Since ATF4 is induced by tumour microenvironmental factors, and regulates processes relevant to cancer progression, it might serve as a potential therapeutic target in cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Here we show through microarray analysis of polysome-bound RNA in aerobic and hypoxic HeLa cells that a subset of transcripts are preferentially translated during hypoxia, including activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), an important mediator of the unfolded protein response. (asm.org)
  • Similarly, PERK is activated and is responsible for translational regulation under hypoxic conditions, while inducing the translation of ATF4. (asm.org)
  • Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) plays important physiologic roles in the brain including regulation of learning and memory as well as neuronal survival and death. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we show that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes a rapid and sustained increase in neuronal ATF4 transcripts and protein levels. (frontiersin.org)
  • The capacity of BDNF to elevate neuronal ATF4 may thus represent a means to maintain this transcription factor at levels that provide neuroprotection and optimal brain function without risk of triggering neurodegeneration. (frontiersin.org)
  • ATF4 belongs to the ATF/CREB family of basic region/leucine zipper transcription factors. (jimmunol.org)
  • Identification of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) as an Nrf2-interacting protein. (thebiogrid.org)
  • However, the detailed mechanism underlying this effect and the factors involved in the regulation of ATF4 function are still unknown. (bmbreports.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate first that knocking out ATF4 using siRNA shows a strong negative effect on HIV-1 production, indicating that ATF4 is a functional positive cellular factor in HIV-1 production. (bmbreports.org)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Rat Activating Transcription Factor 4 (ATF4) in Tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids. (marchforscienceshop.com)
  • It is activated by PROTEASES and then moves to the CELL NUCLEUS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in the unfolded protein response. (harvard.edu)
  • As a consequence, target genes including p21, PIG3 or PUMA are transcriptionally activated, leading to cell growth arrest or programmed cell death. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Figure 6: ERG activates CREs surrounding NOTCH pathway genes. (nature.com)
  • Recurrent fusion of TMPRSS2 and ETS transcription factor genes in prostate cancer. (nature.com)
  • Induction depends upon the presence of MTF-1, a transcription factor that is required for metal-induced transcription of Mt1, but does not require Nrf2, a tBHQ-activated CNC bZip protein that is responsible for regulating genes encoding phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes. (cdc.gov)
  • Numerous critical genes are tightly regulated by HIF-1, including growth factors, oncoproteins, transcription factors, and glycolytic enzymes ( 62a ), which mediate a shift in cellular metabolism toward energy conserving anaerobic glycolysis ( 53 ). (asm.org)
  • The secreted IFNs bind to receptors, activate the JAK-STAT pathway, and ultimately induce expression of hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), including dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), RNase L, a subset of TLRs (TLR3, TLR7) and RLRs (RIG-I), and IRF7 ( 16 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In this study, yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) library screening using the persimmon (Diospyros kaki) pyruvate decarboxylase (DkPDC2) promoter identified three Ethylene Response Factor genes (DkERF23/24/25) and four WRKY transcription factor genes (DkWRKY1/5/6/7) that were differentially expressed in response to high CO2 (95%, with 4% N2 and 1% O2) and high N2 (99% N2 and 1% O2). (plantphysiol.org)
  • These ATF-containing protein complexes recruit RNA Pol II, and enhance the transcription of the responsive genes. (creativebiomart.net)
  • In mammalian cells, two transcription factors, XBP1 and ATF6, activate ER stress-responsive genes. (plantcell.org)
  • This gene encodes a transcription factor that activates target genes for the unfolded protein response (UPR) during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. (mybiosource.com)
  • It functions as an ER stress sensor/transducer, and following ER stress-induced proteolysis, it functions as a nuclear transcription factor via a cis-acting ER stress response element (ERSE) that is present in the promoters of genes encoding ER chaperones. (mybiosource.com)
  • ATF6A: Transcription factor that acts during endoplasmic reticulum stress by activating unfolded protein response target genes. (mybiosource.com)
  • Gene silencing experiments of MLL4 and the subunits PA1 and PTIP confirm TGF-β-specific genes to be regulated by the MLL4 complex, which links TGF-β signaling to transcription regulation by the MLL4 methyltransferase complex. (diagenode.com)
  • Cleaved upon ER stress, the N-terminal processed cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-6 alpha translocates to the nucleus where it activates transcription of genes involved in the UPR. (genecards.org)
  • DREAM-related neuroprotection was linked to an interaction between DREAM and the unfolded protein response (UPR) sensor activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). (jci.org)
  • Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) bound to unfolded protein response elements of SESN2 promoter, transactivated SESN2, and increased SESN2 protein expression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • ARTICLE{Haze99mammaliantranscription, author = {Kyosuke Haze and Hiderou Yoshida and Hideki Yanagi and Takashi Yura and Kazutoshi Mori}, title = {Mammalian transcription factor ATF6 is synthesized as a transmembrane protein and activated by proteolysis in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress}, journal = {Mol. (psu.edu)
  • We recently isolated ATF6 as a candidate for mammalian UPR-specific transcription factor. (psu.edu)
  • In contrast, mutant ATF6 representing the cytoplasmic region translocates into the nucleus and activates transcription of the endogenous GRP78/BiP gene. (psu.edu)
  • Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) is important for protective cell response to accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in endoplasmic reticulum, and disturbances of this process can contribute to β-cell apoptosis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A major mediator of transcriptional induction of endoplasmic reticulum chaperones by endoplasmic reticulum stress is the basic leucine zipper protein-activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cleavage of bZIP60 is independent of the function of Arabidopsis homologs of mammalian S1P and S2P proteases, which mediate the proteolytic cleavage of the mammalian transcription factor ATF6. (plantcell.org)
  • MBS013931 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate Sandwich ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the Activating Transcription Factor 6 (ATF6) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • A study first showed that inhibition of activating transcription factor 6 ( ATF6 ) by apelin -13 could reduce endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress-mediated apoptosis and blood brain barrier ( BBB ) disruption after SAH . (operativeneurosurgery.com)
  • ATF6 (Activating Transcription Factor 6) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Activating transcription factor 5 is a transcription factor of the ATF/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) family. (hindawi.com)
  • Activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) is a member of the ATF/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) family, which includes a large group of basic leucine zipper (bZIP) proteins with different transcriptional regulatory functions [ 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • First, they have been described as members of the CREB/ATF family, whereas it turned out later that some of them might be more similar to AP-1-like factors such as c-Jun or c-Fos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hai T, Hartman MG. The molecular biology and nomenclature of the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors: ATF proteins and homeostasis. (springer.com)
  • ATF2 (activating transcription factor 2) is a member of the ATF/CREB (cAMP response element binding protein) family of basic region leucine zipper proteins. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to;a family of DNA-binding proteins that includes the AP-1 family of transcription factors, cAMP-response element binding;proteins (CREBs) and CREB-like proteins. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The activating transcription factor (ATF) 4 belongs to the ATF/CREB (cAMP Response Element Binding bZIP [Basic Leucine Zipper]) transcription factor family, and plays a central role in the UPR (Unfolded Protein Response) process in cells. (bmbreports.org)
  • The activating transcription factor (ATF) 4, which is composed of 351 amino acids, is a member of the ATF/CREB (cAMP Response Element Binding) protein family. (bmbreports.org)
  • Your search returned 13 activating transcription factor 6 beta ELISA ELISA Kit across 3 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • A composition, an Nrf2 activating agent, and a food according to the present invention comprise isohumulones or isomerized hop extract as an active ingredient. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • They are useful in treating, preventing, or ameliorating a disease of condition which is treatable, preventable, or ameliorable by the activation of transcription factor Nrf2. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 1. A composition for use in the treatment, prevention or amelioration of a disease or condition which is treatable, preventable, or ameliorable by activation of transcription factor Nrf2 (NF-E2 related factor 2), comprising isohumulones or isomerized hop extract as an active ingredient. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 2. The composition according to claim 1, wherein the disease or condition which is treatable, preventable, or ameliorable by the activation of transcription factor Nrf2 is oxidative stress, detoxification of xenobiotic substances, chronic inflammation, or a disease or condition related thereto. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 15. A transcription factor Nrf2 activating agent, comprising isohumulones or isomerized hop extract as an active ingredient. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Chromium (VI) induces antioxidant gene HO-1 by activating the CNC BZIP transcription factor NRF2. (cdc.gov)
  • Expression of a dominant negative form of Nrf2, a cap 'n' collar basic leucine zipper transcription factor, in the cells blocks the induction by Cr (VI), implicating Nrf2 as the key transcription factor in the induction. (cdc.gov)
  • These results provide the first evidence that Cr (VI) induces antioxidant gene HO-1 important in ROS defense by activating Nrf2. (cdc.gov)
  • By using the yeast two-hybrid assay, we identified activating transcription factor (ATF) 4 as a potential Nrf2-interacting protein. (thebiogrid.org)
  • Phase I enzyme induction by classes of microsomal enzyme inducers occurs via activation of transcription factors such as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). (aspetjournals.org)
  • One transcriptional program, which correlates with increased resistance to infection, implicates the transcription factor NRF2 . (nature.com)
  • Particularly, we investigate the relationship of HSV-1 infection and the transcription factor NRF2 , which is activated during infection, and demonstrate that the NRF2 agonists Bardoxolone methyl and d l -sulforaphane impair a productive viral replication. (nature.com)
  • Our data indicate that activating transcription factor 5 is differentially expressed reaching a peak of expression at the stage of bone mineralization. (hindawi.com)
  • Of the transcription factors that regulate these changes in gene expression, the function of c-Jun is the best understood. (frontiersin.org)
  • High-yield expression in E. coli and refolding of the bZIP domain of activating transcription factor 5. (nih.gov)
  • We found that IFN regulatory factor (IRF)7, the master regulator of type I IFN gene expression, interacts with activating transcription factor (ATF)4, a key component of the integrated stress responses whose translation is induced by viral infection and various stresses. (jimmunol.org)
  • Conversely, the knock-down of hYSK1 enhanced the p16 INK4a promoter activity and protein expression, and diminished MMP-2 transcription and protein levels in hypoxic conditions as compared to control. (mdpi.com)
  • We, therefore, assessed, in this study, the effects of PPARα deficiency on the expression of mRNA encoding for the insulin gene transcription factors in pancreatic β-cells along with those implicated in inflammation in adipose tissues. (ebscohost.com)
  • The PPARα gene deletion downregulates the mRNA expression of insulin gene transcription factors, i.e. (ebscohost.com)
  • Here, we show that stimulation of human HaCaT keratinocytes with nanomolar concentrations of thapsigargin triggers expression of activating transcription factor (ATF) 3, a basic-region leucin zipper transcription factor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The thapsigargin-induced signaling pathway was blocked by expression of either mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 or -5. (aspetjournals.org)
  • G protein-coupled receptors regulate gene expression by cellular signaling cascades that target transcription factors and their recognition by specific DNA sequences. (semanticscholar.org)
  • cAMP response element-binding protein, activating transcription factor-4, and upstream stimulatory factor differentially control hippocampal GABABR1a and GABABR1b subunit gene expression through alternative promoters. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Activation of several transcription factors, including the nuclear factor of activated T cells-3 (NFAT3), contributes in part to the changes in gene expression associated with hypertrophy ( 28 , 29 ). (physiology.org)
  • Transcription factors that directly respond to farnesol as a nuclear receptor/effector to regulate gene expression, however, have not been identified. (asm.org)
  • Expression of CDR1 and another ABC transporter, CDR2 , in C. albicans is regulated by the Zn(II)Cys6 transcription factor Tac1 ( 25 ). (asm.org)
  • Our results demonstrate that IL-10 significantly inhibited MMP-2 transcription and protein expression induced by a phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although the mechanisms regulating MMP-2 and MMP-9 gene expression are poorly understood, studies have indicated that MMP-2 activity is regulated by gene transcription, mRNA stability, proenzyme activation, and direct inhibition of enzyme activity ( 4 , 9 , 17 , 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Yeast-one-hybrid screens with this fragment identified a glandular trichome-specific transcription factor, designated Expression of Terpenoids 1 (SlEOT1). (deepdyve.com)
  • This study, for the first time, demonstrates that the TK target c-MYC plays a role in transcriptional activation and subsequent expression of LIG3 and PARP1 and contributes to the increased error-prone repair observed in TK-activated leukemias. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus, BCR-ABL1 or FLT3/ITD induces c-MYC expression, leading to genomic instability via augmented expression of ALT-NHEJ repair factors that generate repair errors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Expression and characterization of SUMO-conjugated metal-responsive transcription factor 1: SIM-dependent cross-interaction and distinct DNA binding activity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Western blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were applied to evaluate the expression of targets in both protein and mRNA levels. (operativeneurosurgery.com)
  • Investigation into the signaling pathway for IL-1α expression in response to IL-1 revealed a requirement for reactive oxygen species and activity of the transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-κB. (arvojournals.org)
  • Failure to activate NF-κB explains incompetence for expression of IL-1α in corneal stromal cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • Single-molecule quantification of lipotoxic expression of activating transcription factor 3", Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics , vol. 16, 2014, pp. 21595-21601. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • These results show that PlagL2 expression activates expression of Mpl in hematopoietic progenitors, and that upregulation of wild-type Mpl provides an oncogenic signal in cooperation with CBFbeta-SMMHC in mice. (umassmed.edu)
  • Hypoxic stress results in a rapid and sustained inhibition of protein synthesis that is at least partially mediated by eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) phosphorylation by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) kinase PERK. (asm.org)
  • Changes in mRNA translation during the unfolded protein response are mediated by PERK phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α at Ser-51. (asm.org)
  • Recognition of viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as viral RNAs or DNAs by the pathogen recognition receptors triggers signaling cascades, ultimately leading to the activation of IRF3 and IRF7 that involves phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation of the two factors. (jimmunol.org)
  • Although phosphorylation of eIF2α results in global translational suppression, it specifically increases translation of activating transcription factor (ATF)4 through ribosomal leaky scanning of the mini open reading frames (ORFs) in the 5′-untranslated region (UTR) of the mRNA ( 19 , 22 , 23 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The activation of p38 kinase caused phosphorylation and activation of p38 kinase substrate, activating transcription factor (ATF)-2. (jimmunol.org)
  • Elk1 is activated by phosphorylation (serine-383), while activation of SRF requires its co-factor, myocardin. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • OME and pCPT caused phosphorylation of the transcription factor Elk1 in prostate tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Transmembrane glycoprotein of the endoplasmic reticulum that functions as a transcription activator and initiates the unfolded protein response (UPR) during endoplasmic reticulum stress. (genecards.org)
  • Activating transcription factor 3, cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-3, FLJ41705. (prospecbio.com)
  • Leukemias expressing the constitutively activated tyrosine kinases (TK) BCR-ABL1 and FLT3/ITD activate signaling pathways that increase genomic instability through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), and error-prone repair. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Lipotoxic brain microvascular injury is mediated by activating transcription factor 3-dependent inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Among its related pathways are Activated TLR4 signalling and DNA damage_Role of Brca1 and Brca2 in DNA repair . (genecards.org)
  • We report here that two polypeptides of the purified mammalian TFIIH are the MO15/Cdk7 kinase and cyclin H subunits of the Cdk-activating kinase Cak, previously identified as a positive regulator of Cdc2 and Cdk2. (nih.gov)
  • Selective interaction of JNK protein kinase isoforms with transcription factors. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The activated ATF-2 translocated to the nucleus where it attached to its binding motif on the myosin L chain kinase (MLCK) promoter region, leading to the activation of MLCK promoter activity and gene transcription. (jimmunol.org)
  • Addgene: Role of SAPK/ERK kinase-1 in the stress-activated pathway regulating transcription factor c-Jun. (addgene.org)
  • XBP1 is activated by IRE1, an ER membrane-localized protein kinase/ribonuclease. (plantcell.org)
  • Here, we show that repeated swim stress caused activation of both κ-opioid receptor (KOR) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) coexpressed in GABAergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens, cortex, and hippocampus. (jneurosci.org)
  • This protein is phosphorylated at serine 63 in its kinase-inducible domain by serine/threonine kinases, cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I/II, mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase and cyclin-dependent kinase 3 (cdk-3). (genecards.org)
  • This gene encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the leucine zipper family of DNA-binding proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a transcription factor that was originally identified as a widely expressed mammalian DNA binding;protein that could bind a tax-responsive enhancer element in the LTR of HTLV-1. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The gene responsible for the phenotype encodes one member of a clade of three proteins of undisclosed function, belonging to the plant-specific family of AP2/EREBP transcription factors. (ubc.ca)
  • This gene encodes an activating transcription factor, which belongs to the ATF subfamily and bZIP (basic-region leucine zipper) family. (genecards.org)
  • The induction of STAT1 gene by activating transcription factor 3 contributes to pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis and its dysfunction in streptozotocin-treated mice. (springer.com)
  • The FOXO family of transcription factors elicits cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and resistance to various physiologic and pathologic stresses relevant to sporadic cancer, such as DNA damage and oxidative stress. (elsevier.com)
  • Here, we show that FOXO3a is functionally activated and augments the level of caspase-dependent apoptosis in cells exposed to this DNA-damaging carcinogen. (elsevier.com)
  • Objective - We examined the effects of FKHRL1 (forkhead transcription factor in rhabdomyosarcoma like-1) overexpression on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle, in vitro, and the role of FKHRL1 and p27 in the pathophysiology of neointimal growth after balloon angioplasty, in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • These studies reveal that NC2 (Dr1-Drap1) is a bifunctional basal transcription factor that differentially regulates gene transcription through DPE or TATA box motifs. (sciencemag.org)
  • Recruiter that couples transcriptional factors to general transcription apparatus and thereby modulates transcription regulation and chromatin formation. (uniprot.org)
  • However, regulation of organic anion-transporting polypeptide (Oatp) uptake transporters by these factors is poorly understood. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A main EPAC function in the human prostate may be the regulation of the transcription factor Elk1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • TMPRSS2-ERG (T2E) structural rearrangements typify ∼ 50% of prostate tumors and result in overexpression of the ERG transcription factor. (nature.com)
  • A signal transduction pathway activated by many cytokines has recently been elaborated. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The calcineurin/NFAT3 pathway can be activated by classical hypertrophy inducers, including ANG II, endothelin-1 (ET-1), and catecholamines ( 27 , 49 ). (physiology.org)
  • Indication Target/marker/pathway Summary Licensing status Publication and contact information Cancer Melanoma Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) In vitro and mouse studies suggest that inhibiting ATF2 could help treat melanoma. (biocentury.com)
  • Distinct spatial Ca2+ signatures selectively activate different NFAT transcription factor isoforms. (nih.gov)
  • These ATF2 containing dimers bind to the the cAMP response element and with several other proteins including p300/CBP, p50/p65 NF-κB, SMAD3, SMAD4, NFAT family members, and the interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1). (creativebiomart.net)
  • We tested the hypothesis that bradykinin could elicit long-lasting changes in nociceptor function by activating members of the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, bradykinin triggered a concentration-dependent increase in NFAT-mediated transcription of a luciferase gene reporter (EC 50 = 24.2 ± 0.1 nM). (aspetjournals.org)
  • NFAT3 belongs to the NFAT family of transcription factors, discovered as important regulators of immune responses in mammals ( 8 , 25 , 38 ). (physiology.org)
  • The four genuine members of the family of nuclear factor of activated T-cell transcription factors (NFAT), NFATc1, NFATc2, NFATc3, and NFATc4, share a conserved DNA binding domain of approximately 300 amino acids, the Rel similarity domain. (asm.org)
  • In peripheral T lymphocytes, NFATc1 and NFATc2 are the most abundant NFAT factors. (asm.org)
  • We have identified an activity that is required for transcription of downstream promoter element (DPE)-containing core promoters in vitro. (sciencemag.org)
  • The shorter isoform (deltaZip2) which stimulates transcription by sequestering inhibitory co-factors away from the promoter has no leucine zipper protein-dimerization motif and does not bind to DNA. (prospecbio.com)
  • Small interfering RNA induced silencing of ATF-2, or mutation of the ATF-2 binding motif prevented the activation of MLCK promoter and MLCK mRNA transcription. (jimmunol.org)
  • Dual-luciferase assays confirmed that these transcription factors were capable of transactivating the DkPDC2 promoter. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The nucleocapsid promoter contains a basic core segment which carries two genetically distinguishable promoters, the preC and core pregenomic promoters, coordinately activated by an upstream regulatory domain (devoid of intrinsic promoter activity) extending from nucleotide (nt) 1636 to nt 1744 ( 43 , 46 ). (asm.org)
  • The cumulative data on the nucleocapsid promoter (and other HBV promoter and enhancer elements as well) clearly indicate that HBV hepatotropism basically reflects the combined need for several liver-enriched transcription factors in order for the HBV genome to replicate efficiently. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we found that antioxidant enzyme catalase and antioxidants N -acetyl- l -cysteine, α-phenyl- N - tert -butylnitrone, and lipoic acid prevent ANG II from activating NFAT3 promoter-luciferase. (physiology.org)
  • A dominant negative form of NFAT3 transcription factor inhibited H 2 O 2 from activating NFAT3 promoter. (physiology.org)
  • Inactivation of AP-1 transcription factor by cotransfection of a dominant negative c-Jun, TAM67, prevented H 2 O 2 or ANG II from activating NFAT3 promoter. (physiology.org)
  • 2008). Recent study of the promoter of ATF5 also suggested that its transcription is regulated by EBF1 (Wei et al. (usal.es)
  • Prostate smooth muscle tone is balanced by cAMP-mediated relaxation and α1-adrenergic contraction, while prostate growth requires the activation of transcription factors [ 24 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Could also be involved in activation of transcription by the serum response factor. (genecards.org)
  • One factor that contributes to the successful regeneration of the axons in peripheral nerves is the complex cell body response the neurons show to axotomy. (frontiersin.org)
  • We propose that an ERF and WRKY transcription factor complex contributes to responses to hypoxia in both persimmon fruit and Arabidopsis, and the possibility that this is a general plant response requires further investigation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Serum insulin concentrations and its pancreatic mRNA transcripts were downregulated in PPARα-null mice, suggesting that PPARα gene deletion contributes to low insulin gene transcription. (ebscohost.com)
  • In the context of TK-activated leukemias, c-MYC contributes to aberrant DNA repair through downstream targets LIG3 and PARP1, which represent viable and attractive therapeutic targets. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The ethylene response factor Pti5 contributes to potato aphid resistance in tomato independent of ethylene signalling. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Finally, as indicated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, bradykinin elicited an increase in cyclooxygenase mRNA. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Activating Transcription Factors were originally identified as DNA-Binding Proteins that interact with early promoters from Adenoviruses . (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • Purified recombinant dNC2 activates DPE-driven promoters and represses TATA-driven promoters. (sciencemag.org)
  • A mutant version of dNC2 can activate DPE promoters but is unable to repress TATA promoters. (sciencemag.org)
  • The longer isoform represses transcription from promoters with ATF binding elements instead of activating it. (prospecbio.com)
  • They are involved in the activation of T cells by controlling the transcription of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and further lymphokine promoters. (asm.org)
  • In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, disulfiram decreased transcription factor binding to the cyclic AMP-responsive element in a manner potentiated by Cu 2+ ions and by the presence of glutathione, suggesting that thiocarbamates might disrupt transcription factor binding by inducing S -glutathionylation of the transcription factor DNA binding region. (aacrjournals.org)
  • ATF-2 is normally activated in response to signals that converge on stress-activated protein kinases p38 and JNK. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activating transcription factor 6-dependent sestrin 2 induction ameliorates ER stress-mediated liver injury. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Induction of metallothionein I by phenolic antioxidants requires metal-activated transcription factor 1 (MTF-1) and zinc. (cdc.gov)
  • To clarify the transcription induction mechanism that operates in the brain in response to methylmercury exposure, we used a protein/DNA binding assay to identify transcription factors activated in the cerebella of mice administered methylmercury. (go.jp)
  • This work suggests these processes are linked through the Zn cluster transcription factors Tac1 and Znc1 and their induction of the multidrug efflux pump Cdr1. (asm.org)
  • May belong to a complex that represses transcription and couples DNA methylation and histone H3 'Lys-9' trimethylation (H3K9me3) (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • Evidence suggests that the activation of LTTRs involves a conformational change from an inactive compact apo-configuration that represses transcription to an active, expanded holo-form that promotes it. (diva-portal.org)
  • The complex formed with MBD1 and SETDB1 represses transcription and couples DNA methylation and histone H3 'Lys-9' trimethylation (H3K9me3). (nih.gov)
  • ATF5 gene generates two transcripts, ATF5 isoform 1 (activating transcription factor 5, transcript variant 1: NM_012068.5) and ATF5 isoform 2 (activating transcription factor 5, transcript variant 2: NM_001193646.1). (hindawi.com)
  • Activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) recently has been demonstrated to play a critical role in promoting the survival of human glioblastoma cells. (nih.gov)
  • 2009). Data from various groups also suggested that ATF5 can function as anti-apoptotic factor (Devireddy et al. (usal.es)
  • STAT5- and STAT1-related factors were detected in ALL and STAT1-, STAT3-, and STAT5-related proteins were present in nuclear cell extracts from AML. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Since the cells were not treated with cytokines before the nuclear proteins were extracted, we conclude that these factors are constitutively activated in vivo. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The thiocarbamate alcoholism drug disulfiram blocks the P-glycoprotein extrusion pump, inhibits the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB, sensitizes tumors to chemotherapy, reduces angiogenesis, and inhibits tumor growth in mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Disulfiram also inhibits activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) induced in human colorectal cancer cell lines by the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil and enhances the apoptotic effect in vitro when the two are used in combination ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Orphan nuclear receptor fetoprotein transcription factor (FTF) was previously identified as a specific regulator of the α 1 -fetoprotein gene during early liver development and in response to hormonal signals (L. Galarneau, J.-F. Paré, D. Allard, D. Hamel, L. Lévesque, J. D. Tugwood, S. Green, and L. Bélanger, Mol. (asm.org)
  • Activation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells-3 (NFAT3) transcription factor has been shown to result from endocrine inducers of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy such as angiotensin II (ANG II) and serves as an important molecular regulator of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. (physiology.org)
  • Infection of nuclear factor of activated T-cell transcription factor c2 (NFATc2)-deficient mice with the helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis led to a distinct increase in interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-5 protein synthesis by lymph node and spleen cells and to elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in comparison to those seen with infected control mice. (asm.org)
  • Zinc and cadmium can promote rapid nuclear translocation of metal response element-binding transcription factor-1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The activated heterotrimeric SMAD protein complexes associate with nuclear proteins such as the histone acetyltransferases p300, PCAF and the Mixed Lineage Leukemia 4 (MLL4) subunit Pax Transactivation domain-Interacting Protein (PTIP) to regulate gene transcription. (diagenode.com)
  • How isoforms that co-exist within the same sub-cellular domain are differentially activated remains unclear. (nih.gov)
  • Our study uncovers a mechanism whereby co-existing cytoplasmic transcription factor isoforms are differentially activated by distinct sub-cellular Ca(2+) signals. (nih.gov)
  • Hai T. The ATF transcription factors in cellular adaptive responses. (springer.com)
  • A key element to cellular survival and adaptation during hypoxia is the transcription factor HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor 1), the master regulator of oxygen homeostasis. (asm.org)
  • Activation of ATF2 is observed in cellular responses to various types of stress and apoptotic signals, and is currently under investigation in studies of growth factor independent cell growth, cell cycle progression, differentiation, cytokine production in response to B-cell and T-cell receptor engagement, and inflammation. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Sma and Mad related (SMAD)-mediated Transforming Growth Factor β (TGF-β) and Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling is required for various cellular processes. (diagenode.com)
  • Cellular cholesterol homeostasis is controlled by the sterol-regulatory element binding transcription factors (SREBFs) that are activated by an SREBF cleavage-activating protein (SCAP). (cdc.gov)
  • In the central nervous system, heteromeric metabotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA(B)) receptors through adenylyl cyclase regulate cAMP levels, which may control transcription factor binding to the cAMP response element. (semanticscholar.org)
  • However, transcription factors (TFs) that regulate TPSs have not yet been discovered from tomato. (deepdyve.com)
  • However, MMPs are also involved in controlling the availability of active forms of cytokines and growth factors-pro-tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, insulin-like growth factor binding proteins, and FasL can be cleaved by MMPs ( 6 -9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Two steps in activating human tumor necrosis factor gene transcription in macrophages. (ox.ac.uk)
  • For example, the PKR phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), leading to global translation suppression and thus inhibition of viral replication ( 17 , 18 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Although it is a transcription factor, this protein is unusual in that it is synthesized as a transmembrane protein that is embedded in the ER. (mybiosource.com)
  • In molecular biology , Activating Transcription Factor , ATF , is a class of AP-1 transcription factor dimers. (wikidoc.org)
  • They are a Family of Basic Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors that bind to the Consensus site TGACGTCA of the Cyclic AMP Response Element , and are closely related to Cyclic AMP-Responsive DNA-Binding Protein . (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • Identification and functional characterization of hypoxia-responsive transcription factors is important for understanding plant responses to natural anaerobic environments and during storage and transport of fresh horticultural products. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The legless lizard Anguis fragilis (slow worm) has a potent metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF-1). (semanticscholar.org)
  • One billion years of bZIP transcription factor evolution: conservation and change in dimerization and DNA-binding site specificity. (springer.com)
  • ISGF3 gamma p48, a specificity switch for interferon activated transcription factors. (ihop-net.org)
  • This protein has been identified as a survival factor for quiescent but not proliferative squamous carcinoma cells. (mybiosource.com)
  • We report here that bZIP60, an Arabidopsis thaliana basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor with a transmembrane domain, is involved in the ER stress response. (plantcell.org)
  • Specifically, we have demonstrated that Tac1 and Znc1 are functionally activated by farnesol through a mechanism that mimics other means of hyperactivation of Zn cluster transcription factors. (asm.org)
  • Transcription factor 7-like 2 gene ( TCF7L2 ) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors- γ 2 ( PPAR- γ 2 ) have a profound effect on the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and had previously been found to be associated with T2DM risk in various ppopulations. (hindawi.com)
  • It is commonly believed that these hypertrophy inducers activate phospholipase C (PLC) on binding to their G protein-coupled receptors, resulting in release of phosphoinositol from membrane phospholipids. (physiology.org)
  • Sites of activation were visualized using phosphoselective antibodies against activated κ receptors (KOR-P) and against phospho-p38 MAPK. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we compare the regulatory mechanism of two closely related transcription factor isoforms, NFAT1 and NFAT4, that migrate from the cytoplasm to the nucleus following the increase in intracellular Ca(2+) that accompanies the opening of store-operated Orai1/CRAC channels. (nih.gov)
  • We propose that ER stress-induced proteolysis of membrane-bound p90ATF6 releases soluble p50ATF6, leading to induced transcription in the nucleus. (psu.edu)
  • In this report, we describe the presence of constitutively activated STAT factors in peripheral blood cells from patients with acute leukemia. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Constitutively activated tyrosine kinases (TK) BCR-ABL1 and FLT3/ITD generate increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage including double-strand breaks (DSB), and abnormal repair that is highly error-prone. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is transcribed in two types of mRNAs (activating transcription factor 5 isoform 1 and activating transcription factor 5 isoform 2), encoding the same single 30-kDa protein. (hindawi.com)
  • Our results suggest that PPARα deficiency, in mice, is implicated in the modulation of insulin gene transcription and inflammatory status in adipose tissues. (ebscohost.com)
  • squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) Studies in mice suggest that ATF2 functions as. (biocentury.com)
  • The RNA polymerase II large subunit contains an essential carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) believed to be involved in the response to regulators during transcription initiation. (nih.gov)
  • We have demonstrated previously that an exposure of mammalian cells to hypo-osmotic stress, either in growth medium (30% growth medium and 70% water) or in binary solution containing sorbitol and water, prominently induced the DNA-binding activity of the heat-shock transcription factor (HSF1) [Huang, Caruccio, Liu and Chen (1995) Biochem. (portlandpress.com)
  • The metabotropic GABAB receptor directly interacts with the activating transcription factor 4. (semanticscholar.org)