Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.Transcription Factor AP-2: A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors: A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.Transcription Factors, TFII: The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.YY1 Transcription Factor: A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.GATA4 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.Transcription Factor TFIID: The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Activating Transcription Factor 3: An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.NFATC Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.Sp3 Transcription Factor: A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.Transcription Initiation Site: The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Activating Transcription Factor 2: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.Transcription Factor TFIIB: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.MEF2 Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.GATA3 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.GATA1 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.GATA2 Transcription Factor: An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.TCF Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.GATA Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.STAT1 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Activating Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.Transcription Factor RelA: A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs: Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.GATA6 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Activating Transcription Factor 4: An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Transcription Factor 7-Like 1 Protein: A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.Activating Transcription Factor 1: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Transcription Factor TFIIIA: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.NFI Transcription Factors: Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets: A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein oncogene protein v-ets of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Transcription Factor TFIIH: A general transcription factor that is involved in basal GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. It consists of nine subunits including ATP-DEPENDENT DNA HELICASES; CYCLIN H; and XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM GROUP D PROTEIN.Mice, Inbred C57BLSOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Transcription Factor TFIIA: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.STAT5 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Transcription Factor DP1: A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.T-Box Domain Proteins: Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Leucine Zippers: DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.Octamer Transcription Factor-1: A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.Regulatory Elements, Transcriptional: Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.TATA-Box Binding Protein: A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.Erythroid-Specific DNA-Binding Factors: A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Transcription Factors, TFIII: Factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE III and aid in transcription. They include the assembly factors TFIIIA and TFIIIC and the initiation factor TFIIIB. All combine to form a preinitiation complex at the promotor that directs the binding of RNA POLYMERASE III.GA-Binding Protein Transcription Factor: A heterotetrameric transcription factor composed of two distinct proteins. Its name refers to the fact it binds to DNA sequences rich in GUANINE and ADENINE. GA-binding protein integrates a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and regulates expression of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE control, PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS, and cellular METABOLISM.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Early Growth Response Protein 1: An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.High Mobility Group Proteins: A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Protein: A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway. The activity of the protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN. Transcription factor 7-like 2 protein plays an important role in the embryogenesis of the PANCREAS and ISLET CELLS.Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-1: An ets proto-oncogene expressed primarily in adult LYMPHOID TISSUE; BRAIN; and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Reverse Transcription: The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Twist Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that was originally identified in DROSOPHILA as essential for proper gastrulation and MESODERM formation. It plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MUSCLE CELLS, and is found in a wide variety of organisms.NF-E2 Transcription Factor, p45 Subunit: A tissue-specific subunit of NF-E2 transcription factor that interacts with small MAF PROTEINS to regulate gene expression. P45 NF-E2 protein is expressed primarily in MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; and MAST CELLS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Nerve Tissue ProteinsOligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Transcription Factor TFIIIB: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. TFIIIB recruits and positions pol III over the initiation site and remains stably bound to the DNA through multiple rounds of re-initiation by RNA POLYMERASE III.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Activating Transcription Factor 6: One of the BASIC-LEUCINE ZIPPER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that is synthesized as a membrane-bound protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. In response to endoplasmic reticulum stress it translocates to the GOLGI APPARATUS. It is activated by PROTEASES and then moves to the CELL NUCLEUS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in the unfolded protein response.Transcription Factor Brn-3: A family of mammalian POU domain factors that are expressed predominately in NEURONS.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.SOXB1 Transcription Factors: A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)NF-E2 Transcription Factor: A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates GLOBIN gene expression and is related to TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1. NF-E2 consists of a small MAF protein subunit and a tissue-restricted 45 kDa subunit.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.CCAAT-Binding Factor: A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.SOXE Transcription Factors: A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subfamily have been implicated in regulating the differentiation of OLIGODENDROCYTES during neural crest formation and in CHONDROGENESIS.Upstream Stimulatory Factors: Ubiquitously expressed basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF transcription factors. They bind CANNTG sequences in the promoters of a variety of GENES involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Myogenic Regulatory Factors: A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).RNA Polymerase III: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Pol1 Transcription Initiation Complex Proteins: Factors that form a preinitiation complex at promoters that are specifically transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE I.Transcription Factor 3: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in determining cell fate during embryogenesis. It forms a heterodimer with TWIST TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and ACHAETE-SCUTE GENE COMPLEX-related TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Transcription Factor Pit-1: A POU domain factor that regulates expression of GROWTH HORMONE; PROLACTIN; and THYROTROPIN-BETA in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
(1/192) Human SWI-SNF component BRG1 represses transcription of the c-fos gene.

Yeast and mammalian SWI-SNF complexes regulate transcription through active modification of chromatin structure. Human SW-13 adenocarcinoma cells lack BRG1 protein, a component of SWI-SNF that has a DNA-dependent ATPase activity essential for SWI-SNF function. Expression of BRG1 in SW-13 cells potentiated transcriptional activation by the glucocorticoid receptor, which is known to require SWI-SNF function. BRG1 also specifically repressed transcription from a transfected c-fos promoter and correspondingly blocked transcriptional activation of the endogenous c-fos gene. Mutation of lysine residue 798 in the DNA-dependent ATPase domain of BRG1 significantly reduced its ability to repress c-fos transcription. Repression by BRG1 required the cyclic AMP response element of the c-fos promoter but not nearby binding sites for Sp1, YY1, or TFII-I. Using human C33A cervical carcinoma cells, which lack BRG1 and also express a nonfunctional Rb protein, transcriptional repression by BRG1 was weak unless wild-type Rb was also supplied. Interestingly, Rb-dependent repression by BRG1 was found to take place through a pathway that is independent of transcription factor E2F.  (+info)

(2/192) Human Cdc34 and Rad6B ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes target repressors of cyclic AMP-induced transcription for proteolysis.

Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis controls diverse physiological processes in eukaryotes. However, few in vivo targets of the mammalian Cdc34 and Rad6 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes are known. A yeast-based genetic assay to identify proteins that interact with human Cdc34 resulted in three cDNAs encoding bZIP DNA binding motifs. Two of these interactants are repressors of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-induced transcription: hICERIIgamma, a product of the CREM gene, and hATF5, a novel ATF homolog. Transfection assays with mammalian cells demonstrate both hCdc34- and hRad6B-dependent ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of hICERIIgamma and hATF5. This degradation requires an active ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and results in abrogation of ICERIIgamma- and ATF5-mediated repression of cAMP-induced transcription. Consistent with these results, the endogenous ICER protein is elevated in cells which are null for murine Rad6B (mHR6B-/-) or transfected with dominant negative and antisense constructs of human CDC34. Based on the requirement for CREM/ICER and Rad6B proteins in spermatogenesis, we determined expression of Cdc34, Rad6B, CREM/ICER isoforms, and the Skp1-Cullin-F-box ubiquitin protein ligase subunits Cul-1 and Cul-2, which are associated with Cdc34 activity during murine testicular development. Cdc34, Rad6B, and the Cullin proteins are expressed in a developmentally regulated manner, with distinctly different patterns for Cdc34 and the Cullin proteins in germ cells. The Cdc34 and Rad6B proteins are significantly elevated in meiotic and postmeiotic haploid germ cells when chromatin modifications occur. Thus, the stability of specific mammalian transcription factors is the result of complex targeting by multiple ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes and may have an impact on cAMP-inducible gene regulation during both meiotic and mitotic cell cycles.  (+info)

(3/192) Identification of an erythroid active element in the transferrin receptor gene.

Hemoglobin synthesis consumes most of the iron that is taken up by cells from plasma transferrin, and this process requires very high expression of transferrin receptors (TfR) at the membranes of erythroid cells. Studies in our and other laboratories indicate that a dramatic increase in TfR levels during erythroid differentiation occurs at the transcriptional level. In this study, we investigated the transcriptional regulation of the TfR in terms of its promoter activity and DNA-protein binding in murine erythroleukemia cells. Reporter gene assays revealed that the TfR promoter activity was stimulated 6-8-fold in murine erythroleukemia cells induced to differentiate into hemoglobin-synthesizing cells by either Me(2)SO or N,N'-hexamethylene-bis-acetamide. A minimal region (-118 to +14) was required for the differentiation-induced promoter activity. Mutation of either an Ets-binding site or an activator protein-1/cyclic AMP-response element-like motif within this region, but not disruption of the adjacent GC-rich/specificity protein-1 sequence, inhibited the inducible promoter activity. Electrophoresis mobility shift assays suggest that the cyclic AMP-response element-binding proteins/activating transcription factor-like factors and Ets-like factors bind constitutively to this bipartite element. Upon induction of differentiation, a shift in the pattern of the cyclic AMP-response element-binding protein/activating transcription factor-like binding factors was observed. Our data indicate that the TfR gene promoter contains an erythroid active element that stimulates the receptor gene transcription upon induction of hemoglobin synthesis.  (+info)

(4/192) Aca1 and Aca2, ATF/CREB activators in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are important for carbon source utilization but not the response to stress.

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the family of ATF/CREB transcriptional regulators consists of a repressor, Acr1 (Sko1), and two activators, Aca1 and Aca2. The AP-1 factor Gen4 does not activate transcription through ATF/CREB sites in vivo even though it binds these sites in vitro. Unlike ATF/CREB activators in other species, Aca1- and Aca2-dependent transcription is not affected by protein kinase A or by stress, and Aca1 and Aca2 are not required for Hog1-dependent salt induction of transcription through an optimal ATF/CREB site. Aca2 is important for a variety of biological functions including growth on nonoptimal carbon sources, and Aca2-dependent activation is modestly regulated by carbon source. Strains lacking Aca1 are phenotypically normal, but overexpression of Aca1 suppresses some defects associated with the loss of Aca2, indicating a functional overlap between Aca1 and Aca2. Acr1 represses transcription both by recruiting the Cyc8-Tup1 corepressor and by directly competing with Aca1 and Aca2 for target sites. Acr1 does not fully account for osmotic regulation through ATF/CREB sites, and a novel Hog1-dependent activator(s) that is not a bZIP protein is required for ATF/CREB site activation in response to high salt. In addition, Acr1 does not affect a number of phenotypes that arise from loss of Aca2. Thus, members of the S. cerevisiae ATF/CREB family have overlapping, but distinct, biological functions and target genes.  (+info)

(5/192) Protein kinase A and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways antagonistically regulate fission yeast fbp1 transcription by employing different modes of action at two upstream activation sites.

A significant challenge to our understanding of eukaryotic transcriptional regulation is to determine how multiple signal transduction pathways converge on a single promoter to regulate transcription in divergent fashions. To study this, we have investigated the transcriptional regulation of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe fbp1 gene that is repressed by a cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) pathway and is activated by a stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. In this study, we identified and characterized two cis-acting elements in the fbp1 promoter required for activation of fbp1 transcription. Upstream activation site 1 (UAS1), located approximately 900 bp from the transcriptional start site, resembles a cAMP response element (CRE) that is the binding site for the atf1-pcr1 heterodimeric transcriptional activator. Binding of this activator to UAS1 is positively regulated by the MAPK pathway and negatively regulated by PKA. UAS2, located approximately 250 bp from the transcriptional start site, resembles a Saccharomyces cerevisiae stress response element. UAS2 is bound by transcriptional activators and repressors regulated by both the PKA and MAPK pathways, although atf1 itself is not present in these complexes. Transcriptional regulation of fbp1 promoter constructs containing only UAS1 or UAS2 confirms that the PKA and MAPK regulation is targeted to both sites. We conclude that the PKA and MAPK signal transduction pathways regulate fbp1 transcription at UAS1 and UAS2, but that the antagonistic interactions between these pathways involve different mechanisms at each site.  (+info)

(6/192) Cartilage degradation and invasion by rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts is inhibited by gene transfer of a cell surface-targeted plasmin inhibitor.

OBJECTIVE: Joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a result of degradation and invasion of the articular cartilage by the pannus tissue. The present study was undertaken to examine the role of the plasminogen activation system in cartilage degradation and invasion by synovial fibroblasts and investigate a novel gene therapeutic approach using a cell surface-targeted plasmin inhibitor (ATF.BPTI). METHODS: Adenoviral vectors were used for gene transfer. The effects of ATF.BPTI gene transfer on RA synovial fibroblast-dependent cartilage degradation were studied in vitro, and cartilage invasion was studied in vivo in the SCID mouse coimplantation model. RESULTS: The results indicate that cartilage matrix degradation by rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts is plasmin mediated and depends on urokinase-type plasminogen activator for activation. Targeting plasmin inhibition to the cell surface of the fibroblasts by gene transfer of a cell surface-binding plasmin inhibitor resulted in a significant reduction of cartilage matrix degradation in vitro and of cartilage invasion in vivo. Compared with uninfected rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts, the mean +/-SEM cartilage degradation in vitro was reduced to 87.9+/-0.9% after LacZ gene transfer versus a reduction to 24.0+/-1.6% after ATF.BPTI gene transfer (P<0.0001). The mean +/- SEM in vivo cartilage invasion score was 3.1+/-0.4 in the control-transduced fibroblasts and 1.8+/-0.4 in the ATF.BPTI-transduced fibroblasts (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: These results indicate a role of the plasminogen activation system in synovial fibroblast-dependent cartilage degradation and invasion in RA, and demonstrate an effective way to inhibit this by gene transfer of a cell surface-targeted plasmin inhibitor.  (+info)

(7/192) Construction and in vitro characterization of attenuated feline immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat mutant viruses.

AP-1- and ATF-binding sites are cis-acting transcriptional elements within the U3 domain of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) long terminal repeat (LTR) that serve as targets for cellular activation pathways and may regulate virus replication. We report that FIV LTR mutant proviruses encoding U3 deletions of the ATF-binding sequence exhibited restricted virus expression and replication in both feline lymphocytes and macrophages. In contrast, deletion of the AP-1 site had negligible effects on virus expression and replication. FIV LTR mutant proviruses encoding deletions of both the AP-1 and ATF sites or a 72-bp deletion encompassing the AP-1 site, duplicated C/EBP sites, and ATF sites were severely restricted for virus expression. These results demonstrate that deletion of either the ATF-binding site or multiple cis-acting transcriptional elements attenuates FIV. These attenuated FIV mutants provide opportunities to characterize the role of cis-acting elements in virus replication in vivo and to test LTR mutants as attenuated virus vaccines.  (+info)

(8/192) CREB/ATF-dependent repression of cyclin a by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax protein.

Expression of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) oncoprotein Tax is correlated with cellular transformation contributing to the development of adult T-cell leukemia. Tax has been shown to modulate the activities of several cellular promoters. Existing evidence suggests that Tax need not directly bind to DNA to accomplish these effects but rather that it can act through binding to cellular factors, including members of the CREB/ATF family. Exact mechanisms of HTLV-1 transformation of cells have yet to be fully defined, but the process is likely to include both activation of cellular-growth-promoting factors and repression of cellular tumor-suppressing functions. While transcriptional activation has been well studied, transcriptional repression by Tax, reported recently from several studies, remains less well understood. Here, we show that Tax represses the TATA-less cyclin A promoter. Repression of the cyclin A promoter was seen in both ts13 adherent cells and Jurkat T lymphocytes. Two other TATA-less promoters, cyclin D3 and DNA polymerase alpha, were also found to be repressed by Tax. Interestingly, all three promoters share a common feature of at least one conserved upstream CREB/ATF binding site. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we observed that Tax altered the formation of a complex(es) at the cyclin A promoter-derived ATF site. Functionally, we correlated removal of the CREB/ATF site from the promoter with loss of repression by Tax. Furthermore, since a Tax mutant protein which binds CREB repressed the cyclin A promoter while another mutant protein which does not bind CREB did not, we propose that this Tax repression occurs through protein-protein contact with CREB/ATF.  (+info)

*  FOXO4
Tang TT, Dowbenko D, Jackson A, Toney L, Lewin DA, Dent AL, Lasky LA (2002). "The forkhead transcription factor AFX activates ... FOXO transcription factors have been shown to be the down downstream effector molecules of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) ... Tang TT, Lasky LA (2003). "The forkhead transcription factor FOXO4 induces the down-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 ... transcription factors by multiple pathways, one of which includes the binding of FOXO to the survival factor Mcl-1". J. Leukoc ...
*  Proneural genes
Proneural bHLH transcription factors, not only drive neurogenesis by activating the expression of a cascade of neuronal genes, ... Proneural genes encode transcription factors of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) class which are responsible for the ... The transcription factors responsible for this maintenance can act through the inhibition of the notch signaling pathway in ... Goulding, S. E.; White, N. M.; Jarman, A. P. (2000). "Cato encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor implicated in ...
*  Activating transcription factor
... , ATF, is a group of bZIP transcription factors, which act as homodimers or heterodimers with a ... "Classification of Human Transcription Factors (TFClass)". Activating Transcription Factors at the US National Library of ... Karin M1, Smeal T (1992). "Control of transcription factors by signal transduction pathways: the beginning of the end". Trends ... whereas it turned out later that some of them might be more similar to AP-1-like factors such as c-Jun or c-Fos. Genes include ...
*  Activating transcription factor 2
... , also known as ATF2, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ATF2 gene. This gene ... Activating transcription factor 2 has been shown to interact with C-jun, Casein kinase 2, alpha 1, CREB binding protein, ... "Phosphorylation of two eukaryotic transcription factors, Jun dimerization protein 2 and activation transcription factor 2, in ... Activating transcription factor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000115966 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
*  CLEC7A
Syk activates transcription factor NFκB. This transcription factor is responsible for the production of numerous inflammatory ... Ahrén IL, Eriksson E, Egesten A, Riesbeck K (2003). "Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae activates human eosinophils through ...
*  QRICH1
"Activating Transcription Factor 7 Interacting Protein". Retrieved 23 April 2011. "AceView: Homo sapiens complex locus QRICH1, ... Interacting Proteins: ATXN1, Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 protein, and ATF7IP, activating transcription factor 7-interacting ... ATF7IP is a recruiter protein that couples transcriptional factors to the general transcription apparatus, thereby modulating ... transcription regulation and chromatin formation. QRICH1 is expressed at a high level, 3.3 times the average gene. It is ...
*  RICTOR
FoxO transcription factors can activate expression of RICTOR. FoxO has been shown to inhibit mTORC1, while activating Akt ... to mediate the ubiquitination of growth-promoting factors cyclin E and c-Myc. Furthermore, elevated growth factor signaling may ... This phosphorylation activates Akt/PKB, where deregulation of Akt/PKB has been implicated in cancer and diabetes. RICTOR and ... Chen CC, Jeon SM, Bhaskar PT, Nogueira V, Sundararajan D, Tonic I, Park Y, Hay N (2010). "FoxOs inhibit mTORC1 and activate Akt ...
*  ATF7
"Entrez Gene: ATF7 activating transcription factor 7". Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P, Mann M (2006 ... a novel variant of the ATF/CREB transcription factor family, forms a dominant transcription inhibitor in ATF-a heterodimers". J ... Cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ATF7 gene. In 2001, Peters et al ... "Sumoylation delays the ATF7 transcription factor subcellular localization and inhibits its transcriptional activity". Nucleic ...
*  ATF1
1993). "Activating transcription factor-1 can mediate Ca(2+)- and cAMP-inducible transcriptional activation". J. Biol. Chem. ... Sun P, Lou L, Maurer RA (1996). "Regulation of activating transcription factor-1 and the cAMP response element-binding protein ... This gene encodes an activating transcription factor, which belongs to the ATF subfamily and bZIP (basic-region leucine zipper ... This gene has a pseudogene on chromosome 6. Activating transcription factor ATF1 has been shown to interact with: BRCA1, ...
*  ATF3
Activating transcription factor 3 is a member of the mammalian activation transcription factor/cAMP responsive element-binding ... ATF3 activating transcription factor 3". Chen BP, Wolfgang CD, Hai T (Mar 1996). "Analysis of ATF3, a transcription factor ... Activating transcription factor ATF3 has been shown to interact with: C-jun, DDIT3 JunD, P53, and SMAD3. GRCh38: Ensembl ... Chu HM, Tan Y, Kobierski LA, Balsam LB, Comb MJ (January 1994). "Activating transcription factor-3 stimulates 3',5'-cyclic ...
*  Regional differentiation
It is hypothesized that VegT also activates the Xnr-1,2,4 proteins. VegT acts as a transcription factor to activate genes ... These transcription factors regulate other transcription factors, cell surface molecules with roles in cell adhesion, and other ... β-catenin activates the transcription factor stat3. Stat3 coordinates cell movements during gastrulation and contributes to ... β-catenin in the nucleus activates two transcription factors: siamois and twin. β-catenin also acts synergistically with VegT ...
*  TFAP2B
"Entrez Gene: transcription factor AP-2 beta (activating enhancer binding protein 2 beta)". Tsukada S, Tanaka Y, Maegawa H, et ... 2006). "Transcription factor activating enhancer-binding protein-2beta. A negative regulator of adiponectin gene expression". J ... Transcription factor AP-2 beta also known as AP2-beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TFAP2B gene. AP-2 beta is a ... 2009). "The transcription factor TFAP2B is associated with insulin resistance and adiposity in healthy adolescents". Obesity ( ...
*  ATF7IP
Activating transcription factor 7-interacting protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ATF7IP gene. ATF7IP has ... "Entrez Gene: ATF7IP activating transcription factor 7 interacting protein". Fujita, Naoyuki; Watanabe Sugiko; Ichimura Takaya; ... "A set of proteins interacting with transcription factor Sp1 identified in a two-hybrid screening". Mol Cell Biochem. 210 (1-2 ... 2005). "Activation of Sp1-mediated transcription by Rta of Epstein-Barr virus via an interaction with MCAF1". Nucleic Acids Res ...
*  Adrenocortical hormone
The experience of psychological stress activates transcription factors that activate genes. In a study by Cole et al., it was ... concluded that GABA-1 transcription factor activates the interleukin-6-gene. This gene codes for a protein that activates the ...
*  Cyclin-dependent kinase 7
"Cdk-activating kinase complex is a component of human transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 283-7. doi:10.1038/ ... "Cdk-activating kinase complex is a component of human transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 283-7. doi:10.1038/ ... "From androgen receptor to the general transcription factor TFIIH. Identification of cdk activating kinase (CAK) as an androgen ... "Association of Cdk-activating kinase subunits with transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 280-2. doi:10.1038/374280a0 ...
*  MAPK/ERK pathway
... which activates MAP2K, which activates MAPK. MAPK can now activate a transcription factor, such as Myc. Receptor-linked ... MAPK regulates the activities of several transcription factors. MAPK can phosphorylate C-myc. MAPK phosphorylates and activates ... MAPK also regulates the transcription of the C-Fos gene. By altering the levels and activities of transcription factors, MAPK ... Activated Ras activates the protein kinase activity of RAF kinase. RAF kinase phosphorylates and activates MEK (MEK1 and MEK2 ...
*  Secreted frizzled-related protein 1
GLI are transcription factors that activate the transcription of Hedgehog target genes. The GLI-binding site was identified ... Szebenyi G, Fallon JF (1999). "Fibroblast growth factors as multifunctional signaling factors". Int. Rev. Cytol. 185: 45-106. ... forms a complex with Tcf/Lef transcription factors and co-activators (such as CREB binding protein) and induces the expression ... with anti-Wnt1 antibodies reduced the activity of the Wnt/Fz dependent transcription factor LEF/TCF and diminished the ...
*  AP-1 transcription factor
AP-1 was first discovered as a TPA-activated transcription factor that bound to a cis-regulatory element of the human ... "The AP-1 transcription factor regulates breast cancer cell growth via cyclins and E2F factors". Oncogene. 27 (3): 366-377. doi: ... The AP-1 transcription factor has been shown to play numerous roles in cell growth and proliferation. In particular, c-Fos and ... AP-1 transcription factor has been shown to have a hand in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell growth, ...
*  FAM83A
... shows decreased expression when activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) is knocked out. Since ATF2 was not predicted to ... "Suppressor role of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) in skin cancer". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105 (5): 1674-9. doi ...
*  POU3F2
Goodall J, Wellbrock C, Dexter TJ, Roberts K, Marais R, Goding CR (April 2004). "The Brn-2 transcription factor links activated ... POU domain, class 3, transcription factor 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POU3F2 gene. N-Oct-3 is a protein ... It is likely that CNS-specific transcription factors such as these play an important role in mammalian neurogenesis by ... Eisen T, Easty DJ, Bennett DC, Goding CR (November 1995). "The POU domain transcription factor Brn-2: elevated expression in ...
*  MAP2K7
Phosphorylated and activated JNKs activate substrates like transcription factors or pro-apoptotic protein. MKK7 and MKK4 seem ... MKK7 are activated as a result of cellular stresses. They are activated by a number of MKKKs through phosphorylation at a S-K-A ... This kinase specifically activates MAPK8/JNK1 and MAPK9/JNK2, and this kinase itself is phosphorylated and activated by MAP ... 2001). "Susceptibility of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase family members to proteolysis by anthrax lethal factor". ...
*  Hormone
These receptors belong to the nuclear receptor family of ligand-activated transcription factors. To bind their receptors, these ... responses where the hormones acting through their receptors activate gene transcription resulting in increased expression of ... A cell may have several different receptor types that recognize the same hormone but activate different signal transduction ... Such a mechanism depends on factors that influence the metabolism and excretion of hormones. Thus, higher hormone concentration ...
*  FGF and mesoderm formation
MAPK can then enter into the nucleus and activate target transcription factors (2). In particular, three T box transcription ... FGF could activate Xbra expression through Ets2, a FGF target transcription factor that binds to an FGF-responsive element of ... In Xenopus, VegT activates transcription of Nodal-related genes (Xnr) genes, Activin and other mesodermal transcripts, which ... A vegetally localized T-box transcription factor in Xenopus eggs specifies mesoderm and endoderm and is essential for embryonic ...
*  CRISPR
... has been modified to make programmable transcription factors that allow scientists to target and activate or silence ... Cas9 was used to carry synthetic transcription factors that activated specific human genes. The technique achieved a strong ... This modification inhibits transcription. Conversely, CRISPR-mediated activation (CRISPRa) promotes gene transcription. Cas9 is ... known as a trans-activating crRNA (tracrRNA). Transcription of the tracrRNA and the primary CRISPR transcript results in base ...
*  NFKBIB
"A cytokine-responsive IkappaB kinase that activates the transcription factor NF-kappaB". Nature. 388 (6642): 548-54. doi: ... Activated NFKB complex translocates into the nucleus and binds DNA at kappa-B-binding motifs such as 5-prime GGGRNNYYCC 3-prime ... Lee FS, Peters RT, Dang LC, Maniatis T (1998). "MEKK1 activates both IκB kinase α and IκB kinase β". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S ... "Entrez Gene: NFKBIB nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, beta". Woronicz JD, Gao X, ...
*  G1 phase
In order for the cell to continue through the G1-pm, there must be a high amount of growth factors and a steady rate of protein ... These complexes then activate S-Cdk complexes that move forward with DNA replication in the S phase. Concurrently, anaphase- ... the way this is phrased it is unclear whether it is transcription of the gene or translation of the mRNA gene product that is ... G1 phase and the other subphases of the cell cycle may be affected by limiting growth factors such as nutrient supply, ...
*  ELK3
1994). "Net, a new ets transcription factor that is activated by Ras". Genes Dev. 8 (13): 1502-13. doi:10.1101/gad.8.13.1502. ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ETS-domain transcription factor family and the ternary complex factor (TCF ... Sharrocks AD, Brown AL, Ling Y, Yates PR (1998). "The ETS-domain transcription factor family". Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 29 ( ... Proteins in this subfamily regulate transcription when recruited by serum response factor to bind to serum response elements. ...
Potential Role of Activating Transcription Factor 5 during Osteogenesis  Potential Role of Activating Transcription Factor 5 during Osteogenesis
It is transcribed in two types of mRNAs (activating transcription factor 5 isoform 1 and activating transcription factor 5 ... activating transcription factor 5, transcript variant 1: NM_012068.5) and ATF5 isoform 2 (activating transcription factor 5, ... Activating transcription factor 5 is a transcription factor of the ATF/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) family. ... Potential Role of Activating Transcription Factor 5 during Osteogenesis. Luisa Vicari,1 Giovanna Calabrese,1 Stefano Forte,1 ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2016/5282185/
Activating Transcription Factors - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.org  Activating Transcription Factors - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.org
Activating Transcription Factors. Activating Transcription Factors were originally identified as DNA-Binding Proteins that ... They are a Family of Basic Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors that bind to the Consensus site TGACGTCA of the Cyclic AMP ...
more infohttp://www.online-medical-dictionary.org/definitions-a/activating-transcription-factors.html
A Basal Transcription Factor That Activates or Represses Transcription | Science  A Basal Transcription Factor That Activates or Represses Transcription | Science
A Basal Transcription Factor That Activates or Represses Transcription Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... A Basal Transcription Factor That Activates or Represses Transcription. By Patricia J. Willy, Ryuji Kobayashi, James T. ... A Basal Transcription Factor That Activates or Represses Transcription. By Patricia J. Willy, Ryuji Kobayashi, James T. ... is a bifunctional basal transcription factor that differentially regulates gene transcription through DPE or TATA box motifs. ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/982
activating transcription factor 6 beta ELISA Kits | Biocompare.com  activating transcription factor 6 beta ELISA Kits | Biocompare.com
Compare activating transcription factor 6 beta ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, ... activating transcription factor 6 beta ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody ... Your search returned 13 activating transcription factor 6 beta ELISA ELISA Kit across 3 suppliers. ... Bovine Cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-6 beta (ATF6B) ELISA Kit ...
more infohttps://www.biocompare.com/pfu/110627/soids/2-318973/ELISA_Kit/ELISA_activating_transcription_factor_6_beta
ATF3 Activating Transcription Factor 3 | Springer for Research & Development  ATF3 Activating Transcription Factor 3 | Springer for Research & Development
A cellular protein, activating transcription factor, activates transcription of multiple E1a-inducible adenovirus early ... Negative regulation of TLR-signaling pathways by activating transcription factor-3. J Immunol. 2007;179:3622-30.PubMedCrossRef ... Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) represses the expression of CCL4 in murine macrophages. Mol Immunol. 2007;44:1598-605. ... The induction of STAT1 gene by activating transcription factor 3 contributes to pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis and its ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-3-319-67199-4_612
Activating transcription factor - Wikipedia  Activating transcription factor - Wikipedia
Activating transcription factor, ATF, is a group of bZIP transcription factors, which act as homodimers or heterodimers with a ... "Classification of Human Transcription Factors (TFClass)". Activating Transcription Factors at the US National Library of ... Karin M1, Smeal T (1992). "Control of transcription factors by signal transduction pathways: the beginning of the end". Trends ... whereas it turned out later that some of them might be more similar to AP-1-like factors such as c-Jun or c-Fos. Genes include ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Activating_transcription_factor
Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) stabilizes p53 in genotoxic response | Cancer Research  Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) stabilizes p53 in genotoxic response | Cancer Research
Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) stabilizes p53 in genotoxic response. Chunhong Yan, Tsonwin Hai and Douglas Boyd ... Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) stabilizes p53 in genotoxic response Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... As a consequence, target genes including p21, PIG3 or PUMA are transcriptionally activated, leading to cell growth arrest or ... ATF3-stabilized p53 was functional as evidenced by its ability to trans-activate p53 downstream targets including MDM2, p21, ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/65/9_Supplement/862.3
Frontiers | Activating Transcription Factor 3 and the Nervous System | Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience  Frontiers | Activating Transcription Factor 3 and the Nervous System | Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Of the transcription factors that regulate these changes in gene expression, the function of c-jun is best understood but ATF-3 ... Of the transcription factors that regulate these changes in gene expression, the function of c-jun is best understood but ATF-3 ... That transcription factors must play an important role in enabling neurons to regrow their axons is implicit to the observation ... That transcription factors must play an important role in enabling neurons to regrow their axons is implicit to the observation ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnmol.2012.00007/full
Activating transcription factor 2 - Wikipedia  Activating transcription factor 2 - Wikipedia
Activating transcription factor 2, also known as ATF2, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ATF2 gene. This gene ... Activating transcription factor 2 has been shown to interact with C-jun, Casein kinase 2, alpha 1, CREB binding protein, ... "Phosphorylation of two eukaryotic transcription factors, Jun dimerization protein 2 and activation transcription factor 2, in ... Activating transcription factor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000115966 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Activating_transcription_factor_2
iHOP - 
    
     ISGF3 gamma p48, a specificity switch for interferon activated transcription factors.  iHOP - ISGF3 gamma p48, a specificity switch for interferon activated transcription factors.
iHOP - Information Hyperlinked over Proteins. iHOP provides the network of genes and proteins as a natural way of accessing the millions of abstracts in PubMed. By employing genes and proteins as hyperlinks between sentences and abstracts, the information in PubMed becomes bound together into one navigable resource. A Gene Network for Navigating the Literature, Nature Genetics 36, 664 (2004). www.ihop-net.org/UniPub/iHOP/
more infohttp://www.ihop-net.org/UniPub/iHOP/pm/794535.html?nr=3&pmid=8864350
Stimulation of adipogenesis in fibroblasts by PPAR gamma 2, a lipid-activated transcription factor.  - PubMed - NCBI  Stimulation of adipogenesis in fibroblasts by PPAR gamma 2, a lipid-activated transcription factor. - PubMed - NCBI
Stimulation of adipogenesis in fibroblasts by PPAR gamma 2, a lipid-activated transcription factor.. Tontonoz P1, Hu E, ... C/EBP alpha, a second transcription factor induced during adipocyte differentiation, can cooperate with PPAR gamma 2 to ... Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPAR gamma 2) is an adipocyte-specific nuclear hormone receptor that has ... PPAR gamma 2 is to regulate development of the adipose lineage in response to endogenous lipid activators and that this factor ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8001151?dopt=Abstract
CiNii 論文 - 
 		
 		
 			
 		 	
 		 		
 		 			Decreased immediate inflammatory gene induction in activating transcription factor...  CiNii 論文 - Decreased immediate inflammatory gene induction in activating transcription factor...
Decreased immediate inflammatory gene induction in activating transcription factor-2 mutant mice * * REIMOLD Andreas M. ... Identification of the cyclin D1 gene as a target of activating transcription factor 2 in chondrocytes BEIER F. ... Association of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme hUBC9 Implication of the ... A specific member of the ATF transcription factor family can mediate transcription activation by the adenovirus E1a protein LIU ...
more infohttp://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/10008033160
STAT-related transcription factors are constitutively activated in peripheral blood cells from acute leukemia patients | Blood...  STAT-related transcription factors are constitutively activated in peripheral blood cells from acute leukemia patients | Blood...
STAT-related transcription factors are constitutively activated in peripheral blood cells from acute leukemia patients. V ... STAT-related transcription factors are constitutively activated in peripheral blood cells from acute leukemia patients. Blood, ... STAT-related transcription factors are constitutively activated in peripheral blood cells from acute leukemia patients ... STAT-related transcription factors are constitutively activated in peripheral blood cells from acute leukemia patients ...
more infohttp://www.bloodjournal.org/content/87/5/1692?ijkey=e24d14dac658bfe2c4a8d36fdc271391c775348a&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha&sso-checked=true
Activating Transcription Factor 4 Is Translationally Regulated by Hypoxic Stress | Molecular and Cellular Biology  Activating Transcription Factor 4 Is Translationally Regulated by Hypoxic Stress | Molecular and Cellular Biology
Activating Transcription Factor 4 Is Translationally Regulated by Hypoxic Stress. Jaime D. Blais, Vasilisa Filipenko, Meixia Bi ... Activating Transcription Factor 4 Is Translationally Regulated by Hypoxic Stress. Jaime D. Blais, Vasilisa Filipenko, Meixia Bi ... Activating Transcription Factor 4 Is Translationally Regulated by Hypoxic Stress. Jaime D. Blais, Vasilisa Filipenko, Meixia Bi ... Activating Transcription Factor 4 Is Translationally Regulated by Hypoxic Stress Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
more infohttps://mcb.asm.org/content/24/17/7469
Activating Transcription Factor 4 Is Translationally Regulated by Hypoxic Stress | Molecular and Cellular Biology  Activating Transcription Factor 4 Is Translationally Regulated by Hypoxic Stress | Molecular and Cellular Biology
Activating Transcription Factor 4 Is Translationally Regulated by Hypoxic Stress. Jaime D. Blais, Vasilisa Filipenko, Meixia Bi ... Activating Transcription Factor 4 Is Translationally Regulated by Hypoxic Stress. Jaime D. Blais, Vasilisa Filipenko, Meixia Bi ... Activating Transcription Factor 4 Is Translationally Regulated by Hypoxic Stress. Jaime D. Blais, Vasilisa Filipenko, Meixia Bi ... Activating Transcription Factor 4 Is Translationally Regulated by Hypoxic Stress Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
more infohttps://mcb.asm.org/content/24/17/7469.abstract
NIOSHTIC-2  Publications Search - 20035352 - Induction of metallothionein I by arsenic via metal-activated transcription factor...  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20035352 - Induction of metallothionein I by arsenic via metal-activated transcription factor...
Metal-activated transcription factor 1 (MTF1) mediates the induction of metallothioneins I and II by zinc and stress signals. ... Metal-activated transcription factor 1 (MTF1) mediates the induction of metallothioneins I and II by zinc and stress signals. ... Induction of metallothionein I by arsenic via metal-activated transcription factor 1. Critical role of c-terminal cysteine ... The findings demonstrate a critical role of the C-terminal cysteine cluster of MTF1 in arsenic sensing and gene transcription ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20035352.html
NIOSHTIC-2  Publications Search - 20029921 - Chromium (VI) induces antioxidant gene HO-1 by activating the CNC BZIP...  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20029921 - Chromium (VI) induces antioxidant gene HO-1 by activating the CNC BZIP...
Chromium (VI) induces antioxidant gene HO-1 by activating the CNC BZIP transcription factor NRF2.. ... Expression of a dominant negative form of Nrf2, a cap 'n' collar basic leucine zipper transcription factor, in the cells blocks ... implicating Nrf2 as the key transcription factor in the induction. Mechanistic analysis reveals that Cr (VI) increases the ... These results provide the first evidence that Cr (VI) induces antioxidant gene HO-1 important in ROS defense by activating Nrf2 ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20029921.html
High-yield expression in E. coli and refolding of the bZIP domain of activating transcription factor 5.  - PubMed - NCBI  High-yield expression in E. coli and refolding of the bZIP domain of activating transcription factor 5. - PubMed - NCBI
High-yield expression in E. coli and refolding of the bZIP domain of activating transcription factor 5.. Ciaccio NA1, Moreno ML ... Activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) recently has been demonstrated to play a critical role in promoting the survival of ... High-Yield Expression in E. coli and Refolding of the bZIP Domain of Activating Transcription Factor 5 ... High-Yield Expression in E. coli and Refolding of the bZIP Domain of Activating Transcription Factor 5 ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=18718539
THE POTENTIAL DICHOTOMOUS ROLE OF ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3 (ATF3) IN COLON CANCER  THE POTENTIAL DICHOTOMOUS ROLE OF ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3 (ATF3) IN COLON CANCER
... ... ATF3, a member of the ATF/CREB transcription factor family, plays an important role on regulation of apoptosis and is regarded ... related transcription factors. However, mammosphere forming assay indicated that ATF3 overexpressed colon cancer cells form ...
more infohttps://drum.lib.umd.edu/handle/1903/17382
atf7ip2, activating transcription factor 7 interacting protein 2 - Creative Biogene  atf7ip2, activating transcription factor 7 interacting protein 2 - Creative Biogene
ATF7IP2; activating transcription factor 7 interacting protein 2; activating transcription factor 7-interacting protein 2; ... FLJ12668; ATF7-interacting protein 2; MBD1-containing chromatin associated factor 2; MBD1-containing chromatin-associated ...
more infohttps://www.creative-biogene.com/symbolsearch_atf7ip2.html
  • STAT5- and STAT1-related factors were detected in ALL and STAT1-, STAT3-, and STAT5-related proteins were present in nuclear cell extracts from AML. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In the central nervous system, heteromeric metabotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA(B)) receptors through adenylyl cyclase regulate cAMP levels, which may control transcription factor binding to the cAMP response element. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Identification and functional characterization of hypoxia-responsive transcription factors is important for understanding plant responses to natural anaerobic environments and during storage and transport of fresh horticultural products. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Incompetence is due to failure to activate an autocrine interleukin (IL)-1α feedback loop required to mediate cell response. (arvojournals.org)
  • The calcineurin/NFAT3 pathway can be activated by classical hypertrophy inducers, including ANG II, endothelin-1 (ET-1), and catecholamines ( 27 , 49 ). (physiology.org)