Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.
A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.
The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.
The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.
A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.
A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.
The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.
Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.
A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.
An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.
A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).
A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.
A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.
Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein oncogene protein v-ets of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
A general transcription factor that is involved in basal GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. It consists of nine subunits including ATP-DEPENDENT DNA HELICASES; CYCLIN H; and XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM GROUP D PROTEIN.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.
A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.
Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.
A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE III and aid in transcription. They include the assembly factors TFIIIA and TFIIIC and the initiation factor TFIIIB. All combine to form a preinitiation complex at the promotor that directs the binding of RNA POLYMERASE III.
A heterotetrameric transcription factor composed of two distinct proteins. Its name refers to the fact it binds to DNA sequences rich in GUANINE and ADENINE. GA-binding protein integrates a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and regulates expression of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE control, PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS, and cellular METABOLISM.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway. The activity of the protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN. Transcription factor 7-like 2 protein plays an important role in the embryogenesis of the PANCREAS and ISLET CELLS.
An ets proto-oncogene expressed primarily in adult LYMPHOID TISSUE; BRAIN; and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that was originally identified in DROSOPHILA as essential for proper gastrulation and MESODERM formation. It plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MUSCLE CELLS, and is found in a wide variety of organisms.
A tissue-specific subunit of NF-E2 transcription factor that interacts with small MAF PROTEINS to regulate gene expression. P45 NF-E2 protein is expressed primarily in MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; and MAST CELLS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. TFIIIB recruits and positions pol III over the initiation site and remains stably bound to the DNA through multiple rounds of re-initiation by RNA POLYMERASE III.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
One of the BASIC-LEUCINE ZIPPER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that is synthesized as a membrane-bound protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. In response to endoplasmic reticulum stress it translocates to the GOLGI APPARATUS. It is activated by PROTEASES and then moves to the CELL NUCLEUS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in the unfolded protein response.
A family of mammalian POU domain factors that are expressed predominately in NEURONS.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates GLOBIN gene expression and is related to TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1. NF-E2 consists of a small MAF protein subunit and a tissue-restricted 45 kDa subunit.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subfamily have been implicated in regulating the differentiation of OLIGODENDROCYTES during neural crest formation and in CHONDROGENESIS.
Ubiquitously expressed basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF transcription factors. They bind CANNTG sequences in the promoters of a variety of GENES involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Factors that form a preinitiation complex at promoters that are specifically transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE I.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in determining cell fate during embryogenesis. It forms a heterodimer with TWIST TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and ACHAETE-SCUTE GENE COMPLEX-related TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A POU domain factor that regulates expression of GROWTH HORMONE; PROLACTIN; and THYROTROPIN-BETA in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of the group have been found expressed in developing neuronal tissue, LYMPHOCYTES, and during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.

Interleukin-12 induces expression of interferon regulatory factor-1 via signal transducer and activator of transcription-4 in human T helper type 1 cells. (1/357)

IRF-1-deficient mice show a striking defect in the development of T helper 1 (Th1) cells. In the present report, we investigate the expression of IRF-1 during differentiation of human T helper cells. No significant differences of IRF-1 mRNA expression were found in established Th1 and Th2 cells; however, interleukin 12 (IL-12) induced a strong up-regulation of IRF-1 transcripts in Th1 but not in Th2 cells. We demonstrate that IL-12-induced up-regulation of IRF-1 is mediated by signal transducer and activator of transcription-4, which binds to the interferon (IFN)-gamma-activated sequence present in the promoter of the IRF-1 gene. Strong IL-12-dependent activation of a reporter gene construct containing the IRF-1 IFN-gamma-activated sequence element provides further evidence for the key role of signal transducer and activator of transcription-4 in the IL-12-induced up-regulation of IRF-1 transcripts in T cells. IRF-1 expression was strongly induced after stimulation of naive CD4(+) T cells via the T cell receptor, irrespective of the cytokines present at priming, indicating that this transcription factor does not play a major role in initiating a Th1-specific transcriptional cascade in differentiating helper T cells. However, our finding that IRF-1 is a target gene of IL-12 suggests that some of the IL-12-induced effector functions of Th1 cells may be mediated by IRF-1.  (+info)

Homocysteine-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and growth arrest leads to specific changes in gene expression in human vascular endothelial cells. (2/357)

Alterations in the cellular redox potential by homocysteine promote endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction, an early event in the progression of atherothrombotic disease. In this study, we demonstrate that homocysteine causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and growth arrest in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). To determine if these effects reflect specific changes in gene expression, cDNA microarrays were screened using radiolabeled cDNA probes generated from mRNA derived from HUVEC, cultured in the absence or presence of homocysteine. Good correlation was observed between expression profiles determined by this method and by Northern blotting. Consistent with its adverse effects on the ER, homocysteine alters the expression of genes sensitive to ER stress (ie, GADD45, GADD153, ATF-4, YY1). Several other genes observed to be differentially expressed by homocysteine are known to mediate cell growth and differentiation (ie, GADD45, GADD153, Id-1, cyclin D1, FRA-2), a finding that supports the observation that homocysteine causes a dose-dependent decrease in DNA synthesis in HUVEC. Additional gene profiles also show that homocysteine decreases cellular antioxidant potential (glutathione peroxidase, NKEF-B PAG, superoxide dismutase, clusterin), which could potentially enhance the cytotoxic effects of agents or conditions known to cause oxidative damage. These results successfully demonstrate the use of cDNA microarrays in identifying homocysteine-respondent genes and indicate that homocysteine-induced ER stress and growth arrest reflect specific changes in gene expression in human vascular EC.  (+info)

Middle T antigen activation of signal transduction pathways does not overcome p53-mediated growth arrest. (3/357)

Polyomavirus middle T antigen does not overcome p53-mediated G(1) arrest in mouse embryo fibroblasts. Middle T antigen still associates with the signaling molecules phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and SHC and activates the transcriptional activity of c-Myc and AP1 in p53-arrested cells. Examination of cell cycle regulatory proteins indicated that p53 does not interfere with these mitogenic signals but acts later in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle.  (+info)

Heregulin induces expression, DNA binding activity, and transactivating functions of basic leucine zipper activating transcription factor 4. (4/357)

Heregulin beta1 (HRG), a combinatorial ligand for human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 and human epidermal growth factor receptor 4 receptors, is a regulatory secretory polypeptide with distinct biological effects such as growth stimulation, differentiation, invasiveness, and migration in breast cancer cells. The mechanism underlying the diverse functions of HRG is not well established, but it is believed to be dependent on the induced changes in expression of specific cellular gene products, their modification, or both. The binding of basic leucine zipper transcription factors to the cAMP response element is known to activate a variety of gene products with a role or roles in growth regulation. In the studies presented here, we identified basic leucine zipper activating transcription factor (ATF) 4 as one of the HRG-inducible gene product. We demonstrated that HRG stimulation of human cancer cells induces expression of ATF4 mRNA and protein, ATF4 DNA binding activity, and ATF4 transactivating function. Consistent with its role as a transcriptional activator, HRG-stimulated ATF4 protein stimulated the transcription from an artificial promoter with three tandem ATF sites or from a naturally occurring promoter with ATF4 sites such as E-selectin. We also demonstrated a preferential role of the HRG-stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, but not the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase pathway, in supporting the observed increase in ATF4 DNA binding activity and transcription from E-selectin promoter in HRG-stimulated cells. Because ATF4 binding sites are present in a variety of growth-regulating cellular genes, these findings suggest that the stimulation of ATF4 expression and its transactivating functions may constitute an important mechanism of HRG-mediated regulation of putative genes with diversified functions. The present study is the first demonstration of regulation of expression and transactivation ability of ATF4 by any polypeptide growth factor.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of basal and cyclic AMP response elements in the promoter of the rat GTP cyclohydrolase I gene. (5/357)

5812 base pairs of rat GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) 5'-flanking region were cloned and sequenced, and the transcription start site was determined for the gene in rat liver. Progressive deletion analysis using transient transfection assays of luciferase reporter constructs defined the core promoter as a highly conserved 142-base pair GC-rich sequence upstream from the cap site. DNase I footprint analysis of this region revealed (5' --> 3') a Sp1/GC box, a noncanonical cAMP-response element (CRE), a CCAAT-box, and an E-box. Transcription from the core promoter in PC12 but not C6 or Rat2 cells was enhanced by incubation with 8-bromo-cyclic AMP. Mutagenesis showed that both the CRE and CCAAT-box independently contribute to basal and cAMP-dependent activity. The combined CRE and CCAAT-box cassette was also found to enhance basal transcription and confer cAMP sensitivity on a heterologous minimal promoter. The addition of the Sp1/GC box sequence to this minimal promoter construct inhibited basal transcription without affecting the cAMP response. EMSA showed that nuclear proteins from PC12 but not C6 or Rat2 cells bind the CRE as a complex containing activating transcription factor (ATF)-4 and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein beta, while both PC12 and C6 cell nuclear extracts were recruited by the CCAAT-box as a complex containing nuclear factor Y. Overexpression of ATF-4 in PC12 cells was found to transactivate the GTPCH promoter response to cAMP. These studies suggest that the elements required for cell type-specific cAMP-dependent enhancement of gene transcription are located along the GTPCH core promoter and include the CRE and adjacent CCAAT-box and the proteins ATF-4, CCAAT enhancer-binding protein beta, and nuclear factor Y.  (+info)

Molecular interactions involved in the transactivation of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 promoter mediated by Tax and CREB-2 (ATF-4). (6/357)

The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax protein activates viral transcription through three 21-bp repeats located in the U3 region of the HTLV-1 long terminal repeat and called Tax-responsive elements (TxREs). Each TxRE contains nucleotide sequences corresponding to imperfect cyclic AMP response elements (CRE). In this study, we demonstrate that the bZIP transcriptional factor CREB-2 is able to bind in vitro to the TxREs and that CREB-2 binding to each of the 21-bp motifs is enhanced by Tax. We also demonstrate that Tax can weakly interact with CREB-2 bound to a cellular palindromic CRE motif such as that found in the somatostatin promoter. Mutagenesis of Tax and CREB-2 demonstrates that both N- and C-terminal domains of Tax and the C-terminal region of CREB-2 are required for direct interaction between the two proteins. In addition, the Tax mutant M47, defective for HTLV-1 activation, is unable to form in vitro a ternary complex with CREB-2 and TxRE. In agreement with recent results suggesting that Tax can recruit the coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP) on the HTLV-1 promoter, we provide evidence that Tax, CREB-2, and CBP are capable of cooperating to stimulate viral transcription. Taken together, our data highlight the major role played by CREB-2 in Tax-mediated transactivation.  (+info)

Functional analysis of the OCA-B promoter. (7/357)

OCA-B was identified as a B cell-specific coactivator that functions with either Oct-1 or Oct-2 to mediate efficient cell type-specific transcription via the octamer site (ATGCAAAT) both in vivo and in vitro. Mice lacking OCA-B exhibit normal Ag-independent B cell maturation. In contrast, Ag-dependent functions, including production of secondary Ig isotypes and germinal center formation, are greatly affected. To better understand OCA-B expression and, ultimately, the defects observed in the OCA-B knockout mice, we have cloned the OCA-B promoter and examined its function in both transformed and primary B cells. We show here that the OCA-B promoter is developmentally regulated, with activity increasing throughout B cell differentiation. Through physical and functional assays, we have found an activating transcription factor/cAMP response element binding protein binding site (or cAMP response element) that is crucial for OCA-B promoter activity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that IL-4 and anti-CD40 induce both the OCA-B promoter and octamer-dependent promoters, thus implicating OCA-B in B cell signaling events in the nucleus.  (+info)

The cryptocephal gene (ATF4) encodes multiple basic-leucine zipper proteins controlling molting and metamorphosis in Drosophila. (8/357)

The cryptocephal (crc) mutation causes pleiotropic defects in ecdysone-regulated events during Drosophila molting and metamorphosis. Here we report that crc encodes a Drosophila homolog of vertebrate ATF4, a member of the CREB/ATF family of basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors. We identified three putative protein isoforms. CRC-A and CRC-B contain the bZIP domain, and CRC-D is a C-terminally truncated form. We have generated seven new crc alleles. Consistent with the molecular diversity of crc, these alleles show that crc is a complex genetic locus with two overlapping lethal complementation groups. Alleles representing both groups were rescued by a cDNA encoding CRC-B. One lethal group (crc(1), crc(R6), and crc(Rev8)) consists of strong hypomorphic or null alleles that are associated with mutations of both CRC-A and CRC-B. These mutants display defects associated with larval molting and pupariation. In addition, they fail to evert the head and fail to elongate the imaginal discs during pupation, and they display variable defects in the subsequent differentiation of the adult abdomen. The other group (crc(R1), crc(R2), crc(E85), crc(E98), and crc(929)) is associated with disruptions of CRC-A and CRC-D; except for a failure to properly elongate the leg discs, these mutants initiate metamorphosis normally. Subsequently, they display a novel metamorphic phenotype, involving collapse of the head and abdomen toward the thorax. The crc gene is expressed throughout development and in many tissues. In third instar larvae, crc expression is high in targets of ecdysone signaling, such as the leg and wing imaginal discs, and in the ring gland, the source of ecdysone. Together, these findings implicate CREB/ATF proteins in essential functions during molting and metamorphosis. In addition, the similarities between the mutant phenotypes of crc and the ecdysone-responsive genes indicate that these genes are likely to be involved in common signaling pathways.  (+info)

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Mitochondrial dysfunction is pervasive in human pathologies such as neurodegeneration, diabetes, cancer, and pathogen infections as well as during normal aging. Cells sense and respond to mitochondrial dysfunction by activating a protective transcriptional program known as the mitochondrial unfolded …
Fiat is close to launching the U.S. spec Fiat 500 Abarth, and this first teaser video tries to position the car as a rebel and a bad boy.
Having spent the best part of the 1990s living on a drip, Fiat has embarked on a bold mission to resuscitate a bankrupt Chrysler and take over the European operations of its Detroit rival General Motors.
The Fiat 500 is not new news, but stop! (collaborate and listen) there is something in this certain 500 that makes it harp back to its predecessor more than
I owned a 2015 Fiat 500 Abarth ( Automatic) from 3/15 until 6/18 . 25k miles, Not a single problem with it. Lots of character and fairly economical at ~30 mpg (+ or -) .
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Good points Marianne. I might also add that not all IOIs are what they may seem. For example, hair twirling can occur when a woman feels uncomfortable/stressed. If it is slow and methodical its probably an IOI. If it is fast paced and kind of a tugging action, she is having a negative reaction and feels uncomfortable/stressed. Same goes for stroking actions. Pay attention to the pace. If it is slow and rhythmic she is probably daydreaming/thinking erotic thoughts. If it is fast paced, she is probably anxious/uncomfortable/stressed ...
The combined Rhone and Aare Glaciers presumably reached their last glacial maximum (LGM) extent on the Swiss Plateau prior to 24 ka. Two well-preserved, less extensive moraine stades, the Gurten and Bern Stade, document the last deglaciation of the Aare Valley, yet age constraints are very scarce. In order to establish a more robust chronology for the glacial/deglacial history of the Aare Valley, we applied 10Be surface exposure dating on eleven boulders from the Gurten and Bern Stade. Several exposure ages are of Holocene age and likely document post-depositional processes, including boulder toppling and quarrying. The remaining exposure ages, however yield oldest ages of 20.7 ± 2.2 ka for the Gurten Stade and 19.0 ± 2.0 ka for the Bern Stade. Our results are in good agreement with published chronologies from other sites in the Alps.
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Opening of the conference and Honoring of the Shortlisted Nominees of the FIAT/IFTA Archive Achievement Awards at The Promised Land 18:30 to 20:00 ...
Italys Fiat now owns most of Chryslers assets. The deal was closed today, saving the troubled U.S. automaker from liquidation.
The head of Fiat SpA said it had more than a 50 percent chance of succeeding in its bid for Opel, adding that the other contenders did not have the expertise to save the struggling car maker, according to a newspaper report.
AutomotiveNL bevordert een bloeiende Nederlandse automotive sector door zowel nationaal als internationaal de sector te profileren en te representeren bij OEMs, automotive toeleveranciers, koepelorganisaties, clusterorganisaties en overheden. Missie De inhoudelijke focusgebieden zijn Smart Mobility, Green Mobility, Manufacturing en Materials. AutomotiveNL richt zich op innovatie, onderwijs en kennistransfer, validatie en internationalisering. Daarnaast stimuleert ze op de Automotive Campus de komst van nieuwe bedrijven én onderwijsactiviteiten.
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A Fiat Tipo is not a Nissan Versa, Tipo is a C segment car, the Versa is a B segment vehicle. Main external difference is width, Versa being 169.5 cm...
The gene encoding CHOP (C/EBP-homologous protein) is transcriptionally activated by many stimuli and by amino acid deprivation. CHOP induction was considered to be due to an accumulation of unfolded protein into the ER (unfolded protein response (UPR)). We investigate the role of the UPR in the indu …
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Choices and consequences means simply that if you make poor choices, that if you dont abide by the rules, that if you dont respect the chain of command, if you dont find the appropriate way to raise your concerns to your leadership, there will be consequences, because we cannot tolerate - we cannot tolerate - an undisciplined organization, he said.. Sen. Charles Grassley, R-Iowa., and Rep. Darrell Issa, R-Calif., sent a letter Wednesday to Jones declaring the message could be interpreted as a threat and asked him to clarify.. Your ominous message - which could be interpreted as a threat - is likely to have a major chilling effect on ATF employees exercising their rights to contact Congress, they wrote.. What it appears to be is a not-so-veiled threat telling (ATF employees) not to do what they did to expose Fast and Furious, Issa said. Hes basically saying no, keep it in the chain.. The ATF insists the video (above) was taken out of context.. It was directed at employees who ...
Fiat Chrysler is recalling over 1.3 million vehicles worldwide to fix malfunctioning alternators that can cause engines to stall or a wiring problem that can make air bags deploy unexpectedly.The wiring recall covers nearly 771,000 Dodge Journey and Fiat F
The Oyo State chapter of Oodua peoples Congress (OPC )under the leadership of Comrade Rotimi Olumo, has maintained that the Aare Ona Kakanfo, Otunba Gani
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Fiat has officially gained full control of Chrysler after purchasing the remaining stake for over $4 billion. CNBCs Phil LeBeau reports.
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Review standard and optional interior, exterior, mechanical comfort, entertainment equipment and their warranties for a 2016 500 Easy 2dr Hatchback.
Expression of the ATF in the ECV304 cells. Immunofluorescence was performed, and the resulting cells were observed under a laser scanning confocal microscope. (
ATF6, a membrane-anchored transcription factor from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that modulates the cellular response to stress as an effector of the unfolded-protein response (UPR), is a key player in the development of tumors of different origin. reticulum (ER) can be particularly affected by the presence of mutations in secretory proteins or by dynamic changes in the cellular microenvironment, events which are often encountered in cancers. In the ER, these events are sensed by specific sensors, which in turn trigger select Rabbit Polyclonal to CPB2 signaling pathways, collectively named the unfolded-protein response (UPR) (1). The UPR is an adaptive response that allows the cells to either overcome the stress or promote cell death in the case of overwhelming burden (1). Three ER-resident proteins, namely, the protein kinase PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), the inositol-requiring protein 1 alpha (IRE1), and the activating transcription factor 6 alpha (ATF6), have been identified as the major ...
Some lawmakers and government accountability groups interpreted the words as a warning to employees considering blowing the whistle on corruption.. In a July 18 letter to Jones, Rep. Darrell Issa (R., Calif.) and Sen. Chuck Grassley (R., Iowa) wrote ATF employees must be free and clear of agency interference or retaliation if they choose to talk to Congress.. Your ominous message-which could be interpreted as a threat-is likely to have a major chilling effect on ATF employees exercising their rights to contact Congress, the two lawmakers wrote. Therefore, it needs to be clarified.. On numerous occasions, we have stressed to ATF and the Department of Justice the importance of protecting whistleblower disclosures and preventing retaliation against whistleblowers, they continued.. The bureau needs to make up its mind whether its going to be supportive of employees trying to get its mission back on track, or if its going to snuff out dissent, said Tom Devine, the legal director of the ...
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Italian mobsters make as much money trafficking narcotics in Italy as Fiat does selling cars, but without having to pay taxes, the anti-mafia prosecutors office said on Wednesday.
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The 2012 Fiat 500 Sports comes in a high-gloss Brilliant Red, among other choices, that truly befits its flashy urban style and surprising small car performance.
Fiat Chrysler is recalling nearly 1.8 million Ram trucks because they can be shifted out of park without the drivers foot on the brake.
Lampa semnalizare fata Fiat Punto 1 10.1993-09.1999 CARELLO partea stanga lampi lucas , magazin online piese auto noi si accesorii auto dedicate!
@lucifer919: Great Going! Sorry to sort-of-hijack your thread - But a short update on my 1.6 Sport. At about 80000kms on the odo, the car never ceases to thrill me. After 5-6 months of not using the
Article Autophosphorylation-induced degradation of the Pho85 cyclin Pcl5 is essential for response to amino acid limitation. Pho85 cyclins (Pcls), activators of the yeast cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) Pho85, belong together with the p35 activator of ...
Fiat 124 Abarth Spider - 28 images - Fiat 124 Abarth Spider 2017 Autoevolution, Fiat 124 Abarth Spider 2017 Autoevolution, Fiat 124 Abarth Spider 2017 Autoevolution, Fiat 124 Spider Abarth 2017 3d Model Max Obj 3ds Fbx C4d, Fiat 124 Abarth Spider Specs 2017 Autoevolution
FIG. 6. Transcription and translation of ATF3 mRNA is not dependent on Perk activity during hypoxia. (A) ATF3 total mRNA expression is induced by hypoxic stress. Total RNA was isolated prior to sucrose gradient fractionation from hypoxia-treated (4 h) or normoxic (0 h) SV40-immortalized Perk+/+ and Perk−/− cells, reverse transcribed, and quantified by real-time PCR. The quantities of each transcript are described as the number of transcripts isolated per microgram of total RNA. Each sample was independently normalized to a spiked internal control. Q-PCR analysis was replicated in triplicate. Results are representative of the averages ± SEM for three independent experiments. (B) ATF3 transcripts are enriched in the polysomes of Perk+/+ and Perk−/− cells during hypoxia. High-molecular-weight polysomes from hypoxia-treated (4 h) or normoxic (0 h) SV40-immortalized Perk+/+ and Perk−/− cells were pooled (fractions 6 to 10), reverse transcribed, and quantified by real-time PCR. The ...
J:191236 Wang SZ, Ou J, Zhu LJ, Green MR, Transcription factor ATF5 is required for terminal differentiation and survival of olfactory sensory neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Nov 6;109(45):18589-94 ...
Fiat CT24FT38 Connects2 CT24FT38 Fiat Stilo (2001 - 2008) Car Stereo Fascia Facia Panel Adaptor - These adaptors will convert the non din-sized aperture left after removing the factory stereo to a din size ready for head unit installation.
As long as the fiat money has NO EXPIRY DATES, the population at large may prefer keeping it even outside tax time to keeping perishable goods as a form of storing their
GOLD Title: Fiat Punto Agency: DArcy Author: Daniel Taylor Creative Director: Nick Hastings Art Director: Dave Godfree Copywriter: Mark Waldron Client: Fiat Auto UK Product: Fiat Punto So as not to alienate either female or male Punto drivers, planning arranged for two separate gender-specific groups to react to the script that railed against their sex. The groups expressed their feelings in detail to the first script. Planning then played the two narrative tapes again, exposing the groups to the other version for the first time. A full group discussion then took place to highlight the pros and cons. The results gave planning and Fiat the confidence not only to make the scripts, but to exploit the opportunity for controversy and exposure. ...
Ford and Fiat Chrysler are cutting production of smaller cars and idling workers at some North American factories, while boosting output of crossovers and SUVs in reaction to a long-term shift toward larger vehicles. U.S. light-truck sales have climbed 8.8 percent this year through May while car demand has slipped 8 percent.
My 71 Fiat Spider • 5.5 x 13 inch balanced US Indy mags for street6 x 13 inch Shelby mags for autocrossing/trials • Koni adjustable shocks • Faza autocross springs about 1.5 in shorter and higher spring rate Larger 1
today. Things are actually looking up for the truck-engine maker. The stock plunged as much as 4.7 percent on Thursday after the Environmental Protection Agency accused Fiat Chrysler Automobiles…. View this article online at Bloomberg ...
Last fall we told you about the SCCA’s new B-Spec series, designed to be an affordable gateway into the world of SCCA racing. Cars for the series are purpose-built and include the Kia Rio, the MINI Cooper, the Mazda2, the Ford Fiesta, the Honda Fit and the Fiat 500. By series rules, each car must run the same brand and model of tire, and it’s...
Dairy proteins, in particular the whey fraction, exert insulinogenic properties and facilitate glycemic regulation through a mechanism involving elevation of certain plasma amino acids, and stimulation of incretins. Human milk is rich in whey protein and has not been investigated in this respect ...
Connects2 CT23FT07 - Fiat Croma 2005-2011 Black Double Din Stereo Fascia Kit - These adaptors will convert the non din-sized aperture left after removing the factory stereo to a double din size ready for head unit installation.
The Italian government is callingon Fiat to clarify its commitment to Italy after thecarmaker reiterated its multi-billion-euro investment plan forits home country should not be interpreted as an absolutepledge.
Fiat Chrysler is recalling over 1.3 million vehicles worldwide to fix malfunctioning alternators or a wiring problem that can make air bags inflate unexpectedly.
This is a 1970 Fiat twin cam 1438cc race engine. It is ready to drop in. It has being recently freshened and has not raced since ...
Has anybody had any experiences changing these? They seem readily available on eBay...not so sure about getting the old ones off will be particularly...
Crossovers are king, but does that necessarily mean that they are the best vehicle to cart around your family? No. That title is still ...
Combine the appeal of a vintage off-roader with the charm of a Fiat Jolly, and you get this: a Ferves Ranger. A rear-mounted engine from the Fiat 500 provided a blistering 18 horsepower, sent either to the rear wheels or all four. The name Ferves comes from Ferrari Veicoli Speciale (Ferrari
Propranolol es bloqueador de receptor beta-adrenergico y se usa para curar angina, hipotensión y trastorno de latidos de corazón. ...
ATF6700FS - Affinity? 3.5 Cu. Ft. I.E.C. Capacity Washer Wont Start My washer gives me an ERR message when I press - Washing Machines question
"Activating Transcription Factor 7 Interacting Protein". Retrieved 23 April 2011. "AceView: Homo sapiens complex locus QRICH1, ... Interacting Proteins: ATXN1, Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 protein, and ATF7IP, activating transcription factor 7-interacting ... ATF7IP is a recruiter protein that couples transcriptional factors to the general transcription apparatus, thereby modulating ... transcription regulation and chromatin formation. QRICH1 is expressed at a high level, 3.3 times the average gene. It is ...
"Entrez Gene: ATF1 activating transcription factor 1". Zucman J, Delattre O, Desmaze C, Epstein AL, Stenman G, Speleman F, ... 1993). "Activating transcription factor-1 can mediate Ca(2+)- and cAMP-inducible transcriptional activation". J. Biol. Chem. ... Sun P, Lou L, Maurer RA (1996). "Regulation of activating transcription factor-1 and the cAMP response element-binding protein ... This gene encodes an activating transcription factor, which belongs to the ATF subfamily and bZIP (basic-region leucine zipper ...
Transcription factor AP4 is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, which bind to the E-box ... activating enhancer binding protein 4), also known as TFAP4, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the TFAP4 gene. ... "Entrez Gene: TFAP4 transcription factor AP-4 (activating enhancer binding protein 4)". Hu YF, Lüscher B, Admon A, et al. (1991 ... "Transcription factor AP-4 contains multiple dimerization domains that regulate dimer specificity". Genes Dev. 4 (10): 1741-52. ...
Activating transcription factor 4 (tax-responsive enhancer element B67), also known as ATF4, is a protein that in humans is ... "Entrez Gene: ATF4 activating transcription factor 4 (tax-responsive enhancer element B67)". Franceschi RT, Ge C, Xiao G, Roca H ... He CH, Gong P, Hu B, Stewart D, Choi ME, Choi AM, Alam J (June 2001). "Identification of activating transcription factor 4 ( ... Activating transcription factor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000128272 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
"Entrez Gene: transcription factor AP-2 beta (activating enhancer binding protein 2 beta)". Tsukada S, Tanaka Y, Maegawa H, et ... 2006). "Transcription factor activating enhancer-binding protein-2beta. A negative regulator of adiponectin gene expression". J ... Transcription factor AP-2 beta also known as AP2-beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TFAP2B gene. AP-2 beta is a ... 2009). "The transcription factor TFAP2B is associated with insulin resistance and adiposity in healthy adolescents". Obesity ( ...
2005). "Mitosin/CENP-F as a negative regulator of activating transcription factor-4". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (14): 13973-7. doi: ... 13 (4): 275-83. doi:10.1038/sj.cr.7290172. PMID 12974617. Laoukili J, Kooistra MR, Brás A, et al. (2005). "FoxM1 is required ... 37 (4): 359-363. doi:10.1002/humu.22960. ISSN 1098-1004. PMID 26820108. S2CID 1495539. Human CENPF genome location and CENPF ... 37 (4): 359-363. doi:10.1002/humu.22960. ISSN 1098-1004. PMID 26820108. S2CID 1495539. "OMIM Entry - # 243605 - STROMME ...
Activating transcription factor 3 is a member of the mammalian activation transcription factor/cAMP responsive element-binding ... ATF3 activating transcription factor 3". Chen BP, Wolfgang CD, Hai T (March 1996). "Analysis of ATF3, a transcription factor ... Activating transcription factor ATF3 has been shown to interact with: C-jun, DDIT3 JunD, P53, and SMAD3. GRCh38: Ensembl ... Chu HM, Tan Y, Kobierski LA, Balsam LB, Comb MJ (January 1994). "Activating transcription factor-3 stimulates 3',5'-cyclic ...
"Menin interacts with the AP1 transcription factor JunD and represses JunD-activated transcription". Cell. 96 (1): 143-52. doi: ... "Menin interacts with the AP1 transcription factor JunD and represses JunD-activated transcription". Cell. 96 (1): 143-52. doi: ... Chu HM, Tan Y, Kobierski LA, Balsam LB, Comb MJ (January 1994). "Activating transcription factor-3 stimulates 3',5'-cyclic ... Chu HM, Tan Y, Kobierski LA, Balsam LB, Comb MJ (1994). "Activating transcription factor-3 stimulates 3',5'-cyclic adenosine ...
Activating transcription factor 4 upregulates this gene under metabolic stress conditions in hepatocyte cell lines. A loss of ... Salgado MC, Metón I, Anemaet IG, Baanante IV (2014). "Activating transcription factor 4 mediates up-regulation of alanine ... 1839 (4): 288-96. doi:10.1016/j.bbagrm.2014.01.005. PMID 24418603. Celis K, Shuldiner S, Haverfield EV, Cappell J, Yang R, Gong ...
Zinc finger protein 521 (ZFP521) and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) are cofactors of Runx2. Furthermore, in ... Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) also known as core-binding factor subunit alpha-1 (CBF-alpha-1) is a protein that ... This protein is a member of the RUNX family of transcription factors and has a Runt DNA-binding domain. It is essential for ... RUNX2 is a key transcription factor associated with osteoblast differentiation. It has also been suggested that Runx2 plays a ...
Phosphorylated STAT6 dimerises and acts as a transcription factor activating many genes, such as eotaxin.[citation needed] ... only activates effectively STAT6. Activated STAT6 molecules form dimers which translocate to the nucleus to bind responsive ... Some recent works is evidencing how a wide range of signals can be actually activated by this receptor (e.g. WNT/β-Catenin, ... Xie M, Wu XJ, Zhang JJ, He CS (October 2015). "IL-13 receptor α2 is a negative prognostic factor in human lung cancer and ...
VegT acts as a transcription factor to activate genes specifying endodermal fate while Vg1 acts as a paracrine factor. β- ... These transcription factors regulate other transcription factors, cell surface molecules with roles in cell adhesion, and other ... β-catenin activates the transcription factor stat3. Stat3 coordinates cell movements during gastrulation and contributes to ... Low levels of dorsal can activate the transcription of rhomboid. Dorsal represses the transcription of zerknüllt, tolloid, and ...
"Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors activate expression of the EGR gene family of transcription factors". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (23 ... "ADP-ribosylation factor-dependent phospholipase D activation by the M3 muscarinic receptor". J. Biol. Chem. United States. 278 ... 53 (4): 759-65. doi:10.1124/mol.53.4.759. PMID 9547368. von der Kammer H, Mayhaus M, Albrecht C, Enderich J, Wegner M, Nitsch ... 15 (4): 114-9. doi:10.1016/0165-6147(94)90047-7. PMID 8016895. Brann MR, Ellis J, Jørgensen H, Hill-Eubanks D, Jones SV (1994 ...
Iizuka K, Horikawa Y (August 2008). "ChREBP: a glucose-activated transcription factor involved in the development of metabolic ... mainly by promoting the ChREBP transcription factor in the well-fed state. ... J. 55 (4): 617-24. doi:10.1507/endocrj.k07e-110. PMID 18490833. v t e. ...
Therefore, transcription factors are crucial for adipogenesis. Transcription factors, peroxis proliferator-activated receptor γ ... a lipid-activated transcription factor". Cell. 79 (7): 1147-56. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(94)90006-x. PMID 8001151. Tamori Y, ... other transcription factors function in the progression of differentiation. Adipocyte determination and differentiation factor ... C/EBPs, transcription factors, are members of the basic-leucine zipper class. cAMP, an inducer of adipogenesis, can promote ...
MvfR is a gene which produces a transcription factor which activates phnAB genes. These genes produce the molecule quinolone ... PKA II is activated by cAMP which is produced from ATP. Both these processes are impaired when ATP is depleted by pyocyanin. ... Pyocyanin inactivates catalase by reducing its gene's transcription as well as directly targeting the enzyme itself. ... 4: 1861-1868.. *^ Denning G, Wollenweber L, Railsback M, Cox C, Stoll L, Britigan B (1998). "Pseudomonas pyocyanin increases ...
... a novel regulator for induction of activating transcription factor-2 and heme oxygenase-1". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... by control of the upstream activator of insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling ... 269 (27): 17960-4. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(17)32403-1. PMID 8027054. McDonagh AF, Palma LA, Schmid R (Jan 1981). "Reduction of ...
Pospelov VA, Pospelova TV, Julien JP (February 1994). "AP-1 and Krox-24 transcription factors activate the neurofilament light ... 143 (1): 1-4. doi:10.1083/jcb.143.1.1. PMC 2132816. PMID 9763415. Beaudet L, Charron G, Julien JP (May 1992). "Origin of the ...
In a study by Razaghi et al, amino acid starvation activated the transcription factor Gcn4p, resulting in transcriptional ... Gcn4 is a highly conserved protein and its mammalian homolog is known as activating transcription factor-4 (ATF4). ... Gcn4 is a transcription factor and a "master regulator" for gene expression which regulates close to one tenth of the yeast ... DNA-binding protein Transcription factor Razaghi, Ali; Huerlimann, Roger; Owens, Leigh; Heimann, Kirsten (1 December 2015). " ...
Hsu SH, Hsieh-Li HM, Huang HY, Huang PH, Li H (May 2005). "bHLH-zip transcription factor Spz1 mediates mitogen-activated ...
"DC-STAMP interacts with ER-resident transcription factor LUMAN which becomes activated during DC maturation". Molecular ... 31 (4): 409-16. doi:10.1007/s00774-013-0434-0. PMID 23525827. S2CID 22750579. Hartgers FC, Looman MW, van der Woning B, Merkx ...
"The forkhead transcription factor AFX activates apoptosis by induction of the BCL-6 transcriptional repressor". The Journal of ... The protein encoded by this gene was identified as an interacting corepressor of BCL6, a POZ/zinc finger transcription ... 7 (4): 273-81. doi:10.1093/dnares/7.4.271. PMID 10997877. Tang TT, Dowbenko D, Jackson A, Toney L, Lewin DA, Dent AL, Lasky LA ... 36 (4): 411-6. doi:10.1038/ng1321. PMID 15004558. Beausoleil SA, Jedrychowski M, Schwartz D, Elias JE, Villén J, Li J, Cohn MA ...
... and activating transcription factor 3". Cancer Prevention Research. 4 (1): 116-27. doi:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-10-0218. PMC ... Black AR, Black JD, Azizkhan-Clifford J (August 2001). "Sp1 and krüppel-like factor family of transcription factors in cell ... gut-enriched Krüppel-like factor or GKLF) is a member of the KLF family of zinc finger transcription factors, which belongs to ... "Developmental and cell type-specific expression of the zinc finger transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) in ...
Ji L, Arcinas M, Boxer LM (1995). "The transcription factor, Nm23H2, binds to and activates the translocated c-myc allele in ... Postel EH, Berberich SJ, Flint SJ, Ferrone CA (1993). "Human c-myc transcription factor PuF identified as nm23-H2 nucleoside ... Co-transcription of this gene and the neighboring upstream gene (NME1) generates naturally occurring transcripts (NME1-NME2) ... 17 (2): 522-4. doi:10.1006/geno.1993.1362. PMID 8406509. Engel M, Véron M, Theisinger B, Lacombe ML, Seib T, Dooley S, Welter C ...
Pongubala JM, Atchison ML (Apr 1995). "Activating transcription factor 1 and cyclic AMP response element modulator can modulate ... CREM transcription factors also play an important role in many physiological systems, such as cardiac function, circadian ... This gene encodes a bZIP transcription factor that binds to the cAMP responsive element found in many viral and cellular ... Don J, Stelzer G (Feb 2002). "The expanding family of CREB/CREM transcription factors that are involved with spermatogenesis". ...
"Oncogenic homeodomain transcription factor E2A-Pbx1 activates a novel WNT gene in pre-B acute lymphoblastoid leukemia". ... An example of this includes the translocation of C-MYC, a gene that encodes a transcription factor that leads to increased cell ... Genetic risk factors may include Down syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, or neurofibromatosis type 1. Environmental risk factors ... Environmental risk factors are also needed to help create enough genetic mutations to cause disease. Evidence for the role of ...
"The DEXD/H-box RNA helicase RHII/Gu is a co-factor for c-Jun-activated transcription". EMBO J. 21 (3): 451-60. doi:10.1093/ ... "The DEXD/H-box RNA helicase RHII/Gu is a co-factor for c-Jun-activated transcription". EMBO J. 21 (3): 451-60. doi:10.1093/ ... and general transcription. DDX21 has been shown to interact with C-jun. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000165732 - Ensembl, ... 281 (4): 1006-11. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2001.4446. PMID 11237763. Andersen JS, Lyon CE, Fox AH, Leung AK, Lam YW, Steen H, Mann M, ...
"Virus Infection Induces the Assembly of Coordinately Activated Transcription Factors on the IFN-β Enhancer In Vivo". Molecular ... and human papillomavirus E7 protein share the capacity to disrupt the interaction between transcription factor E2F and the ... Howley and his co-workers created gene maps of many species of papillomaviruses and analyzed their transcription patterns and ... 1 (4): 507-518. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80051-9. ISSN 1097-2765. PMID 9660935. Huang, L.; Kinnucan, E.; Wang, G.; Beaudenon, ...
"Virus infection induces the assembly of coordinately activated transcription factors on the IFN-beta enhancer in vivo". ... is a member of the interferon regulatory factor family of transcription factors. IRF7 encodes interferon regulatory factor 7, a ... "Interferon regulatory factor-7 synergizes with other transcription factors through multiple interactions with p300/CBP ... "Characterization of the interferon regulatory factor-7 and its potential role in the transcription activation of interferon A ...
Transcription factor AP-2 alpha (Activating enhancer binding Protein 2 alpha), also known as TFAP2A, is a protein that in ... "Entrez Gene: TFAP2A transcription factor AP-2 alpha (activating enhancer binding protein 2 alpha)". Williams T, Tjian R (Apr ... "RB and c-Myc activate expression of the E-cadherin gene in epithelial cells through interaction with transcription factor AP-2 ... a cell-type-specific transcription factor that activates inducible enhancer elements". Genes & Development. 2 (12A): 1557-69. ...
Differentiation of mature B cells into plasma cells is dependent upon the transcription factors Blimp-1/PRDM1 and IRF4. ... First, the B cells have to encounter a foreign antigen, and are then required to be activated by T helper cells before they ... This is a type of safeguard to the system, almost like a two-factor authentication method. ... ISBN 1-4292-0211-4.. *^ a b c Federico Caligaris-Cappio; Manlio Ferrarini (1997). Human B Cell Populations (Chemical Immunology ...
transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA ... The homeobox genes encode a highly conserved family of transcription factors that play an important role in morphogenesis in ... regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • positive ... "The thyroid transcription factor-1 gene is a candidate target for regulation by Hox proteins". EMBO J. 13 (14): 3339-47. PMC ...
... β-catenin becomes a coactivator for TCF and LEF to activate Wnt genes by displacing Groucho and HDAC transcription repressors. ... Yi ZY, Feng LJ, Xiang Z, Yao H (2011). "Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 activation mediates epithelial to ... On the other hand, a lack of α-catenin can promote aberrant transcription, which can lead to cancer. As a result, it can be ... Keratinocytes engineered to not express alpha-catenin have disrupted cell adhesion and activated NF-κB. A tumor cell line with ...
2D3-regulated transcription factor MN1 stimulates vitamin D receptor-mediated transcription and inhibits osteoblastic cell ... 2007). "The MN1 oncoprotein activates transcription of the IGFBP5 promoter through a CACCC-rich consensus sequence". J. Mol. ... MN1 is a transcription coregulator that enhances or represses RAR/RXR-mediated gene transcription through interaction with RAC3 ... "The MN1 oncoprotein synergizes with coactivators RAC3 and p300 in RAR-RXR-mediated transcription". Oncogene. 22 (5): 699-709. ...
... proteins including interferon regulatory factor 3 and interferon regulatory factor 7 trigger a signalling cascade that leads to ... the signalling proteins STAT1 and STAT2 are activated and move to the cell's nucleus.[51] This triggers the expression of ... whose concentration in the host cell determines when L switches from gene transcription to genome replication. Replication of ... Education of the general public about the risk factors for Ebola infection and of the protective measures individuals may take ...
SP can induce the cytokines that are capable of inducing NK-1 transcription factors.[14] ... Fiebich BL, Schleicher S, Butcher RD, Craig A, Lieb K (Nov 2000). "The neuropeptide substance P activates p38 mitogen-activated ... "Metalloproteinases and transforming growth factor-alpha mediate substance P-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation ... The molecule, which is rapidly inactivated (or at times further activated by peptidases) is rapidly released - repetitively and ...
"An essential transcription factor, SciP, enhances robustness of Caulobacter cell cycle regulation". Proceedings of the National ... Each process activated by the proteins of the cell cycle engine involve a cascade of many reactions. The longest subsystem ... in addition to many extracytoplasmic function sigma factors, providing the organism with the ability to respond to a wide range ... doi:10.1186/1752-0509-4-52. PMC 2877005. PMID 20426835.. *^ McAdams, HH; Shapiro, L. (May 2011). "The architecture and ...
The key events mediating rod versus S cone versus M cone differentiation are induced by several transcription factors, ... Each transducin then activates the enzyme cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE).. *PDE then catalyzes the hydrolysis of cGMP to ... When light activates the melanopsin signaling system, the melanopsin-containing ganglion cells discharge nerve impulses that ... This structural change causes it to activate a regulatory protein called transducin, which leads to the activation of cGMP ...
... containing factor Pax8 and the homeodomain-containing factor TTF-1 directly interact and synergistically activate transcription ... containing factor Pax8 and the homeodomain-containing factor TTF-1 directly interact and synergistically activate transcription ... Paramutation & Pax Transcription Factors. 44: 97-106. doi:10.1016/j.semcdb.2015.09.016. PMID 26410163.. ... This gene is a member of the paired box (PAX) family of transcription factors. Members of this gene family typically encode ...
transcription factor complex. • cell-cell adherens junction. • Z disc. • stress fiber. • filamentous actin. ... binds to alpha-actinin-1 and associates with actin filaments and stress fibers in activated platelets and endothelial cells.". ... "Ubiquitination-dependent cofactor exchange on LIM homeodomain transcription factors.". Nature. 416 (6876): 99-103. PMID ... transcription coactivator activity. • ربط أيون فلزي. • cadherin binding involved in cell-cell adhesion. • actin binding. • ...
To further test the role of activated androgen receptors on AHN, flutamide, an antiandrogen drug that competes with ... "Recruitment of the androgen receptor via serum response factor facilitates expression of a myogenic gene". The Journal of ... Androgens bind to and activate androgen receptors (ARs) to mediate most of their biological effects. ... nuclear translocation of androgen receptor complex with beta-catenin and T-cell factor 4 may bypass canonical Wnt signaling to ...
RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, ligand-activated sequence-specific DNA binding. • identical protein binding. • ... transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • ATPase binding. • zinc ion binding. • transcriptional activator ... RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcriptional activator activity, RNA ... regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • cell-cell signaling. • negative regulation of gene expression. • transcription, ...
Fluorescent signal strength depends on many factors such as probe labeling efficiency, the type of probe, and the type of dye. ... In-Solution Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization and Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting for Single Cell and Population Genome ... "The lncRNA Malat1 is Dispensable for Mouse Development but Its Transcription Plays a cis-Regulatory Role in the Adult". Cell ... RNA probes can be designed for any gene or any sequence within a gene for visualization of mRNA,[3][4][5] lncRNA[6][7][8] and ...
regulation of epidermal growth factor-activated receptor activity. • regulation of resting membrane potential. • regulation of ... negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • proteolysis. • regulation of synaptic plasticity. • ... negative regulation of epidermal growth factor-activated receptor activity. • cell adhesion. • hematopoietic progenitor cell ... positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • heart development. • negative regulation of axonogenesis. • embryonic ...
This gene is a transcription factor that regulates the cell cycle and hence functions as a tumor suppressor. By inducing G ( ... Moreover, BaP has been found to activate a transposon, LINE1, in humans.[31] ... This process increases transcription of certain genes, notably CYP1A1, followed by increased CYP1A1 protein production.[28] ... 70 (15-16): 1391-4. doi:10.1080/15287390701434182. PMID 17654259.. *^ Aygün, SF; Kabadayi, F (December 2005). "Determination of ...
Sigurdsson S, Van Komen S, Petukhova G, Sung P (Nov 2002). "Homologous DNA pairing by human recombination factors Rad51 and ... "The Rad51/RadA N-terminal domain activates nucleoprotein filament ATPase activity". Structure. 14 (6): 983-92. doi:10.1016/j. ... 4: e270. doi:10.1038/mtna.2015.47. PMID 26670277.. *^ a b Liu G, Yang D, Rupaimoole R, Pecot CV, Sun Y, Mangala LS, Li X, Ji P ... 7 (4): a016600. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a016600. PMC 4382744 . PMID 25833843.. *^ a b Holloman WK (2011). "Unraveling the ...
... high levels of calcium in mitochondria elevates activity of nuclear factor kappa B NF-κB and transcription of CACNA1c and ... 4: 76. doi:10.3389/fgene.2013.00076. PMC 3646240. PMID 23675382.. *^ Pagon RA, Bird TC, Dolan CR, Stephens K, Splawski I, ... 4. doi:10.7554/eLife.05608. PMC 4360655. PMID 25714924.. *^ Imbrici P, Camerino DC, Tricarico D (2013-05-07). "Major channels ... 57 (4): 411-25. doi:10.1124/pr.57.4.5. PMID 16382099.. *^ Shaw RM, Colecraft HM (May 2013). "L-type calcium channel targeting ...
... the general transcription factors) directing the binding of the RNA polymerase to a gene's promoter.[144] However, other ... In the Halobacteria, light-activated ion pumps like bacteriorhodopsin and halorhodopsin generate ion gradients by pumping ions ... Transcription in archaea more closely resembles eukaryotic than bacterial transcription, with the archaeal RNA polymerase being ... Circular chromosomes, unique translation and transcription. Multiple, linear chromosomes, similar translation and transcription ...
... selectivity and Initiator-dependent bi-directionality of serum response factor-activated transcription". Biochimica et ... Transcription factors, TATA binding protein (TBP), and RNA polymerase II are all recruited to begin transcription. ... bind to the transcription factor II D (TFIID), initiating transcription in TATA-less promoters. The DPE has been identified in ... it only gives a low level of transcription. Other factors must stimulate the BTC to increase transcription levels.[2] One such ...
... is a transcription factor which activates histone gene transcription on chromosomes 1 and 6 of human cells. NPAT is also a ... SBF is a transcription factor that is activated in late G1 phase, when it dissociates from its repressor Whi5. This occurs when ... Histone gene transcription is controlled by multiple gene regulatory proteins such as transcription factors which bind to ... The serotonylation potentiates the binding of the general transcription factor TFIID to the TATA box.[49] ...
A scaffolding protein that tethers JNK/p38MAPK signaling modules and transcription factors". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ... 1998). "Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 by the activated MEKK1 --> SEK1/MKK4 --> p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway". J ... "Human mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase mediates the stress-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase ... Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP2K4 gene. This gene ...
The cleaved SREBP then migrates to the nucleus and acts as a transcription factor to bind to the SRE (sterol regulatory element ... SREBP-cleavage activating protein) and Insig1. When cholesterol levels fall, Insig-1 dissociates from the SREBP-SCAP complex, ... regulation of cholesterol metabolism by proteolysis of a membrane-bound transcription factor". Cell 89: 331. doi:10.1016/S0092- ... of a number of genes to stimulate their transcription. Among the genes transcribed are the LDL receptor and HMG-CoA reductase. ...
The N terminus interacts with other cellular transcription factors in a ligand-independent manner; and, depending on these ... Not every ligand that binds to a receptor also activates that receptor. The following classes of ligands exist: *(Full) ... The main receptors in the immune system are pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), toll-like receptors (TLRs), killer activated ... Antagonists bind to receptors but do not activate them. This results in a receptor blockade, inhibiting the binding of agonists ...
... granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) - granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) - granulocytopenia ... transcription - transfusion - translation - transmission - transplacental - treatment IND - triglycerides - tuberculin skin ... lymphokine-activated killer cells (LAK) - lymphokines - lymphoma - lymphopenia - lymphoproliferative response - lysis ... host factors - HPTN - HPV - HRSA - HTLV-I - HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) - HTLV-II - ...
转录激活因子(英语:Activating transcription factor)(AATF(英语:Apoptosis-antagonizing transcription factor)、1、2、3、4、5、6、7) · AP-1(c-Fos、 ... sequence-specific enhancer binding RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity. · transcription factor binding. · zinc ion ... Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor)(I、II)、Ear-2(英语:V-erbA-related gene)、HNF4(英语:Hepatocyte nuclear factor ... GATA(英语:GATA transcription factor)(1、2、3、4、5、6) · MTA(1、2、3) · TRPS1(英语:Tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome Type 1) ...
RNA polymerase II transcription coactivator activity. • transcription factor binding. • activating transcription factor binding ... positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • cell aging. • positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor ... transcription coactivator activity. • protein kinase inhibitor activity. • histone binding. • Tat protein binding. • NF-kappaB ... regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • cellular response to UV. • ribosomal large subunit export from ...
"Ca2+ influx regulates BDNF transcription by a CREB family transcription factor-dependent mechanism". Neuron. 20 (4): 709-26. ... Once activated, Fyn can bind to NR2B through its SH2 domain and mediate phosphorylation of its Tyr-1472 site.[49] Similar ... BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ANON2, BULN2, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, brain derived neurotrophic factor. ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or abrineurin,[5] is a protein[6] that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.[7][8] ...
U3 is a sequence between PPT and R, which serves as a signal that the provirus can use in transcription. R is the terminal ... Some provirus remains latent in the cell for a long period of time before it is activated by the change in cell environment. ... "Cell-to-cell transmission of retroviruses: Innate immunity and interferon-induced restriction factors". Virology. 411 (2): 251 ... While transcription was classically thought to occur only from DNA to RNA, reverse transcriptase transcribes RNA into DNA. The ...
... which are transcription factors (or are factors which activate or localize transcription factors), is transferred through the ... body pattern along the longitudinal axis of the Drosophila embryo is established by a cascade of specific transcription factor ... The initial long-range positional information of the maternal factors, ... maternal proteins and transcripts that guide the early steps of development prior to the activation of zygotic transcription.. ...
2000). "Permissive factors for HIV-1 infection of macrophages". J. Leukoc. Biol. 68 (3): 303-10. PMID 10985244. CS1 održavanje ... Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini reviews in medicinal chemistry 5 (12 ... evidence for an antioxidant sensitive activating pathway distinct from nuclear translocation". Blood 94 (6): 1878-89. PMID ... "Nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent induction of interleukin-8 gene expression by tumor necrosis factor alpha: ...
... activating transcription factor/cyclic AMP response element binding protein) family of basic region-leucine zipper (bZip) ... transcription factors, which have the consensus binding site cAMP responsive element (CRE). ATF4 has numerous di … ... Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) belongs to the ATF/CREB ( ... Activating transcription factor 4 Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2008;40(1):14-21. doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2007.01.020. Epub 2007 Jan ...
Activating Transcription Factor 4 Is Translationally Regulated by Hypoxic Stress. Jaime D. Blais, Vasilisa Filipenko, Meixia Bi ... Activating Transcription Factor 4 Is Translationally Regulated by Hypoxic Stress. Jaime D. Blais, Vasilisa Filipenko, Meixia Bi ... Activating Transcription Factor 4 Is Translationally Regulated by Hypoxic Stress. Jaime D. Blais, Vasilisa Filipenko, Meixia Bi ... Activating Transcription Factor 4 Is Translationally Regulated by Hypoxic Stress Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
The capacity of BDNF to elevate neuronal ATF4 may thus represent a means to maintain this transcription factor at levels that ... The capacity of BDNF to elevate neuronal ATF4 may thus represent a means to maintain this transcription factor at levels that ... Here, we show that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes a rapid and sustained increase in neuronal ATF4 ... Here, we show that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes a rapid and sustained increase in neuronal ATF4 ...
activating transcription factor. eIF2α. eukaryotic initiation factor 2α. ER. endoplasmic reticulum. HA. hemagglutinin. ID. ... biology and nomenclature of the activating transcription factor/cAMP responsive element binding family of transcription factors ... Mitosin/CENP-F as a negative regulator of activating transcription factor-4. J. Biol. Chem. 280: 13973-13977. ... Activating transcription factor 4. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 40: 14-21. ...
Activating Transcription Factor 3, Activating Transcription Factor 4, Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Breast, Cadmium Chloride, ... Identification of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) as an Nrf2-interacting protein. Implication for heme oxygenase-1 ... By using the yeast two-hybrid assay, we identified activating transcription factor (ATF) 4 as a potential Nrf2-interacting ... Transcription Factors, Transcriptional Activation, Transfection, Tumor Cells, Cultured. J. Biol. Chem. Jun. 15, 2001; 276(24); ...
... receptors are engaged in a direct and specific interaction with the activating transcription factor 4 (ATF-4), a member of the ... which may control transcription factor binding to the cAMP response element. Using yeast-two hybrid screens of rat brain ... Rs via G proteins was only marginally affected by the presence of the transcription factor, but ATF-4 was moderately stimulated ... As confirmed by pull-down assays, ATF-4 associates via its conserved basic leucine zipper domain with the C termini of both ...
TPL2 (Therapeutic Targeting Tumor Progression Locus-2)/ATF4 (Activating Transcription Factor-4)/SDF1α (Chemokine Stromal Cell- ... TPL2 (Therapeutic Targeting Tumor Progression Locus-2)/ATF4 (Activating Transcription Factor-4)/SDF1α (Chemokine Stromal Cell- ... TPL2 (Therapeutic Targeting Tumor Progression Locus-2)/ATF4 (Activating Transcription Factor-4)/SDF1α (Chemokine Stromal Cell- ... TPL2 (Therapeutic Targeting Tumor Progression Locus-2)/ATF4 (Activating Transcription Factor-4)/SDF1α (Chemokine Stromal Cell- ...
These transcription factors share a leucine zipper region that is involved in;protein-protein interactions, located C-terminal ... a family of DNA-binding proteins that includes the AP-1 family of transcription factors, cAMP-response element binding;proteins ... This gene encodes a transcription factor that was originally identified as a widely expressed mammalian DNA binding;protein ... transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II transcription factor binding. MAMSTR; GTF2E1; HIF1A; SRF; THRAA; ATF2; MYOCD; ...
The activating transcription factor (ATF) 4, which is composed of 351 amino acids, is a member of the ATF/CREB (cAMP Response ... The activating transcription factor (ATF) 4 belongs to the ATF/CREB (cAMP Response Element Binding bZIP [Basic Leucine Zipper ... Caselli, E, Benedetti, S, Grigolato, J, Caruso, A, and Di Luca, D (2012). Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is ... Dunlap, KM, Bartee, MY, and Bartee, E (2015). Myxoma virus attenuates expression of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) ...
They find that in T2E tumors, there is a distinct regulatory landscape resulting from the co-option of transcription factors by ... Taken together, our work shows that overexpressed ERG co-opts master transcription factors to deploy a unique cis-regulatory ... of prostate tumors and result in overexpression of the ERG transcription factor. Using chromatin, genomic and expression data, ... Kron, K., Murison, A., Zhou, S. et al. TMPRSS2-ERG fusion co-opts master transcription factors and activates NOTCH signaling in ...
... an Nrf2 activating agent, and a food according to the present invention comprise isohumulones or isomerized hop extract as an ... Agents for Activating the Transcription Factor Nrf2 and Foods Having Such Function ... A transcription factor Nrf2 activating agent, comprising isohumulones or isomerized hop extract as an active ingredient. 16. ... A method of activating the transcription factor Nrf2, comprising the step of administering an effective amount of isohumulones ...
High-yield expression in E. coli and refolding of the bZIP domain of activating transcription factor 5.. Ciaccio NA1, Moreno ML ... Activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) recently has been demonstrated to play a critical role in promoting the survival of ... High-Yield Expression in E. coli and Refolding of the bZIP Domain of Activating Transcription Factor 5 ... High-Yield Expression in E. coli and Refolding of the bZIP Domain of Activating Transcription Factor 5 ...
Distinct spatial Ca2+ signatures selectively activate different NFAT transcription factor isoforms.. Kar P1, Parekh AB2. ... Distinct Spatial Ca2+ Signatures Selectively Activate Different NFAT Transcription Factor Isoforms. Mol Cell. 2015 Apr 16;58(2 ... Distinct Spatial Ca2+ Signatures Selectively Activate Different NFAT Transcription Factor Isoforms. Mol Cell. 2015 Apr 16;58(2 ... Distinct Spatial Ca2+ Signatures Selectively Activate Different NFAT Transcription Factor Isoforms. Mol Cell. 2015 Apr 16;58(2 ...
Activating transcription factor 2, also known as ATF2, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ATF2 gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: ATF2 activating transcription factor 2". Ozawa K, Sudo T, Soeda E, Yoshida MC, Ishii S (1991). "Assignment of the ... Activating transcription factor 2 has been shown to interact with C-jun, Casein kinase 2, alpha 1, CREB binding protein, ... "Phosphorylation of two eukaryotic transcription factors, Jun dimerization protein 2 and activation transcription factor 2, in ...
p,Sma and Mad related (SMAD)-mediated Transforming Growth Factor β (TGF-β) and Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling is ... activated gene transcription.. Baas R. et al.. Sma and Mad related (SMAD)-mediated Transforming Growth Factor β (TGF-β) and ... The activated heterotrimeric SMAD protein complexes associate with nuclear proteins such as the histone acetyltransferases p300 ... We investigated the functional role of PTIP and PTIP Interacting protein 1 (PA1) in relation to TGF-β-activated SMAD signaling ...
... and noradrenaline induce the transcription factors CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)-beta and C/EBP delta in mouse ... Vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide, and noradrenaline induce the transcription ... Vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide, and noradrenaline induce the transcription ... Vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide, and noradrenaline induce the transcription ...
Decreased immediate inflammatory gene induction in activating transcription factor-2 mutant mice * * REIMOLD Andreas M. ... Identification of the cyclin D1 gene as a target of activating transcription factor 2 in chondrocytes BEIER F. ... Association of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme hUBC9 Implication of the ... A specific member of the ATF transcription factor family can mediate transcription activation by the adenovirus E1a protein LIU ...
... kinase signaling cascade and p38-kinase dependent activation of nuclear transcription factor activating transcription factor ( ... activating transcription factor (ATF)-2. The activated ATF-2 translocated to the nucleus where it attached to its binding motif ... activating transcription factor. IBD. inflammatory bowel disease. MDCK. Madin-Darby canine kidney. MLCK. myosin L chain kinase ... Mechanism of IL-1β Modulation of Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Involves p38 Kinase and Activating Transcription Factor-2 ...
ATF4; activating transcription factor 4 (tax-responsive enhancer element B67); TXREB; cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ... cAMP-dependent transcription fa; cAMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-4; cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 2; cyclic ... These transcription factors share a leucine zipper region that is involved in;protein-protein interactions, located C-terminal ... This gene encodes a transcription factor that was originally identified as a widely expressed mammalian DNA binding;protein ...
Anthocyanin-activating R2R3 MYB transcription factorImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database ... tr,W8EB73,W8EB73_ERYLE Anthocyanin-activating R2R3 MYB transcription factor OS=Erythranthe lewisii OX=69919 GN=NEGAN PE=4 SV=1 ... Transcription factor, Myb superfamily. Handroanthus impetiginosus. 249. Anthocyanin-activating R2R3 MYB transcription factor. ... 4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., ...
May belong to a complex that represses transcription and couples DNA methylation and histone H3 Lys-9 trimethylation (H3K9me3 ... Recruiter that couples transcriptional factors to general transcription apparatus and thereby modulates transcription ... Activating transcription factor 7-interacting protein 1Add BLAST. 815. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). ... sp,A0JME2,MCAF1_DANRE Activating transcription factor 7-interacting protein 1 OS=Danio rerio OX=7955 GN=atf7ip PE=1 SV=2 ...
The activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1) is a member of a well-known transcription factor family, the cyclic AMP (cAMP) ... Reverse transcription-PCR and subcloning of transcription factors and cdk3. The cdk3 (pBIND-cdk3) and transcription factor ( ... Activating transcription factor-1 can mediate Ca(2+)- and cAMP-inducible transcriptional activation. J Biol Chem 1993; 268: ... Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 3-Mediated Activating Transcription Factor 1 Phosphorylation Enhances Cell Transformation. Duo Zheng, ...
Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) is important for protective cell response to accumulation of unfolded and misfolded ... Association of Amino Acid Variants in the Activating Transcription Factor 6 Gene (ATF6) on 1q21-q23 With Type 2 Diabetes in ... Association of Amino Acid Variants in the Activating Transcription Factor 6 Gene (ATF6) on 1q21-q23 With Type 2 Diabetes in ... Association of Amino Acid Variants in the Activating Transcription Factor 6 Gene (ATF6) on 1q21-q23 With Type 2 Diabetes in ...
Of the transcription factors that regulate these changes in gene expression, the function of c-jun is best understood but ATF-3 ... Of the transcription factors that regulate these changes in gene expression, the function of c-jun is best understood but ATF-3 ... That transcription factors must play an important role in enabling neurons to regrow their axons is implicit to the observation ... That transcription factors must play an important role in enabling neurons to regrow their axons is implicit to the observation ...
Buy online Recombinant Human Activating Transcription Factor-4 Protein from Prospec cat# pka-006. ProteoGenix provides you the ... More info about Recombinant Human Activating Transcription Factor-4 Protein. Catalog#: pka-006. ... Data sheet of Recombinant Human Activating Transcription Factor-4 Protein. Brand. Prospec. ...
Activating Transcription Factor 3 Expression as a Marker of Response to the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Pracinostat. Dhanya ... Activating Transcription Factor 3 Expression as a Marker of Response to the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Pracinostat ... Activating Transcription Factor 3 Expression as a Marker of Response to the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Pracinostat ... Activating Transcription Factor 3 Expression as a Marker of Response to the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Pracinostat ...
Class-I TCP Transcription Factors Activate the SAUR63 Gene Subfamily in Gibberellin-Dependent Stamen Filament Elongation. ... Class-I TCP Transcription Factors Activate the SAUR63 Gene Subfamily in Gibberellin-Dependent Stamen Filament Elongation ... Class-I TCP Transcription Factors Activate the SAUR63 Gene Subfamily in Gibberellin-Dependent Stamen Filament Elongation ... Class-I TCP Transcription Factors Activate the SAUR63 Gene Subfamily in Gibberellin-Dependent Stamen Filament Elongation ...
Activating transcription factor 6-dependent sestrin 2 induction ameliorates ER stress-mediated liver injury.. [Kyung Hwan Jegal ... Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) bound to unfolded protein response elements of SESN2 promoter, transactivated SESN2, ...
In mammalian cells, two transcription factors, XBP1 and ATF6, activate ER stress-responsive genes. XBP1 is activated by IRE1, ... and activating transcription factors 6alpha and 6beta that activates the mammalian unfolded protein response. Mol. Cell. Biol. ... Evidence That bZIP60 Is a Transcription Factor in Vivo. We previously reported that the N-terminal fragment of bZIP60 activates ... Arabidopsis bZIP60 Is a Proteolysis-Activated Transcription Factor Involved in the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response. Yuji ...
... by prototypical drug-metabolizing enzyme inducers that activate gene expression through ligand-activated transcription factor ... basic leucine zipper transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2): cross-interaction between AhR ( ... The doses were chosen according to what is commonly cited in the literature to activate specific transcription factors that ... This study examines the potential of transcription factors that activate phase I drug metabolism to also affect the regulation ...
  • Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) belongs to the ATF/CREB (activating transcription factor/cyclic AMP response element binding protein) family of basic region-leucine zipper (bZip) transcription factors, which have the consensus binding site cAMP responsive element (CRE). (nih.gov)
  • Since ATF4 is induced by tumour microenvironmental factors, and regulates processes relevant to cancer progression, it might serve as a potential therapeutic target in cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Here we show through microarray analysis of polysome-bound RNA in aerobic and hypoxic HeLa cells that a subset of transcripts are preferentially translated during hypoxia, including activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), an important mediator of the unfolded protein response. (asm.org)
  • Similarly, PERK is activated and is responsible for translational regulation under hypoxic conditions, while inducing the translation of ATF4. (asm.org)
  • Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) plays important physiologic roles in the brain including regulation of learning and memory as well as neuronal survival and death. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we show that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes a rapid and sustained increase in neuronal ATF4 transcripts and protein levels. (frontiersin.org)
  • The capacity of BDNF to elevate neuronal ATF4 may thus represent a means to maintain this transcription factor at levels that provide neuroprotection and optimal brain function without risk of triggering neurodegeneration. (frontiersin.org)
  • ATF4 belongs to the ATF/CREB family of basic region/leucine zipper transcription factors. (jimmunol.org)
  • Identification of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) as an Nrf2-interacting protein. (thebiogrid.org)
  • However, the detailed mechanism underlying this effect and the factors involved in the regulation of ATF4 function are still unknown. (bmbreports.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate first that knocking out ATF4 using siRNA shows a strong negative effect on HIV-1 production, indicating that ATF4 is a functional positive cellular factor in HIV-1 production. (bmbreports.org)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Rat Activating Transcription Factor 4 (ATF4) in Tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids. (marchforscienceshop.com)
  • Background Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is a stress response gene that is involved in homeostasis and cellular protection. (gasyblog.com)
  • Figure 4 Overexpression of ATF4 promotes tumor cell invasion and metastasis. (gasyblog.com)
  • AIM: To research the role of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) in glucose deprivation (GD) induced colorectal cancer (CRC) drug resistance and the mechanism involved. (welbourneprimary.com)
  • Grp78/PERK/ATF4 pathway is activated in GD-induced CRC cells NSC 95397 Our previous work showed that GD induces tumor growth and angiogenesis by activating PERK/ATF4 arm of UPR signaling. (welbourneprimary.com)
  • Figure 3 Grp78/PERK/ATF4 pathway is activated in glucose deprivation. (welbourneprimary.com)
  • These results suggest that GD inhibits apoptotic activity in CRC cells by activating ATF4 expression. (welbourneprimary.com)
  • B: Depletion of ATF4 … Figure 5 Down-regulation of activating transcription factor 4 significantly. (welbourneprimary.com)
  • FGF21 gene expression was induced in the liver but not in skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue of mice after acute exercise, and further, the gene expression levels of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) were also increased. (mendeley.com)
  • Interestingly, a subset of the mRNAs repressed by ursolic acid and tomatidine in aged muscle are positively regulated by activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). (nebraska.edu)
  • This adaptation inhibits general protein synthesis while promoting translation and expression of the transcription factor ATF4. (nih.gov)
  • Perk(-/-) cells, lacking an upstream ER stress-activated eIF2alpha kinase that activates Atf4, accumulate endogenous peroxides during ER stress, whereas interference with the ER oxidase ERO1 abrogates such accumulation. (nih.gov)
  • found that TGF-β 1 promoted the expression of glycine biosynthesis genes in primary human lung fibroblasts, which depended on Smad3 signaling and mTORC1-dependent generation of the transcription factor ATF4. (sciencemag.org)
  • In the nervous system, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity and memory formation. (nature.com)
  • Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is a member of the ATF/cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) family 1 . (nature.com)
  • ATF4 regulates transcription by forming dimers with partners via its basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain 2 . (nature.com)
  • PS-341 robustly increased protein levels of the proapoptotic transcription factors activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and C/EBP homology protein ( 4 , 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), a member of the ATF/CREB transcription factor family, is an important factor that participates in several pathophysiological processes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We observed that ATF4 is activated and translocates to the nucleus following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation via the TLR4-MyD88-dependent pathway. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The first line of investigations were focusing on interactions between trb-3 and the ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4) [ 13 - 16 ]. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Elevated ATF4 expression, in the absence of other signals, is sufficient for transcriptional induction via CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-activating transcription factor response elements. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Homo sapiens activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), transcript variant 1, mRNA. (ucsc.edu)
  • Here we reveal an essential role for activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) in survival following MYC activation. (stanford.edu)
  • MYC upregulates ATF4 by activating general control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2) kinase through uncharged transfer RNAs. (stanford.edu)
  • Subsequently, ATF4 co-occupies promoter regions of over 30 MYC-target genes, primarily those regulating amino acid and protein synthesis, including eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), a negative regulator of translation. (stanford.edu)
  • Recently, ALP upregulation was shown to coincide with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated vascular calcification, specifically with expression of the transcription factor ATF4. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hypoxic stress results in a rapid and sustained inhibition of protein synthesis that is at least partially mediated by eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) phosphorylation by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) kinase PERK. (asm.org)
  • The secreted IFNs bind to receptors, activate the JAK-STAT pathway, and ultimately induce expression of hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), including dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), RNase L, a subset of TLRs (TLR3, TLR7) and RLRs (RIG-I), and IRF7 ( 16 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Selective interaction of JNK protein kinase isoforms with transcription factors. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The activation of p38 kinase caused phosphorylation and activation of p38 kinase substrate, activating transcription factor (ATF)-2. (jimmunol.org)
  • The activated ATF-2 translocated to the nucleus where it attached to its binding motif on the myosin L chain kinase (MLCK) promoter region, leading to the activation of MLCK promoter activity and gene transcription. (jimmunol.org)
  • This concerted and complex cellular response is mediated initially by three molecules, PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), activated transcription factor 6 (ATF6), and Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • XBP1 is activated by IRE1, an ER membrane-localized protein kinase/ribonuclease. (plantcell.org)
  • We show that the Golgi stressor monensin acts via the PKR-like ER kinase/Activating Transcription Factor 4 pathway. (pnas.org)
  • However, induction of these responses by β-CDODA-Me was PPARγ-independent and due to activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and jun N-terminal kinase pathways by this compound. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Chemotactic peptide N-formyl-met-leu-phe activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 in human neutrophils. (wikipathways.org)
  • pp90RSK- and protein kinase C-dependent pathway regulates p42/44MAPK-induced LDL receptor transcription in HepG2 cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • Involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in the rapid induction of the 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein in 9L rat brain tumor cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • Prolonged nuclear retention of activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 is required for hepatocyte growth factor-induced cell motility. (wikipathways.org)
  • Arachidonic acid activates mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-activated protein kinase 2 and mediates adhesion of a human breast carcinoma cell line to collagen type IV through a p38 MAP kinase-dependent pathway. (wikipathways.org)
  • Increased Fgf21 was associated with enhanced protein levels in the heme-regulated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) kinase (HRI). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • First-generation epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), including erlotinib and gefitinib have demonstrated notable response rates and benefits in progression-free survival compared with first-line conventional platinum-based chemotherapy ( 3 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Abstract -Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades are major signaling systems by which cells transduce extracellular cues into intracellular responses. (ahajournals.org)
  • Therefore, MAP kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), a dual-specificity protein tyrosine phosphatase that exhibits catalytic activity toward both regulatory sites on MAP kinases, is suggested to be responsible for the downregulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK), and p38 MAP kinase. (ahajournals.org)
  • Extracellular stimuli such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), and angiotensin II, which activated ERK but not SAPK/p38 MAP kinase, induced a transient induction of MKP-1 mRNA and its intracellular protein. (ahajournals.org)
  • In contrast to ERK, more recently described MAP kinases such as stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK), also referred to as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 MAP kinase are suggested to inhibit cellular proliferation and to induce apoptosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Protein limitation in vivo or amino acid deprivation of cells in culture causes a signal transduction cascade consisting of activation of the kinase GCN2 (general control nonderepressible 2), phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2, and increased synthesis of activating transcription factor (ATF) 4 by a translational control mechanism. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK)-dependent transcriptional program controls activation of the early growth response 1 (EGR1) gene during amino acid limitation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) is important for protective cell response to accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in endoplasmic reticulum, and disturbances of this process can contribute to β-cell apoptosis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A major mediator of transcriptional induction of endoplasmic reticulum chaperones by endoplasmic reticulum stress is the basic leucine zipper protein-activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The ATF6 gene is located on human chromosome 1q21-q23, a region linked to type 2 diabetes in Pima Indians of Arizona, Caucasians, and Chinese populations ( 4 , 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) bound to unfolded protein response elements of SESN2 promoter, transactivated SESN2, and increased SESN2 protein expression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cleavage of bZIP60 is independent of the function of Arabidopsis homologs of mammalian S1P and S2P proteases, which mediate the proteolytic cleavage of the mammalian transcription factor ATF6. (plantcell.org)
  • In mammalian cells, two transcription factors, XBP1 and ATF6, activate ER stress-responsive genes. (plantcell.org)
  • These transcription factors share a leucine zipper region that is involved in;protein-protein interactions, located C-terminal to a stretch of basic amino acids that functions as a DNA binding;domain. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The activating transcription factor (ATF) 4 belongs to the ATF/CREB (cAMP Response Element Binding bZIP [Basic Leucine Zipper]) transcription factor family, and plays a central role in the UPR (Unfolded Protein Response) process in cells. (bmbreports.org)
  • This gene encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the leucine zipper family of DNA-binding proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • We report here that bZIP60, an Arabidopsis thaliana basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor with a transmembrane domain, is involved in the ER stress response. (plantcell.org)
  • This domain is involved in dimerization and DNA binding like other transcription factors of the leucine zipper family like c-Fos and Jun. (bionity.com)
  • The different members of C/EBP family can form homodimers, heterodimers with another form of the C/EBPs and with other transcription factors that may or may not contain the leucine zipper domain. (bionity.com)
  • Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) belongs to the ATF/cyclic AMP responsive element binding family of transcription factors and is often described as an adaptive response gene whose activity is usually regulated by stressful stimuli. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although expressed in a number of splice variants and generally recognized as a transcriptional repressor, ATF3 has the ability to interact with a number of other transcription factors including c-Jun to form complexes which not only repress, but can also activate various genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), also known as LRF-1, LRG-21, CRG-5, and TI-241, is also upregulated in most of the neurons (Figure 1 ) as well as in Schwann cells that express c-Jun. (frontiersin.org)
  • Figure 6: ERG activates CREs surrounding NOTCH pathway genes. (nature.com)
  • Very recently, we and others have shown that PS-341 activates the proapoptotic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in numerous human cancer cells, in addition to the inhibition of the prosurvival NF-κB signaling pathway ( 4 - 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this issue of the JCI, Hanson and colleagues raise a serious challenge to this paradigm in showing that the major player in vasodilation is the keratinocyte, which produces PGE2, stimulating EP2/4 receptors, shifting the role of the Langerhans/PGD2/DP1 pathway to that of an accomplice. (jci.org)
  • The calcineurin/NFAT3 pathway can be activated by classical hypertrophy inducers, including ANG II, endothelin-1 (ET-1), and catecholamines ( 27 , 49 ). (physiology.org)
  • Each of these transducers activates a distinct signalling pathway, which together comprise the UPR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Physiological or pathological processes that disturb protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum cause ER stress and activate a set of signaling pathways termed the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). (hindawi.com)
  • Eukaryotic cells respond to unfolded proteins in their endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress), amino acid starvation, or oxidants by phosphorylating the alpha subunit of translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha). (nih.gov)
  • While the signal transduction cascade activated during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is well characterized, the Golgi stress response is relatively unexplored ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Shikonin has been reported to exhibit antitumor properties via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, inducing caspase-dependent apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis ( 9 - 12 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to;a family of DNA-binding proteins that includes the AP-1 family of transcription factors, cAMP-response element binding;proteins (CREBs) and CREB-like proteins. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The activating transcription factor (ATF) 4, which is composed of 351 amino acids, is a member of the ATF/CREB (cAMP Response Element Binding) protein family. (bmbreports.org)
  • Transcriptional activation of egr-1 by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor but not interleukin 3 requires phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) on serine 133. (wikipathways.org)
  • Numerous critical genes are tightly regulated by HIF-1, including growth factors, oncoproteins, transcription factors, and glycolytic enzymes ( 62a ), which mediate a shift in cellular metabolism toward energy conserving anaerobic glycolysis ( 53 ). (asm.org)
  • Gene silencing experiments of MLL4 and the subunits PA1 and PTIP confirm TGF-β-specific genes to be regulated by the MLL4 complex, which links TGF-β signaling to transcription regulation by the MLL4 methyltransferase complex. (diagenode.com)
  • Figure 4: COREs are proximal to key prostate cancer genes and are remodeled in T2E-positive prostate cancer. (nature.com)
  • Recurrent fusion of TMPRSS2 and ETS transcription factor genes in prostate cancer. (nature.com)
  • It is activated by PROTEASES and then moves to the CELL NUCLEUS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in the unfolded protein response. (harvard.edu)
  • It has been shown that HDACs are highly overexpressed in a variety of human cancers, suppressing transcription of tumor suppressor genes such as p21 WAF/CIP1 through chromatin structure modulation mediated by deacetylating lysine-4 residues of histone-H3 ( 12 , 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • HDAC inhibitors can reverse this process by blocking HDAC activity and promoting acetylation of histone-H3 to reactivate transcription of these dormant tumor suppressor genes, thereby inducing cytotoxicity in cancer cells ( 10 , 11 , 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Circulating FGF21 is liver derived ( 14 ), and hepatic FGF21 expression is upregulated, following extended periods of fasting, by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α, a nuclear receptor that induces the expression of numerous genes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid (FA) oxidation ( 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In the absence of activated GR, other transcription factors such as NF-κB or AP-1 themselves are able to transactivate target genes. (bionity.com)
  • However activated GR can complex with these other transcription factors and prevent them from binding their target genes and hence repress the expression of genes that are normally upregulated by NF-κB or AP-1. (bionity.com)
  • PS-341 potently induces apoptosis in a broad range of human cancer cell lines, including myeloma, prostate and breast cancers, and HNSCC ( 4 , 5 , 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The inhibition of NF-κB by PS-341 has been found to induce apoptosis in several human cancer cells and is considered to be an important target of the PS-341 antitumor effect ( 4 , 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The knockdown of Noxa significantly reduced PS-341-mediated apoptosis in HNSCC cells, suggesting that induction of new gene transcription is required for PS-341-mediated apoptosis ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Silymarin inhibits growth and causes regression of established skin tumors in SENCAR mice via modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and induction of apoptosis. (wikipathways.org)
  • In concert with DDIT3/CHOP, activates the transcription of TRIB3 and promotes ER stress-induced neuronal apoptosis by regulating the transcriptional induction of BBC3/PUMA. (ucsc.edu)
  • Additionally, caspase activated induction of apoptosis could be detected in the analyzed cell lines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Activating transcription factor 2, also known as ATF2, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ATF2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2), an important transcription factor, was demonstrated as a potential target gene of miR-204. (springer.com)
  • Phase I enzyme induction by classes of microsomal enzyme inducers occurs via activation of transcription factors such as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Similarly, constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) ligands induce Cyp2B10, pregnane X receptor (PXR) ligands induce Cyp3A11, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) ligands induce Cyp4A14. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The treatment of primary cultured human hepatocytes with a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα)-activating concentration of ciprofibrate (10 - 4 M) increased (HUMAN)SULT2A1 mRNA, immunoreactive protein, and enzymatic activity levels by ∼2-fold. (aspetjournals.org)
  • β-CDODA-Me was a potent inhibitor of LNCaP prostate cancer cell growth (IC 50 ∼1 μM) and activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), whereas analogs without the cyano group were weakly cytotoxic and did not activate PPARγ. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We investigated the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) β/δ deficiency in hepatic FGF21 regulation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • High-yield expression in E. coli and refolding of the bZIP domain of activating transcription factor 5. (nih.gov)
  • Lane 1: molecular weight marker (Bio-Rad Precision Plus Unstained MW Standard), Lane 2: lysis supernatant, Lane 3: insoluble pellet after lysis, Lane 4: purified ATF5 bZIP domain. (nih.gov)
  • Changes in mRNA translation during the unfolded protein response are mediated by PERK phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α at Ser-51. (asm.org)
  • Transcription factor AFT4 is preferentially translated when PERK is activated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recruiter that couples transcriptional factors to general transcription apparatus and thereby modulates transcription regulation and chromatin formation. (uniprot.org)
  • Figure 4 Down-regulation of activating transcription factor 4 significantly reverses the glucose deprivation-induced resistance of HCT116 cells to chemotherapy. (welbourneprimary.com)
  • Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis during starvation and has an excellent therapeutic potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in rodents and monkeys. (mendeley.com)
  • These constitute 70-80% of the total mass of the islet [ 2 ] and are responsible for the synthesis, storage, and secretion of insulin, a key hormone in the regulation of human metabolism [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • However, regulation of organic anion-transporting polypeptide (Oatp) uptake transporters by these factors is poorly understood. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These data support a major role for the PPARα transcription factor in the regulation of hepatic (HUMAN)SULT2A1. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 1 ) antioxidant defenses, (2) the regulation of structural, contractile and metabolic proteins, (3) ubiquitin proteosomal machinery, and ( 4 ) macroautophagy pathways. (degruyter.com)
  • Activating transcription factor 4 mediates up-regulation of alanine aminotransferase 2 gene expression under metabolic stress. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The regulation of C/EBPβ is exerted in many manners, phosphorylation , acetylation , activation and repression via others transcription factors, oncogenic elements or chemokines , autoregulation, etc. (bionity.com)
  • Recognition of viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as viral RNAs or DNAs by the pathogen recognition receptors triggers signaling cascades, ultimately leading to the activation of IRF3 and IRF7 that involves phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation of the two factors. (jimmunol.org)
  • Although phosphorylation of eIF2α results in global translational suppression, it specifically increases translation of activating transcription factor (ATF)4 through ribosomal leaky scanning of the mini open reading frames (ORFs) in the 5′-untranslated region (UTR) of the mRNA ( 19 , 22 , 23 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In general, MAP kinases are activated by phosphorylation on tyrosine and threonine residues and inactivated by dephosphorylation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Recombinant Human Mitogen-Activated Protein. (proteogenix-products.com)
  • Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are important mediators involved in the intracellular network of interacting proteins that transduce extracellular cues to intracellular responses. (ahajournals.org)
  • Small interfering RNA induced silencing of ATF-2, or mutation of the ATF-2 binding motif prevented the activation of MLCK promoter and MLCK mRNA transcription. (jimmunol.org)
  • CAR activators [phenobarbital, 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene, and diallyl sulfide] decreased Oatp1a1 mRNA expression. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Lu & Werner in "The complete cDNA sequence of mouse elongation factor 1 alpha (EF 1 alpha) mRNA" (NAR, 1989, vol. 17, p. 442). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • β-CDODA-Me repressed AR mRNA transcription, whereas decreased PSA mRNA levels were dependent on protein synthesis and were reversed by cycloheximide. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Antibody detects endogenous levels of ATF-4 protein around Serine 245. (abcam.com)
  • Membranes were probed with either Prdx-1 antibody (anti-Prdx-1 Ab) or Prdx-4 Ab (anti-Prdx-4 Ab) (left) or immunogen peptide-preadsorbed Prdx-1 and Prdx-4 Abs (right). (asm.org)
  • By using the yeast two-hybrid assay, we identified activating transcription factor (ATF) 4 as a potential Nrf2-interacting protein. (thebiogrid.org)
  • A composition, an Nrf2 activating agent, and a food according to the present invention comprise isohumulones or isomerized hop extract as an active ingredient. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • They are useful in treating, preventing, or ameliorating a disease of condition which is treatable, preventable, or ameliorable by the activation of transcription factor Nrf2. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 1. A composition for use in the treatment, prevention or amelioration of a disease or condition which is treatable, preventable, or ameliorable by activation of transcription factor Nrf2 (NF-E2 related factor 2), comprising isohumulones or isomerized hop extract as an active ingredient. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 2. The composition according to claim 1, wherein the disease or condition which is treatable, preventable, or ameliorable by the activation of transcription factor Nrf2 is oxidative stress, detoxification of xenobiotic substances, chronic inflammation, or a disease or condition related thereto. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 15. A transcription factor Nrf2 activating agent, comprising isohumulones or isomerized hop extract as an active ingredient. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Subsequently, we discuss the role of transcription factors nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), Myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), and Forkhead box (FOXO) and their associated posttranslational modifications as it pertains to regulating each of these networks. (degruyter.com)
  • Thus, potent inhibition of LNCaP cell survival by β-CDODA-Me is due to PPARγ-independent activation of multiple pathways that selectively activate growth-inhibitory and proapoptotic responses. (aspetjournals.org)
  • PPARγ is a ligand-activated transcription factor (TF) and a master regulator of adipogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • The glucocorticoid receptor ( GR ) also known as NR3C1 ( nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that binds with high affinity to cortisol and other glucocorticoids . (bionity.com)
  • The following review tries to describe the state of the art of known interactions of paraquat (PRQ) with ligand-activated transcription factors and suggest these molecular targets for the treatment of PRQ toxicity. (novapublishers.com)
  • The activated heterotrimeric SMAD protein complexes associate with nuclear proteins such as the histone acetyltransferases p300, PCAF and the Mixed Lineage Leukemia 4 (MLL4) subunit Pax Transactivation domain-Interacting Protein (PTIP) to regulate gene transcription. (diagenode.com)
  • Results also indicate that important species differences govern the transactivation of SULT2A gene transcription by nuclear receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Activation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells-3 (NFAT3) transcription factor has been shown to result from endocrine inducers of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy such as angiotensin II (ANG II) and serves as an important molecular regulator of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. (physiology.org)
  • Activation of several transcription factors, including the nuclear factor of activated T cells-3 (NFAT3), contributes in part to the changes in gene expression associated with hypertrophy ( 28 , 29 ). (physiology.org)
  • Novel nuclear target for thrombin: activation of the Elk1 transcription factor leads to chemokine gene expression. (wikipathways.org)
  • A) Effect of RSV infection on cytoplasmic-nuclear localization of Prdx-1 and Prdx-4 in A549 cells by Western blotting. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, we found that cdk3 phosphorylates activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1) at serine 63 and enhances the transactivation and transcriptional activities of ATF1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This study, for the first time, demonstrates that the TK target c-MYC plays a role in transcriptional activation and subsequent expression of LIG3 and PARP1 and contributes to the increased error-prone repair observed in TK-activated leukemias. (aacrjournals.org)
  • KLF4 can activate transcription by interacting via it N-terminus with specific transcriptional co-activators, such as p300-CBP coactivator family . (wikipedia.org)
  • Activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) recently has been demonstrated to play a critical role in promoting the survival of human glioblastoma cells. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore activation of this mutant (GRP78 binding site deleted) is regulated by accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Interacting Proteins: ATXN1, Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 protein, and ATF7IP, activating transcription factor 7-interacting protein 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-CDODA-Me induced p21 and p27, down-regulated cyclin D1 protein expression, and induced two other proapoptotic proteins, namely nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene-1 and activating transcription factor-3. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), WNTs and transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) provide signals to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to move to areas of bone formation and to differentiate to the osteoblast lineage. (nih.gov)
  • 12 ] have shown that fruitfly trb proteins precisely control the turnover of C/EBP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein) transcription factors, which in turn is crucial for oogenesis. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Ectopic expression of H3.3K4M, an inhibitor of H3K4 methylation, or deletion of the enzymatic SET domain, destabilizes MLL3/4 proteins and prevents enhancer activation in cell differentiation ( NAR 2019 ). (nih.gov)
  • [4] The endogenous glucocortiod hormone cortisol diffuses through the cell membrane into the cytoplasm and binds to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) resulitng in release of the heat shock proteins. (bionity.com)
  • CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (or C/EBPs) are a family of transcription factors that are composed of six members C/EBP α to C/EBP ζ. (bionity.com)
  • We found that IFN regulatory factor (IRF)7, the master regulator of type I IFN gene expression, interacts with activating transcription factor (ATF)4, a key component of the integrated stress responses whose translation is induced by viral infection and various stresses. (jimmunol.org)
  • The metabotropic GABAB receptor directly interacts with the activating transcription factor 4. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This gene encodes a transcription factor that was originally identified as a widely expressed mammalian DNA binding;protein that could bind a tax-responsive enhancer element in the LTR of HTLV-1. (creativebiomart.net)
  • MLL3/4 control cell fate transition by orchestrating H3K27 acetyltransferases CBP/p300-mediated enhancer activation ( PNAS 2016 , NAR 2017 ). (nih.gov)
  • Our data suggest a model of sequential actions of epigenomic regulators on enhancers: 1) lineage-determining TFs recruit MLL3/4 to prime enhancer regions and label them with H3K4me1, 2) MLL3/4 facilitate the binding of CBP/p300, which activate enhancers and label them with H3K27ac, 3) Brd4 recognizes active enhancers and recruits Mediator and RNA Polymerase II to activate cell-type-specific gene expression ( Nat Commun 2017 ). (nih.gov)
  • G protein-coupled receptors regulate gene expression by cellular signaling cascades that target transcription factors and their recognition by specific DNA sequences. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the central nervous system, heteromeric metabotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA(B)) receptors through adenylyl cyclase regulate cAMP levels, which may control transcription factor binding to the cAMP response element. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Of the transcription factors that regulate these changes in gene expression, the function of c-Jun is the best understood. (frontiersin.org)
  • Tumours produce various factors that regulate bone formation at different levels of osteoblast development. (nih.gov)
  • Among them, the activation of self-reactive lymphocytes and their infiltration in the pancreas, followed by the release of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α ), which united with its membrane receptor on the PBC, activate intracellular signaling pathways that end in the induction of proapoptotic mechanisms and, in some cases, cell death through necroptosis [ 13 , 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Leukemias expressing the constitutively activated tyrosine kinases (TK) BCR-ABL1 and FLT3/ITD activate signaling pathways that increase genomic instability through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), and error-prone repair. (aacrjournals.org)
  • TMPRSS2-ERG (T2E) structural rearrangements typify ∼ 50% of prostate tumors and result in overexpression of the ERG transcription factor. (nature.com)
  • The differentiation of fibroblasts into a transient population of highly activated, extracellular matrix (ECM)-producing myofibroblasts at sites of tissue injury is critical for normal tissue repair. (sciencemag.org)
  • Central to the host innate antiviral responses is production of type I IFN, which is regulated by members of the IFN regulatory factor (IRF) family of transcription factors ( 1 - 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • NFAT3 belongs to the NFAT family of transcription factors, discovered as important regulators of immune responses in mammals ( 8 , 25 , 38 ). (physiology.org)
  • Interferon regulatory factor 7 , also known as IRF7 , is a member of the interferon regulatory factor family of transcription factors . (wikipedia.org)
  • We investigated the functional role of PTIP and PTIP Interacting protein 1 (PA1) in relation to TGF-β-activated SMAD signaling. (diagenode.com)
  • ATF7IP (Activating Transcription Factor 7 Interacting Protein) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Figure 3: ERG remodels binding of master transcription factors to the chromatin. (nature.com)
  • thus, it may represent a class of sequence-specific factors that activate transcription by direct effects on chromatin components. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among the nine members in mammalian cells, two closely related ones, IRF3 and IRF7, have been implicated as the main regulators of type I IFN gene expression elicited by viruses ( 2 , 4 , 8 - 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • cAMP response element-binding protein, activating transcription factor-4, and upstream stimulatory factor differentially control hippocampal GABABR1a and GABABR1b subunit gene expression through alternative promoters. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Thus, BCR-ABL1 or FLT3/ITD induces c-MYC expression, leading to genomic instability via augmented expression of ALT-NHEJ repair factors that generate repair errors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The role of cleaved activating transcription factor 6α (ΔATF6α) and spliced X-box protein-1 (sXBP1) in PRNP gene expression was assessed with over-expression or silencing techniques. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ER stress was a positive regulator of PRNP gene transcription in MCF-7 cells and luciferase reporter assays identified one ER stress response element (ERSE) conserved among primates and rodents and three primate-specific ERSEs that regulated PRNP gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This increase caused enhanced levels of phosphorylated eIF2α and activating transcription factor (ATF) 4, which is essential for Fgf21 -induced expression. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 8 ], which demonstrated an increased expression for this gene during neuronal cell death induced by NGF (nerve growth factor) depletion. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Validation of peroxiredoxin (Prdx) 1 and Prdx-4 expression in A549 cells by Western immunoblotting. (asm.org)
  • The mixed lineage leukemia 4 (MLL4) methyltransferase complex is involved in transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)-activated gene transcription. (diagenode.com)
  • A direct mechanism of action involves homodimerization of the receptor, translocation via active transport into the nucleus , and binding to specific DNA responsive elements activating gene transcription . (bionity.com)
  • In cancer this is initiated by the rapid proliferation of tumor cells, which gives rise to abnormal and chaotic vasculature, leading to the development of occlusions, blind ends, and vesicular shunts ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • 4. The composition according to claim 1, for use in the prevention or suppression of metastasis or infiltration of cancer cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Activating transcription factor-4 promotes mineralization in vascular smooth muscle cells. (ttu.edu)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Activating transcription factor-4 promotes mineralization in vascular smooth muscle cells. (ttu.edu)
  • Importantly, we showed that cdk3 enhances epidermal growth factor-induced transformation of JB6 Cl41 cells and si-cdk3 suppresses Ras G12V /cdk3/ATF1-induced foci formation in NIH3T3 cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We found that PS-341 induced ER stress and subsequently activated a coordinated cellular response, called unfolded protein response, in HNSCC cells ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In HepG2 cells, transient transfection analyses of luciferase reporter constructs containing upstream regions of the (HUMAN)SULT2A1 gene implicated a candidate peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE) at nucleotides (nt) -5949 to -5929 relative to the transcription start site. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Our results show that, when nutrients are low, tumor cells secrete factors related to wound healing that stimulate endothelial cells and attract innate immune cells. (pnas.org)
  • Although these two observations are consistent with Cenp-F being a substrate of Cdh1-activated APC/C, Cenp-F is degraded normally in Cdh1-null cells. (biologists.org)
  • KLF4 has diverse functions, and has been garnering attention in recent years because some of its functions are apparently contradicting, but mainly since the discovery of its integral role as one of four key factors that are essential for inducing pluripotent stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • As patients with non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and wild‑type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are resistant to treatment with erlotinib or gefitinib, potential chemosensitizers are required to potentiate wild‑type EGFR NSCLC cells to erlotinib/gefitinib treatment. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • siRNA-mediated knockdown of Prdx-1 and Prdx-4 in RSV-treated A549 cells. (asm.org)
  • Cells were transfected with 100 nM scrambled (Con), Prdx-1, Prdx-4, or Prdx-1 plus Prdx-4 siRNA. (asm.org)
  • A) After 72 h, cells were harvested and Prdx-1 and Prdx-4 were detected in whole-cell extract (WCE) by Western immunoblotting. (asm.org)
  • B) A549 cells were transfected with either scrambled, Prdx-1, Prdx-4, or Prdx-1 plus Prdx-4 siRNA for 72 h, followed by no infection or RSV infection for 15 h. (asm.org)
  • ROS production in A549 cells lacking Prdx-1, Prdx-4, or both. (asm.org)
  • The growth factor stem cell factor (SCF) affects what cells? (studystack.com)
  • The growth factor IL-3 (multi-CSF) affects what cells? (studystack.com)
  • The growth factor Erythropoietin affects what cells? (studystack.com)
  • In this study, we found that antioxidant enzyme catalase and antioxidants N -acetyl- l -cysteine, α-phenyl- N - tert -butylnitrone, and lipoic acid prevent ANG II from activating NFAT3 promoter-luciferase. (physiology.org)
  • A dominant negative form of NFAT3 transcription factor inhibited H 2 O 2 from activating NFAT3 promoter. (physiology.org)
  • Inactivation of AP-1 transcription factor by cotransfection of a dominant negative c-Jun, TAM67, prevented H 2 O 2 or ANG II from activating NFAT3 promoter. (physiology.org)
  • It was found that the transcription factor Klf4 present at the promoter of an enzymatic subunit of telomerase ( TERT ), where it formed a complex with β-catenin . (wikipedia.org)
  • A key element to cellular survival and adaptation during hypoxia is the transcription factor HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor 1), the master regulator of oxygen homeostasis. (asm.org)
  • Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) stimulates fibrosis by promoting the differentiation of fibroblasts into collagen-secreting myofibroblasts, a process associated with alterations in cellular metabolism. (sciencemag.org)
  • Type III galactosemia is a metabolic disorder caused by reduced activity of UDP-galactose-4-epimerase, which participates in galactose metabolism and the generation of various UDP-sugar species. (genetics.org)
  • Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a peptide hormone with pleiotropic effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, is considered a target for the treatment of diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a member of the FGF family, is a hormone with a wide range of endocrine and autocrine actions on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism ( 1 ) and is considered a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Sma and Mad related (SMAD)-mediated Transforming Growth Factor β (TGF-β) and Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling is required for various cellular processes. (diagenode.com)
  • How isoforms that co-exist within the same sub-cellular domain are differentially activated remains unclear. (nih.gov)
  • Our study uncovers a mechanism whereby co-existing cytoplasmic transcription factor isoforms are differentially activated by distinct sub-cellular Ca(2+) signals. (nih.gov)
  • Notably, activation of ER stress sensors is modulated by other cellular factors, in addition to the dissociation of GRP78. (hindawi.com)
  • It is a selective inhibitor of cellular complexes that dephosphorylate eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit alpha (eIF2alpha). (mcw.edu)
  • Understanding the crucial components of the bone microenvironment that influence tumour localization, along with the tumour-derived factors that modulate cellular and protein matrix components of bone to favour tumour expansion and invasion, is central to the pathophysiology of bone metastases. (nih.gov)
  • For example, the PKR phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), leading to global translation suppression and thus inhibition of viral replication ( 17 , 18 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Oncogenic Ha-Ras transformation modulates the transcription of the CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase alpha gene via p42/44MAPK and transcription factor Sp3. (wikipathways.org)
  • ATF-2 is normally activated in response to signals that converge on stress-activated protein kinases p38 and JNK. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are also many researchers not working directly on ER stress, but who wish to determine whether this response is activated in the system they are studying: thus, it is important to list a standard set of criteria for monitoring UPR in different model systems. (hindawi.com)
  • Activating transcription factor 6-dependent sestrin 2 induction ameliorates ER stress-mediated liver injury. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • however, shikonin plus erlotinib/gefitinib was more effective in activating ER stress than either agent alone. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • H 2 O 2 induces a time- and dose-dependent activation of NFAT3 transcription factor. (physiology.org)
  • gut-enriched Krüppel-like factor or GKLF ) is a member of the KLF family of zinc finger transcription factors , which belongs to the relatively large family of SP1 -like transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4 Phosphorylated and activated ERK migrates to the nucleus, where it phosphorylates several transcription factors. (ahajournals.org)
  • Constitutively activated tyrosine kinases (TK) BCR-ABL1 and FLT3/ITD generate increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage including double-strand breaks (DSB), and abnormal repair that is highly error-prone. (aacrjournals.org)