Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.Transcription Factor AP-2: A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors: A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.Transcription Factors, TFII: The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.YY1 Transcription Factor: A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.GATA4 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.Transcription Factor TFIID: The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Activating Transcription Factor 3: An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.NFATC Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.Sp3 Transcription Factor: A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.Transcription Initiation Site: The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Activating Transcription Factor 2: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.Transcription Factor TFIIB: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.MEF2 Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.GATA3 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.GATA1 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.GATA2 Transcription Factor: An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.TCF Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.GATA Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.STAT1 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Activating Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.Transcription Factor RelA: A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs: Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.GATA6 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Activating Transcription Factor 4: An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Transcription Factor 7-Like 1 Protein: A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.Activating Transcription Factor 1: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Transcription Factor TFIIIA: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.NFI Transcription Factors: Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets: A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein oncogene protein v-ets of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Transcription Factor TFIIH: A general transcription factor that is involved in basal GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. It consists of nine subunits including ATP-DEPENDENT DNA HELICASES; CYCLIN H; and XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM GROUP D PROTEIN.Mice, Inbred C57BLSOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Transcription Factor TFIIA: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.STAT5 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Transcription Factor DP1: A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.T-Box Domain Proteins: Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Leucine Zippers: DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.Octamer Transcription Factor-1: A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.Regulatory Elements, Transcriptional: Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.TATA-Box Binding Protein: A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.Erythroid-Specific DNA-Binding Factors: A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Transcription Factors, TFIII: Factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE III and aid in transcription. They include the assembly factors TFIIIA and TFIIIC and the initiation factor TFIIIB. All combine to form a preinitiation complex at the promotor that directs the binding of RNA POLYMERASE III.GA-Binding Protein Transcription Factor: A heterotetrameric transcription factor composed of two distinct proteins. Its name refers to the fact it binds to DNA sequences rich in GUANINE and ADENINE. GA-binding protein integrates a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and regulates expression of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE control, PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS, and cellular METABOLISM.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Early Growth Response Protein 1: An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.High Mobility Group Proteins: A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Protein: A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway. The activity of the protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN. Transcription factor 7-like 2 protein plays an important role in the embryogenesis of the PANCREAS and ISLET CELLS.Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-1: An ets proto-oncogene expressed primarily in adult LYMPHOID TISSUE; BRAIN; and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Reverse Transcription: The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Twist Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that was originally identified in DROSOPHILA as essential for proper gastrulation and MESODERM formation. It plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MUSCLE CELLS, and is found in a wide variety of organisms.NF-E2 Transcription Factor, p45 Subunit: A tissue-specific subunit of NF-E2 transcription factor that interacts with small MAF PROTEINS to regulate gene expression. P45 NF-E2 protein is expressed primarily in MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; and MAST CELLS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Nerve Tissue ProteinsOligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Transcription Factor TFIIIB: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. TFIIIB recruits and positions pol III over the initiation site and remains stably bound to the DNA through multiple rounds of re-initiation by RNA POLYMERASE III.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Activating Transcription Factor 6: One of the BASIC-LEUCINE ZIPPER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that is synthesized as a membrane-bound protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. In response to endoplasmic reticulum stress it translocates to the GOLGI APPARATUS. It is activated by PROTEASES and then moves to the CELL NUCLEUS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in the unfolded protein response.Transcription Factor Brn-3: A family of mammalian POU domain factors that are expressed predominately in NEURONS.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.SOXB1 Transcription Factors: A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)NF-E2 Transcription Factor: A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates GLOBIN gene expression and is related to TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1. NF-E2 consists of a small MAF protein subunit and a tissue-restricted 45 kDa subunit.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.CCAAT-Binding Factor: A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.SOXE Transcription Factors: A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subfamily have been implicated in regulating the differentiation of OLIGODENDROCYTES during neural crest formation and in CHONDROGENESIS.Upstream Stimulatory Factors: Ubiquitously expressed basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF transcription factors. They bind CANNTG sequences in the promoters of a variety of GENES involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Myogenic Regulatory Factors: A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).RNA Polymerase III: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Pol1 Transcription Initiation Complex Proteins: Factors that form a preinitiation complex at promoters that are specifically transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE I.Transcription Factor 3: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in determining cell fate during embryogenesis. It forms a heterodimer with TWIST TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and ACHAETE-SCUTE GENE COMPLEX-related TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Transcription Factor Pit-1: A POU domain factor that regulates expression of GROWTH HORMONE; PROLACTIN; and THYROTROPIN-BETA in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.

Interleukin-12 induces expression of interferon regulatory factor-1 via signal transducer and activator of transcription-4 in human T helper type 1 cells. (1/357)

IRF-1-deficient mice show a striking defect in the development of T helper 1 (Th1) cells. In the present report, we investigate the expression of IRF-1 during differentiation of human T helper cells. No significant differences of IRF-1 mRNA expression were found in established Th1 and Th2 cells; however, interleukin 12 (IL-12) induced a strong up-regulation of IRF-1 transcripts in Th1 but not in Th2 cells. We demonstrate that IL-12-induced up-regulation of IRF-1 is mediated by signal transducer and activator of transcription-4, which binds to the interferon (IFN)-gamma-activated sequence present in the promoter of the IRF-1 gene. Strong IL-12-dependent activation of a reporter gene construct containing the IRF-1 IFN-gamma-activated sequence element provides further evidence for the key role of signal transducer and activator of transcription-4 in the IL-12-induced up-regulation of IRF-1 transcripts in T cells. IRF-1 expression was strongly induced after stimulation of naive CD4(+) T cells via the T cell receptor, irrespective of the cytokines present at priming, indicating that this transcription factor does not play a major role in initiating a Th1-specific transcriptional cascade in differentiating helper T cells. However, our finding that IRF-1 is a target gene of IL-12 suggests that some of the IL-12-induced effector functions of Th1 cells may be mediated by IRF-1.  (+info)

Homocysteine-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and growth arrest leads to specific changes in gene expression in human vascular endothelial cells. (2/357)

Alterations in the cellular redox potential by homocysteine promote endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction, an early event in the progression of atherothrombotic disease. In this study, we demonstrate that homocysteine causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and growth arrest in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). To determine if these effects reflect specific changes in gene expression, cDNA microarrays were screened using radiolabeled cDNA probes generated from mRNA derived from HUVEC, cultured in the absence or presence of homocysteine. Good correlation was observed between expression profiles determined by this method and by Northern blotting. Consistent with its adverse effects on the ER, homocysteine alters the expression of genes sensitive to ER stress (ie, GADD45, GADD153, ATF-4, YY1). Several other genes observed to be differentially expressed by homocysteine are known to mediate cell growth and differentiation (ie, GADD45, GADD153, Id-1, cyclin D1, FRA-2), a finding that supports the observation that homocysteine causes a dose-dependent decrease in DNA synthesis in HUVEC. Additional gene profiles also show that homocysteine decreases cellular antioxidant potential (glutathione peroxidase, NKEF-B PAG, superoxide dismutase, clusterin), which could potentially enhance the cytotoxic effects of agents or conditions known to cause oxidative damage. These results successfully demonstrate the use of cDNA microarrays in identifying homocysteine-respondent genes and indicate that homocysteine-induced ER stress and growth arrest reflect specific changes in gene expression in human vascular EC.  (+info)

Middle T antigen activation of signal transduction pathways does not overcome p53-mediated growth arrest. (3/357)

Polyomavirus middle T antigen does not overcome p53-mediated G(1) arrest in mouse embryo fibroblasts. Middle T antigen still associates with the signaling molecules phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and SHC and activates the transcriptional activity of c-Myc and AP1 in p53-arrested cells. Examination of cell cycle regulatory proteins indicated that p53 does not interfere with these mitogenic signals but acts later in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle.  (+info)

Heregulin induces expression, DNA binding activity, and transactivating functions of basic leucine zipper activating transcription factor 4. (4/357)

Heregulin beta1 (HRG), a combinatorial ligand for human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 and human epidermal growth factor receptor 4 receptors, is a regulatory secretory polypeptide with distinct biological effects such as growth stimulation, differentiation, invasiveness, and migration in breast cancer cells. The mechanism underlying the diverse functions of HRG is not well established, but it is believed to be dependent on the induced changes in expression of specific cellular gene products, their modification, or both. The binding of basic leucine zipper transcription factors to the cAMP response element is known to activate a variety of gene products with a role or roles in growth regulation. In the studies presented here, we identified basic leucine zipper activating transcription factor (ATF) 4 as one of the HRG-inducible gene product. We demonstrated that HRG stimulation of human cancer cells induces expression of ATF4 mRNA and protein, ATF4 DNA binding activity, and ATF4 transactivating function. Consistent with its role as a transcriptional activator, HRG-stimulated ATF4 protein stimulated the transcription from an artificial promoter with three tandem ATF sites or from a naturally occurring promoter with ATF4 sites such as E-selectin. We also demonstrated a preferential role of the HRG-stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, but not the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase pathway, in supporting the observed increase in ATF4 DNA binding activity and transcription from E-selectin promoter in HRG-stimulated cells. Because ATF4 binding sites are present in a variety of growth-regulating cellular genes, these findings suggest that the stimulation of ATF4 expression and its transactivating functions may constitute an important mechanism of HRG-mediated regulation of putative genes with diversified functions. The present study is the first demonstration of regulation of expression and transactivation ability of ATF4 by any polypeptide growth factor.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of basal and cyclic AMP response elements in the promoter of the rat GTP cyclohydrolase I gene. (5/357)

5812 base pairs of rat GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) 5'-flanking region were cloned and sequenced, and the transcription start site was determined for the gene in rat liver. Progressive deletion analysis using transient transfection assays of luciferase reporter constructs defined the core promoter as a highly conserved 142-base pair GC-rich sequence upstream from the cap site. DNase I footprint analysis of this region revealed (5' --> 3') a Sp1/GC box, a noncanonical cAMP-response element (CRE), a CCAAT-box, and an E-box. Transcription from the core promoter in PC12 but not C6 or Rat2 cells was enhanced by incubation with 8-bromo-cyclic AMP. Mutagenesis showed that both the CRE and CCAAT-box independently contribute to basal and cAMP-dependent activity. The combined CRE and CCAAT-box cassette was also found to enhance basal transcription and confer cAMP sensitivity on a heterologous minimal promoter. The addition of the Sp1/GC box sequence to this minimal promoter construct inhibited basal transcription without affecting the cAMP response. EMSA showed that nuclear proteins from PC12 but not C6 or Rat2 cells bind the CRE as a complex containing activating transcription factor (ATF)-4 and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein beta, while both PC12 and C6 cell nuclear extracts were recruited by the CCAAT-box as a complex containing nuclear factor Y. Overexpression of ATF-4 in PC12 cells was found to transactivate the GTPCH promoter response to cAMP. These studies suggest that the elements required for cell type-specific cAMP-dependent enhancement of gene transcription are located along the GTPCH core promoter and include the CRE and adjacent CCAAT-box and the proteins ATF-4, CCAAT enhancer-binding protein beta, and nuclear factor Y.  (+info)

Molecular interactions involved in the transactivation of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 promoter mediated by Tax and CREB-2 (ATF-4). (6/357)

The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax protein activates viral transcription through three 21-bp repeats located in the U3 region of the HTLV-1 long terminal repeat and called Tax-responsive elements (TxREs). Each TxRE contains nucleotide sequences corresponding to imperfect cyclic AMP response elements (CRE). In this study, we demonstrate that the bZIP transcriptional factor CREB-2 is able to bind in vitro to the TxREs and that CREB-2 binding to each of the 21-bp motifs is enhanced by Tax. We also demonstrate that Tax can weakly interact with CREB-2 bound to a cellular palindromic CRE motif such as that found in the somatostatin promoter. Mutagenesis of Tax and CREB-2 demonstrates that both N- and C-terminal domains of Tax and the C-terminal region of CREB-2 are required for direct interaction between the two proteins. In addition, the Tax mutant M47, defective for HTLV-1 activation, is unable to form in vitro a ternary complex with CREB-2 and TxRE. In agreement with recent results suggesting that Tax can recruit the coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP) on the HTLV-1 promoter, we provide evidence that Tax, CREB-2, and CBP are capable of cooperating to stimulate viral transcription. Taken together, our data highlight the major role played by CREB-2 in Tax-mediated transactivation.  (+info)

Functional analysis of the OCA-B promoter. (7/357)

OCA-B was identified as a B cell-specific coactivator that functions with either Oct-1 or Oct-2 to mediate efficient cell type-specific transcription via the octamer site (ATGCAAAT) both in vivo and in vitro. Mice lacking OCA-B exhibit normal Ag-independent B cell maturation. In contrast, Ag-dependent functions, including production of secondary Ig isotypes and germinal center formation, are greatly affected. To better understand OCA-B expression and, ultimately, the defects observed in the OCA-B knockout mice, we have cloned the OCA-B promoter and examined its function in both transformed and primary B cells. We show here that the OCA-B promoter is developmentally regulated, with activity increasing throughout B cell differentiation. Through physical and functional assays, we have found an activating transcription factor/cAMP response element binding protein binding site (or cAMP response element) that is crucial for OCA-B promoter activity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that IL-4 and anti-CD40 induce both the OCA-B promoter and octamer-dependent promoters, thus implicating OCA-B in B cell signaling events in the nucleus.  (+info)

The cryptocephal gene (ATF4) encodes multiple basic-leucine zipper proteins controlling molting and metamorphosis in Drosophila. (8/357)

The cryptocephal (crc) mutation causes pleiotropic defects in ecdysone-regulated events during Drosophila molting and metamorphosis. Here we report that crc encodes a Drosophila homolog of vertebrate ATF4, a member of the CREB/ATF family of basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors. We identified three putative protein isoforms. CRC-A and CRC-B contain the bZIP domain, and CRC-D is a C-terminally truncated form. We have generated seven new crc alleles. Consistent with the molecular diversity of crc, these alleles show that crc is a complex genetic locus with two overlapping lethal complementation groups. Alleles representing both groups were rescued by a cDNA encoding CRC-B. One lethal group (crc(1), crc(R6), and crc(Rev8)) consists of strong hypomorphic or null alleles that are associated with mutations of both CRC-A and CRC-B. These mutants display defects associated with larval molting and pupariation. In addition, they fail to evert the head and fail to elongate the imaginal discs during pupation, and they display variable defects in the subsequent differentiation of the adult abdomen. The other group (crc(R1), crc(R2), crc(E85), crc(E98), and crc(929)) is associated with disruptions of CRC-A and CRC-D; except for a failure to properly elongate the leg discs, these mutants initiate metamorphosis normally. Subsequently, they display a novel metamorphic phenotype, involving collapse of the head and abdomen toward the thorax. The crc gene is expressed throughout development and in many tissues. In third instar larvae, crc expression is high in targets of ecdysone signaling, such as the leg and wing imaginal discs, and in the ring gland, the source of ecdysone. Together, these findings implicate CREB/ATF proteins in essential functions during molting and metamorphosis. In addition, the similarities between the mutant phenotypes of crc and the ecdysone-responsive genes indicate that these genes are likely to be involved in common signaling pathways.  (+info)

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Mitochondrial dysfunction is pervasive in human pathologies such as neurodegeneration, diabetes, cancer, and pathogen infections as well as during normal aging. Cells sense and respond to mitochondrial dysfunction by activating a protective transcriptional program known as the mitochondrial unfolded …
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Good points Marianne. I might also add that not all IOIs are what they may seem. For example, hair twirling can occur when a woman feels uncomfortable/stressed. If it is slow and methodical its probably an IOI. If it is fast paced and kind of a tugging action, she is having a negative reaction and feels uncomfortable/stressed. Same goes for stroking actions. Pay attention to the pace. If it is slow and rhythmic she is probably daydreaming/thinking erotic thoughts. If it is fast paced, she is probably anxious/uncomfortable/stressed ...
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A Fiat Tipo is not a Nissan Versa, Tipo is a C segment car, the Versa is a B segment vehicle. Main external difference is width, Versa being 169.5 cm...
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Expression of the ATF in the ECV304 cells. Immunofluorescence was performed, and the resulting cells were observed under a laser scanning confocal microscope. (
ATF6, a membrane-anchored transcription factor from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that modulates the cellular response to stress as an effector of the unfolded-protein response (UPR), is a key player in the development of tumors of different origin. reticulum (ER) can be particularly affected by the presence of mutations in secretory proteins or by dynamic changes in the cellular microenvironment, events which are often encountered in cancers. In the ER, these events are sensed by specific sensors, which in turn trigger select Rabbit Polyclonal to CPB2 signaling pathways, collectively named the unfolded-protein response (UPR) (1). The UPR is an adaptive response that allows the cells to either overcome the stress or promote cell death in the case of overwhelming burden (1). Three ER-resident proteins, namely, the protein kinase PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), the inositol-requiring protein 1 alpha (IRE1), and the activating transcription factor 6 alpha (ATF6), have been identified as the major ...
Some lawmakers and government accountability groups interpreted the words as a warning to employees considering blowing the whistle on corruption.. In a July 18 letter to Jones, Rep. Darrell Issa (R., Calif.) and Sen. Chuck Grassley (R., Iowa) wrote ATF employees must be "free and clear of agency interference or retaliation" if they choose to talk to Congress.. "Your ominous message-which could be interpreted as a threat-is likely to have a major chilling effect on ATF employees exercising their rights to contact Congress," the two lawmakers wrote. "Therefore, it needs to be clarified.". "On numerous occasions, we have stressed to ATF and the Department of Justice the importance of protecting whistleblower disclosures and preventing retaliation against whistleblowers," they continued.. "The bureau needs to make up its mind whether its going to be supportive of employees trying to get its mission back on track, or if its going to snuff out dissent," said Tom Devine, the legal director of the ...
Break the mould and choose your Fiat 500C trim levels to stand out from the crowd. Pop, Lounge, Sport, Star or Rockstar: which convertible looks more like you? Configure your 500C today.
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Italian mobsters make as much money trafficking narcotics in Italy as Fiat does selling cars, but without having to pay taxes, the anti-mafia prosecutors office said on Wednesday.
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The 2012 Fiat 500 Sports comes in a high-gloss Brilliant Red, among other choices, that truly befits its flashy urban style and surprising small car performance.
Fiat Chrysler is recalling nearly 1.8 million Ram trucks because they can be shifted out of park without the drivers foot on the brake.
@lucifer919: Great Going! Sorry to sort-of-hijack your thread - But a short update on my 1.6 Sport. At about 80000kms on the odo, the car never ceases to thrill me. After 5-6 months of not using the
Article Autophosphorylation-induced degradation of the Pho85 cyclin Pcl5 is essential for response to amino acid limitation. Pho85 cyclins (Pcls), activators of the yeast cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) Pho85, belong together with the p35 activator of ...
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FIG. 6. Transcription and translation of ATF3 mRNA is not dependent on Perk activity during hypoxia. (A) ATF3 total mRNA expression is induced by hypoxic stress. Total RNA was isolated prior to sucrose gradient fractionation from hypoxia-treated (4 h) or normoxic (0 h) SV40-immortalized Perk+/+ and Perk−/− cells, reverse transcribed, and quantified by real-time PCR. The quantities of each transcript are described as the number of transcripts isolated per microgram of total RNA. Each sample was independently normalized to a spiked internal control. Q-PCR analysis was replicated in triplicate. Results are representative of the averages ± SEM for three independent experiments. (B) ATF3 transcripts are enriched in the polysomes of Perk+/+ and Perk−/− cells during hypoxia. High-molecular-weight polysomes from hypoxia-treated (4 h) or normoxic (0 h) SV40-immortalized Perk+/+ and Perk−/− cells were pooled (fractions 6 to 10), reverse transcribed, and quantified by real-time PCR. The ...
J:191236 Wang SZ, Ou J, Zhu LJ, Green MR, Transcription factor ATF5 is required for terminal differentiation and survival of olfactory sensory neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Nov 6;109(45):18589-94 ...
today. Things are actually looking up for the truck-engine maker. The stock plunged as much as 4.7 percent on Thursday after the Environmental Protection Agency accused Fiat Chrysler Automobiles…. View this article online at Bloomberg ...
Last fall we told you about the SCCA’s new B-Spec series, designed to be an affordable gateway into the world of SCCA racing. Cars for the series are purpose-built and include the Kia Rio, the MINI Cooper, the Mazda2, the Ford Fiesta, the Honda Fit and the Fiat 500. By series rules, each car must run the same brand and model of tire, and it’s...
Dairy proteins, in particular the whey fraction, exert insulinogenic properties and facilitate glycemic regulation through a mechanism involving elevation of certain plasma amino acids, and stimulation of incretins. Human milk is rich in whey protein and has not been investigated in this respect ...
This is a 1970 Fiat twin cam 1438cc race engine. It is ready to drop in. It has being recently freshened and has not raced since ...
Fiat Chrysler is recalling over 1.3 million vehicles worldwide to fix malfunctioning alternators or a wiring problem that can make air bags inflate unexpectedly.
The Italian government is callingon Fiat to clarify its commitment to Italy after thecarmaker reiterated its multi-billion-euro investment plan forits home country should not be interpreted as an absolutepledge.
Has anybody had any experiences changing these? They seem readily available on eBay...not so sure about getting the old ones off will be particularly...
Crossovers are king, but does that necessarily mean that they are the best vehicle to cart around your family? No. That title is still ...
Combine the appeal of a vintage off-roader with the charm of a Fiat Jolly, and you get this: a Ferves Ranger. A rear-mounted engine from the Fiat 500 provided a blistering 18 horsepower, sent either to the rear wheels or all four. The name Ferves comes from Ferrari Veicoli Speciale (Ferrari
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Protein kinase R (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) is a type I endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane protein containing a stress-sensing domain facing the endoplasmic reticulum lumen and a cytosolic kinase domain. PERK is a major component of the unfolded protein response (UPR), which promotes the adaptation of cells to various forms of stress. PERK is activated in response to a variety of endoplasmic reticulum stresses implicated in numerous disease states. PERK regulates proliferation of beta cells during embryonic and neonatal development and is essential for viability of acinar cells in mouse exocrine pancreas, neither of which is associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress response. PERK is also required for endoplasmic reticulum functions including proinsulin trafficking and quality control in beta cells. Similarly, PERK modulates proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts as well as secretion of type I collagen. PERK phosphorylates α subunit of the translation ...
The activated amino acid response (AAR) and unfolded protein response (UPR) stress signaling pathways converge on the phosphorylation of translation initiation factor eIF2?. AAR pathway demonstrating which the UPR pathway creates a repressive indication that works downstream of ATF4 binding. A multitude of stress indicators activate a number of of a couple of eukaryotic initiation aspect 2? (eIF2?)2 kinases (1). Phosphorylation from the translational initiation aspect eIF2? at serine 51 by these kinases provokes a suppression of global proteins synthesis and a paradoxical upsurge in the translation of chosen mRNAs containing brief upstream starting reading structures including that of activating transcription aspect 4 TKI-258 (ATF4) (2 3 Among the eIF2? kinases is normally double-stranded RNA-activated proteins kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (Benefit) which is normally turned on by ER tension conditions such as for example perturbation of calcium mineral homeostasis blood sugar ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Kaori Iida, Yulin Li, Barbara C McGrath, Ami Frank, Douglas R Cavener].
Fiat S.p.A., or Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino (Italian Automobile Factory of Turin), was an Italian holding company whose original and core activities were in the automotive industry, and that was succeeded by Fiat Chrysler Automobiles NV (FCA). The Fiat Group contained many brands such as Ferrari, Maserati, Fiat, Alfa Romeo, the Chrysler Group, and many more. ...
Alphabet-owned Google has teamed up with Fiat Chrysler to create an in-car infotainment system based on the U.S. search giants Android OS.
Fiat Punto EVO 1.3 Active (Diesel) Price in India - Rs 6.4 Lakh. Read Punto EVO 1.3 Active Review, check Interior Images, Mileage, Features, Colors and other details.
Fiat Chrysler is recalling more than 182,000 pickup trucks worldwide to fix an electrical problem that can knock out the power steering.
Complete information for ATF6 gene (Protein Coding), Activating Transcription Factor 6, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for ATF1 gene (Protein Coding), Activating Transcription Factor 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
When you enjoy a car this much, relating that joy into words becomes increasingly difficult. How do I explain that a car - one which has a modest 160 horse...
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GGCGTAATCT GCTGCTTGCA AACAAAAAAA CCACCGCTAC CAGCGGTGGT TTGTTTGCCG GATCAAGAGC TACCAACTCT TTTTCCGAAG GTAACTGGCT TCAGCAGAGC GCAGATACCA AATACTGTCC TTCTAGTGTA GCCGTAGTTA GGCCACCACT TCAAGAACTC TGTAGCACCG CCTACATACC TCGCTCTGCT AATCCTGTTA CCAGTGGCTG CTGCCAGTGG CGATAAGTCG TGTCTTACCG GGTTGGACTC AAGACGATAG TTACCGGATA AGGCGCAGCG GTCGGGCTGA ACGGGGGGTT CGTGCACACA GCCCAGCTTG GAGCGAACGA CCTACACCGA ACTGAGATAC CTACAGCGTG AGCATTGAGA AAGCGCCACG CTTCCCGAAG GGAGAAAGGC GGACAGGTAT CCGGTAAGCG GCAGGGTCGG AACAGGAGAG CGCACGAGGG AGCTTCCAGG GGGAAACGCC TGGTATCTTT ATAGTCCTGT CGGGTTTCGC CACCTCTGAC TTGAGCGTCG ATTTTTGTGA TGCTCGTCAG GGGGGCGGAG CCTATGGAAA AACGCCAGCA ACGCAAGCTA GCTTCTAGCT AGAAATTGTA AACGTTAATA TTTTGTTAAA ATTCGCGTTA AATTTTTGTT AAATCAGCTC ATTTTTTAAC CAATAGGCCG AAATCGGCAA AATCCCTTAT AAATCAAAAG AATAGCCCGA GATAGGGTTG AGTGTTGTTC CAGTTTGGAA CAAGAGTCCA CTATTAAAGA ACGTGGACTC CAACGTCAAA GGGCGAAAAA CCGTCTATCA GGGCGATGGC CGCCCACTAC GTGAACCATC ACCCAAATCA AGTTTTTTGG GGTCGAGGTG CCGTAAAGCA CTAAATCGGA ACCCTAAAGG GAGCCCCCGA ...
The PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK, also know as Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 3) is a type I transmembrane…
Process Audit Fiat Group Automobiles Performed by Customer (Medium / High Risk) Supplier (Low Risk) Date: Part number: Part description: OdM: Vehicle / MY: SQE: Supplier Code: Supplier Name: Supplier Plant:
Over the years, the fractional reserve system and its integrated network of banks backed by a central bank has become the dominantmoney system of the world. At the same time, the fraction of gold backing the debt money has steadily shrunk to nothing.The basic nature of money has changed. In the past the paper dollar was actually a receipt that could be redeemed for a fixed weightof gold or silver. In the present, a paper or digital dollar can only be redeemed for another paper or digital dollar. In the past, privatelycreated bank credit existed only in the form of private bank notes, which people had the choice to refuse, just as we have the choice torefuse someones private check today. In the present, privately created bank credit is legally convertible to government issued fiatcurrency, or the dollars, loonies, and pounds we habitually think of as money.Fiat currency is money created by government fiat, or decree. Legal tender laws declare that citizens must accept this fiat money as payment ...
Italian action on Fiat shows why reform of EU testing system is urgently needed Submitted on: Wednesday, February 8, 2017 - 10:14 T&E has got hold of Italys Dieselgate emissions investigation. The report proves that the home carmaker got special treatment, e.g. Fiats cars were tested in carmakers own labs and some even "exempted" from undergoing more demanding tests. This shows what is going to happen if type approval rules are not tightened up and all enforcement continues to sit with national authorities.. Related topics: Air PollutionBriefingCarsVansStandardsEnvironmental policy Learn more ...
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ATF-4兔多克隆抗体(ab105383)可与小鼠样本反应并经WB, IHC实验严格验证,被2篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
SUMOylation plays an important role in regulating a wide range of cellular processes. Previously, we showed that ATF3, a stress response mediator, can be SUMOylated and lysine 42 is the major SUMO site. However, the significance of ATF3 SUMOylation in biological processes is still poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of ATF3 SUMOylation on CCND activity and cellular proliferation in human prostate cancer cells. First, we showed that ATF3 can be SUMOylated endogenously in the overexpression system, and lysine 42 is the major SUMO site. Unlike normal prostate tissue and androgen-responsive LNCaP cancer cells, androgen-independent PC3 and DU145 cancer cells did not express ATF3 endogenously. Overexpression of ATF3 increased CCND1/2 expression in PC3 and DU145 cancer cells. Interestingly, we observed that SUMOylation is essential for ATF3-mediated CCND1/2 activation. Finally, we observed that SUMOylation plays a functional role in ATF3-mediated cellular proliferation in PC3 and
Chen Y.J., Su. J.H., Tsao C.Y., Hung C.T, Chao H.H., Lin J.J., Liao M.H., Yang Z.Y., Huang H.H., Tsai F.J., Weng S.H., Wu Y.J.. 2013. Sinulariolide induced hepatocellular carcinoma apoptosis through activation of mitochondrial-related apoptotic and PERK/eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP pathway. Molecules. 18(9), 10146-10161. (SCI) (CHEMISTRY ORGANIC) ...
Reverse grip benches are used to place emphasis on the triceps. Some PL types use them as assistance. On PL type, Anthony Clark, actually used them in competition, with a wide grip, however, most people use them with a grip just slightly wider than shoulder width, to place emphasis on the triceps plus to take strain off the wrists. Here is how I do them. I slide my bench through the racks, so that I dont have to move the bar over my face when unracking.With a grip slightly wider than shoulder width, and a reverse grip, my elbows aare pretty close to being in line with my body. I l;ower the bar in a natural arc, and the bar touches me right around the sternum, then push up in the same arc. The bottom position might vary, due to bone length, etc, but this is what works for me and others, and keeps strain off the wrists ...
He says whats great about your event is that it matches its name. Whats wrong with it is (he says) that its the eleventh reboot. "When are you going to have a stable system?" Were rebooting the reboots.. He s says hes not into the action vs. words thing because hes a novelist. He also promises to tell us what the next decade looks like culturally. He begins with an anecdote about the chief designer at Fiat who talked about the Fiat since the 500, a very popular car. The designer told an audience that it succeeded because its a 50-yr old design. Bruce asked from the audience: Since the new Fiat 500 is a big success, whats the future for it? Are you going to release the car that came after the F500. (There was such a car.) No, he said. They were looking at post-consumer alterations of the F500 and they were going to "professionalize" that; they were going to move the F500 into "emergent demographic groups." "I thought this was a really clever idea" and that this is going to happen a lot, ...
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The global protein therapeutics market is projected to grow at a stupendous CAGR of around 12% during 2011-2013, says RNCOS in its latest research offering.
"Activating Transcription Factor 7 Interacting Protein". Retrieved 23 April 2011. "AceView: Homo sapiens complex locus QRICH1, ... Interacting Proteins: ATXN1, Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 protein, and ATF7IP, activating transcription factor 7-interacting ... ATF7IP is a recruiter protein that couples transcriptional factors to the general transcription apparatus, thereby modulating ... transcription regulation and chromatin formation. QRICH1 is expressed at a high level, 3.3 times the average gene. It is ...
1993). "Activating transcription factor-1 can mediate Ca(2+)- and cAMP-inducible transcriptional activation". J. Biol. Chem. ... Sun P, Lou L, Maurer RA (1996). "Regulation of activating transcription factor-1 and the cAMP response element-binding protein ... This gene encodes an activating transcription factor, which belongs to the ATF subfamily and bZIP (basic-region leucine zipper ... This gene has a pseudogene on chromosome 6. Activating transcription factor ATF1 has been shown to interact with: BRCA1, ...
Transcription factor AP4 is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, which bind to the E-box ... activating enhancer binding protein 4), also known as TFAP4, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the TFAP4 gene. ... 1991). "Transcription factor AP-4 contains multiple dimerization domains that regulate dimer specificity". Genes Dev. 4 (10): ... TFAP4 transcription factor AP-4 (activating enhancer binding protein 4)". Hu YF, Lüscher B, Admon A, et al. ( ...
Activating transcription factor 4 (tax-responsive enhancer element B67), also known as ATF4, is a protein that in humans is ... "Entrez Gene: ATF4 activating transcription factor 4 (tax-responsive enhancer element B67)". Franceschi RT, Ge C, Xiao G, Roca H ... He CH, Gong P, Hu B, Stewart D, Choi ME, Choi AM, Alam J (2001). "Identification of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) as ... Activating transcription factor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000128272 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
"Entrez Gene: transcription factor AP-2 beta (activating enhancer binding protein 2 beta)". Tsukada S, Tanaka Y, Maegawa H, et ... 2006). "Transcription factor activating enhancer-binding protein-2beta. A negative regulator of adiponectin gene expression". J ... Transcription factor AP-2 beta also known as AP2-beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TFAP2B gene. AP-2 beta is a ... 2009). "The transcription factor TFAP2B is associated with insulin resistance and adiposity in healthy adolescents". Obesity ( ...
2005). "Mitosin/CENP-F as a negative regulator of activating transcription factor-4". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (14): 13973-7. doi: ... 13 (4): 275-83. doi:10.1038/sj.cr.7290172. PMID 12974617. Laoukili J, Kooistra MR, Brás A, et al. (2005). "FoxM1 is required ...
Activating transcription factor 3 is a member of the mammalian activation transcription factor/cAMP responsive element-binding ... ATF3 activating transcription factor 3". Chen BP, Wolfgang CD, Hai T (Mar 1996). "Analysis of ATF3, a transcription factor ... Activating transcription factor ATF3 has been shown to interact with: C-jun, DDIT3 JunD, P53, and SMAD3. GRCh38: Ensembl ... Chu HM, Tan Y, Kobierski LA, Balsam LB, Comb MJ (January 1994). "Activating transcription factor-3 stimulates 3',5'-cyclic ...
"Menin interacts with the AP1 transcription factor JunD and represses JunD-activated transcription". Cell. 96 (1): 143-52. doi: ... "Menin interacts with the AP1 transcription factor JunD and represses JunD-activated transcription". Cell. 96 (1): 143-52. doi: ... Chu HM, Tan Y, Kobierski LA, Balsam LB, Comb MJ (January 1994). "Activating transcription factor-3 stimulates 3',5'-cyclic ... Chu HM, Tan Y, Kobierski LA, Balsam LB, Comb MJ (1994). "Activating transcription factor-3 stimulates 3',5'-cyclic adenosine ...
MvfR is a gene which produces a transcription factor which activates phnAB genes. These genes produce the molecule quinolone ... PKA II is activated by cAMP which is produced from ATP. Both these processes are impaired when ATP is depleted by pyocyanin. ... Pyocyanin inactivates catalase by reducing its gene's transcription as well as directly targeting the enzyme itself. ... 4: 1861-1868.. *^ Denning G, Wollenweber L, Railsback M, Cox C, Stoll L, Britigan B (1998). "Pseudomonas pyocyanin increases ...
Pospelov VA, Pospelova TV, Julien JP (February 1994). "AP-1 and Krox-24 transcription factors activate the neurofilament light ... Ras guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity. • protein domain specific binding. • phospholipase binding. • structural ...
Zinc finger protein 521 (ZFP521) and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) are cofactors of Runx2. Furthermore, in ... Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) also known as core-binding factor subunit alpha-1 (CBF-alpha-1) is a protein that ... This protein is a member of the RUNX family of transcription factors and has a Runt DNA-binding domain. It is essential for ... RUNX2 is a key transcription factor associated with osteoblast differentiation. It has also been suggested that Runx2 plays a ...
Phosphorylated STAT6 dimerises and acts as a transcription factor activating many genes, such as eotaxin.[citation needed] ... In both cases this occurs via activation of the Janus kinase (JAK)/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) ... It acts as a negative regulator of both IL-13 and IL-4, however the mechanism of this is still undetermined. Murata T, Obiri NI ... This binds IL-13 with very high affinity (and can therefore sequester it) but does not allow IL-4 binding. ...
VegT acts as a transcription factor to activate genes specifying endodermal fate while Vg1 acts as a paracrine factor. β- ... These transcription factors regulate other transcription factors, cell surface molecules with roles in cell adhesion, and other ... β-catenin activates the transcription factor stat3. Stat3 coordinates cell movements during gastrulation and contributes to ... Low levels of dorsal can activate the transcription of rhomboid. Dorsal represses the transcription of zerknüllt, tolloid, and ...
Iizuka K, Horikawa Y (August 2008). "ChREBP: a glucose-activated transcription factor involved in the development of metabolic ... mainly by promoting the ChREBP transcription factor in the well-fed state. ...
"Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors activate expression of the EGR gene family of transcription factors". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (23 ... "ADP-ribosylation factor-dependent phospholipase D activation by the M3 muscarinic receptor". J. Biol. Chem. United States. 278 ... 15 (4): 114-9. doi:10.1016/0165-6147(94)90047-7. PMID 8016895. Brann MR, Ellis J, Jørgensen H, Hill-Eubanks D, Jones SV (1994 ... 53 (4): 759-65. PMID 9547368. von der Kammer H, Mayhaus M, Albrecht C, Enderich J, Wegner M, Nitsch RM (1998). " ...
This can activate the CREB transcription factor (cAMP Response Element-Binding) that will bind to the CRE (cAMP Responsive ... the activation of the transcription factor Pax8 after phosphorylation. These two transcription factors influence the activity ... Ohno M, Zannini M, Levy O, Carrasco N, di Lauro R (March 1999). "The paired-domain transcription factor Pax8 binds to the ... Another binding-site is the CRE, where the CREB binds, taking part in NIS transcription. In contrast, growth factors such as ...
"Virus infection induces the assembly of coordinately activated transcription factors on the IFN-beta enhancer in vivo". ... Interferon regulatory factor 7, also known as IRF7, is a member of the interferon regulatory factor family of transcription ... transcription regulatory region DNA binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. ... IRF7 encodes interferon regulatory factor 7, a member of the interferon regulatory transcription factor (IRF) family. IRF7 has ...
... a novel regulator for induction of activating transcription factor-2 and heme oxygenase-1". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... by control of the upstream activator of insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling ... 269 (27): 17960-4. PMID 8027054. McDonagh AF, Palma LA, Schmid R (Jan 1981). "Reduction of biliverdin and placental transfer of ...
... addition or removal of N-acetylglucosamine is a means of activating or deactivating enzymes or transcription factors.[4] In ... 4] O-GlcNAcylation most often occurs on chromatin proteins, and is often seen as a response to stress.[4] ... O-GlcNAcylation is the process of adding a single N-acetylglucosamine sugar to the serine or threonine of a protein.[4] ... InChI=1S/C8H15NO6/c1-3(11)9-5-7(13)6(12)4(2-10)15-8(5)14/h4-8,10,12-14H,2H2,1H3,(H,9,11)/t4-,5-,6-,7-,8-/m1/s1 Y ...
In a study by Razaghi et al, amino acid starvation activated the transcription factor Gcn4p, resulting in transcriptional ... Gcn4 is a highly conserved protein and its mammalian homolog is known as activating transcription factor-4 (ATF4). ... Gcn4 is a transcription factor and a "master regulator" for gene expression which regulates close to one tenth of the yeast ... doi:10.1002/iub.1090 PMID 23129244 Nitish Mittal et al., & Mihaela Zavolan (2017). The Gcn4 transcription factor reduces ...
Hsu SH, Hsieh-Li HM, Huang HY, Huang PH, Li H (May 2005). "bHLH-zip transcription factor Spz1 mediates mitogen-activated ...
"DC-STAMP interacts with ER-resident transcription factor LUMAN which becomes activated during DC maturation". Molecular ... 31 (4): 409-16. doi:10.1007/s00774-013-0434-0. PMID 23525827. Hartgers FC, Looman MW, van der Woning B, Merkx GF, Figdor CG, ...
"The forkhead transcription factor AFX activates apoptosis by induction of the BCL-6 transcriptional repressor". The Journal of ... The protein encoded by this gene was identified as an interacting corepressor of BCL6, a POZ/zinc finger transcription ... 7 (4): 273-81. doi:10.1093/dnares/7.4.271. PMID 10997877. Tang TT, Dowbenko D, Jackson A, Toney L, Lewin DA, Dent AL, Lasky LA ... 36 (4): 411-6. doi:10.1038/ng1321. PMID 15004558. Beausoleil SA, Jedrychowski M, Schwartz D, Elias JE, Villén J, Li J, Cohn MA ...
"Identification and Small Molecule Inhibition of an Activating Transcription Factor 4 (ATF4)-dependent Pathway to Age-related ... MMP-2, MMP-9 and u-PA are factors which are important in the metastasis of the cancer, by inhibiting this factors, the ability ... An important factor is the poor uptake of tomatine into general blood circulation. When tomatine is orally ingested, much ... which inhibits transcriptional factors and DNA binding activities. This inhibition leads to decrease in MMP-2, MMP-9 and u-PA. ...
Virus infection induces the assembly of coordinately activated transcription factors on the IFN-beta enhancer in vivo». Mol. ... Yang H, Lin CH, Ma G, Baffi MO, Wathelet MG (2003). «Interferon regulatory factor-7 synergizes with other transcription factors ... RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity. • DNA binding. ... positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • ...
Differentiation of mature B cells into plasma cells is dependent upon the transcription factors Blimp-1/PRDM1 and IRF4. ... First, the B cells have to encounter a foreign antigen, and are then required to be activated by T helper cells before they ... This is a type of safeguard to the system, almost like a two-factor authentication method. ... ISBN 1-4292-0211-4.. *^ a b c Federico Caligaris-Cappio; Manlio Ferrarini (1997). Human B Cell Populations (Chemical Immunology ...
Activating Transcription Factor 4 Is Translationally Regulated by Hypoxic Stress. Jaime D. Blais, Vasilisa Filipenko, Meixia Bi ... Activating Transcription Factor 4 Is Translationally Regulated by Hypoxic Stress. Jaime D. Blais, Vasilisa Filipenko, Meixia Bi ... Activating Transcription Factor 4 Is Translationally Regulated by Hypoxic Stress. Jaime D. Blais, Vasilisa Filipenko, Meixia Bi ... Activating Transcription Factor 4 Is Translationally Regulated by Hypoxic Stress Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
The capacity of BDNF to elevate neuronal ATF4 may thus represent a means to maintain this transcription factor at levels that ... The capacity of BDNF to elevate neuronal ATF4 may thus represent a means to maintain this transcription factor at levels that ... Here, we show that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes a rapid and sustained increase in neuronal ATF4 ... Here, we show that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes a rapid and sustained increase in neuronal ATF4 ...
activating transcription factor. eIF2α. eukaryotic initiation factor 2α. ER. endoplasmic reticulum. HA. hemagglutinin. ID. ... biology and nomenclature of the activating transcription factor/cAMP responsive element binding family of transcription factors ... Mitosin/CENP-F as a negative regulator of activating transcription factor-4. J. Biol. Chem. 280: 13973-13977. ... Activating transcription factor 4. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 40: 14-21. ...
Activating Transcription Factor 3, Activating Transcription Factor 4, Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Breast, Cadmium Chloride, ... Identification of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) as an Nrf2-interacting protein. Implication for heme oxygenase-1 ... By using the yeast two-hybrid assay, we identified activating transcription factor (ATF) 4 as a potential Nrf2-interacting ... Transcription Factors, Transcriptional Activation, Transfection, Tumor Cells, Cultured. J. Biol. Chem. Jun. 15, 2001; 276(24); ...
... receptors are engaged in a direct and specific interaction with the activating transcription factor 4 (ATF-4), a member of the ... which may control transcription factor binding to the cAMP response element. Using yeast-two hybrid screens of rat brain ... Rs via G proteins was only marginally affected by the presence of the transcription factor, but ATF-4 was moderately stimulated ... As confirmed by pull-down assays, ATF-4 associates via its conserved basic leucine zipper domain with the C termini of both ...
TPL2 (Therapeutic Targeting Tumor Progression Locus-2)/ATF4 (Activating Transcription Factor-4)/SDF1α (Chemokine Stromal Cell- ... TPL2 (Therapeutic Targeting Tumor Progression Locus-2)/ATF4 (Activating Transcription Factor-4)/SDF1α (Chemokine Stromal Cell- ... TPL2 (Therapeutic Targeting Tumor Progression Locus-2)/ATF4 (Activating Transcription Factor-4)/SDF1α (Chemokine Stromal Cell- ... TPL2 (Therapeutic Targeting Tumor Progression Locus-2)/ATF4 (Activating Transcription Factor-4)/SDF1α (Chemokine Stromal Cell- ...
These transcription factors share a leucine zipper region that is involved in;protein-protein interactions, located C-terminal ... a family of DNA-binding proteins that includes the AP-1 family of transcription factors, cAMP-response element binding;proteins ... This gene encodes a transcription factor that was originally identified as a widely expressed mammalian DNA binding;protein ... transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II transcription factor binding. MAMSTR; GTF2E1; HIF1A; SRF; THRAA; ATF2; MYOCD; ...
Recombinant Activating Transcription Factor 4 (ATF4), TAXREB67; TXREB; CREB-2; DNA-binding protein TAXREB67; Cyclic AMP- ... STORAGE of the Recombinant Activating Transcription Factor 4 (ATF4). Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles. Store at 2-8°C for one ... ELISA Kit for Activating Transcription Factor 4 (ATF4). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Antigen Detection.. ... Recombinant Activating Transcription Factor 4 (ATF4). TAXREB67; TXREB; CREB-2; DNA-binding protein TAXREB67; Cyclic AMP- ...
The activating transcription factor (ATF) 4, which is composed of 351 amino acids, is a member of the ATF/CREB (cAMP Response ... The activating transcription factor (ATF) 4 belongs to the ATF/CREB (cAMP Response Element Binding bZIP [Basic Leucine Zipper ... Caselli, E, Benedetti, S, Grigolato, J, Caruso, A, and Di Luca, D (2012). Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is ... Dunlap, KM, Bartee, MY, and Bartee, E (2015). Myxoma virus attenuates expression of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) ...
ATF4; activating transcription factor 4 (tax-responsive enhancer element B67); TXREB; cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ... cAMP-dependent transcription fa; cAMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-4; cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 2; cyclic ... These transcription factors share a leucine zipper region that is involved in;protein-protein interactions, located C-terminal ... This gene encodes a transcription factor that was originally identified as a widely expressed mammalian DNA binding;protein ...
Buy online Recombinant Human Activating Transcription Factor-4 Protein from Prospec cat# pka-006. ProteoGenix provides you the ... More info about Recombinant Human Activating Transcription Factor-4 Protein. Catalog#: pka-006. ... Data sheet of Recombinant Human Activating Transcription Factor-4 Protein. Brand. Prospec. ...
... an Nrf2 activating agent, and a food according to the present invention comprise isohumulones or isomerized hop extract as an ... Agents for Activating the Transcription Factor Nrf2 and Foods Having Such Function ... A transcription factor Nrf2 activating agent, comprising isohumulones or isomerized hop extract as an active ingredient. 16. ... A method of activating the transcription factor Nrf2, comprising the step of administering an effective amount of isohumulones ...
High-yield expression in E. coli and refolding of the bZIP domain of activating transcription factor 5.. Ciaccio NA1, Moreno ML ... Activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) recently has been demonstrated to play a critical role in promoting the survival of ... High-Yield Expression in E. coli and Refolding of the bZIP Domain of Activating Transcription Factor 5 ... High-Yield Expression in E. coli and Refolding of the bZIP Domain of Activating Transcription Factor 5 ...
Distinct spatial Ca2+ signatures selectively activate different NFAT transcription factor isoforms.. Kar P1, Parekh AB2. ... Distinct Spatial Ca2+ Signatures Selectively Activate Different NFAT Transcription Factor Isoforms. Mol Cell. 2015 Apr 16;58(2 ... Distinct Spatial Ca2+ Signatures Selectively Activate Different NFAT Transcription Factor Isoforms. Mol Cell. 2015 Apr 16;58(2 ... Distinct Spatial Ca2+ Signatures Selectively Activate Different NFAT Transcription Factor Isoforms. Mol Cell. 2015 Apr 16;58(2 ...
Activating transcription factor 2, also known as ATF2, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ATF2 gene. This gene ... Activating transcription factor 2 has been shown to interact with C-jun, Casein kinase 2, alpha 1, CREB binding protein, ... "Phosphorylation of two eukaryotic transcription factors, Jun dimerization protein 2 and activation transcription factor 2, in ... Activating transcription factor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000115966 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
Background Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is a stress response gene that is involved in homeostasis and cellular ... Figure 4 Overexpression of ATF4 promotes tumor cell invasion and metastasis. ATF4 does not modulate proliferation or colony ...
... activating transcription factor 4; activating transcription factor 6; advanced glycated end-products; age-related macular ... Activated IRE1α can recruit TRAF2 and ASK1, which subsequently activates JNK. JNK-mediated phosphorylation of Bcl-2 releases ... Reduction in ATP levels (rise in AMP) activates the intracellular energy sensor AMPK, which activates autophagy via effects on ... transcriptional factor C/EBP homologous protein; type 2 diabetes; unfolded protein response; vascular endothelial growth factor ...
AIM: To research the role of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). by Ross Marshall ... AIM: To research the role of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) in glucose deprivation (GD) induced colorectal cancer ( ... Figure 5 Down-regulation of activating transcription factor 4 significantly. ... Compelled expression of lineage-specific transcription factors in somatic cells can result ...
Decreased immediate inflammatory gene induction in activating transcription factor-2 mutant mice * * REIMOLD Andreas M. ... Identification of the cyclin D1 gene as a target of activating transcription factor 2 in chondrocytes BEIER F. ... Association of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme hUBC9 Implication of the ... A specific member of the ATF transcription factor family can mediate transcription activation by the adenovirus E1a protein LIU ...
... kinase signaling cascade and p38-kinase dependent activation of nuclear transcription factor activating transcription factor ( ... activating transcription factor (ATF)-2. The activated ATF-2 translocated to the nucleus where it attached to its binding motif ... activating transcription factor. IBD. inflammatory bowel disease. MDCK. Madin-Darby canine kidney. MLCK. myosin L chain kinase ... Mechanism of IL-1β Modulation of Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Involves p38 Kinase and Activating Transcription Factor-2 ...
1998 Mar;1(4):507-18. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S. ... Virus infection induces the assembly of coordinately activated transcription factors on the IFN-beta enhancer in vivo.. ... We have identified a virus-activated factor (VAF) that binds to a regulatory element shared by different virus-inducible genes ... We provide evidence that VAF contains two members of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family of transcriptional activator ...
... activating transcription factor 4; CHOP = C/EBP homologous protein; AKT = protein kinase B; TRIB3 = tribbles-homologue 3; ... GF = growth factors; Abs = antibodies; MDK = growth factor midkine; VEGF = vascular endothelial growth factor; RTK = receptor ... eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α; P inscribed in a circle = protein phosphorylation upon treatment with Δ9- ... tyrosine kinase; ALK = anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase; EGFR = epidermal growth factor receptor; CB1 = cannabinoid ...
Whether all inflammatory agents activate nuclear transcription factors NF-kappaB and activated protein-1 (AP-1) through the ... Wortmannin inhibits activation of nuclear transcription factors NF-kappaB and activated protein-1 induced by lipopolysaccharide ... okadaic acid and tumor necrosis factor. Inhibition of NF-kappaB correlated with abrogation of the degradation of IkappaBalpha ... and of NF-kappaB-dependent reporter gene transcription. Thus, the mechanism of NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation by ...
... but who wish to determine whether this response is activated in the system they are studying: thus, it is important to list a ... used by researchers to plan and interpret experiments aimed at evaluating whether the UPR and related processes are activated. ... Physiological or pathological processes that disturb protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum cause ER stress and activate ... paradoxically increases translation of ATF4 mRNA to produce a transcription factor that activates expression of several UPR ...
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis during starvation and has ... the gene expression levels of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and activating transcription factor ... Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis during starvation and has ... 4 (ATF4) were also increased. In addition, we observed increased FGF21 level in serum of healthy male volunteers performing a ...
  • Changes in mRNA translation during the unfolded protein response are mediated by PERK phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α at Ser-51. (asm.org)
  • Recognition of viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as viral RNAs or DNAs by the pathogen recognition receptors triggers signaling cascades, ultimately leading to the activation of IRF3 and IRF7 that involves phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation of the two factors. (jimmunol.org)
  • Although phosphorylation of eIF2α results in global translational suppression, it specifically increases translation of activating transcription factor (ATF)4 through ribosomal leaky scanning of the mini open reading frames (ORFs) in the 5′-untranslated region (UTR) of the mRNA ( 19 , 22 , 23 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In case of superfluous generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting from ionizing radiation, infectious agents, toxins, ischemia, and other pathological factors, the FR process becomes a cascade of events that leads to lipid-lipid and protein-lipid disorders, uncoupling the oxidative phosphorylation and tissue respiration, and in consequence results in a severe imbalance of cellular metabolism. (hindawi.com)
  • The phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (p-eIF2) during dietary amino acid insufficiency reduces protein synthesis and alters gene expression via the integrated stress response (ISR). (nih.gov)
  • In general, MAP kinases are activated by phosphorylation on tyrosine and threonine residues and inactivated by dephosphorylation. (ahajournals.org)
  • The regulation of C/EBPβ is exerted in many manners, phosphorylation , acetylation , activation and repression via others transcription factors, oncogenic elements or chemokines , autoregulation, etc. (bionity.com)
  • GCN2 inhibits general translation by phosphorylation of eIF-2α at serine 51 within 15 min of amino acid deprivation, which then subsequently increases the affinity for the guanine exchange factor eIF2B to sequester eIF-2α leading to reduced formation of the ternary complex (TC) consisting of eIF2, GTP and the initiator Met-tRNA required for translation initiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Production of the encoded protein leads to phosphorylation and activation of the transcription factor ELK1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several post translational modifications have been identified including phosphorylation on serine-59 and serine-396, sumoylation on lysine-391, acetylation on lysine-4 and proteolytic cleavage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Active cyclin D/Cdk4 and -6 inhibit Rb by partial phosphorylation, reducing its binding to E2F and thereby allowing E2F-mediated activation of the transcription of the cyclin E gene and the cell progresses towards S-phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In HepG2 cells, transient transfection analyses of luciferase reporter constructs containing upstream regions of the (HUMAN)SULT2A1 gene implicated a candidate peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE) at nucleotides (nt) -5949 to -5929 relative to the transcription start site. (aspetjournals.org)
  • http://www.cell.com/cell-metabolism/abstract/S1550-4131(16)30222-4 Bharadwaj S, Naidu AG, Betageri GV, Prasadarao NV, Naidu AS (Sep 2009). (wikipedia.org)
  • Other than Rb, viral cyclin D-Cdk6 complex also targets p27Kip, a Cdk inhibitor of cyclin E and A. In addition, viral cyclin D-Cdk6 is resistant to Cdk inhibitors, such as p21CIP1/WAF1 and p16INK4a which in human cells inhibits Cdk4 by preventing it from forming an active complex with cyclin D. Growth factors stimulate the Ras/Raf/ERK that induce cyclin D production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lane 1: molecular weight marker (Bio-Rad Precision Plus Unstained MW Standard), Lane 2: lysis supernatant, Lane 3: insoluble pellet after lysis, Lane 4: purified ATF5 bZIP domain. (nih.gov)
  • C/EBPβ and C/EBPγ also bind the γ1 bZip element, although they inhibit rather than activate transcription. (jimmunol.org)
  • How isoforms that co-exist within the same sub-cellular domain are differentially activated remains unclear. (nih.gov)
  • Our study uncovers a mechanism whereby co-existing cytoplasmic transcription factor isoforms are differentially activated by distinct sub-cellular Ca(2+) signals. (nih.gov)
  • Mitochondrial stress activates a mitonuclear response to safeguard and repair mitochondrial function and to adapt cellular metabolism to stress. (nih.gov)
  • While the hypoxia-inducible factors HIF-1 and HIF-2 are critical to the cellular response to hypoxia, HIF-independent processes are known to contribute to this adaptation. (nih.gov)
  • Cellular proteostasis (protein homeostasis) is an essential factor in maintaining a persistent environment for neuronal activity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Understanding the crucial components of the bone microenvironment that influence tumour localization, along with the tumour-derived factors that modulate cellular and protein matrix components of bone to favour tumour expansion and invasion, is central to the pathophysiology of bone metastases. (nih.gov)
  • TIGAR transcription is rapidly activated by the p53 tumour suppressor protein in response to low levels of cellular stress, such as that caused by exposure to low doses of UV. (wikipedia.org)
  • MKK7 are activated as a result of cellular stresses. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the PKR phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), leading to global translation suppression and thus inhibition of viral replication ( 17 , 18 ). (jimmunol.org)