Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.
A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.
The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.
The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.
A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.
A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.
The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.
Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.
A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.
An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.
A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).
A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.
A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.
Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein oncogene protein v-ets of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
A general transcription factor that is involved in basal GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. It consists of nine subunits including ATP-DEPENDENT DNA HELICASES; CYCLIN H; and XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM GROUP D PROTEIN.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.
A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.
Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.
A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE III and aid in transcription. They include the assembly factors TFIIIA and TFIIIC and the initiation factor TFIIIB. All combine to form a preinitiation complex at the promotor that directs the binding of RNA POLYMERASE III.
A heterotetrameric transcription factor composed of two distinct proteins. Its name refers to the fact it binds to DNA sequences rich in GUANINE and ADENINE. GA-binding protein integrates a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and regulates expression of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE control, PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS, and cellular METABOLISM.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway. The activity of the protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN. Transcription factor 7-like 2 protein plays an important role in the embryogenesis of the PANCREAS and ISLET CELLS.
An ets proto-oncogene expressed primarily in adult LYMPHOID TISSUE; BRAIN; and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that was originally identified in DROSOPHILA as essential for proper gastrulation and MESODERM formation. It plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MUSCLE CELLS, and is found in a wide variety of organisms.
A tissue-specific subunit of NF-E2 transcription factor that interacts with small MAF PROTEINS to regulate gene expression. P45 NF-E2 protein is expressed primarily in MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; and MAST CELLS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. TFIIIB recruits and positions pol III over the initiation site and remains stably bound to the DNA through multiple rounds of re-initiation by RNA POLYMERASE III.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
One of the BASIC-LEUCINE ZIPPER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that is synthesized as a membrane-bound protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. In response to endoplasmic reticulum stress it translocates to the GOLGI APPARATUS. It is activated by PROTEASES and then moves to the CELL NUCLEUS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in the unfolded protein response.
A family of mammalian POU domain factors that are expressed predominately in NEURONS.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates GLOBIN gene expression and is related to TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1. NF-E2 consists of a small MAF protein subunit and a tissue-restricted 45 kDa subunit.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subfamily have been implicated in regulating the differentiation of OLIGODENDROCYTES during neural crest formation and in CHONDROGENESIS.
Ubiquitously expressed basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF transcription factors. They bind CANNTG sequences in the promoters of a variety of GENES involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Factors that form a preinitiation complex at promoters that are specifically transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE I.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in determining cell fate during embryogenesis. It forms a heterodimer with TWIST TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and ACHAETE-SCUTE GENE COMPLEX-related TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A POU domain factor that regulates expression of GROWTH HORMONE; PROLACTIN; and THYROTROPIN-BETA in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of the group have been found expressed in developing neuronal tissue, LYMPHOCYTES, and during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.

Transcriptional autorepression of the stress-inducible gene ATF3. (1/272)

Previously, we demonstrated that ATF3 (activating transcription factor-3) is a stress-inducible gene, and the protein it encodes is a transcriptional repressor. In this report, we present evidence suggesting that ATF3 represses the transcription of its own gene. Interestingly, efficient repression requires a consensus ATF/cAMP-responsive element site in the promoter and a previously unidentified ATF3-binding site immediately downstream from the TATA box. Although this new site resembles the known ATF/cAMP-responsive element sequences at the flanking sequence, it differs from them at the center key residues. These observations indicate that ATF3 can tolerate variations in the center of the binding sites if the flanking sequences are favorable. The repression of the ATF3 promoter by its own gene product provides a mechanistic explanation, at least in part, for the transient expression pattern of the ATF3 gene upon stress induction.  (+info)

Injury-specific expression of activating transcription factor-3 in retinal ganglion cells and its colocalized expression with phosphorylated c-Jun. (2/272)

PURPOSE: To ascribe activating transcription factor (ATF)-3 as a specifically induced transcription factor after ON injury and to describe its putative role as a modulator of c-Jun transactivation. METHODS: The adult rat optic nerve was crushed intraorbitally, and expression profiles of ATF-3, ATF-2, and phosphorylated c-Jun (p-c-Jun) were examined by immunohistochemistry and ISH. Western blot analysis for ATF-3 and -2 were also performed. Furthermore, colocalized detection of c-Jun mRNA with ATF-2 or -3 was attempted with a combined method of simultaneous immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. RESULTS: In response to optic nerve injury, substantial expression of ATF-3 as well as that of p-c-Jun was observed in the retinal ganglion cells, whereas no expression of ATF-3 was seen in other noninjured retinal cells. In contrast, ATF-2 was normally expressed abundantly in both retinal ganglion cells and displaced amacrine cells, but expression dropped in retinal ganglion cells after nerve injury. The expression profiles of ATF-2 and -3 after optic nerve injury were confirmed by Western blot analysis. A higher degree of colocalization was observed for ATF-3 and c-Jun than the modest codetection for ATF-2 and c-Jun. CONCLUSIONS: The transcription factor ATF-3 is specifically induced upon optic nerve injury and colocalizes with p-c-Jun in surviving ganglion cells. These findings suggest that both ATF-3 and c-Jun are crucial to trigger various transcriptional responses and may act synergistically during the survival phase of the optic nerve in the injury model.  (+info)

Homocysteine-responsive ATF3 gene expression in human vascular endothelial cells: activation of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase and promoter response element. (3/272)

Activating transcription factor (ATF) 3 is a member of ATF/cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-responsive element binding protein (ATF/CREB) family of transcription factors and functions as a stress-inducible transcriptional repressor. To understand the stress-induced gene regulation by homocysteine, we investigated activation of the ATF3 gene in human endothelial cells. Homocysteine caused a rapid induction of ATF3 at the transcriptional level. This induction was preceded by a rapid and sustained activation of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK), and dominant negative mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 and 7 abolished these effects. The effect of homocysteine appeared to be specific, because cysteine or homocystine had no appreciable effect, but it was mimicked by dithiothreitol and beta-mercaptoethanol as well as tunicamycin. The homocysteine effect was not inhibited by an active oxygen scavenger. Deletion analysis of the 5' flanking sequence of the ATF3 gene promoter revealed that one of the major elements responsible for the induction by homocysteine is an ATF/cAMP responsive element (CRE) located at -92 to -85 relative to the transcriptional start site. Gel shift, immunoprecipitation, and cotransfection assays demonstrated that a complex (or complexes) containing ATF2, c-Jun, and ATF3 increased binding to the ATF/CRE site in the homocysteine-treated cells and activated the ATF3 gene expression, while ATF3 appeared to repress its own promoter. These data together suggested a novel pathway by which homocysteine causes the activation of JNK/SAPK and subsequent ATF3 expression through its reductive stress. Activation of JNK/SAPK and ATF3 expression in response to homocysteine may have a functional role in homocysteinemia-associated endothelial dysfunction.  (+info)

High-mobility-group protein I can modulate binding of transcription factors to the U5 region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 proviral promoter. (4/272)

HMG I/Y appears to be a multifunctional protein that relies on in its ability to interact with DNA in a structure-specific manner and with DNA, binding transcriptional activators via distinct protein-protein interaction surfaces. To investigate the hypothesis that HMG I/Y may have a role in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) expression, we have analyzed whether HMG I/Y interacts with the 5' long terminal repeat and whether this interaction can modulate transcription factor binding. Using purified recombinant HMG I, we have identified several high-affinity binding sites which overlap important transcription factor binding sites. One of these HMG I binding sites coincides with an important binding site for AP-1 located downstream of the transcriptional start site, in the 5' untranslated region at the boundary of a positioned nucleosome. HMG I binding to this composite site inhibits the binding of recombinant AP-1. Consistent with this observation, using nuclear extracts prepared from Jurkat T cells, we show that HMG I (but not HMG Y) is strongly induced upon phorbol myristate acetate stimulation and this induced HMG I appears to both selectively inhibit the binding of basal DNA-binding proteins and enhance the binding of an inducible AP-1 transcription factor to this AP-1 binding site. We also report the novel finding that a component present in this inducible AP-1 complex is ATF-3. Taken together, these results argue that HMG I may play a fundamental role in HIV-1 expression by determining the nature of transcription factor-promoter interactions.  (+info)

Identification of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) as an Nrf2-interacting protein. Implication for heme oxygenase-1 gene regulation. (5/272)

Nrf2 regulates expression of genes encoding enzymes with antioxidant (e.g. heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)) or xenobiotic detoxification (e.g. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase, glutathione S-transferase) functions via the stress- or antioxidant-response elements (StRE/ARE). Nrf2 heterodimerizes with small Maf proteins, but the role of such dimers in gene induction is controversial, and other partners may exist. By using the yeast two-hybrid assay, we identified activating transcription factor (ATF) 4 as a potential Nrf2-interacting protein. Association between Nrf2 and ATF4 in mammalian cells was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and mammalian two-hybrid assays. Furthermore, Nrf2.ATF4 dimers bound to an StRE sequence from the ho-1 gene. CdCl(2), a potent inducer of HO-1, increased expression of ATF4 in mouse hepatoma cells, and detectable induction of ATF4 protein preceded that of HO-1 (30 min versus 2 h). A dominant-negative mutant of ATF4 inhibited basal and CdCl(2)-stimulated expression of a StRE-dependent/luciferase fusion construct (pE1-luc) in hepatoma cells but only basal expression in mammary epithelial MCF-7 cells. A dominant mutant of Nrf2 was equally inhibitory in both cell types in the presence or absence of CdCl(2). These results indicate that ATF4 regulates basal and CdCl(2)-induced expression of the ho-1 gene in a cell-specific manner and possibly in a complex with Nrf2.  (+info)

Compensatory hepatic regeneration after mild, but not fulminant, intraperitoneal sepsis in rats. (6/272)

Sepsis is the leading cause of death in surgical intensive care units. Although both mild sepsis secondary to cecal ligation and single puncture (CLP) and fulminant, double puncture CLP (2CLP) may provoke hepatocyte death, we hypothesize that regeneration compensates for cell death after CLP but not 2CLP. In male Sprague-Dawley rats, hepatic necrosis, as determined by serum alpha-glutathione S-transferase (alpha-GST) levels, was significantly but equally elevated over time after both CLP and 2CLP. Apoptosis, evaluated using both terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling and morphological examination, was minimal after both CLP and 2CLP. Regeneration, assayed by staining tissue for incorporation of exogenously administered bromodeoxyuridine, was present after CLP but not after 2CLP. To further substantiate impaired regeneration, steady-state levels of mRNAs encoding JunB, LRF-1, and cyclin D1 were determined. After 2CLP, the absence of JunB, LRF-1, and cyclin D1 mRNAs confirmed failed activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase-linked proliferative pathway and progression through the cell cycle. Therefore, failed hepatocyte regeneration may be a manifestation of hepatic dysfunction in fulminant sepsis.  (+info)

Transcription factor ATF3 partially transforms chick embryo fibroblasts by promoting growth factor-independent proliferation. (7/272)

Activating Transcription Factor 3 (ATF3) is a member of the bZip family of transcription factors. Previous studies in mammalian cells suggested that like other bZip family members e.g. Jun and Fos, ATF3 might play a role in the control of cell proliferation and participate in oncogenic transformation. To investigate this putative ATF3 function directly, the rat ATF3 protein was compared with v-Jun for its ability to transform primary cultures of chick embryo fibroblasts (CEFs). Like CEFs accumulating v-Jun, CEFs accumulating the ATF3 protein displayed a typical, fusiform morphology, associated with an enhanced capacity to grow in medium with reduced amount of serum. However, in contrast to v-Jun-transformed CEFs, the ATF3 overexpressing cells could not promote colony formation from single cells in agar. Partial transformation induced by ATF3 was found to be associated with repression of multiple cellular genes that are also down-regulated by v-Jun, including those coding for the extracellular components fibronectin, decorin, thrombospondin 2, and the pro-apoptotic protein Par-4. These data demonstrate that, at least in primary avian cells, rat ATF3 possesses an intrinsic oncogenic potential. Moreover, the results suggest that ATF3 might induce growth factor independence by down-regulating a subset of the genes repressed by v-Jun.  (+info)

The roles of ATF3 in glucose homeostasis. A transgenic mouse model with liver dysfunction and defects in endocrine pancreas. (8/272)

Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a member of the ATF/cAMP-response element-binding protein family of transcription factors. It is a transcriptional repressor, and the expression of its corresponding gene is induced by stress signals in a variety of tissues, including the liver. In this report, we demonstrate that ATF3 is induced in the pancreas by partial pancreatectomy, streptozotocin treatment, and ischemia coupled with reperfusion. Furthermore, ATF3 is induced in cultured islet cells by oxidative stress. Interestingly, transgenic mice expressing ATF3 in the liver and pancreas under the control of the transthyretin promoter have defects in glucose homeostasis and perinatal lethality. We present evidence that expression of ATF3 in the liver represses the expression of genes encoding gluconeogenic enzymes. Furthermore, expression of ATF3 in the pancreas leads to abnormal endocrine pancreas and reduced numbers of hormone-producing cells. Analyses of embryos indicated that the ATF3 transgene is expressed in the ductal epithelium in the developing pancreas, and the transgenic pancreas has fewer mitotic cells than the non-transgenic counterpart, providing a potential explanation for the reduction of endocrine cells. Because ATF3 is a stress-inducible gene, these mice may represent a model to investigate the molecular mechanisms for some stress-associated diseases.  (+info)

Although ATF3 was shown to mediate TGFβ-induced downregulation of ID1 gene expression (Kang et al., 2003), the current study differs from the previous study in a key aspect: we used malignant breast cancer cells, where TGFβ is pro-metastatic; the previous study used non-malignant cells, where TGFβ is cytostatic. Thus, the interplay between ATF3 and TGFβ-SMAD is not limited to the regulation of ID1, a cell cycle regulatory gene. Instead, it extends to the regulation of other TGFβ target genes, such as twist, snail and slug, which are cell motility regulators. In fact, this phenomenon is likely to be broadly applicable. Using a bioinformatics approach (detailed in the Materials and Methods), we scanned 29,895 RefSeq-annotated genes for the ATF and SMAD consensus binding sequences and found 1846 co-occurrences within 100 bp, corresponding to 1823 unique genes. Among them, two gene functional annotations were enriched (P,0.01): calmodulin binding (CAMK1, MYO5C, MYO9B, PCNT, TRPV6, KCNN3, ...
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Greitai ir pasiutęs yra gunwalking gaila operaciją, atliktų biuras alkoholio, tabako ir šaunamųjų ginklų (ATF) stebėti srautų ginklus iš Jungtinių Amerikos Valstijų į Meksikos narkotikų karteliai rankas. Gunwalking arba nuoma vaikščioti ginklus buvo naudojama ATF sąmoningai leisti ginklai įsigijo ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Interaction of RNA-binding proteins HuR and AUF1 with the human ATF3 mRNA 3′-untranslated region regulates its amino acid limitation-induced stabilization. AU - Pan, Yuan Xiang. AU - Chen, Hong. AU - Kilberg, Michael S.. PY - 2005/10/14. Y1 - 2005/10/14. N2 - ATF3 expression is induced in cells exposed to a variety of stress conditions, including nutrient limitation. Here we demonstrated that the mechanism by which the ATF3 mRNA content is increased following amino acid limitation of human HepG2 hepatoma cells is mRNA stabilization. Analysis of ATF3 mRNA turnover revealed that the half-life was increased from about 1 h in control cells to greater than 8 h in the histidine-deprived state, demonstrating mRNA stabilization in response to nutrient deprivation. Treatment of HepG2 cells with thapsigargin, which causes endoplasmic reticulum stress, also increased the half-life of ATF3 mRNA. HuR is an RNA-binding protein that regulates both the stability and cytoplasmic/nuclear ...
Expression of the ATF in the ECV304 cells. Immunofluorescence was performed, and the resulting cells were observed under a laser scanning confocal microscope. (
Mobil ATF™ 3309 is an exceptionally high performance lubricant that meets original equipment manufacturers specifications for use in certain slip-controlled lock-up automatic transmissions.
Article Autophosphorylation-induced degradation of the Pho85 cyclin Pcl5 is essential for response to amino acid limitation. Pho85 cyclins (Pcls), activators of the yeast cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) Pho85, belong together with the p35 activator of ...
Mitochondrial dysfunction is pervasive in human pathologies such as neurodegeneration, diabetes, cancer, and pathogen infections as well as during normal aging. Cells sense and respond to mitochondrial dysfunction by activating a protective transcriptional program known as the mitochondrial unfolded …
Complete information for ATF6 gene (Protein Coding), Activating Transcription Factor 6, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of the plant-specific endoplasmic reticulum stress-inducible gene TIN1 in the formation of pollen surface structure in Arabidopsis thaliana. AU - Iwata, Yuji. AU - Nishino, Tsuneyo. AU - Iwano, Megumi. AU - Takayama, Seiji. AU - Koizumi, Nozomu. N1 - KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01 Acknowledgements: We would like to thank GABI-Kat and TAIR for the T-DNA insertion mutant and the gene annotation data, respectively. This work was supported by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research 20380188 to N.K.. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - Accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotic cells triggers the transcriptional activation of ER-resident molecular chaperones and folding enzymes to maintain cellular homeostasis. This process is known as the ER stress response or the unfolded protein response. We have identified tunicamycin induced 1 (TIN1), a plant-specific ER ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Erwinia carotovora infection enhances the expression of two novel abiotic stress-inducible genes in potato. AU - Sós-Hegedus, Anita. AU - Žvingila, Donatas. AU - Bánfalvi, Z.. AU - Dallmann, Géza. PY - 2004/4. Y1 - 2004/4. N2 - In this study, cDNAs of two Erwinia carotovora-induced potato genes, designated Solanum tuberosum-Erwinia-induced-1 and 2 (Stei1 and Stei2) were isolated by differential display technique. Stei1 and Stei2 were detected in low copy number in the potato genome and found to encode putative proteins with no significant homology to any genes with known function. Treatment of the leaves with salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate and ethylene elevated neither Stei1 nor Stei2 mRNA levels. However, Stei1 and Stei2 expression were induced not only by E. carotovora but also by infiltration of water in leaves, albeit to a lesser extent In addition, Stei2 was up-regulated by NaCl, wounding, dehydration and abscisic acid. Thus Stei1 and Stei2 define novel genes belonging ...
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A number of genes have been reported to be induced by drought, high-salinity, and low-temperature stresses, and their products are thought to function in stress tolerance and response (Bray, 1997; Thomashow, 1999; Shinozaki and Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, 2000). Many stress-inducible genes are responsive to both water stress and low temperature. Some of these genes are induced only by water stress, and several genes respond only to low temperature. Abscisic acid (ABA) is produced under such environmental stresses and plays an important role in the tolerance of plants to the stresses (Ingram and Bartels, 1996; Shinozaki and Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, 2000; Zhu, 2002). Analyses of the expression of these stress-inducible genes in Arabidopsis have indicated that ABA-dependent and -independent signal pathways function in the induction of the stress-inducible genes. These indicate the existence of complex regulatory mechanisms between perception of abiotic stress signals and gene expression (Shinozaki and ...
The gene encoding CHOP (C/EBP-homologous protein) is transcriptionally activated by many stimuli and by amino acid deprivation. CHOP induction was considered to be due to an accumulation of unfolded protein into the ER (unfolded protein response (UPR)). We investigate the role of the UPR in the indu …
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Choices and consequences means simply that if you make poor choices, that if you dont abide by the rules, that if you dont respect the chain of command, if you dont find the appropriate way to raise your concerns to your leadership, there will be consequences, because we cannot tolerate - we cannot tolerate - an undisciplined organization, he said.. Sen. Charles Grassley, R-Iowa., and Rep. Darrell Issa, R-Calif., sent a letter Wednesday to Jones declaring the message could be interpreted as a threat and asked him to clarify.. Your ominous message - which could be interpreted as a threat - is likely to have a major chilling effect on ATF employees exercising their rights to contact Congress, they wrote.. What it appears to be is a not-so-veiled threat telling (ATF employees) not to do what they did to expose Fast and Furious, Issa said. Hes basically saying no, keep it in the chain.. The ATF insists the video (above) was taken out of context.. It was directed at employees who ...
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AA147 is a specific, small molecule agonist of transcription factor ATF6, activates ATF6 and influences differentiation of stem cells.
Nicotiana tabacum TCA-1 protein: a tobacco nuclear protein; MW 40 kDa; salicylic acid induces binding to a 10 bp sequence which is highly conserved amongst stress-inducible genes; aa sequence has been determined
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J:191236 Wang SZ, Ou J, Zhu LJ, Green MR, Transcription factor ATF5 is required for terminal differentiation and survival of olfactory sensory neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Nov 6;109(45):18589-94 ...
the barrel, in the case of the Scorp the barrel is far too short to Making the solvent trap into a suppressor is extremely easy, and the e-form 1 through the atf website is a breeze. It has been brought up on other sites whether or not there is any letters from BATF stating solvent traps are legal. This is 99% of our income. Solvent traps are perfectly legal, as long at the inserts and endcaps are not drilled through. You will need to decide how you are filing - as an individual, corporation or trust. On many sites that sell solvent traps there are references to contact from BATF regarding it being ok even letters from lawyers confirming such, but some people still request a letter.Could there actually be such a letter? The attorney sent a letter to Barnes answering questions and concerns about the legality of solvent tubes. I also have a letter from the ATF Firearm Technology Branch stating that solvent traps are perfectly legal to sell, own, etc. People can be mad at the ATF all they want, but ...
well, for now anyway. thanks for all who corresponded. just to remind you all, the question was which hydraulic fluid goes in the power steering/power brakes reservoir of an 86 fwd quantum 5-2.2L(5 speed manual). 4 different people had 5 different opinions, of course -). to cut to the chase, the most logical answer was: if the reservoir says *ATF OL,* use dexron II or dexron III automatic transmission fluid. since I have been using ATF in the last 3 years, the same will go in now. a different brand apparently should not make a difference. Its bizzare to buy ATF for a manual transmission car, though. pentosin should apparently NOT be used in this case, no matter what your friendly vw dealer says. I think Zafer mentioned that the same was true for some 4000 cars, but I am not sure about those. thanks again, Zvi ...
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A belgyógyászat összefogja a kardiológia, endokrinológia, gasztroenterológia, hematológia, nefrológia, tüdőgyógyászati szakmákat.
... , also known as ATF2, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ATF2 gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: ATF2 activating transcription factor 2". Ozawa K, Sudo T, Soeda E, Yoshida MC, Ishii S (1991). "Assignment of the ... Activating transcription factor 2 has been shown to interact with C-jun, Casein kinase 2, alpha 1, CREB binding protein, ... "Phosphorylation of two eukaryotic transcription factors, Jun dimerization protein 2 and activation transcription factor 2, in ...
... , ATF, is a group of bZIP transcription factors, which act as homodimers or heterodimers with a ... biology and nomenclature of the activating transcription factor/cAMP responsive element binding family of transcription factors ... Activating+Transcription+Factors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e (Articles with ... activating transcription factor proteins and homeostasis". Gene. 273 (1): 1-11. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(01)00551-0. ISSN 0378- ...
"Entrez Gene: ATF7 activating transcription factor 7". Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P, Mann M (2006 ... a novel variant of the ATF/CREB transcription factor family, forms a dominant transcription inhibitor in ATF-a heterodimers". J ... Cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ATF7 gene. In 2001, Peters et al ... Transcription factors, All stub articles, Human chromosome 12 gene stubs). ...
Activating transcription factor ATF3 has been shown to interact with: C-jun, DDIT3 JunD, P53, and SMAD3. GRCh38: Ensembl ... "Entrez Gene: ATF3 activating transcription factor 3". Chen BP, Wolfgang CD, Hai T (March 1996). "Analysis of ATF3, a ... Activating transcription factor 3 is a member of the mammalian activation transcription factor/cAMP responsive element-binding ... Chu HM, Tan Y, Kobierski LA, Balsam LB, Comb MJ (January 1994). "Activating transcription factor-3 stimulates 3',5'-cyclic ...
"Entrez Gene: transcription factor AP-2 beta (activating enhancer binding protein 2 beta)". Tsukada S, Tanaka Y, Maegawa H, et ... 2006). "Transcription factor activating enhancer-binding protein-2beta. A negative regulator of adiponectin gene expression". J ... Transcription factor AP-2 beta also known as AP2-beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TFAP2B gene. AP-2 beta is a ... 2009). "The transcription factor TFAP2B is associated with insulin resistance and adiposity in healthy adolescents". Obesity ( ...
Activating transcription factor 3 (Atf3) is a known RAG with numerous promoters. Atf3 expression increases after nerve injury ... Cis-regulatory elements in the promoter contain sequences recognized by transcription factors and the basal transcription ... For example, the same transcription factor (TF) can direct gene expression in different tissues simply by binding with ... predicting interaction between transcription factors in human tissues". Nucleic Acids Res. 34 (17): 4925-36. doi:10.1093/nar/ ...
"Menin interacts with the AP1 transcription factor JunD and represses JunD-activated transcription". Cell. 96 (1): 143-52. doi: ... "Menin interacts with the AP1 transcription factor JunD and represses JunD-activated transcription". Cell. 96 (1): 143-52. doi: ... Chu HM, Tan Y, Kobierski LA, Balsam LB, Comb MJ (January 1994). "Activating transcription factor-3 stimulates 3',5'-cyclic ... Chu HM, Tan Y, Kobierski LA, Balsam LB, Comb MJ (1994). "Activating transcription factor-3 stimulates 3',5'-cyclic adenosine ...
"TFAP2C (transcription Factor AP-2 Gamma (activating Enhancer Binding Protein 2 Gamma))." TFAP2C (transcription Factor AP-2 ... AP2-gamma is a member of the activating protein 2 family of transcription factors. Transcription factor AP-2 gamma is involved ... "Transcription Factor AP-2 Gamma - TFAP2C - Homo sapiens (Human)." Transcription Factor AP-2 Gamma - TFAP2C - Homo sapiens ( ... Transcription factor AP-2 gamma also known as AP2-gamma is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TFAP2C gene. ...
... has been shown to interact with RuvB-like 1 and Activating transcription factor 2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... a regulator of activating transcription factor 2 response to stress and DNA damage". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 21 (24): ... a regulator of activating transcription factor 2 response to stress and DNA damage". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 21 (24): ... "Control of nutrient-sensitive transcription programs by the unconventional prefoldin URI". Science. 302 (5648): 1208-12. ...
Phosphorylation STATs form transcription factors and activate transcription of appropriate genes. The β chain of IL-15R ... and STAT6 transcription factors are activated to elicit downstream signaling events. IL-15 and its receptor subunit alpha (IL- ... and AKT signaling pathway and induce expression of transcription factors including c-Fos, c-Jun, c-Myc and NF-κB. IL-15 is also ... IL-15 upregulates cytokines and transcription factors of type 1 immune response and NK cell activation". Fish & Shellfish ...
"Mitochondrial transcription factors B1 and B2 activate transcription of human mtDNA". Nature Genetics. 31 (3): 289-94. doi: ... 3 (1): 45-81. PMID 1931007. Borgers M, Verhaegen H, De Brabander M, De Cree J, De Cock W, Thoné F, Geuens G (Nov 1978). "Purine ... 265 (3): 1812-20. doi:10.2210/pdb2pnp/pdb. PMID 2104852. Williams SR, Gekeler V, McIvor RS, Martin DW (Feb 1987). "A human ... 363 (Pt 3): 599-608. doi:10.1042/0264-6021:3630599. PMC 1222513. PMID 11964161. Falkenberg M, Gaspari M, Rantanen A, Trifunovic ...
2002). "Mitochondrial transcription factors B1 and B2 activate transcription of human mtDNA". Nat. Genet. 31 (3): 289-94. doi: ... McCulloch V, Shadel GS (2003). "Human mitochondrial transcription factor B1 interacts with the C-terminal activation region of ... Elongation requires the elongation factor TEFM. The exact termination process is less understood, but MTERF1 is thought to play ... Kravchenko JE, Rogozin IB, Koonin EV, Chumakov PM (2005). "Transcription of mammalian messenger RNAs by a nuclear RNA ...
2002). "Mitochondrial transcription factors B1 and B2 activate transcription of human mtDNA". Nat. Genet. 31 (3): 289-94. doi: ... "Control of mitochondrial transcription specificity factors (TFB1M and TFB2M) by nuclear respiratory factors (NRF-1 and NRF-2) ... Dimethyladenosine transferase 2; transcription factor B2, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TFB2M ... "Entrez Gene: TFB2M transcription factor B2, mitochondrial". Hillen, HS; Morozov, YI; Sarfallah, A; Temiakov, D; Cramer, P (16 ...
Nabel G, Baltimore D (1987). "An inducible transcription factor activates expression of human immunodeficiency virus in T cells ... IL-1 activates resident lymphocytes and vascular endothelia TNFα increases vascular permeability and activates vascular ... In the activated state, integrins bind tightly to complementary receptors expressed on endothelial cells, with high affinity. ... Activated endothelial cells initially express P-selectin molecules, but within two hours after activation E-selectin expression ...
"Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors activate expression of the EGR gene family of transcription factors". The Journal of ... 2S,2'R,3'S,5'R)-1-methyl-2-(2-methyl-1,3-oxathiolan-5-yl)pyrrolidine 3-sulfoxide methyl iodide (selective for M2 but only ... 3'S,5'R)-1-methyl-2-(2-methyl-1,3-oxathiolan-5-yl)pyrrolidine 3-sulfoxide methyl iodide, a potent, functionally selective, M2 ... "Acetylcholine muscarinic m1 receptor regulation of cyclic AMP synthesis controls growth factor stimulation of Raf activity". ...
"Nuclear respiratory factor 2 activates transcription of human mitochondrial translation initiation factor 2 gene". ... Factors eIF1A and eIF5B interact on the ribosome along with other initiation factors and GTP to position the initiation ... The process is simpler in bacteria which have only three initiation factors (IF1, IF2, IF3). Two of these factors are conserved ... Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF5B gene. Accurate initiation of ...
TRAM-TRIF signals activate the transcription factor Interferon Regulatory Factor-3 (IRF3) via TRAF3. IRF3 activation induces ... Transforming growth factor-β-Activated Kinase 1) that leads to the activation of MAPK cascades (Mitogen-Activated Protein ... while activation of MAPK cascades lead to the activation of another transcription factor AP-1. Both of them have a role in the ... signaling pathway leads to the induction of the transcription factor NF-κB, ...
... a lipid-activated transcription factor". Cell. 79 (7): 1147-56. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(94)90006-x. PMID 8001151. S2CID 54387527 ... Spiegelman and colleagues later identified PRDM16 as a crucial factor in brown fat development and the browning of white fat in ... January 3, 1989. Retrieved June 1, 2021 - via newspapers.com. Tontonoz, P.; Hu, E.; Spiegelman, B. M. (December 30, 1994). " ...
It cooperates with other transcription factors including NFkB and Oct. NFkB is translocated to the nucleus after costimulation ... The major sources of IL-2 are activated CD4+ T cells and activated CD8+ T cells. IL-2 is a member of a cytokine family, each ... This phosphorylation recruits STAT transcription factors, predominantly STAT5, which dimerize and migrate to the cell nucleus ... PLC activates 3 major transcription factors and their pathways: NFAT, NFkB and AP-1. After costimulation from CD28 the optimal ...
This is also a key factor for activating its own transcription by binding to its own promoting region. Pruess, D. L.; Kellett, ... B - lactam antibiotics generally have a common feature which is the 3-carbon and 1-nitrogen ring (beta-lactam ring) that is ... 36 (3): 208-212. doi:10.7164/antibiotics.36.208. ISSN 0021-8820. "Medscape.com". Retrieved 2008-12-29. Chemical Research ... "Synthesis of 3-Substituted-clavams: Antifungal Properties, DD -Peptidase and β-Lactamase Inhibition". The Journal of ...
"Entrez Gene: MEF2D MADS box transcription enhancer factor 2, polypeptide D (myocyte enhancer factor 2D)". Youn HD, Liu JO (Jul ... with a mitogen-activated protein kinase, ERK5/BMK1". Nucleic Acids Research. 26 (20): 4771-4777. doi:10.1093/nar/26.20.4771. ... Youn HD, Sun L, Prywes R, Liu JO (Oct 1999). "Apoptosis of T cells mediated by Ca2+-induced release of the transcription factor ... Breitbart RE, Liang CS, Smoot LB, Laheru DA, Mahdavi V, Nadal-Ginard B (Aug 1993). "A fourth human MEF2 transcription factor, ...
... and other transcription factors to the nucleus. Translocated transcription factors activate expression of interferons 𝛂 and 𝛃, ... The primary transcription first transcribes mRNAs from the genomic S and L RNAs, which code NP and L proteins, respectively. ... When the cell is infected by the virus, L polymerase is associated with the viral RNP and initiates the transcription of the ... Transcription terminates at the stem-loop (SL) structure within the intergenomic region. Arenaviruses use a cap snatching ...
... they are also capable of translocating into the nucleus to activate nuclear transcription factors. Activated ERKs are ... Romero F, Martínez-A C, Camonis J, Rebollo A (June 1999). "Aiolos transcription factor controls cell death in T cells by ... this will activate them too. The targets of the kinase cascade are ERK1 and ERK2, that are selectively activated by MKK1 or ... But once c-Raf is fully activated, there is no further need to do so: active Raf enzymes can now engage their substrates. Like ...
Krüppel-like factor 4, and activating transcription factor 3". Cancer Prevention Research. 4 (1): 116-27. doi:10.1158/1940-6207 ... Black AR, Black JD, Azizkhan-Clifford J (August 2001). "Sp1 and krüppel-like factor family of transcription factors in cell ... gut-enriched Krüppel-like factor or GKLF) is a member of the KLF family of zinc finger transcription factors, which belongs to ... "Developmental and cell type-specific expression of the zinc finger transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) in ...
... a new zinc finger transcription factor that activates RANTES gene expression in T lymphocytes". Immunity. 10 (1): 93-103. doi: ... SP1 transcription factor binds near to CCL5 gene and mediates its constitutive mRNA transcription. The transcription factor is ... RANTES expression is regulated in T lymphocytes by Kruppel like factor 13 (KLF13). The CCL5 gene is activated after 3-5 days ... CC-Chemokine-activated killer) cells. It is also an HIV-suppressive factor released from CD8+ T cells The chemokine CCL5 is ...
March 2001). "A pituitary cell-restricted T box factor, Tpit, activates POMC transcription in cooperation with Pitx ... Transcription factor deficiencies, Pituitary disorders, All stub articles, Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic disease stubs) ... 72 (3): 175-82. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0004.2007.00877.x. PMID 17718852. S2CID 25671033. Lamolet B, Pulichino AM, Lamonerie T, et ... doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00282-3. PMID 11290323. S2CID 18054879. Cooper MS, Stewart PM (January 2005). "Diagnosis and ...
"Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors activate expression of the EGR gene family of transcription factors". The Journal of ... Mitchell R, Robertson DN, Holland PJ, Collins D, Lutz EM, Johnson MS (September 2003). "ADP-ribosylation factor-dependent ... 3 (6): 449-461. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2006.04.009. hdl:10533/177761. PMID 16753580. Qin K, Dong C, Wu G, Lambert NA (August 2011 ... 111 (3): 410-416. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1747.1998.00299.x. PMID 9740233. Goodchild RE, Court JA, Hobson I, Piggott MA, Perry RH, ...
2007). "The tumor metastasis suppressor gene Drg-1 down-regulates the expression of activating transcription factor 3 in ... 1491 (1-3): 196-204. doi:10.1016/s0167-4781(00)00025-7. PMID 10760581. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). " ... doi:10.1016/s0167-4889(98)00129-3. PMID 9824680. Dunham I, Shimizu N, Roe BA, et al. (1999). "The DNA sequence of human ...
"Entrez Gene: ATF1 activating transcription factor 1". Zucman J, Delattre O, Desmaze C, Epstein AL, Stenman G, Speleman F, ... 1993). "Activating transcription factor-1 can mediate Ca(2+)- and cAMP-inducible transcriptional activation". J. Biol. Chem. ... Sun P, Lou L, Maurer RA (1996). "Regulation of activating transcription factor-1 and the cAMP response element-binding protein ... This gene encodes an activating transcription factor, which belongs to the ATF subfamily and bZIP (basic-region leucine zipper ...
"The DEXD/H-box RNA helicase RHII/Gu is a co-factor for c-Jun-activated transcription". EMBO J. 21 (3): 451-60. doi:10.1093/ ... "The DEXD/H-box RNA helicase RHII/Gu is a co-factor for c-Jun-activated transcription". EMBO J. 21 (3): 451-60. doi:10.1093/ ... and general transcription. DDX21 has been shown to interact with C-jun. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000165732 - Ensembl, ... 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. S2CID 7827573. Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, ...
"Entrez Gene: NFIX nuclear factor I/X (CCAAT-binding transcription factor)". Singh SK, Bhardwaj R, Wilczynska KM, Dumur CI, ... Müller K, Mermod N (2000). "The histone-interacting domain of nuclear factor I activates simian virus 40 DNA replication in ... for the human transcription factor nuclear factor I by FISH". Genomics. 28 (1): 66-73. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.1107. PMID 7590749 ... "Thyroglobulin repression of thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) gene expression is mediated by decreased DNA binding of ...
... which has been attributed to the activation of specific transcription factors. It also depends on the activity of a protein or ... October 2005). "The contribution of apoptosis-inducing factor, caspase-activated DNase, and inhibitor of caspase-activated ... Caspase-activated DNase (CAD) or DNA fragmentation factor subunit beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DFFB gene ... It is also known as caspase activated nuclease (CPAN), dna fragmentation factor 40 (DFF-40), DFF2 and DFFB. Besides, there are ...
Daxx can interact and suppress several transcription factors, such as p53, p73, and NF-κB. Proteins other than transcription ... When the cell is treated with TGF-β, HIPK2, a nuclear kinase, phosphorylates Daxx and the activated Daxx in turn activates the ... the encoded protein functions as a potent transcription repressor that binds to sumoylated transcription factors. Its ... The omnipresence of Daxx in the cell nucleus suggests that the protein may also function as a transcription factor. Although it ...
Many viruses have an RNA genome, such as HIV, which uses reverse transcription to create a DNA template from its viral RNA ... Binding of the hormone to insulin receptors on cells then activates a cascade of protein kinases that cause the cells to take ... These signals are usually in the form of water-soluble messengers such as hormones and growth factors and are detected by ... Proteins are made from amino acids that have been activated by attachment to a transfer RNA molecule through an ester bond. ...
... β-catenin becomes a coactivator for TCF and LEF to activate Wnt genes by displacing Groucho and HDAC transcription repressors. ... Yi ZY, Feng LJ, Xiang Z, Yao H (2011). "Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 activation mediates epithelial to ... On the other hand, a lack of α-catenin can promote aberrant transcription, which can lead to cancer. As a result, it can be ... Keratinocytes engineered to not express alpha-catenin have disrupted cell adhesion and activated NF-κB. A tumor cell line with ...
Splicing factor, arginine/serine-rich 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SFRS6 gene. The protein encoded by this ... Ramchatesingh J, Zahler AM, Neugebauer KM, Roth MB, Cooper TA (September 1995). "A subset of SR proteins activates splicing of ... Monsalve M, Wu Z, Adelmant G, Puigserver P, Fan M, Spiegelman BM (August 2000). "Direct coupling of transcription and mRNA ... The encoded nuclear protein belongs to the splicing factor SR family and has been shown to bind with and modulate another ...
June 2012). "Nucleophosmin (NPM1/B23) interacts with activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) protein and promotes proteasome- ... This protein is deactivated by binding ATP, and activated by its dephosphorylation to ADP, which requires a potassium ion to ... Rauch JN, Gestwicki JE (January 2014). "Binding of human nucleotide exchange factors to heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) generates ... Rauch JN, Gestwicki JE (January 2014). "Binding of human nucleotide exchange factors to heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) generates ...
IFNs activate signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) complexes; STATs are a family of transcription factors ... Type I IFNs further activate p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) to induce gene transcription. Antiviral and ... this receptor activates the transcription factors IRF3 and NF-κB, which are important for initiating synthesis of many ... Some STATs are activated by both type I and type II IFNs. However each IFN type can also activate unique STATs. STAT activation ...
... represses the transcription of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor by a mechanism involving activator protein ... "Identification and characterization of a novel activated RhoB binding protein containing a PDZ domain whose expression is ... Arthur WT, Ellerbroek SM, Der CJ, Burridge K, Wennerberg K (November 2002). "XPLN, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for ... Gampel A, Parker PJ, Mellor H (September 1999). "Regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor traffic by the small GTPase ...
Phosphorylation of the transcription factor may activate it and that activated transcription factor may then activate the ... An activated enhancer begins transcription of its RNA before activating a promoter to initiate transcription of messenger RNA ... Several cell function specific transcription factors (there are about 1,600 transcription factors in a human cell) generally ... which enable activating transcription factors to recruit RNA polymerase. As promoters are typically immediately adjacent to the ...
The expression profiles of these transcription factors are driven by the transcription factors that peak in the prior phase, ... them from transcription), activating E2F. Activation of E2F results in transcription of various genes like cyclin E, cyclin A, ... One screen of single-gene knockouts identified 48 transcription factors (about 20% of all non-essential transcription factors) ... of cell cycle transcription factors by Cdk1 may alter the localization or activity of the transcription factors in order to ...
This may be due to BadA's inducing the transcription of proangiogenic factors, as it activates of NF-κB as well as hypoxia- ... In essence, they are virulence factors, factors that make the bacteria harmful and infective to the host organism. TAAs are ... All Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesins are crucial virulence factors that cause serious disease in humans. The most-studied and ... YadA bacterial adhesin protein domain Type V secretion system Virulence factor Cell adhesion Outer membrane Gram negative ...
... users with access to smartphones may also activate the on-screen braille input keyboard, to type braille symbols on to ... Some portions of the transcription rules are not fully codified and rely on the judgment of the transcriber. Thus, when the ... There are numerous factors that influence access to braille literacy, including school budget constraints, technology ... Holland, B. F. (1934). "Speed and Pressure Factors in Braille Reading", Teachers Forum, Vol. 7. pp. 13-17 Lowenfield, B.; Abel ...
... phosphorylates INSIG to activate SREBP and lipogenesis in cancer cells. Lu demonstrated that growth factor receptor activation ... "PKM2 phosphorylates histone H3 and promotes gene transcription and tumorigenesis". Cell. 150 (4): 685-696. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... In addition, he showed that activation of growth factor receptors, expression of K-Ras G12V and B-Raf V600E, and hypoxia induce ... He also showed that the glycolytic enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) phosphorylates and activates pyruvate dehydrogenase ...
Transcription of csrC increases as the culture approaches the stationary phase of growth and is indirectly activated by CsrA ... The 245 nucleotide sRNA of Escherichia coli, CsrC, was discovered using a genetic screen for factors that regulate glycogen ... 48 (3): 657-670. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2958.2003.03459.x. PMID 12694612. S2CID 37780212. Argaman L, Hershberg R, Vogel J, Bejerano ...
... transcription and transcription factor regulation, cell signaling, histone modification, and DNA repair. Most other UBLs have ... Typically, UBLs are expressed as inactive precursors and must be activated by proteolysis of the C-terminus to expose the ... The process of ubiquitination is a tightly regulated three-step sequence: activation, performed by ubiquitin-activating enzymes ... transcription, DNA repair, RNA splicing, and cellular differentiation. Ubiquitin itself was first discovered in the 1970s and ...
PGD2, PGJ2, Δ12-PGJ2, and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 activate the transcription factor, PPARγ, with 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 being the ... This PG directly binds with and activates PPARγ thereby inducing the transcription of genes containing the PPARγ response ... KEAP1: cytosolic KEAP1 serves to promote the degradation of Nrf2 by proteasomes thereby inhibiting this transcription factor ... to retain NFκB in the cell cytoplasm thereby inhibiting it from entering the nucleus and acting as a transcription factor (see ...
... the HIF transcription factor is responsible for the expression of a protein. The HIF stabilizer activates the activity of EPO ... Co2+ induces this response by binding to the N-terminus (loop helix loop domain) of the Hypoxia inducing transcription factors ... they cannot then bind and activate transcription of genes encoding Erythropoietin (EPO). With Co2+ stabilization, degradation ... Hypoxia-inducible factor stabilizer (HIF stabilizer) is a pharmaceutical used to treat chronic kidney disease. Like most ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor. GLI2 belongs to the C2H2-type zinc finger protein subclass of the ... When inappropriately activated causes hair follicle derived tumors, the most clinically significant being the BCC. Of the four ... Members of this subclass are characterized as transcription factors which bind DNA through zinc finger motifs. These motifs ... Transgenic mice over-expressing the transcription factor Gli2 under the K5 promoter in cutaneous keratinocytes develop multiple ...
... /Max dimers activate gene transcription, while Mad/Max and Mnt/Max dimers inhibit the activity of Myc. c-MYC is over ... MYC proto-oncogene, bHLH transcription factor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYC gene which is a member of the ... The encoded protein forms a heterodimer with the related transcription factor MAX. This complex binds to the E box DNA ... "MYC MYC proto-oncogene, bHLH transcription factor [ Homo sapiens (human) ]". Retrieved 2020-03-02. Dang CV, McGuire M, Buckmire ...
... to activate the transcription factor NF-κB. Mal (also known as TIRAP) is necessary to recruit Myd88 to TLR 2 and TLR 4, and ... these proteins activate two important transcription factors: NF-κB is a dimeric protein responsible for expression of various ... TLR7 and TLR9 activate both NF-κB and IRF3 through MyD88-dependent and TRIF-independent pathway, respectively. The human ... Another adaptor protein, which is activated by TLR3 and TLR4, is called TIR domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-β (TRIF). ...
However activated GR can complex with these other transcription factors and prevent them from binding their target genes and ... The biological response depends on the cell type.[citation needed] In the absence of activated GR, other transcription factors ... Chang CJ, Chen YL, Lee SC (October 1998). "Coactivator TIF1beta interacts with transcription factor C/EBPbeta and ... June 1998). "Recruitment of octamer transcription factors to DNA by glucocorticoid receptor". Molecular and Cellular Biology. ...
Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ... The proteolytic capacity of 20S core particle (CP) can be activated when CP associates with one or two regulatory particles (RP ... Besides RPs, the 20S proteasomes can also be effectively activated by other mild chemical treatments, such as exposure to low ... gene transcription, signal transduction and apoptosis. Subsequently, a compromised proteasome complex assembly and function ...
It can stimulate transcription factor c‑myc (activation of gene expression) and Ras pathway (suppression of apoptosis). In the ... Activated T cells can either induce their own proliferation and differentiation (autocrine signaling), or that of other T cells ... Sometimes also called colony-stimulating factor, multi-CSF, mast cell growth factor, MULTI-CSF, MCGF; MGC79398, MGC79399: the ... colony-stimulating factor, multiple)". Yang YC, Ciarletta AB, Temple PA, Chung MP, Kovacic S, Witek-Giannotti JS, Leary AC, ...
Moreover, G6PD is one of a number of glycolytic enzymes activated by the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1 ... The isoform, G6PDH, is regulated by transcription and posttranscription factors. ... Xu SN, Wang TS, Li X, Wang YP (September 2016). "SIRT2 activates G6PD to enhance NADPH production and promote leukaemia cell ... G6PD is hypomethylated at K403 in acute myeloid leukemia, SIRT2 activates G6PD to enhance NADPH production and promote leukemia ...
However, all other transcription factors in the MSL family-maleless, MSL-1, and MSL-3-are able to act when SXL is not expressed ... SXL is activated to repress increased transcription, while in XY animals SXL is inactive and allows male development to proceed ... In the case of two-fold increased transcription of a single male X chromosome, there is no use for a Barr body, and the male ... These factors act to increase male X chromosome transcriptional activity. Histone acetylation and the consequent upregulation ...
... methylation can lead to the recruitment of transcription factors that repress transcription. Both mechanisms cause the same end ... These pathways are activated in the cellular response to reduce senescence. Mutations resulting in deletion or reduction of ... Regulation of p16 is complex and involves the interaction of several transcription factors, as well as several proteins ... p16 through the interaction of various transcription factors that execute methylation patterns that can repress transcription ...
... and the specific expression of transcription factors has been described, which has provided information on the differential ... Waterman-Storer CM, Worthylake RA, Liu BP, Burridge K, Salmon ED (May 1999). "Microtubule growth activates Rac1 to promote ... Signals sent between the follicular cells and the oocyte (such as factors similar to epidermal growth factor) cause the ... After nucleation, the minus-ends are released and then re-anchored in the periphery by factors such as ninein and PLEKHA7. In ...
Methylated histones can either repress or activate transcription as different experimental findings suggest, depending on the ... however they may be a contributing factor. For example, down-regulation of methylation of lysine 9 on histone 3 (H3K9me3) has ... Chen D, Ma H, Hong H, Koh SS, Huang SM, Schurter BT, Aswad DW, Stallcup MR (June 1999). "Regulation of transcription by a ... Depending on the site and symmetry of methylation, methylated arginines are considered activating (histone H4R3me2a, H3R2me2s, ...
Fluorescent signal strength depends on many factors such as probe labeling efficiency, the type of probe, and the type of dye. ... July 2012). "The lncRNA Malat1 is dispensable for mouse development but its transcription plays a cis-regulatory role in the ... "In-solution fluorescence in situ hybridization and fluorescence-activated cell sorting for single cell and population genome ... "Microfluidics-assisted fluorescence in situ hybridization for advantageous human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 assessment ...
... is an anti-apoptotic factor and has been implicated in enhancing the survival of cancer cells under stress and in regulating ... is an anti-apoptotic factor, and has been implicated in enhancing the survival of cancer cells under stress and in regulating ... Activating transcription factor-5 (ATF5) is an anti-apoptotic factor and has been implicated in enhancing the survival of ... is a member of the ATF/cAMP response element-binding family of transcription factors (14). This transcription factor is an anti ...
Apigenin suppressed the expression of Id1 through activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3). Our results may elucidate a new ...
... activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3; n = 7), family with sequence similarity, member A (FAM71A; n = 2), tachykinin receptor ... Asthma; Occupational asthma; Genetic factors; Genes; Diisocyanates; Occupational exposure; Genetic predisposition; Bioassays; ...
Analysis of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), PPARγ, mouse, and human C/EBPα expression was conducted using TaqMan Gene ... Activating transcription factor 3 is integral to the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 kinase stress response ... Stimulation of adipogenesis in fibroblasts by PPAR gamma 2, a lipid-activated transcription factor ... One candidate transcription factor that could explain the effects of ER stress on resistin expression is C/EBPα. C/EBPα is ...
Transcription factors and intracellular receptors. (1) Basic domains. (1.1) Basic leucine zipper (bZIP). Activating ... transcription factor activity. • protein binding. • zinc ion binding. • transcription repressor activity. • protein ... transcription. • regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent. • negative regulation of transcription. • caudate nucleus ... General transcription factors (TFIIA, TFIIB, TFIID, TFIIE, TFIIF, TFIIH: 1, 2) • GLI-Krüppel family (1, 2, 3, YY1) • KLF (2, 4 ...
The adenovirus major late transcription factor activates the rat gamma-fibrinogen promoter (English) ... The adenovirus major late transcription factor activates the rat gamma-fibrinogen promoter. scientific article ...
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Key regulator of lipid metabolism. Activated by the endogenous ligand 1-palmitoyl-2- ... Ligand-activated transcription factor. Receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids ... UPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. Not Available. Humans. UPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta. ... Activated by oleyleth.... Gene Name. PPARA. Uniprot ID. Q07869. Uniprot Name. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha ...
Inhibits Proinflammatory Mediators via Inhibition of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase, p44/42, and Transcription Factor Nuclear ... and Transcription Factor Nuclear Factor-κB Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal of Pharmacology ... and Transcription Factor Nuclear Factor-κB. Prem N. Yadav, Zhihua Liu and Mohamed M. Rafi ... and Transcription Factor Nuclear Factor-κB. Prem N. Yadav, Zhihua Liu and Mohamed M. Rafi ...
Activating Transcription Factor 3 100% * Male Breast Neoplasms 90% * Fatty Acid Synthases 82% ...
... of iPSCs demonstrated that scientists can change cell fate artificially by activating only a few transcription factors. This ... They cannot survive outside of their environment without specific factors and cytokines. Stem cells exist both in embryos and ... the stem cell environment and specific stem cell factors can promote the dedifferentiation of specialized cells and return them ...
They induce transcription factors that limit inflammation and prothrombotic functions of activated endothelial cells. ... and upregulate transforming growth factor beta receptor III, leading to less collagen deposition and pulmonary fibrosis. ... Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids "act as a precursor to lipid mediators that reduce inflammation" and may therefore be ... Initial findings from the VASCEPA COVID-19 CardioLink-9 trial of the oral use of icosapent ethyl (an omega-3 fatty acid), ...
Akt: protein kinase B; ATF6: activating transcription factor 6; BDNF: brain derived neurotrophic factor; CHOP: CCAAT/enhancer- ... GRP78 is always combined with several critical transmembrane ER signaling proteins, i.e. activating transcription factor 6 ( ... 5. Hiltunen JO, Laurikainen A, Vakeva A, Meri S, Saarma M. Nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNAs are ... Keywords: ischemia/reperfusion injury, nerve growth factor, endoplasmic reticulum, apoptosis. Introduction. Nerve growth factor ...
Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression bioassay, CALUX bioassay),其為細胞毒性檢測方法,藉由冷光之強弱與2,3,7,8-四氯戴奧辛(2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-p- ... dibenzodioxin, 2,3,7,8-TCDD)毒性產生之冷光強度比較 ... reveals a distinctive ligand-activated transcription factor. ... Part I: Acute toxicity and toxic equivalency factors (TEFs). Archives of Toxicology, 66: 471-477.. Tsutsumi, T., Yunagi, T., ... Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression bioassay, CALUX bioassay),其為細胞毒性
J:321772 Poli V, et al., Inhibition of transcription factor NFAT activity in activated platelets enhances their aggregation and ... View 3 models Mouse Models. Human Disease Modeled: platelet storage pool deficiency. Allelic Composition. Genetic Background. ...
... or Th2-specific sets of cytokine genes under the control of transcription factors such as nuclear factor of activated T cells ( ... At the same time, a second wave of transcription factors is induced, including GATA-3 and c-Maf in the case of Th2 cells. It ... S region transcription per se promotes basal IgE class switch recombination but additional factors regulate the efficiency of ... Activation of the Iε promoter requires a number of transcription factors in addition to STAT6. The promoter contains binding ...
... and activating transcription factor (ATF)3, and in certain cases, compensating for each other. Critically, activation of Hsf1 ... N2 - Transcription factors heat shock factor (Hsf)1 and nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor (Nrf)2 are critical for ... AB - Transcription factors heat shock factor (Hsf)1 and nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor (Nrf)2 are critical for ... Transcription factors heat shock factor (Hsf)1 and nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor (Nrf)2 are critical for ...
... human activating transcription factor 4 (ATF-4; 5′-GCCUAGGUCUCUUAGAUGA), human TRB3 (5′-UCAUCUAAGAGAACCUAGGC), and a ... showed the involvement of p8 via its downstream endoplasmic reticulum stress-related targets activating transcription factor 4 ... Reverse transcription-PCR analysis. RNA was isolated using the RNeasy Protect kit (Qiagen) including a DNase digestion step ... A, total RNA was isolated from the corresponding cell lines and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) using selective primers for ...
... a multi-layered mechanism with dozens of effectors working combinatorially and following principles analogous to transcription ... We identify pluripotency-related transcription factors and boundary elements as positive and negative regulators of replication ... Activating Transcription Factor 3, which is enriched at EP300 sites51), were linked to early replication at least in hESCs (Fig ... Transcription factors (TFs) bind DNA in a sequence-specific manner at characteristic motifs. This offers an opportunity to test ...
According to a study published in Nature Cell Biology, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) could be the key to conquering ... Natural News) Walnuts put the "super" in superfood: Not only are they packed with omega-3 fatty acids and polyphenols, but ...
Taxotere and Furtulon down-regulated some genes critical for cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, transcription factor, ... NM_001674.1 activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) NC 1.5 2.5 NC 1.7 2.5 NC 2.6 4.3 ... Transcription, translation, oncogenesis, angiogenesis, other NM_021953.1 forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) -1.2 -13.9 -42.2 -1.1 -1.2 - ... NM_006472.1 upregulated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-3 (VDUP1) 1.0 3.5 3.5 1.0 1.5 2.6 1.0 2.3 3.0 ...
Transcription Factor Arabidopsis Activating Factor1 Integrates Carbon Starvation Responses with Trehalose Metabolism. Plant ... Garapati, P.; Xue, G.-P.; Munne-Bosch, S.; Balazadeh, S.: Transcription Factor ATAF1 in Arabidopsis Promotes Senescence by ... a reactive oxygen species-responsive NAC transcription factor, regulates longevity in Arabidopsis. The Plant Cell 24 (2), pp. ... Transformation of tomato variety rio grande with drought resistant transcription factor gene ATAF1 and its molecular analysis. ...
... is a bifunctional transcription factor that can activate and repress gene expression in Drosophila development. This ... Quantitative dissection of transcription in development yields evidence for transcription factor-driven chromatin accessibility ... Zld functions as a pioneer factor by potentiating chromatin accessibility, transcription factor binding and gene expression of ... transcription factor binding kinetics are masked by the slower dynamics of common general factors involved in the transcription ...
CREB is a bZIP transcription factor that activates target genes through cAMP response elements. CREB is able to mediate signals ... CREB is activated by phosphorylation at Ser133 by various signaling pathways, including Erk, Ca2+, and stress signaling. Some ... unlikely to become a limiting factor. Moreover, since the recombinant antibody sequence is known, continuity of supply is ... CREB is able to selectively activate numerous downstream genes through interactions with different dimerization partners. ...
It activates diverse bacterial cAMP receptor proteins such as transcription factors and protein kinases. cAMP is derived from ... Model mean isotropic B factor. 36.750Å2 RMSD bond length. 0.018Å RMSD bond angle. 1.590° Filename uploaded. idp02500.pdb ( ... Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP or 3-5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is an important signaling molecule in ...
Role for activating transcription factor 3 in stress-induced beta-cellapoptosis, Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. 24, pp. ... Extracellular ATP and ADP activate transcription factor NF-κB and induce endothelial cell apoptosis, Biochemical and ... Interleukin-33 Exacerbates IgA Glomerulonephritis in Transgenic Mice Overexpressing B Cell Activating Factor, Journal of the ... IL-33 EXACERBATES IGA GLOMERULONEPHRITIS IN B CELL ACTIVATING FACTOR (BAFF) TRANSGENIC MICE, in NEPHROLOGY, WILEY, Vol. 22, pp ...
Adapting to such challenges requires metabolic rearrangement, partially mediated by transcription factor control over ... Regulation of the Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cell (NFAT) Family of Transcription Factors in the Freeze Tolerant Wood Frog, ... Here, involvement of the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) transcription factors, isoforms c1-c4, was analyzed in ... Adapting to such challenges requires metabolic rearrangement, partially mediated by transcription factor control over gene ...
Activating transcription factor 3, an early cellular adaptive responder in ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury. Lin, H. & Cheng ... Activating transcription factor 3 protects against pressure-overload heart failure via the autophagy molecule Beclin-1 pathway ... Activated type I phosphatidylinositol kinase is associated with the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor following EGF ... Activation of a nuclear factor of activated T-lymphocyte-3 (NFAT3) by oxidative stress in carboplatin-mediated renal apoptosis ...
... ligand-activated transcription factor activity, adrenergic receptor activity, nuclear receptor activity, and heme-binding. The ... Transcription factor E2F1 is a transcription factor that mediates cell proliferation, male germline stem cell neogenesis, and ... ligand-activated transcription factor activity, adrenergic receptor activity, nuclear receptor activity, and heme-binding. ... The main results of biological process analysis by GO analysis were positive regulation of DNA-binding transcription factor ...
  • In addition, statins have antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects, potentiate nitric oxide production, and upregulate transforming growth factor beta receptor III, leading to less collagen deposition and pulmonary fibrosis. (medscape.com)
  • Apigenin suppressed the expression of Id1 through activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3). (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, I identified the Activating Transcription Factor 3 (Atf3) as a possible novel mechanism linking TRIB1 to the regulation of LDLR in a CEBPa dependent manner. (upenn.edu)
  • Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which is activated initially as a defensive response to eliminate the accumulated unfolded proteins, has shown a critical involvement in the ischemia induced myocardial apoptosis. (medsci.org)
  • It activates diverse bacterial cAMP receptor proteins such as transcription factors and protein kinases. (csgid.org)
  • The present study investigated the presence of the eosinophil-activating chemokines regulated on activation, normal T‐cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), monocyte chemotactic proteins (MCP)‐3 and ‐4, and eotaxins‐1 and ‐2 in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid obtained from both asthmatic (n=10, age 6-10 yrs) and normal children (n=10, age 5-10 yrs). (ersjournals.com)
  • These findings suggest that RANTES monocyte chemotactic proteins‐3 and ‐4, and eotaxins‐1 and ‐2 may regulate eosinophil trafficking into the airways of asthmatic children in a coordinated manner. (ersjournals.com)
  • Members of the CCL branch include regulated on activation, normal T‐cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), monocyte chemotactic proteins (MCP)‐2, ‐3 and ‐4, and eotaxins‐1, ‐2 and ‐3. (ersjournals.com)
  • The effect of EOs and their constituents on tumour suppressor proteins (p53 and Akt), transcription factors (NF- κ B and AP-1), MAPK-pathway, and detoxification enzymes like SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase has also been discussed. (hindawi.com)
  • Like all genes, its expression is repressed or activated by proteins called transcription factors. (oist.jp)
  • Many R egulators of G protein S ignaling (RGS) proteins accelerate the intrinsic GTPase activity of G iα and G qα -subunits [i.e., behave as GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs)] and several act as G qα -effector antagonists. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These receptors link to downstream signaling pathways by activating heterotrimeric G proteins and, as such, are designated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). (aspetjournals.org)
  • On day 10, we extracted MFGM proteins (n = 3) and identified them via quantitative proteomic analysis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Notably, he discerned the journey tail-anchored proteins make from the ribosome to insertion in the endoplasmic reticulum-which he and colleagues dubbed the guided entry of tail-anchored proteins (GET) pathway-and discovered that certain autophagy targets signal they are ready to be recycled by activating the enzyme responsible for initiating vesicle formation. (harvard.edu)
  • Promotes localized and transient activation of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), and thereby modulates the activity of Rho family GTPases. (idrblab.net)
  • Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) proteins (GSK3α and GSK3β) are key mediators of signaling pathways, with crucial roles in coordinating fundamental biological processes during neural development. (eneuro.org)
  • Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) proteins (GSK3α or GSK3β) are key mediators of signaling pathways, especially in the CNS but poorly described in the retina. (eneuro.org)
  • Once activated, caspases -3 and -7 cleave downstream proteins. (smpdb.ca)
  • ADP ribosylation factors (ARFs), which are members of the Ras superfamily of GTP-binding proteins, are critical components of vesicular trafficking pathways in eukaryotes. (embl.de)
  • Like Ras, ARFs are active in their GTP-bound form, and their duration of activity is controlled by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), which assist ARFs in hydrolyzing GTP to GDP. (embl.de)
  • The results showed that there were 212 potential targets of JGSQP for ED disease, and GO analysis revealed that the main pathways were positive regulation of DNA-binding transcription factor activity, regulation of vascular diameter, and negative regulation of vascular diameter, etc. (lww.com)
  • Overall, my studies stablish Trib1 and its regulation of CEBPa as critical factors in the regulation of multiple metabolic pathways affecting plasma lipids, as well as novel regulators of the LDLR and glucose metabolism. (upenn.edu)
  • The altered receptor is more easily turned on than normal and can trigger signaling pathways even without attachment of growth factors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The present study provides a summary of published findings on CNT bioactivity, such as the potential of CNT, especially of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), to activate signaling pathways modulating transcription factor activity, induce apoptosis, induce DNA damage, and initiate biological responses. (cdc.gov)
  • This ligation activates conserved signaling pathways that activate NFκB and mitogen-activated protein kinases. (medscape.com)
  • Among the signaling pathways regulated by GSK3s, the Wnt canonical pathway is the most well described, with GSK3β inhibition triggering an increase in β -catenin protein levels and its nuclear translocation to activate target gene expression ( Doble and Woodgett, 2003 ). (eneuro.org)
  • It was demonstrated that the mitogenic effects of both insulin and IGF-I are mediated, among others, through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway ( 9 ), which is known to play a significant role in cell proliferation, survival, and migration, thereby promoting tumor growth and invasiveness ( 10 , 11 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Increased expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) has been found in the myocardium suffered from ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). The pro-survival activity of NGF on ischemic heart has been supposed to be mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway. (medsci.org)
  • Transcript analysis revealed that PA increased ER stress pathway markers activating transcription factor 3 and C/EBP homologous protein transcripts, and XBP1 splicing. (uwo.ca)
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia inducible factor‑1 (HIF‑1), and to investigate the role of the HIF‑1/VEGF signaling pathway following spinal cord injury (SCI). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Therefore, the present study evaluated the effect of ML228, which has been shown to activate HIF as well as its downstream target VEGF ( 9 ), on the HIF-1/VEGF signaling pathway following the induction of SCI in a rat model. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • While viral and bacterial dsDNA is known to activate STING-dependent immune signaling, research shows that self-DNA from tumors can also stimulate the STING pathway and several CDN agonists of STING are currently being assessed in human clinical trials of various malignancies. (biolegend.com)
  • The work was prompted by the knowledge that EVs are natural mediators of signaling between cancer cells and tumor resident antigen presenting cells (APCs), with some activating a type I IFN response via the STING pathway. (biolegend.com)
  • Writing in Communications Biology 1 , the researchers said, "Our goal was to address the limitations of CDN by using EVs as a delivery vehicle that would specifically activate the STING pathway in APCs while avoiding T cell ablation. (biolegend.com)
  • TLR4 and CD14 bind lipopolysaccharide, and TLR2 binds peptidoglycan), these signals all converge on a single pathway via myeloid differentiation primary response protein MyD88, which activates NFκB. (medscape.com)
  • The harpin protein HrpN Ea induces Arabidopsis resistance to the green peach aphid by activating the ethylene signalling pathway and by recruiting EIN2, an essential regulator of ethylene signalling, for a defence response in the plant. (who.int)
  • The Notch signaling pathway provides important intercellular signaling mechanisms essential for cell fate specification and it regulates differentiation and proliferation of stem or progenitor cells by para-inducing effects 3-4 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Compared with glucose-limited condition, under Pi-limited aerobic condition, the budding yeast S. cerevisiae up-regulated 292 genes and activated a regulatory mechanism known as the PHO pathway, leading to an increased expression of multiple genes involved in Pi acquisition and uptake [ 16 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The replication of adenovirus in cells activates the TP53-mediated apoptosis pathway. (medicaltrend.org)
  • Interestingly, gene expression analysis between CD24-positive and -negative Mvt1 cells revealed activating transcription factor-5 (ATF5) as one of the top 10 genes that were upregulated in the aggressive CD24-positive cells over CD24-negative cells ( 13 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Activation of PPAR-gamma receptors regulates the transcription of insulin-responsive genes involved in the control of glucose production, transport, and utilization. (drugbank.com)
  • ATF1 and CREB regulate transcription of many target genes by way of homo-or heterodimerization within the family or with other b-zip transcription factors, which relevant to an AP1 or cAMP-response element [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genes having at least one occurrence of the highly conserved motif M52 YYCATTCAWW in the regions spanning 4 kb centered on their transcription starting sites [-2kb,+2kb]. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • As well as the characteristics of its existence and the regulation of target genes, HIF-1 is considered to be the low oxygen related regulatory gene in the core of the most important hypoxia-related transcription factors ( 4 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Binding of cGAMP to STING dimers activates downstream transcription factors STAT6 and IRF3 and leads to production and transcription of host defense genes, including type I interferons ( IFNs ) such as IFN-β and other pro-inflammatory cytokines. (biolegend.com)
  • These transcription factors stimulate the expression of a number of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory genes. (medscape.com)
  • Thus, understanding how Hox genes interact and synergize with MN resident factors to control subtype identity is the key to manipulating MN identity. (nyu.edu)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Thirty-seven transcription factor genes differentially respond to a harpin protein and affect resistance to the green peach aphid in Arabidopsis. (who.int)
  • We investigated 37 ethylene-inducible Arabidopsis transcription factor genes for their effects on the activation of ethylene signalling and insect defence. (who.int)
  • In response to HrpN Ea , transcription levels of 22 genes increased, with AtMYB44 being the most inducible, six genes had decreased transcript levels, and nine remained unchanged. (who.int)
  • The E2F family of transcription factors regulates the expression of a number of genes whose products are involved in cell cycle control, DNA replication and apoptosis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We show here that E2F-1 binds in vivo the promoters of ASPP1 and ASPP2 genes, two activators of p53-mediated apoptosis, E2F-1, E2F-2 and E2F-3 all activate the isolated ASPP1 and ASPP2 promoters. (ox.ac.uk)
  • One observation that's particularly illustrative may be the altered amount of transcription of over 900 genes (2-fold transformation in appearance), following deletion of (a PPIP5K homologue) in person in the inositol phosphate kinase signaling family members. (immune-source.com)
  • The master transcription factor Sry-type HMG box (Sox) 9 has an essential role in the expression of chondrogenic genes through the association with Sox9-binding sites on its target genes{thus to grow taller it's essential that Sox9 is working properl} . (heightquest.com)
  • Acting as master gene regulators, a few NAC genes can activate secondary wall biosynthesis during wood formation in woody plants. (researchsquare.com)
  • A unique tissue-specific transcript analysis revealed that lignin and cellulose biosynthetic-related genes, transcription factors (TFs) and other potential regulators of xylogenesis were under strict developmental stage-specific transcriptional regulation in poplar [10]. (researchsquare.com)
  • A few NAC genes can activate secondary wall biosynthesis during wood formation acting as master gene regulators, such as vascular-related NAC-domain genes ( VND) and secondary wall-associated NAC domain genes ( SND) [13, 14]. (researchsquare.com)
  • In fact, diabetes reduces the rate of angiogenesis by alteration in the expression angiogenic genes such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) [6] . (eg.net)
  • We recently showed that when activated, these core PKS genes from A. fumigatus and N. fischeri can synthesize a prenylated, tricyclic polyketide neosartoricin 11 . (cdc.gov)
  • Kinases activate mitogen-activated protein kinases which activate pro-apoptotic JNK activity. (smpdb.ca)
  • Wei K, Liu L, Xie F, Hao X, Luo J, Min S. Nerve Growth Factor Protects the Ischemic Heart via Attenuation of the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Induced Apoptosis by Activation of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase. (medsci.org)
  • Hearts in K252a and LY294002 groups were pretreated with either a TrkA inhibitor, K252a or a phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase inhibitor, LY294002 for 30 min before NGF (100 ng/ml) administration. (medsci.org)
  • Freezing activated NFATc3 in liver, leading to increased osteopontin expression and glycogen synthase kinase 3β repression (the latter potentially linked with glucose production as a cryoprotectant). (carleton.ca)
  • Protein kinase A-induced phosphorylation of Sox9 enhances Sox9-dependent transcription by increasing the DNA-binding affinity of Sox9. (heightquest.com)
  • Promotes activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the AKT1 signaling cascade. (idrblab.net)
  • Avapritinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that binds to and inhibits specific mutant forms of platelet-driven growth factor receptor (PDGFR)?alpha and c-Kit, including the PDGFR-alpha D842V mutant and various KIT exon 17 mutants. (medscape.com)
  • Ripretinib is platelet-driven growth factor receptor (PDGFR)?alpha inhibitor that is indicated for advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumor in adults previously treated with 3 or more kinase inhibitors, including imatinib. (medscape.com)
  • Knockdown experiments using selective small interfering RNAs showed the involvement of p8 via its downstream endoplasmic reticulum stress-related targets activating transcription factor 4 (ATF-4) and TRB3 in Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol-induced apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • ML228 was demonstrated to potently activate HIF in vitro as well as its downstream target, VEGF ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • RGS3 potently inhibited G qα Q209L- and G 11α Q209 l -mediated activation of a cAMP-response element-binding protein reporter gene and G qα Q209L induced inositol phosphate production, suggesting that RGS3 efficiently blocks G qα from activating its downstream effector phospholipase C-β. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the GTP-bound form, G α dissociates from G β γ , each of which can activate downstream effectors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Functions in integrin signal transduction, but also in signaling downstream of numerous growth factor receptors, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), EPHA2, netrin receptors and LDL receptors. (idrblab.net)
  • The effects of ER stress were transcriptional because of downregulation of CAAT/enhancer binding protein-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ transcriptional activators and upregulation of the transcriptional repressor CAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein-10 (CHOP10). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p105 subunit isa 105 kD protein which can undergo cotranslational processing by the 26S proteasome to produce a 50 kD protein. (abbkine.com)
  • The 105 kD protein is a Rel protein-specific transcription inhibitor and the 50 kD protein is a DNA binding subunit of the NF-kappaB (NF-κB) protein complex. (abbkine.com)
  • Furthermore, CCL2 is involved in alleviating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in MAC-T cells by reducing LPS-induced expression of IL8, IL6, and nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1 (NFKB1). (ewha.ac.kr)
  • Sox9 interacts with the Med12/Trap230 subunit of the mediator complex to stimulate RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription in chondrocytes. (heightquest.com)
  • JUNGBRUNNEN1, a reactive oxygen species-responsive NAC transcription factor, regulates longevity in Arabidopsis. (mpg.de)
  • Diabetes, by disruption in the balance of stimulatory factors and angiogenic inhibitors, can decrease or increase this process in some organs of the body like heart [5] . (eg.net)
  • They cannot survive outside of their environment without specific factors and cytokines. (the-scientist.com)
  • Cross-linking of IgE bound to mast cells by FcεRI triggers the release of preformed vasoactive mediators, synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes, and the transcription of cytokines. (jci.org)
  • Our newly released LEGENDplex™ Human Angiogenesis Panel 1 (10-plex) can be used to detect pivotal factors and cytokines involved in cell adhesion and angiogenesis - the process of new blood vessel creation that promotes tumor growth, progression, and metastasis. (biolegend.com)
  • [ 33 ] As shown in Table 2, cells involved in innate immune responses are activated and the expression of most proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines is upregulated in both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. (medscape.com)
  • NF-κB is a transcription factor that is activated by various intra- and extra-cellular stimuli such as cytokines, oxidant-free radicals, ultraviolet irradiation, and bacterial or viral products. (abbkine.com)
  • Pathophysiologically, asthma exert different effects at different concentrations, can is characterized by constriction of airway smooth synergize or antagonize the effects of other cytokines muscle, hyper secretion of mucus, edema and airway and regulated in a complex manner and function via hyper responsiveness (AHR),[3] mucus secretion and cytokine cascade. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, vagal afferents activated by endotoxin and cytokines in sepsis stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and exert anti-inflammatory effects through the release of glucocorticoids ( Tracey, 2002 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • In particular, statins inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase and the production of isoprenoid intermediates, which are "critical for viral entry, immune signaling, and the inflammatory cascade. (medscape.com)
  • In addition to transcriptional regulation, the evidence suggests that Che-1 has a viral factor-like S phase promoting role in counteracting Rb repression to facilitate E2F-dependent transactivation during G1-S transition. (wormbase.org)
  • In tumor cells with mutations or disorders of pRB, E2F is no longer negatively regulated by pRB and can activate viral gene transcription to replicate. (medicaltrend.org)
  • Data show that BACH2 and STAT5B are activated by viral insertions, generating chimeric mRNAs specifically enriched in T regulatory cells favoring their persistence. (cusabio.com)
  • They estimated the The IgM capture ELISA was carried out antibody avidity to viral antigen using a low according to the method described concentration of a protein-denaturing agent, previously [3-5] . (who.int)
  • Like other thiazolidinediones, the mechanism of action of rosiglitazone is by activation of the intracellular receptor class of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), specifically PPARγ. (drugbank.com)
  • Rosiglitazone acts as a highly selective and potent agonist at peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) in target tissues for insulin action such as adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver. (drugbank.com)
  • This protein is part of a family of four fibroblast growth factor receptors that share similar structures and functions. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Homologous intracellular receptors, CARD4 (formerly NOD1) and CARD15 (formerly NOD2), bind to diaminopimelic acid and muramyl dipeptide, respectively, to activate NFκB as discussed in the text. (medscape.com)
  • reabsorption chaperones via precursor virus Protease Activated Receptors( PARs). (erik-mill.de)
  • Apart from its effect on insulin resistance, it appears to have an anti-inflammatory effect: nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB) levels fall and inhibitor (IκB) levels increase in patients on rosiglitazone. (drugbank.com)
  • the BMP-2 inhibitor Noggin represses Sox9 expression in limb bud chondrogenic precursors while inducing the ligament/tendon-specific transcription factor Scx" "the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity of p300 has the potential to facilitate transcriptional activity by modulating the chromatin structure. (heightquest.com)
  • To fulfill those expectations, ESCs have to be directed at high efficiency to disease relevant cell types, either by the application of extracellular signals or direct programming by forced expression of transcription factors. (nyu.edu)
  • Therefore, our long term goal is to understand how extracellular signals and transcription factors control cell fate and apply that knowledge to differentiate ESC into disease relevant neuronal cell types. (nyu.edu)
  • Neither missense is IP7 to the convergent reaction as IL7R assembles produced by the MSH2 for wide extracellular complex( TSLP) while IL2RG activates involved with the residues for IL2, IL4, IL9, IL15 and IL21. (erik-mill.de)
  • The promoter analysis yields 174 candidate motifs, including most previously known transcription-factor binding sites and 105 new motifs. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • HIF-1 expression is increased following hypoxia and may specifically bind to the hypoxia response element of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promoter ( 6 ), strengthening the stability of the biological functions of VEGF and promoting VEGF expression, transcription and translation. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • C promoter binding factor/ Suppressor of Hairless/ lag- 1). (bvsalud.org)
  • Adenovirus E2 promoter can be divided into early and late promoters, used to regulate the E2 transcription unit, the late E2 promoter region contains Y-box, the binding site of transcription factor YB-1 (Y-box binding protein-1). (medicaltrend.org)
  • The creation of RNA is made possible by a process called bacterial transcription. (cdc.gov)
  • 1) CLK-1 is a highly conserved mitochondrial protein,(2,3) but even severe clk-1 mutations affect mitochondrial respiration only slightly. (wormbase.org)
  • It can be seen that the mutations in stripes 3 and 7 due to the misexpression of kni (A) and hb (B) are consistent. (oist.jp)
  • High incidence of activating STAT5B mutations in CD4-positive T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia. (cusabio.com)
  • Caspase-8 is an initiator caspase that is activated in response to pro-apoptotic stimulus and causes a cascade of further caspase activity by cleaving and activating effector caspases, like caspases -3 and -7. (smpdb.ca)
  • Hunchback is a bifunctional transcription factor that can activate and repress gene expression in Drosophila development. (sdbonline.org)
  • Adapting to such challenges requires metabolic rearrangement, partially mediated by transcription factor control over gene expression. (carleton.ca)
  • The mechanisms responsible for the increased adipos- of Patient with ity are changes in gene expression of multiple enzymes and transcription factors by the virus ( 8-15 ). (cdc.gov)
  • To understand cell differentiation and to gain control of cell fate during direct programming, it is necessary to rationalize how selector factors recognize their genomic targets and control gene expression. (nyu.edu)
  • Therefore, the expression of few factors programs ESC into neurons at high efficiency allowing us to apply biochemical interrogation techniques to study gene expression, physiological properties, chromatin status and genomic occupancy of transcription factors. (nyu.edu)
  • The Sox9-related transcriptional apparatus activates its target gene expression through p300-mediated histone acetylation on chromatin. (heightquest.com)
  • Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP or 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is an important signaling molecule in virtually all prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. (csgid.org)
  • Transcription Factor Arabidopsis Activating Factor1 Integrates Carbon Starvation Responses with Trehalose Metabolism. (mpg.de)
  • Both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients have activated innate (macrophage, neutrophil) and acquired (T and B cell) immune responses and loss of tolerance to enteric commensal bacteria. (medscape.com)
  • An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS . (bvsalud.org)
  • Mediates cellular responses to the cytokine KITLG/SCF and other growth factors. (cusabio.com)
  • Taken together, human replication timing is controlled by a multi-layered mechanism with dozens of effectors working combinatorially and following principles analogous to transcription regulation. (nature.com)
  • Transcription Factor ATAF1 in Arabidopsis Promotes Senescence by Direct Regulation of Key Chloroplast Maintenance and Senescence Transcriptional Cascades. (mpg.de)
  • The 3'-UTR analysis yields 106 motifs likely to be involved in post-transcriptional regulation. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • In particular, several TFs such as AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF), CLASS III HOMEODOMAIN-LEUCINE ZIPPER (HD-ZIPIII), KANADI (KAN), MYB and NAC might govern the complex networks of transcriptional regulation in wood formation in poplar [9, 11]. (researchsquare.com)
  • Although each is regulated by distinct mechanisms, it is emerging that these transcription factors engage in crosstalk by sharing overlapping transcriptional targets, such as heat shock protein (HSP)70, p62, and activating transcription factor (ATF)3, and in certain cases, compensating for each other. (elsevier.com)
  • When tissues or cells are in a hypoxic environment, HIF-1 is one of the most important transcription factors regulating oxygen metabolism ( 5 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Our data suggest that Pi limitation activates Pi-related metabolism, RNA degradation, and TAG biosynthesis while inhibits ribosome biosynthesis and TCA cycle, leading to enhanced carbon fluxes into lipids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Carries out a dual signal transduction and activation of transcription. (cusabio.com)
  • When these growth factors attach to the FGFR3 protein, the protein is turned on (activated), which triggers a cascade of chemical reactions inside the cell that instruct the cell to undergo certain changes, such as maturing to take on specialized functions (differentiation). (medlineplus.gov)
  • During in vivo and in vitro differentiation, members of the Hox family of transcription factors impose subtype identity and control motor neuron (MN) connectivity. (nyu.edu)
  • The transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily also plays a key role in chondrocyte differentiation. (heightquest.com)
  • A new analysis has identified and reviewed 40 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) investigating the potential use of such agent, including statins, omega-3 fatty acids, fibrates, niacin, and dalcetrapib, to prevent or treat COVID-19. (medscape.com)
  • Of these studies, only two - one focusing on omega-3 fatty acids and one focusing on statins - have released preliminary findings, and these findings were inconclusive, Bikdeli reported. (medscape.com)
  • Natural News) Walnuts put the "super" in superfood: Not only are they packed with omega-3 fatty acids and polyphenols, but studies have also linked walnut consumption to many health benefits. (naturalnews.com)
  • Studies have revealed an important role of activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1) and phosphorylated ATF1 at Ser63 in tumors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • P-ATF1-T184 further increased the DNA binding ability, transcription activity, and stabilized the protein expression of ATF1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phosphorylated ATF1 at Ser63 has been recognized as an important site for its transcription activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The degree of chromatin folding affects transcriptional activity and less folding is better for activating transcription activity. (heightquest.com)
  • Antibody-neutralization studies have implicated tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-12 p40 in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease, [ 29 , 30 ] while T cells have been linked to ulcerative colitis by the effectiveness of T-cell-ablative therapies, [ 31 ] ciclosporin and tacrolimus. (medscape.com)
  • Interleukin (IL)-9-producing subset called Th9 cell, Th22 cells which primarily secrete IL-22, IL-13 and tumor necrosis factor- and Th25 cells via producing IL-25 are believed to be important for initiating allergic reactions and developing airway inflammation. (cdc.gov)
  • Fas ligand is a transmembrane protein part of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family. (smpdb.ca)
  • Purification and molecular cloning of the APO-1 cell surface antigen, a member of the tumor necrosis factor/nerve growth factor receptor superfamily. (smpdb.ca)
  • However, such a complex system may be best studied with an unbiased and comprehensive interrogation of genetic and epigenetic factors and their interactions. (nature.com)
  • The plastic genetic state of ESC is particularly receptive to the programming activity of transcription factors. (nyu.edu)
  • Studies using these samples found associations between fatal outcomes and elevated liver enzyme levels, renal dysfunction, cytokine dysregulation, and genetic factors. (cdc.gov)
  • NBs) produce a sequence of unique neurons whose identities depend on the sequential expression of temporal transcription factors (TTFs), including Hb, Kr, Pdm and Cas. (sdbonline.org)
  • Since previous models could not explain the expression of the eve gene in the entire embryo of about 6,000 cells, it was assumed that some important factors had not been found and were not integrated into the calculation. (oist.jp)
  • Dr. Ilsley, on the other hand, constructed a simpler model that predicts expression in every cell using transcription factor concentration data from the Berkeley Drosophila Transcription Network Project . (oist.jp)
  • The model also correctly predicts the effect on expression of the eve gene resulting from mutation or misexpression of its regulating transcription factors (Figure 1). (oist.jp)
  • Resistance accompanied the expression of PDF1.2, an ethylene signalling marker gene that requires EIN2 for transcription in wild type but not in atmyb15, atmyb38, and atmyb44, suggesting a disruption of ethylene signalling in the mutants. (who.int)
  • Nanog showed expression only on day 3 and gradually increased in expression on day 7. (bvsalud.org)
  • In expression to described enhancement and order hormones, Il2rg association chains notably include solely consumed cytoplasm terms interacting that Il2rg is more carnitine for degree acidosis in strands than in factors. (erik-mill.de)
  • Here,we evaluated TILs and MxA expression in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancers. (e-crt.org)
  • Additionally, a high level of TILs was a prognostic factor for breast cancer, whereas the level of MxA expression had no prognostic value. (e-crt.org)
  • Its enhanced expression can attenuate the nuclear accumulation of LPXN and limit its ability to enhance serum response factor (SRF)-dependent gene transcription. (idrblab.net)
  • Transcription factors heat shock factor (Hsf)1 and nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor (Nrf)2 are critical for adaptation and survival. (elsevier.com)
  • Here we will give a brief overview of the roles of IgE in allergic pathophysiology, and the molecular and cellular factors that ultimately regulate IgE production and Th2 expansion. (jci.org)
  • Clone REA516 recognizes the human and mouse interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF-8) antigen, a 50 kDa transcription factor, which is also known as interferon consensus sequence-binding protein (ICSBP). (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Scientists at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) developed a potent chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) targeting glypican-3 (GPC3). (cancer.gov)
  • The association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and an increased risk of breast cancer incidence and mortality has been confirmed in numerous studies and meta-analyses ( 1 - 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Further, the developing countries have half the number of cancer incidence cases compared to the developed countries [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 3 Hispanic women experience nearly double the incidence (14.2/100,000) of non-Hispanic whites. (jnccn.org)
  • Similarly, it has been proposed that indiscriminate DNA-binding patterns of the replication machinery may translate into a consistent, organized replication program by means of combinatorial chromatin modifications influencing subsets of replication initiation sites 3 . (nature.com)
  • Importantly, the Gsb/Pax3 spatial factor, expressed in NB5-6 but not NB7-4, had genomic binding sites correlated with open chromatin in NB5-6, but not NB7-4. (sdbonline.org)
  • These data support a model in which early-acting spatial factors like Gsb establish neuroblast-specific open chromatin domains, leading to neuroblast-specific temporal factor binding and the production of different neurons in each neuroblast lineage. (sdbonline.org)
  • Recently, we discovered that chromatin hyperacetylation was critical in inducing SOX9 transcription activity . (heightquest.com)
  • From the mesenchymal condensation of chondroprogenitors to the hypertrophic maturation of chondrocytes, chondrogenesis is sequentially regulated by cross-talk among transcription factors, growth factors, and chromatin structure{altering chromatin structure can alter chondrogenesis} . (heightquest.com)
  • The TGF-β-regulated Smad3/4 complex activates Sox9-dependent transcription on chromatin by associating with Sox9 itself, and by recruiting p300 onto Sox9 [thus TGF-Beta may help with Sox9 transcription, note LSJL increases TGF-Beta levels]. (heightquest.com)
  • In chondrogenesis, p300 stimulates transcription factor-mediated chromatin disruption. (heightquest.com)
  • Whereas the inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has shown promising results in sporadic colon cancer, the role of VEGF signaling in colitis-associated cancer (CAC) has not been addressed. (perkinelmer.com)
  • This mutation creates a protein that is turned on without attachment of a growth factor, which means that the FGFR3 protein is constantly active. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The disease may be due to an activating mutation of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) gene. (cdc.gov)
  • One family has been reported with a mutation in the gene encoding the glial cells missing homolog b (GCMB) transcription factor. (cdc.gov)
  • In stratified analyses, these inverse associations between risk and dietary n-3 PUFAs were more evident among premenopausal women and women with ER+, PR+ and ER+PR+ tumors. (qualitycounts.com)
  • Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a global regulator of cellular and systemic O2 homeostasis in animals. (wormbase.org)
  • Multiple and different cellular activities have already been related to the PP-InsPs, but an over-arching hypothesis sights them as performing as an user interface between energy fat burning capacity and cell-signaling [3,5,6]. (immune-source.com)
  • Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin (TCDD) have the ability to bind to and activate the ligand-activated transcription factor, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). (nih.gov)
  • This gene encodes a ligand-activated transcription factor that shares structural features in common with nuclear hormone receptor family members. (nih.gov)
  • This binding results in the activation of cGAS and subsequent synthesis of the cyclic dinucleotide (CDN) STING ligand, 2′3′ cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP). (biolegend.com)
  • Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids "act as a precursor to lipid mediators that reduce inflammation" and may therefore be beneficial in addressing the COVID-19 inflammatory response. (medscape.com)
  • After tissue damage, a quick reciprocal inflammatory response is generated in the local tissue microenvironment by the damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) or pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via the dying and invading organisms [ 2 , 3 ]. (sciencemag.org)
  • Adhesion molecules such as intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) are necessary for circulating cells to be able to stick to the activated endothelium, which is the first step in the extravasation of mononuclear cells and polymorphonuclear cells into the inflammatory focus. (medscape.com)
  • Activated inflammatory cel s, in- persistent inflammation cluding neutrophils and macrophag- es, produce reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. (who.int)
  • Herein, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant efficacy of diapocynin, an oxidative metabolite of the naturally occurring agent apocynin, in a pre-clinical 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. (springer.com)
  • The 3-acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA) has turned out to be the most effective in inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase and preventing the creation of pro-inflammatory leukotrienes. (our-arthritis.com)
  • IRF-8 belongs to the family of interferon regulatory transcription factors, which consists of nine members in both human and mice and is characterized by a conserved N-terminal DNA-binding domain with a unique tryptophan pentad repeat. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • 3) Here, we review the evidence supporting the regulatory role of clk-1 in physiological timing. (wormbase.org)
  • In this study, calculations were focused on two regions of regulatory DNA controlling stripes 2, 3 and 7. (oist.jp)
  • Here, we present a comparative analysis of the human, mouse, rat and dog genomes to create a systematic catalogue of common regulatory motifs in promoters and 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs). (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • The different isoforms are found in various tissues of the body, and they interact with a variety of growth factors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Adv 36 DNA persists in multiple tissues of infected sition of visceral fat disproportional to total fat deposition animals for long periods after initial infection ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Our approach has led to identification of HIC-1 (hypermethylated in cancer), a new zinc-finger transcription factor gene which is ubiquitously expressed in normal tissues, but underexpressed in different tumour cells where it is hypermethylated. (elsevier.com)
  • Angiogenesis, the development of new blood vessels from the preexisting ones, is essential for the growth and development of body tissues that can be affected by diabetes [3] , [4] . (eg.net)
  • A treatment with 5%(v/v) coffee extract and more than 2.5 μM pyrocatechol inhibited the LPS-induced activation of NF-κB and also significantly activated Nrf2, which acts as a negative regulator in LPS-induced inflammation. (nature.com)
  • Although androgen independence of prostate cancer growth is a known contributing factor to endocrine resistance, the mechanism of androgen receptor deregulation in endocrine resistance is still poorly understood. (oncotarget.com)
  • They induce transcription factors that limit inflammation and prothrombotic functions of activated endothelial cells. (medscape.com)
  • Activated protein C promotes fibrinolysis, inhibits thrombosis by inactivating clotting factors Va and VIIIa, and reduces inflammation by decreasing white blood cell and nuclear factor kappa-B activation [ 2 - 5 ]. (cdc.gov)
  • This article focuses on the use of targeted therapies in cervical cancer, specifically evaluating antiangiogenesis and endothelial growth factor receptor-related treatments. (jnccn.org)
  • Since TRIB1's most studied molecular function is the COP1-mediated ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation the transcription factor CEBPa, I explored if this interaction is responsible for TRIB1 effects on plasma lipids and LDLR. (upenn.edu)
  • Many studies have shown that the activity of transcription factors is usually regulated by multiple phosphorylation sites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The key features of T2D, namely, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and hyperinsulinemia, as well as increased bioavailability of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), have been indicated as potential molecular mechanisms underlying this association ( 4 - 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Recently, we have shown that insulin or IGF-I stimulation of Mvt1 cells leads to the upregulation of several mRNA transcripts, associated with cell proliferation and migration, such as Cyclin D1 and the transcription factor ETS2, as well as to the downregulation of transcriptional repressor, high mobility group (HMG) box-containing protein 1 (HBP1) ( 12 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Replacement of GH in adults with GHD markedly reduces central obesity and substantially reduces total cholesterol levels but has produced little change in other risk factors, particularly insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. (medscape.com)
  • Additionally, the discovery of iPSCs demonstrated that scientists can change cell fate artificially by activating only a few transcription factors. (the-scientist.com)
  • Recent advances in cell programming demonstrated that terminal cell fate can be established by a handful of selector transcription factors. (nyu.edu)
  • Activating transcription factor-5 (also known as ATFx) is a member of the ATF/cAMP response element-binding family of transcription factors ( 14 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • FOXP2 is a member of the large FOX family of transcription factors . (bionity.com)
  • Nerve growth factor (NGF) is one of the representative members of the neurotrophin family, which includes brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5). (medsci.org)
  • XIII" YMR047C 3 13 3 YMR047C "Nuclear pore complex protein that is member of GLFG repeat-containing family of nucleoporins and is,XIII" YMR049C 3 13 4 YMR049C "Ymr049cp,XIII" YMR051C 3 13 5 YMR051C "TyA Gag protein. (davidson.edu)