Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.
A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.
The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.
The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.
A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.
A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.
The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.
Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.
A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.
An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.
A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).
A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.
A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.
Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein oncogene protein v-ets of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
A general transcription factor that is involved in basal GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. It consists of nine subunits including ATP-DEPENDENT DNA HELICASES; CYCLIN H; and XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM GROUP D PROTEIN.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.
A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.
Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.
A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE III and aid in transcription. They include the assembly factors TFIIIA and TFIIIC and the initiation factor TFIIIB. All combine to form a preinitiation complex at the promotor that directs the binding of RNA POLYMERASE III.
A heterotetrameric transcription factor composed of two distinct proteins. Its name refers to the fact it binds to DNA sequences rich in GUANINE and ADENINE. GA-binding protein integrates a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and regulates expression of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE control, PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS, and cellular METABOLISM.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway. The activity of the protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN. Transcription factor 7-like 2 protein plays an important role in the embryogenesis of the PANCREAS and ISLET CELLS.
An ets proto-oncogene expressed primarily in adult LYMPHOID TISSUE; BRAIN; and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that was originally identified in DROSOPHILA as essential for proper gastrulation and MESODERM formation. It plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MUSCLE CELLS, and is found in a wide variety of organisms.
A tissue-specific subunit of NF-E2 transcription factor that interacts with small MAF PROTEINS to regulate gene expression. P45 NF-E2 protein is expressed primarily in MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; and MAST CELLS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. TFIIIB recruits and positions pol III over the initiation site and remains stably bound to the DNA through multiple rounds of re-initiation by RNA POLYMERASE III.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
One of the BASIC-LEUCINE ZIPPER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that is synthesized as a membrane-bound protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. In response to endoplasmic reticulum stress it translocates to the GOLGI APPARATUS. It is activated by PROTEASES and then moves to the CELL NUCLEUS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in the unfolded protein response.
A family of mammalian POU domain factors that are expressed predominately in NEURONS.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates GLOBIN gene expression and is related to TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1. NF-E2 consists of a small MAF protein subunit and a tissue-restricted 45 kDa subunit.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subfamily have been implicated in regulating the differentiation of OLIGODENDROCYTES during neural crest formation and in CHONDROGENESIS.
Ubiquitously expressed basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF transcription factors. They bind CANNTG sequences in the promoters of a variety of GENES involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Factors that form a preinitiation complex at promoters that are specifically transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE I.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in determining cell fate during embryogenesis. It forms a heterodimer with TWIST TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and ACHAETE-SCUTE GENE COMPLEX-related TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A POU domain factor that regulates expression of GROWTH HORMONE; PROLACTIN; and THYROTROPIN-BETA in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of the group have been found expressed in developing neuronal tissue, LYMPHOCYTES, and during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.

Transcriptional autorepression of the stress-inducible gene ATF3. (1/272)

Previously, we demonstrated that ATF3 (activating transcription factor-3) is a stress-inducible gene, and the protein it encodes is a transcriptional repressor. In this report, we present evidence suggesting that ATF3 represses the transcription of its own gene. Interestingly, efficient repression requires a consensus ATF/cAMP-responsive element site in the promoter and a previously unidentified ATF3-binding site immediately downstream from the TATA box. Although this new site resembles the known ATF/cAMP-responsive element sequences at the flanking sequence, it differs from them at the center key residues. These observations indicate that ATF3 can tolerate variations in the center of the binding sites if the flanking sequences are favorable. The repression of the ATF3 promoter by its own gene product provides a mechanistic explanation, at least in part, for the transient expression pattern of the ATF3 gene upon stress induction.  (+info)

Injury-specific expression of activating transcription factor-3 in retinal ganglion cells and its colocalized expression with phosphorylated c-Jun. (2/272)

PURPOSE: To ascribe activating transcription factor (ATF)-3 as a specifically induced transcription factor after ON injury and to describe its putative role as a modulator of c-Jun transactivation. METHODS: The adult rat optic nerve was crushed intraorbitally, and expression profiles of ATF-3, ATF-2, and phosphorylated c-Jun (p-c-Jun) were examined by immunohistochemistry and ISH. Western blot analysis for ATF-3 and -2 were also performed. Furthermore, colocalized detection of c-Jun mRNA with ATF-2 or -3 was attempted with a combined method of simultaneous immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. RESULTS: In response to optic nerve injury, substantial expression of ATF-3 as well as that of p-c-Jun was observed in the retinal ganglion cells, whereas no expression of ATF-3 was seen in other noninjured retinal cells. In contrast, ATF-2 was normally expressed abundantly in both retinal ganglion cells and displaced amacrine cells, but expression dropped in retinal ganglion cells after nerve injury. The expression profiles of ATF-2 and -3 after optic nerve injury were confirmed by Western blot analysis. A higher degree of colocalization was observed for ATF-3 and c-Jun than the modest codetection for ATF-2 and c-Jun. CONCLUSIONS: The transcription factor ATF-3 is specifically induced upon optic nerve injury and colocalizes with p-c-Jun in surviving ganglion cells. These findings suggest that both ATF-3 and c-Jun are crucial to trigger various transcriptional responses and may act synergistically during the survival phase of the optic nerve in the injury model.  (+info)

Homocysteine-responsive ATF3 gene expression in human vascular endothelial cells: activation of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase and promoter response element. (3/272)

Activating transcription factor (ATF) 3 is a member of ATF/cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-responsive element binding protein (ATF/CREB) family of transcription factors and functions as a stress-inducible transcriptional repressor. To understand the stress-induced gene regulation by homocysteine, we investigated activation of the ATF3 gene in human endothelial cells. Homocysteine caused a rapid induction of ATF3 at the transcriptional level. This induction was preceded by a rapid and sustained activation of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK), and dominant negative mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 and 7 abolished these effects. The effect of homocysteine appeared to be specific, because cysteine or homocystine had no appreciable effect, but it was mimicked by dithiothreitol and beta-mercaptoethanol as well as tunicamycin. The homocysteine effect was not inhibited by an active oxygen scavenger. Deletion analysis of the 5' flanking sequence of the ATF3 gene promoter revealed that one of the major elements responsible for the induction by homocysteine is an ATF/cAMP responsive element (CRE) located at -92 to -85 relative to the transcriptional start site. Gel shift, immunoprecipitation, and cotransfection assays demonstrated that a complex (or complexes) containing ATF2, c-Jun, and ATF3 increased binding to the ATF/CRE site in the homocysteine-treated cells and activated the ATF3 gene expression, while ATF3 appeared to repress its own promoter. These data together suggested a novel pathway by which homocysteine causes the activation of JNK/SAPK and subsequent ATF3 expression through its reductive stress. Activation of JNK/SAPK and ATF3 expression in response to homocysteine may have a functional role in homocysteinemia-associated endothelial dysfunction.  (+info)

High-mobility-group protein I can modulate binding of transcription factors to the U5 region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 proviral promoter. (4/272)

HMG I/Y appears to be a multifunctional protein that relies on in its ability to interact with DNA in a structure-specific manner and with DNA, binding transcriptional activators via distinct protein-protein interaction surfaces. To investigate the hypothesis that HMG I/Y may have a role in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) expression, we have analyzed whether HMG I/Y interacts with the 5' long terminal repeat and whether this interaction can modulate transcription factor binding. Using purified recombinant HMG I, we have identified several high-affinity binding sites which overlap important transcription factor binding sites. One of these HMG I binding sites coincides with an important binding site for AP-1 located downstream of the transcriptional start site, in the 5' untranslated region at the boundary of a positioned nucleosome. HMG I binding to this composite site inhibits the binding of recombinant AP-1. Consistent with this observation, using nuclear extracts prepared from Jurkat T cells, we show that HMG I (but not HMG Y) is strongly induced upon phorbol myristate acetate stimulation and this induced HMG I appears to both selectively inhibit the binding of basal DNA-binding proteins and enhance the binding of an inducible AP-1 transcription factor to this AP-1 binding site. We also report the novel finding that a component present in this inducible AP-1 complex is ATF-3. Taken together, these results argue that HMG I may play a fundamental role in HIV-1 expression by determining the nature of transcription factor-promoter interactions.  (+info)

Identification of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) as an Nrf2-interacting protein. Implication for heme oxygenase-1 gene regulation. (5/272)

Nrf2 regulates expression of genes encoding enzymes with antioxidant (e.g. heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)) or xenobiotic detoxification (e.g. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase, glutathione S-transferase) functions via the stress- or antioxidant-response elements (StRE/ARE). Nrf2 heterodimerizes with small Maf proteins, but the role of such dimers in gene induction is controversial, and other partners may exist. By using the yeast two-hybrid assay, we identified activating transcription factor (ATF) 4 as a potential Nrf2-interacting protein. Association between Nrf2 and ATF4 in mammalian cells was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and mammalian two-hybrid assays. Furthermore, Nrf2.ATF4 dimers bound to an StRE sequence from the ho-1 gene. CdCl(2), a potent inducer of HO-1, increased expression of ATF4 in mouse hepatoma cells, and detectable induction of ATF4 protein preceded that of HO-1 (30 min versus 2 h). A dominant-negative mutant of ATF4 inhibited basal and CdCl(2)-stimulated expression of a StRE-dependent/luciferase fusion construct (pE1-luc) in hepatoma cells but only basal expression in mammary epithelial MCF-7 cells. A dominant mutant of Nrf2 was equally inhibitory in both cell types in the presence or absence of CdCl(2). These results indicate that ATF4 regulates basal and CdCl(2)-induced expression of the ho-1 gene in a cell-specific manner and possibly in a complex with Nrf2.  (+info)

Compensatory hepatic regeneration after mild, but not fulminant, intraperitoneal sepsis in rats. (6/272)

Sepsis is the leading cause of death in surgical intensive care units. Although both mild sepsis secondary to cecal ligation and single puncture (CLP) and fulminant, double puncture CLP (2CLP) may provoke hepatocyte death, we hypothesize that regeneration compensates for cell death after CLP but not 2CLP. In male Sprague-Dawley rats, hepatic necrosis, as determined by serum alpha-glutathione S-transferase (alpha-GST) levels, was significantly but equally elevated over time after both CLP and 2CLP. Apoptosis, evaluated using both terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling and morphological examination, was minimal after both CLP and 2CLP. Regeneration, assayed by staining tissue for incorporation of exogenously administered bromodeoxyuridine, was present after CLP but not after 2CLP. To further substantiate impaired regeneration, steady-state levels of mRNAs encoding JunB, LRF-1, and cyclin D1 were determined. After 2CLP, the absence of JunB, LRF-1, and cyclin D1 mRNAs confirmed failed activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase-linked proliferative pathway and progression through the cell cycle. Therefore, failed hepatocyte regeneration may be a manifestation of hepatic dysfunction in fulminant sepsis.  (+info)

Transcription factor ATF3 partially transforms chick embryo fibroblasts by promoting growth factor-independent proliferation. (7/272)

Activating Transcription Factor 3 (ATF3) is a member of the bZip family of transcription factors. Previous studies in mammalian cells suggested that like other bZip family members e.g. Jun and Fos, ATF3 might play a role in the control of cell proliferation and participate in oncogenic transformation. To investigate this putative ATF3 function directly, the rat ATF3 protein was compared with v-Jun for its ability to transform primary cultures of chick embryo fibroblasts (CEFs). Like CEFs accumulating v-Jun, CEFs accumulating the ATF3 protein displayed a typical, fusiform morphology, associated with an enhanced capacity to grow in medium with reduced amount of serum. However, in contrast to v-Jun-transformed CEFs, the ATF3 overexpressing cells could not promote colony formation from single cells in agar. Partial transformation induced by ATF3 was found to be associated with repression of multiple cellular genes that are also down-regulated by v-Jun, including those coding for the extracellular components fibronectin, decorin, thrombospondin 2, and the pro-apoptotic protein Par-4. These data demonstrate that, at least in primary avian cells, rat ATF3 possesses an intrinsic oncogenic potential. Moreover, the results suggest that ATF3 might induce growth factor independence by down-regulating a subset of the genes repressed by v-Jun.  (+info)

The roles of ATF3 in glucose homeostasis. A transgenic mouse model with liver dysfunction and defects in endocrine pancreas. (8/272)

Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a member of the ATF/cAMP-response element-binding protein family of transcription factors. It is a transcriptional repressor, and the expression of its corresponding gene is induced by stress signals in a variety of tissues, including the liver. In this report, we demonstrate that ATF3 is induced in the pancreas by partial pancreatectomy, streptozotocin treatment, and ischemia coupled with reperfusion. Furthermore, ATF3 is induced in cultured islet cells by oxidative stress. Interestingly, transgenic mice expressing ATF3 in the liver and pancreas under the control of the transthyretin promoter have defects in glucose homeostasis and perinatal lethality. We present evidence that expression of ATF3 in the liver represses the expression of genes encoding gluconeogenic enzymes. Furthermore, expression of ATF3 in the pancreas leads to abnormal endocrine pancreas and reduced numbers of hormone-producing cells. Analyses of embryos indicated that the ATF3 transgene is expressed in the ductal epithelium in the developing pancreas, and the transgenic pancreas has fewer mitotic cells than the non-transgenic counterpart, providing a potential explanation for the reduction of endocrine cells. Because ATF3 is a stress-inducible gene, these mice may represent a model to investigate the molecular mechanisms for some stress-associated diseases.  (+info)

Although ATF3 was shown to mediate TGFβ-induced downregulation of ID1 gene expression (Kang et al., 2003), the current study differs from the previous study in a key aspect: we used malignant breast cancer cells, where TGFβ is pro-metastatic; the previous study used non-malignant cells, where TGFβ is cytostatic. Thus, the interplay between ATF3 and TGFβ-SMAD is not limited to the regulation of ID1, a cell cycle regulatory gene. Instead, it extends to the regulation of other TGFβ target genes, such as twist, snail and slug, which are cell motility regulators. In fact, this phenomenon is likely to be broadly applicable. Using a bioinformatics approach (detailed in the Materials and Methods), we scanned 29,895 RefSeq-annotated genes for the ATF and SMAD consensus binding sequences and found 1846 co-occurrences within 100 bp, corresponding to 1823 unique genes. Among them, two gene functional annotations were enriched (P,0.01): calmodulin binding (CAMK1, MYO5C, MYO9B, PCNT, TRPV6, KCNN3, ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Interaction of RNA-binding proteins HuR and AUF1 with the human ATF3 mRNA 3′-untranslated region regulates its amino acid limitation-induced stabilization. AU - Pan, Yuan Xiang. AU - Chen, Hong. AU - Kilberg, Michael S.. PY - 2005/10/14. Y1 - 2005/10/14. N2 - ATF3 expression is induced in cells exposed to a variety of stress conditions, including nutrient limitation. Here we demonstrated that the mechanism by which the ATF3 mRNA content is increased following amino acid limitation of human HepG2 hepatoma cells is mRNA stabilization. Analysis of ATF3 mRNA turnover revealed that the half-life was increased from about 1 h in control cells to greater than 8 h in the histidine-deprived state, demonstrating mRNA stabilization in response to nutrient deprivation. Treatment of HepG2 cells with thapsigargin, which causes endoplasmic reticulum stress, also increased the half-life of ATF3 mRNA. HuR is an RNA-binding protein that regulates both the stability and cytoplasmic/nuclear ...
Expression of the ATF in the ECV304 cells. Immunofluorescence was performed, and the resulting cells were observed under a laser scanning confocal microscope. (
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Article Autophosphorylation-induced degradation of the Pho85 cyclin Pcl5 is essential for response to amino acid limitation. Pho85 cyclins (Pcls), activators of the yeast cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) Pho85, belong together with the p35 activator of ...
Mitochondrial dysfunction is pervasive in human pathologies such as neurodegeneration, diabetes, cancer, and pathogen infections as well as during normal aging. Cells sense and respond to mitochondrial dysfunction by activating a protective transcriptional program known as the mitochondrial unfolded …
Complete information for ATF6 gene (Protein Coding), Activating Transcription Factor 6, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for ATF1 gene (Protein Coding), Activating Transcription Factor 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of the plant-specific endoplasmic reticulum stress-inducible gene TIN1 in the formation of pollen surface structure in Arabidopsis thaliana. AU - Iwata, Yuji. AU - Nishino, Tsuneyo. AU - Iwano, Megumi. AU - Takayama, Seiji. AU - Koizumi, Nozomu. N1 - KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01 Acknowledgements: We would like to thank GABI-Kat and TAIR for the T-DNA insertion mutant and the gene annotation data, respectively. This work was supported by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research 20380188 to N.K.. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - Accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotic cells triggers the transcriptional activation of ER-resident molecular chaperones and folding enzymes to maintain cellular homeostasis. This process is known as the ER stress response or the unfolded protein response. We have identified tunicamycin induced 1 (TIN1), a plant-specific ER ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Erwinia carotovora infection enhances the expression of two novel abiotic stress-inducible genes in potato. AU - Sós-Hegedus, Anita. AU - Žvingila, Donatas. AU - Bánfalvi, Z.. AU - Dallmann, Géza. PY - 2004/4. Y1 - 2004/4. N2 - In this study, cDNAs of two Erwinia carotovora-induced potato genes, designated Solanum tuberosum-Erwinia-induced-1 and 2 (Stei1 and Stei2) were isolated by differential display technique. Stei1 and Stei2 were detected in low copy number in the potato genome and found to encode putative proteins with no significant homology to any genes with known function. Treatment of the leaves with salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate and ethylene elevated neither Stei1 nor Stei2 mRNA levels. However, Stei1 and Stei2 expression were induced not only by E. carotovora but also by infiltration of water in leaves, albeit to a lesser extent In addition, Stei2 was up-regulated by NaCl, wounding, dehydration and abscisic acid. Thus Stei1 and Stei2 define novel genes belonging ...
ATF-4兔多克隆抗体(ab105383)可与小鼠样本反应并经WB, IHC实验严格验证,被2篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
A number of genes have been reported to be induced by drought, high-salinity, and low-temperature stresses, and their products are thought to function in stress tolerance and response (Bray, 1997; Thomashow, 1999; Shinozaki and Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, 2000). Many stress-inducible genes are responsive to both water stress and low temperature. Some of these genes are induced only by water stress, and several genes respond only to low temperature. Abscisic acid (ABA) is produced under such environmental stresses and plays an important role in the tolerance of plants to the stresses (Ingram and Bartels, 1996; Shinozaki and Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, 2000; Zhu, 2002). Analyses of the expression of these stress-inducible genes in Arabidopsis have indicated that ABA-dependent and -independent signal pathways function in the induction of the stress-inducible genes. These indicate the existence of complex regulatory mechanisms between perception of abiotic stress signals and gene expression (Shinozaki and ...
The gene encoding CHOP (C/EBP-homologous protein) is transcriptionally activated by many stimuli and by amino acid deprivation. CHOP induction was considered to be due to an accumulation of unfolded protein into the ER (unfolded protein response (UPR)). We investigate the role of the UPR in the indu …
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Choices and consequences means simply that if you make poor choices, that if you dont abide by the rules, that if you dont respect the chain of command, if you dont find the appropriate way to raise your concerns to your leadership, there will be consequences, because we cannot tolerate - we cannot tolerate - an undisciplined organization, he said.. Sen. Charles Grassley, R-Iowa., and Rep. Darrell Issa, R-Calif., sent a letter Wednesday to Jones declaring the message could be interpreted as a threat and asked him to clarify.. Your ominous message - which could be interpreted as a threat - is likely to have a major chilling effect on ATF employees exercising their rights to contact Congress, they wrote.. What it appears to be is a not-so-veiled threat telling (ATF employees) not to do what they did to expose Fast and Furious, Issa said. Hes basically saying no, keep it in the chain.. The ATF insists the video (above) was taken out of context.. It was directed at employees who ...
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AA147 is a specific, small molecule agonist of transcription factor ATF6, activates ATF6 and influences differentiation of stem cells.
Nicotiana tabacum TCA-1 protein: a tobacco nuclear protein; MW 40 kDa; salicylic acid induces binding to a 10 bp sequence which is highly conserved amongst stress-inducible genes; aa sequence has been determined
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J:191236 Wang SZ, Ou J, Zhu LJ, Green MR, Transcription factor ATF5 is required for terminal differentiation and survival of olfactory sensory neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Nov 6;109(45):18589-94 ...
the barrel, in the case of the Scorp the barrel is far too short to Making the solvent trap into a suppressor is extremely easy, and the e-form 1 through the atf website is a breeze. It has been brought up on other sites whether or not there is any letters from BATF stating solvent traps are legal. This is 99% of our income. Solvent traps are perfectly legal, as long at the inserts and endcaps are not drilled through. You will need to decide how you are filing - as an individual, corporation or trust. On many sites that sell solvent traps there are references to contact from BATF regarding it being ok even letters from lawyers confirming such, but some people still request a letter.Could there actually be such a letter? The attorney sent a letter to Barnes answering questions and concerns about the legality of solvent tubes. I also have a letter from the ATF Firearm Technology Branch stating that solvent traps are perfectly legal to sell, own, etc. People can be mad at the ATF all they want, but ...
well, for now anyway. thanks for all who corresponded. just to remind you all, the question was which hydraulic fluid goes in the power steering/power brakes reservoir of an 86 fwd quantum 5-2.2L(5 speed manual). 4 different people had 5 different opinions, of course -). to cut to the chase, the most logical answer was: if the reservoir says *ATF OL,* use dexron II or dexron III automatic transmission fluid. since I have been using ATF in the last 3 years, the same will go in now. a different brand apparently should not make a difference. Its bizzare to buy ATF for a manual transmission car, though. pentosin should apparently NOT be used in this case, no matter what your friendly vw dealer says. I think Zafer mentioned that the same was true for some 4000 cars, but I am not sure about those. thanks again, Zvi ...
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A belgyógyászat összefogja a kardiológia, endokrinológia, gasztroenterológia, hematológia, nefrológia, tüdőgyógyászati szakmákat.
"Entrez Gene: ATF7 activating transcription factor 7". Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P, Mann M (2006 ... a novel variant of the ATF/CREB transcription factor family, forms a dominant transcription inhibitor in ATF-a heterodimers". J ... Cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ATF7 gene. In 2001, Peters et al ... "Sumoylation delays the ATF7 transcription factor subcellular localization and inhibits its transcriptional activity". Nucleic ...
Activating transcription factor ATF3 has been shown to interact with: C-jun, DDIT3 JunD, P53, and SMAD3. GRCh38: Ensembl ... "Entrez Gene: ATF3 activating transcription factor 3". Chen BP, Wolfgang CD, Hai T (March 1996). "Analysis of ATF3, a ... Activating transcription factor 3 is a member of the mammalian activation transcription factor/cAMP responsive element-binding ... Chu HM, Tan Y, Kobierski LA, Balsam LB, Comb MJ (January 1994). "Activating transcription factor-3 stimulates 3',5'-cyclic ...
"Entrez Gene: transcription factor AP-2 beta (activating enhancer binding protein 2 beta)". Tsukada S, Tanaka Y, Maegawa H, et ... 2006). "Transcription factor activating enhancer-binding protein-2beta. A negative regulator of adiponectin gene expression". J ... Transcription factor AP-2 beta also known as AP2-beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TFAP2B gene. AP-2 beta is a ... 2009). "The transcription factor TFAP2B is associated with insulin resistance and adiposity in healthy adolescents". Obesity ( ...
"Mitochondrial transcription factors B1 and B2 activate transcription of human mtDNA". Nature Genetics. 31 (3): 289-94. doi: ... 3 (1): 45-81. PMID 1931007. Borgers M, Verhaegen H, De Brabander M, De Cree J, De Cock W, Thoné F, Geuens G (Nov 1978). "Purine ... 265 (3): 1812-20. doi:10.2210/pdb2pnp/pdb. PMID 2104852. Williams SR, Gekeler V, McIvor RS, Martin DW (Feb 1987). "A human ... 363 (Pt 3): 599-608. doi:10.1042/0264-6021:3630599. PMC 1222513. PMID 11964161. Falkenberg M, Gaspari M, Rantanen A, Trifunovic ...
Activating transcription factor 3 (Atf3) is a known RAG with numerous promoters. Atf3 expression increases after nerve injury ... Cis-regulatory elements in the promoter contain sequences recognized by transcription factors and the basal transcription ... For example, the same transcription factor (TF) can direct gene expression in different tissues simply by binding with ... predicting interaction between transcription factors in human tissues". Nucleic Acids Res. 34 (17): 4925-36. doi:10.1093/nar/ ...
"Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors activate expression of the EGR gene family of transcription factors". The Journal of ... 2S,2'R,3'S,5'R)-1-methyl-2-(2-methyl-1,3-oxathiolan-5-yl)pyrrolidine 3-sulfoxide methyl iodide (selective for M2 but only ... 3'S,5'R)-1-methyl-2-(2-methyl-1,3-oxathiolan-5-yl)pyrrolidine 3-sulfoxide methyl iodide, a potent, functionally selective, M2 ... "Acetylcholine muscarinic m1 receptor regulation of cyclic AMP synthesis controls growth factor stimulation of Raf activity". ...
"Menin interacts with the AP1 transcription factor JunD and represses JunD-activated transcription". Cell. 96 (1): 143-52. doi: ... "Menin interacts with the AP1 transcription factor JunD and represses JunD-activated transcription". Cell. 96 (1): 143-52. doi: ... Chu HM, Tan Y, Kobierski LA, Balsam LB, Comb MJ (January 1994). "Activating transcription factor-3 stimulates 3',5'-cyclic ... Chu HM, Tan Y, Kobierski LA, Balsam LB, Comb MJ (1994). "Activating transcription factor-3 stimulates 3',5'-cyclic adenosine ...
"TFAP2C (transcription Factor AP-2 Gamma (activating Enhancer Binding Protein 2 Gamma))." TFAP2C (transcription Factor AP-2 ... AP2-gamma is a member of the activating protein 2 family of transcription factors. Transcription factor AP-2 gamma is involved ... "Transcription Factor AP-2 Gamma - TFAP2C - Homo sapiens (Human)." Transcription Factor AP-2 Gamma - TFAP2C - Homo sapiens ( ... Transcription factor AP-2 gamma also known as AP2-gamma is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TFAP2C gene. ...
... has been shown to interact with RuvB-like 1 and Activating transcription factor 2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... a regulator of activating transcription factor 2 response to stress and DNA damage". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 21 (24): ... a regulator of activating transcription factor 2 response to stress and DNA damage". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 21 (24): ... "Control of nutrient-sensitive transcription programs by the unconventional prefoldin URI". Science. 302 (5648): 1208-12. doi: ...
Phosphorylation STATs form transcription factors and activate transcription of appropriate genes. The β chain of IL-15R ... and STAT6 transcription factors are activated to elicit downstream signaling events. IL-15 and its receptor subunit alpha (IL- ... and AKT signaling pathway and induce expression of transcription factors including c-Fos, c-Jun, c-Myc and NF-κB. IL-15 is also ... granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-15 belongs to ...
Nabel G, Baltimore D (1987). "An inducible transcription factor activates expression of human immunodeficiency virus in T cells ... IL-1 activates resident lymphocytes and vascular endothelia. *TNFα increases vascular permeability and activates vascular ... P-selectins: P-selectin is expressed on activated endothelial cells and platelets. Synthesis of P-selectin can be induced by ... In the activated state, integrins bind tightly to complementary receptors expressed on endothelial cells, with high affinity. ...
2002). "Mitochondrial transcription factors B1 and B2 activate transcription of human mtDNA". Nat. Genet. 31 (3): 289-94. doi: ... McCulloch V, Shadel GS (2003). "Human mitochondrial transcription factor B1 interacts with the C-terminal activation region of ... Elongation requires the elongation factor TEFM. The exact termination process is less understood, but MTERF1 is thought to play ... Kravchenko JE, Rogozin IB, Koonin EV, Chumakov PM (2005). "Transcription of mammalian messenger RNAs by a nuclear RNA ...
2002). "Mitochondrial transcription factors B1 and B2 activate transcription of human mtDNA". Nat. Genet. 31 (3): 289-94. doi: ... "Control of mitochondrial transcription specificity factors (TFB1M and TFB2M) by nuclear respiratory factors (NRF-1 and NRF-2) ... Dimethyladenosine transferase 2; transcription factor B2, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TFB2M ... "Entrez Gene: TFB2M transcription factor B2, mitochondrial". Hillen, HS; Morozov, YI; Sarfallah, A; Temiakov, D; Cramer, P (16 ...
"Nuclear respiratory factor 2 activates transcription of human mitochondrial translation initiation factor 2 gene". ... Factors eIF1A and eIF5B interact on the ribosome along with other initiation factors and GTP to position the initiation ... The process is simpler in bacteria which have only three initiation factors (IF1, IF2, IF3). Two of these factors are conserved ... Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF5B gene. Accurate initiation of ...
TRAM-TRIF signals activate the transcription factor Interferon Regulatory Factor-3 (IRF3) via TRAF3. IRF3 activation induces ... Transforming growth factor-β-Activated Kinase 1) that leads to the activation of MAPK cascades (Mitogen-Activated Protein ... while activation of MAPK cascades lead to the activation of another transcription factor AP-1. Both of them have a role in the ... signaling pathway leads to the induction of the transcription factor NF-κB, ...
It cooperates with other transcription factors including NFkB and Oct. NFkB is translocated to the nucleus after costimulation ... The major sources of IL-2 are activated CD4+ T cells and activated CD8+ T cells. IL-2 is a member of a cytokine family, each ... This phosphorylation recruits STAT transcription factors, predominantly STAT5, which dimerize and migrate to the cell nucleus ... The key factor was isolated from cultured mouse cells in 1979 and from cultured human cells in 1980. The gene for human IL-2 ...
... and activating transcription factor 3". Cancer Prevention Research. 4 (1): 116-27. doi:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-10-0218. PMC ... transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor recruiting. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • ... transcription, DNA-templated. • negative regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity. • negative ... negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • negative regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity. • ...
"Entrez Gene: MEF2D MADS box transcription enhancer factor 2, polypeptide D (myocyte enhancer factor 2D)". Youn HD, Liu JO (Jul ... with a mitogen-activated protein kinase, ERK5/BMK1". Nucleic Acids Research. 26 (20): 4771-4777. doi:10.1093/nar/26.20.4771. ... Youn HD, Sun L, Prywes R, Liu JO (Oct 1999). "Apoptosis of T cells mediated by Ca2+-induced release of the transcription factor ... Breitbart RE, Liang CS, Smoot LB, Laheru DA, Mahdavi V, Nadal-Ginard B (Aug 1993). "A fourth human MEF2 transcription factor, ...
... and other transcription factors to the nucleus. Translocated transcription factors activate expression of interferons 𝛂 and 𝛃, ... The primary transcription first transcribes mRNAs from the genomic S and L RNAs, which code NP and L proteins, respectively. ... When the cell is infected by the virus, L polymerase is associated with the viral RNP and initiates the transcription of the ... Transcription terminates at the stem-loop (SL) structure within the intergenomic region. Arenaviruses use a cap snatching ...
Seeler JS, Muchardt C, Suessle A, Gaynor RB (1994). "Transcription factor PRDII-BF1 activates human immunodeficiency virus type ... 2006). "The high-mobility-group domain of Sox proteins interacts with DNA-binding domains of many transcription factors". ... 264 (25): 14591-3. PMID 2504707. Otsuka M, Fujita M, Aoki T, et al. (1995). "Novel zinc chelators with dual activity in the ...
... they are also capable of translocating into the nucleus to activate nuclear transcription factors. Activated ERKs are ... Romero F, Martínez-A C, Camonis J, Rebollo A (June 1999). "Aiolos transcription factor controls cell death in T cells by ... this will activate them too. The targets of the kinase cascade are ERK1 and ERK2, that are selectively activated by MKK1 or ... But once c-Raf is fully activated, there is no further need to do so: active Raf enzymes can now engage their substrates. Like ...
... transcription factors are activated in the nucleus: protein synthesis starts. In both diagrams, a is the hormone, b is the cell ... A cell may have several different receptor types that recognize the same hormone but activate different signal transduction ... Left: a steroid (lipid) hormone (1) enters a cell (2) binds to a receptor protein (3) causes mRNA synthesis, the first step of ... pathways, or a cell may have several different receptors that recognize different hormones and activate the same biochemical ...
... a new zinc finger transcription factor that activates RANTES gene expression in T lymphocytes". Immunity. 10 (1): 93-103. doi: ... CC-Chemokine-activated killer) cells. It is also an HIV-suppressive factor released from CD8+ T cells This chemokine has been ... has been identified as a natural HIV-suppressive factor secreted by activated CD8+ T cells and other immune cells. Recently, ... CCL5 also activates the G-protein coupled receptor GPR75. Chemotaxis Chemokine ENSG00000274233 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
March 2001). "A pituitary cell-restricted T box factor, Tpit, activates POMC transcription in cooperation with Pitx ... 72 (3): 175-82. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0004.2007.00877.x. PMID 17718852. Lamolet B, Pulichino AM, Lamonerie T, et al. ( ... doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00282-3. PMID 11290323. S2CID 18054879. Cooper MS, Stewart PM (January 2005). "Diagnosis and ...
... protects neurons using a mechanism that activates the transcription factor cyclic adenosine monophosphate response ... 3-PPP. References[edit]. *^ Yang S, Bhardwaj A, Cheng J, Alkayed NJ, Hurn PD, Kirsch JR (May 2007). "Sigma receptor agonists ... InChI=1S/C21H27N/c1-3-9-19(10-4-1)11-7-8-16-22-17-14-21(15-18-22)20-12-5-2-6-13-20/h1-6,9-10,12-13,21H,7-8,11,14-18H2 Y ...
Pongubala JM, Atchison ML (Apr 1995). "Activating transcription factor 1 and cyclic AMP response element modulator can modulate ... CREM transcription factors also play an important role in many physiological systems, such as cardiac function, circadian ... This gene encodes a bZIP transcription factor that binds to the cAMP responsive element found in many viral and cellular ... Don J, Stelzer G (Feb 2002). "The expanding family of CREB/CREM transcription factors that are involved with spermatogenesis". ...
2007). "The tumor metastasis suppressor gene Drg-1 down-regulates the expression of activating transcription factor 3 in ... 1491 (1-3): 196-204. doi:10.1016/s0167-4781(00)00025-7. PMID 10760581. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). " ... doi:10.1016/s0167-4889(98)00129-3. PMID 9824680. Dunham I, Shimizu N, Roe BA, et al. (1999). "The DNA sequence of human ...
"The DEXD/H-box RNA helicase RHII/Gu is a co-factor for c-Jun-activated transcription". EMBO J. 21 (3): 451-60. doi:10.1093/ ... "The DEXD/H-box RNA helicase RHII/Gu is a co-factor for c-Jun-activated transcription". EMBO J. 21 (3): 451-60. doi:10.1093/ ... and general transcription. DDX21 has been shown to interact with C-jun. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000165732 - Ensembl, ... 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. S2CID 7827573. Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, ...
Differentiation of mature B cells into plasma cells is dependent upon the transcription factors Blimp-1/PRDM1 and IRF4. ... First, the B cells have to encounter a foreign antigen, and are then required to be activated by T helper cells before they ... This is a type of safeguard to the system, almost like a two-factor authentication method. ... the activated B cell begins to differentiate into more specialized cells. Germinal center B cells may differentiate into memory ...
transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA ... The homeobox genes encode a highly conserved family of transcription factors that play an important role in morphogenesis in ... regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • positive ... "The thyroid transcription factor-1 gene is a candidate target for regulation by Hox proteins". EMBO J. 13 (14): 3339-47. PMC ...
... β-catenin becomes a coactivator for TCF and LEF to activate Wnt genes by displacing Groucho and HDAC transcription repressors. ... Yi ZY, Feng LJ, Xiang Z, Yao H (2011). "Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 activation mediates epithelial to ... On the other hand, a lack of α-catenin can promote aberrant transcription, which can lead to cancer. As a result, it can be ... Keratinocytes engineered to not express alpha-catenin have disrupted cell adhesion and activated NF-κB. A tumor cell line with ...
2D3-regulated transcription factor MN1 stimulates vitamin D receptor-mediated transcription and inhibits osteoblastic cell ... 2007). "The MN1 oncoprotein activates transcription of the IGFBP5 promoter through a CACCC-rich consensus sequence". J. Mol. ... MN1 is a transcription coregulator that enhances or represses RAR/RXR-mediated gene transcription through interaction with RAC3 ... "The MN1 oncoprotein synergizes with coactivators RAC3 and p300 in RAR-RXR-mediated transcription". Oncogene. 22 (5): 699-709. ...
Education of the general public about the risk factors for Ebola infection and of the protective measures individuals may take ... the signalling proteins STAT1 and STAT2 are activated and move to the cell's nucleus.[51] This triggers the expression of ... whose concentration in the host cell determines when L switches from gene transcription to genome replication. Replication of ... 978-3-540-70961-9. . PMC 7121322. PMID 17848072.. *^ a b c d e f Weingartl HM, Nfon C, Kobinger G (May 2013). "Review of Ebola ...
SP can induce the cytokines that are capable of inducing NK-1 transcription factors.[14] ... Fiebich BL, Schleicher S, Butcher RD, Craig A, Lieb K (Nov 2000). "The neuropeptide substance P activates p38 mitogen-activated ... "Metalloproteinases and transforming growth factor-alpha mediate substance P-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation ... The molecule, which is rapidly inactivated (or at times further activated by peptidases) is rapidly released - repetitively and ...
"An essential transcription factor, SciP, enhances robustness of Caulobacter cell cycle regulation". Proceedings of the National ... Each process activated by the proteins of the cell cycle engine involve a cascade of many reactions. The longest subsystem ... in addition to many extracytoplasmic function sigma factors, providing the organism with the ability to respond to a wide range ... 28 (3): 231-95. doi:10.1128/mmbr.28.3.231-295.1964. PMC 441226. PMID 14220656.. ...
The key events mediating rod versus S cone versus M cone differentiation are induced by several transcription factors, ... Each transducin then activates the enzyme cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE).. *PDE then catalyzes the hydrolysis of cGMP to ... When light activates the melanopsin signaling system, the melanopsin-containing ganglion cells discharge nerve impulses that ... This structural change causes it to activate a regulatory protein called transducin, which leads to the activation of cGMP ...
... containing factor Pax8 and the homeodomain-containing factor TTF-1 directly interact and synergistically activate transcription ... containing factor Pax8 and the homeodomain-containing factor TTF-1 directly interact and synergistically activate transcription ... Paramutation & Pax Transcription Factors. 44: 97-106. doi:10.1016/j.semcdb.2015.09.016. PMID 26410163.. ... This gene is a member of the paired box (PAX) family of transcription factors. Members of this gene family typically encode ...
transcription factor complex. • cell-cell adherens junction. • Z disc. • stress fiber. • filamentous actin. ... binds to alpha-actinin-1 and associates with actin filaments and stress fibers in activated platelets and endothelial cells.". ... "Ubiquitination-dependent cofactor exchange on LIM homeodomain transcription factors.". Nature. 416 (6876): 99-103. PMID ... transcription coactivator activity. • ربط أيون فلزي. • cadherin binding involved in cell-cell adhesion. • actin binding. • ...
... with beta-catenin and T-cell factor 4 may bypass canonical Wnt signaling to down-regulate adipogenic transcription factors". ... To further test the role of activated androgen receptors on AHN, flutamide, an antiandrogen drug that competes with ... Androgens bind to and activate androgen receptors (ARs) to mediate most of their biological effects. ... "Recruitment of the androgen receptor via serum response factor facilitates expression of a myogenic gene". The Journal of ...
RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, ligand-activated sequence-specific DNA binding. • identical protein binding. • ... transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • ATPase binding. • zinc ion binding. • transcriptional activator ... RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcriptional activator activity, RNA ... regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • cell-cell signaling. • negative regulation of gene expression. • transcription, ...
Fluorescent signal strength depends on many factors such as probe labeling efficiency, the type of probe, and the type of dye. ... In-Solution Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization and Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting for Single Cell and Population Genome ... "The lncRNA Malat1 is Dispensable for Mouse Development but Its Transcription Plays a cis-Regulatory Role in the Adult". Cell ... 3-19.. *^ Orjalo, ArturoV. Jr.; Johansson, HansE. (2016-01-01). Feng, Yi; Zhang, Lin (eds.). Stellaris® RNA Fluorescent In Situ ...
regulation of epidermal growth factor-activated receptor activity. • regulation of resting membrane potential. • regulation of ... negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • proteolysis. • regulation of synaptic plasticity. • ... negative regulation of epidermal growth factor-activated receptor activity. • cell adhesion. • hematopoietic progenitor cell ... positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • heart development. • negative regulation of axonogenesis. • embryonic ...
This gene is a transcription factor that regulates the cell cycle and hence functions as a tumor suppressor. By inducing G ( ... Moreover, BaP has been found to activate a transposon, LINE1, in humans.[31] ... This process increases transcription of certain genes, notably CYP1A1, followed by increased CYP1A1 protein production.[28] ... ISBN 978-0-08-050576-3.. *^ "Benzopyrene and Vitamin A deficiency". Researcher links cigarettes, vitamin A and emphysema. ...
Sigurdsson S, Van Komen S, Petukhova G, Sung P (Nov 2002). "Homologous DNA pairing by human recombination factors Rad51 and ... "The Rad51/RadA N-terminal domain activates nucleoprotein filament ATPase activity". Structure. 14 (6): 983-92. doi:10.1016/j. ... 3: e02445. doi:10.7554/eLife.02445. PMC 4031983 . PMID 24843000.. *^ Liu G, Xue F, Zhang W (2015). "miR-506: a regulator of ... "DNA repair and recombination factor Rad51 is over-expressed in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma". Oncogene. 19 (23): 2791-5. doi ...
... high levels of calcium in mitochondria elevates activity of nuclear factor kappa B NF-κB and transcription of CACNA1c and ... 272 (3 Pt 2): H1372-81. PMID 9087614.. *. Yu W, Andersson B, Worley KC, Muzny DM, Ding Y, Liu W, Ricafrente JY, Wentland MA, ... 270 (18): 10540-3. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.18.10540. PMID 7737988.. *. Soldatov NM (Jul 1994). "Genomic structure of human L-type ... Liu WS, Soldatov NM, Gustavsson I, Chowdhary BP (1999). "Fiber-FISH analysis of the 3'-terminal region of the human L-type Ca2+ ...
... the general transcription factors) directing the binding of the RNA polymerase to a gene's promoter.[144] However, other ... In the Halobacteria, light-activated ion pumps like bacteriorhodopsin and halorhodopsin generate ion gradients by pumping ions ... Transcription in archaea more closely resembles eukaryotic than bacterial transcription, with the archaeal RNA polymerase being ... Circular chromosomes, unique translation and transcription. Multiple, linear chromosomes, similar translation and transcription ...
... selectivity and Initiator-dependent bi-directionality of serum response factor-activated transcription". Biochimica et ... Transcription factors, TATA binding protein (TBP), and RNA polymerase II are all recruited to begin transcription. ... bind to the transcription factor II D (TFIID), initiating transcription in TATA-less promoters. The DPE has been identified in ... it only gives a low level of transcription. Other factors must stimulate the BTC to increase transcription levels.[2] One such ...
... is a transcription factor which activates histone gene transcription on chromosomes 1 and 6 of human cells. NPAT is also a ... SBF is a transcription factor that is activated in late G1 phase, when it dissociates from its repressor Whi5. This occurs when ... Histone gene transcription is controlled by multiple gene regulatory proteins such as transcription factors which bind to ... The serotonylation potentiates the binding of the general transcription factor TFIID to the TATA box.[49] ...
A scaffolding protein that tethers JNK/p38MAPK signaling modules and transcription factors". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ... 1998). "Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 by the activated MEKK1 --> SEK1/MKK4 --> p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway". J ... "Human mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase mediates the stress-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase ... Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP2K4 gene. This gene ...
The cleaved SREBP then migrates to the nucleus and acts as a transcription factor to bind to the SRE (sterol regulatory element ... SREBP-cleavage activating protein) and Insig1. When cholesterol levels fall, Insig-1 dissociates from the SREBP-SCAP complex, ... regulation of cholesterol metabolism by proteolysis of a membrane-bound transcription factor". Cell 89: 331. doi:10.1016/S0092- ... of a number of genes to stimulate their transcription. Among the genes transcribed are the LDL receptor and HMG-CoA reductase. ...
The N terminus interacts with other cellular transcription factors in a ligand-independent manner; and, depending on these ... Not every ligand that binds to a receptor also activates that receptor. The following classes of ligands exist: *(Full) ... The main receptors in the immune system are pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), toll-like receptors (TLRs), killer activated ... Antagonists bind to receptors but do not activate them. This results in a receptor blockade, inhibiting the binding of agonists ...
转录激活因子(英语:Activating transcription factor)(AATF(英语:Apoptosis-antagonizing transcription factor)、1、2、3、4、5、6、7) · AP-1(c-Fos、 ... sequence-specific enhancer binding RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity. · transcription factor binding. · zinc ion ... Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor)(I、II)、Ear-2(英语:V-erbA-related gene)、HNF4(英语:Hepatocyte nuclear factor ... GATA(英语:GATA transcription factor)(1、2、3、4、5、6) · MTA(1、2、3) · TRPS1(英语:Tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome Type 1) ...
RNA polymerase II transcription coactivator activity. • transcription factor binding. • activating transcription factor binding ... positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • cell aging. • positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor ... transcription coactivator activity. • protein kinase inhibitor activity. • histone binding. • Tat protein binding. • NF-kappaB ... regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • cellular response to UV. • ribosomal large subunit export from ...
"Ca2+ influx regulates BDNF transcription by a CREB family transcription factor-dependent mechanism". Neuron. 20 (4): 709-26. ... Once activated, Fyn can bind to NR2B through its SH2 domain and mediate phosphorylation of its Tyr-1472 site.[49] Similar ... BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ANON2, BULN2, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, brain derived neurotrophic factor. ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or abrineurin,[5] is a protein[6] that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.[7][8] ...
U3 is a sequence between PPT and R, which serves as a signal that the provirus can use in transcription. R is the terminal ... Some provirus remains latent in the cell for a long period of time before it is activated by the change in cell environment. ... "Cell-to-cell transmission of retroviruses: Innate immunity and interferon-induced restriction factors". Virology. 411 (2): 251 ... While transcription was classically thought to occur only from DNA to RNA, reverse transcriptase transcribes RNA into DNA. The ...
... which are transcription factors (or are factors which activate or localize transcription factors), is transferred through the ... body pattern along the longitudinal axis of the Drosophila embryo is established by a cascade of specific transcription factor ... The initial long-range positional information of the maternal factors, ... 40 (1): 3-5. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(85)90300-9. PMID 3967292. Development is based on the differential expression of the genetic ...
One approach used by tumors to upregulate growth and survival is through autocrine production of growth and survival factors. ... In colorectal cancer, for example, mutations in APC, axin, or β-catenin promote β-catenin stabilization and transcription of ... In addition, drugs may be developed that activate autocrine signaling in cancer cells that would not otherwise occur. For ... For example, despite widespread expression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) and EGF family ligands in non-small- ...
2000). "Permissive factors for HIV-1 infection of macrophages". J. Leukoc. Biol. 68 (3): 303-10. PMID 10985244. CS1 održavanje ... Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini reviews in medicinal chemistry 5 (12 ... evidence for an antioxidant sensitive activating pathway distinct from nuclear translocation". Blood 94 (6): 1878-89. PMID ... "Nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent induction of interleukin-8 gene expression by tumor necrosis factor alpha: ...
Of the transcription factors that regulate these changes in gene expression, the function of c-jun is best understood but ATF-3 ... Of the transcription factors that regulate these changes in gene expression, the function of c-jun is best understood but ATF-3 ... That transcription factors must play an important role in enabling neurons to regrow their axons is implicit to the observation ... That transcription factors must play an important role in enabling neurons to regrow their axons is implicit to the observation ...
A cellular protein, activating transcription factor, activates transcription of multiple E1a-inducible adenovirus early ... Negative regulation of TLR-signaling pathways by activating transcription factor-3. J Immunol. 2007;179:3622-30.PubMedCrossRef ... Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) represses the expression of CCL4 in murine macrophages. Mol Immunol. 2007;44:1598-605. ... The induction of STAT1 gene by activating transcription factor 3 contributes to pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis and its ...
Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) stabilizes p53 in genotoxic response. Chunhong Yan, Tsonwin Hai and Douglas Boyd ... Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) stabilizes p53 in genotoxic response Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... As a consequence, target genes including p21, PIG3 or PUMA are transcriptionally activated, leading to cell growth arrest or ... ATF3-stabilized p53 was functional as evidenced by its ability to trans-activate p53 downstream targets including MDM2, p21, ...
Activating transcription factor 3, cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-3, FLJ41705. ... The longer isoform represses transcription from promoters with ATF binding elements instead of activating it. The shorter ... ATF3 belongs to the mammalian activation transcription factor/cAMP responsive element-binding (CREB) protein family of ... which stimulates transcription by sequestering inhibitory co-factors away from the promoter has no leucine zipper protein- ...
The activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1) is a member of a well-known transcription factor family, the cyclic AMP (cAMP) ... Reverse transcription-PCR and subcloning of transcription factors and cdk3. The cdk3 (pBIND-cdk3) and transcription factor ( ... Activating transcription factor-1 can mediate Ca(2+)- and cAMP-inducible transcriptional activation. J Biol Chem 1993; 268: ... Furthermore, we found that cdk3 phosphorylates activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1) at serine 63 and enhances the ...
... ... ATF3, a member of the ATF/CREB transcription factor family, plays an important role on regulation of apoptosis and is regarded ... related transcription factors. However, mammosphere forming assay indicated that ATF3 overexpressed colon cancer cells form ...
Role for Activating Transcription Factor 3 in Stress-Induced β-Cell Apoptosis. Matthew G. Hartman, Dan Lu, Mi-Lyang Kim, Gary J ... Role for Activating Transcription Factor 3 in Stress-Induced β-Cell Apoptosis ... Role for Activating Transcription Factor 3 in Stress-Induced β-Cell Apoptosis ... Role for Activating Transcription Factor 3 in Stress-Induced β-Cell Apoptosis ...
Activating Transcription Factor 3 Expression as a Marker of Response to the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Pracinostat. Dhanya ... Activating Transcription Factor 3 Expression as a Marker of Response to the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Pracinostat ... Activating Transcription Factor 3 Expression as a Marker of Response to the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Pracinostat ... Activating Transcription Factor 3 Expression as a Marker of Response to the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Pracinostat ...
Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is required for the formation of pre-neoplastic lesions in acute pancreatitis. However ... Absence of Activating Transcription Factor 3 Reduces Severity of Recurrent Pancreatitis and K-RAS Mediated PDAC in Mice ... Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is required for the formation of pre-neoplastic lesions in acute pancreatitis. However ... This body of work examines the role of a protein called Activating Transcription Factor 3 (ATF3) in experimental models of ...
Distinct roles of activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-like endoplasmic ... Amino acids control mammalian gene transcription: activating transcription factor 2 is essential for the amino acid ... biology and nomenclature of the activating transcription factor/cAMP responsive element binding family of transcription factors ... Activating Transcription Factor 3 Is Integral to the Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 Kinase Stress Response. Hao-Yuan Jiang, ...
BACKGROUND Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a member of the ATF/cAMP-responsive element binding (CREB) family of ... BACKGROUND Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a member of the ATF/cAMP-responsive element binding (CREB) family of ... Activating transcription factor 3 regulates canonical TGFβ signalling in systemic sclerosis ... Activating transcription factor 3 regulates canonical TGFβ signalling in systemic sclerosis. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ...
... is a stress-inducible gene and encodes a member of the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors. However, the physiological ... Second, induction of ATF3 is mediated in part by the NF-kappaB and Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase ... Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a stress-inducible gene and encodes a member of the ATF/CREB family of ... Role for activating transcription factor 3 in stress-induced beta-cell apoptosis. Abstract. ...
... transcription factors can be recruited to multiple complexes, where they function with diverse co-factors to activate or ... can be activated by multiple lineage-specific transcription factors, instead of by a shared factor in multiple lineages. In ... By interacting with conserved COE binding sites, COE family transcription factors activate or repress the expression of target ... This leads to reduced accessibility to transcription factors and to the downregulation of target transcription in neuronal ...
activating transcription factor. HaCaT. human adult low calcium temperature keratinocyte. [Ca2+]i. intracellular Ca2+ ... Thapsigargin Induces Expression of Activating Transcription Factor 3 in Human Keratinocytes Involving Ca2+ Ions and c-Jun N- ... Thapsigargin Induces Expression of Activating Transcription Factor 3 in Human Keratinocytes Involving Ca2+ Ions and c-Jun N- ... Thapsigargin Induces Expression of Activating Transcription Factor 3 in Human Keratinocytes Involving Ca2+ Ions and c-Jun N- ...
A cellular protein, activating transcription factor, activates transcription of multiple E1A-inducible adenovirus early ... Immunoblot assays of activating transcription factor (ATF) 3 immunoprecipitates with tyrosine specific antibodies revealed that ... Interleukin-10 Induced Activating Transcription Factor 3 Transcriptional Suppression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Gene ... Interleukin-10 Induced Activating Transcription Factor 3 Transcriptional Suppression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Gene ...
... elegans COE transcription factor UNC-3 activates lineage-specific apoptosis and affects neurite growth in the RID lineage.: ... The COE (Collier/Olf/EBF) transcription factors have been implicated in the development of many cell types, including neurons. ... The C. elegans COE transcription factor UNC-3 activates lineage-specific apoptosis and affects neurite growth in the RID ... Unc-3 License. Unknown Abstract. Mechanisms that regulate apoptosis in a temporal and lineage-specific manner remain poorly ...
24 Some of them are transcription factors, such as Sox1125 and a number of the Kruppel-like factor family.26 Activating ... Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) induction by axotomy in sensory and motoneurons: a novel neuronal marker of nerve ... Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) expression in the neural retina and optic nerve of zebrafish during optic nerve ... Hunt D, Raivich G, Anderson P. Activating transcription factor 3 and the nervous system. Front Mol Neurosci. 2012; 5: 7. [ ...
They find that in T2E tumors, there is a distinct regulatory landscape resulting from the co-option of transcription factors by ... Taken together, our work shows that overexpressed ERG co-opts master transcription factors to deploy a unique cis-regulatory ... of prostate tumors and result in overexpression of the ERG transcription factor. Using chromatin, genomic and expression data, ... Kron, K., Murison, A., Zhou, S. et al. TMPRSS2-ERG fusion co-opts master transcription factors and activates NOTCH signaling in ...
Chromium (VI) induces antioxidant gene HO-1 by activating the CNC BZIP transcription factor NRF2.. ... Expression of a dominant negative form of Nrf2, a cap n collar basic leucine zipper transcription factor, in the cells blocks ... implicating Nrf2 as the key transcription factor in the induction. Mechanistic analysis reveals that Cr (VI) increases the ... These results provide the first evidence that Cr (VI) induces antioxidant gene HO-1 important in ROS defense by activating Nrf2 ...
Distinct spatial Ca2+ signatures selectively activate different NFAT transcription factor isoforms.. Kar P1, Parekh AB2. ... Distinct Spatial Ca2+ Signatures Selectively Activate Different NFAT Transcription Factor Isoforms. Mol Cell. 2015 Apr 16;58(2 ... Distinct Spatial Ca2+ Signatures Selectively Activate Different NFAT Transcription Factor Isoforms. Mol Cell. 2015 Apr 16;58(2 ... Distinct Spatial Ca2+ Signatures Selectively Activate Different NFAT Transcription Factor Isoforms. Mol Cell. 2015 Apr 16;58(2 ...
Activating transcription factor 2, also known as ATF2, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ATF2 gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: ATF2 activating transcription factor 2". Ozawa K, Sudo T, Soeda E, Yoshida MC, Ishii S (1991). "Assignment of the ... Activating transcription factor 2 has been shown to interact with C-jun, Casein kinase 2, alpha 1, CREB binding protein, ... "Phosphorylation of two eukaryotic transcription factors, Jun dimerization protein 2 and activation transcription factor 2, in ...
Activating transcription factor, ATF, is a group of bZIP transcription factors, which act as homodimers or heterodimers with a ... biology and nomenclature of the activating transcription factor/cAMP responsive element binding family of transcription factors ... Activating+Transcription+Factors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e. ... activating transcription factor proteins and homeostasis". Gene. 273 (1): 1-11. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(01)00551-0. ISSN 0378- ...
Activating transcription factor 3 in cardiovascular diseases: a potential therapeutic target.. Zhou H, Li N, Yuan Y, Jin YG, ... Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a member of the mammalian activation transcription factor/cAMP, physiologically ... Single-molecule quantification of lipotoxic expression of activating transcription factor 3. Yahiatene I, Aung HH, Wilson DW, ... I. Yahiatene, et al., "Single-molecule quantification of lipotoxic expression of activating transcription factor 3", Physical ...
Epub 2008 Aug 3. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, Non-P.H. ... High-yield expression in E. coli and refolding of the bZIP domain of activating transcription factor 5.. Ciaccio NA1, Moreno ML ... Activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) recently has been demonstrated to play a critical role in promoting the survival of ... High-Yield Expression in E. coli and Refolding of the bZIP Domain of Activating Transcription Factor 5 ...
Decreased immediate inflammatory gene induction in activating transcription factor-2 mutant mice * * REIMOLD Andreas M. ... Identification of the cyclin D1 gene as a target of activating transcription factor 2 in chondrocytes BEIER F. ... Association of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme hUBC9 Implication of the ... A specific member of the ATF transcription factor family can mediate transcription activation by the adenovirus E1a protein LIU ...
May belong to a complex that represses transcription and couples DNA methylation and histone H3 Lys-9 trimethylation (H3K9me3 ... Recruiter that couples transcriptional factors to general transcription apparatus and thereby modulates transcription ... Activating transcription factor 7-interacting protein 1Add BLAST. 815. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). ... sp,A0JME2,MCAF1_DANRE Activating transcription factor 7-interacting protein 1 OS=Danio rerio OX=7955 GN=atf7ip PE=1 SV=2 ...
Anthocyanin-activating R2R3 MYB transcription factorImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database ... tr,W8EB73,W8EB73_ERYLE Anthocyanin-activating R2R3 MYB transcription factor OS=Erythranthe lewisii OX=69919 GN=NEGAN PE=4 SV=1 ... Transcription factor, Myb superfamily. Handroanthus impetiginosus. 249. Anthocyanin-activating R2R3 MYB transcription factor. ... 3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., ...
Activating Transcription Factor 4 Pseudogene 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... Activating Transcription Factor 4 Pseudogene 3 2 3 5 * Activating Transcription Factor 4C 2 3 ... Transcription Factor. Binding Sites. Gene Targets. GH17J076225. Promoter/Enhancer. 0.9. Ensembl dbSUPER 600.7. +0.5. 485. 2. ... Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ATF4P3 Gene Localization for ATF4P3 Gene Jump to section. Aliases. ...
Activating Transcription Factor 3, a Stress-inducible Gene .... Activating Transcription Factor 3, a Stress-inducible Gene, ... Activating. Activating Prior Knowledge/Schema. Activating Prior Knowledge/Schema ~Talking Drawings~ Objectives: To activate ... Installing & Activating the OfficeMate Suite. Installing & Activating the OfficeMate Suite Installing & Activating the ... Title Activating Schema Using "One Minute Book Look" and KWL Strategies Activating Schema Using "One Minute Book Look" and KWL ...
TNF-α activates members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family that subsequently trans-activate transcription factors ... activating protein-1; ATF, activating-transcription factor; CAT, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase; ERK, extracellular signal- ... Role of SAPK/ERK kinase-1 in the stress-activated pathway regulating transcription factor c-Jun. Nature 372: 794. ... mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase; NAC, N-acetylcysteine; NF-κB, nuclear factor-κB; NO2−, nitrite; SAPK, stress-activated ...
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk)-3, a member of the cdk family of kinases, plays a critical role in cell cycle regulation and is involved in G 0 -G 1 and G 1 -S cell cycle transitions. (aacrjournals.org)
  • ATF3 contributes to induction of the CHOP transcriptional factor in response to amino acid starvation, and loss of ATF3 function significantly lowers stress-induced expression of GADD34, an eIF2 protein phosphatase regulatory subunit implicated in feedback control of the eIF2 kinase stress response. (asm.org)
  • Second, induction of ATF3 is mediated in part by the NF-kappaB and Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase signaling pathways, two stress-induced pathways implicated in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. (garvan.org.au)
  • The thapsigargin-induced signaling pathway was blocked by expression of either mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 or -5. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Selective interaction of JNK protein kinase isoforms with transcription factors. (nii.ac.jp)
  • GS-002 also induced endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress as evidenced by increases in ER stress-responsive proteins including glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (GADD153), phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2 α (eIF2 α ), phosphorylated protein endoplasmic-reticular-resident kinase (PERK), and ATF-3. (propolisscience.org)
  • The induction of ATF-3 expression was mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in GS-002-treated cells. (propolisscience.org)
  • Recent work has shown that TNF-α activates members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family that subsequently trans -activate transcription factors implicated in the regulation of iNOS expression. (jimmunol.org)
  • The objective of this study was to systematically evaluate the role of: 1) p42 mapk/erk2 , 2) p46 c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (p46 JNK/SAPK), and 3) p38 mapk in the induction of iNOS expression during costimulation of mouse macrophages with IFN-γ and TNF-α. (jimmunol.org)
  • In addition, specific antagonism of the JNK/SAPK upstream kinases MEKK (mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase kinase) and MKK4 (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4) with dominant inhibitory mutants blocked transcriptional activation of the iNOS promoter in response to costimulation with IFN-γ and TNF-α. (jimmunol.org)
  • CHOP expression is induced by unfolded protein response (UPR) and integrated stress response (ISR) ( 3 , 4 ), primarily through the PRKR-like ER kinase (PERK) pathway. (frontiersin.org)
  • XBP1 is activated by IRE1, an ER membrane-localized protein kinase/ribonuclease. (plantcell.org)
  • The Saccharomyces cerevisiae targets of rapamycin TOR1 and TOR2 are phosphatidylinositol kinase-related protein kinases that activate cell growth in response to nutrient availability ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • This kinase is activated by various environmental stresses and proinflammatory cytokines. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the dual specificity protein kinase family, which acts as a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • This kinase is known to play a critical role in mitogen growth factor signal transduction. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • This kinase preferentially activates MAPK8/JNK kinase, and functions as a positive regulator of JNK signaling pathway. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • This kinase can directly phosphorylate, and activates IkappaB kinase alpha and beta, and is found to be involved in the. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • However, induction of these responses by β-CDODA-Me was PPARγ-independent and due to activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and jun N-terminal kinase pathways by this compound. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 tyrosine phosphorylation, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation, and Akt phosphorylation also diminished, as did insulin-mediated glucose uptake. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • High Glc/Ins elevated basal p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and activity, and a short inhibition of p38 MAPK with SB202190 corrected the rise in basal glucose uptake, suggesting that p38 MAPK activity contributes to this rise. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In 3T3-L1 adipocytes and primary cultured rat adipocytes, 24- to 48-h pretreatment with high glucose and insulin resulted in decreases in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, GLUT4 translocation to the cell surface, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 tyrosine phosphorylation, and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase activity ( 3 - 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Recently, we demonstrated that SB203580, a selective inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) ( 16 ), decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in rat skeletal muscle, L6 myotubes, and 3T3-L1 adipocytes without reducing GLUT4 translocation ( 17 , 18 ), raising the possibility that p38 MAPK can regulate the intrinsic activity of GLUT4. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 3 This is thought to be the consequence of somatic mutations in the genes encoding the B-cell receptor (BCR)-associated CD79A and CD79B chains, 4 or the BCR signal transducer caspase recruitment domain-containing membrane-associated guanylate kinase-1 (CARMA1) (also known as CARD11), 5 and polymorphisms in RNF31 (also known as HOIP ), 6 which result in constitutive BCR signaling. (bloodjournal.org)
  • First-generation epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), including erlotinib and gefitinib have demonstrated notable response rates and benefits in progression-free survival compared with first-line conventional platinum-based chemotherapy ( 3 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Although expressed in a number of splice variants and generally recognized as a transcriptional repressor, ATF3 has the ability to interact with a number of other transcription factors including c-Jun to form complexes which not only repress, but can also activate various genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • As a consequence, target genes including p21, PIG3 or PUMA are transcriptionally activated, leading to cell growth arrest or programmed cell death. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Figure 6: ERG activates CREs surrounding NOTCH pathway genes. (nature.com)
  • Recurrent fusion of TMPRSS2 and ETS transcription factor genes in prostate cancer. (nature.com)
  • Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a member of the mammalian activation transcription factor/cAMP, physiologically important in the regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory target genes. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • It is activated by PROTEASES and then moves to the CELL NUCLEUS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in the unfolded protein response. (harvard.edu)
  • As a nuclear transcription regulator, CHOP also controls numerous genes involved in multifaceted cellular processes including inflammation, differentiation, autophagy, and apoptosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this study, yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) library screening using the persimmon (Diospyros kaki) pyruvate decarboxylase (DkPDC2) promoter identified three Ethylene Response Factor genes (DkERF23/24/25) and four WRKY transcription factor genes (DkWRKY1/5/6/7) that were differentially expressed in response to high CO2 (95%, with 4% N2 and 1% O2) and high N2 (99% N2 and 1% O2). (plantphysiol.org)
  • In mammalian cells, two transcription factors, XBP1 and ATF6, activate ER stress-responsive genes. (plantcell.org)
  • Other TOR-controlled transcription factors, GAT1/NIL1, MSN2, MSN4, and an unknown factor involved in the expression of ribosomal protein genes, were not affected by glutamine starvation. (pnas.org)
  • TOR inhibits expression of nitrogen-regulated genes by sequestering the GATA-binding transcription factors GLN3 and GAT1 (also called NIL1) in the cytoplasm ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Upon nitrogen limitation or rapamycin treatment, GLN3 is dephosphorylated by the type 2A-related phosphatase SIT4, released from URE2, and translocated into the nucleus where it activates target genes ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Our analyses demonstrate the power of combining a statistically robust, comprehensive dataset and a functional network genomics approach to 1) identify and explore relationships between genes of known importance 2) identify novel candidate genes, and 3) observe the complex interplay between genes/gene products that function in seemingly different processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) on serine 51 integrates general translation repression with activation of stress-inducible genes such as ATF4 , CHOP , and BiP in the unfolded protein response. (rupress.org)
  • However, 61 upregulated and 103 downregulated genes were identified from 0.5 to 3 h after LIUS treatment. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • A comparison of the recruitment patterns between ATF and C/EBP transcription factors and RNA polymerase II at the AARE of several amino acid-responsive genes revealed that a highly co-ordinated response programme controls the transcriptional activation of these genes following amino acid limitation. (biochemj.org)
  • Although down-regulation of genes that promote the mature acinar cell fate is required to reduce injury associated with pancreatitis, the factors that promote this repression are unknown. (rare-cancer.org)
  • A hallmark of the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the activated B-cell (ABC) type, a molecular subtype characterized by adverse outcome, is constitutive activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which controls expression of genes promoting cellular survival and proliferation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • These can be present alone or in combination with activating mutations in genes encoding the Toll-like receptor (TLR) downstream signaling protein MyD88 7 and inactivation and/or deletion of the gene encoding A20, a negative regulator of the NF-κB pathway. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The signal transduction pathways triggered by the activation of the TCR/CD3 complex in T-cells lead to the immediate activation of transcription factors that regulate a variety of activation-associated genes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The protein interacts with host cell factor C1, which also associates with the herpes simplex virus (HSV) protein VP16 that induces transcription of HSV immediate-early genes. (abcam.com)
  • Receptor-activated Smad protein complexes accumulate in the nucleus, where they participate directly in transcriptional activation of target genes. (asnjournals.org)
  • Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), a member of the ATF/CREB transcription factor family, is an important factor that participates in several pathophysiological processes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We observed that ATF4 is activated and translocates to the nucleus following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation via the TLR4-MyD88-dependent pathway. (biomedsearch.com)
  • H pylori -induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression in stomach epithelium involves mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). (bmj.com)
  • The induction of STAT1 gene by activating transcription factor 3 contributes to pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis and its dysfunction in streptozotocin-treated mice. (springer.com)
  • ATF3, a member of the ATF/CREB transcription factor family, plays an important role on regulation of apoptosis and is regarded as a potential molecular target for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of colon cancer. (umd.edu)
  • ATF3 mRNA usually increases within 2 h of stress exposure, and ATF3 protein can function as a homodimer or as a complex with members of the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) family of transcription factors, such as the apoptosis-inducing protein CHOP (also designated GADD153) that is linked to diabetes ( 13 , 22 , 24 , 26 , 27 , 50 ). (asm.org)
  • Here, we show that the sole Caenorhabditis elegans COE protein, UNC-3, together with a histone acetyltransferase, CBP-1/P300, specifies lineage-specific apoptosis and certain aspects of neurite trajectory. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, in addition to playing a role in neuronal terminal differentiation, UNC-3 is a cell lineage-specific regulator of apoptosis. (biologists.org)
  • A Taiwanese Propolis Derivative Induces Apoptosis through Inducing Endoplasmic Reticular Stress and Activating Transcription Factor-3 in Human Hepatoma Cells. (propolisscience.org)
  • Activating transcription factor-(ATF-) 3, a stress-inducible transcription factor, is rapidly upregulated under various stress conditions and plays an important role in inducing cancer cell apoptosis. (propolisscience.org)
  • Furthermore, we found that GS-002 induced more cell apoptosis in ATF-3-overexpressing cells. (propolisscience.org)
  • These results suggest that the induction of apoptosis by the propolis derivative, GS-002, is partially mediated through ER stress and ATF-3-dependent pathways, and GS-002 has the potential for development as an antitumor drug. (propolisscience.org)
  • Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) was strongly induced during necrosis but not apoptosis. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, we performed in vitro study to investigate if treatment of SF affects activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) expression and ATF3-mediated apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. (kpubs.org)
  • Here, for the first time, we report that SF leads to ERK1/2- and p38-dependent activation of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) expression, which may result in apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. (kpubs.org)
  • Electromagnetic fields alter gene transcription related to apoptosis and cell cycle control in embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Shikonin has been reported to exhibit antitumor properties via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, inducing caspase-dependent apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis ( 9 - 12 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Of the transcription factors that regulate these changes in gene expression, the function of c-Jun is the best understood. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ho HH, Antoniv TT, Ji JD, Ivashkiv LB. Lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinases in human monocytes is suppressed by IFN-gamma via superinduction of ATF-3 and suppression of AP-1. (springer.com)
  • Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) represses the expression of CCL4 in murine macrophages. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, we observed that ATF3 overexpression downregulated expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related transcription factors. (umd.edu)
  • We find that expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a member of the ATF/CREB subfamily of basic-region leucine zipper (bZIP) proteins, is induced in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress or amino acid starvation by a mechanism requiring eIF2 kinases PEK (Perk or EIF2AK3) and GCN2 (EIF2AK4), respectively. (asm.org)
  • RESULTS Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) upregulates the expression of ATF3 in SSc fibroblasts. (uzh.ch)
  • Here, we show that stimulation of human HaCaT keratinocytes with nanomolar concentrations of thapsigargin triggers expression of activating transcription factor (ATF) 3, a basic-region leucin zipper transcription factor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Our results demonstrate that IL-10 significantly inhibited MMP-2 transcription and protein expression induced by a phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Immunoblot assays of activating transcription factor (ATF) 3 immunoprecipitates with tyrosine specific antibodies revealed that IL-10 stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of ATF3 to activate binding to the CREB domain and suppress MMP-2 expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although the mechanisms regulating MMP-2 and MMP-9 gene expression are poorly understood, studies have indicated that MMP-2 activity is regulated by gene transcription, mRNA stability, proenzyme activation, and direct inhibition of enzyme activity ( 4 , 9 , 17 , 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Considering that blocking Hsp90 induces ATF3 expression, Hsp90 inhibition may represent a valid strategy to treat metastatic colon cancer by up-regulating this anti-metastatic transcription factor. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) in uninjured dorsal root ganglion neurons in a lower trunk avulsion pain model in rats. (painresearchforum.org)
  • Single-molecule quantification of lipotoxic expression of activating transcription factor 3", Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics , vol. 16, 2014, pp. 21595-21601. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Expression of a dominant negative form of Nrf2, a cap 'n' collar basic leucine zipper transcription factor, in the cells blocks the induction by Cr (VI), implicating Nrf2 as the key transcription factor in the induction. (cdc.gov)
  • High-yield expression in E. coli and refolding of the bZIP domain of activating transcription factor 5. (nih.gov)
  • ATF3 belongs to the ATF/cyclic AMP response element binding (CREB) family of transcription factors and most cells have very weak or absent ATF3 expression under steady-state conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We investigated the acute hypoxia effect on endothelial expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a stress-inducible transcription factor playing significant roles in cellular responses to stress. (elsevier.com)
  • The enhanced proliferative ability of trp53 deficient mice correlates with a decreased expression of the mitotic inhibitor Cdkn1a/p21(cip) and an increase in c-myc, a transcription factor that promotes cell cycle progression. (nih.gov)
  • AhR ligands (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin, polychlorinated biphenyl 126, and β-naphthoflavone) increased Oatp2b1 and 3a1 mRNA expression in liver. (aspetjournals.org)
  • CAR activators [phenobarbital, 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene, and diallyl sulfide] decreased Oatp1a1 mRNA expression. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Isx increased the expression and secretion of insulin in islets that made little insulin after prolonged ex vivo culture and increased expression of neurogenic differentiation 1 and other regulators of islet differentiation and insulin gene transcription. (pnas.org)
  • Expression of one or more of these factors helps promote differentiation of pancreatic endocrine cells from various stem cell populations ( 6 , 20 ). (pnas.org)
  • Gene network T containing transcription factors fos‑like antigen 1 and serum response factor was also associated with the biological functions of the gene expression. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Several groups have reported that the gene expression patterns were affected within 3 to 24 h after LIUS-treatment in several cell types ( 18 - 23 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The internal reference markers with stable expression in early PMI were screened using geNorm software and the relationship between its expression level and some relevant factors such as age, gender and cause of death were analyzed. (bireme.br)
  • Expression of ATF3 (activating transcription factor 3) is induced by a variety of environmental stress conditions, including nutrient limitation. (biochemj.org)
  • Activated endothelial cells initially express P-selectin molecules, but within two hours after activation E-selectin expression is favoured. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-CDODA-Me induced p21 and p27, down-regulated cyclin D1 protein expression, and induced two other proapoptotic proteins, namely nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene-1 and activating transcription factor-3. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Yeast-one-hybrid screens with this fragment identified a glandular trichome-specific transcription factor, designated Expression of Terpenoids 1 (SlEOT1). (deepdyve.com)
  • MRBE treatment to SW480 cells activated ATF3 expression and down-regulated cyclin D1 level. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) bound to unfolded protein response elements of SESN2 promoter, transactivated SESN2, and increased SESN2 protein expression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Expression of activated alleles of ras and JNKK (rasVal12 and Hepact) causes the appearance of malignant, invasive tumors in the Drosophila brain (lower panel). (rochester.edu)
  • 1 Based on gene expression profiling (GEP), 3 distinct subtypes of DLBCL have been identified, namely the germinal center (GC) B-cell (GCB), activated B-cell (ABC), and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma subtypes. (bloodjournal.org)
  • RFLAT-1: a new zinc finger transcription factor that activates RANTES gene expression in T lymphocytes. (google.com)
  • This is achieved by increasing the expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Functional studies showed that treatment of HaCaT keratinocytes with thapsigargin led to a 2-fold induction of caspase-3/7 activity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • E. Coli lysate post-IPTG induction, Lane 3: molecular weight marker (Bio-Rad Precision Plus Unstained MW Standard). (nih.gov)
  • Induction of activating transcription factor 3 by anoxia is independent of p53 and the hypoxic HIF signalling pathway. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Phase I enzyme induction by classes of microsomal enzyme inducers occurs via activation of transcription factors such as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). (aspetjournals.org)
  • a family of kinases activated in response to stress and inflammatory stimuli that modulates multiple aspects of cardiac fibroblast function, including inflammatory responses, myofibroblast differentiation, extracellular matrix turnover and the paracrine induction of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. (mdpi.com)
  • 15. Dioxin-activated AHR: toxic responses and the induction of oxidative stress ( Sidney J. Stohs and Ezdihar A. Hassoun ). (wiley.com)
  • Activating transcription factor 6-dependent sestrin 2 induction ameliorates ER stress-mediated liver injury. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Hai T, Hartman MG. The molecular biology and nomenclature of the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors: ATF proteins and homeostasis. (springer.com)
  • ATF3 belongs to the mammalian activation transcription factor/cAMP responsive element-binding (CREB) protein family of transcription factors. (prospecbio.com)
  • Facilitating this stress response are transcriptional regulators, such as activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a member of the ATF/CREB subfamily of the basic-region leucine zipper (bZIP) family ( 26 ). (asm.org)
  • BACKGROUND Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a member of the ATF/cAMP-responsive element binding (CREB) family of transcription factors, regulates cellular response to stress including oxidative stress. (uzh.ch)
  • Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a stress-inducible gene and encodes a member of the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors. (garvan.org.au)
  • First, they have been described as members of the CREB/ATF family, whereas it turned out later that some of them might be more similar to AP-1-like factors such as c-Jun or c-Fos. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cAMP-induced activation of human CYP11A1 has been suggested to depend on the transcription factor cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB), but the CREB action cannot explain the chronic cAMP effect on CYP11A1 activation. (elsevier.com)
  • The EMSA assays showed that the binding activities of U with SF-1 as well as C1 or C2 with activating protein-1 (AP-1)/CREB-like proteins are induced by cAMP. (elsevier.com)
  • Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a member of the ATF/CREB subfamily of the basic-region leucine zipper (bZIP) family. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This involves the cAMP-responsive element\x{2013}binding protein (CREB) transcriptional factors ( 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The activity of the CREB factors is finely tuned by the level of the inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The shorter isoform (deltaZip2) which stimulates transcription by sequestering inhibitory co-factors away from the promoter has no leucine zipper protein-dimerization motif and does not bind to DNA. (prospecbio.com)
  • The cloning and subsequent analysis of the promoter of the iNOS gene have revealed two regions that are required for the synergistic activation of transcription of iNOS mRNA during costimulation with IFN-γ and LPS ( 3 , 21 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Dual-luciferase assays confirmed that these transcription factors were capable of transactivating the DkPDC2 promoter. (plantphysiol.org)
  • It may repress transcription by stabilizing the binding of inhibitory cofactors at the promoter. (abcam.com)
  • For example, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p- dioxin (TCDD) binds to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which subsequently releases the AhR from the cytosolic tethering protein HSP90, allowing for AhR translocation to the nucleus, heterodimerization with ARNT, and binding to xenobiotic response elements in the Cyp1A1 promoter. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Among the most important of these transcription factors are neurogenic differentiation 1 (NeuroD1, also known as BETA2), pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX-1), and v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA), which activate the insulin gene promoter synergistically and are essential for glucose-stimulated insulin gene transcription. (pnas.org)
  • Promoter analysis showed that a C/EBP-ATF composite site at −23 to −15 bp relative to the transcription start site of the ATF3 gene functions as an AARE (amino acid response element). (biochemj.org)
  • These latter changes closely paralleled the initial increase in RNA pol II (RNA polymerase II) binding to the promoter and in the transcription rate from the ATF3 gene. (biochemj.org)
  • It was found that the transcription factor Klf4 present at the promoter of an enzymatic subunit of telomerase ( TERT ), where it formed a complex with β-catenin . (wikipedia.org)
  • For real-time PCR, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA was used as an internal control, and the level from untreated cells was defined as 1. (asm.org)
  • Exposure of SF activated the levels of ATF3 protein and mRNA via transcriptional regulation in HCT116 and SW480 cells. (kpubs.org)
  • Distinguishing direct from indirect roles for bicoid mRNA localization factors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • On a longer time scale, new insulin gene transcription maintains the pool of mRNA for translation on demand. (pnas.org)
  • In the present study, we demonstrate that the increase in ATF3 mRNA content following amino acid limitation of human HepG2 hepatoma cells is dependent on transcriptional activation of the ATF3 gene, through a highly co-ordinated amino acid-responsive programme of transcription factor synthesis and action. (biochemj.org)
  • β-CDODA-Me repressed AR mRNA transcription, whereas decreased PSA mRNA levels were dependent on protein synthesis and were reversed by cycloheximide. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Lipotoxic brain microvascular injury is mediated by activating transcription factor 3-dependent inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • In response, cells activate a series of adaptive pathways, namely the UPR, to restore homeostasis. (frontiersin.org)
  • 10. The E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of transcription factor AHR permits non-genomic regulation of biological pathways ( Fumiaki Ohtake and Shigeaki Kato ). (wiley.com)
  • Thus, potent inhibition of LNCaP cell survival by β-CDODA-Me is due to PPARγ-independent activation of multiple pathways that selectively activate growth-inhibitory and proapoptotic responses. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Human molecular processes are influenced by physiological pathways as well as exogenous factors, which include the diet. (mdpi.com)
  • As a consequence of an increase of intracellular Ca 2+ levels, several signaling pathways are activated ( Lewis, 2001 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • In addition, it is increasingly apparent that TGF-ß receptors can activate Smad-independent signaling mechanisms, although it remains unclear how non-Smad pathways are connected to TGF-ß receptors at a molecular level ( 11 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • In this report, we explore the role of a family of protein kinases that phosphorylate eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) in coordinating stress gene responses. (asm.org)
  • We have been interested in the early events of stress responses involving a family of protein kinases that phosphorylate the α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2). (asm.org)
  • ATF-2 is normally activated in response to signals that converge on stress-activated protein kinases p38 and JNK. (wikipedia.org)
  • All three kinases were activated during costimulation with IFN-γ and TNF-α. (jimmunol.org)
  • The phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) plays an important role in this stereotyped response, and is mediated by distinct kinases that are activated by specific stress signals. (rupress.org)
  • MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Smad2 and 3 are substrates of TGF-ß and activin receptor kinases. (asnjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, we found that cdk3 phosphorylates activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1) at serine 63 and enhances the transactivation and transcriptional activities of ATF1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recruiter that couples transcriptional factors to general transcription apparatus and thereby modulates transcription regulation and chromatin formation. (uniprot.org)
  • Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that regulates much of the transcriptional response of cells to hypoxia. (ox.ac.uk)
  • KLF4 can activate transcription by interacting via it N-terminus with specific transcriptional co-activators, such as p300-CBP coactivator family . (wikipedia.org)
  • To further characterize the inhibitory mechanisms of CAPE at the transcriptional level, we examined the DNA binding and transcriptional activities of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, nuclear factor of activated cells (NFAT), and activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factors in Jurkat cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Hai T, Liu F, Coukos WJ, Green MR. Transcription factor ATF cDNA clones: an extensive family of leucine zipper proteins able to selectively form DNA-binding heterodimers. (springer.com)
  • This gene encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the leucine zipper family of DNA-binding proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • We report here that bZIP60, an Arabidopsis thaliana basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor with a transmembrane domain, is involved in the ER stress response. (plantcell.org)
  • All of these processes require the basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors Jun and Fos. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Hai T. The ATF transcription factors in cellular adaptive responses. (springer.com)
  • ATF3 binds the cAMP response element (CRE) (consensus: 5'-GTGACGT[AC][AG]-3'), a sequence present in numerous viral and cellular promoters. (prospecbio.com)
  • How isoforms that co-exist within the same sub-cellular domain are differentially activated remains unclear. (nih.gov)
  • Our study uncovers a mechanism whereby co-existing cytoplasmic transcription factor isoforms are differentially activated by distinct sub-cellular Ca(2+) signals. (nih.gov)
  • Activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3) is involved in the complex process of cellular stress response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This protein binds the cAMP response element (CRE) (consensus: 5'-GTGACGT[AC][AG]-3'), a sequence present in many viral and cellular promoters. (abcam.com)
  • The study analyzed human data and found that in those who had received chemotherapy, the gene Atf3 - a transcription factor activated by stress , implicated in the mechanism of cellular stress, and found in a variety of cancer cells - is overexpressed, compared with patients who were not administered chemotherapy. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It is a selective inhibitor of cellular complexes that dephosphorylate eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit alpha (eIF2alpha). (mcw.edu)
  • Immunohistochemical detection of activating transcription factor 3, a hub of the cellular adaptive-response network. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • 2 - 4 ), Ziyadeh and Sharma ( 5 , 6 ), and many others (reviewed in reference 7 ) indicate a central role for TGF-ß and its downstream signaling cascades in activating cellular pathomechanisms that underlie the progression of renal diseases. (asnjournals.org)
  • Cleavage of bZIP60 is independent of the function of Arabidopsis homologs of mammalian S1P and S2P proteases, which mediate the proteolytic cleavage of the mammalian transcription factor ATF6. (plantcell.org)
  • Together, these data show that stimulation of HaCaT cells with thapsigargin induces a specific signaling pathway in keratinocytes involving activation of JNK, biosynthesis of ATF3, and up-regulation of caspase-3/7 activity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, MMPs are also involved in controlling the availability of active forms of cytokines and growth factors-pro-tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, insulin-like growth factor binding proteins, and FasL can be cleaved by MMPs ( 6 -9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In one paradigm of NF-κB activation, the CBM signalosome promotes ubiquitination of an IκB subunit that would otherwise sequester the rest of the NF-κB complex in the cytoplasm, allowing a heterodimer composed of NF-κB's p50 and p65 subunits to translocate to the nucleus and direct transcription of inflammatory cytokines. (ahajournals.org)
  • A recent study reported that ATF3 provides protection from Streptococcus pneumoniae infection by activating cytokines. (semanticscholar.org)
  • One billion years of bZIP transcription factor evolution: conservation and change in dimerization and DNA-binding site specificity. (springer.com)
  • Using Drosophila genetics and systems biology, this study shows that the bZIP transcription factor Atf3 links metabolic and innate immune responses to safeguard homeostasis. (cas.cz)
  • Chromium (VI) induces antioxidant gene HO-1 by activating the CNC BZIP transcription factor NRF2. (cdc.gov)
  • Similarly, constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) ligands induce Cyp2B10, pregnane X receptor (PXR) ligands induce Cyp3A11, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) ligands induce Cyp4A14. (aspetjournals.org)
  • β-CDODA-Me was a potent inhibitor of LNCaP prostate cancer cell growth (IC 50 ∼1 μM) and activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), whereas analogs without the cyano group were weakly cytotoxic and did not activate PPARγ. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These results provide the first evidence that Cr (VI) induces antioxidant gene HO-1 important in ROS defense by activating Nrf2. (cdc.gov)
  • Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) belongs to the ATF/cyclic AMP responsive element binding family of transcription factors and is often described as an adaptive response gene whose activity is usually regulated by stressful stimuli. (frontiersin.org)
  • Very few mutations in cdks have been noted in human cancers with the exception of a p16 Ink4a -insensitive cdk4 mutation in human familial melanoma ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The longer isoform represses transcription from promoters with ATF binding elements instead of activating it. (prospecbio.com)
  • Isoform 2 activates transcription presumably by sequestering inhibitory cofactors away from the promoters. (abcam.com)
  • Isoform 3: Nucleus. (abcam.com)
  • Insulin resistance, often associated with obesity and physical inactivity, is a major factor in the progression of T2DM. (springer.com)
  • The up-regulation of caspase-3/7 activity in thapsigargin-stimulated HaCaT cells was attenuated by inhibition of JNK. (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, regulation of organic anion-transporting polypeptide (Oatp) uptake transporters by these factors is poorly understood. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 5. Dioxin response elements and regulation of gene transcription ( Hollie Swanson ). (wiley.com)
  • Fig. 3: Lysine acetylation-mediated regulation of vascular dysfunction. (nature.com)
  • Activating transcription factor 3 in immune response and metabolic regulation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The pro-survival mechanism of p75 NTR has been mediated by the activation of nuclear factor κB gene by a corresponding down-regulation of inhibitory κB gene. (biochemj.org)
  • This is assisted through juxtacrine activation of integrins by chemokines and soluble factors released by endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the activated state, integrins bind tightly to complementary receptors expressed on endothelial cells, with high affinity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toma, Jelena, "Contribution of Activating Transcription Factor 3 to development of acinar-to-ductal cell metaplasia" (2017). (uwo.ca)
  • Activating transcription factor 2, also known as ATF2, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ATF2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • 13 Activating Transcription Factor 2 (ATF2) ELISA Kits from 6 manufacturers are available on www.antibodies-online.com. (antibodies-online.com)
  • 1 One prominent inflammatory pathway responsive to angiotensin receptor ligation culminates in the translocation of nuclear factor-κ light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) to the nucleus where it drives transcription of a broad array of inflammatory mediators. (ahajournals.org)
  • Nutrients regulate insulin production at several steps in the biosynthetic pathway in addition to its secretion, including cleavage of the preprohormone, translation, and transcription ( 7 - 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, transcription factors (TFs) that regulate TPSs have not yet been discovered from tomato. (deepdyve.com)
  • this transcription factor functions in neuronal and pancreatic β-cell differentiation and is essential for insulin gene transcription. (pnas.org)
  • C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), known also as DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 and as growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 153 (GADD153), is induced in response to certain stressors. (frontiersin.org)
  • One factor that contributes to the successful regeneration of the axons in peripheral nerves is the complex cell body response the neurons show to axotomy. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our lab has shown that Activating Transcription Factor 3 (ATF3), a factor upregulated during pancreatic injury, contributes to the development of acinar-to-ductal cell metaplasia (ADM), a precursor phenotype of PDAC. (uwo.ca)
  • We propose that an ERF and WRKY transcription factor complex contributes to responses to hypoxia in both persimmon fruit and Arabidopsis, and the possibility that this is a general plant response requires further investigation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Here, we compare the regulatory mechanism of two closely related transcription factor isoforms, NFAT1 and NFAT4, that migrate from the cytoplasm to the nucleus following the increase in intracellular Ca(2+) that accompanies the opening of store-operated Orai1/CRAC channels. (nih.gov)
  • Activating Transcription Factor 6" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • Azizi, Nawab, "Absence of Activating Transcription Factor 3 Reduces Severity of Recurrent Pancreatitis and K-RAS Mediated PDAC in Mice" (2019). (uwo.ca)
  • Importantly, we showed that cdk3 enhances epidermal growth factor-induced transformation of JB6 Cl41 cells and si-cdk3 suppresses Ras G12V /cdk3/ATF1-induced foci formation in NIH3T3 cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3) acts as a negative regulator of cytokine production during Gram-negative bacterial infection. (semanticscholar.org)
  • TMPRSS2-ERG (T2E) structural rearrangements typify ∼ 50% of prostate tumors and result in overexpression of the ERG transcription factor. (nature.com)
  • However, activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), also known as LRF-1, LRG-21, CRG-5, and TI-241, is also upregulated in most of the neurons (Figure 1 ) as well as in Schwann cells that express c-Jun. (frontiersin.org)
  • Kang Y, Chen CR, Massague J. A self-enabling TGFβ response coupled to stress signaling: Smad engages stress response factor ATF3 for Id1 repression in epithelial cells. (springer.com)
  • e) INS832/13 cells were untreated (lane 1) or treated with IL-1β (lanes 2 to 4) in the absence (lane 2) or presence of Bay 11-7082 (lane 3) or NF-κB SN50 (lane 4) for 30 min. (asm.org)
  • B, representative images of triplicate experiments of soft agar colony formation assay on TSU-Pr1 cells treated with pracinostat (200 and 500 nmol/L) for 3 days compared with the control cells (i). ii, quantification of spheres from soft agar assay. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This was accompanied by significant structural changes in the F-actin network of the cells at similar to 3-fold increased localization precision compared to widefield microscopy after treatment. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) recently has been demonstrated to play a critical role in promoting the survival of human glioblastoma cells. (nih.gov)
  • Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) targeting has emerged as a valuable strategy for cancer therapy [ 1 , 2 ], because these proteins are being up-regulated in malignant and non-malignant cells types upon exposure to a variety of stressors [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several main apoptotic indicators were found in GS-002-treated cells, such as the cleaved forms of caspase-3, caspase-9, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). (propolisscience.org)
  • Here we report that genetic and pharmacological suppression of calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) function promotes tumour formation in mouse skin and in xenografts, in immune compromised mice, of H-ras(V12) (also known as Hras1)-expressing primary human keratinocytes or keratinocyte-derived SCC cells. (nih.gov)
  • During the development of type 2 diabetes, pancreatic β cells become progressively unable to produce and secrete sufficient insulin to prevent hyperglycemia ( 1 , 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • We previously identified a family of 3,5-disubstituted isoxazoles (Isx) by screening a chemical library in mouse pluripotent stem cells for activators of the gene encoding the homeodomain transcription factor, NK2 transcription factor-related, locus 5 (Nkx2.5) ( 21 ). (pnas.org)
  • PKCα, PKCδ, PKCθ and a number of PKC substrates are phosphorylated in H pylori -infected gastric cells independently of H pylori 's virulence factor cytotoxin A associated antigen (CagA). (bmj.com)
  • Furthermore, the loss of hepatic PCK1 could activate the RhoA/PI3K/AKT pathway, which leads to increased secretion of PDGF-AA and promotes the activation of hepatic stellate cells. (biorxiv.org)
  • KLF4 has diverse functions, and has been garnering attention in recent years because some of its functions are apparently contradicting, but mainly since the discovery of its integral role as one of four key factors that are essential for inducing pluripotent stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • As patients with non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and wild‑type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are resistant to treatment with erlotinib or gefitinib, potential chemosensitizers are required to potentiate wild‑type EGFR NSCLC cells to erlotinib/gefitinib treatment. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Moreover, we found that CAPE specifically inhibited both interleukin (IL)-2 gene transcription and IL-2 synthesis in stimulated T-cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We mapped differences in nuclear location to amino acids within the SP-3 motif of the NFAT regulatory domain. (nih.gov)
  • The pathophysiological processes underlying CVD, including risk factor development, early pathological events (such as atherosclerosis), end-stage events (such as heart failure) and recovery-stage events (such as ischaemia-reperfusion injury and angiogenesis), are regulated by lysine acetylation. (nature.com)
  • gut-enriched Krüppel-like factor or GKLF ) is a member of the KLF family of zinc finger transcription factors , which belongs to the relatively large family of SP1 -like transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • This body of work examines the role of a protein called Activating Transcription Factor 3 (ATF3) in experimental models of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer in mice. (uwo.ca)
  • Pancreatitis is a debilitating disease of the exocrine pancreas that, under chronic conditions, is a major susceptibility factor for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). (rare-cancer.org)
  • Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a key mediator of the unfolded protein response, a pathway rapidly activated during pancreatic insult. (rare-cancer.org)
  • Figure 3: ERG remodels binding of master transcription factors to the chromatin. (nature.com)
  • thus, it may represent a class of sequence-specific factors that activate transcription by direct effects on chromatin components. (wikipedia.org)
  • 33. The AHR regulates cell adhesion and migration by interacting with oncogene and growth factor-dependent signaling ( Angel Carlos Roman, Jose M. Carvajal-Gonzalez, Sonia Mulero-Navarro, Aurea Gomez-Duran, Eva M. Rico-Leo and Pedro M. Fernandez-Salguero ). (wiley.com)
  • ATF3-stabilized p53 was functional as evidenced by its ability to trans-activate p53 downstream targets including MDM2, p21, PIG3 and PUMA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Identification and functional characterization of hypoxia-responsive transcription factors is important for understanding plant responses to natural anaerobic environments and during storage and transport of fresh horticultural products. (plantphysiol.org)