BostonSchools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Schools: Educational institutions.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Allergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.Education, Dental, Graduate: Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Dentistry, Operative: That phase of clinical dentistry concerned with the restoration of parts of existing teeth that are defective through disease, trauma, or abnormal development, to the state of normal function, health, and esthetics, including preventive, diagnostic, biological, mechanical, and therapeutic techniques, as well as material and instrument science and application. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 2d ed, p237)Problem-Based Learning: Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.Telomeric Repeat Binding Protein 1: A ubiquitously expressed telomere-binding protein that is present at TELOMERES throughout the CELL CYCLE. It is a suppressor of telomere elongation and may be involved in stabilization of telomere length. It is structurally different from TELOMERIC REPEAT BINDING PROTEIN 2 in that it contains acidic N-terminal amino acid residues.Blogging: Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.Telomeric Repeat Binding Protein 2: A ubiquitously expressed telomere-binding protein that is present at TELOMERES throughout the cell cycle. It is a suppressor of telomere elongation and may be involved in stabilization of telomere length. It is structurally different from TELOMERIC REPEAT BINDING PROTEIN 1 in that it contains basic N-terminal amino acid residues.Love: Affection; in psychiatry commonly refers to pleasure, particularly as it applies to gratifying experiences between individuals.Philology, Romance: The study of literature written in the Romance languages (French, Spanish, Italian, and others descended from Latin), including grammar, etymology, criticism, literary history, and language and linguistic history.Famous PersonsTelomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Telomere-Binding Proteins: Proteins that specifically bind to TELOMERES. Proteins in this class include those that perform functions such as telomere capping, telomere maintenance and telomere stabilization.Tankyrases: A group of telomere associated proteins that interact with TRF1 PROTEIN, contain ANKYRIN REPEATS and have poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity.Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Interferon Inducers: Agents that promote the production and release of interferons. They include mitogens, lipopolysaccharides, and the synthetic polymers Poly A-U and Poly I-C. Viruses, bacteria, and protozoa have been also known to induce interferons.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.TaiwanNuclear Energy: Energy released by nuclear fission or nuclear fusion.Endocrinology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the metabolism, physiology, and disorders of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Hospitals, General: Large hospitals with a resident medical staff which provides continuous care to maternity, surgical and medical patients.Internal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Translational Medical Research: The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Leucine Zippers: DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.G-Box Binding Factors: A family of transcription factors found primarily in PLANTS that bind to the G-box DNA sequence CACGTG or to a consensus sequence CANNTG.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Activating Transcription Factor 3: An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
(1/480) ATF-2-binding regulatory element is responsible for the Ly49A expression in murine T lymphoid line, EL-4.

To understand the mechanism of Ly49A-expression and its significance in T-cell differentiation, we analyzed the 5'-flanking region of the Ly49A gene in a search for the Ly49A-regulatory element. Since very few known regulatory elements have been found in this region, presumably a novel regulatory sequence(s) could exist. Accordingly, we defined the 13-bp regulatory element, 5'-ATGACGAGGAGGA-3', restricted to Ly49A-expression in EL-4 cells in comparison with two other representative cell lines tested. This element, designated as EL13, proved to be previously undiscovered by homology search and is highly homologous with several virus DNAs. Using EL13 as a probe we have cloned a cDNA encoding a binding protein to EL13. Its deduced nucleotide sequence revealed that EL13-binding protein is almost identical with rat ATF-2. Although ATF-2 is known to bind to cyclic AMP responsive element (CRE), EL13 shares five out of eight nucleotides with this consensus sequence. Our results suggested that ATF-2 may play an important role via binding to EL13 for the expression of Ly49A. These data will provide useful information for understanding T-cell and NK-cell differentiation in murine immune system.  (+info)

(2/480) Platelet-derived growth factor induces interleukin-6 transcription in osteoblasts through the activator protein-1 complex and activating transcription factor-2.

Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) BB, a mitogen that stimulates bone resorption, increases the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine that induces osteoclast recruitment. The mechanisms involved in IL-6 induction by PDGF BB are poorly understood. We examined the effect of PDGF BB on IL-6 expression in cultures of osteoblasts from fetal rat calvariae (Ob cells). PDGF BB increased IL-6 mRNA and heterogeneous nuclear RNA levels, the rate of transcription, and the activity of base pairs (bp) -2906 to +20 IL-6 promoter fragments transiently transfected into Ob cells. Deletion analysis revealed two responsive regions, one containing an activator protein-1 (AP-1) site located between bp -276 and -257, and a second, less well defined, downstream of -257. Targeted mutations of a cyclic AMP-responsive element (CRE), and nuclear factor-IL-6 and nuclear factor-kappaB binding sites in a bp -257 to +20 IL-6 construct that was transfected into Ob cells, revealed that the CRE also contributed to IL-6 promoter induction by PDGF BB. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed AP-1 and CRE nuclear protein complexes that were enhanced by PDGF BB. Supershift assays revealed binding of Jun and Fos to AP-1 and CRE sequences and binding of activating transcription factor-2 to CRE. In conclusion, PDGF BB induces IL-6 transcription in osteoblasts by regulating nuclear proteins of the AP-1 complex and activating transcription factor-2.  (+info)

(3/480) pp60(v-src) induction of cyclin D1 requires collaborative interactions between the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, and Jun kinase pathways. A role for cAMP response element-binding protein and activating transcription factor-2 in pp60(v-src) signaling in breast cancer cells.

The cyclin D1 gene is overexpressed in breast tumors and encodes a regulatory subunit of cyclin-dependent kinases that phosphorylate the retinoblastoma protein. pp60(c-src) activity is frequently increased in breast tumors; however, the mechanisms governing pp60(c-src) regulation of the cell cycle in breast epithelium are poorly understood. In these studies, pp60(v-src) induced cyclin D1 protein levels and promoter activity (48-fold) in MCF7 cells. Cyclin D1-associated kinase activity and protein levels were increased in mammary tumors from murine mammary tumor virus-pp60(c-src527F) transgenic mice. Optimal induction of cyclin D1 by pp60(v-src) involved the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family. Cyclin D1 promoter activation by pp60(v-src) involved a cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)/activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2) binding site. Dominant negative mutants of CREB and ATF-2 but not c-Jun inhibited pp60(v-src) induction of cyclin D1. pp60(v-src) induction of CREB was blocked by the p38 inhibitor SB203580 or by mutation of CREB at Ser133. pp60(v-src) induction of ATF-2 was abolished by the c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor JNK-interacting protein-1 or by mutation of ATF-2 at Thr69 and Thr71. CREB and ATF-2, which bind to a common pp60(v-src) response element, are transcriptionally activated by distinct mitogen-activated protein kinases. Induction of cyclin D1 activity by pp60(v-src) may contribute to breast tumorigenesis through phosphorylation and inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein.  (+info)

(4/480) ATF-2 is a common nuclear target of Smad and TAK1 pathways in transforming growth factor-beta signaling.

Upon transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) binding to its cognate receptor, Smad3 and Smad4 form heterodimers and transduce the TGF-beta signal to the nucleus. In addition to the Smad pathway, another pathway involving a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase family of kinases, TGF-beta-activated kinase-1 (TAK1), is required for TGF-beta signaling. However, it is unknown how these pathways function together to synergistically amplify TGF-beta signaling. Here we report that the transcription factor ATF-2 (also called CRE-BP1) is bound by a hetero-oligomer of Smad3 and Smad4 upon TGF-beta stimulation. ATF-2 is one member of the ATF/CREB family that binds to the cAMP response element, and its activity is enhanced after phosphorylation by stress-activated protein kinases such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38. The binding between ATF-2 and Smad3/4 is mediated via the MH1 region of the Smad proteins and the basic leucine zipper region of ATF-2. TGF-beta signaling also induces the phosphorylation of ATF-2 via TAK1 and p38. Both of these actions are shown to be responsible for the synergistic stimulation of ATF-2 trans-activating capacity. These results indicate that ATF-2 plays a central role in TGF-beta signaling by acting as a common nuclear target of both Smad and TAK1 pathways.  (+info)

(5/480) p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediates signal integration of TCR/CD28 costimulation in primary murine T cells.

Optimal T cell activation requires two signals, one generated by TCR and another by the CD28 costimulatory receptor. In this study, we investigated the regulation of costimulation-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation in primary mouse T cells. In contrast to that reported for human Jurkat T cells, we found that p38 MAPK, but not Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), is weakly activated upon stimulation with either anti-CD3 or anti-CD28 in murine thymocytes and splenic T cells. However, p38 MAPK is activated strongly and synergistically by either CD3/CD28 coligation or PMA/Ca2+ ionophore stimulation, which mimics TCR-CD3/CD28-mediated signaling. Activation of p38 MAPK correlates closely with the stimulation of T cell proliferation. In contrast, PMA-induced JNK activation is inhibited by Ca2+ ionophore. T cell proliferation and production of IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-gamma induced by both CD3 and CD3/CD28 ligation and the nuclear expression of the c-Jun and ATF-2 proteins are each blocked by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. Our findings demonstrate that p38 MAPK 1) plays an important role in signal integration during costimulation of primary mouse T cells, 2) may be involved in the induction of c-Jun activation and augmentation of AP-1 transcriptional activity, and 3) regulates whether T cells enter a state of functional unresponsiveness.  (+info)

(6/480) Ubiquitination and degradation of ATF2 are dimerization dependent.

Ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation are key determinants of the half-lives of many transcription factors. Homo- or heterodimerization of basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors is required for their transcriptional activities. Here we show that activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) heterodimerization with specific bZIP proteins is an important determinant of the ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation of ATF2. Depletion of c-Jun as one of the ATF2 heterodimer partners from the targeting proteins decreased the efficiency of ATF2 ubiquitination in vitro, whereas the addition of exogenously purified c-Jun restored it. Similarly, overexpression of c-Jun in 293T human embryo kidney cells increased ATF2 ubiquitination in vivo and reduced its half-life in a dose-dependent manner. Mutations of ATF2 that disrupt its dimerization inhibited ATF2 ubiquitination in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, removal of residues 150 to 248, as in a constitutively active ATF2 spliced form, enhanced ATF2 dimerization and transactivation, which coincided with increased ubiquitination and decreased stability. Our findings indicate the increased sensitivity of transcriptionally active dimers of ATF2 to ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation. Based on these observations, we conclude that increased targeting of a transcriptionally active ATF2 form indicates the mechanism by which the magnitude and the duration of the cellular stress response are regulated.  (+info)

(7/480) Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) expression is induced by low oxygen conditions found in solid tumor microenvironments. A candidate MKP for the inactivation of hypoxia-inducible stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase activity.

Pathophysiological hypoxia is an important modulator of gene expression in solid tumors and other pathologic conditions. We observed that transcriptional activation of the c-jun proto-oncogene in hypoxic tumor cells correlates with phosphorylation of the ATF2 transcription factor. This finding suggested that hypoxic signals transmitted to c-jun involve protein kinases that target AP-1 complexes (c-Jun and ATF2) that bind to its promoter region. Stress-inducible protein kinases capable of activating c-jun expression include stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (SAPK/JNK) and p38 members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) superfamily of signaling molecules. To investigate the potential role of MAPKs in the regulation of c-jun by tumor hypoxia, we focused on the activation SAPK/JNKs in SiHa human squamous carcinoma cells. Here, we describe the transient activation of SAPK/JNKs by tumor-like hypoxia, and the concurrent transcriptional activation of MKP-1, a stress-inducible member of the MAPK phosphatase (MKP) family of dual specificity protein-tyrosine phosphatases. MKP-1 antagonizes SAPK/JNK activation in response to diverse environmental stresses. Together, these findings identify MKP-1 as a hypoxia-responsive gene and suggest a critical role in the regulation of SAPK/JNK activity in the tumor microenvironment.  (+info)

(8/480) Down-regulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha expression by activating transcription factor 2 increases UVC-induced apoptosis of late-stage melanoma cells.

To identify mechanisms whereby activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) alters the radiation resistance of human melanoma cells, we examined the possible role of ATF2 in UVC-induced apoptosis. Forced expression of full-length or truncated (Delta1-195 amino acids) forms of ATF2 in LU1205, a late-stage human melanoma cell line, elevated the levels of UVC-induced apoptosis. At the same time, either truncated or full-length forms of ATF2 reduced UVC-induced activation of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) promoter and decreased expression of TNFalpha. Forced expression of c-Jun in ATF2-expressing melanoma cells restored TNFalpha expression, suggesting that both forms of ATF2 sequestered transcription factors that positively regulate TNFalpha expression in response to UV irradiation. Antagonistic antibodies to Fas, but not to TNFR1, efficiently suppressed UVC-induced apoptosis, suggesting that the Fas pathway mediates the primary apoptotic signal in melanoma cells whereas the TNFR1 pathway elicits a survival signal. Indeed, treatment of melanoma cells with TNFalpha before UVC irradiation partially suppressed UVC-induced apoptosis, further supporting the protective role of TNFalpha in UVC-treated melanoma cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that ATF2 contributes to UVC-induced apoptosis through transcriptional silencing of TNFalpha, which balances Fas-mediated cell death in melanoma.  (+info)

*  Activating transcription factor 2
... , also known as ATF2, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ATF2 gene. This gene ... Activating transcription factor 2 has been shown to interact with C-jun, Casein kinase 2, alpha 1, CREB binding protein, ... Activating transcription factor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000115966 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... Firestein R, Feuerstein N (March 1998). "Association of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) with the ubiquitin-conjugating ...
*  FAM83A
... shows decreased expression when activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) is knocked out. Since ATF2 was not predicted to ... "Suppressor role of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) in skin cancer". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105 (5): 1674-9. doi ...
*  Jun dimerization protein
It was later identified by the yeast-two hybrid system to bind to activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) to repress ATF- ... JDP2 (gene) has been shown to interact with Activating transcription factor 2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000140044 - ... "The transcription factor T-box 3 regulates colony-stimulating factor 1-dependent Jun dimerization protein 2 expression and ... The Jun dimerization protein is a member of the AP-1 family of transcription factors. JDP 2 was found by a Sos-recruitment ...
*  UBE2I
Firestein R, Feuerstein N (March 1998). "Association of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) with the ubiquitin-conjugating ... Firestein R, Feuerstein N (1998). "Association of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) with the ubiquitin-conjugating ... Sapetschnig A, Rischitor G, Braun H, Doll A, Schergaut M, Melchior F, Suske G (October 2002). "Transcription factor Sp3 is ... "Ubc9 interacts with the androgen receptor and activates receptor-dependent transcription". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (27): 19441-6. ...
*  RUVBL2
... has been shown to interact with RuvB-like 1 and Activating transcription factor 2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... a regulator of activating transcription factor 2 response to stress and DNA damage". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 21 (24): ... a regulator of activating transcription factor 2 response to stress and DNA damage". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 21 (24): ... "Control of nutrient-sensitive transcription programs by the unconventional prefoldin URI". Science. 302 (5648): 1208-12. doi: ...
*  Biliverdin reductase
... a novel regulator for induction of activating transcription factor-2 and heme oxygenase-1". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... by control of the upstream activator of insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling ... 235 (1-2): 372-81. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1996.00372.x. PMID 8631357. PDB: 1GCU​; Kikuchi A, Park SY, Miyatake H, Sun D, Sato ... 957 (2): 237-42. doi:10.1016/0167-4838(88)90278-6. PMID 3191141. Wang J, de Montellano PR (May 2003). "The binding sites on ...
*  VRK1
This protein also phosphorylates histone, casein, and the transcription factors ATF2 (activating transcription factor 2) and c- ... Valbuena A, Vega FM, Blanco S, Lazo PA (2006). "p53 downregulates its activating vaccinia-related kinase 1, forming a new ... Sevilla A, Santos CR, Vega FM, Lazo PA (2004). "Human vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) activates the ATF2 transcriptional ... 2000). "Stress-induced activation of protein kinase CK2 by direct interaction with p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase". J. ...
*  HDAC3
... suppresses MAPK11-mediated activating transcription factor-2 activation and represses TNF gene expression". J. Immunol. 173 (6 ... Yao YL, Yang WM, Seto E (September 2001). "Regulation of transcription factor YY1 by acetylation and deacetylation". Mol. Cell ... "Histone deacetylase 3 binds to and regulates the multifunctional transcription factor TFII-I". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (3): 1841-7. ... "Histone deacetylase 3 associates with and represses the transcription factor GATA-2". Blood. 98 (7): 2116-23. doi:10.1182/blood ...
*  MAPK11
This kinase is activated through its phosphorylation by MAP kinase kinases (MKKs), preferably by MKK6. Transcription factor ... suppresses MAPK11-mediated activating transcription factor-2 activation and represses TNF gene expression". J. Immunol. 173 (6 ... Deak M, Clifton AD, Lucocq LM, Alessi DR (1998). "Mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase-1 (MSK1) is directly activated ... a major pneumococcal virulence factor, involves calcium influx and depends on activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein ...
*  MAP4K4
... stimulates Map4k4 expression through TNFalpha receptor 1 signaling to c-Jun and activating transcription factor 2". The Journal ... "MicroRNA-30d induces insulin transcription factor MafA and insulin production by targeting mitogen-activated protein 4 kinase 4 ... This further leads to the increase in expression and activity of specific transcription factors that respond to a variety of ... TNF-α can elevate MAP4K4 expression using transcription factors The JNK pathway is implicated in a number of physiological ...
*  Cyclin D
The MAP kinase ERK activates the downstream transcription factors Myc, AP-1 and Fos which in turn activate the transcription of ... One of the members of the pathways, MAPK activates a transcription factor Myc, which alters transcription of genes important in ... A role for cAMP response element-binding protein and activating transcription factor-2 in pp60(v-src) signaling in breast ... resulting in free transcription factors which result in protein transcription that promotes passage through G1 phase of the ...
*  CSNK2A2
... has been shown to interact with: Activating transcription factor 2, ATF1, C-Fos, CREB binding protein, CSNK2B, FGF1, ... "Casein kinase II interacts with the bZIP domains of several transcription factors". Nucleic Acids Res. 26 (16): 3854-61. doi: ... Wang D, Westerheide SD, Hanson JL, Baldwin AS (October 2000). "Tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced phosphorylation of RelA/p65 ... Li D, Dobrowolska G, Krebs EG (June 1996). "The physical association of casein kinase 2 with nucleolin". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (26 ...
*  Epithelial-mesenchymal transition
... nuclear factor-kappaB and Activating Transcription Factor 2 have also been implicated to be involved in EMT. Wnt signaling ... Kruppel-like factor 8) can bind to the E-cadherin promoter and repress its transcription, whereas factors such as Twist, ... Many transcription factors (TFs) that can repress E-cadherin directly or indirectly can be considered as EMT-TF (EMT inducing ... A microRNA mimic to miR-655 was found to suppress EMT through the targeting of EMT inducing transcription factor ZEB1 and TGF-β ...
*  MAPK8
This kinase is activated by various cell stimuli, and targets specific transcription factors, and thus mediates immediate-early ... MAPK8 has been shown to interact with: Activating transcription factor 2, C-jun, CRK, DUSP10, DUSP1, DUSP22, GSTP1, IRS1, ... A scaffolding protein that tethers JNK/p38MAPK signaling modules and transcription factors". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 ( ... "c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases target the ubiquitination of their associated transcription factors". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (51): 32163 ...
*  FGF and mesoderm formation
MAPK can then enter into the nucleus and activate target transcription factors (2). In particular, three T box transcription ... FGF could activate Xbra expression through Ets2, a FGF target transcription factor that binds to an FGF-responsive element of ... In Xenopus, VegT activates transcription of Nodal-related genes (Xnr) genes, Activin and other mesodermal transcripts, which ... A vegetally localized T-box transcription factor in Xenopus eggs specifies mesoderm and endoderm and is essential for embryonic ...
*  NCOA6
... has been shown to interact with: ASCL2 and Activating transcription factor 2, Androgen receptor, CREB-binding protein, ... nuclear factor-kappaB, and serum response factor as novel target molecules of the cancer-amplified transcription coactivator ... nuclear factor-kappaB, and serum response factor as novel target molecules of the cancer-amplified transcription coactivator ... Lee SK, Na SY, Jung SY, Choi JE, Jhun BH, Cheong J, Meltzer PS, Lee YC, Lee JW (June 2000). "Activating protein-1, ...
*  Innate immune system
... where they induce IFN production with the presence of a particular transcription factor and activate transcription factor 2. ... inducing dimerization of transcription factors IRF3 and IRF7, which are translocated in the nucleus, ... It is now known that the MHC makeup on the surface of those cells is altered and the NK cells become activated through ... When activated, mast cells rapidly release characteristic granules, rich in histamine and heparin, along with various hormonal ...
*  EIF5B
Factors eIF1A and eIF5B interact on the ribosome along with other initiation factors and GTP to position the initiation ... The process is simpler in prokaryotes which have only three initiation factors (IF1, IF2, IF3). Two of these factors are ... Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF5B gene. Accurate initiation of ... 2007). "Position of eukaryotic initiation factor eIF5B on the 80S ribosome mapped by directed hydroxyl radical probing". EMBO J ...
*  POU3F2
POU domain, class 3, transcription factor 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POU3F2 gene. N-Oct-3 is a protein ... It is likely that CNS-specific transcription factors such as these play an important role in mammalian neurogenesis by ... Eisen T, Easty DJ, Bennett DC, Goding CR (November 1995). "The POU domain transcription factor Brn-2: elevated expression in ... Octamer transcription factor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000184486 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
*  GATA2
... a transcription factor. The GATA family of transcription factors, which contain zinc fingers in their DNA binding domain, have ... Sp1 and GATA factors are necessary for basal transcription in endothelial cells". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (25): 15320-6. doi:10.1074 ... Zhang SB, He QY, Zhao H, Gui CY, Jiang C, Qian RL (2002). "Function of GATA transcription factors in hydroxyurea-induced HEL ... Wieser R, Volz A, Vinatzer U, Gardiner K, Jäger U, Mitterbauer M, Ziegler A, Fonatsch C (2000). "Transcription factor GATA-2 ...
*  TFAP2C
Transcription factor AP-2 gamma also known as AP2-gamma is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TFAP2C gene. AP2-gamma is ... AP2-gamma activates genes that are important for placenta development and retinoic acid-mediated differentiation of the eyes, ... Mutations of this transcription factor can lead to poorly developed placenta and tissues. A mutated AP2-gamma gene is known to ... 2005). "Transcription factor AP-2gamma, a novel marker of gonocytes and seminomatous germ cell tumors". Int. J. Cancer. 115 (3 ...
*  SLC2A4RG
The encoded protein interacts with another transcription factor, myocyte enhancer factor 2, to activate transcription of this ... The protein encoded by this gene is a nuclear transcription factor involved in the activation of the solute carrier family 2 ... interaction between a transcriptional activator and myocyte enhancer factor 2A". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100 (25): 14725- ...
*  TFAP2B
2006). "Transcription factor activating enhancer-binding protein-2beta. A negative regulator of adiponectin gene expression". J ... Transcription factor AP-2 beta also known as AP2-beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TFAP2B gene. AP-2 beta is a ... "Entrez Gene: transcription factor AP-2 beta (activating enhancer binding protein 2 beta)". Tsukada S, Tanaka Y, Maegawa H, et ... 2009). "The transcription factor TFAP2B is associated with insulin resistance and adiposity in healthy adolescents". Obesity ( ...
*  Osteocalcin
... transcription factor IIA-gamma increases osteoblast-specific osteocalcin gene expression via activating transcription factor 4 ... and runt-related transcription factor 2". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 283 (9): 5542-53. doi:10.1074/jbc.M705653200. ... 396 (1-2): 66-9. doi:10.1016/j.cca.2008.07.001. PMID 18657532. Ba Y, Huang H, Yang Y, Cui L, Zhu J, Zhu C, Liu J, Zhang Y (Nov ... 27 (2): 193-200. doi:10.1159/000189204. PMID 19136823. Lumachi F, Ermani M, Camozzi V, Tombolan V, Luisetto G (Sep 2009). " ...
*  TFAP2A
"RB and c-Myc activate expression of the E-cadherin gene in epithelial cells through interaction with transcription factor AP-2 ... a cell-type-specific transcription factor that activates inducible enhancer elements". Genes & Development. 2 (12A): 1557-69. ... a cell-type-specific transcription factor that activates inducible enhancer elements". Genes & Development. 2 (12A): 1557-69. ... "Transcription factor AP-2alpha is preferentially cleaved by caspase 6 and degraded by proteasome during tumor necrosis factor ...
*  NFIX
"Entrez Gene: NFIX nuclear factor I/X (CCAAT-binding transcription factor)". Singh SK, Bhardwaj R, Wilczynska KM, Dumur CI, ... Müller K, Mermod N (2000). "The histone-interacting domain of nuclear factor I activates simian virus 40 DNA replication in ... for the human transcription factor nuclear factor I by FISH". Genomics. 28 (1): 66-73. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.1107. PMID 7590749 ... "Thyroglobulin repression of thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) gene expression is mediated by decreased DNA binding of ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
TransAM ATF-2 is a DNA-binding ELISA that quantifies the activated transcription factor using a method that is faster and more sensitive than gelshift, without radioactivity and gels.
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The crisis at VA has now reached a peak. Can President Obama seize the opportunity to initiate and catalyze real change -- meaning transforming the syste...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , ARP \ Antigens ATF3, 1-181aa, Human, E.coli, Recombinant \ 01-ATF-3 for more molecular products just contact us
The results reveal an essential survival pathway in malignant glioma, whereby activation of a RAS-mitogen-activated protein kinase or phosphoinositide-3-kinase signaling cascade leads to induction of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein-3-like-2 (CREB3L2), which directly activates ATF5 expression. ATF5, in turn, promotes survival by stimulating transcription of myeloid cell leukemia sequence-1 (MCL1), an antiapoptotic B cell leukemia-2 family member. [Nat Med ...
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Fibronectin (FN) is transactivated by human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E6 via the induction of c-Jun-ATF-2 complexes binding to the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) in the FN promoter. The present study analyzed c-Jun regulation of FN gene expression. Northern and immunoblot analyses showed that c-Jun expression was enhanced in HPV16-E6-expressing cells. However, mouse 10T1/2 cell lines overexpressing c-Jun showed an inverse correlation between the expression levels of c-Jun and those of FN. Luciferase assays indicated that the FN promoter was strongly repressed in c-Jun-overexpressing mouse 10T1/2 cells. Deletion and mutation analyses of the FN promoter revealed that repression of the FN promoter by c-Jun depends on the CRE located at -160 relative to the start site of transcription. Supershift assays of CRE-bound complexes from HPV16-E6-expressing and c-Jun-overexpressing cells suggested that the presence of ATF-2 in the complexes binding to CRE was required for the transactivation of the ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Get an answer for Calculate Kc for the system, Ni2+ + Co Ni + Co2+. at 25 C?Ni2+ (aq) + 2e === Ni (s) E = - 0.25 V Co2+ (aq) + 2e === Co (s) E = - 0.28 and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Plasmid VV209: sdChR(C138S E154A)-TS-GCaMP6f-ER in fck from Dr. Adam Cohens lab contains the insert sdChR(C138S, E154A)-TS-GCaMP6f-ER and is published in Biophys J. 2014 Oct 7;107(7):1554-63. doi: 10.1016/j.bpj.2014.08.020. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Plasmid VV228: sdChR(C138S E154A)-TS in fck from Dr. Adam Cohens lab contains the insert sdChR(C138S, E154A)-TS and is published in Biophys J. 2014 Oct 7;107(7):1554-63. doi: 10.1016/j.bpj.2014.08.020. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
El factor de transcripción activador 6, también conocido como ATF6 (de sus siglas en inglés Activating Transcription Factor 6), es una proteína codificada en humanos por el gen atf6,[1]​[2]​[3]​ implicada en respuesta a la presencia de proteínas mal plegadas. ATF6 es un factor de transcripción transmembrana del retículo endoplasmático (RE) regulado por estrés que activa la transcripción de las moléculas del RE.[4]​ La acumulación de proteínas mal plegadas en el RE resulta en la proteolisis de ATF6. La región citosólica de ATF6 se translocará al núcleo y actuará como un factor de transcripción que activará la expresión de chaperonas del RE. [5]​== Interacciones == La proteína ATF6 ha demostrado ser capaz de interaccionar con: YY1[6]​ Factor de respuesta al suero[7]​ Factor de transcripción activador Hai TW, Liu F, Coukos WJ, Green MR (diciembre de 1989). «Transcription factor ATF cDNA clones: an extensive family of leucine zipper proteins able to selectively ...
Expression of the ATF in the ECV304 cells. Immunofluorescence was performed, and the resulting cells were observed under a laser scanning confocal microscope. (
CiNii 論文 - 
 		
 		
 			
 		 	
 		 		
 		 			Decreased immediate inflammatory gene induction in activating transcription factor...  CiNii 論文 - Decreased immediate inflammatory gene induction in activating transcription factor...
Decreased immediate inflammatory gene induction in activating transcription factor-2 mutant mice * * REIMOLD Andreas M. ... Identification of the cyclin D1 gene as a target of activating transcription factor 2 in chondrocytes BEIER F. ... Association of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme hUBC9 Implication of the ... A specific member of the ATF transcription factor family can mediate transcription activation by the adenovirus E1a protein LIU ...
more infohttp://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/10008033160
Activating transcription factor 2 - Wikipedia  Activating transcription factor 2 - Wikipedia
Activating transcription factor 2, also known as ATF2, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ATF2 gene. This gene ... Activating transcription factor 2 has been shown to interact with C-jun, Casein kinase 2, alpha 1, CREB binding protein, ... Activating transcription factor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000115966 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... Firestein R, Feuerstein N (March 1998). "Association of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) with the ubiquitin-conjugating ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Activating_transcription_factor_2
Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) - Molecular Target Profile - BioCentury - BCIQ  Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) - Molecular Target Profile - BioCentury - BCIQ
Comprehensive view of all products targeting Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2). Includes lead product status, ... Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) Studies in mice suggest that ATF2 functions as... ... pathway Summary Licensing status Publication and contact information Cancer Melanoma Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) ... A team of U.S. researchers has described a new mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 ( JNK ; MAPK8 ) inhibitor that targets JNKs ...
more infohttps://bciq.biocentury.com/targets/activating_transcription_factor_2
Gentaur Molecular :GenWay \ Activating Transcription Factor-2 (ATF-2) Human - Activating transcription factor 2; cAMP response...  Gentaur Molecular :GenWay \ Activating Transcription Factor-2 (ATF-2) Human - Activating transcription factor 2; cAMP response...
Activating transcription factor 2; cAMP response element-binding protein CRE-BP1; HB16 N_A \ 10-663-45549 for more molecular ... Activating Transcription Factor-2 (ATF-2) Human - Activating transcription factor 2; cAMP response element-binding protein CRE- ... Product name : Activating Transcription Factor-2 (ATF-2) Human - Activating transcription factor 2; cAMP response element- ... Related products : Activating Transcription Factor-2 (ATF-2) Human - Activating transcription factor 2; cAMP response element- ...
more infohttp://www.antibody-antibodies.com/product1886884-search-Activating_Transcription_Factor_2_
Idea Girl Consulting: TRF 2 | TTAGGG repeat binding factor 2 | Activating transcription factor 2  Idea Girl Consulting: TRF 2 | TTAGGG repeat binding factor 2 | Activating transcription factor 2
The Calamity Girl - 2 Novels in Womens Fiction, Mystery, Romance. Young Adult Novels two of them about magic, witches, fairies ...
more infohttp://ideagirlconsulting.blogspot.com/2010/07/trf-2-ttaggg-repeat-binding-factor-2.html
Transcriptional switch by activating transcription factor 2-derived peptide sensitizes melanoma cells to apoptosis and inhibits...  Transcriptional switch by activating transcription factor 2-derived peptide sensitizes melanoma cells to apoptosis and inhibits...
Transcriptional switch by activating transcription factor 2-derived peptide sensitizes melanoma cells to apoptosis and inhibits ... Transcriptional switch by activating transcription factor 2-derived peptide sensitizes melanoma cells to apoptosis and inhibits ... cells to drug treatment can be overcome by expression of a 50-aa peptide derived from activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2( ... In contrast, TAM67, a dominant negative of the Jun family of transcription factors, or JunD RNAi attenuates sensitization of ...
more infohttps://christie.openrepository.com/handle/10541/78514
Phosphorylation of activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2) within the activation domain is a key determinant of sensitivity...  Phosphorylation of activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2) within the activation domain is a key determinant of sensitivity...
Activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2) has been implicated as a tumour suppressor in breast cancer (BC). c-JUN N-terminal ... Phosphorylation of activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2) within the activation domain is a key determinant of sensitivity ... Phosphorylation of activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2) within the activation domain is a key determinant of sensitivity ... Effects of ATF-2 loss in the oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive luminal BC cell line MCF7 were explored, as well as its role in ...
more infohttp://repository.essex.ac.uk/12730/
Activating transcription factor 6-dependent sestrin 2 induction ameliorates ER stress-mediated liver injury. | Sigma-Aldrich  Activating transcription factor 6-dependent sestrin 2 induction ameliorates ER stress-mediated liver injury. | Sigma-Aldrich
Activating transcription factor 6-dependent sestrin 2 induction ameliorates ER stress-mediated liver injury.. [Kyung Hwan Jegal ... Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) bound to unfolded protein response elements of SESN2 promoter, transactivated SESN2, ... The present study investigated the role of sestrin 2 (SESN2) on ER stress and sought to elucidate the mechanism responsible for ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/28433684
atf7ip2, activating transcription factor 7 interacting protein 2 - Creative Biogene  atf7ip2, activating transcription factor 7 interacting protein 2 - Creative Biogene
ATF7IP2; activating transcription factor 7 interacting protein 2; activating transcription factor 7-interacting protein 2; ... MBD1-containing chromatin associated factor 2; MBD1-containing chromatin-associated factor 2 ...
more infohttps://www.creative-biogene.com/symbolsearch_atf7ip2.html
Stimulation of adipogenesis in fibroblasts by PPAR gamma 2, a lipid-activated transcription factor.  - PubMed - NCBI  Stimulation of adipogenesis in fibroblasts by PPAR gamma 2, a lipid-activated transcription factor. - PubMed - NCBI
... a lipid-activated transcription factor.. Tontonoz P1, Hu E, Spiegelman BM. ... C/EBP alpha, a second transcription factor induced during adipocyte differentiation, can cooperate with PPAR gamma 2 to ... Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPAR gamma 2) is an adipocyte-specific nuclear hormone receptor that has ... Our results suggest that the physiologic role of PPAR gamma 2 is to regulate development of the adipose lineage in response to ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8001151?dopt=Abstract
IJMS | Free Full-Text | p21WAF1/Cip1 Regulation by hYSK1 Activates SP-1 Transcription Factor and Increases MMP-2 Expression...  IJMS | Free Full-Text | p21WAF1/Cip1 Regulation by hYSK1 Activates SP-1 Transcription Factor and Increases MMP-2 Expression...
Conversely, the knock-down of hYSK1 enhanced the p16INK4a promoter activity and protein expression, and diminished MMP-2 ... transcription and protein levels in hypoxic conditions as compared to control. Taken together, hYSK1 blocks the p21WAF1/Cip1 ... functions by direct interaction and inhibits the p16INK4a expression and induces MMP-2 expression by its regulations of SP-1 ... Lee, M.-H.; Kundu, J.K.; Choi, B.Y. p21WAF1/Cip1 Regulation by hYSK1 Activates SP-1 Transcription Factor and Increases MMP-2 ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/20/2/310
anti-ATF2 antibody (Activating Transcription Factor 2)</span...  anti-ATF2 antibody (Activating Transcription Factor 2)</span...
anti-Activating Transcription Factor 4 Antibodies * anti-Activating Transcription Factor 4 (Tax-Responsive Enhancer Element B67 ... anti-Activating Transcription Factor 7 Interacting Protein Antibodies * anti-Activating Transcription Factor 7 Interacting ... anti-ATF2 antibody (Activating Transcription Factor 2) ATF2 antibody (Activating Transcription Factor 2). Details for Product ... Abdel-Hafiz, Heasley, Kyriakis, Avruch, Kroll, Johnson, Hoeffler: "Activating transcription factor-2 DNA-binding activity is ...
more infohttp://www.antibodies-online.com/antibody/965614/anti-Activating+Transcription+Factor+2+ATF2+antibody/
anti-ATF2 Antikörper (Activating Transcription Factor 2)</span...  anti-ATF2 Antikörper (Activating Transcription Factor 2)</span...
anti-Activating Transcription Factor 3 Antikörper * anti-Activating Transcription Factor 4 (Tax-Responsive Enhancer Element B67 ... anti-Activating Transcription Factor 7 Interacting Protein Antikörper * anti-Activating Transcription Factor 7 Interacting ... anti-ATF2 Antikörper (Activating Transcription Factor 2) ATF2 Antikörper (Activating Transcription Factor 2). Details for ... Activating Transcription Factor 2 (ATF2) Synonyme für dieses Antigen anzeigen * CRE-BP1 ...
more infohttps://www.antikoerper-online.de/antibody/965614/anti-Activating+Transcription+Factor+2+ATF2+antibody/
TPL2 (Therapeutic Targeting Tumor Progression Locus-2)/ATF4 (Activating Transcription Factor-4)/SDF1α (Chemokine Stromal Cell...  TPL2 (Therapeutic Targeting Tumor Progression Locus-2)/ATF4 (Activating Transcription Factor-4)/SDF1α (Chemokine Stromal Cell...
Activating Transcription Factor-4)/SDF1α (Chemokine Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-α) Axis Suppresses Diabetic RetinopathyNovelty ... Activating Transcription Factor-4)/SDF1α (Chemokine Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-α) Axis Suppresses Diabetic RetinopathyNovelty ... Activating Transcription Factor-4)/SDF1α (Chemokine Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-α) Axis Suppresses Diabetic RetinopathyNovelty ... Activating Transcription Factor-4)/SDF1α (Chemokine Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-α) Axis Suppresses Diabetic RetinopathyNovelty ...
more infohttp://circres.ahajournals.org/content/121/6/e37/tab-figures-data
Association of the Genetic Polymorphisms in Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors-γ2...  Association of the Genetic Polymorphisms in Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors-γ2...
... and clinical studies related to type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The journal welcomes submissions focusing on the epidemiology, ... Transcription factor 7-like 2 gene (TCF7L2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-γ2 (PPAR-γ2) have a profound effect ... Association of the Genetic Polymorphisms in Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors-γ2 ... R. Nemr, A. Turki, A. Echtay et al., "Transcription factor-7-like 2 gene variants are strongly associated with type 2 diabetes ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2015/129695/
Interleukin-10 Induced Activating Transcription Factor 3 Transcriptional Suppression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Gene...  Interleukin-10 Induced Activating Transcription Factor 3 Transcriptional Suppression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Gene...
A cellular protein, activating transcription factor, activates transcription of multiple E1A-inducible adenovirus early ... Immunoblot assays of activating transcription factor (ATF) 3 immunoprecipitates with tyrosine specific antibodies revealed that ... Interleukin-10 Induced Activating Transcription Factor 3 Transcriptional Suppression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Gene ... Interleukin-10 Induced Activating Transcription Factor 3 Transcriptional Suppression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Gene ...
more infohttp://mcr.aacrjournals.org/content/2/7/403
Control of Pancreas and Liver Gene Expression by HNF Transcription Factors | Science  Control of Pancreas and Liver Gene Expression by HNF Transcription Factors | Science
Activating transcription factor 2 x CYP2E Cytochrome P450, IIE x CREBL2 CREB-like 2 x ... and HNF6 with other transcription factors, revealing how these factors function as master regulators of hepatocyte and islet ... No other transcription factor that we have profiled in human cells has been observed to bind more than 2.5% of the promoter ... Control of Pancreas and Liver Gene Expression by HNF Transcription Factors. By Duncan T. Odom, Nora Zizlsperger, D. Benjamin ...
more infohttps://science.sciencemag.org/content/303/5662/1378?ijkey=9b9949f32af56b2a765d1903a850664d52369e9f&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
NIOSHTIC-2  Publications Search - 20035352 - Induction of metallothionein I by arsenic via metal-activated transcription factor...  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20035352 - Induction of metallothionein I by arsenic via metal-activated transcription factor...
Metal-activated transcription factor 1 (MTF1) mediates the induction of metallothioneins I and II by zinc and stress signals. ... Metal-activated transcription factor 1 (MTF1) mediates the induction of metallothioneins I and II by zinc and stress signals. ... Induction of metallothionein I by arsenic via metal-activated transcription factor 1. Critical role of c-terminal cysteine ... The findings demonstrate a critical role of the C-terminal cysteine cluster of MTF1 in arsenic sensing and gene transcription ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20035352.html
KEGG PATHWAY: hsa04918  KEGG PATHWAY: hsa04918
ATF4; activating transcription factor 4 [KO:K04374]. 10488 CREB3; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3 [KO:K09048]. ... PRKACA; protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]. ... PRKACB; protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit beta [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]. ... PRKACG; protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit gamma [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]. ...
more infohttps://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?hsa04918
  • Immunoblot assays of activating transcription factor (ATF) 3 immunoprecipitates with tyrosine specific antibodies revealed that IL-10 stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of ATF3 to activate binding to the CREB domain and suppress MMP-2 expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Studies with stable, IL-10 transfected CPTX-1532 subclones further showed that IL-10 failed to suppress MMP-2 expression in ATF3-deficient CPTX-1532 cells, where the ATF3 mRNA was destroyed with a DNAzyme oligonucleotide targeting the 5′ region of the mRNA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Finally, reconstitution of ATF3 successfully restored the inhibitory effects of IL-10 on MMP-2 gene expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Taken together, these data demonstrate the critical role of tyrosine phosphorylated ATF3 and the CREB consensus domain in IL-10 suppression of MMP-2 gene expression in primary human prostate tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • ATF-2 phosphorylation in response to treatment of cells with tumor promoter phorbol ester has been demonstrated. (wikipedia.org)
  • We investigated the effects of interleukin (IL)-10 on MMP-2 expression in CPTX-1532 human prostate tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, MMPs are also involved in controlling the availability of active forms of cytokines and growth factors-pro-tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, insulin-like growth factor binding proteins, and FasL can be cleaved by MMPs ( 6 -9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Two of the more exhaustively studied gelatinases, the 72-kDa type IV collagenase (MMP-2) and 97-kDa type IV collagenase (MMP-9), are directly correlated with increased malignant tumor grade and appear to play important roles in tumor invasion and metastasis ( 10 , 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Immunoperoxidase labeling with MMP-2 antibodies and ELISA of tissue extracts have clearly shown that malignant prostate epithelial tumor cells and associated stromal cells strongly overexpress MMP-2 ( 4 , 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Others have shown that the selective inhibition of MMP-2 ( 13 ) and MMP-9 ( 14 ) expression can abrogate human tumor cell invasion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, in wild-type bone marrow-transplanted chimeric P2Y 1 -deficient mice with an apolipoprotein E-deficient background, a strong reduction of adhesion molecule-dependent leukocyte recruitment was observed after local injection of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β, excluding a role for the platelet or other hematopoietic cell type P2Y 1 in these events. (ahajournals.org)
  • Similarly, the in vitro adhesion of isolated mouse monocytes to tumor necrosis factor α-stimulated murine endothelial cell monolayers and their migration across the cell layers were strongly reduced in P2Y 1 -deficient compared with wild-type endothelial cells, as was the expression of the adhesion molecules P-selectin, Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1. (ahajournals.org)
  • These adhesion molecules are upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), the effects of which also include the induction of endothelial cell permeability, motility changes, and the secretion of additional cytokines. (ahajournals.org)
  • These results provide the first evidence that Cr (VI) induces antioxidant gene HO-1 important in ROS defense by activating Nrf2. (cdc.gov)
  • Stimulation of adipogenesis in fibroblasts by PPAR gamma 2, a lipid-activated transcription factor. (nih.gov)
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPAR gamma 2) is an adipocyte-specific nuclear hormone receptor that has recently been identified as a key regulator of two fat cell enhancers. (nih.gov)
  • Transcriptional activation by PPAR gamma 2 is potentiated by a variety of lipids and lipid-like compounds, including naturally occurring polyunsaturated fatty acids. (nih.gov)
  • We demonstrate here that retroviral expression of PPAR gamma 2 stimulates adipose differentiation of cultured fibroblasts. (nih.gov)
  • PPAR activators promote the differentiation of PPAR gamma 2-expressing cells in a dose-dependent manner. (nih.gov)
  • C/EBP alpha, a second transcription factor induced during adipocyte differentiation, can cooperate with PPAR gamma 2 to stimulate the adipocyte program dramatically. (nih.gov)
  • Our results suggest that the physiologic role of PPAR gamma 2 is to regulate development of the adipose lineage in response to endogenous lipid activators and that this factor may serve to link the process of adipocyte differentiation to systemic lipid metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • Transcription factor 7-like 2 gene ( TCF7L2 ) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors- γ 2 ( PPAR- γ 2 ) have a profound effect on the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and had previously been found to be associated with T2DM risk in various ppopulations. (hindawi.com)
  • We conducted a case control study to confirm the association of variants rs10885409 of TCF7L2 and Pro12Ala (rs1801282) of PPAR- γ 2 with risk of T2DM and related complications in Emirati population of Arab origin. (hindawi.com)
  • PPAR- γ 2 risk allele Pro12 frequency (0.96) was similar in the groups tested and more than 90% population was homozygous for this allele. (hindawi.com)
  • We also confirmed that Pro12Ala mutation in PPAR- γ 2 is not associated with T2DM risk in this population. (hindawi.com)
  • TCF7L2 variant rs7903146 a C-to-T (genomic position: 114748339) substitution in intron 3 and PPAR- γ 2 Pro12Ala have been most extensively studied in all major ethnic groups and were found to be more consistently associated with the risk of developing T2DM in most of populations, such as Asians, Africans, and Caucasians [ 12 , 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Several transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) α, β, and δ, are important for the process, whereas the stage-specific intracellular signal transduction regulating the onset of adipogenesis remains enigmatic. (biochemj.org)
  • Although the mechanisms regulating MMP-2 and MMP-9 gene expression are poorly understood, studies have indicated that MMP-2 activity is regulated by gene transcription, mRNA stability, proenzyme activation, and direct inhibition of enzyme activity ( 4 , 9 , 17 , 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, the interaction between hYSK1 and p21 WAF1/Cip1 led to the inhibition of SP-1 transcriptional activity, as revealed by a significant down-regulation of SP-1-mediated transactivation of p16 INK4a promoter, and accelerated MMP-2 expression. (mdpi.com)
  • Taken together, hYSK1 blocks the p21 WAF1/Cip1 functions by direct interaction and inhibits the p16 INK4a expression and induces MMP-2 expression by its regulations of SP-1 transcriptional activity under the hypoxia conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • MAPK8 ) inhibitor that targets JNK's substrate docking site-instead of its ATP binding site-to treat type 2 diabetes. (biocentury.com)
  • The present study investigated the role of sestrin 2 (SESN2) on ER stress and sought to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the hepatoprotective effect of SESN2 in vitro and in vivo. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Conversely, increased adipogenesis was observed by the inducible overexpression of p46JNK2 (JNK2-1), whereas it was not observed by that of p54JNK2 (JNK2-2), indicating a distinct role of p46JNK2. (biochemj.org)
  • Background- Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease, and extracellular nucleotides are one of the factors possibly involved in vascular inflammation. (ahajournals.org)
  • ATF-2 may mediate oncogenesis caused by mutant Ras protein and regulate maintenance of the aggressive cancer phenotype of some types of epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aberrant expression of the 72-kDa type IV collagenase [matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2] is implicated in the invasion and angiogenesis process of malignant tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The inhibitory effects of IL-10 on MMP-2 expression correlated with the suppression of MMP-2 promoter activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Gene expression is controlled by transcriptional regulatory proteins, which bind specific DNA sequences and recruit cofactors and the transcription apparatus to promoters ( 1 - 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Studies in mice indicate a role for ATF-2 in the development of nervous system and the skeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insulin resistance in muscle and liver and β -cell failure represent the core pathophysiologic defects in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Our results suggest how misregulation of HNF4α can contribute to type 2 diabetes. (sciencemag.org)
  • In situ hybridization assays have further indicated that stromal cells associated with the malignant tumors may largely be responsible for the overproduction of MMP-2/MMP-9 ( 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • To determine the mechanism of IL-10 action, we examined IL-10-dependent promoter activity with luciferase constructs from a 2-kbp promoter region of the human MMP-2 gene. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The findings demonstrate a critical role of the C-terminal cysteine cluster of MTF1 in arsenic sensing and gene transcription via arsenic-cysteine thiol interaction. (cdc.gov)