Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.
A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.
The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.
The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.
A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.
A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.
The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.
Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.
A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.
An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.
A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).
A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.
A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.
Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein oncogene protein v-ets of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
A general transcription factor that is involved in basal GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. It consists of nine subunits including ATP-DEPENDENT DNA HELICASES; CYCLIN H; and XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM GROUP D PROTEIN.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.
A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.
Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.
A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE III and aid in transcription. They include the assembly factors TFIIIA and TFIIIC and the initiation factor TFIIIB. All combine to form a preinitiation complex at the promotor that directs the binding of RNA POLYMERASE III.
A heterotetrameric transcription factor composed of two distinct proteins. Its name refers to the fact it binds to DNA sequences rich in GUANINE and ADENINE. GA-binding protein integrates a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and regulates expression of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE control, PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS, and cellular METABOLISM.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway. The activity of the protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN. Transcription factor 7-like 2 protein plays an important role in the embryogenesis of the PANCREAS and ISLET CELLS.
An ets proto-oncogene expressed primarily in adult LYMPHOID TISSUE; BRAIN; and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that was originally identified in DROSOPHILA as essential for proper gastrulation and MESODERM formation. It plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MUSCLE CELLS, and is found in a wide variety of organisms.
A tissue-specific subunit of NF-E2 transcription factor that interacts with small MAF PROTEINS to regulate gene expression. P45 NF-E2 protein is expressed primarily in MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; and MAST CELLS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. TFIIIB recruits and positions pol III over the initiation site and remains stably bound to the DNA through multiple rounds of re-initiation by RNA POLYMERASE III.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
One of the BASIC-LEUCINE ZIPPER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that is synthesized as a membrane-bound protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. In response to endoplasmic reticulum stress it translocates to the GOLGI APPARATUS. It is activated by PROTEASES and then moves to the CELL NUCLEUS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in the unfolded protein response.
A family of mammalian POU domain factors that are expressed predominately in NEURONS.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates GLOBIN gene expression and is related to TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1. NF-E2 consists of a small MAF protein subunit and a tissue-restricted 45 kDa subunit.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subfamily have been implicated in regulating the differentiation of OLIGODENDROCYTES during neural crest formation and in CHONDROGENESIS.
Ubiquitously expressed basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF transcription factors. They bind CANNTG sequences in the promoters of a variety of GENES involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Factors that form a preinitiation complex at promoters that are specifically transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE I.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in determining cell fate during embryogenesis. It forms a heterodimer with TWIST TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and ACHAETE-SCUTE GENE COMPLEX-related TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A POU domain factor that regulates expression of GROWTH HORMONE; PROLACTIN; and THYROTROPIN-BETA in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of the group have been found expressed in developing neuronal tissue, LYMPHOCYTES, and during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.

ATF-2-binding regulatory element is responsible for the Ly49A expression in murine T lymphoid line, EL-4. (1/480)

To understand the mechanism of Ly49A-expression and its significance in T-cell differentiation, we analyzed the 5'-flanking region of the Ly49A gene in a search for the Ly49A-regulatory element. Since very few known regulatory elements have been found in this region, presumably a novel regulatory sequence(s) could exist. Accordingly, we defined the 13-bp regulatory element, 5'-ATGACGAGGAGGA-3', restricted to Ly49A-expression in EL-4 cells in comparison with two other representative cell lines tested. This element, designated as EL13, proved to be previously undiscovered by homology search and is highly homologous with several virus DNAs. Using EL13 as a probe we have cloned a cDNA encoding a binding protein to EL13. Its deduced nucleotide sequence revealed that EL13-binding protein is almost identical with rat ATF-2. Although ATF-2 is known to bind to cyclic AMP responsive element (CRE), EL13 shares five out of eight nucleotides with this consensus sequence. Our results suggested that ATF-2 may play an important role via binding to EL13 for the expression of Ly49A. These data will provide useful information for understanding T-cell and NK-cell differentiation in murine immune system.  (+info)

Platelet-derived growth factor induces interleukin-6 transcription in osteoblasts through the activator protein-1 complex and activating transcription factor-2. (2/480)

Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) BB, a mitogen that stimulates bone resorption, increases the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine that induces osteoclast recruitment. The mechanisms involved in IL-6 induction by PDGF BB are poorly understood. We examined the effect of PDGF BB on IL-6 expression in cultures of osteoblasts from fetal rat calvariae (Ob cells). PDGF BB increased IL-6 mRNA and heterogeneous nuclear RNA levels, the rate of transcription, and the activity of base pairs (bp) -2906 to +20 IL-6 promoter fragments transiently transfected into Ob cells. Deletion analysis revealed two responsive regions, one containing an activator protein-1 (AP-1) site located between bp -276 and -257, and a second, less well defined, downstream of -257. Targeted mutations of a cyclic AMP-responsive element (CRE), and nuclear factor-IL-6 and nuclear factor-kappaB binding sites in a bp -257 to +20 IL-6 construct that was transfected into Ob cells, revealed that the CRE also contributed to IL-6 promoter induction by PDGF BB. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed AP-1 and CRE nuclear protein complexes that were enhanced by PDGF BB. Supershift assays revealed binding of Jun and Fos to AP-1 and CRE sequences and binding of activating transcription factor-2 to CRE. In conclusion, PDGF BB induces IL-6 transcription in osteoblasts by regulating nuclear proteins of the AP-1 complex and activating transcription factor-2.  (+info)

pp60(v-src) induction of cyclin D1 requires collaborative interactions between the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, and Jun kinase pathways. A role for cAMP response element-binding protein and activating transcription factor-2 in pp60(v-src) signaling in breast cancer cells. (3/480)

The cyclin D1 gene is overexpressed in breast tumors and encodes a regulatory subunit of cyclin-dependent kinases that phosphorylate the retinoblastoma protein. pp60(c-src) activity is frequently increased in breast tumors; however, the mechanisms governing pp60(c-src) regulation of the cell cycle in breast epithelium are poorly understood. In these studies, pp60(v-src) induced cyclin D1 protein levels and promoter activity (48-fold) in MCF7 cells. Cyclin D1-associated kinase activity and protein levels were increased in mammary tumors from murine mammary tumor virus-pp60(c-src527F) transgenic mice. Optimal induction of cyclin D1 by pp60(v-src) involved the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family. Cyclin D1 promoter activation by pp60(v-src) involved a cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)/activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2) binding site. Dominant negative mutants of CREB and ATF-2 but not c-Jun inhibited pp60(v-src) induction of cyclin D1. pp60(v-src) induction of CREB was blocked by the p38 inhibitor SB203580 or by mutation of CREB at Ser133. pp60(v-src) induction of ATF-2 was abolished by the c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor JNK-interacting protein-1 or by mutation of ATF-2 at Thr69 and Thr71. CREB and ATF-2, which bind to a common pp60(v-src) response element, are transcriptionally activated by distinct mitogen-activated protein kinases. Induction of cyclin D1 activity by pp60(v-src) may contribute to breast tumorigenesis through phosphorylation and inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein.  (+info)

ATF-2 is a common nuclear target of Smad and TAK1 pathways in transforming growth factor-beta signaling. (4/480)

Upon transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) binding to its cognate receptor, Smad3 and Smad4 form heterodimers and transduce the TGF-beta signal to the nucleus. In addition to the Smad pathway, another pathway involving a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase family of kinases, TGF-beta-activated kinase-1 (TAK1), is required for TGF-beta signaling. However, it is unknown how these pathways function together to synergistically amplify TGF-beta signaling. Here we report that the transcription factor ATF-2 (also called CRE-BP1) is bound by a hetero-oligomer of Smad3 and Smad4 upon TGF-beta stimulation. ATF-2 is one member of the ATF/CREB family that binds to the cAMP response element, and its activity is enhanced after phosphorylation by stress-activated protein kinases such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38. The binding between ATF-2 and Smad3/4 is mediated via the MH1 region of the Smad proteins and the basic leucine zipper region of ATF-2. TGF-beta signaling also induces the phosphorylation of ATF-2 via TAK1 and p38. Both of these actions are shown to be responsible for the synergistic stimulation of ATF-2 trans-activating capacity. These results indicate that ATF-2 plays a central role in TGF-beta signaling by acting as a common nuclear target of both Smad and TAK1 pathways.  (+info)

p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediates signal integration of TCR/CD28 costimulation in primary murine T cells. (5/480)

Optimal T cell activation requires two signals, one generated by TCR and another by the CD28 costimulatory receptor. In this study, we investigated the regulation of costimulation-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation in primary mouse T cells. In contrast to that reported for human Jurkat T cells, we found that p38 MAPK, but not Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), is weakly activated upon stimulation with either anti-CD3 or anti-CD28 in murine thymocytes and splenic T cells. However, p38 MAPK is activated strongly and synergistically by either CD3/CD28 coligation or PMA/Ca2+ ionophore stimulation, which mimics TCR-CD3/CD28-mediated signaling. Activation of p38 MAPK correlates closely with the stimulation of T cell proliferation. In contrast, PMA-induced JNK activation is inhibited by Ca2+ ionophore. T cell proliferation and production of IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-gamma induced by both CD3 and CD3/CD28 ligation and the nuclear expression of the c-Jun and ATF-2 proteins are each blocked by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. Our findings demonstrate that p38 MAPK 1) plays an important role in signal integration during costimulation of primary mouse T cells, 2) may be involved in the induction of c-Jun activation and augmentation of AP-1 transcriptional activity, and 3) regulates whether T cells enter a state of functional unresponsiveness.  (+info)

Ubiquitination and degradation of ATF2 are dimerization dependent. (6/480)

Ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation are key determinants of the half-lives of many transcription factors. Homo- or heterodimerization of basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors is required for their transcriptional activities. Here we show that activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) heterodimerization with specific bZIP proteins is an important determinant of the ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation of ATF2. Depletion of c-Jun as one of the ATF2 heterodimer partners from the targeting proteins decreased the efficiency of ATF2 ubiquitination in vitro, whereas the addition of exogenously purified c-Jun restored it. Similarly, overexpression of c-Jun in 293T human embryo kidney cells increased ATF2 ubiquitination in vivo and reduced its half-life in a dose-dependent manner. Mutations of ATF2 that disrupt its dimerization inhibited ATF2 ubiquitination in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, removal of residues 150 to 248, as in a constitutively active ATF2 spliced form, enhanced ATF2 dimerization and transactivation, which coincided with increased ubiquitination and decreased stability. Our findings indicate the increased sensitivity of transcriptionally active dimers of ATF2 to ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation. Based on these observations, we conclude that increased targeting of a transcriptionally active ATF2 form indicates the mechanism by which the magnitude and the duration of the cellular stress response are regulated.  (+info)

Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) expression is induced by low oxygen conditions found in solid tumor microenvironments. A candidate MKP for the inactivation of hypoxia-inducible stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase activity. (7/480)

Pathophysiological hypoxia is an important modulator of gene expression in solid tumors and other pathologic conditions. We observed that transcriptional activation of the c-jun proto-oncogene in hypoxic tumor cells correlates with phosphorylation of the ATF2 transcription factor. This finding suggested that hypoxic signals transmitted to c-jun involve protein kinases that target AP-1 complexes (c-Jun and ATF2) that bind to its promoter region. Stress-inducible protein kinases capable of activating c-jun expression include stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (SAPK/JNK) and p38 members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) superfamily of signaling molecules. To investigate the potential role of MAPKs in the regulation of c-jun by tumor hypoxia, we focused on the activation SAPK/JNKs in SiHa human squamous carcinoma cells. Here, we describe the transient activation of SAPK/JNKs by tumor-like hypoxia, and the concurrent transcriptional activation of MKP-1, a stress-inducible member of the MAPK phosphatase (MKP) family of dual specificity protein-tyrosine phosphatases. MKP-1 antagonizes SAPK/JNK activation in response to diverse environmental stresses. Together, these findings identify MKP-1 as a hypoxia-responsive gene and suggest a critical role in the regulation of SAPK/JNK activity in the tumor microenvironment.  (+info)

Down-regulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha expression by activating transcription factor 2 increases UVC-induced apoptosis of late-stage melanoma cells. (8/480)

To identify mechanisms whereby activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) alters the radiation resistance of human melanoma cells, we examined the possible role of ATF2 in UVC-induced apoptosis. Forced expression of full-length or truncated (Delta1-195 amino acids) forms of ATF2 in LU1205, a late-stage human melanoma cell line, elevated the levels of UVC-induced apoptosis. At the same time, either truncated or full-length forms of ATF2 reduced UVC-induced activation of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) promoter and decreased expression of TNFalpha. Forced expression of c-Jun in ATF2-expressing melanoma cells restored TNFalpha expression, suggesting that both forms of ATF2 sequestered transcription factors that positively regulate TNFalpha expression in response to UV irradiation. Antagonistic antibodies to Fas, but not to TNFR1, efficiently suppressed UVC-induced apoptosis, suggesting that the Fas pathway mediates the primary apoptotic signal in melanoma cells whereas the TNFR1 pathway elicits a survival signal. Indeed, treatment of melanoma cells with TNFalpha before UVC irradiation partially suppressed UVC-induced apoptosis, further supporting the protective role of TNFalpha in UVC-treated melanoma cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that ATF2 contributes to UVC-induced apoptosis through transcriptional silencing of TNFalpha, which balances Fas-mediated cell death in melanoma.  (+info)

InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
HighRider-2 include one dip tube for ATF-2 connection. Flow via the aseptic connector over the HFF to the ATF-2 SUE. The dip tube is connected via a 9,5 x 14,3 mm hose to the aseptic connector. Photo 1: Seen from left on the left side of the blue tip pH SUS the broth dip tube. Further seen the VisiWell SUW with the orange O-ring. Photo 3: Dip tube hose aseptic connector to the left.. ...
ATF-4兔多克隆抗体(ab105383)可与小鼠样本反应并经WB, IHC实验严格验证,被2篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
ATF-4兔多克隆抗体(ab28830)可与人样本反应并经ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被2篇文献引用并得到1个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
The crisis at VA has now reached a peak. Can President Obama seize the opportunity to initiate and catalyze real change -- meaning transforming the syste...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , ARP \ Antigens ATF3, 1-181aa, Human, E.coli, Recombinant \ 01-ATF-3 for more molecular products just contact us
Glial Cell Line-derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF) is a highly conserved neurotrophic factor. The recombinant form of this protein was shown to promote the survival and differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in culture, and was able to prevent apoptosis of motor neurons induced by axotomy.The protein is processed to a mature secreted form that exists as a homodimer. The mature form of the protein is a ligand for the product of the RET (rearranged during transfection) protooncogene. In addition to the transcript encoding GDNF, two additional alternative transcripts encoding distinct proteins, referred to as astrocyte-derived trophic factors, have also been described. Mutations in this gene may be associated with Hirschsprung disease.
The results reveal an essential survival pathway in malignant glioma, whereby activation of a RAS-mitogen-activated protein kinase or phosphoinositide-3-kinase signaling cascade leads to induction of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein-3-like-2 (CREB3L2), which directly activates ATF5 expression. ATF5, in turn, promotes survival by stimulating transcription of myeloid cell leukemia sequence-1 (MCL1), an antiapoptotic B cell leukemia-2 family member. [Nat Med ...
Please note: Your browser does not support the features used on Addgenes website. You may not be able to create an account or request plasmids through this website until you upgrade your browser. Learn more ...
We previously demonstrated that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce cardiomyocyte differentiation through the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase TAK1. Transcription factors Smads mediate transforming growth factor-β signaling and the ATF/CREB family transcription factor ATF-2 has recently been shown to act as a common target of the Smad and the TAK1 pathways. We here examined the role of Smads and ATF-2 in cardiomyocyte differentiation of P19CL6, a clonal derivative of murine P19 cells. Although P19CL6 efficiently differentiates into cardiomyocytes when treated with dimethyl sulfoxide, P19CL6noggin, a P19CL6 cell line constitutively overexpressing the BMP antagonist noggin, did not differentiate into cardiomyocytes. Cooverexpression of Smad1, a ligand-specific Smad, and Smad4, a common Smad, restored the ability of P19CL6noggin to differentiate into cardiomyocytes, whereas stable overexpression of Smad6, an inhibitory Smad, completely blocked differentiation of P19CL6, ...
Encontre Livros em Inglês e outros idiomas de Gastronomia e Dietas e Regimes. O maior acervo de livros em inglês e outros idiomas de gastronomia e os melhores autores você encontra aqui na Saraiva.
多种适用的ATF2ELISA试剂盒,如小鸡, 人, 小鼠等。在antibodies-online.cn对比ATF2ELISA试剂盒,以便找到您需要的产品。
Reagents, Tools and Custom Services for molecular biology, specializing in the fields of Nano-Antibody development (nAb), Cellular Reprogramming (iPSC), Genome Editing, Fluorescent Proteins, RNAi, Viral Packaging and Protein expression.
Mitochondrial dysfunction is pervasive in human pathologies such as neurodegeneration, diabetes, cancer, and pathogen infections as well as during normal aging. Cells sense and respond to mitochondrial dysfunction by activating a protective transcriptional program known as the mitochondrial unfolded …
Encontre Livros em Inglês e outros idiomas de Ciências Biológicas e Zoologia. O maior acervo de livros em inglês e outros idiomas de ciências biológicas e os melhores autores você encontra aqui na Saraiva.
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Assaypro \ ATF_uPA, anti_mouse \ 12171-05011 for more molecular products just contact us
Fibronectin (FN) is transactivated by human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E6 via the induction of c-Jun-ATF-2 complexes binding to the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) in the FN promoter. The present study analyzed c-Jun regulation of FN gene expression. Northern and immunoblot analyses showed that c-Jun expression was enhanced in HPV16-E6-expressing cells. However, mouse 10T1/2 cell lines overexpressing c-Jun showed an inverse correlation between the expression levels of c-Jun and those of FN. Luciferase assays indicated that the FN promoter was strongly repressed in c-Jun-overexpressing mouse 10T1/2 cells. Deletion and mutation analyses of the FN promoter revealed that repression of the FN promoter by c-Jun depends on the CRE located at -160 relative to the start site of transcription. Supershift assays of CRE-bound complexes from HPV16-E6-expressing and c-Jun-overexpressing cells suggested that the presence of ATF-2 in the complexes binding to CRE was required for the transactivation of the ...
Get an answer for Calculate Kc for the system, Ni2+ + Co Ni + Co2+. at 25 C?Ni2+ (aq) + 2e === Ni (s) E = - 0.25 V Co2+ (aq) + 2e === Co (s) E = - 0.28 and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Mobil ATF™ 3309 is an exceptionally high performance lubricant that meets original equipment manufacturers specifications for use in certain slip-controlled lock-up automatic transmissions.
知名学者,是中国科技论文在线为广大科研人员特别开设的信息开放共享平台,集成自然科学和工程技术方面八大领域共43个学科的学术资源。提倡学者自主入驻,通过学者主页建设进行学术推广,提供学者成果搜索、学者成果免费下载、同行在线交流等服务,辅以学者排行、荣誉学者、学者访谈、学者问答、学者推荐精品等特色板块,营造学者信息开放共享的科研环境。
Melatonin是一种由松果体制成的激素,可激活褪黑激素受体。Melatonin 在睡眠中起作用并具有重要的抗氧化和抗炎特性。Melatonin 是一种新型的选择性 ATF-6 抑制剂,可通过 COX-2 下调诱导人肝癌细胞凋亡 ...
Expression of the ATF in the ECV304 cells. Immunofluorescence was performed, and the resulting cells were observed under a laser scanning confocal microscope. (
... shows decreased expression when activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) is knocked out. Since ATF2 was not predicted to ... "Suppressor role of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) in skin cancer". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105 (5): 1674-9. ...
It was later identified by the yeast-two hybrid system to bind to activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) to repress ATF- ... JDP2 (gene) has been shown to interact with Activating transcription factor 2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000140044 - ... "The transcription factor T-box 3 regulates colony-stimulating factor 1-dependent Jun dimerization protein 2 expression and ... The Jun dimerization protein is a member of the AP-1 family of transcription factors. JDP 2 was found by a Sos-recruitment ...
Transcription factor AP-2 gamma also known as AP2-gamma is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TFAP2C gene. AP2-gamma is ... AP2-gamma activates genes that are important for placenta development and retinoic acid-mediated differentiation of the eyes, ... Mutations of this transcription factor can lead to poorly developed placenta and tissues. A mutated AP2-gamma gene is known to ... 2005). "Transcription factor AP-2gamma, a novel marker of gonocytes and seminomatous germ cell tumors". Int. J. Cancer. 115 (3 ...
... has been shown to interact with RuvB-like 1 and Activating transcription factor 2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... a regulator of activating transcription factor 2 response to stress and DNA damage". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 21 (24): ... a regulator of activating transcription factor 2 response to stress and DNA damage". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 21 (24): ... "Control of nutrient-sensitive transcription programs by the unconventional prefoldin URI". Science. 302 (5648): 1208-12. doi: ...
POU domain, class 3, transcription factor 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POU3F2 gene. N-Oct-3 is a protein ... It is likely that CNS-specific transcription factors such as these play an important role in mammalian neurogenesis by ... Eisen T, Easty DJ, Bennett DC, Goding CR (November 1995). "The POU domain transcription factor Brn-2: elevated expression in ... "Entrez Gene: POU3F2 POU domain, class 3, transcription factor 2". Mühleisen TW, Leber M, Schulze TG, Strohmaier J, Degenhardt F ...
2006). "Transcription factor activating enhancer-binding protein-2beta. A negative regulator of adiponectin gene expression". J ... Transcription factor AP-2 beta also known as AP2-beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TFAP2B gene. AP-2 beta is a ... "Entrez Gene: transcription factor AP-2 beta (activating enhancer binding protein 2 beta)". Tsukada S, Tanaka Y, Maegawa H, et ... 2009). "The transcription factor TFAP2B is associated with insulin resistance and adiposity in healthy adolescents". Obesity ( ...
... a novel regulator for induction of activating transcription factor-2 and heme oxygenase-1". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... by control of the upstream activator of insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling ... 235 (1-2): 372-81. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1996.00372.x. PMID 8631357. PDB: 1GCU​; Kikuchi A, Park SY, Miyatake H, Sun D, Sato ... 957 (2): 237-42. doi:10.1016/0167-4838(88)90278-6. PMID 3191141. Wang J, de Montellano PR (May 2003). "The binding sites on ...
Therefore, transcription factors are crucial for adipogenesis. Transcription factors, peroxis proliferator-activated receptor γ ... a lipid-activated transcription factor". Cell. 79 (7): 1147-56. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(94)90006-x. PMID 8001151. Tamori Y, ... other transcription factors function in the progression of differentiation. Adipocyte determination and differentiation factor ... C/EBPs, transcription factors, are members of the basic-leucine zipper class. cAMP, an inducer of adipogenesis, can promote ...
Factors eIF1A and eIF5B interact on the ribosome along with other initiation factors and GTP to position the initiation ... The process is simpler in bacteria which have only three initiation factors (IF1, IF2, IF3). Two of these factors are conserved ... Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF5B gene. Accurate initiation of ... 2007). "Position of eukaryotic initiation factor eIF5B on the 80S ribosome mapped by directed hydroxyl radical probing". EMBO J ...
"CUX1 transcription factor is a downstream effector of the proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2)". J. Biol. Chem. 284 (1): 36- ... Nepveu A (2001). "Role of the multifunctional CDP/Cut/Cux homeodomain transcription factor in regulating differentiation, cell ... Cux transcription factor by cyclin A-Cdk1 modulates its DNA binding activity in G(2)". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (49): 45780-90. doi: ... the alternatively spliced product of the gene encoding the CCAAT-displacement protein transcription factor, is a Golgi membrane ...
This protein also phosphorylates histone, casein, and the transcription factors ATF2 (activating transcription factor 2) and C- ... Valbuena A, Vega FM, Blanco S, Lazo PA (2006). "p53 downregulates its activating vaccinia-related kinase 1, forming a new ... Sevilla A, Santos CR, Vega FM, Lazo PA (2004). "Human vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) activates the ATF2 transcriptional ... 2000). "Stress-induced activation of protein kinase CK2 by direct interaction with p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase". J. ...
The encoded protein interacts with another transcription factor, myocyte enhancer factor 2, to activate transcription of this ... The protein encoded by this gene is a nuclear transcription factor involved in the activation of the solute carrier family 2 ... interaction between a transcriptional activator and myocyte enhancer factor 2A". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100 (25): 14725- ... 2): 348-9. doi:10.1096/fj.05-4671fje. PMID 16368714. S2CID 13881696. v t e. ...
Data from patients suggest that aberrant levels of activating transcription factor in the nucleus of melanoma cells are ... Bhoumik A, Jones N, Ronai Z (March 2004). "Transcriptional switch by activating transcription factor 2-derived peptide ... studies from mice on skin cancer tend to confirm a role for activating transcription factor-2 in cancer progression. Cancer ... An alternative reading frame mutation in this gene leads to the destabilization of p53, a transcription factor involved in ...
All three transcription factors are needed to activate the transcription of interleukin-2(IL2) gene. NFAT activation depends on ... AP-1 then acts as transcription factor. Raf is activated via the second messenger DAG, SOS, and Ras. DAG recruits among other ... and activated or released transcription factors. Based on the initial receptor triggering mechanism, the TCR belongs to the ... Transcription factors involved in T cell signalling pathway are the NFAT, NF-κB and AP1, a heterodimer of proteins Fos and Jun ...
Data from patients suggest that aberrant levels of activating transcription factor in the nucleus of melanoma cells are ... studies from mice on skin cancer tend to confirm a role for activating transcription factor-2 in cancer progression.[50][51] ... "Transcriptional switch by activating transcription factor 2-derived peptide sensitizes melanoma cells to apoptosis and inhibits ... An alternative reading frame mutation in this gene leads to the destabilization of p53, a transcription factor involved in ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor. Activating protein 2 Cheng C, Ying K, Xu M, Zhao W, Zhou Z, Huang Y ... Transcription factor AP-2 delta (activating enhancer binding protein 2 delta), also known as TFAP2D, is a human gene. ... Wang W, Xu J, Zeng L, Xie Y, Mao Y (January 2002). "Cloning and characterization of a novel human transcription factor AP-2 ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor. Activating protein 2 Tummala R, Romano RA, Fuchs E, Sinha S ( ... Transcription factor AP-2 epsilon (activating enhancer binding protein 2 epsilon), also known as TFAP2E, is a human gene. ... a fifth member of the AP-2 family". Gene. 321: 93-102. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(03)00840-0. PMID 14636996. TFAP2E+protein,+human ... December 2003). "Molecular cloning and characterization of AP-2 epsilon, ...
"RB and c-Myc activate expression of the E-cadherin gene in epithelial cells through interaction with transcription factor AP-2 ... a cell-type-specific transcription factor that activates inducible enhancer elements". Genes & Development. 2 (12A): 1557-69. ... a cell-type-specific transcription factor that activates inducible enhancer elements". Genes & Development. 2 (12A): 1557-69. ... "Transcription factor AP-2alpha is preferentially cleaved by caspase 6 and degraded by proteasome during tumor necrosis factor ...
de 2001). «Cell type-specific inhibition of the ETS transcription factor ER81 by mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated ... de 1999). «Targeting of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases to MEF2 transcription factors». Mol. Cell. Biol. (UNITED STATES) ... de 1999). «Regulation of the MEF2 family of transcription factors by p38». Mol. Cell. Biol. (UNITED STATES) 19 (1): 21-30. ISSN ... Entrez Gene: MAPK14 mitogen-activated protein kinase 14». *↑ Sayed, M; Kim S O, Salh B S, Issinger O G, Pelech S L (Jun. de ...
... suppresses MAPK11-mediated activating transcription factor-2 activation and represses TNF gene expression". J. Immunol. 173 (6 ... Yao YL, Yang WM, Seto E (September 2001). "Regulation of transcription factor YY1 by acetylation and deacetylation". Mol. Cell ... "Histone deacetylase 3 binds to and regulates the multifunctional transcription factor TFII-I". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (3): 1841-7. ... "Histone deacetylase 3 associates with and represses the transcription factor GATA-2". Blood. 98 (7): 2116-23. doi:10.1182/blood ...
This kinase is activated through its phosphorylation by MAP kinase kinases (MKKs), preferably by MKK6. Transcription factor ... suppresses MAPK11-mediated activating transcription factor-2 activation and represses TNF gene expression". J. Immunol. 173 (6 ... Deak M, Clifton AD, Lucocq LM, Alessi DR (1998). "Mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase-1 (MSK1) is directly activated ... a major pneumococcal virulence factor, involves calcium influx and depends on activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein ...
... stimulates Map4k4 expression through TNFalpha receptor 1 signaling to c-Jun and activating transcription factor 2". The Journal ... "MicroRNA-30d induces insulin transcription factor MafA and insulin production by targeting mitogen-activated protein 4 kinase 4 ... This further leads to the increase in expression and activity of specific transcription factors that respond to a variety of ... TNF-α can elevate MAP4K4 expression using transcription factors The JNK pathway is implicated in a number of physiological ...
... transcription factor IIA-gamma increases osteoblast-specific osteocalcin gene expression via activating transcription factor 4 ... and runt-related transcription factor 2". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 283 (9): 5542-53. doi:10.1074/jbc.M705653200. ... 396 (1-2): 66-9. doi:10.1016/j.cca.2008.07.001. PMID 18657532. Ba Y, Huang H, Yang Y, Cui L, Zhu J, Zhu C, et al. (November ... 65 (2): 426-34. doi:10.1016/0012-1606(78)90038-6. PMID 680371. Puchacz E, Lian JB, Stein GS, Wozney J, Huebner K, Croce C (May ...
The MAP kinase ERK activates the downstream transcription factors Myc, AP-1 and Fos which in turn activate the transcription of ... One of the members of the pathways, MAPK activates a transcription factor Myc, which alters transcription of genes important in ... A role for cAMP response element-binding protein and activating transcription factor-2 in pp60(v-src) signaling in breast ... Cyclin D dependent monophosphorylated Rb still interacts with E2F transcription factors in a way that inhibits transcription of ...
... activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1), serum response factor (SRF), and mRNA-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP) In ... "Cell type-specific inhibition of the ETS transcription factor ER81 by mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase ... Yang SH, Galanis A, Sharrocks AD (Jun 1999). "Targeting of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases to MEF2 transcription factors ... Kyriakis JM, Avruch J (Apr 2001). "Mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathways activated by stress ...
Activating transcription factor 4 upregulates this gene under metabolic stress conditions in hepatocyte cell lines. A loss of ... Salgado MC, Metón I, Anemaet IG, Baanante IV (2014). "Activating transcription factor 4 mediates up-regulation of alanine ... Glutamic--pyruvic transaminase 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPT2 gene. This gene encodes a mitochondrial ... "Entrez Gene: Glutamic--pyruvic transaminase 2". Retrieved 2018-05-07. Yang RZ, Blaileanu G, Hansen BC, Shuldiner AR, Gong DW ( ...
Bhoumik, A., Jones, N., Ronai, Z. Transcriptional switch by activating transcription factor 2-derived peptide sensitizes ... transcription factor and ubiquitin ligases) in cancer. Early in his career he developed a sensitive PCR approach to detect ... 2], "Inhibition of ATF2 activity to treat cancer", issued 2007-11-26 [3], "Compositions and methods for inhibiting growth and ... 2 April 2019). "Gut microbiota dependent anti-tumor immunity restricts melanoma growth in Rnf5-/- mice". Nature Communications ...
... has been shown to interact with: Activating transcription factor 2, ATF1, C-Fos, CREB binding protein, CSNK2B, FGF1, ... "Casein kinase II interacts with the bZIP domains of several transcription factors". Nucleic Acids Res. 26 (16): 3854-61. doi: ... Wang D, Westerheide SD, Hanson JL, Baldwin AS (October 2000). "Tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced phosphorylation of RelA/p65 ... Li D, Dobrowolska G, Krebs EG (June 1996). "The physical association of casein kinase 2 with nucleolin". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (26 ...
... nuclear factor-kappaB and Activating Transcription Factor 2 have also been implicated to be involved in EMT.[25][26][27][28] ... Kruppel-like factor 8) can bind to the E-cadherin promoter and repress its transcription, whereas factors such as Twist, ... Many transcription factors (TFs) that can repress E-cadherin directly or indirectly can be considered as EMT-TF (EMT inducing ... On the other hand, transcription factors such as grainyhead-like protein 2 homologue (GRHL2), and ETS-related transcription ...
2001). "The transcription factor GATA4 is activated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1- and 2-mediated phosphorylation ... Tremblay JJ, Viger RS (1999). "Transcription factor GATA-4 enhances Müllerian inhibiting substance gene transcription through a ... "The transcription factors GATA4 and dHAND physically interact to synergistically activate cardiac gene expression through a ... Transcription factor GATA-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GATA4 gene. This gene encodes a member of the GATA ...
Differentiation of mature B cells into plasma cells is dependent upon the transcription factors Blimp-1/PRDM1 and IRF4. ... First, the B cells have to encounter a foreign antigen, and are then required to be activated by T helper cells before they ... This is a type of safeguard to the system, almost like a two-factor authentication method. ... ISBN 0-7817-6507-2.. *^ a b c d e Walport, Mark; Murphy, Kenneth; Janeway, Charles; Travers, Paul J. (2008). Janeway's ...
transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA ... The homeobox genes encode a highly conserved family of transcription factors that play an important role in morphogenesis in ... regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • positive ... "The thyroid transcription factor-1 gene is a candidate target for regulation by Hox proteins". EMBO J. 13 (14): 3339-47. PMC ...
... β-catenin becomes a coactivator for TCF and LEF to activate Wnt genes by displacing Groucho and HDAC transcription repressors. ... Yi ZY, Feng LJ, Xiang Z, Yao H (2011). "Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 activation mediates epithelial to ... On the other hand, a lack of α-catenin can promote aberrant transcription, which can lead to cancer. As a result, it can be ... Keratinocytes engineered to not express alpha-catenin have disrupted cell adhesion and activated NF-κB. A tumor cell line with ...
2D3-regulated transcription factor MN1 stimulates vitamin D receptor-mediated transcription and inhibits osteoblastic cell ... 2007). "The MN1 oncoprotein activates transcription of the IGFBP5 promoter through a CACCC-rich consensus sequence". J. Mol. ... MN1 is a transcription coregulator that enhances or represses RAR/RXR-mediated gene transcription through interaction with RAC3 ... "The MN1 oncoprotein synergizes with coactivators RAC3 and p300 in RAR-RXR-mediated transcription". Oncogene. 22 (5): 699-709. ...
... proteins including interferon regulatory factor 3 and interferon regulatory factor 7 trigger a signalling cascade that leads to ... the signalling proteins STAT1 and STAT2 are activated and move to the cell's nucleus.[51] This triggers the expression of ... whose concentration in the host cell determines when L switches from gene transcription to genome replication. Replication of ... Retrieved 2 August 2014.. *^ a b c d e f g Goeijenbier M, van Kampen JJ, Reusken CB, Koopmans MP, van Gorp EC (November 2014). ...
SP can induce the cytokines that are capable of inducing NK-1 transcription factors.[14] ... Fiebich BL, Schleicher S, Butcher RD, Craig A, Lieb K (Nov 2000). "The neuropeptide substance P activates p38 mitogen-activated ... "Metalloproteinases and transforming growth factor-alpha mediate substance P-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation ... The molecule, which is rapidly inactivated (or at times further activated by peptidases) is rapidly released - repetitively and ...
"An essential transcription factor, SciP, enhances robustness of Caulobacter cell cycle regulation". Proceedings of the National ... Each process activated by the proteins of the cell cycle engine involve a cascade of many reactions. The longest subsystem ... in addition to many extracytoplasmic function sigma factors, providing the organism with the ability to respond to a wide range ... Its name derives from its crescent shape caused by the protein crescentin.[2] Its use as a model originated with developmental ...
The key events mediating rod versus S cone versus M cone differentiation are induced by several transcription factors, ... Each transducin then activates the enzyme cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE).. *PDE then catalyzes the hydrolysis of cGMP to ... When light activates the melanopsin signaling system, the melanopsin-containing ganglion cells discharge nerve impulses that ... This structural change causes it to activate a regulatory protein called transducin, which leads to the activation of cGMP ...
... containing factor Pax8 and the homeodomain-containing factor TTF-1 directly interact and synergistically activate transcription ... containing factor Pax8 and the homeodomain-containing factor TTF-1 directly interact and synergistically activate transcription ... Paramutation & Pax Transcription Factors. 44: 97-106. doi:10.1016/j.semcdb.2015.09.016. PMID 26410163.. ... This gene is a member of the paired box (PAX) family of transcription factors. Members of this gene family typically encode ...
transcription factor complex. • cell-cell adherens junction. • Z disc. • stress fiber. • filamentous actin. ... binds to alpha-actinin-1 and associates with actin filaments and stress fibers in activated platelets and endothelial cells.". ... "Ubiquitination-dependent cofactor exchange on LIM homeodomain transcription factors.". Nature. 416 (6876): 99-103. PMID ... transcription coactivator activity. • ربط أيون فلزي. • cadherin binding involved in cell-cell adhesion. • actin binding. • ...
... with beta-catenin and T-cell factor 4 may bypass canonical Wnt signaling to down-regulate adipogenic transcription factors". ... To further test the role of activated androgen receptors on AHN, flutamide, an antiandrogen drug that competes with ... Androgens bind to and activate androgen receptors (ARs) to mediate most of their biological effects. ... "Recruitment of the androgen receptor via serum response factor facilitates expression of a myogenic gene". The Journal of ...
RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, ligand-activated sequence-specific DNA binding. • identical protein binding. • ... transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • ATPase binding. • zinc ion binding. • transcriptional activator ... RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcriptional activator activity, RNA ... regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • cell-cell signaling. • negative regulation of gene expression. • transcription, ...
Fluorescent signal strength depends on many factors such as probe labeling efficiency, the type of probe, and the type of dye. ... In-Solution Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization and Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting for Single Cell and Population Genome ... "The lncRNA Malat1 is Dispensable for Mouse Development but Its Transcription Plays a cis-Regulatory Role in the Adult". Cell ... "Microfluidics-assisted fluorescence in situ hybridization for advantageous human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 assessment ...
regulation of epidermal growth factor-activated receptor activity. • regulation of resting membrane potential. • regulation of ... negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • proteolysis. • regulation of synaptic plasticity. • ... negative regulation of epidermal growth factor-activated receptor activity. • cell adhesion. • hematopoietic progenitor cell ... positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • heart development. • negative regulation of axonogenesis. • embryonic ...
This gene is a transcription factor that regulates the cell cycle and hence functions as a tumor suppressor. By inducing G ( ... Moreover, BaP has been found to activate a transposon, LINE1, in humans.[31] ... This process increases transcription of certain genes, notably CYP1A1, followed by increased CYP1A1 protein production.[28] ... 1996 October 18;274(5286):430-2. *^ Le Marchand, L; Hankin, JH; Pierce, LM; et al. (September 2002). "Well-done red meat, ...
Sigurdsson S, Van Komen S, Petukhova G, Sung P (Nov 2002). "Homologous DNA pairing by human recombination factors Rad51 and ... "The Rad51/RadA N-terminal domain activates nucleoprotein filament ATPase activity". Structure. 14 (6): 983-92. doi:10.1016/j. ... "DNA repair and recombination factor Rad51 is over-expressed in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma". Oncogene. 19 (23): 2791-5. doi ... doi:10.1016/s1097-2765(00)80276-2. PMID 9774970.. *^ Scully R, Chen J, Plug A, Xiao Y, Weaver D, Feunteun J, Ashley T, ...
... high levels of calcium in mitochondria elevates activity of nuclear factor kappa B NF-κB and transcription of CACNA1c and ... 272 (3 Pt 2): H1372-81. PMID 9087614.. *. Yu W, Andersson B, Worley KC, Muzny DM, Ding Y, Liu W, Ricafrente JY, Wentland MA, ... The calcium channel consists of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta and beta subunits in a 1:1:1 ratio. The S3-S4 linkers of ...
... the general transcription factors) directing the binding of the RNA polymerase to a gene's promoter.[144] However, other ... In the Halobacteria, light-activated ion pumps like bacteriorhodopsin and halorhodopsin generate ion gradients by pumping ions ... Transcription in archaea more closely resembles eukaryotic than bacterial transcription, with the archaeal RNA polymerase being ... Circular chromosomes, unique translation and transcription. Multiple, linear chromosomes, similar translation and transcription ...
... selectivity and Initiator-dependent bi-directionality of serum response factor-activated transcription". Biochimica et ... Transcription factors, TATA binding protein (TBP), and RNA polymerase II are all recruited to begin transcription. ... bind to the transcription factor II D (TFIID), initiating transcription in TATA-less promoters. The DPE has been identified in ... it only gives a low level of transcription. Other factors must stimulate the BTC to increase transcription levels.[2] One such ...
... is a transcription factor which activates histone gene transcription on chromosomes 1 and 6 of human cells. NPAT is also a ... SBF is a transcription factor that is activated in late G1 phase, when it dissociates from its repressor Whi5. This occurs when ... Histone gene transcription is controlled by multiple gene regulatory proteins such as transcription factors which bind to ... The serotonylation potentiates the binding of the general transcription factor TFIID to the TATA box.[49] ...
A scaffolding protein that tethers JNK/p38MAPK signaling modules and transcription factors". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ... "Human mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase mediates the stress-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase ... Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP2K4 gene. This gene ... It has been shown to activate MAPK8/JNK1, MAPK9/JNK2, and MAPK14/p38, but not MAPK1/ERK2 or MAPK3/ERK1. This kinase is ...
The cleaved SREBP then migrates to the nucleus and acts as a transcription factor to bind to the SRE (sterol regulatory element ... SREBP-cleavage activating protein) and Insig1. When cholesterol levels fall, Insig-1 dissociates from the SREBP-SCAP complex, ... regulation of cholesterol metabolism by proteolysis of a membrane-bound transcription factor". Cell 89: 331. doi:10.1016/S0092- ... of a number of genes to stimulate their transcription. Among the genes transcribed are the LDL receptor and HMG-CoA reductase. ...
The N terminus interacts with other cellular transcription factors in a ligand-independent manner; and, depending on these ... Not every ligand that binds to a receptor also activates that receptor. The following classes of ligands exist: *(Full) ... The main receptors in the immune system are pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), toll-like receptors (TLRs), killer activated ... Antagonists bind to receptors but do not activate them. This results in a receptor blockade, inhibiting the binding of agonists ...
... granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) - granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) - granulocytopenia ... transcription - transfusion - translation - transmission - transplacental - treatment IND - triglycerides - tuberculin skin ... lymphokine-activated killer cells (LAK) - lymphokines - lymphoma - lymphopenia - lymphoproliferative response - lysis ... host factors - HPTN - HPV - HRSA - HTLV-I - HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) - HTLV-II - ...
转录激活因子(英语:Activating transcription factor)(AATF(英语:Apoptosis-antagonizing transcription factor)、1、2、3、4、5、6、7) · AP-1(c-Fos、 ... sequence-specific enhancer binding RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity. · transcription factor binding. · zinc ion ... 第二亚族(COUP-TF(英语:Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor)(I、II)、Ear-2(英语:V-erbA-related gene)、HNF4(英语: ... GATA(英语:GATA transcription factor)(1、2、3、4、5、6) · MTA(1、2、3) · TRPS1(英语:Tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome Type
RNA polymerase II transcription coactivator activity. • transcription factor binding. • activating transcription factor binding ... positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • cell aging. • positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor ... transcription coactivator activity. • protein kinase inhibitor activity. • histone binding. • Tat protein binding. • NF-kappaB ... regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • cellular response to UV. • ribosomal large subunit export from ...
"Ca2+ influx regulates BDNF transcription by a CREB family transcription factor-dependent mechanism". Neuron. 20 (4): 709-26. ... Once activated, Fyn can bind to NR2B through its SH2 domain and mediate phosphorylation of its Tyr-1472 site.[49] Similar ... BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ANON2, BULN2, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, brain derived neurotrophic factor. ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or abrineurin,[5] is a protein[6] that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.[7][8] ...
U3 is a sequence between PPT and R, which serves as a signal that the provirus can use in transcription. R is the terminal ... Some provirus remains latent in the cell for a long period of time before it is activated by the change in cell environment. ... "Cell-to-cell transmission of retroviruses: Innate immunity and interferon-induced restriction factors". Virology. 411 (2): 251 ... While transcription was classically thought to occur only from DNA to RNA, reverse transcriptase transcribes RNA into DNA. The ...
... which are transcription factors (or are factors which activate or localize transcription factors), is transferred through the ... body pattern along the longitudinal axis of the Drosophila embryo is established by a cascade of specific transcription factor ... The initial long-range positional information of the maternal factors, ... 26: 2-9. doi:10.1274/jmor.26.2.. *^ Parker, Sybil. "Invertebrate Embryology," McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology ...
One approach used by tumors to upregulate growth and survival is through autocrine production of growth and survival factors. ... In colorectal cancer, for example, mutations in APC, axin, or β-catenin promote β-catenin stabilization and transcription of ... In addition, drugs may be developed that activate autocrine signaling in cancer cells that would not otherwise occur. For ... For example, despite widespread expression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) and EGF family ligands in non-small- ...
Activating transcription factor 2, also known as ATF2, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ATF2 gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: ATF2 activating transcription factor 2". Ozawa K, Sudo T, Soeda E, Yoshida MC, Ishii S (1991). "Assignment of the ... Activating transcription factor 2 has been shown to interact with C-jun, Casein kinase 2, alpha 1, CREB binding protein, ... Activating transcription factor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000115966 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
International biotechnology industry analysis, data and networking focused on translation, research, development, regulation, commercialization, partnering and funding.
Chromium (VI) induces antioxidant gene HO-1 by activating the CNC BZIP transcription factor NRF2.. ... Expression of a dominant negative form of Nrf2, a cap n collar basic leucine zipper transcription factor, in the cells blocks ... implicating Nrf2 as the key transcription factor in the induction. Mechanistic analysis reveals that Cr (VI) increases the ... These results provide the first evidence that Cr (VI) induces antioxidant gene HO-1 important in ROS defense by activating Nrf2 ...
Decreased immediate inflammatory gene induction in activating transcription factor-2 mutant mice * * REIMOLD Andreas M. ... Identification of the cyclin D1 gene as a target of activating transcription factor 2 in chondrocytes BEIER F. ... Association of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme hUBC9 Implication of the ... A specific member of the ATF transcription factor family can mediate transcription activation by the adenovirus E1a protein LIU ...
Activating transcription factor 6-dependent sestrin 2 induction ameliorates ER stress-mediated liver injury.. [Kyung Hwan Jegal ... Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) bound to unfolded protein response elements of SESN2 promoter, transactivated SESN2, ... The present study investigated the role of sestrin 2 (SESN2) on ER stress and sought to elucidate the mechanism responsible for ...
... a lipid-activated transcription factor.. Tontonoz P1, Hu E, Spiegelman BM. ... C/EBP alpha, a second transcription factor induced during adipocyte differentiation, can cooperate with PPAR gamma 2 to ... Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPAR gamma 2) is an adipocyte-specific nuclear hormone receptor that has ... Our results suggest that the physiologic role of PPAR gamma 2 is to regulate development of the adipose lineage in response to ...
Induction depends upon the presence of MTF-1, a transcription factor that is required for metal-induced transcription of Mt1, ... a transcription factor that is required for metal-induced transcription of Mt1, but does not require Nrf2, a tBHQ-activated CNC ... Induction of metallothionein I by phenolic antioxidants requires metal-activated transcription factor 1 (MTF-1) and zinc.. ... These findings establish that phenolic antioxidants activate Mt1 transcription by a zinc-dependent mechanism that involves MTF- ...
Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) is important for protective cell response to accumulation of unfolded and misfolded ... Association of Amino Acid Variants in the Activating Transcription Factor 6 Gene (ATF6) on 1q21-q23 With Type 2 Diabetes in ... Association of Amino Acid Variants in the Activating Transcription Factor 6 Gene (ATF6) on 1q21-q23 With Type 2 Diabetes in ... Association of Amino Acid Variants in the Activating Transcription Factor 6 Gene (ATF6) on 1q21-q23 With Type 2 Diabetes in ...
Conversely, the knock-down of hYSK1 enhanced the p16INK4a promoter activity and protein expression, and diminished MMP-2 ... transcription and protein levels in hypoxic conditions as compared to control. Taken together, hYSK1 blocks the p21WAF1/Cip1 ... functions by direct interaction and inhibits the p16INK4a expression and induces MMP-2 expression by its regulations of SP-1 ... Lee, M.-H.; Kundu, J.K.; Choi, B.Y. p21WAF1/Cip1 Regulation by hYSK1 Activates SP-1 Transcription Factor and Increases MMP-2 ...
... and clinical studies related to type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The journal welcomes submissions focusing on the epidemiology, ... Transcription factor 7-like 2 gene (TCF7L2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-γ2 (PPAR-γ2) have a profound effect ... Association of the Genetic Polymorphisms in Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors-γ2 ... R. Nemr, A. Turki, A. Echtay et al., "Transcription factor-7-like 2 gene variants are strongly associated with type 2 diabetes ...
... kinase signaling cascade and p38-kinase dependent activation of nuclear transcription factor activating transcription factor ( ... activating transcription factor. IBD. inflammatory bowel disease. MDCK. Madin-Darby canine kidney. MLCK. myosin L chain kinase ... Mechanism of IL-1β Modulation of Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Involves p38 Kinase and Activating Transcription Factor-2 ... Mechanism of IL-1β Modulation of Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Involves p38 Kinase and Activating Transcription Factor-2 ...
Activating Transcription Factor 3 Is Integral to the Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 Kinase Stress Response. Hao-Yuan Jiang, ... Distinct roles of activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-like endoplasmic ... Activating Transcription Factor 3 Is Integral to the Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 Kinase Stress Response ... Activating Transcription Factor 3 Is Integral to the Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 Kinase Stress Response ...
Activating Transcription Factor 3 Is Integral to the Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 Kinase Stress Response. Hao-Yuan Jiang, ... Activating Transcription Factor 3 Is Integral to the Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 Kinase Stress Response ... Activating Transcription Factor 3 Is Integral to the Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 Kinase Stress Response ... Activating Transcription Factor 3 Is Integral to the Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 Kinase Stress Response ...
ATF7IP2; activating transcription factor 7 interacting protein 2; activating transcription factor 7-interacting protein 2; ... MBD1-containing chromatin associated factor 2; MBD1-containing chromatin-associated factor 2 ...
ATF2 is a transcription factor that regulates expression of genes containing a cAMP response element (CRE; 5gtgacgt(a/c)(a/g)3 ... Activated ATF2 forms homodimers with other members of the ATF family or heterodimers with members of the c-Jun family of ... transcription factors. These ATF2 containing dimers bind to the the cAMP response element and with several other proteins ... ATF2 is also observed to be phosphorylated in response to stimuli which do not activate JNK or p38 MAPK, including treatment ...
Activating Transcription Factor-4)/SDF1α (Chemokine Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-α) Axis Suppresses Diabetic RetinopathyNovelty ... Activating Transcription Factor-4)/SDF1α (Chemokine Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-α) Axis Suppresses Diabetic RetinopathyNovelty ... Activating Transcription Factor-4)/SDF1α (Chemokine Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-α) Axis Suppresses Diabetic RetinopathyNovelty ... Activating Transcription Factor-4)/SDF1α (Chemokine Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-α) Axis Suppresses Diabetic RetinopathyNovelty ...
Blockade of Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells Activation Signaling Suppresses Balloon Injury-induced Neointima Formation in a ... Expression and Function of the Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells in Colon Carcinoma Cells: INVOLVEMENT IN THE REGULATION OF ... Cyclooxygenase-2 Induction by Arsenite Is through a Nuclear Factor of Activated T-cell-dependent Pathway and Plays an ... NFAT3 is specifically required for TNF-{alpha}-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and transformation of Cl41 cells ...
A cellular protein, activating transcription factor, activates transcription of multiple E1A-inducible adenovirus early ... Immunoblot assays of activating transcription factor (ATF) 3 immunoprecipitates with tyrosine specific antibodies revealed that ... Interleukin-10 Induced Activating Transcription Factor 3 Transcriptional Suppression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Gene ... Interleukin-10 Induced Activating Transcription Factor 3 Transcriptional Suppression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Gene ...
CRP2 associates with the actin cytoskeleton and interacts with transcription factors in the nucleus to mediate smooth muscle ... ATF2, a Paradigm of the Multifaceted Regulation of Transcription Factors in Biology and Disease G Watson et al. Pharmacol Res ... CRP2 associates with the actin cytoskeleton and interacts with transcription factors in the nucleus to mediate smooth muscle ... Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta), a key factor present in the vessel wall in the early phases of arterial response to ...
Activating transcription factor 2; cAMP response element-binding protein CRE-BP1; HB16 N_A \ 10-663-45549 for more molecular ... Activating Transcription Factor-2 (ATF-2) Human - Activating transcription factor 2; cAMP response element-binding protein CRE- ... Product name : Activating Transcription Factor-2 (ATF-2) Human - Activating transcription factor 2; cAMP response element- ... Related products : Activating Transcription Factor-2 (ATF-2) Human - Activating transcription factor 2; cAMP response element- ...
... that are activated by an SREBF cleavage-activating protein (SCAP). SREBF-2 1784G , C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, ... Cellular cholesterol homeostasis is controlled by the sterol-regulatory element binding transcription factors (SREBFs) ... Expression of sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor (SREBF) 2 and SREBF cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) in ... Cellular cholesterol homeostasis is controlled by the sterol-regulatory element binding transcription factors (SREBFs) that are ...
Activating Transcription Factor 7 Interacting Protein 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and ... Activating transcription factor 7-interacting protein 2. Protein Accession:. Q5U623. Secondary Accessions: *B2RNR2 ... ATF7IP2 (Activating Transcription Factor 7 Interacting Protein 2) is a Protein Coding gene. An important paralog of this gene ... cDNA FLJ57516, highly similar to Homo sapiens activating transcription factor 7 interacting protein 2 (ATF7IP2), mRNA (B4DKH3_ ...
... is recognized by several members of the CREB/ATF family of transcription factors (45), although c-Jun/activating transcription ... activating transcription factor 2;. CBP,. CREB- binding protein;. CREB,. cAMP response element binding protein;. GST,. ... For example, competition for limiting amounts of CBP/p300 by different transcription factors activated by diverse signaling ... The C terminus of p65 fused to VP16 did not activate target gene transcription when GAL4 alone or GAL4 fusions with the middle ...
Transcriptional switch by activating transcription factor 2-derived peptide sensitizes melanoma cells to apoptosis and inhibits ... Transcriptional switch by activating transcription factor 2-derived peptide sensitizes melanoma cells to apoptosis and inhibits ... cells to drug treatment can be overcome by expression of a 50-aa peptide derived from activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2( ... In contrast, TAM67, a dominant negative of the Jun family of transcription factors, or JunD RNAi attenuates sensitization of ...
ATF2 (Activating Transcription Factor 2): This gene encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the leucine zipper ... is activated by a guanine nucleotide-exchange factor and inactivated by a GTPase activating protein. Mutations in... More... ... This kinase is known to play a critical role in mitogen growth factor signal transduction. It phosphorylates and thus activates ... transcription regulation and development. This kinase is activated by various environmental stresses and proinflammatory ...
anti-Activating Transcription Factor 4 Antibodies * anti-Activating Transcription Factor 4 (Tax-Responsive Enhancer Element B67 ... anti-Activating Transcription Factor 7 Interacting Protein Antibodies * anti-Activating Transcription Factor 7 Interacting ... anti-ATF2 antibody (Activating Transcription Factor 2) ATF2 antibody (Activating Transcription Factor 2). Details for Product ... Abdel-Hafiz, Heasley, Kyriakis, Avruch, Kroll, Johnson, Hoeffler: "Activating transcription factor-2 DNA-binding activity is ...
anti-Activating Transcription Factor 3 Antikörper * anti-Activating Transcription Factor 4 (Tax-Responsive Enhancer Element B67 ... anti-Activating Transcription Factor 7 Interacting Protein Antikörper * anti-Activating Transcription Factor 7 Interacting ... anti-ATF2 Antikörper (Activating Transcription Factor 2) ATF2 Antikörper (Activating Transcription Factor 2). Details for ... Activating Transcription Factor 2 (ATF2) Synonyme für dieses Antigen anzeigen * CRE-BP1 ...
Activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2) has been implicated as a tumour suppressor in breast cancer (BC). c-JUN N-terminal ... Phosphorylation of activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2) within the activation domain is a key determinant of sensitivity ... Phosphorylation of activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2) within the activation domain is a key determinant of sensitivity ... Effects of ATF-2 loss in the oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive luminal BC cell line MCF7 were explored, as well as its role in ...
Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a stress-inducible protein, belongs to the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors ... Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a stress-inducible protein, belongs to the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors ... Article: Activating transcription factor 3 up-regulated by c-Jun NH 2-terminal kinase/c-Jun contributes to apoptosis induced by ... Activating transcription factor 3 up-regulated by c-Jun NH 2-terminal kinase/c-Jun contributes to apoptosis induced by ...
  • Activating transcription factor 2, also known as ATF2, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ATF2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • ATF2 (activating transcription factor 2) is a member of the ATF/CREB (cAMP response element binding protein) family of basic region leucine zipper proteins. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Alternative names for ATF2 include: CREB2, cAMP responsive element binding protein 2, and CRE-BP1. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The gene for human ATF2 maps to chromosome 2 (band 2q32). (creativebiomart.net)
  • Three isoforms of human ATF2 are observed, designated CRE BP-1, -2, and -3, that result from differential splicing of a single transcript. (creativebiomart.net)
  • ATF2 is also observed to be phosphorylated in response to stimuli which do not activate JNK or p38 MAPK, including treatment with insulin, epidermal growth factor, and serum. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Activated ATF2 forms homodimers with other members of the ATF family or heterodimers with members of the c-Jun family of transcription factors. (creativebiomart.net)
  • These ATF2 containing dimers bind to the the cAMP response element and with several other proteins including p300/CBP, p50/p65 NF-κB, SMAD3, SMAD4, NFAT family members, and the interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1). (creativebiomart.net)
  • Activation of ATF2 is observed in cellular responses to various types of stress and apoptotic signals, and is currently under investigation in studies of growth factor independent cell growth, cell cycle progression, differentiation, cytokine production in response to B-cell and T-cell receptor engagement, and inflammation. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Our results show for the first time in VSMC that TGFbeta activates ATF2 phosphorylation and Csrp2 gene expression via a CRE promoter element. (nih.gov)
  • Indication Target/marker/pathway Summary Licensing status Publication and contact information Cancer Melanoma Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) In vitro and mouse studies suggest that inhibiting ATF2 could help treat melanoma. (biocentury.com)
  • squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) Studies in mice suggest that ATF2 functions as. (biocentury.com)
  • In contrast, TAM67, a dominant negative of the Jun family of transcription factors, or JunD RNAi attenuates sensitization of melanoma cells expressing ATF2(50-100) to apoptosis after treatment with anisomycin, which is used as a model drug. (openrepository.com)
  • 13 Activating Transcription Factor 2 (ATF2) ELISA Kits from 6 manufacturers are available on www.antibodies-online.com. (antibodies-online.com)
  • JNK activation increased C/ebpd mRNA and protein expression through the induction and phosphorylation of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) that binds to a responsive element within the C/ebpd gene promoter region. (biochemj.org)
  • FAM83A shows decreased expression when activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) is knocked out. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2), an important transcription factor, was demonstrated as a potential target gene of miR-204. (springer.com)
  • Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) is a member of the leucine zipper family of DNA-binding proteins located on human chromosome 2q32 and was discovered by Maekawa et al. (springer.com)
  • 2015 ) protein kinase activates ATF2 (Bhoumik et al. (springer.com)
  • Suppressor role of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) in skin cancer. (springer.com)
  • Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) down-regulates hepatitis B virus X promoter activity by the competition for the activating protein 1 binding site and the formation of the ATF2-Jun heterodimer. (springer.com)
  • Los sustratos de esta quinasa incluyen diversas proteínas o factores de transcripción como ATF2 , MEF2C , MAX , el regulador del ciclo celular CDC25B y el supresor tumoral p53 , lo que sugiere un papel de esta quinasa en regulación del ciclo celular y la transcripción, así como en respuesta a estrés genotóxico. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sensitize melanomas to apoptosis and inhibit their growth and metastatic potential by compounds that mimic the activities of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2)-driven peptides. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Small-molecule chemical library consisting of 3,280 compounds was screened to identify compounds that elicit properties identified for ATF2 peptide, including ( a ) sensitization of melanoma cells to apoptosis, ( b ) inhibition of ATF2 transcriptional activity, ( c ) activation of c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK) and c-Jun transcriptional activity, and ( d ) inhibition of melanoma growth and metastasis in mouse models. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Both compounds efficiently inhibit ATF2 transcriptional activities, activate JNK, and increase c-Jun transcriptional activities. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The antiapoptotic proteins, such as Bcl2 and the transcription factors activating transcription factor (ATF) 1, AP1, and ATF2, also cooperate in conferring resistance to apoptosis and metastatic capacity on melanoma ( 24 - 26 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In earlier studies, we showed that the transcription factor ATF2 serves as a good marker and possible target for this tumor type ( 28 - 32 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This protein also phosphorylates histone, casein, and the transcription factors ATF2 (activating transcription factor 2) and c-JUN. (fishersci.com)
  • Further studies involving the transcription factors CREB and AP-1 (c-JUN, c-FOS and ATF2) demonstrated increased levels of total c-JUN and phosphorylation of c-JUN and ATF2 by db-cAMP, which were suppressed by a PKA inhibitor. (deepdyve.com)
  • Activating transcription factor-2 (ATF2) was found to be a target of the JNK signal transduction pathway. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, we show that C. elegans ATF-7, a member of the conserved cyclic AMP-responsive element binding (CREB)/activating transcription factor (ATF) family of basic-region leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors and an ortholog of mammalian ATF2/ATF7, has a pivotal role in the regulation of PMK-1-mediated innate immunity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here, using a forward genetic approach to identify downstream regulators of the C. elegans innate immune response, we have characterized the transcription factor ATF-7, a conserved member of the basic-region leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor family orthologous to mammalian ATF2. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Elevated ATF4 expression, in the absence of other signals, is sufficient for transcriptional induction via CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-activating transcription factor response elements. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Both the ATF4 and ATF6 pathways were activated by celecoxib, and suppression of ATF4 and ATF6 mRNA expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited the celecoxib-dependent up-regulation of ORP150. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Celecoxib administration led to an increase in the intracellular concentration of Ca 2+ , whereas 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane- N , N , N ′, N ′-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl ester, an intracellular Ca 2+ chelator, inhibited the up-regulation of ORP150 and the activation of the ATF4 and ATF6 pathways. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We find that expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a member of the ATF/CREB subfamily of basic-region leucine zipper (bZIP) proteins, is induced in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress or amino acid starvation by a mechanism requiring eIF2 kinases PEK (Perk or EIF2AK3) and GCN2 (EIF2AK4), respectively. (asm.org)
  • ATF3 contributes to induction of the CHOP transcriptional factor in response to amino acid starvation, and loss of ATF3 function significantly lowers stress-induced expression of GADD34, an eIF2 protein phosphatase regulatory subunit implicated in feedback control of the eIF2 kinase stress response. (asm.org)
  • Facilitating this stress response are transcriptional regulators, such as activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a member of the ATF/CREB subfamily of the basic-region leucine zipper (bZIP) family ( 26 ). (asm.org)
  • ATF3 mRNA usually increases within 2 h of stress exposure, and ATF3 protein can function as a homodimer or as a complex with members of the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) family of transcription factors, such as the apoptosis-inducing protein CHOP (also designated GADD153) that is linked to diabetes ( 13 , 22 , 24 , 26 , 27 , 50 ). (asm.org)
  • Immunoblot assays of activating transcription factor (ATF) 3 immunoprecipitates with tyrosine specific antibodies revealed that IL-10 stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of ATF3 to activate binding to the CREB domain and suppress MMP-2 expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Studies with stable, IL-10 transfected CPTX-1532 subclones further showed that IL-10 failed to suppress MMP-2 expression in ATF3-deficient CPTX-1532 cells, where the ATF3 mRNA was destroyed with a DNAzyme oligonucleotide targeting the 5′ region of the mRNA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Finally, reconstitution of ATF3 successfully restored the inhibitory effects of IL-10 on MMP-2 gene expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Taken together, these data demonstrate the critical role of tyrosine phosphorylated ATF3 and the CREB consensus domain in IL-10 suppression of MMP-2 gene expression in primary human prostate tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) was strongly induced during necrosis but not apoptosis. (elsevier.com)
  • The transcription factor ATF3 was induced strongly in the necrosis. (elsevier.com)
  • Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) belongs to the ATF/cyclic AMP responsive element binding family of transcription factors and is often described as an adaptive response gene whose activity is usually regulated by stressful stimuli. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although expressed in a number of splice variants and generally recognized as a transcriptional repressor, ATF3 has the ability to interact with a number of other transcription factors including c-Jun to form complexes which not only repress, but can also activate various genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), also known as LRF-1, LRG-21, CRG-5, and TI-241, is also upregulated in most of the neurons (Figure 1 ) as well as in Schwann cells that express c-Jun. (frontiersin.org)
  • In contrast to germinal center (GC) B-cell (GCB) DLBCL, ABC DLBCL cell lines expressed high levels of the AP-1 family members c-Jun, JunB, and JunD, which formed heterodimeric complexes with the AP-1 family members activating transcription factor (ATF) 2, ATF3, and ATF7. (bloodjournal.org)
  • CREB regulated transcription coactiv. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Targeted mutation of the CREB gene: compensation within the CREB/ATF family of transcription factors. (springer.com)
  • Dominant-negative mutant-mediated blockade of ERK1/2, JNK1, p38MAPK, or CREB suppressed 15(S)-HETE-induced IL-6 expression in VSMCs. (ahajournals.org)
  • cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) belongs to the basic leucine-zipper family of transcriptional factors that were shown to play an important role in gene regulation, particularly in response to cAMP. (ahajournals.org)
  • 15 This transcription factor is activated by phosphorylation of Ser133 residue, which is typically performed by protein kinase A. 16 However, other protein kinases such as extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), calmodulin kinase (CaMK), and protein kinase B (PKB) have also been shown to phosphorylate and activate CREB. (ahajournals.org)
  • 15,17 CREB forms homo- or heterodimers with members of either the CREB/activating transcriptional factor (ATF) or the activator protein-1 (AP-1) family of transcriptional factors. (ahajournals.org)
  • There are several MAPK pathways, including the JNK pathway, which consists of a cascade of kinases that are activated by diverse stimuli, e.g., proinflammatory cytokines (TNF and IL-1) and "stress" (heat-shock, irradiation, UV light exposure) ( 21 , 22 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The MAPKK can then phosphorylate (P) and activate MAP kinase (MAPK) on conserved threonine and tyrosine residues. (thinkmuscle.com)
  • The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. (wikipathways.org)
  • Each MAPKK, however, can be activated by more than one MAPKKK, increasing the complexity and diversity of MAPK signalling. (wikipathways.org)
  • Intervention of electroacupuncture on spinal p38 MAPK/ATF-2/VR-1 pathway in treating inflammatory pain induced by CFA in rats. (springer.com)
  • Among the genetic changes commonly found in human melanomas are mutations in protein kinases of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, indicating that signal transduction pathways have been largely modified in this tumor type ( 3 , 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Specifically, the prevalence of activating mutations in B-RAF and N-RAS has been largely associated with the activation of downstream targets-MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase and in many cases ERK-MAPK ( 5 - 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Innate immunity in Caenorhabditis elegans requires a conserved PMK-1 p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway that regulates the basal and pathogen-induced expression of immune effectors. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The switching modes of ATF-7 activity, from repressor to activator in response to activated PMK-1 p38 MAPK, are reminiscent of the mechanism of regulation mediated by the corresponding ancestral Sko1p and Hog1p proteins in the yeast response to osmotic stress. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Previously, we have established that a conserved PMK-1 p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway regulates immunity in C. elegans , establishing the conservation of key innate immune signaling pathways of mammals in the immune response of C. elegans . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • ATF-2 phosphorylation in response to treatment of cells with tumor promoter phorbol ester has been demonstrated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activation of p38 kinase caused phosphorylation and activation of p38 kinase substrate, activating transcription factor (ATF)-2. (jimmunol.org)
  • The antiserum was produced against synthesized non-phosphopeptide derived from human ATF-2 around the phosphorylation site of serine 112 or 94 (D-L-S-PP-L). (antibodies-online.com)
  • Among eukaryotic cells, phosphorylation of intracellular factors followed by specific gene transcription is a universal outcome of such signal transduction pathways, and the major elements of such pathways are similar in species as different as humans, fungi, and plants. (bmj.com)
  • Protein limitation in vivo or amino acid deprivation of cells in culture causes a signal transduction cascade consisting of activation of the kinase GCN2 (general control nonderepressible 2), phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2, and increased synthesis of activating transcription factor (ATF) 4 by a translational control mechanism. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The regulation of C/EBPβ is exerted in many manners, phosphorylation , acetylation , activation and repression via others transcription factors, oncogenic elements or chemokines , autoregulation, etc. (bionity.com)
  • Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) bound to unfolded protein response elements of SESN2 promoter, transactivated SESN2, and increased SESN2 protein expression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) is important for protective cell response to accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in endoplasmic reticulum, and disturbances of this process can contribute to β-cell apoptosis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Functionally important segments of ATF6 were sequenced in 15 diabetic and 15 nondiabetic Pimas and representative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tested for association with type 2 diabetes in 900-1,000 subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Although the associations with type 2 diabetes and plasma insulin levels are marginal and their functional consequences are yet unknown, all three amino acid substitutions are located in a functionally important part of ATF6. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A major mediator of transcriptional induction of endoplasmic reticulum chaperones by endoplasmic reticulum stress is the basic leucine zipper protein-activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The ATF6 gene is located on human chromosome 1q21-q23, a region linked to type 2 diabetes in Pima Indians of Arizona, Caucasians, and Chinese populations ( 4 , 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) sequence polymorphisms in type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetic traits. (cdc.gov)
  • Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) is located within the region of linkage to type 2 diabetes on chromosome 1q21-q23 and is a key activator of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. (cdc.gov)
  • ATF6 does not appear to play a major role in type 2 diabetes, but further work is required to identify the cause of the allelic expression imbalance. (cdc.gov)
  • CONTEXT: Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) is critical for initiation and full activation of the unfolded protein response. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • An association between genetic variation in ATF6 and type 2 diabetes (DM2) was recently reported in Pima Indians. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • Cohort 2 (n = 798) consisted of patients with DM2, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose, and normoglycemic control subjects, and was used to investigate ATF6 polymorphisms for their contribution to disturbed glucose homeostasis and DM2. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • DREAM-related neuroprotection was linked to an interaction between DREAM and the unfolded protein response (UPR) sensor activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). (jci.org)
  • ATF-2 is normally activated in response to signals that converge on stress-activated protein kinases p38 and JNK. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this report, we explore the role of a family of protein kinases that phosphorylate eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) in coordinating stress gene responses. (asm.org)
  • We have been interested in the early events of stress responses involving a family of protein kinases that phosphorylate the α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2). (asm.org)
  • Nearly 80 proteins bearing the O -GlcNAc group have been identified to date, including transcription factors, cytoskeletal proteins, protein kinases, and nuclear pore proteins ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • We have shown that C5b-9 activates protein kinases, such as protein kinase C, as well as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/stress-activated protein kinase. (jimmunol.org)
  • Induction depends upon the presence of MTF-1, a transcription factor that is required for metal-induced transcription of Mt1, but does not require Nrf2, a tBHQ-activated CNC bZip protein that is responsible for regulating genes encoding phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes. (cdc.gov)
  • These ATF-containing protein complexes recruit RNA Pol II, and enhance the transcription of the responsive genes. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The pRb inhibits transcription of genes involved in growth control (reviewed in ref. 3) and can regulate transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) gene expression. (scripps.edu)
  • A transcription factor is a protein that attaches (binds) to specific regions of DNA and helps control the activity of particular genes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily that heterodimerizes with the retinoid X receptor and functions as a transcriptional regulator of genes linked to lipid metabolism and energy balance. (ahajournals.org)
  • Transcriptional activator which regulates the transcription of various genes, including those involved in anti-apoptosis, cell growth, and DNA damage response. (xenbase.org)
  • The nuclear receptor and ligand complexes can then bind directly to DNA and activate the transcription of genes involved in a broad spectrum of physiological processes, ranging from development and differentiation to metabolism ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • 2 min 3 sec) Dr. Walsh is an HHMI investigator whose research focuses on understanding the genes involved in the development and function of the human brain. (hhmi.org)
  • A hallmark of the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the activated B-cell (ABC) type, a molecular subtype characterized by adverse outcome, is constitutive activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which controls expression of genes promoting cellular survival and proliferation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • These can be present alone or in combination with activating mutations in genes encoding the Toll-like receptor (TLR) downstream signaling protein MyD88 7 and inactivation and/or deletion of the gene encoding A20, a negative regulator of the NF-κB pathway. (bloodjournal.org)
  • To date, XSE activity has been ascribed to four genes defined by mutations and to a 2-MU interval on X (called region 1) defined by chromosomal duplications and deficiencies. (genetics.org)
  • Constitutively activated STAT3 is oncogenic, presumably as a consequence of the genes that it differentially regulates. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Expression of a dominant negative form of Nrf2, a cap 'n' collar basic leucine zipper transcription factor, in the cells blocks the induction by Cr (VI), implicating Nrf2 as the key transcription factor in the induction. (cdc.gov)
  • This kinase preferentially activates MAPK8/JNK kinase, and functions as a positive regulator of JNK signaling pathway. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • 2002) Chemoprevention through the Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathway by phase 2 enzyme inducers. (nature.com)
  • The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase intracellular signaling pathway (adopted from Ref. 74). (thinkmuscle.com)
  • A simplified diagram of one intracellular signaling pathway associated with tyrosine kinase activity of the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR1). (thinkmuscle.com)
  • CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (or C/EBPs) are a family of transcription factors that are composed of six members C/EBP α to C/EBP ζ. (bionity.com)
  • The discovery of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family of transcription factors has revealed the mechanism of the strong link between lipid/glucose availability and long-term metabolic adaptation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Stimulation of adipogenesis in fibroblasts by PPAR gamma 2, a lipid-activated transcription factor. (nih.gov)
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPAR gamma 2) is an adipocyte-specific nuclear hormone receptor that has recently been identified as a key regulator of two fat cell enhancers. (nih.gov)
  • Transcriptional activation by PPAR gamma 2 is potentiated by a variety of lipids and lipid-like compounds, including naturally occurring polyunsaturated fatty acids. (nih.gov)
  • We demonstrate here that retroviral expression of PPAR gamma 2 stimulates adipose differentiation of cultured fibroblasts. (nih.gov)
  • PPAR activators promote the differentiation of PPAR gamma 2-expressing cells in a dose-dependent manner. (nih.gov)
  • C/EBP alpha, a second transcription factor induced during adipocyte differentiation, can cooperate with PPAR gamma 2 to stimulate the adipocyte program dramatically. (nih.gov)
  • Our results suggest that the physiologic role of PPAR gamma 2 is to regulate development of the adipose lineage in response to endogenous lipid activators and that this factor may serve to link the process of adipocyte differentiation to systemic lipid metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • Transcription factor 7-like 2 gene ( TCF7L2 ) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors- γ 2 ( PPAR- γ 2 ) have a profound effect on the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and had previously been found to be associated with T2DM risk in various ppopulations. (hindawi.com)
  • We conducted a case control study to confirm the association of variants rs10885409 of TCF7L2 and Pro12Ala (rs1801282) of PPAR- γ 2 with risk of T2DM and related complications in Emirati population of Arab origin. (hindawi.com)
  • Genotyping for rs10885409 ( TCF7L2 ) and rs1801282 ( PPAR- γ 2 P12A ) variants was accomplished with a TaqMan assay. (hindawi.com)
  • PPAR- γ 2 risk allele Pro12 frequency (0.96) was similar in the groups tested and more than 90% population was homozygous for this allele. (hindawi.com)
  • We also confirmed that Pro12Ala mutation in PPAR- γ 2 is not associated with T2DM risk in this population. (hindawi.com)
  • TCF7L2 variant rs7903146 a C-to-T (genomic position: 114748339) substitution in intron 3 and PPAR- γ 2 Pro12Ala have been most extensively studied in all major ethnic groups and were found to be more consistently associated with the risk of developing T2DM in most of populations, such as Asians, Africans, and Caucasians [ 12 , 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • One of the main regulators of gene expression in fat is the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ ), which is a fatty acid- and eicosanoid-dependent nuclear receptor that plays key roles in the development and maintenance of the adipose tissue. (nature.com)
  • Furthermore, synthetic PPAR γ agonists are therapeutic agents used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. (nature.com)
  • Abstract -The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ ( PPARγ ) gene has been implicated in morbid obesity and is important to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 2 3 PPARγ expression is highest in adipose tissue but is detectable at lower levels in other tissues (eg, kidney and liver). (ahajournals.org)
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is considered to be a ligand-activated nuclear receptor with essential roles in adipogenesis, glucose and lipid homeostasis, and inflammatory responses. (sciencemag.org)
  • For example, the identification of thiazolidinediones (TZDs), a group of antidiabetic drugs, as ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) has linked this receptor to insulin resistance and glucose homeostasis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Similar to the activation of other nuclear receptors, PPARγ activation depends on the conformation of its C-terminal activation function-2 (AF-2) helix (the red helix in Fig. 1B ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Our studies - which explore the problems of fat cell development, control of metabolic rates, and the pathways of glucose and lipid metabolism - have applications to the development of new therapies for diabetes, obesity, and muscular diseases.Regulation of fat cell differentiation.In 1994, our group identified the master regulator of fat development: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma), a nuclear receptor. (dana-farber.org)
  • Since then, a major focus of our group has been to understand the pathways that control PPAR-gamma function, its ligands and coactivators, as well as other transcription factors that modify its function. (dana-farber.org)
  • 1,1-Bis(3′-indolyl)-1-( p-t -butylphenyl)methane (DIM-C-pPhtBu) is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist, and treatment of SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells with this compound (5 μmol/L) inhibits cell proliferation, whereas up to 15 μmol/L rosiglitazone had no effect on cell growth. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are ligand-activated transcription factors and are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily, which includes steroid hormone, thyroid hormone, vitamin D, and retinoic acid receptors and orphan receptors ( 18 - 20 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Several transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) α, β, and δ, are important for the process, whereas the stage-specific intracellular signal transduction regulating the onset of adipogenesis remains enigmatic. (biochemj.org)
  • Background- Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease, and extracellular nucleotides are one of the factors possibly involved in vascular inflammation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Among the various factors involved in all these processes, extracellular nucleotides and their receptors have been proposed to play a role. (ahajournals.org)
  • A mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK)-dependent transcriptional program controls activation of the early growth response 1 (EGR1) gene during amino acid limitation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Physical exercise and muscle contraction activate the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and p38 signaling cascades in rodent and human skeletal muscle. (thinkmuscle.com)
  • Mammals express at least four distinctly regulated groups of MAPKs, extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK)-1/2, Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNK1/2/3), p38 proteins (p38alpha/beta/gamma/delta) and ERK5, that are activated by specific MAPKKs: MEK1/2 for ERK1/2, MKK3/6 for the p38, MKK4/7 (JNKK1/2) for the JNKs, and MEK5 for ERK5. (wikipathways.org)
  • We investigated the effects of interleukin (IL)-10 on MMP-2 expression in CPTX-1532 human prostate tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, MMPs are also involved in controlling the availability of active forms of cytokines and growth factors-pro-tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, insulin-like growth factor binding proteins, and FasL can be cleaved by MMPs ( 6 -9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Two of the more exhaustively studied gelatinases, the 72-kDa type IV collagenase (MMP-2) and 97-kDa type IV collagenase (MMP-9), are directly correlated with increased malignant tumor grade and appear to play important roles in tumor invasion and metastasis ( 10 , 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Immunoperoxidase labeling with MMP-2 antibodies and ELISA of tissue extracts have clearly shown that malignant prostate epithelial tumor cells and associated stromal cells strongly overexpress MMP-2 ( 4 , 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Others have shown that the selective inhibition of MMP-2 ( 13 ) and MMP-9 ( 14 ) expression can abrogate human tumor cell invasion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, in wild-type bone marrow-transplanted chimeric P2Y 1 -deficient mice with an apolipoprotein E-deficient background, a strong reduction of adhesion molecule-dependent leukocyte recruitment was observed after local injection of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β, excluding a role for the platelet or other hematopoietic cell type P2Y 1 in these events. (ahajournals.org)
  • Similarly, the in vitro adhesion of isolated mouse monocytes to tumor necrosis factor α-stimulated murine endothelial cell monolayers and their migration across the cell layers were strongly reduced in P2Y 1 -deficient compared with wild-type endothelial cells, as was the expression of the adhesion molecules P-selectin, Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1. (ahajournals.org)
  • These adhesion molecules are upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), the effects of which also include the induction of endothelial cell permeability, motility changes, and the secretion of additional cytokines. (ahajournals.org)
  • Patient outcome after tumor resection can be presumed to depend on a complex sum of patient and tumor characteristics, some of which may be strongly determined by tumor and germline genotype ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Engagement of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor 1 leads to ATF-2- and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent TNF-alpha gene expression. (springer.com)
  • Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor that is aberrantly activated in many cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This gene encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the leucine zipper family of DNA-binding proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • A second class of proteins important in the initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II are the coactivators (i.e., proteins that bridge the transcriptional activators and the components of the basal transcriptional apparatus). (pnas.org)
  • The encoded protein is activated by autophosphorylation and requires magnesium as a cofactor in phosphorylating other proteins. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The promoter element responsible for pRb-mediated transcriptional regulation is a binding site for ATF proteins, an extensive transcription factor family. (scripps.edu)
  • Gene expression is controlled by transcriptional regulatory proteins, which bind specific DNA sequences and recruit cofactors and the transcription apparatus to promoters ( 1 - 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Transcription factor AP-2β is one of a group of related proteins called AP-2 transcription factors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The covalent addition of phosphate, acetate, carbohydrate, and other chemical groups extends the capabilities of proteins and provides a selective and temporal means of controlling protein function ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Proteins containing this domain are transcription factors. (genenames.org)
  • Proteins whose SUMOylation changed without concomitant change in abundance were predominantly transcriptions factors. (mcponline.org)
  • Transcriptional switch by activating transcription factor 2-derived peptide sensitizes melanoma cells to apoptosis and inhibits their tumorigenicity. (openrepository.com)
  • Hilger-Eversheim K, Moser M, Schorle H, Buettner R. Regulatory roles of AP-2 transcription factors in vertebrate development, apoptosis and cell-cycle control. (medlineplus.gov)
  • MicroRNA-204 targets JAK2 in breast cancer and induces cell apoptosis through the STAT3/BCl-2/survivin pathway. (springer.com)
  • In addition, DIM-C-pPhtBu induced CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein through both ER stress and c- jun NH 2 -terminal kinase-dependent pathways, and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein activated death receptor 5 and the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Activated Akt phosphorylates and inactivates GSK-3β to inhibit cell apoptosis ( 15 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Clones overexpressing ORP150 were less susceptible to celecoxib-induced, but not staurosporine-induced, apoptosis and displayed less up-regulation of C/EBP homologous transcription factor (CHOP), a transcription factor with apoptosis-inducing activity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These mutations alter the structure of transcription factor AP-2β. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Family history of ovarian cancer is an important risk factor ( 6 ), and ∼10% of all epithelial ovarian cancers have been linked to germ-line mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 , which are also genetic risk factors for breast cancer ( 7 - 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Chromium (VI) induces antioxidant gene HO-1 by activating the CNC BZIP transcription factor NRF2. (cdc.gov)
  • These results provide the first evidence that Cr (VI) induces antioxidant gene HO-1 important in ROS defense by activating Nrf2. (cdc.gov)
  • Figure 2: A simplified diagram of the mechanisms that can activate the transcription factor, Nrf2. (nature.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the dual specificity protein kinase family, which acts as a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • It phosphorylates and thus activates MAPK1/ERK2 and MAPK2/ERK3. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Activated MAP kinase phosphorylates numerous substrates, resulting in various biological effects. (thinkmuscle.com)
  • Activated AMPK phosphorylates various known and unknown targets and induces multiple cellular responses. (thinkmuscle.com)
  • Conversely, the knock-down of hYSK1 enhanced the p16 INK4a promoter activity and protein expression, and diminished MMP-2 transcription and protein levels in hypoxic conditions as compared to control. (mdpi.com)
  • Small interfering RNA induced silencing of ATF-2, or mutation of the ATF-2 binding motif prevented the activation of MLCK promoter and MLCK mRNA transcription. (jimmunol.org)
  • Although the mechanisms regulating MMP-2 and MMP-9 gene expression are poorly understood, studies have indicated that MMP-2 activity is regulated by gene transcription, mRNA stability, proenzyme activation, and direct inhibition of enzyme activity ( 4 , 9 , 17 , 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This kinase is known to play a critical role in mitogen growth factor signal transduction. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • One of the best studied signalling routes is the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase signal transduction pathway which plays a crucial role in many aspects of immune mediated inflammatory responses. (bmj.com)
  • ATF-2 may mediate oncogenesis caused by mutant Ras protein and regulate maintenance of the aggressive cancer phenotype of some types of epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum kinase-deficient mice ( 1 ) or of Akita mice with Cys96Tyr mutation in the insulin 2 gene ( 2 ) indicated that β-cells are excessively vulnerable to endoplasmic reticulum stress, which predisposes these strains to the development of diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In situ hybridization assays have further indicated that stromal cells associated with the malignant tumors may largely be responsible for the overproduction of MMP-2/MMP-9 ( 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Visfatin was originally identified as a growth factor for immature B cells, and recently demonstrated to bind insulin receptor. (nih.gov)
  • Disorganized endovascular angiogenesis results from proliferation of phenotypically abnormal cells due to 1) phagocytosis of apoptotic monolayer endothelial cells by neighboring endothelial cells 2) activation of stem cell-like endothelial cells or 3) attachment of bone-marrow derived "repair cells" to the injured endothelium. (nih.gov)
  • Growth factors released by megakaryocytes and mast cells may contribute to the angiogenic growth and T and B-lymphocytes may reflect a local immune response. (nih.gov)
  • The actions of complement are, in part, due to insertion of the C5b-9 membrane attack complex into plasma membranes of nucleated cells, which may lead to sublethal cell injury or lysis ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Activating transcription factor-2 in survival mechanisms in head and neck carcinoma cells. (springer.com)
  • Upregulation of COX-2/PGE2 by ET-1 mediated through Ca 2+ -dependent signals in mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells. (springer.com)
  • This method applied to adipocyte-derived stem cells (ADSCs) amplified under various conditions highlights an increased expression of immunoproteasome when this type of cell is primed with IFNγ or amplified in a 20% O 2 environment. (mcponline.org)
  • 2 min 18 sec) Human embryonic development depends on stem cells. (hhmi.org)
  • Various growth factors cause these cells to develop into a variety of differentiated cells, such as muscle or nerve cells. (hhmi.org)
  • The effect of cAMP on expression and activity of GST and MRP2 was evaluated in Caco-2 cells, a model of intestinal epithelium. (deepdyve.com)
  • In silico analysis together with experiments consisting of treatment with db-cAMP of Caco-2 cells transfected with a reporter construct containing CRE and AP-1 sites evidenced participation of these sites in MRP2 upregulation. (deepdyve.com)
  • We conclude that cAMP induces GSTα and MRP2 expression and activity in Caco-2 cells via the PKA pathway, thus regulating detoxification of specific xenobiotics. (deepdyve.com)
  • MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Group 2: the examination of mechanisms of signaling by Met, (the HGF/SF receptor), ErbB family members and other receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) in epithelial tumors. (yale.edu)
  • In these studies, the in vitro intestinal epithelial model system (Caco-2 monolayers) was used to delineate the cellular and molecular mechanisms, and a complementary in vivo mouse model system (intestinal perfusion) was used to assess the in vivo relevance of the in vitro findings. (jimmunol.org)
  • Cellular cholesterol homeostasis is controlled by the sterol-regulatory element binding transcription factors (SREBFs) that are activated by an SREBF cleavage-activating protein (SCAP). (cdc.gov)
  • Our results reveal a new mechanism by which pRb constrains cellular proliferation: by activating expression of the inhibitory growth factor, TGF-beta 2. (scripps.edu)
  • Equine herpesvirus-2 E10 gene product, but not its cellular homologue, activates NF-kappaB transcription factor and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. (unil.ch)
  • His research focuses on cell differentation, cellular metabolism, and genetic factors involved in obesity and diabetes. (dana-farber.org)
  • The 2010 implementation of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Staging System revision ( 3 ) therefore includes no novel molecular prognostic factors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • and 2) the molecular analysis of growth factor receptors and signaling. (yale.edu)
  • sheets lead to remarkable proliferation and osteogenic differentiation by runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) activation, a key transcription factor associated with osteoblast differentiation. (eurekalert.org)
  • Moreover, the interaction between hYSK1 and p21 WAF1/Cip1 led to the inhibition of SP-1 transcriptional activity, as revealed by a significant down-regulation of SP-1-mediated transactivation of p16 INK4a promoter, and accelerated MMP-2 expression. (mdpi.com)
  • In conclusion, these studies show that the IL-1β-induced increase in intestinal TJ permeability in vitro and in vivo was regulated by p38 kinase activation of ATF-2 and by ATF-2 regulation of MLCK gene activity. (jimmunol.org)
  • Recruiter that couples transcriptional factors to general transcription apparatus and thereby modulates transcription regulation and chromatin formation. (genecards.org)
  • Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) encompasses an important family of inducible transcriptional activators, critical in the regulation of gene expression in response to injury and inflammatory stimuli. (pnas.org)
  • 2003) Importance of phase 2 gene regulation in protection against electrophile and reactive oxygen toxicity and carcinogenesis. (nature.com)
  • Activating transcription factor 4 mediates up-regulation of alanine aminotransferase 2 gene expression under metabolic stress. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Heterodimerization of c-Jun with ATF-2 and c-Fos is required for positive and negative regulation of the human urokinase enhancer. (springer.com)
  • Our laboratory focuses on the regulation of energy homeostasis in mammals, primarily at the level of gene transcription. (dana-farber.org)
  • Up-regulation of protein kinase C and c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK) has also been observed in melanoma ( 14 - 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • These results suggest that these Ca 2+ -activated pathways are involved in the celecoxib-mediated up-regulation of ORP150. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We confirmed that UPR and ERO pathways are activated in these models. (ufl.edu)
  • Your search returned 13 activating transcription factor 6 beta ELISA ELISA Kit across 3 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • As for the transcription factors involved in early adipogenesis, JNK inactivation significantly inhibited the induction of C/ebpd , but not C/ebpb , during the initial stage of adipogenic differentiation. (biochemj.org)
  • In mammalian species, these ancient regulatory circuits maintain the balanced gene transcription necessary for correct cell growth, differentiation, and death. (bmj.com)
  • Moreover, the Rux2 (Runt-related transcription factor 2), a key factor in osteoblast differentiation was also activated. (eurekalert.org)
  • Insulin resistance in muscle and liver and β -cell failure represent the core pathophysiologic defects in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Failure to correlate the blood sugar concentration to an appropriate metabolic signal disrupts the function of the β-cell as a controller of glucose homeostasis and may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. (dissertations.se)
  • MAPK8 ) inhibitor that targets JNK's substrate docking site-instead of its ATP binding site-to treat type 2 diabetes. (biocentury.com)
  • Much less, however, is known about the role of the transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) in ABC DLBCL. (bloodjournal.org)
  • This kinase is activated by various environmental stresses and proinflammatory cytokines. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The activated ATF-2 translocated to the nucleus where it attached to its binding motif on the myosin L chain kinase (MLCK) promoter region, leading to the activation of MLCK promoter activity and gene transcription. (jimmunol.org)
  • The inhibitory effects of IL-10 on MMP-2 expression correlated with the suppression of MMP-2 promoter activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To determine the mechanism of IL-10 action, we examined IL-10-dependent promoter activity with luciferase constructs from a 2-kbp promoter region of the human MMP-2 gene. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The human TGF-beta 2 promoter contains multiple elements including an ATF site, which is essential for basal promoter activity. (scripps.edu)
  • Possible mechanism of activation of ERK1/2 and AP-1 in skeletal muscles. (thinkmuscle.com)
  • Schematic representation of the potential mechanism of activation of ERK1/2 and AP-1 transcription factor in response to mechanically loading of skeletal muscles either axially or transversely as supported by the data. (thinkmuscle.com)
  • Despite activation of ERK1/2 by either form of mechanical stress, the MEK1/2, PI3K, and PKC are involved in the activation of ERK1/2 in response to axial mechanical stress whereas PKA is involved only in response to applied transverse stress. (thinkmuscle.com)
  • For example, activation of ERK1/2 by growth factors depends on the MAPKKK c-Raf, but other MAPKKKs may activate ERK1/2 in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. (wikipathways.org)
  • white arrowheads, nonphosphorylated ERK1/2 loading control. (jci.org)
  • The DREAM-specific band (black arrowhead) was scanned, and intensity ratio vs. loading control (nonphosphorylated Erk1/2, white arrowhead) is shown (right). (jci.org)
  • Activating transcription factor 6-dependent sestrin 2 induction ameliorates ER stress-mediated liver injury. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Induction of metallothionein I by phenolic antioxidants requires metal-activated transcription factor 1 (MTF-1) and zinc. (cdc.gov)
  • This domain is involved in dimerization and DNA binding like other transcription factors of the leucine zipper family like c-Fos and Jun. (bionity.com)
  • Biological control via gene transcription was thought to occur mainly through changes in amounts or activities of transcription factors. (dana-farber.org)
  • In the present study, we identify CBP and p300 as coactivators of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) component p65 (RelA). (pnas.org)
  • 2 The ABC subtype of DLBCL is characterized by adverse prognosis and constitutive activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). (bloodjournal.org)