Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.
A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.
The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.
The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.
A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.
A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.
The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.
Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.
A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.
An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.
A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).
A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.
A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.
Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein oncogene protein v-ets of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
A general transcription factor that is involved in basal GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. It consists of nine subunits including ATP-DEPENDENT DNA HELICASES; CYCLIN H; and XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM GROUP D PROTEIN.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.
A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.
Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.
A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE III and aid in transcription. They include the assembly factors TFIIIA and TFIIIC and the initiation factor TFIIIB. All combine to form a preinitiation complex at the promotor that directs the binding of RNA POLYMERASE III.
A heterotetrameric transcription factor composed of two distinct proteins. Its name refers to the fact it binds to DNA sequences rich in GUANINE and ADENINE. GA-binding protein integrates a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and regulates expression of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE control, PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS, and cellular METABOLISM.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway. The activity of the protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN. Transcription factor 7-like 2 protein plays an important role in the embryogenesis of the PANCREAS and ISLET CELLS.
An ets proto-oncogene expressed primarily in adult LYMPHOID TISSUE; BRAIN; and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that was originally identified in DROSOPHILA as essential for proper gastrulation and MESODERM formation. It plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MUSCLE CELLS, and is found in a wide variety of organisms.
A tissue-specific subunit of NF-E2 transcription factor that interacts with small MAF PROTEINS to regulate gene expression. P45 NF-E2 protein is expressed primarily in MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; and MAST CELLS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. TFIIIB recruits and positions pol III over the initiation site and remains stably bound to the DNA through multiple rounds of re-initiation by RNA POLYMERASE III.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
One of the BASIC-LEUCINE ZIPPER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that is synthesized as a membrane-bound protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. In response to endoplasmic reticulum stress it translocates to the GOLGI APPARATUS. It is activated by PROTEASES and then moves to the CELL NUCLEUS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in the unfolded protein response.
A family of mammalian POU domain factors that are expressed predominately in NEURONS.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates GLOBIN gene expression and is related to TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1. NF-E2 consists of a small MAF protein subunit and a tissue-restricted 45 kDa subunit.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subfamily have been implicated in regulating the differentiation of OLIGODENDROCYTES during neural crest formation and in CHONDROGENESIS.
Ubiquitously expressed basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF transcription factors. They bind CANNTG sequences in the promoters of a variety of GENES involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Factors that form a preinitiation complex at promoters that are specifically transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE I.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in determining cell fate during embryogenesis. It forms a heterodimer with TWIST TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and ACHAETE-SCUTE GENE COMPLEX-related TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A POU domain factor that regulates expression of GROWTH HORMONE; PROLACTIN; and THYROTROPIN-BETA in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of the group have been found expressed in developing neuronal tissue, LYMPHOCYTES, and during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.

ATF-2-binding regulatory element is responsible for the Ly49A expression in murine T lymphoid line, EL-4. (1/480)

To understand the mechanism of Ly49A-expression and its significance in T-cell differentiation, we analyzed the 5'-flanking region of the Ly49A gene in a search for the Ly49A-regulatory element. Since very few known regulatory elements have been found in this region, presumably a novel regulatory sequence(s) could exist. Accordingly, we defined the 13-bp regulatory element, 5'-ATGACGAGGAGGA-3', restricted to Ly49A-expression in EL-4 cells in comparison with two other representative cell lines tested. This element, designated as EL13, proved to be previously undiscovered by homology search and is highly homologous with several virus DNAs. Using EL13 as a probe we have cloned a cDNA encoding a binding protein to EL13. Its deduced nucleotide sequence revealed that EL13-binding protein is almost identical with rat ATF-2. Although ATF-2 is known to bind to cyclic AMP responsive element (CRE), EL13 shares five out of eight nucleotides with this consensus sequence. Our results suggested that ATF-2 may play an important role via binding to EL13 for the expression of Ly49A. These data will provide useful information for understanding T-cell and NK-cell differentiation in murine immune system.  (+info)

Platelet-derived growth factor induces interleukin-6 transcription in osteoblasts through the activator protein-1 complex and activating transcription factor-2. (2/480)

Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) BB, a mitogen that stimulates bone resorption, increases the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine that induces osteoclast recruitment. The mechanisms involved in IL-6 induction by PDGF BB are poorly understood. We examined the effect of PDGF BB on IL-6 expression in cultures of osteoblasts from fetal rat calvariae (Ob cells). PDGF BB increased IL-6 mRNA and heterogeneous nuclear RNA levels, the rate of transcription, and the activity of base pairs (bp) -2906 to +20 IL-6 promoter fragments transiently transfected into Ob cells. Deletion analysis revealed two responsive regions, one containing an activator protein-1 (AP-1) site located between bp -276 and -257, and a second, less well defined, downstream of -257. Targeted mutations of a cyclic AMP-responsive element (CRE), and nuclear factor-IL-6 and nuclear factor-kappaB binding sites in a bp -257 to +20 IL-6 construct that was transfected into Ob cells, revealed that the CRE also contributed to IL-6 promoter induction by PDGF BB. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed AP-1 and CRE nuclear protein complexes that were enhanced by PDGF BB. Supershift assays revealed binding of Jun and Fos to AP-1 and CRE sequences and binding of activating transcription factor-2 to CRE. In conclusion, PDGF BB induces IL-6 transcription in osteoblasts by regulating nuclear proteins of the AP-1 complex and activating transcription factor-2.  (+info)

pp60(v-src) induction of cyclin D1 requires collaborative interactions between the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, and Jun kinase pathways. A role for cAMP response element-binding protein and activating transcription factor-2 in pp60(v-src) signaling in breast cancer cells. (3/480)

The cyclin D1 gene is overexpressed in breast tumors and encodes a regulatory subunit of cyclin-dependent kinases that phosphorylate the retinoblastoma protein. pp60(c-src) activity is frequently increased in breast tumors; however, the mechanisms governing pp60(c-src) regulation of the cell cycle in breast epithelium are poorly understood. In these studies, pp60(v-src) induced cyclin D1 protein levels and promoter activity (48-fold) in MCF7 cells. Cyclin D1-associated kinase activity and protein levels were increased in mammary tumors from murine mammary tumor virus-pp60(c-src527F) transgenic mice. Optimal induction of cyclin D1 by pp60(v-src) involved the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family. Cyclin D1 promoter activation by pp60(v-src) involved a cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)/activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2) binding site. Dominant negative mutants of CREB and ATF-2 but not c-Jun inhibited pp60(v-src) induction of cyclin D1. pp60(v-src) induction of CREB was blocked by the p38 inhibitor SB203580 or by mutation of CREB at Ser133. pp60(v-src) induction of ATF-2 was abolished by the c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor JNK-interacting protein-1 or by mutation of ATF-2 at Thr69 and Thr71. CREB and ATF-2, which bind to a common pp60(v-src) response element, are transcriptionally activated by distinct mitogen-activated protein kinases. Induction of cyclin D1 activity by pp60(v-src) may contribute to breast tumorigenesis through phosphorylation and inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein.  (+info)

ATF-2 is a common nuclear target of Smad and TAK1 pathways in transforming growth factor-beta signaling. (4/480)

Upon transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) binding to its cognate receptor, Smad3 and Smad4 form heterodimers and transduce the TGF-beta signal to the nucleus. In addition to the Smad pathway, another pathway involving a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase family of kinases, TGF-beta-activated kinase-1 (TAK1), is required for TGF-beta signaling. However, it is unknown how these pathways function together to synergistically amplify TGF-beta signaling. Here we report that the transcription factor ATF-2 (also called CRE-BP1) is bound by a hetero-oligomer of Smad3 and Smad4 upon TGF-beta stimulation. ATF-2 is one member of the ATF/CREB family that binds to the cAMP response element, and its activity is enhanced after phosphorylation by stress-activated protein kinases such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38. The binding between ATF-2 and Smad3/4 is mediated via the MH1 region of the Smad proteins and the basic leucine zipper region of ATF-2. TGF-beta signaling also induces the phosphorylation of ATF-2 via TAK1 and p38. Both of these actions are shown to be responsible for the synergistic stimulation of ATF-2 trans-activating capacity. These results indicate that ATF-2 plays a central role in TGF-beta signaling by acting as a common nuclear target of both Smad and TAK1 pathways.  (+info)

p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediates signal integration of TCR/CD28 costimulation in primary murine T cells. (5/480)

Optimal T cell activation requires two signals, one generated by TCR and another by the CD28 costimulatory receptor. In this study, we investigated the regulation of costimulation-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation in primary mouse T cells. In contrast to that reported for human Jurkat T cells, we found that p38 MAPK, but not Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), is weakly activated upon stimulation with either anti-CD3 or anti-CD28 in murine thymocytes and splenic T cells. However, p38 MAPK is activated strongly and synergistically by either CD3/CD28 coligation or PMA/Ca2+ ionophore stimulation, which mimics TCR-CD3/CD28-mediated signaling. Activation of p38 MAPK correlates closely with the stimulation of T cell proliferation. In contrast, PMA-induced JNK activation is inhibited by Ca2+ ionophore. T cell proliferation and production of IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-gamma induced by both CD3 and CD3/CD28 ligation and the nuclear expression of the c-Jun and ATF-2 proteins are each blocked by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. Our findings demonstrate that p38 MAPK 1) plays an important role in signal integration during costimulation of primary mouse T cells, 2) may be involved in the induction of c-Jun activation and augmentation of AP-1 transcriptional activity, and 3) regulates whether T cells enter a state of functional unresponsiveness.  (+info)

Ubiquitination and degradation of ATF2 are dimerization dependent. (6/480)

Ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation are key determinants of the half-lives of many transcription factors. Homo- or heterodimerization of basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors is required for their transcriptional activities. Here we show that activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) heterodimerization with specific bZIP proteins is an important determinant of the ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation of ATF2. Depletion of c-Jun as one of the ATF2 heterodimer partners from the targeting proteins decreased the efficiency of ATF2 ubiquitination in vitro, whereas the addition of exogenously purified c-Jun restored it. Similarly, overexpression of c-Jun in 293T human embryo kidney cells increased ATF2 ubiquitination in vivo and reduced its half-life in a dose-dependent manner. Mutations of ATF2 that disrupt its dimerization inhibited ATF2 ubiquitination in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, removal of residues 150 to 248, as in a constitutively active ATF2 spliced form, enhanced ATF2 dimerization and transactivation, which coincided with increased ubiquitination and decreased stability. Our findings indicate the increased sensitivity of transcriptionally active dimers of ATF2 to ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation. Based on these observations, we conclude that increased targeting of a transcriptionally active ATF2 form indicates the mechanism by which the magnitude and the duration of the cellular stress response are regulated.  (+info)

Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) expression is induced by low oxygen conditions found in solid tumor microenvironments. A candidate MKP for the inactivation of hypoxia-inducible stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase activity. (7/480)

Pathophysiological hypoxia is an important modulator of gene expression in solid tumors and other pathologic conditions. We observed that transcriptional activation of the c-jun proto-oncogene in hypoxic tumor cells correlates with phosphorylation of the ATF2 transcription factor. This finding suggested that hypoxic signals transmitted to c-jun involve protein kinases that target AP-1 complexes (c-Jun and ATF2) that bind to its promoter region. Stress-inducible protein kinases capable of activating c-jun expression include stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (SAPK/JNK) and p38 members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) superfamily of signaling molecules. To investigate the potential role of MAPKs in the regulation of c-jun by tumor hypoxia, we focused on the activation SAPK/JNKs in SiHa human squamous carcinoma cells. Here, we describe the transient activation of SAPK/JNKs by tumor-like hypoxia, and the concurrent transcriptional activation of MKP-1, a stress-inducible member of the MAPK phosphatase (MKP) family of dual specificity protein-tyrosine phosphatases. MKP-1 antagonizes SAPK/JNK activation in response to diverse environmental stresses. Together, these findings identify MKP-1 as a hypoxia-responsive gene and suggest a critical role in the regulation of SAPK/JNK activity in the tumor microenvironment.  (+info)

Down-regulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha expression by activating transcription factor 2 increases UVC-induced apoptosis of late-stage melanoma cells. (8/480)

To identify mechanisms whereby activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) alters the radiation resistance of human melanoma cells, we examined the possible role of ATF2 in UVC-induced apoptosis. Forced expression of full-length or truncated (Delta1-195 amino acids) forms of ATF2 in LU1205, a late-stage human melanoma cell line, elevated the levels of UVC-induced apoptosis. At the same time, either truncated or full-length forms of ATF2 reduced UVC-induced activation of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) promoter and decreased expression of TNFalpha. Forced expression of c-Jun in ATF2-expressing melanoma cells restored TNFalpha expression, suggesting that both forms of ATF2 sequestered transcription factors that positively regulate TNFalpha expression in response to UV irradiation. Antagonistic antibodies to Fas, but not to TNFR1, efficiently suppressed UVC-induced apoptosis, suggesting that the Fas pathway mediates the primary apoptotic signal in melanoma cells whereas the TNFR1 pathway elicits a survival signal. Indeed, treatment of melanoma cells with TNFalpha before UVC irradiation partially suppressed UVC-induced apoptosis, further supporting the protective role of TNFalpha in UVC-treated melanoma cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that ATF2 contributes to UVC-induced apoptosis through transcriptional silencing of TNFalpha, which balances Fas-mediated cell death in melanoma.  (+info)

InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
HighRider-2 include one dip tube for ATF-2 connection. Flow via the aseptic connector over the HFF to the ATF-2 SUE. The dip tube is connected via a 9,5 x 14,3 mm hose to the aseptic connector. Photo 1: Seen from left on the left side of the blue tip pH SUS the broth dip tube. Further seen the VisiWell SUW with the orange O-ring. Photo 3: Dip tube hose aseptic connector to the left.. ...
ATF-4兔多克隆抗体(ab105383)可与小鼠样本反应并经WB, IHC实验严格验证,被2篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
ATF-4兔多克隆抗体(ab28830)可与人样本反应并经ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被2篇文献引用并得到1个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
The crisis at VA has now reached a peak. Can President Obama seize the opportunity to initiate and catalyze real change -- meaning transforming the syste...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , ARP \ Antigens ATF3, 1-181aa, Human, E.coli, Recombinant \ 01-ATF-3 for more molecular products just contact us
Glial Cell Line-derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF) is a highly conserved neurotrophic factor. The recombinant form of this protein was shown to promote the survival and differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in culture, and was able to prevent apoptosis of motor neurons induced by axotomy.The protein is processed to a mature secreted form that exists as a homodimer. The mature form of the protein is a ligand for the product of the RET (rearranged during transfection) protooncogene. In addition to the transcript encoding GDNF, two additional alternative transcripts encoding distinct proteins, referred to as astrocyte-derived trophic factors, have also been described. Mutations in this gene may be associated with Hirschsprung disease.
The results reveal an essential survival pathway in malignant glioma, whereby activation of a RAS-mitogen-activated protein kinase or phosphoinositide-3-kinase signaling cascade leads to induction of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein-3-like-2 (CREB3L2), which directly activates ATF5 expression. ATF5, in turn, promotes survival by stimulating transcription of myeloid cell leukemia sequence-1 (MCL1), an antiapoptotic B cell leukemia-2 family member. [Nat Med ...
Please note: Your browser does not support the features used on Addgenes website. You may not be able to create an account or request plasmids through this website until you upgrade your browser. Learn more ...
Greitai ir pasiutęs yra gunwalking gaila operaciją, atliktų biuras alkoholio, tabako ir šaunamųjų ginklų (ATF) stebėti srautų ginklus iš Jungtinių Amerikos Valstijų į Meksikos narkotikų karteliai rankas. Gunwalking arba nuoma vaikščioti ginklus buvo naudojama ATF sąmoningai leisti ginklai įsigijo ...
We previously demonstrated that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce cardiomyocyte differentiation through the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase TAK1. Transcription factors Smads mediate transforming growth factor-β signaling and the ATF/CREB family transcription factor ATF-2 has recently been shown to act as a common target of the Smad and the TAK1 pathways. We here examined the role of Smads and ATF-2 in cardiomyocyte differentiation of P19CL6, a clonal derivative of murine P19 cells. Although P19CL6 efficiently differentiates into cardiomyocytes when treated with dimethyl sulfoxide, P19CL6noggin, a P19CL6 cell line constitutively overexpressing the BMP antagonist noggin, did not differentiate into cardiomyocytes. Cooverexpression of Smad1, a ligand-specific Smad, and Smad4, a common Smad, restored the ability of P19CL6noggin to differentiate into cardiomyocytes, whereas stable overexpression of Smad6, an inhibitory Smad, completely blocked differentiation of P19CL6, ...
Encontre Livros em Inglês e outros idiomas de Gastronomia e Dietas e Regimes. O maior acervo de livros em inglês e outros idiomas de gastronomia e os melhores autores você encontra aqui na Saraiva.
多种适用的ATF2ELISA试剂盒,如小鸡, 人, 小鼠等。在antibodies-online.cn对比ATF2ELISA试剂盒,以便找到您需要的产品。
Reagents, Tools and Custom Services for molecular biology, specializing in the fields of Nano-Antibody development (nAb), Cellular Reprogramming (iPSC), Genome Editing, Fluorescent Proteins, RNAi, Viral Packaging and Protein expression.
Mitochondrial dysfunction is pervasive in human pathologies such as neurodegeneration, diabetes, cancer, and pathogen infections as well as during normal aging. Cells sense and respond to mitochondrial dysfunction by activating a protective transcriptional program known as the mitochondrial unfolded …
Encontre Livros em Inglês e outros idiomas de Ciências Biológicas e Zoologia. O maior acervo de livros em inglês e outros idiomas de ciências biológicas e os melhores autores você encontra aqui na Saraiva.
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Assaypro \ ATF_uPA, anti_mouse \ 12171-05011 for more molecular products just contact us
Fibronectin (FN) is transactivated by human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E6 via the induction of c-Jun-ATF-2 complexes binding to the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) in the FN promoter. The present study analyzed c-Jun regulation of FN gene expression. Northern and immunoblot analyses showed that c-Jun expression was enhanced in HPV16-E6-expressing cells. However, mouse 10T1/2 cell lines overexpressing c-Jun showed an inverse correlation between the expression levels of c-Jun and those of FN. Luciferase assays indicated that the FN promoter was strongly repressed in c-Jun-overexpressing mouse 10T1/2 cells. Deletion and mutation analyses of the FN promoter revealed that repression of the FN promoter by c-Jun depends on the CRE located at -160 relative to the start site of transcription. Supershift assays of CRE-bound complexes from HPV16-E6-expressing and c-Jun-overexpressing cells suggested that the presence of ATF-2 in the complexes binding to CRE was required for the transactivation of the ...
Get an answer for Calculate Kc for the system, Ni2+ + Co Ni + Co2+. at 25 C?Ni2+ (aq) + 2e === Ni (s) E = - 0.25 V Co2+ (aq) + 2e === Co (s) E = - 0.28 and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Mobil ATF™ 3309 is an exceptionally high performance lubricant that meets original equipment manufacturers specifications for use in certain slip-controlled lock-up automatic transmissions.
Melatonin是一种由松果体制成的激素,可激活褪黑激素受体。Melatonin 在睡眠中起作用并具有重要的抗氧化和抗炎特性。Melatonin 是一种新型的选择性 ATF-6 抑制剂,可通过 COX-2 下调诱导人肝癌细胞凋亡 ...
Expression of the ATF in the ECV304 cells. Immunofluorescence was performed, and the resulting cells were observed under a laser scanning confocal microscope. (
... shows decreased expression when activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) is knocked out. Since ATF2 was not predicted to ... "Suppressor role of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) in skin cancer". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105 (5): 1674-9. ...
It was later identified by the yeast-two hybrid system to bind to activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) to repress ATF- ... JDP2 (gene) has been shown to interact with Activating transcription factor 2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000140044 - ... "The transcription factor T-box 3 regulates colony-stimulating factor 1-dependent Jun dimerization protein 2 expression and ... The Jun dimerization protein is a member of the AP-1 family of transcription factors. JDP 2 was found by a Sos-recruitment ...
Firestein R, Feuerstein N (March 1998). "Association of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) with the ubiquitin-conjugating ... Firestein R, Feuerstein N (1998). "Association of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) with the ubiquitin-conjugating ... Sapetschnig A, Rischitor G, Braun H, Doll A, Schergaut M, Melchior F, Suske G (October 2002). "Transcription factor Sp3 is ... "Ubc9 interacts with the androgen receptor and activates receptor-dependent transcription". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (27): 19441-6. ...
Transcription factor AP-2 gamma also known as AP2-gamma is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TFAP2C gene. AP2-gamma is ... AP2-gamma activates genes that are important for placenta development and retinoic acid-mediated differentiation of the eyes, ... Mutations of this transcription factor can lead to poorly developed placenta and tissues. A mutated AP2-gamma gene is known to ... 2005). "Transcription factor AP-2gamma, a novel marker of gonocytes and seminomatous germ cell tumors". Int. J. Cancer. 115 (3 ...
... has been shown to interact with RuvB-like 1 and Activating transcription factor 2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... a regulator of activating transcription factor 2 response to stress and DNA damage". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 21 (24): ... a regulator of activating transcription factor 2 response to stress and DNA damage". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 21 (24): ... "Control of nutrient-sensitive transcription programs by the unconventional prefoldin URI". Science. 302 (5648): 1208-12. ...
POU domain, class 3, transcription factor 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POU3F2 gene. N-Oct-3 is a protein ... It is likely that CNS-specific transcription factors such as these play an important role in mammalian neurogenesis by ... Eisen T, Easty DJ, Bennett DC, Goding CR (November 1995). "The POU domain transcription factor Brn-2: elevated expression in ... "Entrez Gene: POU3F2 POU domain, class 3, transcription factor 2". Mühleisen TW, Leber M, Schulze TG, Strohmaier J, Degenhardt F ...
2006). "Transcription factor activating enhancer-binding protein-2beta. A negative regulator of adiponectin gene expression". J ... Transcription factor AP-2 beta also known as AP2-beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TFAP2B gene. AP-2 beta is a ... "Entrez Gene: transcription factor AP-2 beta (activating enhancer binding protein 2 beta)". Tsukada S, Tanaka Y, Maegawa H, et ... 2009). "The transcription factor TFAP2B is associated with insulin resistance and adiposity in healthy adolescents". Obesity ( ...
"RB and c-Myc activate expression of the E-cadherin gene in epithelial cells through interaction with transcription factor AP-2 ... a cell-type-specific transcription factor that activates inducible enhancer elements". Genes & Development. 2 (12A): 1557-69. ... a cell-type-specific transcription factor that activates inducible enhancer elements". Genes & Development. 2 (12A): 1557-69. ... "Transcription factor AP-2alpha is preferentially cleaved by caspase 6 and degraded by proteasome during tumor necrosis factor ...
... a novel regulator for induction of activating transcription factor-2 and heme oxygenase-1". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... by control of the upstream activator of insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling ... 235 (1-2): 372-81. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1996.00372.x. PMID 8631357. PDB: 1GCU​; Kikuchi A, Park SY, Miyatake H, Sun D, Sato ... 957 (2): 237-42. doi:10.1016/0167-4838(88)90278-6. PMID 3191141. Wang J, de Montellano PR (May 2003). "The binding sites on ...
Therefore, transcription factors are crucial for adipogenesis. Transcription factors, peroxis proliferator-activated receptor γ ... a lipid-activated transcription factor". Cell. 79 (7): 1147-56. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(94)90006-x. PMID 8001151. S2CID 54387527 ... other transcription factors function in the progression of differentiation. Adipocyte determination and differentiation factor ... C/EBPs, transcription factors, are members of the basic-leucine zipper class. cAMP, an inducer of adipogenesis, can promote ...
Factors eIF1A and eIF5B interact on the ribosome along with other initiation factors and GTP to position the initiation ... The process is simpler in bacteria which have only three initiation factors (IF1, IF2, IF3). Two of these factors are conserved ... Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF5B gene. Accurate initiation of ... 2007). "Position of eukaryotic initiation factor eIF5B on the 80S ribosome mapped by directed hydroxyl radical probing". EMBO J ...
... a lipid-activated transcription factor". Cell. 79 (7): 1147-56. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(94)90006-x. PMID 8001151. S2CID 54387527 ... Spiegelman and colleagues later identified PRDM16 as a crucial factor in brown fat development and the browning of white fat in ... Retrieved June 2, 2021. Boström, Pontus; Wu, Jun; Jedrychowski, Mark P.; Korde, Anisha; Ye, Li; Lo, James C.; Rasbach, Kyle A ... Retrieved June 2, 2021. Xu, Risheng (April 29, 2004). "Five Harvard Profs Nab Academy Spots". thecrimson.com. Retrieved June 1 ...
"CUX1 transcription factor is a downstream effector of the proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2)". J. Biol. Chem. 284 (1): 36- ... Nepveu A (2001). "Role of the multifunctional CDP/Cut/Cux homeodomain transcription factor in regulating differentiation, cell ... Cux transcription factor by cyclin A-Cdk1 modulates its DNA binding activity in G(2)". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (49): 45780-90. doi: ... the alternatively spliced product of the gene encoding the CCAAT-displacement protein transcription factor, is a Golgi membrane ...
This protein also phosphorylates histone, casein, and the transcription factors ATF2 (activating transcription factor 2) and C- ... Valbuena A, Vega FM, Blanco S, Lazo PA (2006). "p53 downregulates its activating vaccinia-related kinase 1, forming a new ... Sevilla A, Santos CR, Vega FM, Lazo PA (2004). "Human vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) activates the ATF2 transcriptional ... 2000). "Stress-induced activation of protein kinase CK2 by direct interaction with p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase". J. ...
Data from patients suggest that aberrant levels of activating transcription factor in the nucleus of melanoma cells are ... Bhoumik A, Jones N, Ronai Z (March 2004). "Transcriptional switch by activating transcription factor 2-derived peptide ... studies from mice on skin cancer tend to confirm a role for activating transcription factor-2 in cancer progression. Cancer ... An alternative reading frame mutation in this gene leads to the destabilization of p53, a transcription factor involved in ...
All three transcription factors are needed to activate the transcription of interleukin-2(IL2) gene. NFAT activation depends on ... AP-1 then acts as transcription factor. Raf is activated via the second messenger DAG, SOS, and Ras. DAG recruits among other ... and activated or released transcription factors. Based on the initial receptor triggering mechanism, the TCR belongs to the ... Transcription factors involved in T cell signalling pathway are the NFAT, NF-κB and AP1, a heterodimer of proteins Fos and Jun ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor. Activating protein 2 Cheng C, Ying K, Xu M, Zhao W, Zhou Z, Huang Y ... Transcription factor AP-2 delta (activating enhancer binding protein 2 delta), also known as TFAP2D, is a human gene. ... Wang W, Xu J, Zeng L, Xie Y, Mao Y (January 2002). "Cloning and characterization of a novel human transcription factor AP-2 ... Transcription factors, All stub articles, Human chromosome 6 gene stubs). ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor. Activating protein 2 Tummala R, Romano RA, Fuchs E, Sinha S ( ... Transcription factor AP-2 epsilon (activating enhancer binding protein 2 epsilon), also known as TFAP2E, is a human gene. ... Transcription factors, All stub articles, Human chromosome 1 gene stubs). ... a fifth member of the AP-2 family". Gene. 321: 93-102. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(03)00840-0. PMID 14636996. TFAP2E+protein,+human ...
... suppresses MAPK11-mediated activating transcription factor-2 activation and represses TNF gene expression". J. Immunol. 173 (6 ... Yao YL, Yang WM, Seto E (September 2001). "Regulation of transcription factor YY1 by acetylation and deacetylation". Mol. Cell ... "Histone deacetylase 3 binds to and regulates the multifunctional transcription factor TFII-I". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (3): 1841-7. ... "Histone deacetylase 3 associates with and represses the transcription factor GATA-2". Blood. 98 (7): 2116-23. doi:10.1182/blood ...
This kinase is activated through its phosphorylation by MAP kinase kinases (MKKs), preferably by MKK6. Transcription factor ... suppresses MAPK11-mediated activating transcription factor-2 activation and represses TNF gene expression". J. Immunol. 173 (6 ... Deak M, Clifton AD, Lucocq LM, Alessi DR (1998). "Mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase-1 (MSK1) is directly activated ... a major pneumococcal virulence factor, involves calcium influx and depends on activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein ...
... stimulates Map4k4 expression through TNFalpha receptor 1 signaling to c-Jun and activating transcription factor 2". The Journal ... "MicroRNA-30d induces insulin transcription factor MafA and insulin production by targeting mitogen-activated protein 4 kinase 4 ... This further leads to the increase in expression and activity of specific transcription factors that respond to a variety of ... TNF-α can elevate MAP4K4 expression using transcription factors The JNK pathway is implicated in a number of physiological ...
The encoded protein interacts with another transcription factor, myocyte enhancer factor 2, to activate transcription of this ... The protein encoded by this gene is a nuclear transcription factor involved in the activation of the solute carrier family 2 ... interaction between a transcriptional activator and myocyte enhancer factor 2A". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100 (25): 14725- ... 2): 348-9. doi:10.1096/fj.05-4671fje. PMID 16368714. S2CID 13881696. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description ...
... transcription factor IIA-gamma increases osteoblast-specific osteocalcin gene expression via activating transcription factor 4 ... and runt-related transcription factor 2". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 283 (9): 5542-53. doi:10.1074/jbc.M705653200. ... 396 (1-2): 66-9. doi:10.1016/j.cca.2008.07.001. PMID 18657532. Ba Y, Huang H, Yang Y, Cui L, Zhu J, Zhu C, et al. (November ... 65 (2): 426-34. doi:10.1016/0012-1606(78)90038-6. PMID 680371. Puchacz E, Lian JB, Stein GS, Wozney J, Huebner K, Croce C (May ...
The MAP kinase ERK activates the downstream transcription factors Myc, AP-1 and Fos which in turn activate the transcription of ... One of the members of the pathways, MAPK activates a transcription factor Myc, which alters transcription of genes important in ... A role for cAMP response element-binding protein and activating transcription factor-2 in pp60(v-src) signaling in breast ... Cyclin D dependent monophosphorylated Rb still interacts with E2F transcription factors in a way that inhibits transcription of ...
... activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1), serum response factor (SRF), and mRNA-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP) In ... "Cell type-specific inhibition of the ETS transcription factor ER81 by mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase ... Yang SH, Galanis A, Sharrocks AD (Jun 1999). "Targeting of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases to MEF2 transcription factors ... Kyriakis JM, Avruch J (Apr 2001). "Mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathways activated by stress ...
Activating transcription factor 4 upregulates this gene under metabolic stress conditions in hepatocyte cell lines. A loss of ... Salgado MC, Metón I, Anemaet IG, Baanante IV (2014). "Activating transcription factor 4 mediates up-regulation of alanine ... Glutamic--pyruvic transaminase 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPT2 gene. This gene encodes a mitochondrial ... "Entrez Gene: Glutamic--pyruvic transaminase 2". Retrieved 2018-05-07. Yang RZ, Blaileanu G, Hansen BC, Shuldiner AR, Gong DW ( ...
Bhoumik, A., Jones, N., Ronai, Z. Transcriptional switch by activating transcription factor 2-derived peptide sensitizes ... Ronai's studies provide new fundamental understanding for the role and function of epigenetic components (transcription factor ... 2 April 2019). "Gut microbiota dependent anti-tumor immunity restricts melanoma growth in Rnf5-/- mice". Nature Communications ... "Fine tuning of the UPR by the ubiquitin ligases Siah1/2". PLOS Genetics. 10 (5): e1004348. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004348. ...
... has been shown to interact with: Activating transcription factor 2, ATF1, C-Fos, CREB binding protein, CSNK2B, FGF1, ... "Casein kinase II interacts with the bZIP domains of several transcription factors". Nucleic Acids Res. 26 (16): 3854-61. doi: ... Wang D, Westerheide SD, Hanson JL, Baldwin AS (October 2000). "Tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced phosphorylation of RelA/p65 ... Li D, Dobrowolska G, Krebs EG (June 1996). "The physical association of casein kinase 2 with nucleolin". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (26 ...
2001). "The transcription factor GATA4 is activated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1- and 2-mediated phosphorylation ... Tremblay JJ, Viger RS (1999). "Transcription factor GATA-4 enhances Müllerian inhibiting substance gene transcription through a ... "The transcription factors GATA4 and dHAND physically interact to synergistically activate cardiac gene expression through a ... Transcription factor GATA-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GATA4 gene. This gene encodes a member of the GATA ...
Without calcineurin, the activity of nuclear factor of activated T-cells and transcription regulators of IL-2 in T-lymphocytes ... Larson, T. G.; Nuss, D. L. (1 January 1993). "Cyclophilin-dependent stimulation of transcription by cyclosporin A." Proceedings ... 529 (2): 55-65. doi:10.1016/j.abb.2012.11.011. PMID 23219598. Hoppert, Michael; Gentzsch, Carsten; Schorgendorfer, Kurt (1 ... Yang, Xiuqing; Feng, Peng; Yin, Ying; Bushley, Kathryn; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Wang, Chengshu; Turgeon, B. Gillian (2 October ...
T-bet is a distinctive transcription factor of TH1 cells. TH1 cells are also characterized by the expression of chemokine ... Naive T cells, which are immature T cells that have yet to encounter an antigen, are converted into activated effector T cells ... Groups 1 ILCs are defined to include ILCs expressing the transcription factor T-bet and were originally thought to only include ... Recently, there have been a large amount of NKp46+ cells that express certain master [transcription factor]s that allow them to ...
... the cellular concentrations of glycolytic enzymes are modulated via regulation of gene expression via transcription factors,[25 ... During fasting (no glucose available), glucagon activates protein kinase A which phosphorylates pyruvate kinase to inhibit it.[ ... The external factors act primarily on the liver, fat tissue, and muscles, which can remove large quantities of glucose from the ... The internal factors that regulate glycolysis do so primarily to provide ATP in adequate quantities for the cell's needs. ...
... which is associated with activation of the transcription factor STAT3 (which binds to the binding site in the mIndy promoter) ... As IL-6 interacts with its receptor, it triggers the gp130 and IL-6R proteins to form a complex, thus activating the receptor. ... ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1), cardiotrophin-like cytokine (CLC), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF ... It is assumed that interleukin 6 in the liver activates the homologue of the human longevity gene mINDY expression via binding ...
LIM domains were initially identified in three homeodomain transcription factors (lin11, is11, and mec3). In addition to this ... For example, some G protein-coupled receptors only transiently bind to Gi/o proteins when they are activated by extracellular ... The Y2H is based on the functional reconstitution of the yeast transcription factor Gal4 and subsequent activation of a ... bHLH transcription factors, and other LIM domains.[24]. *Sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain Main article: SAM domain ...
Another factor affecting the price is the presence of electronics, such as condenser microphones, volume and tone controls, or ... The accordion has traditionally been used to perform folk or ethnic music, popular music, and transcriptions from the operatic ... that activates all ranks, like the "tutti" or "full organ" switch on an organ, and seven register switches on the bass side. ... 2. 2 and 4. 4 dances. Barn dance. Fling. Highland. Hornpipe. Reel. Strathspey. Schottische. 3. 4 dances. Mazurka. Waltz. 6. 8 ...
There are two subtypes of the ER, ERα and ERβ, and estradiol potently binds to and activates both of these receptors. The ... reproductive life cycle factors". Advances in Nursing Science. 28 (4): 364-75. doi:10.1097/00012272-200510000-00008. PMID ... allowing for gene transcription which can take place over hours and days. ... 978-1-119-20246-2. .. *^ a b c d e f g h i Lauritzen C, Studd JW (22 June 2005). Current Management of the Menopause. CRC Press ...
... functioning as a transcription factor,[17][18] and anti-microbial activity (potentially associated with Aβ's pro-inflammatory ... in the APP and BACE1 promoter sequences and implications in activating apoptotic genes and in amyloidogenesis". Gene. 488 (1-2 ... 8 (2): 48-52. doi:10.1016/j.jmhi.2014.01.001.. *^ Luo Y, Bolon B, Damore MA, Fitzpatrick D, Liu H, Zhang J, et al. (October ... 8 (2): 101-12. doi:10.1038/nrm2101. PMID 17245412. S2CID 32991755.. *^ Nussbaum JM, Seward ME, Bloom GS (Jan-Feb 2013). " ...
... thereby activating transcription of those genes. EGR1 is an important transcription factor in memory formation. It has an ... This is also true with transcription factors: Not only do transcription factors control the rates of transcription to regulate ... DNA within nucleosomes is inaccessible to many transcription factors. Some transcription factors, so-called pioneer factors are ... an important class of transcription factors called general transcription factors (GTFs) are necessary for transcription to ...
These soluble factors lead to activation of IP3 which causes a Ca2+ release from the ER via IP3 receptors.[20] It has also been ... Calmodulin may activate the Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinases, or may act directly on other effector proteins.[14] ... and long term changes at the gene transcription level. ER stress is also related to Ca2+ signaling and along with the unfolded ... Moccia F, Lim D, Nusco GA, Ercolano E, Santella L (October 2003). "NAADP activates a Ca2+ current that is dependent on F-actin ...
... transcription factor) and cellular morphogenesis (RAM)[39] signalling networks. Overall, the integration of the different ... Specifically, Cts1 expression has to be activated in daughter cells during late mitosis and the protein has to localize at the ... 77 (2): 147-53. doi:10.1079/JOH2003176. PMID 12756068. S2CID 24555145.. *^ Feingold BF (March 1975). "Food additives in ... stimulates proliferation of human connective-tissue cells and activates both extracellular signal-regulated kinase- and protein ...
Chromatin that contains macroH2A is impervious to ATP-dependent remodeling proteins and to the binding of transcription factors ... Methylation of histones has been tied to life span regulation in many organisms, specifically H3K4me3, an activating mark, and ... In older cells, however, the same genes nucleosome loss at the promoter is more prevalent which leads to higher transcription ... similar to the increased transcription seen due to the loss of histones.[14] There is also a reduction in the levels of H3K56ac ...
... a gene transcription factor, is now known to be a critical component and common factor in the development of virtually all ... In the NAcc, CREB is activated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) immediately after a high and triggers changes in gene ... "corticotropin-releasing factor" (CRF) and the gene transcription factor "cAMP response element binding protein" (CREB).[10] The ... Retrieved 2 November 2018.. *^ a b c d e f Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Results from the 2013 ...
... and also has transcription regulatory roles.[53] ARID1A mutations are one of the 12 most common carcinogenic mutations.[54] ... which activates kinase signaling and is associated with a poor prognosis and a four base insertion in exon 12 of the NPM1 gene ... which ideally should describe individual mutagenic factors.[35] Several computational methods have been proposed for solving ... 78 (2): 151-5. doi:10.1007/bf00278187. PMID 3338800. S2CID 41948691.. *^ a b Rogozin IB, Kolchanov NA (November 1992). "Somatic ...
"Hypomethylation of ETS transcription factor binding sites and upregulation of PARP1 expression in endometrial cancer". BioMed ... Chromatin relaxation occurs rapidly at the site of a DNA damage.[44][45] In one of the earliest steps, the stress-activated ... In Escherichia coli it is known that LexA regulates transcription of approximately 48 genes including the lexA and recA genes.[ ... increased transcription and collisions of transcription-replication complexes; nucleotide deficiency; increase in reactive ...
Activating transcription factor 6. *Signal transducing adaptor protein. *I-kappa B protein ... Receptor-activated G proteins are bound to the inner surface of the cell membrane. They consist of the Gα and the tightly ... Gαs activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by stimulating the production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) from ATP. This is accomplished by ... They are activated in response to a conformational change in the GPCR, exchanging GDP for GTP, and dissociating in order to ...
... a transcription factor complex, plays a central role in many biological processes, including inflammation.[42][43][44] ... In 2012, salicylic acid was found to activate AMP-activated protein kinase, which has been suggested as a possible explanation ... considered the main transcription factor capable of inducing inflammatory response by stimulating the expression of ... "The ancient drug salicylate directly activates AMP-activated protein kinase". Science. 336 (6083): 918-22. Bibcode:2012Sci... ...
... which is required for IL5 mediated activation of the transcription factor SOX4. Six alternatively spliced transcript variants ... The beta subunit is activated by the ligand binding, and is required for the biological activities of IL5. This protein has ... and are activated upon IL-5 stimulation". Blood. 91 (7): 2264-71. doi:10.1182/blood.V91.7.2264. PMID 9516124.. ... and are activated upon IL-5 stimulation". Blood. 91 (7): 2264-71. doi:10.1182/blood.V91.7.2264. PMID 9516124.. ...
"Entrez Gene: NFIX nuclear factor I/X (CCAAT-binding transcription factor)". Singh SK, Bhardwaj R, Wilczynska KM, Dumur CI, ... Müller K, Mermod N (2000). "The histone-interacting domain of nuclear factor I activates simian virus 40 DNA replication in ... for the human transcription factor nuclear factor I by FISH". Genomics. 28 (1): 66-73. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.1107. PMID 7590749 ... "Thyroglobulin repression of thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) gene expression is mediated by decreased DNA binding of ...
... which has been attributed to the activation of specific transcription factors. It also depends on the activity of a protein or ... October 2005). "The contribution of apoptosis-inducing factor, caspase-activated DNase, and inhibitor of caspase-activated ... Caspase-activated DNase (CAD) or DNA fragmentation factor subunit beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DFFB gene ... It is also known as caspase activated nuclease (CPAN), dna fragmentation factor 40 (DFF-40), DFF2 and DFFB. Besides, there are ...
Daxx can interact and suppress several transcription factors, such as p53, p73, and NF-κB. Proteins other than transcription ... When the cell is treated with TGF-β, HIPK2, a nuclear kinase, phosphorylates Daxx and the activated Daxx in turn activates the ... the encoded protein functions as a potent transcription repressor that binds to sumoylated transcription factors. Its ... The omnipresence of Daxx in the cell nucleus suggests that the protein may also function as a transcription factor. Although it ...
Many viruses have an RNA genome, such as HIV, which uses reverse transcription to create a DNA template from its viral RNA ... Binding of the hormone to insulin receptors on cells then activates a cascade of protein kinases that cause the cells to take ... These signals are usually in the form of water-soluble messengers such as hormones and growth factors and are detected by ... Proteins are made from amino acids that have been activated by attachment to a transfer RNA molecule through an ester bond. ...
... β-catenin becomes a coactivator for TCF and LEF to activate Wnt genes by displacing Groucho and HDAC transcription repressors. ... Yi ZY, Feng LJ, Xiang Z, Yao H (2011). "Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 activation mediates epithelial to ... On the other hand, a lack of α-catenin can promote aberrant transcription, which can lead to cancer. As a result, it can be ... Keratinocytes engineered to not express alpha-catenin have disrupted cell adhesion and activated NF-κB. A tumor cell line with ...
Splicing factor, arginine/serine-rich 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SFRS6 gene. The protein encoded by this ... Ramchatesingh J, Zahler AM, Neugebauer KM, Roth MB, Cooper TA (September 1995). "A subset of SR proteins activates splicing of ... Monsalve M, Wu Z, Adelmant G, Puigserver P, Fan M, Spiegelman BM (August 2000). "Direct coupling of transcription and mRNA ... The encoded nuclear protein belongs to the splicing factor SR family and has been shown to bind with and modulate another ...
June 2012). "Nucleophosmin (NPM1/B23) interacts with activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) protein and promotes proteasome- ... This protein is deactivated by binding ATP, and activated by its dephosphorylation to ADP, which requires a potassium ion to ... Rauch JN, Gestwicki JE (January 2014). "Binding of human nucleotide exchange factors to heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) generates ... Rauch JN, Gestwicki JE (January 2014). "Binding of human nucleotide exchange factors to heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) generates ...
IFNs activate signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) complexes; STATs are a family of transcription factors ... As a result, an IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) complex forms-this contains STAT1, STAT2 and a third transcription factor ... Type I IFNs further activate p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) to induce gene transcription. Antiviral and ... this receptor activates the transcription factors IRF3 and NF-κB, which are important for initiating synthesis of many ...
... represses the transcription of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor by a mechanism involving activator protein ... "Identification and characterization of a novel activated RhoB binding protein containing a PDZ domain whose expression is ... Arthur WT, Ellerbroek SM, Der CJ, Burridge K, Wennerberg K (November 2002). "XPLN, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for ... Gampel A, Parker PJ, Mellor H (September 1999). "Regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor traffic by the small GTPase ...
Phosphorylation of the transcription factor may activate it and that activated transcription factor may then activate the ... An activated enhancer begins transcription of its RNA before activating a promoter to initiate transcription of messenger RNA ... Several cell function specific transcription factors (there are about 1,600 transcription factors in a human cell) generally ... which enable activating transcription factors to recruit RNA polymerase. As promoters are typically immediately adjacent to the ...
The expression profiles of these transcription factors are driven by the transcription factors that peak in the prior phase, ... them from transcription), activating E2F. Activation of E2F results in transcription of various genes like cyclin E, cyclin A, ... One screen of single-gene knockouts identified 48 transcription factors (about 20% of all non-essential transcription factors) ... of cell cycle transcription factors by Cdk1 may alter the localization or activity of the transcription factors in order to ...
This may be due to BadA's inducing the transcription of proangiogenic factors, as it activates of NF-κB as well as hypoxia- ... In essence, they are virulence factors, factors that make the bacteria harmful and infective to the host organism. TAAs are ... All Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesins are crucial virulence factors that cause serious disease in humans. The most-studied and ... YadA bacterial adhesin protein domain Type V secretion system Virulence factor Cell adhesion Outer membrane Gram negative ...
... users with access to smartphones may also activate the on-screen braille input keyboard, to type braille symbols on to ... Some portions of the transcription rules are not fully codified and rely on the judgment of the transcriber. Thus, when the ... There are numerous factors that influence access to braille literacy, including school budget constraints, technology ... Holland, B. F. (1934). "Speed and Pressure Factors in Braille Reading", Teachers Forum, Vol. 7. pp. 13-17 Lowenfield, B.; Abel ...
Activating transcription factor 2, also known as ATF2, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ATF2 gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: ATF2 activating transcription factor 2". Ozawa K, Sudo T, Soeda E, Yoshida MC, Ishii S (1991). "Assignment of the ... Activating transcription factor 2 has been shown to interact with C-jun, Casein kinase 2, alpha 1, CREB binding protein, ... Activating transcription factor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000115966 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
... a transcription factor that can heterodimerize with ATF‐2, bind to the CRE within the Bcl‐2 promoter. These data identify the ... in the promoters of cyclin A and cyclin D1 in growth plate chondrocytes to activate their expression. Here, we demonstrate that ... The Bcl‐2 promoter contains a CRE at −1,552 bp upstream of the translation start. Mutations within this CRE cause reduced Bcl‐2 ... Expression of ATF‐2 within the growth plate is limited to the resting and proliferating zones. We have previously shown that ...
The TFAP2B gene provides instructions for making a protein called transcription factor AP-2β. Learn about this gene and related ... A transcription factor is a protein that attaches (binds) to specific regions of DNA and helps control the activity of ... activating enhancer binding protein 2 beta). Additional Information & Resources. Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry. ... Transcription factor AP-2β is involved in development before birth. In particular, this protein is active in the neural crest, ...
Other transcription factors are involved either in activating these key factors or in controlling the synthesis of their ... a lipid-activated transcription factor. Cell. 1994 Dec 30. 79(7):1147-56. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 [SREBP1]/adipocyte determination and differentiation factor 1 [ADD1] ... 11] Precursor cells are committed to adipogenesis through transient expression of certain transcription factors such as CCAAT/ ...
Activating transcription factor-2 (ATF2) is a key determinant of resistance to endocrine treatment in an in vitro model of ... FAK activates AKT-mTOR signaling to promote the growth and progression of MMTV-Wnt1-driven basal-like mammary tumors. January ... High hepatocyte growth factor expression in primary tumor predicts better overall survival in male breast cancer. January 18, ... Correction to: FAK activates AKT-mTOR signaling to promote the growth and progression of MMTV-Wnt1-driven basal-like mammary ...
Transcription factor activity assays. Transcriptional activity of c-Jun, activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2), and NF-κB ... Downstream of activated JNK are the transcription factors c-Jun (24-27) and ATF2 (also known as cAMP-dependent transcription ... activating transcription factor 2. DIC. differential interference contrast. ECIS. electric cell-substrate impedance sensing. ... Yet, another proinflammatory transcription factor that can be activated by TNF-α, and regulated by Rac1 activation, is NF-κB ( ...
Genetic-factors; Author Keywords: Immunomodulation; Ligand-activated transcription factors; Perfluoroalkyl acids ... ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate gene expression; however, some biological effects may occur independently ... These compounds can trigger biological activity by activating the alpha isotype of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ... Activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) modulates lipid and glucose homeostasis, cell ...
activating transcription factor 2. 10. 59. ATM. 9. ATM serine/threonine kinase. 42. 75. ... hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor). 17. 62. ... heat shock transcription factor 1. 23. 31. HSP90AA1. 74. heat shock protein 90kDa alpha (cytosolic), class A member 1. 10. 133 ... eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1. 5. 43. EEF1E1. 266. eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 epsilon 1. 3 ...
Transcription factors and intracellular receptors. (1) Basic domains. (1.1) Basic leucine zipper (bZIP). Activating ... General transcription factors (TFIIA, TFIIB, TFIID, TFIIE, TFIIF, TFIIH: 1, 2) • GLI-Krüppel family (1, 2, 3, YY1) • KLF (2, 4 ... 3.4) Heat Shock Factors. HSF1. (3.5) Tryptophan clusters. ELF (4, 5) • Interferon regulatory factors (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 ... 4) β-Scaffold factors with. minor groove contacts. (4.1) Rel homology region. NF-κB (NFKB1, NFKB2, REL, RELA, RELB) • NFAT (5, ...
Helicobacter pylori VacA Activates the p38/Activating Transcription Factor 2-mediated Signal Pathway in AZ-521 Cells. J. Biol. ... Impact of Known H. pylori Virulence Factors. As next we asked if major reported H. pylori virulence factors may inhibit ... ROS or environmental factors or co-infection with other inflammasome activating bacteria. The regulation of NLRP3 expression ... pylori infection of human monocytes/macrophages clearly activates the first signal but is unable to fully activate the NLRP3 ...
activating transcription factor 4. GO Process (20). GO Function (7). GO Component (6) ... sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity [ISS, TAS]*transcription regulatory region DNA binding [IDA, TAS] ... positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated [IDA, IMP, ISS, NAS]*positive regulation vascular endothelial growth factor ... regulation of transcription, DNA-templated [ISS]*response to endoplasmic reticulum stress [IDA]*transcription from RNA ...
Oxidative Stress and Alleviates Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Activating Nuclear Transcription-Related Factor 2 ( ... A Prospective Questionnaire-Based Study to Evaluate Factors Affecting the Decision to Receive COVID-19 Vacc... Med Sci Monit In ... A Prospective Questionnaire-Based Study to Evaluate Factors Affecting the Decision to Receive COVID-19 Vacc... Med Sci Monit In ... Acceptance of COVID-19 Vaccination and Its Associated Factors Among Cancer Patients Attending the Oncology ... DOI :10.12659/ ...
... activating transcription factor 2; CHOP, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein; CREB, cAMP-dependent ... The phosphorylation targets of ERKs include transcription factors and additional protein kinases. ERK, extracellular signal- ... Activated AMPK phosphorylates various known and unknown targets and induces multiple cellular responses. AMPKK, AMP-activated ... and activate MAP kinase (MAPK) on conserved threonine and tyrosine residues. Activated MAP kinase phosphorylates numerous ...
... the β-estradiol-activated synthetic transcription factor Z4EV (McIsaac et al., 2013) for controlling Msp1 expression from the ... 2013) Promoter decoding of transcription factor dynamics involves a trade-off between noise and control of gene expression ... 2004) PEX3 functions as a PEX19 docking factor in the import of class I peroxisomal membrane proteins The Journal of Cell ... 2015) Receptor-bound targets of selective autophagy use a scaffold protein to activate the Atg1 kinase Molecular Cell 59:372- ...
His team have shown that chemical or environmental stress detaches a protein called activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2) ... ATF-2 serves as a kind of zipper, keeping the chromatin tightly bound. Once it is detached, the chromatin structure physically ... He says that mammals have a counterpart to ATF-2 called ATF-7. Last year, his team showed that in mice it could be altered ...
Exposed cells also demonstrated an increase in the activation of the transcription activating factor Nuclear-Factor-kappa-B (NF ... indicative of the activated endothelial cell. A time dependent increase was noted in neutrophil binding to Intercellular- ... resulting in the increased expression of growth factors and proteases, which are relevant to the development of fibrosis. ...
This inhibits its activity and attenuates protein translation while inducing the translation of activating transcription factor ... Wise et al., "The [GABA.sub.B] receptor interacts directly with the related transcription factors CREB2 and ATFx," Proceedings ... Enhancement of memory-related long-term facilitation by ApAF, a novel transcription factor that acts downstream from both CREB1 ... The antibodies used were Grp78 (76-E6), cAMP-responsive element (CRE) binding protein 2 CREB2 (also known as ATF4; C-20), and ...
Activating Transcription Factor 4 , Creb-2 , Creb2 , Taxreb67 , Txreb , Atf4 Background This gene encodes a transcription ... These transcription factors share a leucine zipper region that is involved in protein-protein interactions, located C-terminal ... protein encoded by this gene belongs to a family of DNA-binding proteins that includes the AP-1 family of transcription factors ... factor that was originally identified as a widely expressed mammalian DNA binding protein that could bind a tax-responsive ...
... activating transcription factor 2), altering their DNA-binding specificity. Thus, the ability of the HBV pX protein to interact ... Transactivation of the function of genes controlling transcriptional factors (ie, insulinlike growth factor II [IGF-2], ... epidermal growth factor-r [EGFR], retinoic acid receptor [RAR]), and oncogenes such as c-myc, fos, ras (activating the internal ... because it has been found to bind to a variety of transcription factors such as CREB (cyclic adenosine monophosphate [cAMP]- ...
... for his submission on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-mediated repression of transcription factor activating ... Joost L Boormans 1 , Ellen C Zwarthoff 1 , Peter C Black 2 , Peter J Goebell 3 , Ashish M Kamat 4 , Roman Nawroth 5 , Roland ... 2 Department of Urologic Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. ... protein 2 alfa expression identifying a transcriptional circuit in basal-squamous bladder cancer in a cell line model. S.B. ...
The mechanism of this reduction in negative feedback involves the attenuated expression of IKZF1, a transcription factor ... The mechanism of this reduction in negative feedback involves the attenuated expression of IKZF1, a transcription factor ... Transcription Factor PRDII-BF1 Activates Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Gene Expression. J Virol (1994) 68(2):1002-9. doi ... We then performed in silico analysis using IKZF1 ChIP-sequencing datasets from the ENCODE transcription factor database and ...
... after which the cells activate transcription factors that mediate various outcomes which can be measured in vitro, such as cell ... She summarized studies that demonstrated activation of transcription factors and cell proliferation. First, the panelist ... However, panelists identified key factors that must be considered when interpreting laboratory animal studies. These factors ... that many additional factors determine the toxicity of a fiber mixture. Examples of other factors include dose, fiber ...
... p300/CREB binding protein-associated factors, Elp3, and activating transcription factor-2. MYST family includes monocyte ... HDAC1 and HDAC3 enhance hypoxia-inducible factor-1α stability via direct interaction with the transcription factor (11). HDAC2 ... Several groups of transcription factors have intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity. These include GCN5-related N- ... Chuang HC, Chang CW, Chang GD, Yao TP, Chen H. Histone deacetylase 3 binds to and regulates the GCMa transcription factor. ...
... and transcription factors Microscopy Research and Technique , 73, 4, 364-408.. HERMO, L., PELLETIER, R. M., CYR, D. G. & SMITH ... Role of Specificity Protein-1 and Activating Protein-2 Transcription Factors in the Regulation of the Gap Junction Protein Beta ... Epidermal growth factor regulates connexin 43 in the human epididymis: role of gap junctions in azoospermia Human Reproduction ... Sexual dimorphism in the regulation of liver connexin32 transcription in hexachlorobenzene-treated rats Toxicological Sciences ...
... activating transcription factor 2), which alters their DNA-binding specificity. Thus, the ability of the HBV pX protein to ... Transactivation of the function of genes controlling transcriptional factors (ie, insulinlike growth factor II [IGF-2], ... epidermal growth factor-r [EGFR], retinoic acid receptor [RAR]), and oncogenes such as c-myc, fos, ras (activating the internal ... because it has been found to bind to a variety of transcription factors such as CREB (cyclic adenosine monophosphate [cAMP]- ...
This included glucose transporters, metabolic enzymes, transcription factors, cytolytic effector molecules, checkpoint ... Rasip1 mediates Rap1-induced cell spreading through its interaction partner Rho GTPase-activating protein 29 (ArhGAP29), a ... However, IL-2 does much more than control transcriptional programs; it is a key regulator of T cell metabolic programs. The ... IL-2 is a pleiotropic cytokine, and dissecting the signaling pathways that allow IL-2 to control the differentiation and ...
T cell subsets remain poorly characterized in terms of fate-specific biomarkers and transcription factor profiles. Here we ... G. J. Martinez, R. M. Pereira, T. Äijö et al., "The transcription factor NFAT promotes exhaustion of activated CD8+ T cells," ... The NF-κB transcription factor family is known to regulate T cell-specific gene expression and NF-κB is necessary to mediate ... regulated by the transcription factors T-bet, Runx3, Eomes, Blimp-1, and NFAT and the cytokines IL-2 and IL-12. Following ...
  • A transcription factor is a protein that attaches (binds) to specific regions of DNA and helps control the activity of particular genes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This inhibits its activity and attenuates protein translation while inducing the translation of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4, also known as CREB2 ) and other selected genes [30]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • ROS activate hypoxia inducible transcription factor (HIF) and nuclear factor2-erythroid related factor-2 (Nrf2), both factors activate genes that provide protection to the liver from alcohol toxicity. (nova.edu)
  • Here, using an array of techniques, including quantitative real-time PCR, immunostaining, reporter gene assays, RNA-Seq, and two-photon glutamate uncaging with calcium imaging, we show that knocking down GluN3A in rat hippocampal neurons promotes the inducible transcription of a subset of NMDAR-sensitive genes. (nih.gov)
  • We found that this enhancement is mediated by the accumulation of phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in the nucleus, which drives the activation of the transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) and promotes the transcription of a subset of synaptic activity-induced genes, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor ( Bdnf ) and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein ( Arc ). (nih.gov)
  • ATF1 and CREB regulate transcription of many target genes by way of homo-or heterodimerization within the family or with other b-zip transcription factors, which relevant to an AP1 or cAMP-response element [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • [1] [2] The function of TFs is to regulate-turn on and off-genes in order to make sure that they are expressed in the desired cells at the right time and in the right amount throughout the life of the cell and the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • TFs work alone or with other proteins in a complex, by promoting (as an activator ), or blocking (as a repressor ) the recruitment of RNA polymerase (the enzyme that performs the transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA) to specific genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • [13] Therefore, approximately 10% of genes in the genome code for transcription factors, which makes this family the single largest family of human proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, genes are often flanked by several binding sites for distinct transcription factors, and efficient expression of each of these genes requires the cooperative action of several different transcription factors (see, for example, hepatocyte nuclear factors ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription factors bind to either enhancer or promoter regions of DNA adjacent to the genes that they regulate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resveratrol is a polyphenolic stilbene, which can lower oxidative stress by activating the transcription factor nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), the master regulator of numerous genes encoding antioxidant and phase II-detoxifying enzymes and molecules. (escholarship.org)
  • This protein activates the transcription of some genes while inhibiting the transcription of others. (antibodies-online.cn)
  • PTFs also enable other transcription factors, histone modifiers, and nucleosome remodeling complexes to alter the chromatin state and promote gene expression of silenced genes. (cytoskeleton.com)
  • The transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4 were found to trigger endogenous expression of pluripotent genes [2] and were identified as PTFs due to their ability to access closed chromatin [3] . (cytoskeleton.com)
  • Activation of PPAR-gamma receptors regulates the transcription of insulin-responsive genes involved in the control of glucose production, transport, and utilization. (drugbank.com)
  • These transcription factors were used for identifying the master-regulators (genes and proteins) responsible for regulation of large cascades of differentially expressed genes. (wordpress.com)
  • Binding of the transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) to the antioxidant response element (ARE) in neural cells results in the induction of a battery of genes that can coordinate a protective response against a variety of oxidative stressors. (jneurosci.org)
  • Collectively, the major new findings of this report are: (1) endogenous AHR promotes the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes even in the absence of toxicants and drugs, (2) AHR by modulating the basal expression of a large fraction of TNF target genes may prime them for TNF stimulation and (3) AHR is required for TNF induction of MNSOD and the cellular response to cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells. (marshall.edu)
  • Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-6-activated NF-κB signaling induces the initialization of nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), which is a key transcription factor for osteoclastogenesis and stimulates the expression of various osteoclast-specific genes, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), cathepsin K (Ctsk) and calcitonin receptor ( 2 , 5 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • To determine the transcription level of osteoblast or osteoclast-specific genes, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used. (biomedcentral.com)
  • RNA polymerase was shown to bind to the new promoter motif using a DNA-binding protein assay and proteomics enabled the discovery of four candidates to potentially function directly in control of transcription of the WLP and other key genes of C 1 fixation metabolism. (biorxiv.org)
  • This in turn leads to translocation of NFAT into the nucleus where it binds DNA and other transcription factors such as activator protein 1 (AP-1) and drives transcription of various genes involved in the immune response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ccRCC cases were categorized into 2 subgroups according to prognostic-related DEGs (differentially expressed genes), and there was a significant difference in OS (overall survival) between them. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tacrolimus also inhibits the transcription for genes which encode IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, GM-CSF, and TNF-α, all of which are involved in the early stages of T-cell activation. (nih.gov)
  • Binding of cGAMP to STING dimers activates downstream transcription factors STAT6 and IRF3 and leads to production and transcription of host defense genes, including type I interferons ( IFNs ) such as IFN-β and other pro-inflammatory cytokines. (biolegend.com)
  • This and other research into the biology of ageing and the details relating to the transcription of DNA, and the expression or suppression of genes is truly amazingly fascinating. (healthfully.net)
  • STAT3 signalling is a major intrinsic pathway for cancer inflammation because it is frequently activated in malignant cells and capable of inducing a large number of genes that are crucial for inflammation (TABLE 2). (ottovonschirach.com)
  • STAT3 signaling is a major intrinsic pathway for cancer inflammation because it is often activated in tumor-associated immune and inflammatory cells as well as malignant cells and is capable of inducing a large number of genes that are crucial for inflammation including IL-6, 10, 11, 17, 23, CXCL12, and COX-2 [127]. (ottovonschirach.com)
  • Activated STAT3 regulates the transcription of genes controlling cell survival and proliferation and regulates the expression of antiapoptotic and immune response genes [128-130]. (ottovonschirach.com)
  • To maintain stem cells as pluripotent, select transcription factors activate pluripotency-promoting genes and concomitantly suppress differentiation-promoting genes. (cytoskeleton.com)
  • In silico analyses demonstrated that genes altered during recovery from infection were transcriptionally regulated by conserved transcription factors, including GATA/ELT-2, FOXO/DAF-16, and Nrf/SKN-1. (omicsdi.org)
  • We identified RPT-6, part of the 19S proteasome subunit, as an ELT-2 binding partner that is required for the proper expression of genes required for both immunity against bacterial infections and recovery after infection. (omicsdi.org)
  • We found that the intact ATPase domain of RPT-6 is required for the interaction and that inhibition of rpt-6 affected the expression of ELT-2-controlled genes, preventing the appropriate immune response against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and recovery from infection by the pathogen. (omicsdi.org)
  • Our results indicate that RPT-6 interacts with ELT-2 in vivo to control the expression of immune genes in a manner that is likely independent of the proteolytic activity of the proteasome. (omicsdi.org)
  • An RNA-interference screen was conducted using a transcription factor library to identify genes required for increased expression of the SKN-1 target gst-4 in brap-2 mutants. (omicsdi.org)
  • To define the C. elegans aging process at the molecular level, we used DNA microarray experiments to identify a set of 1294 age-regulated genes and found that the GATA transcription factors ELT-3, ELT-5, and ELT-6 are responsible for age regulation of a large fraction of these genes. (omicsdi.org)
  • In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) was performed to investigate the interactions between transcription factors and autophagy-related genes. (cambridge.org)
  • Among the various factors associated with genetic T2DM polymorphism of the same nucleotide in several genes, it has been widely studied and showed that the resulting genetic variants have a positive or negative correlation with T2DM, which increases or decreases the risk of T2DM. (who.int)
  • Induction of ABIG1 transcription mimics ABA treatment and regulates a set of genes implicated in stress responses. (elifesciences.org)
  • Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor activated by oxidative stress that regulates expression of numerous reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxifying and antioxidant genes. (elsevier.com)
  • The processed Stp factors then migrate into the nucleus, where they activate transcription of several amino acid permease genes including AGP1. (thebiogrid.org)
  • Exposure to LL-37 also led to the activation of Elk-1, a transcription factor that is downstream of and activated by phosphorylated ERK1/2, the up-regulation of various Elk-1-controlled genes, and the transcription and secretion of IL-8. (djdavidsonlab.net)
  • Inhibition of either p38 or ERK1/2 kinases led to a reduction in LL-37-induced IL-8 secretion and inhibition of the transcription of various chemokine genes. (djdavidsonlab.net)
  • A variety of cytokines and growth factors activate NFB signaling via canonical or non-canonical pathways, leading to the nuclear translocation of NFB and subsequent transcriptional upregulation of a plethora of inflammatory and pro-survival related genes (3). (aucampaignforburma.org)
  • Several important factors are involved in AP patterning, including members of the WNT and FGF growth factor families, retinoic acid receptors, and HOX genes. (biologists.com)
  • Particularly, master transcription factors that regulate meristem, flower, and fruit development, and biotic and abiotic stress-responsive genes were highly upregulated, whereas the expression of genes related to photosynthesis strongly decreased in the early stage of the gall development. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, the expression of PPAR-α target genes in the liver and brown adipose tissue is enhanced by a phytol-enriched diet, suggesting that phytol and phytanic acid activate PPAR-α in these organs. (nara-wu.ac.jp)
  • These genes are predicted to encode for a putative ABC transporter, a MYC2 transcription factor, a VQ-motif containing protein, a non-specific lipid-transfer protein, and a xyloglucan endotransglucosylase-hydroxylase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gene Ontology analysis showed that the upregulated genes were associated with visual cycle, phagocytosis, pigment synthesis, cell differentiation, and RPE-related transcription factors. (molvis.org)
  • MK2 also phosphorylates the transcription factor AATF, which suppresses the expression of p53 pro-apoptotic target genes. (tocris.com)
  • It also inhibited E2-induced GPR30-mediated signal transduction, as well as the transcription of GPR30-regulated genes. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Extensive whole-genome transcription profiling has led to identification of a panel of biomarker genes that are preferentially activated upon exposure to different classes of carcinogens and toxicants (Hendricks, G. et al. (europa.eu)
  • The WT1 protein mediates the mesenchymal-epithelial transition and differentiation during morphogenesis of the kidney and gonad by repressing genes that encode cell proliferation factors and by activating genes that encode markers of epithelial cell differentiation. (medscape.com)
  • The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase intracellular signaling pathway (adopted from Ref. 74). (thinkmuscle.com)
  • A simplified diagram of one intracellular signaling pathway associated with tyrosine kinase activity of the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR1). (thinkmuscle.com)
  • Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family play important roles in the development of cancers by inhibiting the transmission of the Janus kinases-signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway. (researchsquare.com)
  • R-spondin growth factors bind to LGR proteins and mediate activation of the Wnt signaling pathway , which has roles in animal development, as well as in diseases such as cancer. (shu.edu)
  • In the canonical type I IFN-induced signaling pathway, IFN- activates Janus kinase 1 and tyrosine kinase 2, which phosphorylate the cytoplasmic transcription factors signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and STAT226, 27. (groundwater-2011.net)
  • The phosphorylation of NR5A1 activates SF1 leading to increased steroidogenic gene expression upon cAMP signaling pathway stimulation. (icr.ac.uk)
  • In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the hepatocarcinogenic effect of N-nitrosodiethylamine can be abrogated by gallic acid supplementation owing to its affinity to regulate signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling pathway through its outstanding bioactivities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, apoptotic, and antitumor effects. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Signalling pathways involved in multisite phosphorylation of the transcription factor ATF-2. (umassmed.edu)
  • IL-2 is a pleiotropic cytokine, and dissecting the signaling pathways that allow IL-2 to control the differentiation and homeostasis of both pro- and anti-inflammatory T cells is fundamental to determining the molecular details of immune regulation. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • IL-2-JAK1/3 signaling pathways thus increased the abundance of nutrient transporters, nutrient sensors, and critical oxygen-sensing molecules. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • These receptors link to downstream signaling pathways by activating heterotrimeric G proteins and, as such, are designated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the introduction the immune cells, the diseases and the transcription factors + pathways will be introduced subsequently. (eur.nl)
  • Neuronal protection was also involved in activating the PI3K/Akt and Wnt/catenin pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pathway analysis revealed that a significant number of ADGs were components of TCDD and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) pathways. (marshall.edu)
  • Treatment-induced cell death was ERS-dependent, apoptotic pathways were not activated following knockdown of ERS protein CHOP. (biomedcentral.com)
  • At the same time, the freed UPR proteins become activated and initiate signaling pathways that serve to correct or neutralize ERS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conversely, during severe and persistent ERS pro-apoptotic UPR signaling pathways are activated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the RANK signaling axis, the RANKL-induced nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) is activated through key signaling pathways including mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) or NF-κB [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The lineage differentiation directions are regulated by various signaling pathways including Wnt, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), and Notch, among others [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has been well accepted that the progression of NAFLD is driven by multiple factors, such as dysregulation of hepatic lipid and bile acid metabolism, activation of inflammatory pathways and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, as well as dysbiosis of the gut microbiome [ 2 , 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Toward this end, we generated a high-fat diet-induced IR model in wild-type mice and skeletal muscle-specific human Nox4-transgenic mice (m-hNox4 Tg ) and investigated (1) the effect of the overexpression of Nox4 on IR and (2) the effector signaling pathways regulated by Nox4. (hindawi.com)
  • However, the regulatory factor and/or signaling pathways that lead to TLR2-mediated type I IFN induction are unclear. (groundwater-2011.net)
  • If successful, homeostasis is restored and protein synthesis resumes, but if ER stress persists, cell death pathways are activated. (bmj.com)
  • Understanding the signaling pathways involved in insulin action could lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of insulin resistance associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes, and identifying key molecules and processes could lead to newer and more effective therapeutic agents for treating these common disorders. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 3 , 2 Blocking the JAK-STAT pathway is advantageous, as it is an intracellular signalling pathway where many pro-inflammatory pathways converge. (drugbank.com)
  • To examine the activation status of molecules downstream of the KRAS, PIK3CA and BRAF signaling pathways, we assessed the phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2, Akt, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-B) in DLD-1, HT-29, LoVo and Colo-205 cells. (secretion.org)
  • Estrogen can bind to estrogen receptors at the plasma membrane and activate signaling pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Activation of plasma membrane receptors and the resultant activation of rapid signaling pathways can also alter gene expression, either by ligand-independent ER activation of gene expression secondary to phosphorylation of the ER or altering levels of co-activators and co-repressors or by activating ER-independent signals that alter gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This gene encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the leucine zipper family of DNA-binding proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription factor AP-2β is one of a group of related proteins called AP-2 transcription factors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to a family of DNA-binding proteins that includes the AP-1 family of transcription factors, cAMP-response element binding proteins (CREBs) and CREB-like proteins. (genetex.com)
  • We found that IL-2 signaling through JAK1 and JAK3 (JAK1/3) increased the abundance of a key subset of proteins to induce the accumulation of critical cytokines and effector molecules in T cells. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, IL-2 maintained the concentration of proteins that support core metabolic processes essential for cellular fitness. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • Many R egulators of G protein S ignaling (RGS) proteins accelerate the intrinsic GTPase activity of G iα and G qα -subunits [i.e., behave as GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs)] and several act as G qα -effector antagonists. (aspetjournals.org)
  • There are approximately 2800 proteins in the human genome that contain DNA-binding domains, and 1600 of these are presumed to function as transcription factors, [3] though other studies indicate it to be a smaller number. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transcription factor can either do this directly or recruit other proteins with this catalytic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intracellular kinases ultimately activate or inhibit other cellular proteins involved in apoptosis, or transcription factors that inhibit the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins, or promote the expression of cell survival proteins. (rndsystems.com)
  • The sodium-glucose co-transporters (SGLT) are a family of active glucose transporter proteins with two major isoforms, SGLT-1 and SGLT-2 [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • R-spondins activate Lgr membrane proteins, which are also specific stem-cell markers. (shu.edu)
  • During low to moderate levels of ERS various pro-survival UPR pathway proteins are activated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These include heat shock protein GRP78 (glucose regulated protein 78, also called BiP, immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein) and three ER transmembrane proteins PERK (protein kinase activated by double-stranded RNA-like ER kinase), IRE1 (inositol-requiring enzyme 1) and ATF6 (activating transcription factor 6). (biomedcentral.com)
  • These include elevated expression of transcription factor CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein, also called GADD153), inhibition of anti-apoptotic proteins (e.g. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bcl-2), stimulation of pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins (e.g. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Through the use of monoclonal antibodies against IL-6 and recombinant IL-6, it was further discovered that the proteins IFN-β2, 26 kDa protein and the hepatocyte-stimulating factor were also IL-6 [1]. (degruyter.com)
  • This, then, activates a series of further proteins, such as the STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) family of transcription factors, the RAS-RAF-MAPK signal pathway or phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3) kinase [2, 3]. (degruyter.com)
  • Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a member of a family of seven proteins (STATs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5a, 5b, and 6) that relay signals from activated cytokine and growth factor receptors in the plasma membrane to the nucleus, where they regulate gene transcription (1-3). (ottovonschirach.com)
  • Accumulation of misfolded proteins within the lumen results in ER stress, which activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). (bmj.com)
  • The activated IR kinase phosphorylates substrate proteins on Tyr residues, and these phosphorylated Tyr residues serve as docking sites for downstream effectors ( Fig. 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • IRS proteins contain a conserved pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, located at the NH 2 -terminus, that serves to localize the IRS proteins in close proximity to the receptor ( 11 , 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It contains multiple Tyr phosphorylation motifs that serve as docking sites for SH2 domain-containing proteins, like the p85α regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), growth factor receptor binding protein-2 (Grb2), Nck, Crk, Fyn, SHP-2, and others, all of which mediate the metabolic and growth-promoting functions of insulin ( 2 , 17 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Mild ERs and the activated eIF2α induced by the calcium changes mediated by BCP regulated the expression of osteogenic-related proteins and had an important role during the defect repair. (tissueandcells.com)
  • The SRY -related, HMG box SoxB1 transcription factors are highly homologous, evolutionarily conserved proteins that are expressed in neuroepithelial cells throughout neural development. (xenbase.org)
  • Upon binding of the ligand to its specific receptor, the receptor-associated Jak proteins 51543-40-9 supplier are activated via a phosphorylation event. (woofahs.com)
  • After being subjected to a hypoxic environment, the cells' viability was evaluated and proteins as well as RNA were extracted for analysis by Western blotting and RT-PCR (reverse transcription PCR) respectively. (portlandpress.com)
  • A major virulence determinant of anthrax is edema toxin (ET), which is formed by the combination of two proteins produced by the organism, edema factor (EF), which is an adenyl cyclase, and protective antigen (PA). (springer.com)
  • Much of the pathogenesis of anthrax is currently attributed to two toxins, each of which is produced from two of three proteins synthesized by the bacillary form of the organism: protective antigen (PA), edema factor (EF), and lethal factor (LF) [ 1 ]. (springer.com)
  • When bound to EREs, ER can positively or negatively regulate gene transcription through the recruitment of coactivator or corepressor proteins. (fishersci.com)
  • ATF-2 phosphorylation in response to treatment of cells with tumor promoter phorbol ester has been demonstrated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PA coal stimulates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and p38 MAPK but not c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinases, as determined by the phosphorylation assay. (cdc.gov)
  • Many studies have shown that the activity of transcription factors is usually regulated by multiple phosphorylation sites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, activation of PI 3-K leads to the phosphorylation and activation of Akt/PKB resulting in the Akt-dependent phosphorylation and inhibition of pro-apoptotic molecules such as Bad, GSK-3, caspase-9, and the forkhead family of transcription factors (FKHR). (rndsystems.com)
  • In vitro, WERC increased osteoblast mineralization by enhancing the transcription of runt-related transcription factor 2 and its transcriptional coactivators, and by stimulating extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MAPKKKs phosphorylate and activate members of the MAPK Kinase family (MAPKK), such as MAPK/ERK Kinase 4 (MKK4) and MAPK/ERK Kinase 7 (MKK7) which, in turn, activate MAPKs (JNK1/SAPK1, JNK2/SAPK2, and JNK3/SAPK3) in conserved dual phosphorylation sites of threonine and tyrosine (TPY motif sequence). (encyclopedia.pub)
  • IRAK-1 is usually cis-Urocanic acid activated by phosphorylation and associates with TRAF6, thereby activating the IKK complex cis-Urocanic acid and leading to activation of MAP kinases and NF-B3, 7C9. (groundwater-2011.net)
  • integrates phosphorylation during transcription with chromatin modifications to control co-transcriptional histone mRNA processing (PubMed:15564463, PubMed:19575011, PubMed:19844166). (wuxibiortus.com)
  • RPB1/POLR2A phosphorylation on 'Ser-2' in CTD activates transcription (PubMed:21127351). (wuxibiortus.com)
  • AR phosphorylation modulates AR transcription factor promoter selectivity and cell growth. (wuxibiortus.com)
  • DSIF and NELF phosphorylation promotes transcription by inhibiting their negative effect (PubMed:9857195, PubMed:10912001, PubMed:11112772). (wuxibiortus.com)
  • SOCS3, the major negative regulator of STAT3, is induced by tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT3 and terminates STAT3 phosphorylation about 2 h after initial exposure of cells to members of the IL-6 family of cytokines by binding cooperatively to the common receptor subunit gp130 and JAKs 1 and 2. (ottovonschirach.com)
  • Phosphorylation of translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) attenuates global protein synthesis but enhances translation of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and is a crucial evolutionarily conserved adaptive pathway during cellular stresses. (diamond.ac.uk)
  • Striatum was dissected and assayed for activated STAT-3 (Tyr705 phosphorylation). (cdc.gov)
  • LL-37 induced phosphorylation and activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38, in human peripheral blood-derived monocytes and a human bronchial epithelial cell line, but not in B or T lymphocytes. (djdavidsonlab.net)
  • Previous work has shown that phosphorylation of PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ) at serine 273 by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) stimulates diabetogenic gene expression in adipose tissues 1 . (nature.com)
  • De Fea, K. & Roth, R. A. Modulation of insulin receptor substrate-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and function by mitogen-activated protein kinase. (nature.com)
  • The ERK1/2 phosphorylation level was higher in DLD-1 ( 0.01), HT-29 ( 0.01), LoVo ( 0.01) and Colo-205 ( 0.01) cells than in Caco-2 cells. (secretion.org)
  • In addition, Akt and NF-B phosphorylation levels were elevated in DLD-1 ( 0.01) and HT-29 ( 0.01) cells but there is no difference between LoVo or Colo-205 cells and Caco-2 cells. (secretion.org)
  • As a result, the compounds inhibited TNF-α-induced downstream signaling via JNK and reduced activation of transcription factors c-Jun, activating transcription factor-2 and, in addition, NF κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), which led to decreased transcription of proinflammatory cytokines. (jimmunol.org)
  • Activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) are two important transcription factors responsible for the regulation of cytokines, which are involved in cell proliferation and inflammation. (cdc.gov)
  • Selective AHR deletion in eosinophils depleted Clec4a4+ eosinophils, augmented innate lymphocytes producing type 2 cytokines, and enhanced helminth clearance. (stanford.edu)
  • Our newly released LEGENDplex™ Human Angiogenesis Panel 1 (10-plex) can be used to detect pivotal factors and cytokines involved in cell adhesion and angiogenesis - the process of new blood vessel creation that promotes tumor growth, progression, and metastasis. (biolegend.com)
  • Apart from IL-6, this group also comprises the cytokines interleukin 11 (IL-11), the leukemia-inhibitory factor (LIF), oncostatin M (OSM), the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) and cardiotrophin-like cytokine (CLC). (degruyter.com)
  • All cytokines in this subgroup have in their molecular structure four long alpha helices, called A, B, C and D [2] - see Figure 1 . (degruyter.com)
  • The other cytokines in this group interact via heterodimers that consist of gp130 and LIFR (such as LIF and CNTF) or of gp130 and OSMR (OSM) [2]. (degruyter.com)
  • STAT3 is activated by several pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6)24,25,26, which is a prime target for therapeutic intervention in several inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, Still's disease and giant cell arthritis. (ottovonschirach.com)
  • STAT3 is found in the cytoplasm and is activated in response to stimuli from the cytokines. (ottovonschirach.com)
  • The STAT dimer translocates to the nucleus to upregulate the gene transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors implicated in atopic dermatitis. (drugbank.com)
  • In atopic dermatitis, JAK1 is the therapeutic target of focus as it is involved in the signalling of the γc family of cytokines involved in immune responses and disease pathophysiology, including IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, and IL-15. (drugbank.com)
  • They are activated by the MAPK kinases MKK3 and MKK6, which in turn are activated by upstream MAPK kinase kinases including TAK1, ASK1, and MLK3, in response to cellular stresses or inflammatory cytokines. (umbc.edu)
  • Jak2 is usually activated by a variety of cytokines, growth factors and G Protein-coupled Receptor (GPCR) ligands, resulting in signaling cascades that regulate cell growth, proliferation and death (1). (woofahs.com)
  • It would appear that OL-lineage cells also express immunological factors such as cytokines and chemokines in response to immune activation, and the expression of these factors changes under various pathologic conditions. (jbr-pub.org.cn)
  • The Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway is a down-stream effector of cytokines and activation of this pathway is associated with gliosis. (cdc.gov)
  • MK2 is activated by p38α and regulates the production of inflammatory cytokines , such as TNF-α. (tocris.com)
  • Correction to: Combination of mTORC1/2 inhibitor vistusertib plus fulvestrant in vitro and in vivo targets oestrogen receptor-positive endocrine-resistant breast cancer. (medscape.com)
  • Immunotoxicity of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate and the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. (cdc.gov)
  • Activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) modulates lipid and glucose homeostasis, cell proliferation and differentiation, and inflammation. (cdc.gov)
  • The [GABA.sub.B] receptor interacts directly with the related transcription factors CREB2 and ATFx," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Two travel awards were presented to H. Yamashita (USA) for his submission on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-mediated repression of transcription factor activating protein 2 alfa expression identifying a transcriptional circuit in basal-squamous bladder cancer in a cell line model. (nih.gov)
  • The IL-2 receptor couples to JAK tyrosine kinases and activates the STAT5 transcription factors. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhA), a ligand-activated Bhlh/PAS transcription factor, mediates a broad range of biological responses to halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. (cdc.gov)
  • Developmental differences in the glutamate receptor ionotropic NMDA 2 (GluN2) subunit composition of NMDARs determines whether they activate the transcription factor cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 (CREB). (nih.gov)
  • Like other thiazolidinediones, the mechanism of action of rosiglitazone is by activation of the intracellular receptor class of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), specifically PPARγ. (drugbank.com)
  • The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that upon activation by the toxicant 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin (TCDD) stimulates gene expression and toxicity. (marshall.edu)
  • A miRNA microarray analysis was conducted to evaluate the miRNA expression profile during receptor activator of nuclear factor‑κB ligand‑stimulated osteoclastogenesis. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • For example, osteoblast-secreted receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) (RANK) ligand (RANKL) binds to the RANK receptor on osteoclasts, thus promoting osteoclast survival and osteoclastogenesis ( 5 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In addition, the binding of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) to its receptor, colony stimulating factor receptor, has been reported to be essential for the generation of osteoclast precursor cells that are present prior to RANKL stimulation ( 2 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • We also studied the effect of WERC on the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-induced trabecular bone destruction mice model. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Remarkably, Clec4a4+ eosinophils were instructed by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a ligand-activated transcription factor that imprints many gut immune cells. (stanford.edu)
  • Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons such as 2,3,7.8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p=-dioxin (TCDD) have the ability to bind to and activate the ligand-activated transcription factor, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). (dianepublishing.net)
  • Wnt10b suppresses the expression of the adipogenic transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBPα) in a β-catenin- and T-cell factor (TCF)-dependent manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Similarly, hepatocyte-specific deficiency of HuR dramatically induced the expression of H19 and sphingosine-1 phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2), but reduced the expression of sphingosine kinase 2 (SphK2). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Editor's Note: The nuclear receptor related 1 protein (Nurr1), also known as NR4A2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR4A2 gene. (bioquicknews.com)
  • 5] Nurr1 is a member of the nuclear receptor family of intracellular transcription factors. (bioquicknews.com)
  • PXR is a xenobiotic-activated member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors. (igem.org)
  • We present that N antibodies neutralize SARS-CoV-2 intracellularly and cell-autonomously however require the cytosolic Fc receptor TRIM21 . (ncbcs.org)
  • The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor is a ubiquitously expressed, cytosolic transcription factor, which is activated by myriad structurally-diverse xenobiotic compounds, most notably 2,3,7,8-tetrechlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. (tdl.org)
  • Janus kinases (JAKs) are a family consisting of four receptor-associated kinases - JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, and tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2). (drugbank.com)
  • Upon ligand binding and subsequent dimerization of cytokine and hormone receptors, receptor-associated JAKs are activated and phosphorylated. (drugbank.com)
  • STAT binds to the receptor, and JAK phosphorylates and activates STAT to create a STAT dimer. (drugbank.com)
  • CBD, by activating the cannabinoid receptor, CB2, has been shown to induce vasodilatation in type 2 diabetic rats [8,9], and by activating 5-HT 1A receptors, CBD showed a therapeutic effect in diabetic neuropathy [10]. (topcannabisbrand.com)
  • These mutations have direct implications on virus infection rates through higher affinity of RBD for the cellular ACE-2 receptor. (abnova.com)
  • In this review, we will focus on the Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily J member 11 (KCNJ11), Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2), Calpain-10 (CAPN10) and their relationship with T2DM, studied in different ethnic groups. (who.int)
  • For the present study, a terpenoid constituent from G. biloba , bilobalide, was screened for protective effects on the ischaemic heart and the involvement of the PAFR [PAF (platelet-activating factor) receptor] and the enzyme that degrades PAF, PAF-AH (PAF acetylhydrolase) during hypoxia. (portlandpress.com)
  • We will repeat this with the SJW active component hyperforin that has been shown to increase CYP3A4/5activity via activation of the transcription factor Pregnane X Receptor (PXR). (nih.gov)
  • Chawla, A., Schwarz, E. J., Dimaculangan, D. D. & Lazar, M. A. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma: adipose-predominant expression and induction early in adipocyte differentiation. (nature.com)
  • Expression and localization of rabbit B-cell activating factor (BAFF) and its specific receptor BR3 in cells and tissues of the rabbit immune system. (southernbiotech.com)
  • Enhances androgen receptor-mediated transcription. (icr.ac.uk)
  • Tsuyoshi Goto, Scope: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. (nara-wu.ac.jp)
  • Acting at the receptor level, PP2A/ B'beta and B'delta enhance NGF (but not epidermal growth factor or fibroblast growth factor) signaling through the Akt and Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades and promote neuritogenesis and differentiation of PC12 cells. (mcw.edu)
  • Cell signaling via the P2X(7) nucleotide receptor: linkage to ROS production, gene transcription, and receptor trafficking. (wisc.edu)
  • In response to stress stimuli (such as UV irradiation, heat shock and oxidative stress), as well as LPS and Toll-like receptor signaling, p38 is activated and subsequently phosphorylates MK2, which is exported from the nucleus into the cells cytoplasm. (tocris.com)
  • The thiazolidinediones improve insulin sensitivity by stimulating adipocyte differentiation via activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), a key transcription factor for adipocyte differentiation. (aliasy.org)
  • Estrogen receptor is a member of the superfamily of nuclear receptors, which are ligand-dependent transcription factors. (fishersci.com)
  • The human estrogen receptor becomes activated following the binding of estrogen, causing a dissociation of the chaperone protein (Hsp90) and dimerization with either ERa or ERb. (fishersci.com)
  • The estrogen receptor is a ligand-activated transcription factor, that when bound to estrogen hormone, induces a conformational change that allows dimerization and binding to estrogen response elements (ERE) in DNA. (fishersci.com)
  • Since AP-1 and AP-2 are known to be involved in transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) trafficking, the effect of LZTFL1 on TfR1 recycling was analyzed. (prelekara.sk)
  • However, knockout of LZTFL1 did not affect the cell surface levels of epidermal growth factor receptor and cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, indicating that LZTFL1 specifically regulates the cell surface level of TfR1. (prelekara.sk)
  • Immunoprecipitation of AMPA Receptor 1 (GluA1) from mouse brain extracts, using Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP ® Isotype Control #3900 (lane 2) or AMPA Receptor 1 (GluA1) (D4N9V) Rabbit mAb (lane 3). (cellsignal.com)
  • Exposed cells also demonstrated an increase in the activation of the transcription activating factor Nuclear-Factor-kappa-B (NF-kB). (cdc.gov)
  • Apart from its effect on insulin resistance, it appears to have an anti-inflammatory effect: nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB) levels fall and inhibitor (IκB) levels increase in patients on rosiglitazone. (drugbank.com)
  • Western blot analysis was performed to study the effect of WERC on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) or nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling molecules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, WERC significantly inhibited osteoclast differentiation by suppressing the activation of the RANKL signalings (MAPK and NF-κB) and the increasing inhibitory factors of nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This paper is of particular interest as it describes The nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)p as the first transcription factor to be involved in the control of chondrogenesis from adult precursor cells but which has no effect on embryonic skeletal development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This effect has been shown to prevent the dephosphorylation and translocation of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NF-AT), a nuclear component thought to initiate gene transcription for the formation of lymphokines (such as interleukin-2, gamma interferon). (nih.gov)
  • The role of transcription factor activator protein (AP)-1 in oxidant regulation of AE2 was evaluated by EMSA and by immunoblotting of nuclear phospho-c-jun. (duke.edu)
  • Although primary mitochondrial disorders caused by either nuclear or mitochondrial DNA gene mutations are relatively rare, acquired mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in several common diseases or conditions such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and obesity, neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's (AD), Parkinson's (PD), and Huntington's diseases (HD) and aging [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Th2 transcription factor c-Maf inhibits IL-12p35 gene expression in activated macrophages by targeting NF-kappaB nuclear translocation. (cornell.edu)
  • Activator protein-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB, crucial transcription factors involved in COX-2 expression, were activated by UVB and delphinidin abolished this activation. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Briefly, nuclear extracts of 293T cells that were transfected with pact-ATF-2 were incubated for 15 min at 25C with a 32P-labeled oligonucleotide in a 20-l answer made up of 10 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.9), 50 NECA mM KCl, 1 mM dithiothreitol (DTT), 0.04% NP-40, 1 g of poly(dI-dC), and 5% glycerol. (aliasy.org)
  • c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase is essential for the regulation of AP-1 by tumor necrosis factor. (umassmed.edu)
  • In the mid-1980s, Rosenberg and colleagues defined tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) as a subset of highly cytotoxic lymphocytes isolated from tumor-bearing patients that exhibited objective responses following adoptive transfer in human cancer patients [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The transcription factor activator protein-2α (AP-2α) has recently been implicated as a tumor suppressor protein that can be lost during tumor progression and that exhibits growth-inhibitory properties when overexpressed in cancer cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The work was prompted by the knowledge that EVs are natural mediators of signaling between cancer cells and tumor resident antigen presenting cells (APCs), with some activating a type I IFN response via the STING pathway. (biolegend.com)
  • Over the course of their in-depth analysis, the researchers found that exoSTING enhanced the potency of CDN and preferentially activated APCs in the tumor microenvironment. (biolegend.com)
  • Specific STAT3 direct inhibitors consist of SH2 ligands, including G quartet oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) and small molecules, they induce cell death in tumor cells in which STAT3 is activated. (ottovonschirach.com)
  • Coadministration of ET with either tumor necrosis factor-α or bacterial lipopolysaccharide, each at 100 ng/mL, attenuated the increase of transendothelial 14 C-albumin flux caused by either agent alone. (springer.com)
  • Tumor-suppressive functions of leucine zipper transcription factor-like 1. (prelekara.sk)
  • Our results show that PGG effectively decreased the level of cathepsins K, L and S, and the activity of MMP-2 in tumor necrosis factor activated rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) in vitro. (clemson.edu)
  • See Wilms Tumor: A Pediatric Oncology Success Story , a Critical Images slideshow, to help identify the clinical features, staging evaluation, prognostic factors, and therapeutic options for this disease. (medscape.com)
  • RGS3 potently inhibited G qα Q209L- and G 11α Q209 l -mediated activation of a cAMP-response element-binding protein reporter gene and G qα Q209L induced inositol phosphate production, suggesting that RGS3 efficiently blocks G qα from activating its downstream effector phospholipase C-β. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the GTP-bound form, G α dissociates from G β γ , each of which can activate downstream effectors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The cascade can also contain two additional tiers: the upstream MAP4K and the downstream MAP Kinase-activated kinase (MAPKAPK). (princeton.edu)
  • The kinases in each tier phosphorylate and activate the kinases in the downstream tier to transmit a signal within a cell. (princeton.edu)
  • thus, we examined the roles of downstream targets, c-Jun, JunB, JunD, and activating transcription factor 2, in PGE 2 -mediated regulation of aromatase expression in BAF. (northwestern.edu)
  • The mouse FIRE region is located in the second intron, approximately 2kb downstream from the transcription start site. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • This frees downstream SNRK2 kinases from repression by the PP2C phosphatase, allowing the kinase to modify protein targets at the plasma membrane - to alter turgor in guard cells - or to modify a set of transcription factors - to promote maturation and dormancy in the developing seed. (elifesciences.org)
  • A key part of the response to viral infection is production of interferons (IFNs), which then activate their specific receptors (IFNRs) resulting in downstream activation of cellular signaling and a variety of physiological responses. (jneurosci.org)
  • The MAPKAPK family are activated by MAPK signaling , with MK2 being a downstream substrate of p38 . (tocris.com)
  • Activated MAP kinase phosphorylates numerous substrates, resulting in various biological effects. (thinkmuscle.com)
  • Activated AMPK phosphorylates various known and unknown targets and induces multiple cellular responses. (thinkmuscle.com)
  • c-jun-N-Terminal kinase 3alpha1 (JNK3alpha1) is a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family member expressed primarily in the brain that phosphorylates protein transcription factors including c-jun and activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) upon activation by a variety of stress-based stimuli. (scripps.edu)
  • For example, Aurora-A is activated during neurite elongation, and phosphorylates NDEL1, which facilitates microtubule extension into neurite processes. (wee1signaling.com)
  • Therefore, Chk2 phosphorylates and activates E2F-1 in response to DNA damage, resulting in apoptosis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In osteoblasts, supports transcription activation: phosphorylates RUNX2 that synergizes with SPEN/MINT to enhance FGFR2-mediated activation of the osteocalcin FGF-responsive element (OCFRE). (icr.ac.uk)
  • ATF-2 is normally activated in response to signals that converge on stress-activated protein kinases p38 and JNK. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and Janus kinases (JAKs) regulate transcriptional programs and protein synthesis to promote the differentiation of effector CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). (babraham.ac.uk)
  • While death ligands such as Fas and TNF-alpha bind to their receptors to promote caspase activation and cell death, anti-apoptotic ligands, such as growth factors, bind to cell surface receptors and activate intracellular kinases that promote cell survival. (rndsystems.com)
  • Similarly, other intracellular kinases activate transcription factors such as CREB and STAT family members which induce the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-x L , two Bcl-2 family members that protect the cell from apoptosis. (rndsystems.com)
  • Signal transduction via membrane-bound IL-6R or trans-signaling via sIL-6R causes the activation of intracellular tyrosine kinases, particularly Janus kinase (JAK) - see Figure 2 . (degruyter.com)
  • p38 kinases are mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), serving as important mediators of cellular responses to extracellular signals. (umbc.edu)
  • Unbiased proteomic studies show that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinases are activated in these knockout animals. (nature.com)
  • Jak1, Jak 2, and Jak3 belong to the Janus Kinases family of protein tyrosine kinases that couple to cytokine receptors once activated by their corresponding ligands. (rndsystems.com)
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAPK2, or MK2) is a kinase belonging to the MAPKAPK family, a group of kinases activated by MAPK signaling . (tocris.com)
  • To further elucidate the factors contributing to a protective response manifest by ARE activation, we used mouse primary cortical neuronal cultures to look at two paradigms of oxidative toxicity: H 2 O 2 and glutamate. (jneurosci.org)
  • By current evidences, it may be concluded that the direct effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors are potentially mediated through their ability to reduce cardiac inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and ionic dyshomeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Oxidative stress activates anion exchange protein 2 and AP-1 in airway epithelial cells. (duke.edu)
  • 2]Wondrak GT,Cabello CM,Villeneuve NF,et al.Cinnamoyl-based Nff2-activators targeting human skin cell photo-oxidative stress.Free Radic Biol Med,2008,45(4):385-395. (wanfangdata.com.cn)
  • Further studies indicated that SKN-1, which is an Nrf transcription factor involved in the response to oxidative stress and infection, is activated by inhibition of rpt-6. (omicsdi.org)
  • The Oxidative Stress Response in Caenorhabditis elegans Requires the GATA Transcription Factor ELT-3 and SKN-1/Nrf2. (omicsdi.org)
  • Previously, we characterized the Caenorhabditis elegans Brap2 ortholog (BRAP-2) and found that it is required to prevent larval arrest in response to elevated levels of oxidative stress. (omicsdi.org)
  • The MAPKK can then phosphorylate (P) and activate MAP kinase (MAPK) on conserved threonine and tyrosine residues. (thinkmuscle.com)
  • Here, we report that C. elegans brap-2 mutants display increased expression of SKN-1-dependent, phase II detoxification enzymes that is dependent on PMK-1 (a p38 MAPK C. elegans ortholog). (omicsdi.org)
  • Taken together, these results suggest a model where BRAP-2 acts as negative regulator of SKN-1 through inhibition of p38 MAPK activity, and that the GATA transcription factor ELT-3 is required along with SKN-1 for the phase II detoxification response in C. elegans. (omicsdi.org)
  • Both are sensitive to pyridinylimidazoles and share some common substrates such as MAPK activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) and the transcription factors ATF2, c-Fos and, ELK-1. (umbc.edu)
  • A series of steps that follow stabilizes β-catenin, which is translocated to the nucleus and, together with the Tcf/Lef family of transcription factors, induces gene expression. (shu.edu)
  • An activated Jak can in turn phosphorylate and activate the Signal Transducers and 51543-40-9 supplier Activators of Transcription (STAT) family of transcription factors. (woofahs.com)
  • The E2F family of transcription factors from Arabidopsis thaliana. (ugent.be)
  • Jaks activate members of the STAT family of transcription factors by phosphorylating critical tyrosine regulatory sites. (rndsystems.com)
  • Forkhead box protein C1 (FOXC1) belongs to the FOX family of transcription factors and functions as an important regulator in ocular development during the embryonic stage ( 5 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Here, we demonstrate that Bcl‐2, a cell death inhibitor that regulates apoptosis, is expressed within the growth plate in proliferative and prehypertrophic chondrocytes. (edu.au)
  • Our evidence that GluN3A regulates MEF2C-dependent transcription reveals a novel mechanism by which NMDAR subunit composition confers specificity to the program of synaptic activity-regulated gene transcription in developing neurons. (nih.gov)
  • SHP2 positively regulates cytokine and growth factor signaling, but negatively regulates the activation of T and B lymphocytes and IFN- signaling18C21. (groundwater-2011.net)
  • Regulates cytokine inducible transcription networks by facilitating promoter recognition of target transcription factors (e.g. (wuxibiortus.com)
  • Non-proteolytic activity of 19S proteasome subunit RPT-6 regulates GATA transcription during response to infection. (omicsdi.org)
  • We report that checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) regulates E2F-1 activity in response to the DNA-damaging agent etoposide. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Lastly, we show that treatment with proteasome inhibitors enhances the induction of CYP1A1 gene expression by TCDD, suggesting that the ubiquitinproteasome mediated degradation of AhA serves as a mechanism for controlling the activity of ligand-activated AhA. (cdc.gov)
  • Transcription factors are essential for the regulation of gene expression and are, as a consequence, found in all living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription factors use a variety of mechanisms for the regulation of gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • This subset of transcription factors, known as pioneer transcription factors (PTFs), possess the ability to engage closed chromatin that is not accessible by other types of transcription factors, establish gene expression, and elicit cell reprogramming. (cytoskeleton.com)
  • In this study, we discovered 27 transcription factors, including c-Ets, GR-alpha, BRCA1, E2F-1, E2F-6 and EGR-1, that were potentially responsible for the changes in gene expression induced by modified atherogenic LDL. (wordpress.com)
  • Identification of activated transcription factors from microarray gene expression data of Kampo medicine-treated mice. (elsevier.com)
  • Differential regulation of IL-12 and IL-10 gene expression in macrophages by the basic leucine zipper transcription factor c-Maf fibrosarcoma. (cornell.edu)
  • Differential regulation of interleukin (IL)-12 p35 and p40 gene expression and interferon (IFN)-gamma-primed IL-12 production by IFN regulatory factor 1. (cornell.edu)
  • The protooncogene c-Maf is an essential transcription factor for IL-10 gene expression in macrophages. (cornell.edu)
  • Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in transcription regulation, apoptosis and steroidogenic gene expression. (icr.ac.uk)
  • Activating transcription factor 2 controls Bcl-2 promoter activity in " by Qin Ma, Xinying Li et al. (edu.au)
  • The Bcl‐2 promoter contains a CRE at −1,552 bp upstream of the translation start. (edu.au)
  • Mutations within this CRE cause reduced Bcl‐2 promoter activity. (edu.au)
  • We show here that the absence of ATF‐2 in growth plate chondrocytes corresponds to a decline in Bcl‐2 promoter activity, as well as a reduction in Bcl‐2 protein levels. (edu.au)
  • In addition, we show that ATF‐2 as well as CREB, a transcription factor that can heterodimerize with ATF‐2, bind to the CRE within the Bcl‐2 promoter. (edu.au)
  • Mechanistically, ALKBH1-demethylated DNA 6mA modification could facilitate the binding of octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) to bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) promoter and activate BMP2 transcription. (jci.org)
  • Prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) secreted by malignant breast epithelial cells activates breast cancer-associated aromatase promoters I.3/II, but silences promoter I.4, in cultured human breast adipose fibroblasts (BAF). (northwestern.edu)
  • Activating transcription factor 2 knockdown did not affect promoter-specific or total aromatase mRNA levels. (northwestern.edu)
  • c-Jun knockdown increased promoter I.4-specific and PGE 2 -induced promoters I.3/II-specific aromatase mRNA levels, leading to enhanced PGE 2 -induced total aromatase mRNA level and enzyme activity.JunD,c-Jun,and JunB bound to a CRE(-211/-199) essential for PGE 2 induction of aromatase promoters I.3/II. (northwestern.edu)
  • Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secreted by malignant breast epithelial cells activates breast cancer-associated aromatase promoters I.3/II, but silences promoter I.4, in cultured human breast adipose fibroblasts (BAF). (northwestern.edu)
  • The Paracoccus denitrificans transcription factor FnrP has been characterized using artificial FNR-dependent promoter-lacZ fusion plasmids in Escherichia coli. (uea.ac.uk)
  • FnrP can activate both class I and class II FNR-dependent promoters in response to anoxia but shows a marked preference for the class II promoter, where the FNR binding site is centered at -41.5 with respect to the transcription start site. (uea.ac.uk)
  • The transcription of exon 1 through exon 22 occurs only in placental trophoblasts, and is driven by a trophoblast-specific promoter approximately 20kb upstream of the first exon. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The transcription this transcript is under the control of two major regulatory regions, which are highly conserved between human and mouse: the Promoter upstream of exon 2 and the fms-intronic regulatory region (FIRE). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The mouse Csf1r promoter is TATA-less, and drives transcription from multiple sites (known as broad class transcription start sites). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Next, in vivo experiments showed that a TetR-family transcriptional regulator (CAETHG_0459) and the housekeeping sigma factor (σ A ) activate expression of a reporter protein (GFP) in-frame with the new promoter motif from a fusion vector in E. coli . (biorxiv.org)
  • NFAT was originally identified as a transcription factor which binds the interleukin (IL)-2 promoter in activated T cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We now demonstrate that hypermethylation of a discrete 5′ region within a promoter CpG island of the gene is associated in breast cancer with the loss of AP-2 α expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This composite artificial transcription factor will activate any reporter or any gene in general that has a UAS (Upper Activating Sequence) 3' of it's promoter. (igem.org)
  • p38beta is involved in regulating the activation of the cyclooxygenase-2 promoter and the expression of TGFbeta-induced alpha-smooth muscle cell actin. (umbc.edu)
  • COX-2 promoter activity and PGE(2) production were also suppressed by delphinidin treatment within non-cytotoxic concentrations. (oregonstate.edu)
  • N -Methyl-d-aspartate type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) are key mediators of synaptic activity-regulated gene transcription in neurons, both during development and in the adult brain. (nih.gov)
  • Rosiglitazone acts as a highly selective and potent agonist at peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) in target tissues for insulin action such as adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver. (drugbank.com)
  • Introduction Toll-like receptors (TLR) play a critical role in the early innate immune response to pathogens by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and are involved in sensing endogenous danger signals1, 2. (groundwater-2011.net)
  • This mutation made the DAF-2 gene-a gene responsible for the function of two kinds of hormone receptors on a cell's membrane-less active. (healthfully.net)
  • Also known as Leukocyte Janus Kinase (LJak), Jak3 is activated after binding to the gamma chain of Interleukin receptors, specifically the IL-2 and IL-4 receptors. (rndsystems.com)
  • Estrogen can bind to classic estrogen receptors (ER), ERα and ERβ, which act as ligand-gated transcription factors that bind to DNA with the help of co-activators and co-repressors and alter DNA transcription (see [ 2 ] for more details). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Western blot analysis revealed a 2-fold elevation in IRS2 protein levels in Tg + mice compared with littermate controls and a 3-fold increase in basal tyrosine phosphorylated IRS2 in the absence of IL-4 stimulation. (aai.org)
  • Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2) is an evolutionarily conserved protein tyrosine phosphatase with a widespread expression pattern16. (groundwater-2011.net)
  • Physical exercise and muscle contraction activate the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and p38 signaling cascades in rodent and human skeletal muscle. (thinkmuscle.com)
  • Osteoblast-Specific Factor 2 (OSF-2, Periostin) is a secreted extracellular matrix protein (ECM) expressed in fibroblasts during bone and teeth development. (morulaivf.com)
  • Activating transcription factor 2, also known as ATF2, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ATF2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Catalytic domain of the Serine/Threonine Kinase, p38beta Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase. (umbc.edu)
  • Due to activation of HIF (and Nrf2, not part of this proposal), it is possible that AGT transcription will be affected. (nova.edu)
  • 4]Scapagnini G,Vasto S,Abraham NG,et al.Modulation of Nrf2/ARE pathway by food polyphenols:a nutritional neuroprotective strategy for cognitive and neurodegenerative disorders.Mol Neurobiol,2011,44(2):192-201. (wanfangdata.com.cn)
  • 19]Wagner AE,Ernst I,Iori R,et al.Sulforaphane but not ascorbigen,indole-3-carbinole and ascorbic acid activates the transcription factor Nrf2 and induces phase-2 and antioxidant enzymes in human keratinocytes in culture.Exp Dermatol,2010,19(2):137-144. (wanfangdata.com.cn)
  • ATF-2 may mediate oncogenesis caused by mutant Ras protein and regulate maintenance of the aggressive cancer phenotype of some types of epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below we discuss mechanisms in the form of pioneer transcription factors, histone modifications, and recently identified actin-dependent mechanisms that regulate chromosome accessibility and gene regulation during cellular reprogramming. (cytoskeleton.com)
  • Cancer cell-intrinsic signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activity supports many of the hallmarks of cancer, including cell growth, proliferation, survival, immune evasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. (ottovonschirach.com)
  • 6 The Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signalling pathway plays a central role in the pathogenesis of a variety of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, including atopic dermatitis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease with complex pathogenesis. (drugbank.com)
  • The current data indicated that gallic acid administration in hepatocellular carcinoma bearing rats yielded significant decline in serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein, glypican-3, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 along with significant enhancement in serum suppressors of cytokine signaling 3 level. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • CD36 binds oleic acid and converts it to oleylethanolamide, which activates the PPARa gene transcription factor. (ans2all.com)
  • Here, we demonstrate that in vitro LZTFL1 directly binds to AP-1 and AP-2 and coimmunoprecipitates AP-1 and AP-2 from cell lysates. (prelekara.sk)
  • Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERs) and the subsequent PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 pathway can be activated by various factors, including trauma and intracellular calcium changes, and therefore worth exploring as a potential mechanism in BCP-mediated bone repair. (tissueandcells.com)
  • However, whether the developmentally regulated GluN3A subunit also modulates NMDAR-induced transcription is unknown. (nih.gov)
  • protein phosphatase 2 catalytic subunit alp. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • core-binding factor subunit beta [Source:H. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • Regulatory subunit of the cyclin-dependent kinase pair (CDK9/cyclin-T1) complex, also called positive transcription elongation factor B (P-TEFb), which is proposed to facilitate the transition from abortive to productive elongation by phosphorylating the CTD (C-terminal domain) of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II). (wuxibiortus.com)
  • The catalytic subunit of telomerase, hTERT, is defined as the limiting factor for telomerase activity. (rero.ch)
  • This study figured out the role of p-ATF1-T184 in the metastasis of gastric cancer (GC) and in the regulation of Matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP2). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hence, the combinatorial use of a subset of the approximately 2000 human transcription factors easily accounts for the unique regulation of each gene in the human genome during development . (wikipedia.org)
  • Their regulation of transcription is complex with each transcription factor able to function independently of the other while also capable of auto-inhibition (e.g. (cytoskeleton.com)
  • GATA transcription factors play a crucial role in the regulation of immune functions across metazoans. (omicsdi.org)
  • Inhibition of this modification is a key therapeutic mechanism for anti-diabetic drugs that bind PPARγ, such as the thiazolidinediones and PPARγ partial agonists or non-agonists 2 . (nature.com)
  • These data show that an ERK/Cdk5 axis controls PPARγ function and suggest that MEK/ERK inhibitors may hold promise for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. (nature.com)
  • Figure 2: Identification and characterization of ERK as a S273 PPARγ kinase. (nature.com)
  • Methods and results: A luciferase reporter assay shows that phytanic acid potently activates PPAR-α among PPAR subtypes. (nara-wu.ac.jp)
  • Conclusion: A phytol-enriched diet may increase phytanic acid levels in the liver and brown adipocytes, thereby activating PPAR-α in these organs and ameliorating obesity-induced metabolic diseases. (nara-wu.ac.jp)
  • In non-activated monocytes/macrophages, histone repression marks (H3K9me3, H3K27me3, and H4K20me3) decorate chromatin at specific loci ( 11 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This thesis focusses on understanding the role of three transcriptions factors, namely ATF3, EGR3 and PU.1, and also microRNA-146a, involved in the activation of monocytes, macrophages and microglia in pathological conditions, which are thought to be driven - at least in part - by special inflammatory reactions. (eur.nl)
  • In macrophages and a few other tissues (see expression section) transcription of CSF1R occurs only from exon 2 through exon 22 producing a transcript predicted to be approximately 3.9kb in length, which is translated into the CSF1R protein. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • This study showed that WERC could protect against osteoporosis and suggested that the possible mechanism of WERC might be related to increased osteoblast differentiation by activating Runx2 signaling and inhibition of osteoclast differentiation by suppression of RANKL signaling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we identify a transcription factor, ABA INSENSITIVE GROWTH 1 (ABIG1) required for abscisic acid (ABA) mediated growth inhibition, but not for stomatal closure. (elifesciences.org)
  • In this paper, we describe a transcription factor that is required for inhibition of growth in response to ABA. (elifesciences.org)
  • Delphinidin suppresses ultraviolet B-induced cyclooxygenases-2 expression through inhibition of MAPKK4 and PI-3 kinase. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The purpose of this research was to investigate whether asbestos (1332214) induces an active endothelial cell phenotype, resulting in the increased expression of growth factors and proteases, which are relevant to the development of fibrosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Recently, the RNA polymerase (PB2) protein has also been recognized as a critical factor in host range restriction, while the nonstructural (NS1) protein affects the initial host immune responses. (cdc.gov)
  • In this closed state, chromatin structure becomes an obstacle for eukaryotic transcription by impeding the interaction of RNA polymerase machinery and most transcription factors (TFs). (cytoskeleton.com)
  • The mRNA and protein expression levels were assessed by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 2000. The TBP-like factor CeTLF is required to activate RNA polymerase II transcription during C. elegans embryogenesis. . (ucsb.edu)
  • This binding results in the activation of cGAS and subsequent synthesis of the cyclic dinucleotide (CDN) STING ligand, 2′3′ cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP). (biolegend.com)
  • Human influenza viruses preferentially recognize sialyloligosacchrides containing SAα2,6Gal ( 1 , 2 ), matched by mainly NeuAcα2,6Gal linkages on the epithelial cells of the human trachea ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • By contrast, avian viruses preferentially recognize SAα2,3Gal sialic acids ( 1 , 2 ), in accordance with the predominance of sialyoligosaccharides with SAα2,3Gal linkages on the epithelial cells of duck intestine. (cdc.gov)
  • In an in vitro OSCN - production system, OSCN - , but not H 2 O 2 , activated NF-κB, a transcription factor critical for inflammatory responses, in the airway epithelial cells. (elsevier.com)
  • These results demonstrate that OSCN - in low doses activates NF-κB via PKA in airway epithelial cells, whereas OSCN - in high doses causes necrosis, suggesting an important role in airway allergic inflammation for the production of OSCN - via the pendrin/peroxidase/Duox pathway. (elsevier.com)
  • AE2 mRNA and protein expression was measured by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively, in differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to H(2)O(2) (100 microM). (duke.edu)
  • These data identify the Bcl‐2 gene as a novel target of ATF‐2 and CREB in growth plate chondrocytes. (edu.au)
  • The encoded protein was also isolated and characterized as the cAMP-response element binding protein 2 (CREB-2). (genetex.com)
  • Lane 1 is CREB (48H2) Rabbit mAb, lane 2 is Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP ® Isotype Control #3900, and lane 3 is 10% input. (cellsignal.com)
  • Expression of ATF‐2 within the growth plate is limited to the resting and proliferating zones. (edu.au)
  • We have previously shown that ATF‐2 targets the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) in the promoters of cyclin A and cyclin D1 in growth plate chondrocytes to activate their expression. (edu.au)
  • However, Bcl‐2 expression declines in hypertrophic chondrocytes. (edu.au)
  • The mechanism of this reduction in negative feedback involves the attenuated expression of IKZF1, a transcription factor required for de novo synthesis of RELA during LPS-induced inflammatory responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • P-ATF1-T184 further increased the DNA binding ability, transcription activity, and stabilized the protein expression of ATF1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, at the same time of the BALB/C3T3 cells transformation induced by NiCl 2 , ATF1 was induced to be up-regulated and subsequently inhibit the transcriptional expression of thrombospondin 1 (TSP1) [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Progression of hormone-dependent mammary tumors in the ACI rat model is altered by exposure to environmental factors that influence the expression of key antioxidant enzymes. (rutgers.edu)
  • PGE 2 induced JunB and JunD protein expression through protein kinase A and protein kinase C, respectively. (northwestern.edu)
  • JunB also activates aromatase promoters I.3/II by maintaining JunD expression. (northwestern.edu)
  • No expression of EREBP-1 and EREBP-2 was detected. (springernature.com)
  • Alterations in in vivo AE2 protein expression were evaluated in lung tissue of rats exposed to 70% O(2). (duke.edu)
  • In turn, the expression level and transactivation ability of these transcription factors are regulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs) 2,3 . (cytoskeleton.com)
  • We found that ELT-3 interacts with SKN-1 to activate gst-4 transcription in vitro and that elt-3 is required for enhanced gst-4 expression in the brap-2(ok1492) mutant in vivo Furthermore, nematodes overexpressing SKN-1 required ELT-3 for life-span extension. (omicsdi.org)
  • Expression of elt-5 and elt-6 increases during normal aging, and both of these GATA factors repress expression of elt-3, which shows a corresponding decrease in expression in old worms. (omicsdi.org)
  • Xenopus Sox3 activates sox2 and geminin and indirectly represses Xvent2 expression to induce neural progenitor formation at the expense of non-neural ectodermal derivatives. (xenbase.org)
  • Our studies indicate that Sox3 and 2 have many similar functions in this process including the ability to activate expression of geminin in naïve ectodermal explants. (xenbase.org)
  • Sox3 activates the expression of sox2 , while Sox2 does not activate expression of sox3 and sox3 is uniquely expressed throughout the ectoderm prior to neural induction suggesting a role in neural competence. (xenbase.org)
  • Sox3 activates geminin and sox2 expression in the absence of protein synthesis. (xenbase.org)
  • We found that delphinidin suppressed UVB-induced COX-2 expression in JB6 P+ mouse epidermal cells. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Moreover, in vivo investigations using mouse skin revealed that the upregulation of COX-2 expression, MAPKK4 activity and PI-3K activity induced by UVB was abolished with delphinidin treatment. (oregonstate.edu)
  • 0.01) cells in a concentration-dependent manner but did not affect the expression of any of these factors in DLD-1 and. (secretion.org)
  • Expression of Osteoblast - Specific Factor 2 (OSF- 2 , Periostin) Is Associated with Drug Resistance in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines. (morulaivf.com)
  • Expression of OSF-2 has been also related to the progression and drug resistance of different tumors. (morulaivf.com)
  • The OSF-2 transcript (real-time PCR analysis), protein expression in cell lysates and cell culture medium (western blot), and expression of the OSF-2 protein in cell lines (immunofluorescence) were investigated in this study. (morulaivf.com)
  • Increased expression of OSF-2 mRNA was observed in drug-resistant cells and followed by increased protein expression in cell culture media of drug-resistant cell lines. (morulaivf.com)
  • however, no direct co-expression with OSF-2 was demonstrated. (morulaivf.com)
  • Both drugs induced OSF-2 expression after a short period of exposure of the drug-sensitive cell line to DOX and MTX. (morulaivf.com)
  • The obtained results indicate that OSF-2 expression might be associated with the development of DOX and MTX resistance in the primary serous W1 ovarian cancer cell line. (morulaivf.com)
  • Overexpression of a constitutively active RAR α 2 rescues the effects of FGF blockade on the expression of XCAD3 and HOXB9 . (biologists.com)
  • Surprisingly, we found that posterior expression of FGFR1 and FGFR4 was dependent on the expression of RAR α 2 . (biologists.com)
  • PGG treatment also reduced the expression of osteogenic markers in activated RASMCs. (clemson.edu)
  • Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) sequence polymorphisms in type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetic traits. (cdc.gov)
  • Studies suggest that several normal variations (polymorphisms) in the TFAP2B gene are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, the most common form of diabetes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Although changes in the TFAP2B gene may be associated with type 2 diabetes, a combination of lifestyle, genetic, and environmental factors all play a part in determining the risk of this complex disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • [ 2 ] However, it is known that millions of US individuals have obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus . (medscape.com)
  • Rosiglitazone is a thiazolidinedione indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to maintain glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. (drugbank.com)
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by polygenic hyperglycemia caused by insulin secretion or insulin resistance. (who.int)
  • Several environmental factors and genetics interact to increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and its complications. (who.int)
  • Obesity-linked insulin resistance is a major precursor to the development of type 2 diabetes. (nature.com)
  • Obesity is usually associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, malignancy, and heart disease (6, 23). (aliasy.org)
  • Furthermore, thiazolidinediones, which are now widely used for treating type 2 diabetes (48), usually enhance weight gain (8). (aliasy.org)
  • We associated lineage-determining transcription factors (LDTFs) with demethylation and demonstrated unique patterns of DNA methylation/hydroxymethylation in relationship to open chromatin regions (OCRs), histone modifications and TF-binding sites. (stanford.edu)
  • Methylation of lysine-4 of histone H3 (H3K4men) is an important regulatory factor in eukaryotic transcription. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Removal of the transcriptionally activating H3K4 methylation is catalyzed by histone demethylases, including the Jumonji C (JmjC) KDM5 subfamily. (ox.ac.uk)
  • MERS-CoV in-vitro, although not SARS-CoV-2 which had not yet appeared. (researchgate.net)
  • In this review, reports concerning the effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors in models of diabetic cardiomyopathy, heart failure and myocardial ischemia from in vitro, in vivo as well as clinical reports are comprehensively summarized and discussed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Right here, we current a easy in vitro methodology known as EDNA (electroporated- antibody -dependent neutralization assay) that gives a quantitative measure of N- antibody exercise in unpurified serum from SARS-CoV-2 convalescents. (ncbcs.org)
  • In vitro methods for producing antibodies are amenable to large-scale production, meaning antibody availability is unlikely to become a limiting factor. (cellsignal.com)
  • However, it remained unclear how activating these molecules would lead to airway inflammation. (elsevier.com)
  • Furthermore, OSCN - in high doses caused necrosis of the cells, inducing release of IL-33, a trigger to initiate type 2 inflammation. (elsevier.com)
  • Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a key mediator of inflammation, and its product, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), enhance carcinogenesis, particularly in skin. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Collectively, our results demonstrated that delphinidin targets MAPKK4 and PI-3K directly to suppress COX-2 overexpression, suggesting a potential protective role for delphinidin against UVB-mediated skin carcinogenesis. (oregonstate.edu)
  • How is STAT3 activated? (ottovonschirach.com)
  • In particular, the transcription factor STAT3 is critical for astroglial response to CNS damage. (cdc.gov)
  • Here, we used brain slices from mice treated with the dopaminergic neurotoxicant, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to examine astroglial STAT3 activation responses. (cdc.gov)
  • These data suggest that activated STAT3 is pre-served in brain slices. (cdc.gov)
  • JunB or JunD knockdown by small interfering RNA markedly reduced PGE 2 -induced total aromatase mRNA level and enzyme activity via promoters I.3/II. (northwestern.edu)
  • The transcription of CSF1R mRNA can be initiated at the two independent start sites in a tissue specific manner. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Embryos are injected with sox2 or sox3 (400 or 500 pg) and lacZ (100 pg) mRNA in 1 of 2-cells. (xenbase.org)
  • A) WISH for epi-k and Xp63 in embryos injected with 400-800 pg of sox3 or sox2 mRNA with lacZ (100 pg) mRNA into one of 2-cells. (xenbase.org)
  • Through transcription the information contained in a section of DNA is replicated to form a new piece of messenger RNA (mRNA). (cdc.gov)
  • These data provide key insights into how IL-2 promotes T cell function and highlight signaling mechanisms and transcription factors that integrate oxygen sensing to transcriptional control of CD8 T cell differentiation. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • In this study, microcomputed tomography and histological analysis on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)2-induced parietal periosteum bone formation assays, C3H10T1/2 and mouse bone marrow MSC-derived bone formation and adipogenesis assays, and specific staining for bone tissue and lipid droplets were used to evaluate the role of azoramide on the lineage determination of MSC differentiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In 1985 interleukin 6 (IL-6) was first identified as a differentiation factor for B-cells (B-cell stimulatory factor 2) which caused B-cells to mature and produce antibodies. (degruyter.com)
  • Interleukin 6 is a cytokine of a pleiotropic nature, which was first identified as a differentiation factor for B-cells almost 30 years ago. (degruyter.com)
  • Nerve growth factor (NGF) is critical for the differentiation and maintenance of neurons in the peripheral and central nervous system. (mcw.edu)
  • Mutations that disrupt the second alternative splicing site of the WT1 gene alter the normal ratio of KTS-positive/negative isoforms from 2:1 to 1:2 and result in abnormalities in glomerular formation and gonadal differentiation seen in Frasier syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Hilger-Eversheim K, Moser M, Schorle H, Buettner R. Regulatory roles of AP-2 transcription factors in vertebrate development, apoptosis and cell-cycle control. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The regulatory regions and transcription binding sites within are highly conserved between mouse and human. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Furthermore, analyses of AhA degradation in cells bearing a temperature-sensitive mutation in the ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1) reveal that degradation of AhA in both untreated and TCDD-treated cells requires functional E1. (cdc.gov)
  • Irinotecan (Camptosar) acts by blocking Topoisomerase-1 , an enzyme responsible for uncoiling DNA, which is necessary to enable DNA replication and gene transcription. (shu.edu)
  • The IKK complex is then recruited to the TNF-RSC via linear ubiquitin chains, put (+)-CBI-CDPI2 together from the HOIL-1/HOIP/SHARPIN enzyme complex (also known as the for 15 min at 4 C, and lysed by sonication in 2% SDS, 150 mm NaCl, 50 mm Tris (pH 8.5), 5 mm DTT, 2 mm sodium orthovanadate, protease inhibitors (EDTA-free, Sigma Aldrich) and PhosStop phosphatase inhibitors (Sigma Aldrich). (aucampaignforburma.org)
  • Studies using these samples found associations between fatal outcomes and elevated liver enzyme levels, renal dysfunction, cytokine dysregulation, and genetic factors. (cdc.gov)
  • Most of these genetic changes alter the structure of transcription factor AP-2β. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Obesity has an interactive effect with genetic variation in the activating transcription factor 6 gene on the risk of pre-diabetes in individuals of Chinese Han descent. (cdc.gov)
  • In molecular biology , a transcription factor ( TF ) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor ) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA , by binding to a specific DNA sequence . (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple factors including genetic alterations, environmental risk factors and viral infections are the primary causes for OSCC development and progression. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • thus, it may represent a class of sequence-specific factors that activate transcription by direct effects on chromatin components. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PTB domain, present in a number of signaling molecules ( 13 ), shares 75% sequence identity ( 14 ) between IRS-1 and IRS-2 and functions as a binding site to the NPXY motif of the juxtamembrane region of the IR to promote IR/IRS-1 interactions ( 15 , 16 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Signaling and Function of Interleukin-2 in T Lymphocytes. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • The discovery of interleukin-2 (IL-2) changed the molecular understanding of how the immune system is controlled. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • Interleukin-2 shapes the cytotoxic T cell proteome and immune environment-sensing programs. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • Phosphoproteomic Analyses of Interleukin 2 Signaling Reveal Integrated JAK Kinase-Dependent and -Independent Networks in CD8(+) T Cells. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • mitogen-activated protein kinase 11 [Source. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • The activities of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) 4 and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3K) were inhibited markedly by delphinidin. (oregonstate.edu)
  • SHP2 inhibits TLR3- and TLR4-activated IFN- production in a phosphatase activity-independent manner by binding to TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1)21. (groundwater-2011.net)