Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.Transcription Factor AP-2: A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors: A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.Transcription Factors, TFII: The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.YY1 Transcription Factor: A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.GATA4 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.Transcription Factor TFIID: The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Activating Transcription Factor 3: An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.NFATC Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.Sp3 Transcription Factor: A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.Transcription Initiation Site: The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Activating Transcription Factor 2: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.Transcription Factor TFIIB: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.MEF2 Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.GATA3 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.GATA1 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.GATA2 Transcription Factor: An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.TCF Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.GATA Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.STAT1 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Activating Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.Transcription Factor RelA: A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs: Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.GATA6 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Activating Transcription Factor 4: An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Transcription Factor 7-Like 1 Protein: A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.Activating Transcription Factor 1: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Transcription Factor TFIIIA: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.NFI Transcription Factors: Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets: A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein oncogene protein v-ets of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Transcription Factor TFIIH: A general transcription factor that is involved in basal GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. It consists of nine subunits including ATP-DEPENDENT DNA HELICASES; CYCLIN H; and XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM GROUP D PROTEIN.Mice, Inbred C57BLSOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Transcription Factor TFIIA: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.STAT5 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Transcription Factor DP1: A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.T-Box Domain Proteins: Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Leucine Zippers: DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.Octamer Transcription Factor-1: A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.Regulatory Elements, Transcriptional: Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.TATA-Box Binding Protein: A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.Erythroid-Specific DNA-Binding Factors: A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Transcription Factors, TFIII: Factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE III and aid in transcription. They include the assembly factors TFIIIA and TFIIIC and the initiation factor TFIIIB. All combine to form a preinitiation complex at the promotor that directs the binding of RNA POLYMERASE III.GA-Binding Protein Transcription Factor: A heterotetrameric transcription factor composed of two distinct proteins. Its name refers to the fact it binds to DNA sequences rich in GUANINE and ADENINE. GA-binding protein integrates a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and regulates expression of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE control, PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS, and cellular METABOLISM.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Early Growth Response Protein 1: An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.High Mobility Group Proteins: A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Protein: A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway. The activity of the protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN. Transcription factor 7-like 2 protein plays an important role in the embryogenesis of the PANCREAS and ISLET CELLS.Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-1: An ets proto-oncogene expressed primarily in adult LYMPHOID TISSUE; BRAIN; and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Reverse Transcription: The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Twist Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that was originally identified in DROSOPHILA as essential for proper gastrulation and MESODERM formation. It plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MUSCLE CELLS, and is found in a wide variety of organisms.NF-E2 Transcription Factor, p45 Subunit: A tissue-specific subunit of NF-E2 transcription factor that interacts with small MAF PROTEINS to regulate gene expression. P45 NF-E2 protein is expressed primarily in MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; and MAST CELLS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Nerve Tissue ProteinsOligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Transcription Factor TFIIIB: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. TFIIIB recruits and positions pol III over the initiation site and remains stably bound to the DNA through multiple rounds of re-initiation by RNA POLYMERASE III.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Activating Transcription Factor 6: One of the BASIC-LEUCINE ZIPPER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that is synthesized as a membrane-bound protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. In response to endoplasmic reticulum stress it translocates to the GOLGI APPARATUS. It is activated by PROTEASES and then moves to the CELL NUCLEUS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in the unfolded protein response.Transcription Factor Brn-3: A family of mammalian POU domain factors that are expressed predominately in NEURONS.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.SOXB1 Transcription Factors: A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)NF-E2 Transcription Factor: A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates GLOBIN gene expression and is related to TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1. NF-E2 consists of a small MAF protein subunit and a tissue-restricted 45 kDa subunit.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.CCAAT-Binding Factor: A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.SOXE Transcription Factors: A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subfamily have been implicated in regulating the differentiation of OLIGODENDROCYTES during neural crest formation and in CHONDROGENESIS.Upstream Stimulatory Factors: Ubiquitously expressed basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF transcription factors. They bind CANNTG sequences in the promoters of a variety of GENES involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Myogenic Regulatory Factors: A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).RNA Polymerase III: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Pol1 Transcription Initiation Complex Proteins: Factors that form a preinitiation complex at promoters that are specifically transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE I.Transcription Factor 3: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in determining cell fate during embryogenesis. It forms a heterodimer with TWIST TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and ACHAETE-SCUTE GENE COMPLEX-related TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Transcription Factor Pit-1: A POU domain factor that regulates expression of GROWTH HORMONE; PROLACTIN; and THYROTROPIN-BETA in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.

ATF-2-binding regulatory element is responsible for the Ly49A expression in murine T lymphoid line, EL-4. (1/480)

To understand the mechanism of Ly49A-expression and its significance in T-cell differentiation, we analyzed the 5'-flanking region of the Ly49A gene in a search for the Ly49A-regulatory element. Since very few known regulatory elements have been found in this region, presumably a novel regulatory sequence(s) could exist. Accordingly, we defined the 13-bp regulatory element, 5'-ATGACGAGGAGGA-3', restricted to Ly49A-expression in EL-4 cells in comparison with two other representative cell lines tested. This element, designated as EL13, proved to be previously undiscovered by homology search and is highly homologous with several virus DNAs. Using EL13 as a probe we have cloned a cDNA encoding a binding protein to EL13. Its deduced nucleotide sequence revealed that EL13-binding protein is almost identical with rat ATF-2. Although ATF-2 is known to bind to cyclic AMP responsive element (CRE), EL13 shares five out of eight nucleotides with this consensus sequence. Our results suggested that ATF-2 may play an important role via binding to EL13 for the expression of Ly49A. These data will provide useful information for understanding T-cell and NK-cell differentiation in murine immune system.  (+info)

Platelet-derived growth factor induces interleukin-6 transcription in osteoblasts through the activator protein-1 complex and activating transcription factor-2. (2/480)

Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) BB, a mitogen that stimulates bone resorption, increases the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine that induces osteoclast recruitment. The mechanisms involved in IL-6 induction by PDGF BB are poorly understood. We examined the effect of PDGF BB on IL-6 expression in cultures of osteoblasts from fetal rat calvariae (Ob cells). PDGF BB increased IL-6 mRNA and heterogeneous nuclear RNA levels, the rate of transcription, and the activity of base pairs (bp) -2906 to +20 IL-6 promoter fragments transiently transfected into Ob cells. Deletion analysis revealed two responsive regions, one containing an activator protein-1 (AP-1) site located between bp -276 and -257, and a second, less well defined, downstream of -257. Targeted mutations of a cyclic AMP-responsive element (CRE), and nuclear factor-IL-6 and nuclear factor-kappaB binding sites in a bp -257 to +20 IL-6 construct that was transfected into Ob cells, revealed that the CRE also contributed to IL-6 promoter induction by PDGF BB. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed AP-1 and CRE nuclear protein complexes that were enhanced by PDGF BB. Supershift assays revealed binding of Jun and Fos to AP-1 and CRE sequences and binding of activating transcription factor-2 to CRE. In conclusion, PDGF BB induces IL-6 transcription in osteoblasts by regulating nuclear proteins of the AP-1 complex and activating transcription factor-2.  (+info)

pp60(v-src) induction of cyclin D1 requires collaborative interactions between the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, and Jun kinase pathways. A role for cAMP response element-binding protein and activating transcription factor-2 in pp60(v-src) signaling in breast cancer cells. (3/480)

The cyclin D1 gene is overexpressed in breast tumors and encodes a regulatory subunit of cyclin-dependent kinases that phosphorylate the retinoblastoma protein. pp60(c-src) activity is frequently increased in breast tumors; however, the mechanisms governing pp60(c-src) regulation of the cell cycle in breast epithelium are poorly understood. In these studies, pp60(v-src) induced cyclin D1 protein levels and promoter activity (48-fold) in MCF7 cells. Cyclin D1-associated kinase activity and protein levels were increased in mammary tumors from murine mammary tumor virus-pp60(c-src527F) transgenic mice. Optimal induction of cyclin D1 by pp60(v-src) involved the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family. Cyclin D1 promoter activation by pp60(v-src) involved a cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)/activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2) binding site. Dominant negative mutants of CREB and ATF-2 but not c-Jun inhibited pp60(v-src) induction of cyclin D1. pp60(v-src) induction of CREB was blocked by the p38 inhibitor SB203580 or by mutation of CREB at Ser133. pp60(v-src) induction of ATF-2 was abolished by the c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor JNK-interacting protein-1 or by mutation of ATF-2 at Thr69 and Thr71. CREB and ATF-2, which bind to a common pp60(v-src) response element, are transcriptionally activated by distinct mitogen-activated protein kinases. Induction of cyclin D1 activity by pp60(v-src) may contribute to breast tumorigenesis through phosphorylation and inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein.  (+info)

ATF-2 is a common nuclear target of Smad and TAK1 pathways in transforming growth factor-beta signaling. (4/480)

Upon transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) binding to its cognate receptor, Smad3 and Smad4 form heterodimers and transduce the TGF-beta signal to the nucleus. In addition to the Smad pathway, another pathway involving a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase family of kinases, TGF-beta-activated kinase-1 (TAK1), is required for TGF-beta signaling. However, it is unknown how these pathways function together to synergistically amplify TGF-beta signaling. Here we report that the transcription factor ATF-2 (also called CRE-BP1) is bound by a hetero-oligomer of Smad3 and Smad4 upon TGF-beta stimulation. ATF-2 is one member of the ATF/CREB family that binds to the cAMP response element, and its activity is enhanced after phosphorylation by stress-activated protein kinases such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38. The binding between ATF-2 and Smad3/4 is mediated via the MH1 region of the Smad proteins and the basic leucine zipper region of ATF-2. TGF-beta signaling also induces the phosphorylation of ATF-2 via TAK1 and p38. Both of these actions are shown to be responsible for the synergistic stimulation of ATF-2 trans-activating capacity. These results indicate that ATF-2 plays a central role in TGF-beta signaling by acting as a common nuclear target of both Smad and TAK1 pathways.  (+info)

p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediates signal integration of TCR/CD28 costimulation in primary murine T cells. (5/480)

Optimal T cell activation requires two signals, one generated by TCR and another by the CD28 costimulatory receptor. In this study, we investigated the regulation of costimulation-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation in primary mouse T cells. In contrast to that reported for human Jurkat T cells, we found that p38 MAPK, but not Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), is weakly activated upon stimulation with either anti-CD3 or anti-CD28 in murine thymocytes and splenic T cells. However, p38 MAPK is activated strongly and synergistically by either CD3/CD28 coligation or PMA/Ca2+ ionophore stimulation, which mimics TCR-CD3/CD28-mediated signaling. Activation of p38 MAPK correlates closely with the stimulation of T cell proliferation. In contrast, PMA-induced JNK activation is inhibited by Ca2+ ionophore. T cell proliferation and production of IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-gamma induced by both CD3 and CD3/CD28 ligation and the nuclear expression of the c-Jun and ATF-2 proteins are each blocked by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. Our findings demonstrate that p38 MAPK 1) plays an important role in signal integration during costimulation of primary mouse T cells, 2) may be involved in the induction of c-Jun activation and augmentation of AP-1 transcriptional activity, and 3) regulates whether T cells enter a state of functional unresponsiveness.  (+info)

Ubiquitination and degradation of ATF2 are dimerization dependent. (6/480)

Ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation are key determinants of the half-lives of many transcription factors. Homo- or heterodimerization of basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors is required for their transcriptional activities. Here we show that activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) heterodimerization with specific bZIP proteins is an important determinant of the ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation of ATF2. Depletion of c-Jun as one of the ATF2 heterodimer partners from the targeting proteins decreased the efficiency of ATF2 ubiquitination in vitro, whereas the addition of exogenously purified c-Jun restored it. Similarly, overexpression of c-Jun in 293T human embryo kidney cells increased ATF2 ubiquitination in vivo and reduced its half-life in a dose-dependent manner. Mutations of ATF2 that disrupt its dimerization inhibited ATF2 ubiquitination in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, removal of residues 150 to 248, as in a constitutively active ATF2 spliced form, enhanced ATF2 dimerization and transactivation, which coincided with increased ubiquitination and decreased stability. Our findings indicate the increased sensitivity of transcriptionally active dimers of ATF2 to ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation. Based on these observations, we conclude that increased targeting of a transcriptionally active ATF2 form indicates the mechanism by which the magnitude and the duration of the cellular stress response are regulated.  (+info)

Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) expression is induced by low oxygen conditions found in solid tumor microenvironments. A candidate MKP for the inactivation of hypoxia-inducible stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase activity. (7/480)

Pathophysiological hypoxia is an important modulator of gene expression in solid tumors and other pathologic conditions. We observed that transcriptional activation of the c-jun proto-oncogene in hypoxic tumor cells correlates with phosphorylation of the ATF2 transcription factor. This finding suggested that hypoxic signals transmitted to c-jun involve protein kinases that target AP-1 complexes (c-Jun and ATF2) that bind to its promoter region. Stress-inducible protein kinases capable of activating c-jun expression include stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (SAPK/JNK) and p38 members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) superfamily of signaling molecules. To investigate the potential role of MAPKs in the regulation of c-jun by tumor hypoxia, we focused on the activation SAPK/JNKs in SiHa human squamous carcinoma cells. Here, we describe the transient activation of SAPK/JNKs by tumor-like hypoxia, and the concurrent transcriptional activation of MKP-1, a stress-inducible member of the MAPK phosphatase (MKP) family of dual specificity protein-tyrosine phosphatases. MKP-1 antagonizes SAPK/JNK activation in response to diverse environmental stresses. Together, these findings identify MKP-1 as a hypoxia-responsive gene and suggest a critical role in the regulation of SAPK/JNK activity in the tumor microenvironment.  (+info)

Down-regulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha expression by activating transcription factor 2 increases UVC-induced apoptosis of late-stage melanoma cells. (8/480)

To identify mechanisms whereby activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) alters the radiation resistance of human melanoma cells, we examined the possible role of ATF2 in UVC-induced apoptosis. Forced expression of full-length or truncated (Delta1-195 amino acids) forms of ATF2 in LU1205, a late-stage human melanoma cell line, elevated the levels of UVC-induced apoptosis. At the same time, either truncated or full-length forms of ATF2 reduced UVC-induced activation of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) promoter and decreased expression of TNFalpha. Forced expression of c-Jun in ATF2-expressing melanoma cells restored TNFalpha expression, suggesting that both forms of ATF2 sequestered transcription factors that positively regulate TNFalpha expression in response to UV irradiation. Antagonistic antibodies to Fas, but not to TNFR1, efficiently suppressed UVC-induced apoptosis, suggesting that the Fas pathway mediates the primary apoptotic signal in melanoma cells whereas the TNFR1 pathway elicits a survival signal. Indeed, treatment of melanoma cells with TNFalpha before UVC irradiation partially suppressed UVC-induced apoptosis, further supporting the protective role of TNFalpha in UVC-treated melanoma cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that ATF2 contributes to UVC-induced apoptosis through transcriptional silencing of TNFalpha, which balances Fas-mediated cell death in melanoma.  (+info)

InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
HighRider-2 include one dip tube for ATF-2 connection. Flow via the aseptic connector over the HFF to the ATF-2 SUE. The dip tube is connected via a 9,5 x 14,3 mm hose to the aseptic connector. Photo 1: Seen from left on the left side of the blue tip pH SUS the broth dip tube. Further seen the VisiWell SUW with the orange O-ring. Photo 3: Dip tube hose aseptic connector to the left.. ...
ATF-4兔多克隆抗体(ab105383)可与小鼠样本反应并经WB, IHC实验严格验证,被2篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
ATF-4兔多克隆抗体(ab28830)可与人样本反应并经ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被2篇文献引用并得到1个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
The crisis at VA has now reached a peak. Can President Obama seize the opportunity to initiate and catalyze real change -- meaning transforming the syste...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
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The results reveal an essential survival pathway in malignant glioma, whereby activation of a RAS-mitogen-activated protein kinase or phosphoinositide-3-kinase signaling cascade leads to induction of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein-3-like-2 (CREB3L2), which directly activates ATF5 expression. ATF5, in turn, promotes survival by stimulating transcription of myeloid cell leukemia sequence-1 (MCL1), an antiapoptotic B cell leukemia-2 family member. [Nat Med ...
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多种适用的ATF2ELISA试剂盒,如小鸡, 人, 小鼠等。在antibodies-online.cn对比ATF2ELISA试剂盒,以便找到您需要的产品。
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Mitochondrial dysfunction is pervasive in human pathologies such as neurodegeneration, diabetes, cancer, and pathogen infections as well as during normal aging. Cells sense and respond to mitochondrial dysfunction by activating a protective transcriptional program known as the mitochondrial unfolded …
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Fibronectin (FN) is transactivated by human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E6 via the induction of c-Jun-ATF-2 complexes binding to the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) in the FN promoter. The present study analyzed c-Jun regulation of FN gene expression. Northern and immunoblot analyses showed that c-Jun expression was enhanced in HPV16-E6-expressing cells. However, mouse 10T1/2 cell lines overexpressing c-Jun showed an inverse correlation between the expression levels of c-Jun and those of FN. Luciferase assays indicated that the FN promoter was strongly repressed in c-Jun-overexpressing mouse 10T1/2 cells. Deletion and mutation analyses of the FN promoter revealed that repression of the FN promoter by c-Jun depends on the CRE located at -160 relative to the start site of transcription. Supershift assays of CRE-bound complexes from HPV16-E6-expressing and c-Jun-overexpressing cells suggested that the presence of ATF-2 in the complexes binding to CRE was required for the transactivation of the ...
Get an answer for Calculate Kc for the system, Ni2+ + Co Ni + Co2+. at 25 C?Ni2+ (aq) + 2e === Ni (s) E = - 0.25 V Co2+ (aq) + 2e === Co (s) E = - 0.28 and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
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Melatonin是一种由松果体制成的激素,可激活褪黑激素受体。Melatonin 在睡眠中起作用并具有重要的抗氧化和抗炎特性。Melatonin 是一种新型的选择性 ATF-6 抑制剂,可通过 COX-2 下调诱导人肝癌细胞凋亡 ...
Expression of the ATF in the ECV304 cells. Immunofluorescence was performed, and the resulting cells were observed under a laser scanning confocal microscope. (
... shows decreased expression when activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) is knocked out. Since ATF2 was not predicted to ... "Suppressor role of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) in skin cancer". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105 (5): 1674-9. doi ...
It was later identified by the yeast-two hybrid system to bind to activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) to repress ATF- ... JDP2 (gene) has been shown to interact with Activating transcription factor 2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000140044 - ... "The transcription factor T-box 3 regulates colony-stimulating factor 1-dependent Jun dimerization protein 2 expression and ... The Jun dimerization protein is a member of the AP-1 family of transcription factors. JDP 2 was found by a Sos-recruitment ...
Firestein R, Feuerstein N (March 1998). "Association of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) with the ubiquitin-conjugating ... Firestein R, Feuerstein N (1998). "Association of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) with the ubiquitin-conjugating ... Sapetschnig A, Rischitor G, Braun H, Doll A, Schergaut M, Melchior F, Suske G (October 2002). "Transcription factor Sp3 is ... "Ubc9 interacts with the androgen receptor and activates receptor-dependent transcription". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (27): 19441-6. ...
Transcription factor AP-2 gamma also known as AP2-gamma is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TFAP2C gene. AP2-gamma is ... AP2-gamma activates genes that are important for placenta development and retinoic acid-mediated differentiation of the eyes, ... Mutations of this transcription factor can lead to poorly developed placenta and tissues. A mutated AP2-gamma gene is known to ... 2005). "Transcription factor AP-2gamma, a novel marker of gonocytes and seminomatous germ cell tumors". Int. J. Cancer. 115 (3 ...
... has been shown to interact with RuvB-like 1 and Activating transcription factor 2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... a regulator of activating transcription factor 2 response to stress and DNA damage". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 21 (24): ... a regulator of activating transcription factor 2 response to stress and DNA damage". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 21 (24): ... "Control of nutrient-sensitive transcription programs by the unconventional prefoldin URI". Science. 302 (5648): 1208-12. doi: ...
POU domain, class 3, transcription factor 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POU3F2 gene. N-Oct-3 is a protein ... It is likely that CNS-specific transcription factors such as these play an important role in mammalian neurogenesis by ... Eisen T, Easty DJ, Bennett DC, Goding CR (November 1995). "The POU domain transcription factor Brn-2: elevated expression in ... Octamer transcription factor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000184486 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
... a novel regulator for induction of activating transcription factor-2 and heme oxygenase-1". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... by control of the upstream activator of insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling ... 235 (1-2): 372-81. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1996.00372.x. PMID 8631357. PDB: 1GCU​; Kikuchi A, Park SY, Miyatake H, Sun D, Sato ... 957 (2): 237-42. doi:10.1016/0167-4838(88)90278-6. PMID 3191141. Wang J, de Montellano PR (May 2003). "The binding sites on ...
2006). "Transcription factor activating enhancer-binding protein-2beta. A negative regulator of adiponectin gene expression". J ... Transcription factor AP-2 beta also known as AP2-beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TFAP2B gene. AP-2 beta is a ... "Entrez Gene: transcription factor AP-2 beta (activating enhancer binding protein 2 beta)". Tsukada S, Tanaka Y, Maegawa H, et ... 2009). "The transcription factor TFAP2B is associated with insulin resistance and adiposity in healthy adolescents". Obesity ( ...
MAPK can then enter into the nucleus and activate target transcription factors (2). In particular, three T box transcription ... FGF could activate Xbra expression through Ets2, a FGF target transcription factor that binds to an FGF-responsive element of ... In Xenopus, VegT activates transcription of Nodal-related genes (Xnr) genes, Activin and other mesodermal transcripts, which ... A vegetally localized T-box transcription factor in Xenopus eggs specifies mesoderm and endoderm and is essential for embryonic ...
... a transcription factor. The GATA family of transcription factors, which contain zinc fingers in their DNA binding domain, have ... Sp1 and GATA factors are necessary for basal transcription in endothelial cells". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (25): 15320-6. doi:10.1074 ... Zhang SB, He QY, Zhao H, Gui CY, Jiang C, Qian RL (2002). "Function of GATA transcription factors in hydroxyurea-induced HEL ... Wieser R, Volz A, Vinatzer U, Gardiner K, Jäger U, Mitterbauer M, Ziegler A, Fonatsch C (2000). "Transcription factor GATA-2 ...
Factors eIF1A and eIF5B interact on the ribosome along with other initiation factors and GTP to position the initiation ... The process is simpler in prokaryotes which have only three initiation factors (IF1, IF2, IF3). Two of these factors are ... Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF5B gene. Accurate initiation of ... 2007). "Position of eukaryotic initiation factor eIF5B on the 80S ribosome mapped by directed hydroxyl radical probing". EMBO J ...
This protein also phosphorylates histone, casein, and the transcription factors ATF2 (activating transcription factor 2) and c- ... Valbuena A, Vega FM, Blanco S, Lazo PA (2006). "p53 downregulates its activating vaccinia-related kinase 1, forming a new ... Sevilla A, Santos CR, Vega FM, Lazo PA (2004). "Human vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) activates the ATF2 transcriptional ... 2000). "Stress-induced activation of protein kinase CK2 by direct interaction with p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase". J. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor. Activating protein 2 Cheng C, Ying K, Xu M, Zhao W, Zhou Z, Huang Y ... Transcription factor AP-2 delta (activating enhancer binding protein 2 delta), also known as TFAP2D, is a human gene. ... Wang W, Xu J, Zeng L, Xie Y, Mao Y (January 2002). "Cloning and characterization of a novel human transcription factor AP-2 ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor. Activating protein 2 Tummala R, Romano RA, Fuchs E, Sinha S ( ... Transcription factor AP-2 epsilon (activating enhancer binding protein 2 epsilon), also known as TFAP2E, is a human gene. ... a fifth member of the AP-2 family". Gene. 321: 93-102. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(03)00840-0. PMID 14636996. TFAP2E protein, human ... December 2003). "Molecular cloning and characterization of AP-2 epsilon, ...
"CUX1 transcription factor is a downstream effector of the proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2)". J. Biol. Chem. 284 (1): 36- ... Nepveu A (2001). "Role of the multifunctional CDP/Cut/Cux homeodomain transcription factor in regulating differentiation, cell ... Cux transcription factor by cyclin A-Cdk1 modulates its DNA binding activity in G(2)". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (49): 45780-90. doi: ... the alternatively spliced product of the gene encoding the CCAAT-displacement protein transcription factor, is a Golgi membrane ...
Up regulation of translation and expression of certain transcription factors, e.g. Activating Transcription Factor 4 (ATF4) ... Pathways that activate eIF-2 alpha include: mTOR pathway induced by insufficient glucose and other nutrients. unfolded protein ... ISR is a common denominator of different types of cellular stresses resulting in activation of at least one of the eIF-2 alpha ...
... suppresses MAPK11-mediated activating transcription factor-2 activation and represses TNF gene expression". J. Immunol. 173 (6 ... Yao YL, Yang WM, Seto E (September 2001). "Regulation of transcription factor YY1 by acetylation and deacetylation". Mol. Cell ... "Histone deacetylase 3 binds to and regulates the multifunctional transcription factor TFII-I". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (3): 1841-7. ... "Histone deacetylase 3 associates with and represses the transcription factor GATA-2". Blood. 98 (7): 2116-23. doi:10.1182/blood ...
This kinase is activated through its phosphorylation by MAP kinase kinases (MKKs), preferably by MKK6. Transcription factor ... suppresses MAPK11-mediated activating transcription factor-2 activation and represses TNF gene expression". J. Immunol. 173 (6 ... Deak M, Clifton AD, Lucocq LM, Alessi DR (1998). "Mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase-1 (MSK1) is directly activated ... a major pneumococcal virulence factor, involves calcium influx and depends on activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein ...
... stimulates Map4k4 expression through TNFalpha receptor 1 signaling to c-Jun and activating transcription factor 2". The Journal ... "MicroRNA-30d induces insulin transcription factor MafA and insulin production by targeting mitogen-activated protein 4 kinase 4 ... This further leads to the increase in expression and activity of specific transcription factors that respond to a variety of ... TNF-α can elevate MAP4K4 expression using transcription factors The JNK pathway is implicated in a number of physiological ...
The encoded protein interacts with another transcription factor, myocyte enhancer factor 2, to activate transcription of this ... The protein encoded by this gene is a nuclear transcription factor involved in the activation of the solute carrier family 2 ... interaction between a transcriptional activator and myocyte enhancer factor 2A". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100 (25): 14725- ...
"RB and c-Myc activate expression of the E-cadherin gene in epithelial cells through interaction with transcription factor AP-2 ... a cell-type-specific transcription factor that activates inducible enhancer elements". Genes & Development. 2 (12A): 1557-69. ... a cell-type-specific transcription factor that activates inducible enhancer elements". Genes & Development. 2 (12A): 1557-69. ... "Transcription factor AP-2alpha is preferentially cleaved by caspase 6 and degraded by proteasome during tumor necrosis factor ...
... transcription factor IIA-gamma increases osteoblast-specific osteocalcin gene expression via activating transcription factor 4 ... and runt-related transcription factor 2". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 283 (9): 5542-53. doi:10.1074/jbc.M705653200. ... 396 (1-2): 66-9. doi:10.1016/j.cca.2008.07.001. PMID 18657532. Ba Y, Huang H, Yang Y, Cui L, Zhu J, Zhu C, Liu J, Zhang Y (Nov ... 27 (2): 193-200. doi:10.1159/000189204. PMID 19136823. Lumachi F, Ermani M, Camozzi V, Tombolan V, Luisetto G (Sep 2009). " ...
The MAP kinase ERK activates the downstream transcription factors Myc, AP-1 and Fos which in turn activate the transcription of ... One of the members of the pathways, MAPK activates a transcription factor Myc, which alters transcription of genes important in ... A role for cAMP response element-binding protein and activating transcription factor-2 in pp60(v-src) signaling in breast ... resulting in free transcription factors which result in protein transcription that promotes passage through G1 phase of the ...
... activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1), serum response factor (SRF), and mRNA-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP) In ... "Cell type-specific inhibition of the ETS transcription factor ER81 by mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase ... Yang SH, Galanis A, Sharrocks AD (Jun 1999). "Targeting of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases to MEF2 transcription factors ... Kyriakis JM, Avruch J (Apr 2001). "Mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathways activated by stress ...
... has been shown to interact with: Activating transcription factor 2, ATF1, C-Fos, CREB binding protein, CSNK2B, FGF1, ... "Casein kinase II interacts with the bZIP domains of several transcription factors". Nucleic Acids Res. 26 (16): 3854-61. doi: ... Wang D, Westerheide SD, Hanson JL, Baldwin AS (October 2000). "Tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced phosphorylation of RelA/p65 ... Li D, Dobrowolska G, Krebs EG (June 1996). "The physical association of casein kinase 2 with nucleolin". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (26 ...
Differentiation of mature B cells into plasma cells is dependent upon the transcription factors Blimp-1/PRDM1 and IRF4. ... First, the B cells have to encounter a foreign antigen, and are then required to be activated by T helper cells before they ... This is a type of safeguard to the system, almost like a two-factor authentication method. ... ISBN 0-7817-6507-2.. *^ a b c d e Walport, Mark; Murphy, Kenneth; Janeway, Charles; Travers, Paul J. (2008). Janeway's ...
Vectors for transcription factor cloning and target site identification by means of genetic selection in yeast ... The GCN4 motif in a rice glutelin gene is essential for endosperm-specific gene expression and is activated by Opaque-2 in ... The maize transcription factor Opaque-2 activates a wheat glutenin promoter in plant and yeast cells ... The developmentally regulated bZIP factor ROM1 modulates transcription from lectin and storage protein genes in bean embryos ...
Activating transcription factor 2. BIC: B-Cell Integration Cluster. C-MAF: Musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog ... It down-regulates BCL6 (B-cell lymphoma 6) protein [8], which is an evolutionarily conserved zinc finger transcription factor ... It does not bind DNA directly, but attaches through the transcription factors MEF2C and MEF2D. Analysis of DLBCL patient data ... MiR-155 was found to up-regulate HK2 by activating Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3), and targeting C/ ...
Activating transcription factor 2, also known as ATF2, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ATF2 gene. This gene ... Activating transcription factor 2 has been shown to interact with C-jun, Casein kinase 2, alpha 1, CREB binding protein, ... Activating transcription factor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000115966 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... Firestein R, Feuerstein N (March 1998). "Association of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) with the ubiquitin-conjugating ...
International biotechnology industry analysis, data and networking focused on translation, research, development, regulation, commercialization, partnering and funding.
Chromium (VI) induces antioxidant gene HO-1 by activating the CNC BZIP transcription factor NRF2.. ... Expression of a dominant negative form of Nrf2, a cap n collar basic leucine zipper transcription factor, in the cells blocks ... implicating Nrf2 as the key transcription factor in the induction. Mechanistic analysis reveals that Cr (VI) increases the ... These results provide the first evidence that Cr (VI) induces antioxidant gene HO-1 important in ROS defense by activating Nrf2 ...
Decreased immediate inflammatory gene induction in activating transcription factor-2 mutant mice * * REIMOLD Andreas M. ... Identification of the cyclin D1 gene as a target of activating transcription factor 2 in chondrocytes BEIER F. ... Association of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme hUBC9 Implication of the ... A specific member of the ATF transcription factor family can mediate transcription activation by the adenovirus E1a protein LIU ...
Activating transcription factor 6-dependent sestrin 2 induction ameliorates ER stress-mediated liver injury.. [Kyung Hwan Jegal ... Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) bound to unfolded protein response elements of SESN2 promoter, transactivated SESN2, ... The present study investigated the role of sestrin 2 (SESN2) on ER stress and sought to elucidate the mechanism responsible for ...
... a lipid-activated transcription factor.. Tontonoz P1, Hu E, Spiegelman BM. ... C/EBP alpha, a second transcription factor induced during adipocyte differentiation, can cooperate with PPAR gamma 2 to ... Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPAR gamma 2) is an adipocyte-specific nuclear hormone receptor that has ... Our results suggest that the physiologic role of PPAR gamma 2 is to regulate development of the adipose lineage in response to ...
Metal-activated transcription factor 1 (MTF1) mediates the induction of metallothioneins I and II by zinc and stress signals. ... Metal-activated transcription factor 1 (MTF1) mediates the induction of metallothioneins I and II by zinc and stress signals. ... Induction of metallothionein I by arsenic via metal-activated transcription factor 1. Critical role of c-terminal cysteine ... The findings demonstrate a critical role of the C-terminal cysteine cluster of MTF1 in arsenic sensing and gene transcription ...
Conversely, the knock-down of hYSK1 enhanced the p16INK4a promoter activity and protein expression, and diminished MMP-2 ... transcription and protein levels in hypoxic conditions as compared to control. Taken together, hYSK1 blocks the p21WAF1/Cip1 ... functions by direct interaction and inhibits the p16INK4a expression and induces MMP-2 expression by its regulations of SP-1 ... Lee, M.-H.; Kundu, J.K.; Choi, B.Y. p21WAF1/Cip1 Regulation by hYSK1 Activates SP-1 Transcription Factor and Increases MMP-2 ...
... and clinical studies related to type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The journal welcomes submissions focusing on the epidemiology, ... Transcription factor 7-like 2 gene (TCF7L2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-γ2 (PPAR-γ2) have a profound effect ... Association of the Genetic Polymorphisms in Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors-γ2 ... R. Nemr, A. Turki, A. Echtay et al., "Transcription factor-7-like 2 gene variants are strongly associated with type 2 diabetes ...
... kinase signaling cascade and p38-kinase dependent activation of nuclear transcription factor activating transcription factor ( ... activating transcription factor. IBD. inflammatory bowel disease. MDCK. Madin-Darby canine kidney. MLCK. myosin L chain kinase ... Mechanism of IL-1β Modulation of Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Involves p38 Kinase and Activating Transcription Factor-2 ... Mechanism of IL-1β Modulation of Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Involves p38 Kinase and Activating Transcription Factor-2 ...
ATF7IP2; activating transcription factor 7 interacting protein 2; activating transcription factor 7-interacting protein 2; ... MBD1-containing chromatin associated factor 2; MBD1-containing chromatin-associated factor 2 ...
ATF2 is a transcription factor that regulates expression of genes containing a cAMP response element (CRE; 5gtgacgt(a/c)(a/g)3 ... Activated ATF2 forms homodimers with other members of the ATF family or heterodimers with members of the c-Jun family of ... transcription factors. These ATF2 containing dimers bind to the the cAMP response element and with several other proteins ... ATF2 is also observed to be phosphorylated in response to stimuli which do not activate JNK or p38 MAPK, including treatment ...
Activating Transcription Factor-4)/SDF1α (Chemokine Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-α) Axis Suppresses Diabetic RetinopathyNovelty ... Activating Transcription Factor-4)/SDF1α (Chemokine Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-α) Axis Suppresses Diabetic RetinopathyNovelty ... Activating Transcription Factor-4)/SDF1α (Chemokine Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-α) Axis Suppresses Diabetic RetinopathyNovelty ... Activating Transcription Factor-4)/SDF1α (Chemokine Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-α) Axis Suppresses Diabetic RetinopathyNovelty ...
Blockade of Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells Activation Signaling Suppresses Balloon Injury-induced Neointima Formation in a ... Expression and Function of the Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells in Colon Carcinoma Cells: INVOLVEMENT IN THE REGULATION OF ... Cyclooxygenase-2 Induction by Arsenite Is through a Nuclear Factor of Activated T-cell-dependent Pathway and Plays an ... NFAT3 is specifically required for TNF-{alpha}-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and transformation of Cl41 cells ...
A cellular protein, activating transcription factor, activates transcription of multiple E1A-inducible adenovirus early ... Immunoblot assays of activating transcription factor (ATF) 3 immunoprecipitates with tyrosine specific antibodies revealed that ... Interleukin-10 Induced Activating Transcription Factor 3 Transcriptional Suppression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Gene ... Interleukin-10 Induced Activating Transcription Factor 3 Transcriptional Suppression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Gene ...
CRP2 associates with the actin cytoskeleton and interacts with transcription factors in the nucleus to mediate smooth muscle ... ATF2, a Paradigm of the Multifaceted Regulation of Transcription Factors in Biology and Disease G Watson et al. Pharmacol Res ... CRP2 associates with the actin cytoskeleton and interacts with transcription factors in the nucleus to mediate smooth muscle ... Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta), a key factor present in the vessel wall in the early phases of arterial response to ...
Activating transcription factor 2; cAMP response element-binding protein CRE-BP1; HB16 N_A \ 10-663-45549 for more molecular ... Activating Transcription Factor-2 (ATF-2) Human - Activating transcription factor 2; cAMP response element-binding protein CRE- ... Product name : Activating Transcription Factor-2 (ATF-2) Human - Activating transcription factor 2; cAMP response element- ... Related products : Activating Transcription Factor-2 (ATF-2) Human - Activating transcription factor 2; cAMP response element- ...
... Activating transcription factor 2 (pThr53) (44-63) 5FAM ...
Comprehensive view of all products targeting Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2). Includes lead product status, ... Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) Studies in mice suggest that ATF2 functions as... ... pathway Summary Licensing status Publication and contact information Cancer Melanoma Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) ... A team of U.S. researchers has described a new mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 ( JNK ; MAPK8 ) inhibitor that targets JNKs ...
The Calamity Girl - 2 Novels in Womens Fiction, Mystery, Romance. Young Adult Novels two of them about magic, witches, fairies ...
Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) sequence polymorphisms in type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetic traits.. Chu WS1, Das SK, ... Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) is located within the region of linkage to type 2 diabetes on chromosome 1q21-q23 and ... Activating Transcription Factor 6 (ATF6) Sequence Polymorphisms in Type 2 Diabetes and Pre-Diabetic Traits ... Activating Transcription Factor 6 (ATF6) Sequence Polymorphisms in Type 2 Diabetes and Pre-Diabetic Traits ...
... is recognized by several members of the CREB/ATF family of transcription factors (45), although c-Jun/activating transcription ... activating transcription factor 2;. CBP,. CREB- binding protein;. CREB,. cAMP response element binding protein;. GST,. ... For example, competition for limiting amounts of CBP/p300 by different transcription factors activated by diverse signaling ... The C terminus of p65 fused to VP16 did not activate target gene transcription when GAL4 alone or GAL4 fusions with the middle ...
Transcriptional switch by activating transcription factor 2-derived peptide sensitizes melanoma cells to apoptosis and inhibits ... Transcriptional switch by activating transcription factor 2-derived peptide sensitizes melanoma cells to apoptosis and inhibits ... cells to drug treatment can be overcome by expression of a 50-aa peptide derived from activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2( ... In contrast, TAM67, a dominant negative of the Jun family of transcription factors, or JunD RNAi attenuates sensitization of ...
  • Also, since BCL6 interacts with several co-repressor complexes to inhibit transcription, and its gene is frequently trans-located and hyper-mutated in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), miR-155 acts to enhance transcription and contribute to the pathogenesis of DLBCL. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conversely, the knock-down of hYSK1 enhanced the p16 INK4a promoter activity and protein expression, and diminished MMP-2 transcription and protein levels in hypoxic conditions as compared to control. (mdpi.com)
  • These mutations alter the structure of transcription factor AP-2β. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Family history of ovarian cancer is an important risk factor ( 6 ), and ∼10% of all epithelial ovarian cancers have been linked to germ-line mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 , which are also genetic risk factors for breast cancer ( 7 - 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The conversion is induced by prion infections (for example, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), iatrogenic CJD, Kuru), mutations (familial CJD, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome, fatal familial insomnia (FFI)) or unknown factors (sporadic CJD (sCJD)), and is thought to occur after PrPC has reached the plasma membrane or is re-internalized for degradation. (kegg.jp)
  • To date, XSE activity has been ascribed to four genes defined by mutations and to a 2-MU interval on X (called region 1) defined by chromosomal duplications and deficiencies. (genetics.org)
  • MAPK8 ) inhibitor that targets JNK's substrate docking site-instead of its ATP binding site-to treat type 2 diabetes. (biocentury.com)
  • However, the importance of this requirement for function of ERK1/2 is unknown. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, formation of a signaling complex comprising PAR2, β-arrestin, raf-1, and activated ERK1/2 might ensure appropriate subcellular localization of PAR2-mediated ERK activity, and thereby determine the mitogenic potential of receptor agonists. (rupress.org)