Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.
A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.
The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.
The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.
A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.
A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.
The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.
Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.
A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.
An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.
A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).
A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.
A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.
Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein oncogene protein v-ets of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
A general transcription factor that is involved in basal GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. It consists of nine subunits including ATP-DEPENDENT DNA HELICASES; CYCLIN H; and XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM GROUP D PROTEIN.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.
A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.
Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.
A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE III and aid in transcription. They include the assembly factors TFIIIA and TFIIIC and the initiation factor TFIIIB. All combine to form a preinitiation complex at the promotor that directs the binding of RNA POLYMERASE III.
A heterotetrameric transcription factor composed of two distinct proteins. Its name refers to the fact it binds to DNA sequences rich in GUANINE and ADENINE. GA-binding protein integrates a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and regulates expression of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE control, PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS, and cellular METABOLISM.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway. The activity of the protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN. Transcription factor 7-like 2 protein plays an important role in the embryogenesis of the PANCREAS and ISLET CELLS.
An ets proto-oncogene expressed primarily in adult LYMPHOID TISSUE; BRAIN; and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that was originally identified in DROSOPHILA as essential for proper gastrulation and MESODERM formation. It plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MUSCLE CELLS, and is found in a wide variety of organisms.
A tissue-specific subunit of NF-E2 transcription factor that interacts with small MAF PROTEINS to regulate gene expression. P45 NF-E2 protein is expressed primarily in MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; and MAST CELLS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. TFIIIB recruits and positions pol III over the initiation site and remains stably bound to the DNA through multiple rounds of re-initiation by RNA POLYMERASE III.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
One of the BASIC-LEUCINE ZIPPER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that is synthesized as a membrane-bound protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. In response to endoplasmic reticulum stress it translocates to the GOLGI APPARATUS. It is activated by PROTEASES and then moves to the CELL NUCLEUS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in the unfolded protein response.
A family of mammalian POU domain factors that are expressed predominately in NEURONS.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates GLOBIN gene expression and is related to TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1. NF-E2 consists of a small MAF protein subunit and a tissue-restricted 45 kDa subunit.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subfamily have been implicated in regulating the differentiation of OLIGODENDROCYTES during neural crest formation and in CHONDROGENESIS.
Ubiquitously expressed basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF transcription factors. They bind CANNTG sequences in the promoters of a variety of GENES involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Factors that form a preinitiation complex at promoters that are specifically transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE I.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in determining cell fate during embryogenesis. It forms a heterodimer with TWIST TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and ACHAETE-SCUTE GENE COMPLEX-related TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A POU domain factor that regulates expression of GROWTH HORMONE; PROLACTIN; and THYROTROPIN-BETA in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of the group have been found expressed in developing neuronal tissue, LYMPHOCYTES, and during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.

Transcriptional repression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene, mediated by CCAAT displacement protein/cut homolog, is associated with histone deacetylation. (1/213)

Human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR) transcription is tightly regulated by nucleotide sequences upstream of the initiator sequences. Our studies of human CFTR transcription focus on identifying transcription factors bound to an inverted CCAAT consensus or "Y-box element." The human homeodomain CCAAT displacement protein/cut homolog (CDP/cut) can bind to the Y-box element through a cut repeat and homeobox. Analysis of stably transfected cell lines with wild-type and mutant human CFTR-directed reporter genes demonstrates that human histone acetyltransferase GCN5 and transcription factor ATF-1 can potentiate CFTR transcription through the Y-box element. We have found 1) that human CDP/cut acts as a repressor of CFTR transcription through the Y-box element by competing for the sites of transactivators hGCN5 and ATF-1; 2) that the ability of CDP/cut to repress activities of hGCN5 and ATF-1 activity is contingent on the amount of CDP/cut expression; 3) that histone acetylation may have a role in the regulation of gene transcription by altering the accessibility of the CFTR Y-box for sequence-specific transcription factors; 4) that trichostatin A, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase activity, activates transcription of CFTR through the Y-box element; 5) that the inhibition of histone deacetylase activity leads to an alteration of local chromatin structure requiring an intact Y-box sequence in CFTR; 6) that immunocomplexes of CDP/cut possess an associated histone deacetylase activity; 7) that the carboxyl region of CDP/cut, responsible for the transcriptional repressor function, interacts with the histone deacetylase, HDAC1. We propose that CFTR transcription may be regulated through interactions with factors directing the modification of chromatin and requires the conservation of the inverted CCAAT (Y-box) element of the CFTR promoter.  (+info)

Bacterial peptidoglycan induces CD14-dependent activation of transcription factors CREB/ATF and AP-1. (2/213)

Peptidoglycan (PGN), the major cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria, induces secretion of cytokines in macrophages through CD14, the pattern recognition receptor that binds lipopolysaccharide and other microbial products. To begin to elucidate the mechanisms that regulate the transcription of cytokine genes, we wanted to determine which transcription factors are activated by PGN in mouse RAW264.7 and human THP-1 macrophage cells. Our results demonstrated that: (i) PGN induced phosphorylation of the transcription factors ATF-1 and CREB; (ii) ATF-1 and CREB bound DNA as a dimer and induced transcriptional activation of a CRE reporter plasmid, which was inhibited by dominant negative CREB and ATF-1; (iii) PGN induced phosphorylation of c-Jun, protein synthesis of JunB and c-Fos, and transcriptional activation of the AP-1 reporter plasmid, which was inhibited by dominant negative c-Fos; and (iv) PGN-induced activation of CREB/ATF and AP-1 was mediated through CD14. This is the first study to demonstrate activation of CREB/ATF and AP-1 transcription factors by PGN or by any other component of Gram-positive bacteria.  (+info)

Cyclic AMP- and differentiation-dependent regulation of the proximal alphaHCG gene promoter in term villous trophoblasts. (3/213)

Although the regulatory mechanisms controlling alpha and beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) expression have been investigated in choriocarcinoma cell model systems, little is known about the regulation of HCG subunit synthesis in non-tumourigenic trophoblasts. We therefore investigated alphaHCG mRNA transcription in villous cytotrophoblasts isolated from term placentae and have shown for the first time that the proximal alphaHCG gene promoter is functional in these cells. By establishing conditions which allow efficient transient transfection of immunopurified cells, we have demonstrated that a 363 bp sequence in the proximal 5' flanking region of the alphaHCG gene is sufficient to direct trophoblast-specific expression of a luciferase reporter. After 12-60 h cultivation, an increase in endogenous alphaHCG mRNA expression could be detected, indicating that aggregated villous trophoblasts undergo biochemical differentiation. Concomitantly, we observed induction of alphaHCG promoter-driven luciferase activity, suggesting that the 363 bp sequence of the proximal 5' flanking region is sufficient to direct differentiation-dependent increase of alphaHCG mRNA. Continuous luciferase expression required functional cAMP-response elements (CREs), since deletion of both recognition sequences eliminated differentiation-dependent transcription of the reporter. Elevation of cAMP values increased transcription of the wild-type construct; however, it did not affect promoter activity of the mutant plasmid. Moreover, we have demonstrated that during in-vitro differentiation, CREs interacted with increasing amounts of phosphorylated activating transcription factor/cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (ATF-1/CREB-1) suggesting that these cAMP-dependent DNA-binding factors are major determinants in regulating alphaHCG gene expression in villous trophoblasts.  (+info)

Definition of the transcription factors which bind the differentiation responsive element of the Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1 Z promoter in human epithelial cells. (4/213)

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus and an important human pathogen. Initiation of the EBV lytic cycle is dependent upon transcription of the EBV BZLF1 gene. Our previous studies of transcriptional regulation of the BZLF1 Z promoter (Zp) in human SCC12F epithelial cells identified a region within Zp that is responsive to epithelial cell differentiation. In the present study, we localize this differentiation responsive element to the CREB/AP-1-like binding site (TGACATCA) between -67 to -60 bp within Zp, previously designated ZII, and furthermore show that homodimers and heterodimers of CREB and ATF-1 specifically bind ZII. Consistent with a regulatory role for CREB and ATF-1 in differentiation dependent BZLF1 expression, ZII was able to bind approximately 3-fold more CREB and ATF-1 when incubated with nuclear extract obtained from populations of SCC12F cells enriched for the differentiated phenotype than when incubated with extract obtained from populations enriched for the undifferentiated phenotype. In addition, CREB and ATF-1 were found to increase in abundance during SCC12F differentiation. These results indicate a regulatory role for CREB and ATF-1 in differentiation-dependent expression of BZLF1 in human epithelial cells.  (+info)

Role of the ATFa/JNK2 complex in Jun activation. (5/213)

The ATFa proteins, which are members of the CREB/ATF family of transcription factors, display quite versatile properties. We have previously shown that they interact with the adenovirus E1a oncoprotein, mediating part of its transcriptional activity and heterodimerize with the Jun, Fos or related transcription factors, thereby modulating their DNA-binding specificity. In the present study, we report the sequence requirement of the N-terminal activation domain of ATFa and demonstrate the importance of specific threonine residues (Thr51 and Thr53) in addition to that of the metal-binding domain, in transcriptional activation processes. We also show that the N-terminal domain of ATFa which stably binds the Jun N-terminal kinase-2 (JNK2) (Bocco et al., 1996), is not a substrate for this kinase in vivo but, instead, serves as a JNK2-docking site for ATFa-associated partners like JunD, allowing them to be phosphorylated by the bound kinase.  (+info)

Stress-induced stimulation of early growth response gene-1 by p38/stress-activated protein kinase 2 is mediated by a cAMP-responsive promoter element in a MAPKAP kinase 2-independent manner. (6/213)

The p38/stress-activated protein kinase2 (p38/SAPK2) is activated by cellular stress and proinflammatory cytokines. Several transcription factors have been reported to be regulated by p38/SAPK2, and this kinase is involved in the control of expression of various genes. In human Jurkat T-cells, induction of the early growth response gene-1 (egr-1) by anisomycin is completely inhibited by SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38/SAPK2a and -b. Northern blot and reporter gene experiments indicate that this block is at the level of mRNA biosynthesis. Using mutants of the egr-1 promoter, we demonstrate that a distal cAMP-responsive element (CRE; nucleotides -134 to -126) is necessary to control egr-1 induction by p38/SAPK2. Pull-down assays indicate that phospho-CRE binding protein (CREB) and phospho-activating transcription factor-1 (ATF1) bind to this element in a p38/SAPK2-dependent manner. In response to anisomycin, two known CREB kinases downstream to p38/SAPK2, MAPKAP kinase 2 (MK2) and mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1), show increased activity. However, in MK2 -/- fibroblasts derived from mice carrying a disruption of the MK2 gene, the phosphorylation of CREB and ATF1 and the expression of egr-1 reach levels comparable with wild type cells. This finding excludes MK2 as an involved enzyme. We conclude that egr-1 induction by anisomycin is mediated by p38/SAPK2 and probably by MSK1. Phosphorylated CREB and ATF1 then bind to the CRE of the egr-1 promoter and cause a stress-dependent transcriptional activation of this gene.  (+info)

Identification of a novel transcriptional regulatory element within the promoter region of the keratinocyte growth factor gene that mediates inducibility to cyclic AMP. (7/213)

Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) plays a critical role for the normal development and morphogenesis of many different tissues and organs. Furthermore, its expression is induced during wound healing and in various chronic inflammatory diseases. To determine the molecular mechanisms which regulate KGF gene induction at the transcriptional level, we carried out in vitro studies using the human KGF promoter. We have identified a novel regulatory element, TGAGGTCAG, located between -39 and -46 bp (relative to the transcription start site) in the KGF basal promoter region, which binds to inducible transcription factors as determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. When cloned in front of a heterologous SV40 promoter this region conferred inducibility to forskolin, a stimulator of adenylate cyclase. In contrast, various mutated forms of this region were either partially or completely impaired in their ability to mediate induction to forskolin. The TGAGGTCAG sequence shared homology to both the cAMP responsive element (CRE) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) consensus binding sites. An oligonucleotide comprising a consensus CRE binding site partially competed for the nuclear protein binding to the TGAGGTCAG site. Gel mobility supershift assays indicated that two members of the activating transcription factor (ATF) family of CRE binding proteins, ATF1 and ATF2, were part of the nuclear protein complex bound to this regulatory region. Furthermore, purified recombinant ATF2 was able to directly recognize and bind the TGAGGTCAG sequence. In contrast, no evidence was obtained for C/EBP transcription factors being part of the complex. These results suggest that members of the ATF family are involved in mediating the transcriptional regulation of the KGF gene in response to extracellular stimuli via a novel CRE regulatory element.  (+info)

Sin1: an evolutionarily conserved component of the eukaryotic SAPK pathway. (8/213)

The fission yeast Sty1/Spc1 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase is a member of the eukaryotic stress-activated MAP kinase (SAPK) family. We have identified a protein, Sin1, that interacts with Sty1/Spc1 which is a member of a new evolutionarily conserved gene family. Cells lacking Sin1 display many, but not all, of the phenotypes of cells lacking the Sty1/Spc1 MAP kinase including sterility, multiple stress sensitivity and a cell-cycle delay. Sin1 is phosphorylated after stress but this is not Sty1/Spc1-dependent. Importantly, Sin1 is not required for activation of Sty1/Spc1 but is required for stress-dependent transcription via its substrate, Atf1. We find that in the absence of Sin1, Sty1/Spc1 appears to translocate to the nucleus but Atf1 is not fully phosphorylated and becomes unstable in response to environmental stress. Sin1 is also required for effective transcription via the AP-1 factor Pap1 but does not prevent its nuclear translocation. Remarkably chimaeric fusions of sin1 with chicken sin1 sequences rescue loss of sin1 function. We conclude that Sin1 is a novel component of the eukaryotic SAPK pathway.  (+info)

p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
ATF-4兔多克隆抗体(ab105383)可与小鼠样本反应并经WB, IHC实验严格验证,被2篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
ATF-4兔多克隆抗体(ab28830)可与人样本反应并经ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被2篇文献引用并得到1个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Multifunkčný olej RX70 CARLSON - Multifunkčný olej je určený na mazanie styčných a klzných plôch, uvoľňovanie skrutkových spojení a ochranu elektrických kontaktov. Slúži tiež ako ochrana proti korózii.
The Quick Clip range of Grid from Contactum gives you reliability and depth of range. Whether its switching, dimming or general control you require for commercial and public buildings our Grid range has all the variations you are looking for.. ...
Looking for online definition of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 4 in the Medical Dictionary? cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 4 explanation free. What is cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 4? Meaning of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 4 medical term. What does cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 4 mean?
Looking for online definition of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 1 in the Medical Dictionary? cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 1 explanation free. What is cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 1? Meaning of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 1 medical term. What does cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 1 mean?
In type 2 diabetes, chronic hyperglycemia is detrimental to beta-cells, causing apoptosis and impaired insulin secretion. The transcription factor cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) is crucial for beta-cell survival and function. We inves
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Reagents, Tools and Custom Services for molecular biology, specializing in the fields of Nano-Antibody development (nAb), Cellular Reprogramming (iPSC), Genome Editing, Fluorescent Proteins, RNAi, Viral Packaging and Protein expression.
CREB Gel Shift Oligonucleotide contains a consensus binding site for cAMP response element (CRE) binding proteins of the CREB/ATF family
Mitochondrial dysfunction is pervasive in human pathologies such as neurodegeneration, diabetes, cancer, and pathogen infections as well as during normal aging. Cells sense and respond to mitochondrial dysfunction by activating a protective transcriptional program known as the mitochondrial unfolded …
I am reposting my first, most serious answer, since it seems to me that it didnt find its way into the list] I am the maintainer of lineno.sty! At 17:19 04.02.09, Joao.Santos at ny.frb.org wrote: ,I am trying to use lineno.sty with latex. , ,First, I went to CTAN, followed the instructions and downloaded the ,following files to my computer , , lineno.sty, edtable.sty, ednmath0.sty, ltabptch.sty and longtable.sty , ,Second, in a latex document I am trying to add line, I added at the to , ,\usepage{lineno} At 18:10 04.02.09, Joao.Santos at ny.frb.org wrote: ,Sorry, That is not the problem (that was a typo in my email) I am indeed ,using the command ,\usepackage{lineno} ,When I try to compile the document, I keep getting the following error , ,(c:/Program Files/PCTeX/PCTeXv6/texmf-dist/tex/latex/amsfonts/amssymb.sty) ,(c:/Program Files/PCTeX/PCTeXv6/texmf-dist/tex/latex/graphics/epsfig.sty) ,(./lineno.sty , ,! LaTeX Error: Missing \begin{document}. Please send me an exact copy of your document ...
Lovers of comedy and musical theater are sure to enjoy this troupes completely improvised musicals. - Jan 14, 2011 by Zachary Stewart in Reviews.
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
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Greitai ir pasiutęs yra gunwalking gaila operaciją, atliktų biuras alkoholio, tabako ir šaunamųjų ginklų (ATF) stebėti srautų ginklus iš Jungtinių Amerikos Valstijų į Meksikos narkotikų karteliai rankas. Gunwalking arba nuoma vaikščioti ginklus buvo naudojama ATF sąmoningai leisti ginklai įsigijo ...
GenDR A curated database of genes associated with dietary restriction in model organisms either from genetic manipulation experiments or gene expression profiling.. ...
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CRTC1; KIAA0616; MECT1; TORC1; WAMTP1; CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1; Mucoepidermoid carcinoma translocated protein 1; Transducer of regulated cAMP response element-binding protein 1; TORC-1; Transducer of CREB protein 1 ...
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Glial Cell Line-derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF) is a highly conserved neurotrophic factor. The recombinant form of this protein was shown to promote the survival and differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in culture, and was able to prevent apoptosis of motor neurons induced by axotomy.The protein is processed to a mature secreted form that exists as a homodimer. The mature form of the protein is a ligand for the product of the RET (rearranged during transfection) protooncogene. In addition to the transcript encoding GDNF, two additional alternative transcripts encoding distinct proteins, referred to as astrocyte-derived trophic factors, have also been described. Mutations in this gene may be associated with Hirschsprung disease.
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Transcriptional regulation in HCMV-infected cells relies on a complex interaction between cellular and viral transactivators (13, 23, 28, 37, 41, 43, 46). Several studies have implicated a role for the transcription factors ATF/CREB in early gene regulation (25, 30, 35, 37, 39). For example, several early promoters can be regulated by ATF/CREB sites in transient assays (30, 35, 37, 39). In addition, a role for ATF/CREB in the activation of the UL54 and UL112-113 promoters at early times in the context of the viral genome has been demonstrated (25,35). Our present analysis of the US11 promoter revealed that expression of this early gene is also regulated by two ATF/CREB sites within the promoter. The primary regulatory element of the US11 promoter, both in transient assays and in the context of the viral genome, is an ATF site located immediately upstream of the TATA element. In addition to the ATF site, the CREB site at −83 was also involved in US11 promoter activation. In the context of the ...
TransAM CREB and TransAM pCREB Kits are DNA-binding ELISAs that quanify the activated transcription factors using a method that is faster and more sensitive than gelshift, without radioactivity and gels.
HighRider-2 include one dip tube for ATF-2 connection. Flow via the aseptic connector over the HFF to the ATF-2 SUE. The dip tube is connected via a 9,5 x 14,3 mm hose to the aseptic connector. Photo 1: Seen from left on the left side of the blue tip pH SUS the broth dip tube. Further seen the VisiWell SUW with the orange O-ring. Photo 3: Dip tube hose aseptic connector to the left.. ...
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Mobil ATF™ 3309 is an exceptionally high performance lubricant that meets original equipment manufacturers specifications for use in certain slip-controlled lock-up automatic transmissions.
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... , also known as ATF2, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ATF2 gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: ATF2 activating transcription factor 2". Ozawa K, Sudo T, Soeda E, Yoshida MC, Ishii S (1991). "Assignment of the ... Activating transcription factor 2 has been shown to interact with C-jun, Casein kinase 2, alpha 1, CREB binding protein, ... "Phosphorylation of two eukaryotic transcription factors, Jun dimerization protein 2 and activation transcription factor 2, in ...
... , ATF, is a group of bZIP transcription factors, which act as homodimers or heterodimers with a ... biology and nomenclature of the activating transcription factor/cAMP responsive element binding family of transcription factors ... Activating+Transcription+Factors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e (Articles with ... activating transcription factor proteins and homeostasis". Gene. 273 (1): 1-11. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(01)00551-0. ISSN 0378- ...
"Activating Transcription Factor 7 Interacting Protein". Retrieved 23 April 2011. "AceView: Homo sapiens complex locus QRICH1, ... activating transcription factor 7-interacting protein 1. ATXN1 is involved in binding RNA in vitro and may be involved in RNA ... ATF7IP is a recruiter protein that couples transcriptional factors to the general transcription apparatus, thereby modulating ... transcription regulation and chromatin formation. QRICH1 is expressed at a high level, 3.3 times the average gene. It is ...
"Entrez Gene: ATF7 activating transcription factor 7". Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P, Mann M (2006 ... a novel variant of the ATF/CREB transcription factor family, forms a dominant transcription inhibitor in ATF-a heterodimers". J ... Cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ATF7 gene. In 2001, Peters et al ... Transcription factors, All stub articles, Human chromosome 12 gene stubs). ...
"Entrez Gene: ATF1 activating transcription factor 1". Zucman J, Delattre O, Desmaze C, Epstein AL, Stenman G, Speleman F, ... 1993). "Activating transcription factor-1 can mediate Ca(2+)- and cAMP-inducible transcriptional activation". J. Biol. Chem. ... Sun P, Lou L, Maurer RA (1996). "Regulation of activating transcription factor-1 and the cAMP response element-binding protein ... This gene encodes an activating transcription factor, which belongs to the ATF subfamily and bZIP (basic-region leucine zipper ...
March 1995). "Cdk-activating kinase complex is a component of human transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 283-7. ... March 1995). "Cdk-activating kinase complex is a component of human transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 283-7. ... "From androgen receptor to the general transcription factor TFIIH. Identification of cdk activating kinase (CAK) as an androgen ... "Association of Cdk-activating kinase subunits with transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 280-2. Bibcode:1995Natur. ...
"Cdk-activating kinase complex is a component of human transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 283-7. Bibcode:1995Natur ... "Cdk-activating kinase complex is a component of human transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 283-7. Bibcode:1995Natur ... General transcription factor IIH subunit 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GTF2H1 gene. GTF2H1 has been shown to ... Tong X, Drapkin R, Reinberg D, Kieff E (1995). "The 62- and 80-kDa subunits of transcription factor IIH mediate the interaction ...
Activating transcription factor 4 (tax-responsive enhancer element B67), also known as ATF4, is a protein that in humans is ... "Entrez Gene: ATF4 activating transcription factor 4 (tax-responsive enhancer element B67)". Franceschi RT, Ge C, Xiao G, Roca H ... He CH, Gong P, Hu B, Stewart D, Choi ME, Choi AM, Alam J (June 2001). "Identification of activating transcription factor 4 ( ... Activating transcription factor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000128272 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
"Cdk-activating kinase complex is a component of human transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 283-7. Bibcode:1995Natur ... and the CDK-activating kinase (CAK) assembly factor MAT1 (MNAT1) to chromosome bands 5q13.3-q14 and 14q23, respectively". ... the fifth subunit of the core of the transcription/DNA repair factor TFIIH". The EMBO Journal. 16 (5): 1093-102. doi:10.1093/ ... a subunit of the human general transcription/DNA repair factor TFIIH". Protein Expression and Purification. 9 (2): 153-8. doi: ...
"Entrez Gene: transcription factor AP-2 beta (activating enhancer binding protein 2 beta)". Tsukada S, Tanaka Y, Maegawa H, et ... 2006). "Transcription factor activating enhancer-binding protein-2beta. A negative regulator of adiponectin gene expression". J ... Transcription factor AP-2 beta also known as AP2-beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TFAP2B gene. AP-2 beta is a ... 2009). "The transcription factor TFAP2B is associated with insulin resistance and adiposity in healthy adolescents". Obesity ( ...
Firestein R, Feuerstein N (March 1998). "Association of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) with the ubiquitin-conjugating ... Firestein R, Feuerstein N (1998). "Association of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) with the ubiquitin-conjugating ... Sapetschnig A, Rischitor G, Braun H, Doll A, Schergaut M, Melchior F, Suske G (October 2002). "Transcription factor Sp3 is ... "Ubc9 interacts with the androgen receptor and activates receptor-dependent transcription". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (27): 19441-6. ...
Activating transcription factor 3 is a member of the mammalian activation transcription factor/cAMP responsive element-binding ... ATF3 activating transcription factor 3". Chen BP, Wolfgang CD, Hai T (March 1996). "Analysis of ATF3, a transcription factor ... Activating transcription factor ATF3 has been shown to interact with: C-jun, DDIT3 JunD, P53, and SMAD3. GRCh38: Ensembl ... Chu HM, Tan Y, Kobierski LA, Balsam LB, Comb MJ (January 1994). "Activating transcription factor-3 stimulates 3',5'-cyclic ...
"Menin interacts with the AP1 transcription factor JunD and represses JunD-activated transcription". Cell. 96 (1): 143-52. doi: ... "Menin interacts with the AP1 transcription factor JunD and represses JunD-activated transcription". Cell. 96 (1): 143-52. doi: ... Chu HM, Tan Y, Kobierski LA, Balsam LB, Comb MJ (January 1994). "Activating transcription factor-3 stimulates 3',5'-cyclic ... Chu HM, Tan Y, Kobierski LA, Balsam LB, Comb MJ (1994). "Activating transcription factor-3 stimulates 3',5'-cyclic adenosine ...
2005). "Mitosin/CENP-F as a negative regulator of activating transcription factor-4". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (14): 13973-7. doi: ... 212 (1): 220-8. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1995.1959. PMID 7612011. Zhu X, Chang KH, He D, et al. (1995). "The C terminus of mitosin is ... 18 (1): 67-74. PMID 12507285. Yang ZY, Guo J, Li N, et al. (2004). "Mitosin/CENP-F is a conserved kinetochore protein subjected ... 12 (1): 69-74. PMID 9950165. Goodwin RL, Pabón-Peña LM, Foster GC, Bader D (1999). "The cloning and analysis of LEK1 identifies ...
ETS1 activates MET transcription in vitro. MET transcription is activated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1), which is ... "Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor activates the ETS1 transcription factor by a RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway". ... MET activates the STAT3 transcription factor directly, through an SH2 domain. The beta-catenin pathway, a key component of the ... MET transcription is activated by HGF and several growth factors. MET promoter has four putative binding sites for Ets, a ...
1993). "Activating transcription factor-1 can mediate Ca(2+)- and cAMP-inducible transcriptional activation". J. Biol. Chem. ... McKinsey TA, Zhang CL, Olson EN (2001). "Activation of the myocyte enhancer factor-2 transcription factor by calcium/calmodulin ... Calcium/calmodulin directly activates calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by binding to the enzyme and indirectly ... 2003). "Synapsin I is phosphorylated at Ser603 by p21-activated kinases (PAKs) in vitro and in PC12 cells stimulated with ...
... a regulator of activating transcription factor 2 response to stress and DNA damage". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 21 (24): ... a regulator of activating transcription factor 2 response to stress and DNA damage". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 21 (24): ... "Control of nutrient-sensitive transcription programs by the unconventional prefoldin URI". Science. 302 (5648): 1208-12. ... 366 (1): 179-92. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2006.11.030. PMID 17157868. "Entrez Gene: RUVBL2 RuvB-like 2 (E. coli)". Ewing RM, Chu P, ...
CREBBP: This gene's product is a transcriptional coactivator; it activates numerous transcription factors, some of which ... PAX5: this gene's product, Pax-5, is a transcription factor that controls the development, maturation, and survival of B-cells ... MYC: This protooncogene's product, Myc, encodes a transcription factor which regulates the expression of other genes whose ... DLBCL can arise in virtually any part of the body and, depending on various factors, is often a very aggressive malignancy. The ...
Yang SH, Galanis A, Sharrocks AD (June 1999). "Targeting of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases to MEF2 transcription factors ... Myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MEF2A gene. MEF2A is a transcription factor ... Yang SH, Galanis A, Sharrocks AD (1999). "Targeting of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases to MEF2 Transcription Factors". ... "Entrez Gene: MEF2A MADS box transcription enhancer factor 2, polypeptide A (myocyte enhancer factor 2A)". Mao Z, Nadal-Ginard B ...
"Cell type-specific inhibition of the ETS transcription factor ER81 by mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase ... Yang SH, Galanis A, Sharrocks AD (Jun 1999). "Targeting of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases to MEF2 transcription factors ... activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1), serum response factor (SRF), and mRNA-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP) In ... Kyriakis JM, Avruch J (Apr 2001). "Mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathways activated by stress ...
The experience of psychological stress activates transcription factors that activate genes. In a study by Cole et al., it was ... This gene codes for a protein that activates the inflammatory response which directs an immune response to the site of the ... Journal of Endocrinology, 186, 1-20.] Nelson, D. L., Lehninger, A. L., and Cox, M. M. "Hormones are Chemically Diverse." ... concluded that GABA-1 transcription factor activates the interleukin-6-gene. ...
Goodall J, Wellbrock C, Dexter TJ, Roberts K, Marais R, Goding CR (April 2004). "The Brn-2 transcription factor links activated ... POU domain, class 3, transcription factor 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POU3F2 gene. N-Oct-3 is a protein ... It is likely that CNS-specific transcription factors such as these play an important role in mammalian neurogenesis by ... Eisen T, Easty DJ, Bennett DC, Goding CR (November 1995). "The POU domain transcription factor Brn-2: elevated expression in ...
2002). "Mitochondrial transcription factors B1 and B2 activate transcription of human mtDNA". Nat. Genet. 31 (3): 289-94. doi: ... McCulloch V, Shadel GS (2003). "Human mitochondrial transcription factor B1 interacts with the C-terminal activation region of ... Elongation requires the elongation factor TEFM. The exact termination process is less understood, but MTERF1 is thought to play ... Kravchenko JE, Rogozin IB, Koonin EV, Chumakov PM (2005). "Transcription of mammalian messenger RNAs by a nuclear RNA ...
Seeler JS, Muchardt C, Suessle A, Gaynor RB (1994). "Transcription factor PRDII-BF1 activates human immunodeficiency virus type ... 2006). "The high-mobility-group domain of Sox proteins interacts with DNA-binding domains of many transcription factors". ... Transcription factors, All stub articles, Human chromosome 6 gene stubs). ... 4 (1): 29-42. doi:10.1101/gad.4.1.29. PMID 2106471. Baldwin AS, LeClair KP, Singh H, Sharp PA (1990). "A large protein ...
... a novel regulator for induction of activating transcription factor-2 and heme oxygenase-1". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. BVR acts as a means to regenerate bilirubin in a repeating redox ... by control of the upstream activator of insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) ... 235 (1-2): 372-81. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1996.00372.x. PMID 8631357. PDB: 1GCU​; Kikuchi A, Park SY, Miyatake H, Sun D, Sato ...
"Menin interacts with the AP1 transcription factor JunD and represses JunD-activated transcription". Cell. 96 (1): 143-52. doi: ... "Menin interacts with the AP1 transcription factor JunD and represses JunD-activated transcription". Cell. 96 (1): 143-52. doi: ... growth factors, oncogenes play a rule in tumorigenesis. Although the exact function of MEN1 is not known, the Knudson "two-hit ... These familial MEN-1 and sporadic tumors may arise either due to loss of heterozygosity or the chromosome region 11q13 where ...
Nabel G, Baltimore D (1987). "An inducible transcription factor activates expression of human immunodeficiency virus in T cells ... In the activated state, integrins bind tightly to complementary receptors expressed on endothelial cells, with high affinity. ... Activated endothelial cells initially express P-selectin molecules, but within two hours after activation E-selectin expression ... P-selectins: P-selectin is expressed on activated endothelial cells and platelets. Synthesis of P-selectin can be induced by ...
"Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors activate expression of the EGR gene family of transcription factors". The Journal of ... "Acetylcholine muscarinic m1 receptor regulation of cyclic AMP synthesis controls growth factor stimulation of Raf activity". ... ISBN 1-4160-2328-3. Scapecchi S, Matucci R, Bellucci C, Buccioni M, Dei S, Guandalini L, Martelli C, Manetti D, Martini E, ... 8 (1): 10-1. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4001095. PMID 12556901. S2CID 22314941.. However, a larger 2009 study attempting to replicate ...
"Cloning of the Ah-receptor cDNA reveals a distinctive ligand-activated transcription factor". Proceedings of the National ... The first is the basic-region (b), which is involved in the binding of the transcription factor to DNA. The second is the helix ... The bHLH motif is located in the N-terminal of the protein and is a common entity in a variety of transcription factors. ... Sequential recruitment of transcription factors and differential phosphorylation of C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II at ...
ATF4 and ATF5 are members of the leucine zipper activating transcription factor / CREB family. They are known to bind to and ... was shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assays to create or destroy a promoter transcription factor site. Five further non- ... Kal-7-dependent regulation of spine formation occurs through its activity as a GDP/GTP exchange factor for Rac1. Activation of ... Activation of NMDA receptors causes dissociation of DISC1 and kal-7, leaving kal-7 available to activate rac1. DISC1 shows ...
Three methods of preventing Cdk activity are found in G1 phase: pRB binding to E2F family transcription factors downregulate ... These complexes then activate S-Cdk complexes that move forward with DNA replication in the S phase. Concurrently, anaphase- ... In order for the cell to continue through the G1-pm, there must be a high amount of growth factors and a steady rate of protein ... G1 phase and the other subphases of the cell cycle may be affected by limiting growth factors such as nutrient supply, ...
"Entrez Gene: NFIX nuclear factor I/X (CCAAT-binding transcription factor)". Singh SK, Bhardwaj R, Wilczynska KM, Dumur CI, ... Müller K, Mermod N (2000). "The histone-interacting domain of nuclear factor I activates simian virus 40 DNA replication in ... for the human transcription factor nuclear factor I by FISH". Genomics. 28 (1): 66-73. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.1107. PMID 7590749 ... "Thyroglobulin repression of thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) gene expression is mediated by decreased DNA binding of ...
... which has been attributed to the activation of specific transcription factors. It also depends on the activity of a protein or ... October 2005). "The contribution of apoptosis-inducing factor, caspase-activated DNase, and inhibitor of caspase-activated ... Caspase-activated DNase (CAD) or DNA fragmentation factor subunit beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DFFB gene ... It is also known as caspase activated nuclease (CPAN), dna fragmentation factor 40 (DFF-40), DFF2 and DFFB. Besides, there are ...
Daxx can interact and suppress several transcription factors, such as p53, p73, and NF-κB. Proteins other than transcription ... When the cell is treated with TGF-β, HIPK2, a nuclear kinase, phosphorylates Daxx and the activated Daxx in turn activates the ... the encoded protein functions as a potent transcription repressor that binds to sumoylated transcription factors. Its ... The omnipresence of Daxx in the cell nucleus suggests that the protein may also function as a transcription factor. Although it ...
Many viruses have an RNA genome, such as HIV, which uses reverse transcription to create a DNA template from its viral RNA ... Binding of the hormone to insulin receptors on cells then activates a cascade of protein kinases that cause the cells to take ... These signals are usually in the form of water-soluble messengers such as hormones and growth factors and are detected by ... Proteins are made from amino acids that have been activated by attachment to a transfer RNA molecule through an ester bond. ...
... β-catenin becomes a coactivator for TCF and LEF to activate Wnt genes by displacing Groucho and HDAC transcription repressors. ... Yi ZY, Feng LJ, Xiang Z, Yao H (2011). "Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 activation mediates epithelial to ... On the other hand, a lack of α-catenin can promote aberrant transcription, which can lead to cancer. As a result, it can be ... Keratinocytes engineered to not express alpha-catenin have disrupted cell adhesion and activated NF-κB. A tumor cell line with ...
Splicing factor, arginine/serine-rich 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SFRS6 gene. The protein encoded by this ... Ramchatesingh J, Zahler AM, Neugebauer KM, Roth MB, Cooper TA (September 1995). "A subset of SR proteins activates splicing of ... Monsalve M, Wu Z, Adelmant G, Puigserver P, Fan M, Spiegelman BM (August 2000). "Direct coupling of transcription and mRNA ... The encoded nuclear protein belongs to the splicing factor SR family and has been shown to bind with and modulate another ...
June 2012). "Nucleophosmin (NPM1/B23) interacts with activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) protein and promotes proteasome- ... This protein is deactivated by binding ATP, and activated by its dephosphorylation to ADP, which requires a potassium ion to ... Rauch JN, Gestwicki JE (January 2014). "Binding of human nucleotide exchange factors to heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) generates ... Rauch JN, Gestwicki JE (January 2014). "Binding of human nucleotide exchange factors to heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) generates ...
IFNs activate signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) complexes; STATs are a family of transcription factors ... As a result, an IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) complex forms-this contains STAT1, STAT2 and a third transcription factor ... Type I IFNs further activate p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) to induce gene transcription. Antiviral and ... this receptor activates the transcription factors IRF3 and NF-κB, which are important for initiating synthesis of many ...
... represses the transcription of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor by a mechanism involving activator protein ... "Identification and characterization of a novel activated RhoB binding protein containing a PDZ domain whose expression is ... Arthur WT, Ellerbroek SM, Der CJ, Burridge K, Wennerberg K (November 2002). "XPLN, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for ... Gampel A, Parker PJ, Mellor H (September 1999). "Regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor traffic by the small GTPase ...
Phosphorylation of the transcription factor may activate it and that activated transcription factor may then activate the ... An activated enhancer begins transcription of its RNA before activating a promoter to initiate transcription of messenger RNA ... Several cell function specific transcription factors (there are about 1,600 transcription factors in a human cell) generally ... which enable activating transcription factors to recruit RNA polymerase. As promoters are typically immediately adjacent to the ...
The expression profiles of these transcription factors are driven by the transcription factors that peak in the prior phase, ... them from transcription), activating E2F. Activation of E2F results in transcription of various genes like cyclin E, cyclin A, ... One screen of single-gene knockouts identified 48 transcription factors (about 20% of all non-essential transcription factors) ... of cell cycle transcription factors by Cdk1 may alter the localization or activity of the transcription factors in order to ...
This may be due to BadA's inducing the transcription of proangiogenic factors, as it activates of NF-κB as well as hypoxia- ... In essence, they are virulence factors, factors that make the bacteria harmful and infective to the host organism. TAAs are ... All Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesins are crucial virulence factors that cause serious disease in humans. The most-studied and ... YadA bacterial adhesin protein domain Type V secretion system Virulence factor Cell adhesion Outer membrane Gram negative ...
... users with access to smartphones may also activate the on-screen braille input keyboard, to type braille symbols on to ... Some portions of the transcription rules are not fully codified and rely on the judgment of the transcriber. Thus, when the ... There are numerous factors that influence access to braille literacy, including school budget constraints, technology ... Holland, B. F. (1934). "Speed and Pressure Factors in Braille Reading", Teachers Forum, Vol. 7. pp. 13-17 Lowenfield, B.; Abel ...
... phosphorylates INSIG to activate SREBP and lipogenesis in cancer cells. Lu demonstrated that growth factor receptor activation ... "PKM2 phosphorylates histone H3 and promotes gene transcription and tumorigenesis". Cell. 150 (4): 685-696. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... In addition, he showed that activation of growth factor receptors, expression of K-Ras G12V and B-Raf V600E, and hypoxia induce ... phosphorylating and activating phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase 1 (PRPS1) to promote the de novo nucleic acid synthesis ...
Transcription of csrC increases as the culture approaches the stationary phase of growth and is indirectly activated by CsrA ... The 245 nucleotide sRNA of Escherichia coli, CsrC, was discovered using a genetic screen for factors that regulate glycogen ... via the response regulator UvrY [1]. This RNA was also discovered in E. coli during a large scale screen [2]. The gene called ...
... transcription and transcription factor regulation, cell signaling, histone modification, and DNA repair. Most other UBLs have ... Typically, UBLs are expressed as inactive precursors and must be activated by proteolysis of the C-terminus to expose the ... The process of ubiquitination is a tightly regulated three-step sequence: activation, performed by ubiquitin-activating enzymes ... transcription, DNA repair, RNA splicing, and cellular differentiation. Ubiquitin itself was first discovered in the 1970s and ...
PGD2, PGJ2, Δ12-PGJ2, and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 activate the transcription factor, PPARγ, with 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 being the ... This PG directly binds with and activates PPARγ thereby inducing the transcription of genes containing the PPARγ response ... KEAP1: cytosolic KEAP1 serves to promote the degradation of Nrf2 by proteasomes thereby inhibiting this transcription factor ... to retain NFκB in the cell cytoplasm thereby inhibiting it from entering the nucleus and acting as a transcription factor (see ...
... the HIF transcription factor is responsible for the expression of a protein. The HIF stabilizer activates the activity of EPO ... Co2+ induces this response by binding to the N-terminus (loop helix loop domain) of the Hypoxia inducing transcription factors ... they cannot then bind and activate transcription of genes encoding Erythropoietin (EPO). With Co2+ stabilization, degradation ... Hypoxia-inducible factor stabilizer (HIF stabilizer) is a pharmaceutical used to treat chronic kidney disease. Like most ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor. GLI2 belongs to the C2H2-type zinc finger protein subclass of the ... When inappropriately activated causes hair follicle derived tumors, the most clinically significant being the BCC. Of the four ... Members of this subclass are characterized as transcription factors which bind DNA through zinc finger motifs. These motifs ... Transgenic mice over-expressing the transcription factor Gli2 under the K5 promoter in cutaneous keratinocytes develop multiple ...
... with beta-catenin and T-cell factor 4 may bypass canonical Wnt signaling to down-regulate adipogenic transcription factors". ... To further test the role of activated androgen receptors on AHN, flutamide, an antiandrogen drug that competes with ... Androgens bind to and activate androgen receptors (ARs) to mediate most of their biological effects. Determined by ... "Recruitment of the androgen receptor via serum response factor facilitates expression of a myogenic gene". The Journal of ...
... /Max dimers activate gene transcription, while Mad/Max and Mnt/Max dimers inhibit the activity of Myc. c-MYC is over ... MYC proto-oncogene, bHLH transcription factor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYC gene which is a member of the ... The encoded protein forms a heterodimer with the related transcription factor MAX. This complex binds to the E box DNA ... "MYC MYC proto-oncogene, bHLH transcription factor [ Homo sapiens (human) ]". Retrieved 2020-03-02. Dang CV, McGuire M, Buckmire ...
... to activate the transcription factor NF-κB. Mal (also known as TIRAP) is necessary to recruit Myd88 to TLR 2 and TLR 4, and ... these proteins activate two important transcription factors: NF-κB is a dimeric protein responsible for expression of various ... TLR7 and TLR9 activate both NF-κB and IRF3 through MyD88-dependent and TRIF-independent pathway, respectively. The human ... Another adaptor protein, which is activated by TLR3 and TLR4, is called TIR domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-β (TRIF). ...
However activated GR can complex with these other transcription factors and prevent them from binding their target genes and ... The biological response depends on the cell type.[citation needed] In the absence of activated GR, other transcription factors ... Chang CJ, Chen YL, Lee SC (October 1998). "Coactivator TIF1beta interacts with transcription factor C/EBPbeta and ... June 1998). "Recruitment of octamer transcription factors to DNA by glucocorticoid receptor". Molecular and Cellular Biology. ...
Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ... The proteolytic capacity of 20S core particle (CP) can be activated when CP associates with one or two regulatory particles (RP ... Besides RPs, the 20S proteasomes can also be effectively activated by other mild chemical treatments, such as exposure to low ... gene transcription, signal transduction and apoptosis. Subsequently, a compromised proteasome complex assembly and function ...
It can stimulate transcription factor c‑myc (activation of gene expression) and Ras pathway (suppression of apoptosis). In the ... Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and IL-6. IL-3 is secreted by basophils and activated T cells to ... Sometimes also called colony-stimulating factor, multi-CSF, mast cell growth factor, MULTI-CSF, MCGF; MGC79398, MGC79399: the ... Activated T cells can either induce their own proliferation and differentiation (autocrine signaling), or that of other T cells ...
Moreover, G6PD is one of a number of glycolytic enzymes activated by the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1 ... The isoform, G6PDH, is regulated by transcription and posttranscription factors. ... Xu SN, Wang TS, Li X, Wang YP (September 2016). "SIRT2 activates G6PD to enhance NADPH production and promote leukaemia cell ... G6PD is hypomethylated at K403 in acute myeloid leukemia, SIRT2 activates G6PD to enhance NADPH production and promote leukemia ...
However, all other transcription factors in the MSL family-maleless, MSL-1, and MSL-3-are able to act when SXL is not expressed ... SXL is activated to repress increased transcription, while in XY animals SXL is inactive and allows male development to proceed ... In the case of two-fold increased transcription of a single male X chromosome, there is no use for a Barr body, and the male ... These factors act to increase male X chromosome transcriptional activity. Histone acetylation and the consequent upregulation ...
... methylation can lead to the recruitment of transcription factors that repress transcription. Both mechanisms cause the same end ... These pathways are activated in the cellular response to reduce senescence. Mutations resulting in deletion or reduction of ... Regulation of p16 is complex and involves the interaction of several transcription factors, as well as several proteins ... p16 through the interaction of various transcription factors that execute methylation patterns that can repress transcription ...
... and the specific expression of transcription factors has been described, which has provided information on the differential ... Waterman-Storer CM, Worthylake RA, Liu BP, Burridge K, Salmon ED (May 1999). "Microtubule growth activates Rac1 to promote ... Signals sent between the follicular cells and the oocyte (such as factors similar to epidermal growth factor) cause the ... After nucleation, the minus-ends are released and then re-anchored in the periphery by factors such as ninein and PLEKHA7. In ...
... is an anti-apoptotic factor and has been implicated in enhancing the survival of cancer cells under stress and in regulating ... is an anti-apoptotic factor, and has been implicated in enhancing the survival of cancer cells under stress and in regulating ... Activating transcription factor-5 (ATF5) is an anti-apoptotic factor and has been implicated in enhancing the survival of ... is a member of the ATF/cAMP response element-binding family of transcription factors (14). This transcription factor is an anti ...
... stress and UPR have been shown to induce macroautophagy/autophagy in a context-dependent manner and are crucial factors in ... Abbreviations: ACTB: actin, beta; ATF6: activating transcription factor 6; ATG: autophagy-related; BafA1: bafilomycin A1; CQ: ... Madhuri Chaurasia 1 2 , Swapnil Gupta 3 , Asmita Das 2 , B S Dwarakanath 4 , Anne Simonsen 3 , Kulbhushan Sharma 1 3 ... eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3) and ERN1/IRE1 (endoplasmic reticulum [ER] to nucleus signaling 1). ...
... activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3; n = 7), family with sequence similarity, member A (FAM71A; n = 2), tachykinin receptor ... Asthma; Occupational asthma; Genetic factors; Genes; Diisocyanates; Occupational exposure; Genetic predisposition; Bioassays; ... 1), and zinc finger and BTB domain-containing protein 16 (ZBTB16; n = 1). Electrophoretic mobility shift assays detected allele ...
... coffee extract and more than 2.5 μM pyrocatechol inhibited the LPS-induced activation of NF-κB and also significantly activated ... The transcription factor NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is a critical transcription factor to protect cells from oxidative ... TLR4-mediated signals activate a transcription factor, nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB), which mainly forms hetero-dimers ... The transcription factor NF-κB regulates the expression of iNOS, CCL2, CXCL1, IL-6, and TNFα9,10,11,12. The present results ...
title = "Transcription factor FnrP from Paracoccus denitrificans contains an iron-sulfur cluster and is activated by anoxia: ... T1 - Transcription factor FnrP from Paracoccus denitrificans contains an iron-sulfur cluster and is activated by anoxia: ... Transcription factor FnrP from Paracoccus denitrificans contains an iron-sulfur cluster and is activated by anoxia: ... Transcription factor FnrP from Paracoccus denitrificans contains an iron-sulfur cluster and is activated by anoxia: ...
They also point to G4s as elements that recruit transcription factors to activate transcription in cells. Ilaria Frasson et al ... find that the herpesvirus major transcription factor ICP4 regulates viral gene expression and replication through binding to ... This mechanism was also exploited by ICP4 to promote its own transcription. Proximity ligation assay allowed visualization of ... induced transcription in vitro and in infected cells. ... G4s have been shown to form in the herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV- ...
Notch is a transcription factor that activates CBF1 and other transcriptional targets in the nucleus, including Hes-5 and Hesr- ... Cell source and final localization are critical factors in all these approaches if specific targeting is being sought. ... Consistently, studies with Notch mutants have shown that in the presence of gain-of-function mutations, activated Notch ... 1.. Notch is usually expressed in proliferating zones of the developing CNS, suggesting a critical role in this process. ...
Activating transcription factor (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) • AP-1 (c-Fos, FOSB, FOSL1, FOSL2, c-Jun, JUNB, JUND) • BACH (1, 2) • C/EBP ... transcription factor activity. • protein binding. • zinc ion binding. • transcription repressor activity. • protein ... transcription. • regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent. • negative regulation of transcription. • caudate nucleus ... Transcription factors and intracellular receptors. (1) Basic domains. (1.1) Basic leucine zipper (bZIP). ...
1 genomic alteration(s); 170/227 (75%), ≥1 potentially actionable alteration(s) targetable by an FDA-approved (mostly off- ... MYD88 (myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88) activates transcription factor NFkB. Ibrutinib, acalabrutinib (IRAK1 ... STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) encodes a transcription factor. AZD9150 (NCT01839604) **. ... RUNX1 (Runt-related transcription factor, also known as acute myeloid leukemia 1 protein (AML1), core-binding factor subunit ...
Transcription Factor FXR Activates DHRS9 to Inhibit the Cell Oxidative Phosphorylation and Suppress Colon Cancer Progression. ... Title: Transcription Factor FXR Activates DHRS9 to Inhibit the Cell Oxidative Phosphorylation and Suppress Colon Cancer ... This gene encodes a ligand-activated transcription factor that shares structural features in common with nuclear hormone ... a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors. cd06962. Location:124 → 211. NR_DBD_FXR ...
The adenovirus major late transcription factor activates the rat gamma-fibrinogen promoter (English) ... The adenovirus major late transcription factor activates the rat gamma-fibrinogen promoter. scientific article ...
Oxidative Stress and Alleviates Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Activating Nuclear Transcription-Related Factor 2 ( ... A Prospective Questionnaire-Based Study to Evaluate Factors Affecting the Decision to Receive COVID-19 Vacc... Med Sci Monit In ... A Prospective Questionnaire-Based Study to Evaluate Factors Affecting the Decision to Receive COVID-19 Vacc... Med Sci Monit In ... Acceptance of COVID-19 Vaccination and Its Associated Factors Among Cancer Patients Attending the Oncology ... DOI :10.12659/ ...
The effect of EOs and their constituents on tumour suppressor proteins (p53 and Akt), transcription factors (NF-,i,κ,/i,B ... and AP-1), MAPK-pathway, and detoxification enzymes like SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase has ... Nuclear factor, NF-κB, is a transcription factor (TF) that gets activated in the tumour cells [55]. Thus, it serves as a ... The effect of EOs and their constituents on tumour suppressor proteins (p53 and Akt), transcription factors (NF-κB and AP-1), ...
Numerous transcription factors are known to be activated downstream of both GPCRs and RTKs. Activator protein (AP)‐1, cyclic ... The convergence of signalling pathways activated by Ras and Rho to modulate transcription factors including NF‐κB and AP‐1 ... Furthermore, the ERK signalling pathway appeared to be involved in activating these transcription factors based on the ... indicating that EGF does not specifically activate these transcription factors. When cells were treated with LPA+EGF, only the ...
Two Sides of the Same Coin : Unravelling the role of transcription factors and miRNAs in activated monocytes, macrophages and ... Unravelling the role of transcription factors and miRNAs in activated monocytes, macrophages and microglia. Erasmus University ... This thesis focusses on understanding the role of three transcriptions factors, namely ATF3, EGR3 and PU.1, and also microRNA- ... In the introduction the immune cells, the diseases and the transcription factors + pathways will be introduced subsequently. ...
Transcription Factor Arabidopsis Activating Factor1 Integrates Carbon Starvation Responses with Trehalose Metabolism. Plant ... Garapati, P.; Xue, G.-P.; Munne-Bosch, S.; Balazadeh, S.: Transcription Factor ATAF1 in Arabidopsis Promotes Senescence by ... a reactive oxygen species-responsive NAC transcription factor, regulates longevity in Arabidopsis. The Plant Cell 24 (2), pp. ... Transformation of tomato variety rio grande with drought resistant transcription factor gene ATAF1 and its molecular analysis. ...
Treatment-induced cell death was ERS-dependent, apoptotic pathways were not activated following knockdown of ERS protein CHOP. ... activating transcription factor 6). During ERS, GRP78 disassociates from these UPR proteins to chaperone terminally misfolded ... These include elevated expression of transcription factor CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein, also called GADD153), inhibition of ... Calcium-activated endoplasmic reticulum stress as a major component of tumor cell death induced by 2,5-dimethyl-celecoxib, a ...
... of iPSCs demonstrated that scientists can change cell fate artificially by activating only a few transcription factors. This ... They cannot survive outside of their environment without specific factors and cytokines. Stem cells exist both in embryos and ... the stem cell environment and specific stem cell factors can promote the dedifferentiation of specialized cells and return them ... S. Morgani et al., "The many faces of pluripotency: in vitro adaptations of a continuum of in vivo states," BMC Dev Biol, 17:1- ...
... dc.contributor.advisor. Braus, Gerhard Prof. Dr. ... Oxygen-dependent regulation of the activating transcription factor-4 (ATF-4). de. ... the activating transcription factor-4 (ATF-4) was identified as a novel interaction partner of the oxygen sensor PHD3. ATF-4 is ... The interaction of ATF 4 is restricted to PHD3 whereas no interaction was observed with PHD1, PHD2 or factor inhibiting HIF-1 ( ...
Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression bioassay, CALUX bioassay),其為細胞毒性檢測方法,藉由冷光之強弱與2,3,7,8-四氯戴奧辛(2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-p- ... Cloning of the Ah-receptor cDNA reveals a distinctive ligand-activated transcription factor. Proceedings of the National ... Part I: Acute toxicity and toxic equivalency factors (TEFs). Archives of Toxicology, 66: 471-477.. Tsutsumi, T., Yunagi, T., ... Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression bioassay, CALUX bioassay),其為細胞毒性檢測方法,藉由冷光之
J:321772 Poli V, et al., Inhibition of transcription factor NFAT activity in activated platelets enhances their aggregation and ... Ap3b1 interacts with 187 markers (Mir1a-1, Mir7-1, Mir7-2, ...) View All ...
Exposed cells also demonstrated an increase in the activation of the transcription activating factor Nuclear-Factor-kappa-B (NF ... indicative of the activated endothelial cell. A time dependent increase was noted in neutrophil binding to Intercellular- ... resulting in the increased expression of growth factors and proteases, which are relevant to the development of fibrosis. ... The Environmental Affairs Group, Sanders A. Lockheed Martin Company, Nashua, New Hampshire 1997 Jan; :1-6 ...
Akt: protein kinase B; ATF6: activating transcription factor 6; BDNF: brain derived neurotrophic factor; CHOP: CCAAT/enhancer- ... GRP78 is always combined with several critical transmembrane ER signaling proteins, i.e. activating transcription factor 6 ( ... 5. Hiltunen JO, Laurikainen A, Vakeva A, Meri S, Saarma M. Nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNAs are ... Keywords: ischemia/reperfusion injury, nerve growth factor, endoplasmic reticulum, apoptosis. Introduction. Nerve growth factor ...
... investigators found evidence that high insulin concentrations impact naïve acinar cells via the activating transcription factor ... Factors controlling release of pancreatic secretions. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. View Media Gallery ... Another factor that contributes to pancreatic steatorrhea is the presence of neurohormonal disturbances, which result in gall ... EPI is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events, with the incidence rate ratio for such events in patients with EPI ...
... short fibers in activating MAP kinases which activates transcription factor c-Jun which acts on the TNF-a gene promoter through ... This explicates the central dogma that asbestos fibers activate transcription factors and early response genes involved in cell ... Critical role of glass fiber length in TNF-alpha production and transcription factor activation in macrophages. Am J ... factors and growth factors; deposition and retention modeling of inhaled non-fibrous and fibrous particulate compounds (lung- ...
... or Th2-specific sets of cytokine genes under the control of transcription factors such as nuclear factor of activated T cells ( ... At the same time, a second wave of transcription factors is induced, including GATA-3 and c-Maf in the case of Th2 cells. It ... S region transcription per se promotes basal IgE class switch recombination but additional factors regulate the efficiency of ... Activation of the Iε promoter requires a number of transcription factors in addition to STAT6. The promoter contains binding ...
mRNA-activated matrices encoding transcription factors as primers of cell differentiation in tissue engineering  Martínez Ledo ... Gene-activated matrices (GAMs) encoding pivotal transcription factors (TFs) represent a powerful tool to direct stem cell ... HIV mutates rapidly and infects CD4+ T cells, especially when they are activated. A vaccine targeting conserved, essential ... Marine guanidine alkaloids crambescidins inhibit tumor growth and activate intrinsic apoptotic signaling inducing tumor ...
Activating transcription factor (ATF) 4 (ATF4), 5′-GACCGAAATGAGCTTCCTGA-3′ and 5′-ACCCATGAGGTTTGAAGTGC-3′; Cleaved ATF6, 5′- ... It has been reported that the transcription factors ATF4 and CHOP could increase the transcription of the autophagy gene ... 6A). The protein expression of CHOP, a pro-apoptotic factor of ER stress, was also significantly increased (Fig. 6B). In ... In this study, we found that after HA15 treatment, the pro-apoptotic UPR signaling was activated, resulting in significantly ...
  • Interestingly, gene expression analysis between CD24-positive and -negative Mvt1 cells revealed activating transcription factor-5 (ATF5) as one of the top 10 genes that were upregulated in the aggressive CD24-positive cells over CD24-negative cells ( 13 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • transcription of the late viral genes is also coupled to viral DNA replication 22 . (nature.com)
  • It is activated by PROTEASES and then moves to the CELL NUCLEUS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in the unfolded protein response. (rush.edu)
  • They are transcription factors capable of activating or disabling comprehensive genetic programs with many target genes. (labroots.com)
  • The activated mineralocorticoid receptor acts as a transcription factor, which is a protein that binds to specific regions of DNA and helps control the activity (transcription) of particular genes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • PTFs also enable other transcription factors, histone modifiers, and nucleosome remodeling complexes to alter the chromatin state and promote gene expression of silenced genes. (cytoskeleton.com)
  • The transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4 were found to trigger endogenous expression of pluripotent genes [2] and were identified as PTFs due to their ability to access closed chromatin [3] . (cytoskeleton.com)
  • ATF1 and CREB regulate transcription of many target genes by way of homo-or heterodimerization within the family or with other b-zip transcription factors, which relevant to an AP1 or cAMP-response element [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This means that both human and virus genes are activated in the infected cells. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • It activated fewer of its own genes, which would normally fuel the infection. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • PU.1 is a lineage-determining transcription factor that regulates myeloid-specific genes by activating distal enhancers. (uwo.ca)
  • Factor de transcripción activador que regula la expresión de diversos genes, como los GENES C-JUN y el FACTOR DEL CRECIMIENTO TRANSFORMADOR BETA2. (bvsalud.org)
  • An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2. (bvsalud.org)
  • Several transcription factors and regulators of iron uptake genes were identified, but the knowledge of signaling pathways is still limited. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • In fact, diabetes reduces the rate of angiogenesis by alteration in the expression angiogenic genes such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) [6] . (eg.net)
  • The master transcription factor Sry-type HMG box (Sox) 9 has an essential role in the expression of chondrogenic genes through the association with Sox9-binding sites on its target genes{thus to grow taller it's essential that Sox9 is working properl} . (heightquest.com)
  • The E2F family of transcription factors regulates the expression of a number of genes whose products are involved in cell cycle control, DNA replication and apoptosis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We show here that E2F-1 binds in vivo the promoters of ASPP1 and ASPP2 genes, two activators of p53-mediated apoptosis, E2F-1, E2F-2 and E2F-3 all activate the isolated ASPP1 and ASPP2 promoters. (ox.ac.uk)
  • One observation that's particularly illustrative may be the altered amount of transcription of over 900 genes (2-fold transformation in appearance), following deletion of (a PPIP5K homologue) in person in the inositol phosphate kinase signaling family members. (immune-source.com)
  • Surprisingly, unlike T-cells, where T-bet turns on the inflammatory gene program, T-bet repressed or turned off more than 2,000 genes in the Th1-activated B-cells. (drugtargetreview.com)
  • Acting as master gene regulators, a few NAC genes can activate secondary wall biosynthesis during wood formation in woody plants. (researchsquare.com)
  • A unique tissue-specific transcript analysis revealed that lignin and cellulose biosynthetic-related genes, transcription factors (TFs) and other potential regulators of xylogenesis were under strict developmental stage-specific transcriptional regulation in poplar [10]. (researchsquare.com)
  • A few NAC genes can activate secondary wall biosynthesis during wood formation acting as master gene regulators, such as vascular-related NAC-domain genes ( VND) and secondary wall-associated NAC domain genes ( SND) [13, 14]. (researchsquare.com)
  • In addition to these four well-conserved "core PKS genes", the neighboring regions encode additional genes, some of which are highly syntenic and conserved between genomes ( Figure 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • We recently showed that when activated, these core PKS genes from A. fumigatus and N. fischeri can synthesize a prenylated, tricyclic polyketide neosartoricin 11 . (cdc.gov)
  • The effect of EOs and their constituents on tumour suppressor proteins (p53 and Akt), transcription factors (NF- κ B and AP-1), MAPK-pathway, and detoxification enzymes like SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase has also been discussed. (hindawi.com)
  • During low to moderate levels of ERS various pro-survival UPR pathway proteins are activated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These include heat shock protein GRP78 (glucose regulated protein 78, also called BiP, immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein) and three ER transmembrane proteins PERK (protein kinase activated by double-stranded RNA-like ER kinase), IRE1 (inositol-requiring enzyme 1) and ATF6 (activating transcription factor 6). (biomedcentral.com)
  • At the same time, the freed UPR proteins become activated and initiate signaling pathways that serve to correct or neutralize ERS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These include elevated expression of transcription factor CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein, also called GADD153), inhibition of anti-apoptotic proteins (e.g. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which is activated initially as a defensive response to eliminate the accumulated unfolded proteins, has shown a critical involvement in the ischemia induced myocardial apoptosis. (medsci.org)
  • There are two proteins - GATA1 and PU.1 - that have been a focus of the research. (labroots.com)
  • Jang began by looking at a class of proteins involved in intracellular signaling, called transcription factors, which bind to specific "promoter" regions on DNA and increase their transcription into RNA and translation into proteins. (science20.com)
  • Supporting clinical data, administration of SARS-CoV-2 Spike 1 (S1) glycoprotein or receptor-binding domain (RBD) proteins into human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) transgenic mice induced cardiac fibrosis and dysfunction associated with higher NF-κB phosphorylation (pNF-κB) and cardiopulmonary-derived IL-18 and NLRP3 expression. (bvsalud.org)
  • Once activated, caspases -3 and -7 cleave downstream proteins. (smpdb.ca)
  • mitogen-activated protein kinases, and molecules involving in broad metabolic pathways, such as proteasomes, histone deacetylase and transcription factor proteins such as nuclear factor kappa B. The target molecules are derived from basic studies of cancer and evolved to be potential anticancer drugs. (who.int)
  • Overexpression or deregulation of E2F-1 increased the expression levels of ASPP1 and ASPP2 mRNA and proteins. (ox.ac.uk)
  • ADP ribosylation factors (ARFs), which are members of the Ras superfamily of GTP-binding proteins, are critical components of vesicular trafficking pathways in eukaryotes. (embl.de)
  • Like Ras, ARFs are active in their GTP-bound form, and their duration of activity is controlled by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), which assist ARFs in hydrolyzing GTP to GDP. (embl.de)
  • Promotes localized and transient activation of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), and thereby modulates the activity of Rho family GTPases. (idrblab.net)
  • Disruption of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC)-1α reverts key features of the neoplastic phenotype of glioma cells. (reliatech.de)
  • OEA is synthesized from membrane glycerophospholipids and is a high-affinity agonist of the nuclear transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α). (elsevier.com)
  • The effects of ER stress were transcriptional because of downregulation of CAAT/enhancer binding protein-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ transcriptional activators and upregulation of the transcriptional repressor CAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein-10 (CHOP10). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This thesis focusses on understanding the role of three transcriptions factors, namely ATF3, EGR3 and PU.1, and also microRNA-146a, involved in the activation of monocytes, macrophages and microglia in pathological conditions, which are thought to be driven - at least in part - by special inflammatory reactions. (eur.nl)
  • Additionally, I identified the Activating Transcription Factor 3 (Atf3) as a possible novel mechanism linking TRIB1 to the regulation of LDLR in a CEBPa dependent manner. (upenn.edu)
  • A treatment with 5%(v/v) coffee extract and more than 2.5 μM pyrocatechol inhibited the LPS-induced activation of NF-κB and also significantly activated Nrf2, which acts as a negative regulator in LPS-induced inflammation. (nature.com)
  • They investigated differences in the way the infection progresses in individual cells and found that the NRF2 transcription factor plays a major role. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • This showed us that the activation level of the NRF2 transcription factor can be a marker for temporary resistance to HSV-1 infection," says Franke. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • The study also presents another finding: A drug that is currently being tested for patients with chronic kidney disease could inhibit herpes infection by activating the NRF2 transcription factor. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • The authors believe this is due to the drug's effect on the NRF2 transcription factor. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • The expression of heme oxygenase- 1 (HO-1) or nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mRNA was determined by real-time PCR. (papersearch.net)
  • HO-1, Nrf2, DJ-1, or KEAP1 protein expressions were analyzed by Western blotting. (papersearch.net)
  • Results: CSE activated Nrf2, a transcription factor, which regulates the expression of several antioxidants. (papersearch.net)
  • Nrf2 protein stability has been reported to be regulated by DJ-1 and KEAP1. (papersearch.net)
  • In-Vitro: KeratinoSens Test: Under the experimental conditions of this study, the test item CAS 577978-76-8 was positive in the KeratinoSens assay and therefore was considered to activate the Nrf2 transcription factor. (europa.eu)
  • Increased expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) has been found in the myocardium suffered from ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). The pro-survival activity of NGF on ischemic heart has been supposed to be mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway. (medsci.org)
  • KEGG analysis revealed that the main pathways were HIF-1 signaling pathway, prolactin signaling pathway, fluid shear stress, and atherosclerosis, etc. (lww.com)
  • Apaf-1, a mammalian homologue of CED-4 of C. elegans, is the essential adaptor molecule in the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. (wormbase.org)
  • Background: Cigarette smoke (CS) induces lung inflammation and simultaneously activates anti-oxidative pathway as a defense mechanism. (papersearch.net)
  • Phosphorylation of translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) attenuates global protein synthesis but enhances translation of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and is a crucial evolutionarily conserved adaptive pathway during cellular stresses. (diamond.ac.uk)
  • The serine-threonine protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) deactivates this pathway whereas prolonging eIF2α phosphorylation enhances cell survival. (diamond.ac.uk)
  • The downstream signaling cascade from activated c-fms involves the MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathway. (divbiolchem.org)
  • The replication of adenovirus in cells activates the TP53-mediated apoptosis pathway. (medicaltrend.org)
  • Among the signaling pathways regulated by GSK3s, the Wnt canonical pathway is the most well described, with GSK3β inhibition triggering an increase in β -catenin protein levels and its nuclear translocation to activate target gene expression ( Doble and Woodgett, 2003 ). (eneuro.org)
  • These observations indicate that iAs can impair TLR3 expression and anti-tumor pathway activated by PIC+9cRA in SCs and prostatic epithelial cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • The prolyl-4 hydroxylase domain enzymes 1-3 (PHD1-3) are involved in regulating the protein stability of the alpha subunit of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), which is the master regulator of oxygen-dependent gene expression. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • A molecular basis for O2 regulated expression of the HIF-1 alpha subunit has now been determined, providing a mechanism for changes in gene expression in response to changes in cellular oxygenation. (wormbase.org)
  • Nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p105 subunit isa 105 kD protein which can undergo cotranslational processing by the 26S proteasome to produce a 50 kD protein. (abbkine.com)
  • The 105 kD protein is a Rel protein-specific transcription inhibitor and the 50 kD protein is a DNA binding subunit of the NF-kappaB (NF-κB) protein complex. (abbkine.com)
  • Sox9 interacts with the Med12/Trap230 subunit of the mediator complex to stimulate RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription in chondrocytes. (heightquest.com)
  • Furthermore, CCL2 is involved in alleviating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in MAC-T cells by reducing LPS-induced expression of IL8, IL6, and nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1 (NFKB1). (ewha.ac.kr)
  • Wei K, Liu L, Xie F, Hao X, Luo J, Min S. Nerve Growth Factor Protects the Ischemic Heart via Attenuation of the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Induced Apoptosis by Activation of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase. (medsci.org)
  • 2007) Biochem Cell Biol "Che-1/AATF, a multivalent adaptor connecting transcriptional regulation, checkpoint control, and apoptosis. (wormbase.org)
  • Thus, Che-1 emerges as an important adaptor that connects transcriptional regulation, cell-cycle progression, checkpoint control, and apoptosis. (wormbase.org)
  • Mice lacking Apaf-1 show accumulation of neurons in the developing central nervous system due to reduced apoptosis. (wormbase.org)
  • Apaf-1-mediated apoptosis plays a role in the prevention of tumorigenesis. (wormbase.org)
  • The Paracoccus denitrificans transcription factor FnrP has been characterized using artificial FNR-dependent promoter-lacZ fusion plasmids in Escherichia coli. (uea.ac.uk)
  • FnrP can activate both class I and class II FNR-dependent promoters in response to anoxia but shows a marked preference for the class II promoter, where the FNR binding site is centered at -41.5 with respect to the transcription start site. (uea.ac.uk)
  • 3C analysis showed that enhancer-promoter interactions were established in a PU.1-dependent manner. (uwo.ca)
  • CREB family transcription factors are required for the early induction of all the major BDNF transcripts, whereas CREB itself directly binds only to BDNF promoter IV, is phosphorylated in response to BDNF-TrkB signaling, and activates transcription from BDNF promoter IV by recruiting CBP. (jneurosci.org)
  • Using electromobility shift assays, which measure the binding of transcription factors to DNA promoters, Jang eventually determined that luteolin inhibited IL-6 production by preventing activator protein-1 (AP-1) from binding the IL-6 promoter. (science20.com)
  • The failure of the JNK to activate the AP-1 transcription factor prevented it from binding to the promoter region on the IL-6 gene and transcription came to a halt. (science20.com)
  • As there are no reports on the transcriptional regulation of this gene, the DNA sequence from -2612 to +682 bp (relative to the transcription start site) of the JDP2 gene was cloned and promoter activity analyzed. (divbiolchem.org)
  • Overexpression of Tbx3 induced JDP2 promoter activity while suppressing Tbx3 expression substantially attenuated CSF1-induced transcription. (divbiolchem.org)
  • Adenovirus E2 promoter can be divided into early and late promoters, used to regulate the E2 transcription unit, the late E2 promoter region contains Y-box, the binding site of transcription factor YB-1 (Y-box binding protein-1). (medicaltrend.org)
  • A close association was observed between radiation-induced oxidative burst, UPR and induction of autophagy, with the possible involvement of EIF2AK3/PERK (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3) and ERN1/IRE1 (endoplasmic reticulum [ER] to nucleus signaling 1). (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this study was to explore potential sites for signal integration mediating synergism, focusing on extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and transcription factors involved in proliferation and inflammation as likely candidates. (ersjournals.com)
  • In summary, extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation is required for many transcription factor responses to lysophosphatidic acid and epidermal growth factor, however it is not synergistic. (ersjournals.com)
  • AP-1 is in turn activated by JNK, an upstream protein kinase. (science20.com)
  • Involvement of the mitogen activated protein kinase Hog1p in the response of Candida albicans to iron availability. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • Gene expression profiling of the Deltahog1 deletion mutant indicated an involvement of the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase Hog1p. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • Regulation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HOG1 mitogen-activated protein kinase by the PTP2 and PTP3 protein tyrosine phosphatases. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • Protein kinase A-induced phosphorylation of Sox9 enhances Sox9-dependent transcription by increasing the DNA-binding affinity of Sox9. (heightquest.com)
  • Avapritinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that binds to and inhibits specific mutant forms of platelet-driven growth factor receptor (PDGFR)?alpha and c-Kit, including the PDGFR-alpha D842V mutant and various KIT exon 17 mutants. (medscape.com)
  • Ripretinib is platelet-driven growth factor receptor (PDGFR)?alpha inhibitor that is indicated for advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumor in adults previously treated with 3 or more kinase inhibitors, including imatinib. (medscape.com)
  • Activation of the inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding protein and of ERK signalling pathways were required for most transcription factor responses to LPA. (ersjournals.com)
  • Understanding the signalling pathways involved in the synergistic mitogenesis, seen when cells are treated with multiple stimuli, is an important aspect of understanding how cells respond in vivo , where cells must integrate the signalling pathways activated by multiple stimuli. (ersjournals.com)
  • In the introduction the immune cells, the diseases and the transcription factors + pathways will be introduced subsequently. (eur.nl)
  • Treatment-induced cell death was ERS-dependent, apoptotic pathways were not activated following knockdown of ERS protein CHOP. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conversely, during severe and persistent ERS pro-apoptotic UPR signaling pathways are activated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results showed that there were 212 potential targets of JGSQP for ED disease, and GO analysis revealed that the main pathways were positive regulation of DNA-binding transcription factor activity, regulation of vascular diameter, and negative regulation of vascular diameter, etc. (lww.com)
  • Overall, my studies stablish Trib1 and its regulation of CEBPa as critical factors in the regulation of multiple metabolic pathways affecting plasma lipids, as well as novel regulators of the LDLR and glucose metabolism. (upenn.edu)
  • Genetic analyses using rnt-1 mutants have shown that RNT-1 is regulated by TGFbeta- and Wnt-signaling pathways in the body size regulation and male tail development. (wormbase.org)
  • Here, we review our current understanding of RNT-1 functions in these signaling pathways. (wormbase.org)
  • However, Apaf-1-independent cell death pathways are also indicated. (wormbase.org)
  • Consistently, studies with Notch mutants have shown that in the presence of gain-of-function mutations, activated Notch inhibited neuronal differentiation and perturbed cell-fate specification in the immature brain. (medscape.com)
  • More than 50 mutations in the NR3C2 gene have been identified in people with pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1), a condition that typically begins in infancy and is characterized by low levels of sodium (hyponatremia) and high levels of potassium (hyperkalemia) in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mineralocorticoid receptor mutations are the principal cause of renal type 1 pseudohypoaldosteronism. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mutations in the C. elegans maternal-effect gene clk-1 are highly pleiotropic, affecting the duration of diverse developmental and behavioral processes. (wormbase.org)
  • 1) CLK-1 is a highly conserved mitochondrial protein,(2,3) but even severe clk-1 mutations affect mitochondrial respiration only slightly. (wormbase.org)
  • High incidence of activating STAT5B mutations in CD4-positive T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia. (cusabio.com)
  • In tumor cells with mutations or disorders of pRB, E2F is no longer negatively regulated by pRB and can activate viral gene transcription to replicate. (medicaltrend.org)
  • The transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily also plays a key role in chondrocyte differentiation. (heightquest.com)
  • Colony Stimulating Factor 1(CSF1) is known to promote osteoclast progenitor survival but its role in osteoclast differentiation and mature osteoclast function are less well understood. (divbiolchem.org)
  • Key control points for this differentiation in B-cells, or other immune cells, are transcription factors. (drugtargetreview.com)
  • Although influenza infection causes T helper-1 cells to produce interferon-gamma and promote up-regulation of T-bet by the B-cells and their differentiation into antibody secreting cells, not all pathogens induce T helper-1 cell development. (drugtargetreview.com)
  • PIC+9cRA combination activates retinoic acid receptor ß (RARß) re-expression, leading to CSC differentiation and growth arrest. (bvsalud.org)
  • Activator protein (AP)‐1, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element-binding protein (CREB), nuclear factor of activated T‐cells (NFAT), nuclear factor (NF)‐κB, the serum response element (SRE) complex and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) are all known to be involved in proliferation and/or inflammation and have been implicated in the inflammatory state causing asthma and related airway diseases 8 . (ersjournals.com)
  • IL-1β is a potent inflammatory cytokine promptly expressed in activated myeloid cells. (uwo.ca)
  • In T-cell development, T-bet activates inflammatory gene programmes that allow the T-cells to become T helper-1, or Th1, cells that can kill viruses and bacteria. (drugtargetreview.com)
  • Herein, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant efficacy of diapocynin, an oxidative metabolite of the naturally occurring agent apocynin, in a pre-clinical 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. (springer.com)
  • For example, vagal afferents activated by endotoxin and cytokines in sepsis stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and exert anti-inflammatory effects through the release of glucocorticoids ( Tracey, 2002 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • G4s have been shown to form in the herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) genome during its viral cycle. (nature.com)
  • Here by cross-linking/pull-down assay we identified ICP4, the major HSV-1 transcription factor, as the protein that most efficiently interacts with viral G4s during infection. (nature.com)
  • Our results indicate the existence of a well-defined G4-viral protein network that regulates the productive HSV-1 cycle. (nature.com)
  • HSV-1 is the major cause of blindness and viral encephalitis worldwide. (nature.com)
  • In addition to transcriptional regulation, the evidence suggests that Che-1 has a viral factor-like S phase promoting role in counteracting Rb repression to facilitate E2F-dependent transactivation during G1-S transition. (wormbase.org)
  • NF-κB is a transcription factor that is activated by various intra- and extra-cellular stimuli such as cytokines, oxidant-free radicals, ultraviolet irradiation, and bacterial or viral products. (abbkine.com)
  • Data show that BACH2 and STAT5B are activated by viral insertions, generating chimeric mRNAs specifically enriched in T regulatory cells favoring their persistence. (cusabio.com)
  • Studies have revealed an important role of activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1) and phosphorylated ATF1 at Ser63 in tumors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • P-ATF1-T184 further increased the DNA binding ability, transcription activity, and stabilized the protein expression of ATF1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, at the same time of the BALB/C3T3 cells transformation induced by NiCl 2 , ATF1 was induced to be up-regulated and subsequently inhibit the transcriptional expression of thrombospondin 1 (TSP1) [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phosphorylated ATF1 at Ser63 has been recognized as an important site for its transcription activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Its genetic redundancy with the extracellular matrix receptors integrin and dystroglycan and genetic interactions with several basement membrane components suggest a role for TEN-1 in the maintenance of basement membrane integrity, which is essential for neuronal guidance. (wormbase.org)
  • reabsorption chaperones via precursor virus Protease Activated Receptors( PARs). (erik-mill.de)
  • Functions in integrin signal transduction, but also in signaling downstream of numerous growth factor receptors, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), EPHA2, netrin receptors and LDL receptors. (idrblab.net)
  • As of January 1, 2022, Oncotarget has shifted to a continuous publishing model. (oncotarget.com)
  • Association of dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with breast cancer risk in pre- and postmenopausal Chinese women - Menopause 2022 Jul 26 - 'Higher intake of marine n-3 PUFAs and total n-3 PUFAs was associated with lower risk of breast cancer, with adjusted OR quartile 4 v.1 (95% confidence intervals) of 0.68 (0.55-0.84) and 0.56 (0.42-0.75), respectively. (qualitycounts.com)
  • Vitamin D: an essential adjuvant therapeutic agent in breast cancer - J Int Med Res 2022 Jul - 'Low serum levels of vitamin D have been reported as a risk factor for breast cancer. (qualitycounts.com)
  • Higher efficacy of resveratrol against advanced breast cancer organoids: A comparison with that of clinically relevant drugs - Phytother Res 2022 Jun 1 - 'The lack of reliable drugs is a therapeutic challenge of advanced breast cancers (ABCs). (qualitycounts.com)
  • ABSTRACT Reported associations between vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphism and type 1 diabetes mellitus vary across ethnic groups. (who.int)
  • Transcription Factor Arabidopsis Activating Factor1 Integrates Carbon Starvation Responses with Trehalose Metabolism. (mpg.de)
  • Oxidative stress induced by engineered NP is due to acellular factors such as particle surface, size, composition, and presence of metals, while cellular responses such as mitochondrial respiration, NP-cell interaction, and immune cell activation are responsible for ROS-mediated damage. (cdc.gov)
  • Mediates cellular responses to the cytokine KITLG/SCF and other growth factors. (cusabio.com)
  • Department of Virology 1, National Institute responses in dengue patients has been of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan. (who.int)
  • Only a small subset of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients benefits from immunotherapies, comprising blocking antibodies (Abs) against checkpoint receptor "programmed-cell-death-1" (PD1) and its ligand (PD-L1), because most cases lack the required mutational burden and neo-antigen load caused by microsatellite instability (MSI) and/or an inflamed, immune cell-infiltrated PD-L1+ tumor microenvironment. (aabioetica.org)
  • Interleukin (IL)-9-producing subset called Th9 cell, Th22 cells which primarily secrete IL-22, IL-13 and tumor necrosis factor- and Th25 cells via producing IL-25 are believed to be important for initiating allergic reactions and developing airway inflammation. (cdc.gov)
  • Fas ligand is a transmembrane protein part of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family. (smpdb.ca)
  • Purification and molecular cloning of the APO-1 cell surface antigen, a member of the tumor necrosis factor/nerve growth factor receptor superfamily. (smpdb.ca)
  • Thus, VEGFR-signaling acts as a direct growth factor for tumor cells in CAC, providing a molecular link between inflammation and the development of colon cancer. (perkinelmer.com)
  • Researchers at the National Cancer Institute's Experimental Transplantation and Immunology Branch (NCI ETIB) developed a T Cell receptor that specifically targets the Kita-Kyushu Lung Cancer Antigen 1 (KK-LC-1) 52-60 epitope that is highly expressed by several common and aggressive epithelial tumor types. (cancer.gov)
  • 1 a Division of Metabolic Cell Signaling Research , Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences , Delhi , India. (nih.gov)
  • Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by increased blood sugar levels due to insulin deficiency or reduced body responsiveness [1] . (eg.net)
  • Intro Inositol phosphate kinases (IP3K, IPMK, ITPK1, IP5K, IP6K and PPIP5K) perform several biological procedures through their involvement inside a carefully-regulated, metabolic network that changes phospholipase C-derived Ins(1,4,5)P3 into a range of even more extremely phosphorylated cell-signaling substances [1C3]. (immune-source.com)
  • In the current study, we have investigated this phenomenon in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons using overexpression of dominant-negative forms of several transcription factors, including CREB, ATF2, C/EBP, USF, and NFAT. (jneurosci.org)
  • We show that CREB family transcription factors, together with the coactivator CBP/p300, but not the CRTC family, are the main regulators of rat BDNF gene expression after TrkB signaling. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we have elucidated the molecular mechanisms behind TrkB signaling-dependent BDNF mRNA induction and show that CREB family transcription factors are the main regulators of BDNF gene expression after TrkB signaling. (jneurosci.org)
  • Activating transcription factor 4 mediates adaptation of human glioblastoma cells to hypoxia and temozolomide. (reliatech.de)
  • This gene encodes a ligand-activated transcription factor that shares structural features in common with nuclear hormone receptor family members. (nih.gov)
  • HASM cells grown in vitro proliferate in response to a variety of stimuli, including G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists as well as peptide growth factors acting via receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) 1 , 2 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Certain hormones called mineralocorticoids attach (bind) to and turn on (activate) the mineralocorticoid receptor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Aldosterone is one mineralocorticoid that activates the mineralocorticoid receptor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This mutation changes the shape of the receptor, which allows the receptor to be abnormally activated by non-mineralocorticoid hormones such as progesterone and cortisol. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Activating mineralocorticoid receptor mutation in hypertension exacerbated by pregnancy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Editor's Note: The nuclear receptor related 1 protein (Nurr1), also known as NR4A2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR4A2 gene. (bioquicknews.com)
  • 5] Nurr1 is a member of the nuclear receptor family of intracellular transcription factors. (bioquicknews.com)
  • However, receptor-ligand interactions between LAT-1 and TEN-1 remain to be experimentally proven. (wormbase.org)
  • Although androgen independence of prostate cancer growth is a known contributing factor to endocrine resistance, the mechanism of androgen receptor deregulation in endocrine resistance is still poorly understood. (oncotarget.com)
  • Dectin-1 is the major macrophage receptor for β-glucans and generates a proinflammatory response through the recognition of these carbohydrates on fungal pathogens. (aai.org)
  • Modulation of dectin-1 receptor levels correlated with the ability of these macrophages to bind zymosan and significantly affected the contribution of this receptor to the resultant proinflammatory response, as measured by the production of TNF-α, although some Mφ-specific differences were observed. (aai.org)
  • We identified dectin-1 as a major receptor involved in the recognition of these carbohydrates, including both soluble and particulate forms, such as the β-glucan-rich Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall fraction, zymosan ( 1 , 2 ). (aai.org)
  • Nephrin-like domains of IL2RG in enzymes lack NAD-dependent umbilical neuronal absence( X-SCID), which activates a distress of also regulated goal and NOTCH2 fuel( synaptic) receptor eNOS, but synthetic tethers of B substrates. (erik-mill.de)
  • This cilia in the life of the serine by receptor fusion kinases of the Src neddylation( 1). (erik-mill.de)
  • Numerous transcription factors are known to be activated downstream of both GPCRs and RTKs. (ersjournals.com)
  • Nerve growth factor (NGF) is one of the representative members of the neurotrophin family, which includes brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5). (medsci.org)
  • Here we will give a brief overview of the roles of IgE in allergic pathophysiology, and the molecular and cellular factors that ultimately regulate IgE production and Th2 expansion. (jci.org)
  • Below we discuss mechanisms in the form of pioneer transcription factors, histone modifications, and recently identified actin-dependent mechanisms that regulate chromosome accessibility and gene regulation during cellular reprogramming. (cytoskeleton.com)
  • The WRKY transcription factor, WRKY13, activates PDR8 expression to positively regulate cadmium tolerance in Arabidopsis. (uidaho.edu)
  • In this closed state, chromatin structure becomes an obstacle for eukaryotic transcription by impeding the interaction of RNA polymerase machinery and most transcription factors (TFs). (cytoskeleton.com)
  • Che-1/AATF (Che-1) was originally characterized as an interacting protein for RNA polymerase II. (wormbase.org)
  • Nagasaki from 1942 to 1945, dengue has not polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and occurred in an epidemic form in Japan [1] . (who.int)
  • HASM cells show increased mitogenesis in response to LPA, a GPCR mitogen, and to epidermal growth factor (EGF), an RTK growth factor. (ersjournals.com)
  • Kinases activate mitogen-activated protein kinases which activate pro-apoptotic JNK activity. (smpdb.ca)
  • In particular, herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infects ~70% of the adult population, establishing a latent neuronal infection which, upon stressful conditions, may be reactivated to a lytic symptomatic state. (nature.com)
  • provides further mechanistic insights into TEN-1 function in neuronal development. (wormbase.org)
  • Regulation of human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cell proliferation is clinically relevant to the pathology of asthma because increases in airway smooth muscle mass are seen in asthma and contribute to enhanced airway narrowing 1 , 2 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Transcription Factor ATAF1 in Arabidopsis Promotes Senescence by Direct Regulation of Key Chloroplast Maintenance and Senescence Transcriptional Cascades. (mpg.de)
  • Die Prolyl-4-Hydroxylase-Domäne-Enzyme 1-3 (PHD1-3) sind maßgeblich an der Regulation der Proteinstabilität der alpha-Untereinheit des Hypoxie-induzierbaren Faktors (HIF) beteiligt, welcher als wichtigster Transkriptionsfaktor der Sauerstoff-abhängigen Genexpression angesehen wird. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • In particular, several TFs such as AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF), CLASS III HOMEODOMAIN-LEUCINE ZIPPER (HD-ZIPIII), KANADI (KAN), MYB and NAC might govern the complex networks of transcriptional regulation in wood formation in poplar [9, 11]. (researchsquare.com)
  • The purpose of this research was to investigate whether asbestos (1332214) induces an active endothelial cell phenotype, resulting in the increased expression of growth factors and proteases, which are relevant to the development of fibrosis. (cdc.gov)
  • This subset of transcription factors, known as pioneer transcription factors (PTFs), possess the ability to engage closed chromatin that is not accessible by other types of transcription factors, establish gene expression, and elicit cell reprogramming. (cytoskeleton.com)
  • The mechanisms responsible for the increased adipos- of Patient with ity are changes in gene expression of multiple enzymes and transcription factors by the virus ( 8-15 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Enhancer knock-out by CRISPR-Cas9 reduced IL-1β expression, supporting its identity as an enhancer. (uwo.ca)
  • This study unraveled new regulatory elements and their mechanisms in regulating IL-1β expression. (uwo.ca)
  • Genetic studies in mice revealed that Che-1 is essential for preimplantation development and the establishment of embryonic gene expression. (wormbase.org)
  • Interestingly, NE suppressed CSE-induced expression of HO-1 mRNA and protein. (papersearch.net)
  • However, the expression level of DJ-1 and KEAP1 did not change in NE-treated cells. (papersearch.net)
  • We have examined the effects of cytokines and other agents on the expression and functions of dectin-1 in both resident and elicited murine peritoneal macrophages (Mφ). (aai.org)
  • Dectin-1 expression was found to be highly up-regulated by GM-CSF and by the cytokines that induce alternative macrophage activation, IL-4 and IL-13. (aai.org)
  • Multiple characteristics of this gene, including the presence of a p53 binding site in the 5' flanking region, activation of the gene by expression of a wild-type pS3 gene and suppression of G418 selectability of cultured brain, breast and colon cancer cells following insertion of the gene, make HIC-1 gene a strong candidate for a tumour suppressor gene in region 17pl3.3. (elsevier.com)
  • Expression of KLF5, Stat5b and ICAM-1 was significantly downregulated in PC3 cells. (cusabio.com)
  • The Sox9-related transcriptional apparatus activates its target gene expression through p300-mediated histone acetylation on chromatin. (heightquest.com)
  • the BMP-2 inhibitor Noggin represses Sox9 expression in limb bud chondrogenic precursors while inducing the ligament/tendon-specific transcription factor Scx" "the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity of p300 has the potential to facilitate transcriptional activity by modulating the chromatin structure. (heightquest.com)
  • In expression to described enhancement and order hormones, Il2rg association chains notably include solely consumed cytoplasm terms interacting that Il2rg is more carnitine for degree acidosis in strands than in factors. (erik-mill.de)
  • Since E1A 13S is essential for the transport of YB-1 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, adenoviruses lacking E1A13S expression have replication defects in normal cells. (medicaltrend.org)
  • Activation of the complement cascade enhances motility of leukemic cells by downregulating expression of HO-1. (edu.pl)
  • Its enhanced expression can attenuate the nuclear accumulation of LPXN and limit its ability to enhance serum response factor (SRF)-dependent gene transcription. (idrblab.net)
  • As-CSCs and CAsE-PE showed lower TLR3 and RARß basal expression compared to their respective isogenic controls WPE-Stem and RWPE-1. (bvsalud.org)
  • Neither missense is IP7 to the convergent reaction as IL7R assembles produced by the MSH2 for wide extracellular complex( TSLP) while IL2RG activates involved with the residues for IL2, IL4, IL9, IL15 and IL21. (erik-mill.de)
  • They cannot survive outside of their environment without specific factors and cytokines. (the-scientist.com)
  • Cross-linking of IgE bound to mast cells by FcεRI triggers the release of preformed vasoactive mediators, synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes, and the transcription of cytokines. (jci.org)
  • ICP4 specific and direct binding and unfolding of parallel G4s, including those present in HSV-1 immediate early gene promoters, induced transcription in vitro and in infected cells. (nature.com)
  • 1,2 It binds to β-tubulin of microtubules, thereby stabilizing microtubules and enhancing polymerization, thereby exerting its anticancer mechanism of action. (asahq.org)
  • Binds to the GAS element and activates PRL-induced transcription. (cusabio.com)
  • Caspase-8 is an initiator caspase that is activated in response to pro-apoptotic stimulus and causes a cascade of further caspase activity by cleaving and activating effector caspases, like caspases -3 and -7. (smpdb.ca)
  • Simultaneous treatment of human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells with lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) leads to strikingly synergistic stimulation of mitogenesis. (ersjournals.com)
  • Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is the founding member of the EGF family that also includes TGFα, amphiregulin (AR), betacellulin (BTC), epiregulin (EPR), heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF), epigen, and the neuregulins (NRG) 1 through 6. (reliatech.de)
  • We found that, unlike sporadic colorectal cancer and control patients, patients with CAC show activated VEGFR2 on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). (perkinelmer.com)
  • Studies using these samples found associations between fatal outcomes and elevated liver enzyme levels, renal dysfunction, cytokine dysregulation, and genetic factors. (cdc.gov)
  • The degree of chromatin folding affects transcriptional activity and less folding is better for activating transcription activity. (heightquest.com)
  • Many studies have shown that the activity of transcription factors is usually regulated by multiple phosphorylation sites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Article: Saebyeol Jang, Keith W. Kelley, and Rodney W. Johnson, 'Luteolin reduces IL-6 production in microglia by inhibiting JNK phosphorylation and activation of AP-1', Proc. (science20.com)
  • In cultured human and rat pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell and pulmonary arterial endothelial cell under hypoxia exposure, ROC-325 increased LC3B (light chain 3 beta) and p62 accumulation, endothelial cell nitric oxide production via phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (Ser1177) and dephosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (Thr495) as well as decreased HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor)-1α and HIF-2α stabilization. (bvsalud.org)
  • this enzyme catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of 5-InsP7 to at least one 1,5-InsP8. (immune-source.com)
  • Activation of activator protein‐1 is synergistic, and Rho activation by lysophosphatidic acid is required for synergism in both activator protein‐1 activation and mitogenesis. (ersjournals.com)
  • A time dependent increase was noted in neutrophil binding to Intercellular-Adhesion-Molecule-1 and increases in both Urokinase-like-Plasminogen-Activator (uPA) mRNA levels and uPA activity. (cdc.gov)
  • Genome sequencing of numerous dermatophytes belonging to the Trichophyton and Arthroderma genera revealed that each genome encodes numerous SM clusters 1 , 8 . (cdc.gov)
  • In vitro methods for producing antibodies are amenable to large-scale production, meaning antibody availability is unlikely to become a limiting factor. (cellsignal.com)
  • in situations where an antibody will be used to support large, long-term studies, this can be an especially critical factor. (cellsignal.com)
  • Renowned as the #1 antibody event in the industry, this year's agenda boasts 15 dedicated topic streams, 3 unmissable training course add-on options and will bring together more than 700 of the antibody and protein community. (cshlpress.org)
  • Scientists have detailed the role of a key controlling factor in the transformation of B-cells into antibody-secreting cells. (drugtargetreview.com)
  • Therefore, the researchers say that T-bet is not a core transcription factor required for antibody-secreting cell commitment in all settings. (drugtargetreview.com)
  • Cho, Woohyun, "Characterization of interleukin (IL)-1β regulatory elements and chromatin conformation in macrophage activation" (2018). (uwo.ca)
  • 2018 May 3;18(1):524. (reliatech.de)
  • Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a global regulator of cellular and systemic O2 homeostasis in animals. (wormbase.org)
  • Apaf-1-deficient cells are remarkably resistant to various apoptotic stimuli. (wormbase.org)
  • Our approach has led to identification of HIC-1 (hypermethylated in cancer), a new zinc-finger transcription factor gene which is ubiquitously expressed in normal tissues, but underexpressed in different tumour cells where it is hypermethylated. (elsevier.com)
  • contains a zinc finger,XV" YOL091W 1 15 16 YOL091W "involved in sporulation,XV" YOL103W-B 1 15 17 YOL103W-B "TyB Gag-Pol protein. (davidson.edu)
  • In contrast, nuclear factor (NF)‐κB was activated by LPA but not EGF and NF‐κB activation was completely blocked only when Rho was inhibited. (ersjournals.com)
  • Exposed cells also demonstrated an increase in the activation of the transcription activating factor Nuclear-Factor-kappa-B (NF-kB). (cdc.gov)
  • This Rat Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) ELISA Kit employs a two-site sandwich ELISA to quantitate NFKB1 in samples. (abbkine.com)
  • Rat Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) ELISA Kit has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Rat NFKB1. (abbkine.com)
  • Activating transcription factor-5 (ATF5) is an anti-apoptotic factor and has been implicated in enhancing the survival of cancer cells under stress and in regulating the autophagy process. (frontiersin.org)
  • Importantly, several findings showed that Che-1 participates in inhibiting apoptotic process. (wormbase.org)
  • Luteolin also decreased LPS-induced transcription of IL-6 in the hippocampus, a brain region that is critical to spatial learning and memory. (science20.com)
  • Recently, we have shown that insulin or IGF-I stimulation of Mvt1 cells leads to the upregulation of several mRNA transcripts, associated with cell proliferation and migration, such as Cyclin D1 and the transcription factor ETS2, as well as to the downregulation of transcriptional repressor, high mobility group (HMG) box-containing protein 1 (HBP1) ( 12 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Oxidative stress and UPR have been shown to induce macroautophagy/autophagy in a context-dependent manner and are crucial factors in determining the fate of irradiated cells. (nih.gov)
  • They also point to G4s as elements that recruit transcription factors to activate transcription in cells. (nature.com)
  • Transcription factor activation was assessed using HASM cells transduced with luciferase reporter gene constructs. (ersjournals.com)
  • Studies of highly proliferative HASM cells in culture can shed light on potential regulatory mechanisms in vivo 1 . (ersjournals.com)
  • The cells respond to both chrysotile (12001295) and crocidolite (12001284) asbestos fibers by changing cell morphology in focal areas of fiber contact, assuming a spindled appearance, indicative of the activated endothelial cell. (cdc.gov)
  • 1,3 Conversely, the stem cell environment and specific stem cell factors can promote the dedifferentiation of specialized cells and return them to a primitive state of development or stemness. (the-scientist.com)
  • The binding of these prostaglandins causes Nurr1 to be activated, resulting in a marked increase in dopamine production, while preventing dopamine-producing brain cells from dying. (bioquicknews.com)
  • The role of PU.1 was examined in PU.1-overexpressed B16-BL6 cells, which responded to LPS and expressed IL-1β mRNA and eRNAs. (uwo.ca)
  • In normal adult cells, YB-1 is either not expressed or only located in the cytoplasm. (medicaltrend.org)
  • The key controlling factor is needed for memory B-cells to respond to a second, subsequent infection by a pathogen. (drugtargetreview.com)
  • A series of experiments by Lund's team have shown that T-bet does play an important role in B-cells after they are activated by T helper-1 cells. (drugtargetreview.com)
  • however, ectopic induction of PU.1 promoted extensive remodeling of chromatin, de novo chromatin access, and redistribution of partner TFs [5] Evidence of PTFs has also been recently identified in plants. (cytoskeleton.com)
  • We report that PU.1 activated the enhancer and restructured the chromatin architecture of IL-1β. (uwo.ca)
  • Recently, we discovered that chromatin hyperacetylation was critical in inducing SOX9 transcription activity . (heightquest.com)
  • From the mesenchymal condensation of chondroprogenitors to the hypertrophic maturation of chondrocytes, chondrogenesis is sequentially regulated by cross-talk among transcription factors, growth factors, and chromatin structure{altering chromatin structure can alter chondrogenesis} . (heightquest.com)
  • The TGF-β-regulated Smad3/4 complex activates Sox9-dependent transcription on chromatin by associating with Sox9 itself, and by recruiting p300 onto Sox9 [thus TGF-Beta may help with Sox9 transcription, note LSJL increases TGF-Beta levels]. (heightquest.com)
  • In chondrogenesis, p300 stimulates transcription factor-mediated chromatin disruption. (heightquest.com)
  • Whereas the inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has shown promising results in sporadic colon cancer, the role of VEGF signaling in colitis-associated cancer (CAC) has not been addressed. (perkinelmer.com)