Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.Transcription Factor AP-2: A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Admitting Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the flow of patients and the processing of admissions, discharges, transfers, and also most procedures to be carried out in the event of a patient's death.Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors: A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.Transcription Factors, TFII: The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.YY1 Transcription Factor: A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.GATA4 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.Transcription Factor TFIID: The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Activating Transcription Factor 3: An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.NFATC Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.Sp3 Transcription Factor: A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.Transcription Initiation Site: The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Activating Transcription Factor 2: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.Transcription Factor TFIIB: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.MEF2 Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.GATA3 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.GATA1 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.GATA2 Transcription Factor: An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.TCF Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.GATA Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.STAT1 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Activating Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.Transcription Factor RelA: A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs: Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.GATA6 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Activating Transcription Factor 4: An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Transcription Factor 7-Like 1 Protein: A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.Activating Transcription Factor 1: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Transcription Factor TFIIIA: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.NFI Transcription Factors: Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets: A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein oncogene protein v-ets of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Transcription Factor TFIIH: A general transcription factor that is involved in basal GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. It consists of nine subunits including ATP-DEPENDENT DNA HELICASES; CYCLIN H; and XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM GROUP D PROTEIN.Mice, Inbred C57BLSOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Transcription Factor TFIIA: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.STAT5 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Transcription Factor DP1: A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.T-Box Domain Proteins: Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Leucine Zippers: DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.Octamer Transcription Factor-1: A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.Regulatory Elements, Transcriptional: Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.TATA-Box Binding Protein: A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.Erythroid-Specific DNA-Binding Factors: A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Transcription Factors, TFIII: Factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE III and aid in transcription. They include the assembly factors TFIIIA and TFIIIC and the initiation factor TFIIIB. All combine to form a preinitiation complex at the promotor that directs the binding of RNA POLYMERASE III.GA-Binding Protein Transcription Factor: A heterotetrameric transcription factor composed of two distinct proteins. Its name refers to the fact it binds to DNA sequences rich in GUANINE and ADENINE. GA-binding protein integrates a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and regulates expression of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE control, PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS, and cellular METABOLISM.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Early Growth Response Protein 1: An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.High Mobility Group Proteins: A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Protein: A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway. The activity of the protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN. Transcription factor 7-like 2 protein plays an important role in the embryogenesis of the PANCREAS and ISLET CELLS.Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-1: An ets proto-oncogene expressed primarily in adult LYMPHOID TISSUE; BRAIN; and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Reverse Transcription: The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Twist Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that was originally identified in DROSOPHILA as essential for proper gastrulation and MESODERM formation. It plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MUSCLE CELLS, and is found in a wide variety of organisms.NF-E2 Transcription Factor, p45 Subunit: A tissue-specific subunit of NF-E2 transcription factor that interacts with small MAF PROTEINS to regulate gene expression. P45 NF-E2 protein is expressed primarily in MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; and MAST CELLS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Nerve Tissue ProteinsOligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Transcription Factor TFIIIB: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. TFIIIB recruits and positions pol III over the initiation site and remains stably bound to the DNA through multiple rounds of re-initiation by RNA POLYMERASE III.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Activating Transcription Factor 6: One of the BASIC-LEUCINE ZIPPER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that is synthesized as a membrane-bound protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. In response to endoplasmic reticulum stress it translocates to the GOLGI APPARATUS. It is activated by PROTEASES and then moves to the CELL NUCLEUS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in the unfolded protein response.Transcription Factor Brn-3: A family of mammalian POU domain factors that are expressed predominately in NEURONS.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.SOXB1 Transcription Factors: A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)NF-E2 Transcription Factor: A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates GLOBIN gene expression and is related to TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1. NF-E2 consists of a small MAF protein subunit and a tissue-restricted 45 kDa subunit.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.CCAAT-Binding Factor: A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.SOXE Transcription Factors: A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subfamily have been implicated in regulating the differentiation of OLIGODENDROCYTES during neural crest formation and in CHONDROGENESIS.Upstream Stimulatory Factors: Ubiquitously expressed basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF transcription factors. They bind CANNTG sequences in the promoters of a variety of GENES involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Myogenic Regulatory Factors: A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).RNA Polymerase III: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Pol1 Transcription Initiation Complex Proteins: Factors that form a preinitiation complex at promoters that are specifically transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE I.Transcription Factor 3: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in determining cell fate during embryogenesis. It forms a heterodimer with TWIST TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and ACHAETE-SCUTE GENE COMPLEX-related TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Transcription Factor Pit-1: A POU domain factor that regulates expression of GROWTH HORMONE; PROLACTIN; and THYROTROPIN-BETA in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.

Transcriptional repression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene, mediated by CCAAT displacement protein/cut homolog, is associated with histone deacetylation. (1/213)

Human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR) transcription is tightly regulated by nucleotide sequences upstream of the initiator sequences. Our studies of human CFTR transcription focus on identifying transcription factors bound to an inverted CCAAT consensus or "Y-box element." The human homeodomain CCAAT displacement protein/cut homolog (CDP/cut) can bind to the Y-box element through a cut repeat and homeobox. Analysis of stably transfected cell lines with wild-type and mutant human CFTR-directed reporter genes demonstrates that human histone acetyltransferase GCN5 and transcription factor ATF-1 can potentiate CFTR transcription through the Y-box element. We have found 1) that human CDP/cut acts as a repressor of CFTR transcription through the Y-box element by competing for the sites of transactivators hGCN5 and ATF-1; 2) that the ability of CDP/cut to repress activities of hGCN5 and ATF-1 activity is contingent on the amount of CDP/cut expression; 3) that histone acetylation may have a role in the regulation of gene transcription by altering the accessibility of the CFTR Y-box for sequence-specific transcription factors; 4) that trichostatin A, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase activity, activates transcription of CFTR through the Y-box element; 5) that the inhibition of histone deacetylase activity leads to an alteration of local chromatin structure requiring an intact Y-box sequence in CFTR; 6) that immunocomplexes of CDP/cut possess an associated histone deacetylase activity; 7) that the carboxyl region of CDP/cut, responsible for the transcriptional repressor function, interacts with the histone deacetylase, HDAC1. We propose that CFTR transcription may be regulated through interactions with factors directing the modification of chromatin and requires the conservation of the inverted CCAAT (Y-box) element of the CFTR promoter.  (+info)

Bacterial peptidoglycan induces CD14-dependent activation of transcription factors CREB/ATF and AP-1. (2/213)

Peptidoglycan (PGN), the major cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria, induces secretion of cytokines in macrophages through CD14, the pattern recognition receptor that binds lipopolysaccharide and other microbial products. To begin to elucidate the mechanisms that regulate the transcription of cytokine genes, we wanted to determine which transcription factors are activated by PGN in mouse RAW264.7 and human THP-1 macrophage cells. Our results demonstrated that: (i) PGN induced phosphorylation of the transcription factors ATF-1 and CREB; (ii) ATF-1 and CREB bound DNA as a dimer and induced transcriptional activation of a CRE reporter plasmid, which was inhibited by dominant negative CREB and ATF-1; (iii) PGN induced phosphorylation of c-Jun, protein synthesis of JunB and c-Fos, and transcriptional activation of the AP-1 reporter plasmid, which was inhibited by dominant negative c-Fos; and (iv) PGN-induced activation of CREB/ATF and AP-1 was mediated through CD14. This is the first study to demonstrate activation of CREB/ATF and AP-1 transcription factors by PGN or by any other component of Gram-positive bacteria.  (+info)

Cyclic AMP- and differentiation-dependent regulation of the proximal alphaHCG gene promoter in term villous trophoblasts. (3/213)

Although the regulatory mechanisms controlling alpha and beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) expression have been investigated in choriocarcinoma cell model systems, little is known about the regulation of HCG subunit synthesis in non-tumourigenic trophoblasts. We therefore investigated alphaHCG mRNA transcription in villous cytotrophoblasts isolated from term placentae and have shown for the first time that the proximal alphaHCG gene promoter is functional in these cells. By establishing conditions which allow efficient transient transfection of immunopurified cells, we have demonstrated that a 363 bp sequence in the proximal 5' flanking region of the alphaHCG gene is sufficient to direct trophoblast-specific expression of a luciferase reporter. After 12-60 h cultivation, an increase in endogenous alphaHCG mRNA expression could be detected, indicating that aggregated villous trophoblasts undergo biochemical differentiation. Concomitantly, we observed induction of alphaHCG promoter-driven luciferase activity, suggesting that the 363 bp sequence of the proximal 5' flanking region is sufficient to direct differentiation-dependent increase of alphaHCG mRNA. Continuous luciferase expression required functional cAMP-response elements (CREs), since deletion of both recognition sequences eliminated differentiation-dependent transcription of the reporter. Elevation of cAMP values increased transcription of the wild-type construct; however, it did not affect promoter activity of the mutant plasmid. Moreover, we have demonstrated that during in-vitro differentiation, CREs interacted with increasing amounts of phosphorylated activating transcription factor/cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (ATF-1/CREB-1) suggesting that these cAMP-dependent DNA-binding factors are major determinants in regulating alphaHCG gene expression in villous trophoblasts.  (+info)

Definition of the transcription factors which bind the differentiation responsive element of the Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1 Z promoter in human epithelial cells. (4/213)

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus and an important human pathogen. Initiation of the EBV lytic cycle is dependent upon transcription of the EBV BZLF1 gene. Our previous studies of transcriptional regulation of the BZLF1 Z promoter (Zp) in human SCC12F epithelial cells identified a region within Zp that is responsive to epithelial cell differentiation. In the present study, we localize this differentiation responsive element to the CREB/AP-1-like binding site (TGACATCA) between -67 to -60 bp within Zp, previously designated ZII, and furthermore show that homodimers and heterodimers of CREB and ATF-1 specifically bind ZII. Consistent with a regulatory role for CREB and ATF-1 in differentiation dependent BZLF1 expression, ZII was able to bind approximately 3-fold more CREB and ATF-1 when incubated with nuclear extract obtained from populations of SCC12F cells enriched for the differentiated phenotype than when incubated with extract obtained from populations enriched for the undifferentiated phenotype. In addition, CREB and ATF-1 were found to increase in abundance during SCC12F differentiation. These results indicate a regulatory role for CREB and ATF-1 in differentiation-dependent expression of BZLF1 in human epithelial cells.  (+info)

Role of the ATFa/JNK2 complex in Jun activation. (5/213)

The ATFa proteins, which are members of the CREB/ATF family of transcription factors, display quite versatile properties. We have previously shown that they interact with the adenovirus E1a oncoprotein, mediating part of its transcriptional activity and heterodimerize with the Jun, Fos or related transcription factors, thereby modulating their DNA-binding specificity. In the present study, we report the sequence requirement of the N-terminal activation domain of ATFa and demonstrate the importance of specific threonine residues (Thr51 and Thr53) in addition to that of the metal-binding domain, in transcriptional activation processes. We also show that the N-terminal domain of ATFa which stably binds the Jun N-terminal kinase-2 (JNK2) (Bocco et al., 1996), is not a substrate for this kinase in vivo but, instead, serves as a JNK2-docking site for ATFa-associated partners like JunD, allowing them to be phosphorylated by the bound kinase.  (+info)

Stress-induced stimulation of early growth response gene-1 by p38/stress-activated protein kinase 2 is mediated by a cAMP-responsive promoter element in a MAPKAP kinase 2-independent manner. (6/213)

The p38/stress-activated protein kinase2 (p38/SAPK2) is activated by cellular stress and proinflammatory cytokines. Several transcription factors have been reported to be regulated by p38/SAPK2, and this kinase is involved in the control of expression of various genes. In human Jurkat T-cells, induction of the early growth response gene-1 (egr-1) by anisomycin is completely inhibited by SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38/SAPK2a and -b. Northern blot and reporter gene experiments indicate that this block is at the level of mRNA biosynthesis. Using mutants of the egr-1 promoter, we demonstrate that a distal cAMP-responsive element (CRE; nucleotides -134 to -126) is necessary to control egr-1 induction by p38/SAPK2. Pull-down assays indicate that phospho-CRE binding protein (CREB) and phospho-activating transcription factor-1 (ATF1) bind to this element in a p38/SAPK2-dependent manner. In response to anisomycin, two known CREB kinases downstream to p38/SAPK2, MAPKAP kinase 2 (MK2) and mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1), show increased activity. However, in MK2 -/- fibroblasts derived from mice carrying a disruption of the MK2 gene, the phosphorylation of CREB and ATF1 and the expression of egr-1 reach levels comparable with wild type cells. This finding excludes MK2 as an involved enzyme. We conclude that egr-1 induction by anisomycin is mediated by p38/SAPK2 and probably by MSK1. Phosphorylated CREB and ATF1 then bind to the CRE of the egr-1 promoter and cause a stress-dependent transcriptional activation of this gene.  (+info)

Identification of a novel transcriptional regulatory element within the promoter region of the keratinocyte growth factor gene that mediates inducibility to cyclic AMP. (7/213)

Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) plays a critical role for the normal development and morphogenesis of many different tissues and organs. Furthermore, its expression is induced during wound healing and in various chronic inflammatory diseases. To determine the molecular mechanisms which regulate KGF gene induction at the transcriptional level, we carried out in vitro studies using the human KGF promoter. We have identified a novel regulatory element, TGAGGTCAG, located between -39 and -46 bp (relative to the transcription start site) in the KGF basal promoter region, which binds to inducible transcription factors as determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. When cloned in front of a heterologous SV40 promoter this region conferred inducibility to forskolin, a stimulator of adenylate cyclase. In contrast, various mutated forms of this region were either partially or completely impaired in their ability to mediate induction to forskolin. The TGAGGTCAG sequence shared homology to both the cAMP responsive element (CRE) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) consensus binding sites. An oligonucleotide comprising a consensus CRE binding site partially competed for the nuclear protein binding to the TGAGGTCAG site. Gel mobility supershift assays indicated that two members of the activating transcription factor (ATF) family of CRE binding proteins, ATF1 and ATF2, were part of the nuclear protein complex bound to this regulatory region. Furthermore, purified recombinant ATF2 was able to directly recognize and bind the TGAGGTCAG sequence. In contrast, no evidence was obtained for C/EBP transcription factors being part of the complex. These results suggest that members of the ATF family are involved in mediating the transcriptional regulation of the KGF gene in response to extracellular stimuli via a novel CRE regulatory element.  (+info)

Sin1: an evolutionarily conserved component of the eukaryotic SAPK pathway. (8/213)

The fission yeast Sty1/Spc1 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase is a member of the eukaryotic stress-activated MAP kinase (SAPK) family. We have identified a protein, Sin1, that interacts with Sty1/Spc1 which is a member of a new evolutionarily conserved gene family. Cells lacking Sin1 display many, but not all, of the phenotypes of cells lacking the Sty1/Spc1 MAP kinase including sterility, multiple stress sensitivity and a cell-cycle delay. Sin1 is phosphorylated after stress but this is not Sty1/Spc1-dependent. Importantly, Sin1 is not required for activation of Sty1/Spc1 but is required for stress-dependent transcription via its substrate, Atf1. We find that in the absence of Sin1, Sty1/Spc1 appears to translocate to the nucleus but Atf1 is not fully phosphorylated and becomes unstable in response to environmental stress. Sin1 is also required for effective transcription via the AP-1 factor Pap1 but does not prevent its nuclear translocation. Remarkably chimaeric fusions of sin1 with chicken sin1 sequences rescue loss of sin1 function. We conclude that Sin1 is a novel component of the eukaryotic SAPK pathway.  (+info)

p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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In type 2 diabetes, chronic hyperglycemia is detrimental to beta-cells, causing apoptosis and impaired insulin secretion. The transcription factor cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) is crucial for beta-cell survival and function. We inves
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Transcriptional regulation in HCMV-infected cells relies on a complex interaction between cellular and viral transactivators (13, 23, 28, 37, 41, 43, 46). Several studies have implicated a role for the transcription factors ATF/CREB in early gene regulation (25, 30, 35, 37, 39). For example, several early promoters can be regulated by ATF/CREB sites in transient assays (30, 35, 37, 39). In addition, a role for ATF/CREB in the activation of the UL54 and UL112-113 promoters at early times in the context of the viral genome has been demonstrated (25,35). Our present analysis of the US11 promoter revealed that expression of this early gene is also regulated by two ATF/CREB sites within the promoter. The primary regulatory element of the US11 promoter, both in transient assays and in the context of the viral genome, is an ATF site located immediately upstream of the TATA element. In addition to the ATF site, the CREB site at −83 was also involved in US11 promoter activation. In the context of the ...
TransAM CREB and TransAM pCREB Kits are DNA-binding ELISAs that quanify the activated transcription factors using a method that is faster and more sensitive than gelshift, without radioactivity and gels.
HighRider-2 include one dip tube for ATF-2 connection. Flow via the aseptic connector over the HFF to the ATF-2 SUE. The dip tube is connected via a 9,5 x 14,3 mm hose to the aseptic connector. Photo 1: Seen from left on the left side of the blue tip pH SUS the broth dip tube. Further seen the VisiWell SUW with the orange O-ring. Photo 3: Dip tube hose aseptic connector to the left.. ...
If you know of any papers that use this antibody, please contact us at antibodies [at] alzforum [dot] org for consideration in the References section.. ...
Read excerpts from SPC Demystified to understand how to apply and interpret control charts, overcome common errors in the use of SPC and learn limitations
"Activating Transcription Factor 7 Interacting Protein". Retrieved 23 April 2011. "AceView: Homo sapiens complex locus QRICH1, ... activating transcription factor 7-interacting protein 1. ATXN1 is involved in binding RNA in vitro and may be involved in RNA ... ATF7IP is a recruiter protein that couples transcriptional factors to the general transcription apparatus, thereby modulating ... transcription regulation and chromatin formation. QRICH1 is expressed at a high level, 3.3 times the average gene. It is ...
"Entrez Gene: ATF7 activating transcription factor 7". Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P, Mann M (2006 ... a novel variant of the ATF/CREB transcription factor family, forms a dominant transcription inhibitor in ATF-a heterodimers". J ... Cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ATF7 gene. In 2001, Peters et al ... "Sumoylation delays the ATF7 transcription factor subcellular localization and inhibits its transcriptional activity". Nucleic ...
1993). "Activating transcription factor-1 can mediate Ca(2+)- and cAMP-inducible transcriptional activation". J. Biol. Chem. ... Sun P, Lou L, Maurer RA (1996). "Regulation of activating transcription factor-1 and the cAMP response element-binding protein ... This gene encodes an activating transcription factor, which belongs to the ATF subfamily and bZIP (basic-region leucine zipper ... This gene has a pseudogene on chromosome 6. Activating transcription factor ATF1 has been shown to interact with: BRCA1, ...
Syk activates transcription factor NFκB. This transcription factor is responsible for the production of numerous inflammatory ... Ahrén IL, Eriksson E, Egesten A, Riesbeck K (2003). "Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae activates human eosinophils through ... 53 (1): 44-55. doi:10.1002/prot.10440. PMID 12945048. Clark HF, Gurney AL, Abaya E, Baker K, Baldwin D, Brush J, Chen J, Chow B ... Dectin-1 can also operate as a co-stimulatory molecule via recognition of an endogenous ligand on T-cells, which leads to ...
"Cdk-activating kinase complex is a component of human transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 283-7. doi:10.1038/ ... "Cdk-activating kinase complex is a component of human transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 283-7. doi:10.1038/ ... "From androgen receptor to the general transcription factor TFIIH. Identification of cdk activating kinase (CAK) as an androgen ... "Association of Cdk-activating kinase subunits with transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 280-2. doi:10.1038/374280a0 ...
"Cdk-activating kinase complex is a component of human transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 283-7. doi:10.1038/ ... "Cdk-activating kinase complex is a component of human transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 283-7. doi:10.1038/ ... General transcription factor IIH subunit 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GTF2H1 gene. GTF2H1 has been shown to ... Tong X, Drapkin R, Reinberg D, Kieff E (1995). "The 62- and 80-kDa subunits of transcription factor IIH mediate the interaction ...
It was later identified by the yeast-two hybrid system to bind to activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) to repress ATF- ... "Phosphorylation of two eukaryotic transcription factors, Jun dimerization protein 2 and activation transcription factor 2, in ... JDP2 (gene) has been shown to interact with Activating transcription factor 2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000140044 - ... c-Jun dimerization protein 2 and activating transcription factor 3, recruit multiple HDAC members to the ATF3 promoter". ...
Activating transcription factor 4 (tax-responsive enhancer element B67), also known as ATF4, is a protein that in humans is ... "Entrez Gene: ATF4 activating transcription factor 4 (tax-responsive enhancer element B67)". Franceschi RT, Ge C, Xiao G, Roca H ... He CH, Gong P, Hu B, Stewart D, Choi ME, Choi AM, Alam J (2001). "Identification of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) as ... Activating transcription factor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000128272 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
"Cdk-activating kinase complex is a component of human transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 283-7. doi:10.1038/ ... and the CDK-activating kinase (CAK) assembly factor MAT1 (MNAT1) to chromosome bands 5q13.3-q14 and 14q23, respectively". ... the fifth subunit of the core of the transcription/DNA repair factor TFIIH". The EMBO Journal. 16 (5): 1093-102. doi:10.1093/ ... a subunit of the human general transcription/DNA repair factor TFIIH". Protein Expression and Purification. 9 (2): 153-8. doi: ...
"Entrez Gene: transcription factor AP-2 beta (activating enhancer binding protein 2 beta)". Tsukada S, Tanaka Y, Maegawa H, et ... 2006). "Transcription factor activating enhancer-binding protein-2beta. A negative regulator of adiponectin gene expression". J ... Transcription factor AP-2 beta also known as AP2-beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TFAP2B gene. AP-2 beta is a ... 2009). "The transcription factor TFAP2B is associated with insulin resistance and adiposity in healthy adolescents". Obesity ( ...
Firestein R, Feuerstein N (March 1998). "Association of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) with the ubiquitin-conjugating ... Firestein R, Feuerstein N (1998). "Association of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) with the ubiquitin-conjugating ... Sapetschnig A, Rischitor G, Braun H, Doll A, Schergaut M, Melchior F, Suske G (October 2002). "Transcription factor Sp3 is ... "Ubc9 interacts with the androgen receptor and activates receptor-dependent transcription". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (27): 19441-6. ...
Activating transcription factor 3 is a member of the mammalian activation transcription factor/cAMP responsive element-binding ... ATF3 activating transcription factor 3". Chen BP, Wolfgang CD, Hai T (Mar 1996). "Analysis of ATF3, a transcription factor ... Activating transcription factor ATF3 has been shown to interact with: C-jun, DDIT3 JunD, P53, and SMAD3. GRCh38: Ensembl ... Chu HM, Tan Y, Kobierski LA, Balsam LB, Comb MJ (January 1994). "Activating transcription factor-3 stimulates 3',5'-cyclic ...
"Menin interacts with the AP1 transcription factor JunD and represses JunD-activated transcription". Cell. 96 (1): 143-52. doi: ... "Menin interacts with the AP1 transcription factor JunD and represses JunD-activated transcription". Cell. 96 (1): 143-52. doi: ... Chu HM, Tan Y, Kobierski LA, Balsam LB, Comb MJ (January 1994). "Activating transcription factor-3 stimulates 3',5'-cyclic ... Chu HM, Tan Y, Kobierski LA, Balsam LB, Comb MJ (1994). "Activating transcription factor-3 stimulates 3',5'-cyclic adenosine ...
ETS1 activates MET transcription in vitro. MET transcription is activated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1), which is ... "Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor activates the ETS1 transcription factor by a RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway". ... MET activates the STAT3 transcription factor directly, through an SH2 domain. The beta-catenin pathway, a key component of the ... MET transcription is activated by HGF and several growth factors. MET promoter has four putative binding sites for Ets, a ...
"Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors activate expression of the EGR gene family of transcription factors". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (23 ... "Acetylcholine muscarinic m1 receptor regulation of cyclic AMP synthesis controls growth factor stimulation of Raf activity". ... 8 (1): 10-1. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4001095. PMID 12556901. Dick DM, Aliev F, Kramer J, Wang JC, Hinrichs A, Bertelsen S, Kuperman S ... 266 (1): 17-20. doi:10.1016/S0304-3940(99)00259-1. PMID 10336173. Retondaro FC, Dos Santos Costa PC, Pedrosa RC, Kurtenbach E ( ...
1993). "Activating transcription factor-1 can mediate Ca(2+)- and cAMP-inducible transcriptional activation". J. Biol. Chem. ... McKinsey TA, Zhang CL, Olson EN (2001). "Activation of the myocyte enhancer factor-2 transcription factor by calcium/calmodulin ... Calcium/calmodulin directly activates calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by binding to the enzyme and indirectly ... 2003). "Synapsin I is phosphorylated at Ser603 by p21-activated kinases (PAKs) in vitro and in PC12 cells stimulated with ...
... a regulator of activating transcription factor 2 response to stress and DNA damage". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 21 (24): ... a regulator of activating transcription factor 2 response to stress and DNA damage". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 21 (24): ... "Control of nutrient-sensitive transcription programs by the unconventional prefoldin URI". Science. 302 (5648): 1208-12. doi: ... 366 (1): 179-92. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2006.11.030. PMID 17157868. "Entrez Gene: RUVBL2 RuvB-like 2 (E. coli)". Ewing RM, Chu P, ...
"Cell type-specific inhibition of the ETS transcription factor ER81 by mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase ... Yang SH, Galanis A, Sharrocks AD (Jun 1999). "Targeting of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases to MEF2 transcription factors ... activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1), serum response factor (SRF), and mRNA-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP) In ... Kyriakis JM, Avruch J (Apr 2001). "Mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathways activated by stress ...
The experience of psychological stress activates transcription factors that activate genes. In a study by Cole et al., it was ... This gene codes for a protein that activates the inflammatory response which directs an immune response to the site of the ... Journal of Endocrinology, 186, 1-20.] Nelson, D. L., Lehninger, A. L., and Cox, M. M. "Hormones are Chemically Diverse." ... concluded that GABA-1 transcription factor activates the interleukin-6-gene. ...
Goodall J, Wellbrock C, Dexter TJ, Roberts K, Marais R, Goding CR (April 2004). "The Brn-2 transcription factor links activated ... POU domain, class 3, transcription factor 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POU3F2 gene. N-Oct-3 is a protein ... It is likely that CNS-specific transcription factors such as these play an important role in mammalian neurogenesis by ... Eisen T, Easty DJ, Bennett DC, Goding CR (November 1995). "The POU domain transcription factor Brn-2: elevated expression in ...
1994). "Net, a new ets transcription factor that is activated by Ras". Genes Dev. 8 (13): 1502-13. doi:10.1101/gad.8.13.1502. ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ETS-domain transcription factor family and the ternary complex factor (TCF ... Sharrocks AD, Brown AL, Ling Y, Yates PR (1998). "The ETS-domain transcription factor family". Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 29 ( ... Proteins in this subfamily regulate transcription when recruited by serum response factor to bind to serum response elements. ...
2002). "Mitochondrial transcription factors B1 and B2 activate transcription of human mtDNA". Nat. Genet. 31 (3): 289-94. doi: ... McCulloch V, Shadel GS (2003). "Human mitochondrial transcription factor B1 interacts with the C-terminal activation region of ... Kravchenko JE, Rogozin IB, Koonin EV, Chumakov PM (2005). "Transcription of mammalian messenger RNAs by a nuclear RNA ... 138 (1-2): 171-4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID 8125298. Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, et al. (1997). " ...
Seeler JS, Muchardt C, Suessle A, Gaynor RB (1994). "Transcription factor PRDII-BF1 activates human immunodeficiency virus type ... 2006). "The high-mobility-group domain of Sox proteins interacts with DNA-binding domains of many transcription factors". ... 4 (1): 29-42. doi:10.1101/gad.4.1.29. PMID 2106471. Baldwin AS, LeClair KP, Singh H, Sharp PA (1990). "A large protein ... 66 (1): 244-50. PMC 238281 . PMID 1727488. Fan CM, Maniatis T (1990). "A DNA-binding protein containing two widely separated ...
... a novel regulator for induction of activating transcription factor-2 and heme oxygenase-1". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. BVR acts as a means to regenerate bilirubin in a repeating redox ... by control of the upstream activator of insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) ... 235 (1-2): 372-81. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1996.00372.x. PMID 8631357. PDB: 1GCU​; Kikuchi A, Park SY, Miyatake H, Sun D, Sato ...
"Menin interacts with the AP1 transcription factor JunD and represses JunD-activated transcription". Cell. 96 (1): 143-52. doi: ... "Menin interacts with the AP1 transcription factor JunD and represses JunD-activated transcription". Cell. 96 (1): 143-52. doi: ... growth factors, oncogenes play a rule in tumorigenesis. Although the exact function of MEN1 is not known, the Knudson "two-hit ... These familial MEN-1 and sporadic tumors may arise either due to loss of heterozygosity or the chromosome region 11q13 where ...
Differentiation of mature B cells into plasma cells is dependent upon the transcription factors Blimp-1/PRDM1 and IRF4. ... First, the B cells have to encounter a foreign antigen, and are then required to be activated by T helper cells before they ... This is a type of safeguard to the system, almost like a two-factor authentication method. ... ISBN 1-4292-0211-4.. *^ a b c Federico Caligaris-Cappio; Manlio Ferrarini (1997). Human B Cell Populations (Chemical Immunology ...
Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E... ... Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC) - Pipeline Review, H2 2017 report by Global ... Myc protein is a transcription factor that activates expression of many genes through binding enhancer box sequences and ... Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC) - Myc (c-Myc) protein ...
An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. ... we showed here that E2F1 activated the expression of transcription factor EGR1 for promoting cell survival. ". 03/01/2002 - " ... Transcription Factors: 20597*Early Growth Response Transcription Factors: 2*Early Growth Response Protein 1: 47*human EGR1 ... EGR1 Transcription Factor; Early Growth Response Transcription Factor 1; Transcription Factor, EGR1 ...
Expression of a dominant negative form of Nrf2, a cap n collar basic leucine zipper transcription factor, in the cells blocks ... implicating Nrf2 as the key transcription factor in the induction. Mechanistic analysis reveals that Cr (VI) increases the ... These results provide the first evidence that Cr (VI) induces antioxidant gene HO-1 important in ROS defense by activating Nrf2 ... Here, we report that Cr (VI) induces antioxidant gene HO-1 at both mRNA and protein levels in hepa1c1c7 cells. ...
Metal-activated transcription factor 1 (MTF1) mediates the induction of metallothioneins I and II by zinc and stress signals. ... Metal-activated transcription factor 1 (MTF1) mediates the induction of metallothioneins I and II by zinc and stress signals. ... Induction of metallothionein I by arsenic via metal-activated transcription factor 1. Critical role of c-terminal cysteine ... The findings demonstrate a critical role of the C-terminal cysteine cluster of MTF1 in arsenic sensing and gene transcription ...
Whether all inflammatory agents activate nuclear transcription factors NF-kappaB and activated protein-1 (AP-1) through the ... Wortmannin inhibits activation of nuclear transcription factors NF-kappaB and activated protein-1 induced by lipopolysaccharide ... okadaic acid and tumor necrosis factor. Inhibition of NF-kappaB correlated with abrogation of the degradation of IkappaBalpha ... Manna SK1, Aggarwal BB.. Author information. 1. Cytokine Research Laboratory, Department of Bioimmunotherapy, The University of ...
... ... Depp increased the level of phosphorylated Erk and activated the Elk-1 transcription factor in human embryonal kidney 293 cells ... Hirohiko Watanabe 1 , Kohsuke Nonoguchi, Toshiharu Sakurai, Tomoko Masuda, Katsuhiko Itoh, Jun Fujita ...
... and diminished MMP-2 transcription and protein levels in hypoxic conditions as compared to control. Taken together, hYSK1 ... Moreover, the interaction between hYSK1 and p21WAF1/Cip1 led to the inhibition of SP-1 transcriptional activity, as revealed by ... functions by direct interaction and inhibits the p16INK4a expression and induces MMP-2 expression by its regulations of SP-1 ... a significant down-regulation of SP-1-mediated transactivation of p16INK4a promoter, and accelerated MMP-2 expression. ...
... kinase signaling cascade and p38-kinase dependent activation of nuclear transcription factor activating transcription factor ( ... activating transcription factor (ATF)-2. The activated ATF-2 translocated to the nucleus where it attached to its binding motif ... activating transcription factor. IBD. inflammatory bowel disease. MDCK. Madin-Darby canine kidney. MLCK. myosin L chain kinase ... Nuclear transcription factor ATF-2 is a member of the leucine zipper family of DNA-binding proteins and binds to the cAMP ...
... activated MAPKs, in turn, phosphorylate target transcription factors, and are deactivated by phosphatases. One mechanism for ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades control gene expression patterns in response to extracellular stimuli. MAPK/ ... Docking sites on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinases, MAPK phosphatases and the Elk-1 transcription factor compete ... ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) kinases (MEKs) activate MAPKs by phosphorylating them; ...
... mediated transcription of beta-galactosidase in J.NFATZ.1 cells. ... Inhibition of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) ...
HO-1)) Or Xenobiotic Detoxification (e.g. NAD(P)H:quinone Oxidoreductase, Glutathione S-transferase) Functions Via The Stress- ... Activating Transcription Factor 3, Activating Transcription Factor 4, Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Breast, Cadmium Chloride, ... Identification of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) as an Nrf2-interacting protein. Implication for heme oxygenase-1 ... By using the yeast two-hybrid assay, we identified activating transcription factor (ATF) 4 as a potential Nrf2-interacting ...
Calcium activates serum response factor-dependent transcription by a Ras- and Elk-1-independent mechanism that involves a Ca2+/ ... Calcium activates serum response factor-dependent transcription by a Ras- and Elk-1-independent mechanism that involves a Ca2+/ ... Calcium activates serum response factor-dependent transcription by a Ras- and Elk-1-independent mechanism that involves a Ca2+/ ... Calcium activates serum response factor-dependent transcription by a Ras- and Elk-1-independent mechanism that involves a Ca2+/ ...
Antioxidants inhibit ANG II from activating nuclear factor of activated T cells-3 (NFAT3) transcription factor in ... Activation of several transcription factors, including the nuclear factor of activated T cells-3 (NFAT3), contributes in part ... Activation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells-3 (NFAT3) transcription factor has been shown to result from endocrine ... EMSA was used to verify the activation of NFAT3 transcription factor. The binding of NFAT3 transcription factor to its cis- ...
Recombinant Human Activating Transcription Factor 1, His-tagged. Download Datasheet See All ATF1 Products. Bring this labeled ... ATF1; activatingtranscription factor 1; TREB36; EWS-ATF1;FUS/ATF-1; cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-1; cAMP- ... ATF1 is a cyclic-AMPdependent transcription factor. ATF1 is expressed in a wide variety of celltypes and is capable of ... sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity ;sequence-specific distal enhancer binding RNA polymerase II ...
... a glandular trichome-specific transcription factor from tomato that activates the terpene synthase 5 promoter, Plant Molecular ... The transcription factor EMISSION OF BENZENOIDS II activates the MYB ODORANT1 promoter at a MYB binding site specific for ... a glandular trichome-specific transcription factor from tomato that activates the terpene synthase 5 promoter. Spyropoulou, ... a glandular trichome-specific transcription factor from tomato that activates the terpene synthase 5 promoter. Expression of ...
Blockade of Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells Activation Signaling Suppresses Balloon Injury-induced Neointima Formation in a ... Expression and Function of the Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells in Colon Carcinoma Cells: INVOLVEMENT IN THE REGULATION OF ... Cyclooxygenase-2 Induction by Arsenite Is through a Nuclear Factor of Activated T-cell-dependent Pathway and Plays an ... Endothelin-1 Couples {beta}Pix to p66Shc: Role of {beta}Pix in Cell Proliferation through FOXO3a Phosphorylation and p27kip1 ...
... and clinical studies related to type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The journal welcomes submissions focusing on the epidemiology, ... Transcription factor 7-like 2 gene (TCF7L2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-γ2 (PPAR-γ2) have a profound effect ... Association of the Genetic Polymorphisms in Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors-γ2 ... like those at the transcription factor 7-like 2 gene (TCF7L2) and proliferator-activated receptors-γ2 (PPAR-γ2) have a profound ...
Numbering refers to nucleotide position relative to transcription start. (B) Cytoplasmic RNA was isolated after metal induction ... The Drosophila homolog of mammalian zinc finger factor MTF-1 activates transcription in response to heavy metals. ... and was transfected into S2 cells with or without a dMTF-1 expression vector. a to d indicate four MRE-like sequence motifs. ... were found by EMSA to bind relatively poorly to MTF-1 under our standard experimental conditions. (A) To evaluate their ...
Activating transcription factor 2, also known as ATF2, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ATF2 gene. This gene ... Activating transcription factor 2 has been shown to interact with C-jun, Casein kinase 2, alpha 1, CREB binding protein, ... "Phosphorylation of two eukaryotic transcription factors, Jun dimerization protein 2 and activation transcription factor 2, in ... Activating transcription factor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000115966 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
Activating transcription factor 5 is a transcription factor of the ATF/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) family. It ... Potential Role of Activating Transcription Factor 5 during Osteogenesis. Luisa Vicari,1 Giovanna Calabrese,1 Stefano Forte,1 ... Activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) is a member of the ATF/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) family, which ... Z. Sheng, L. Ma, J. E. Sun, L. J. Zhu, and M. R. Green, "An activating transcription factor 5-mediated survival pathway as a ...
Decreased immediate inflammatory gene induction in activating transcription factor-2 mutant mice * * REIMOLD Andreas M. ... Identification of the cyclin D1 gene as a target of activating transcription factor 2 in chondrocytes BEIER F. ... Association of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme hUBC9 Implication of the ... A specific member of the ATF transcription factor family can mediate transcription activation by the adenovirus E1a protein LIU ...
HCA RNA Cell Line for Activating transcription factor 7-interacting protein 1. ... Recruiter that couples transcriptional factors to general transcription apparatus and thereby modulates transcription ... The complex formed with MBD1 and SETDB1 represses transcription and couples DNA methylation and histone H3 Lys-9 ...
activating transcription factor. eIF2α. eukaryotic initiation factor 2α. ER. endoplasmic reticulum. HA. hemagglutinin. ID. ... biology and nomenclature of the activating transcription factor/cAMP responsive element binding family of transcription factors ... Mitosin/CENP-F as a negative regulator of activating transcription factor-4. J. Biol. Chem. 280: 13973-13977. ... Activating transcription factor 4. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 40: 14-21. ...
Anthocyanin-activating R2R3 MYB transcription factorImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database ... tr,W8EB73,W8EB73_ERYLE Anthocyanin-activating R2R3 MYB transcription factor OS=Erythranthe lewisii OX=69919 GN=NEGAN PE=4 SV=1 ... Transcription factor, Myb superfamily. Handroanthus impetiginosus. 249. Anthocyanin-activating R2R3 MYB transcription factor. ... 1 - 61. HTH myb-typeInterPro annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic annotation system, ...
... an Nrf2 activating agent, and a food according to the present invention comprise isohumulones or isomerized hop extract as an ... Agents for Activating the Transcription Factor Nrf2 and Foods Having Such Function ... A transcription factor Nrf2 activating agent, comprising isohumulones or isomerized hop extract as an active ingredient. 16. ... A method of activating the transcription factor Nrf2, comprising the step of administering an effective amount of isohumulones ...
  • Wortmannin inhibits activation of nuclear transcription factors NF-kappaB and activated protein-1 induced by lipopolysaccharide and phorbol ester. (nih.gov)
  • We examined the effect of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI-3K) inhibitor wortmannin on the activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1 by different inflammatory agents. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, the mechanism of NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation by lipopolysaccharide and phorbol ester involves PI-3K. (nih.gov)
  • Our data indicated that the IL-1β increase in Caco-2 TJ permeability correlated with an activation of p38 kinase. (jimmunol.org)
  • Additionally, in vivo intestinal perfusion studies also indicated that the IL-1β increase in mouse intestinal permeability required p38 kinase-dependent activation of ATF-2. (jimmunol.org)
  • ERK inhibitor PD98059 was found previously to inhibit AP-1 activation by H 2 O 2 . (physiology.org)
  • To further understand the mechanism of human CYP11A1 activation, we dissected the functions of the upstream cAMP responsive sequences (U-CRS) containing a core sequence, U identical to the steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1)-binding site, and two flanking TPA-responsive element/cAMP-responsive element-like elements, C1 and C2. (elsevier.com)
  • Deletions or mutations of this consensus site which abolished AP-1 binding also abolished trans-activation by the LTR. (elsevier.com)
  • PRRIII, located between nucleotides −3786 and −3701, is a specific IL-2-responsive enhancer playing a crucial role in the response to the IL-2/IL-2R autoregulatory loop which amplifies IL-2Rα gene transcription in the late stage of T-cell activation ( 26 , 32 , 57 ). (asm.org)
  • TransAM ® Kits are DNA-binding ELISAs that facilitate the study of transcription factor activation in mammalian tissue and cell extracts. (activemotif.com)
  • The hydrogen peroxide-mediated activation of both Cav-1 (−244/−222) and Cav-1 (−124/−101) was prevented by the antioxidant quercetin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Consistent with this idea, we have previously shown that overexpression of caveolin-1 is sufficient to arrest mouse embryonic fibroblasts in the G 0 -G 1 phase of the cell cycle, reduce their proliferative life span, and promote premature cellular senescence through activation of a p53/p21-dependent pathway ( 33 , 34 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Ang II-induced TGF-β1 secretion was dependent on epidermal growth factor receptor kinase activation through reactive oxygen species production. (ahajournals.org)
  • Purified recombinant dNC2 activates DPE-driven promoters and represses TATA-driven promoters. (sciencemag.org)
  • This is reflected in notable pharmacological differences, in particular, a 100-1000-fold-lower affinity of the rat A 3 AR for certain xanthine compounds compared with the recombinant human and sheep receptors ( 1 , 5-7 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Invasion assays confirmed PKC involvement in H pylori -induced MMP-1 secretion. (bmj.com)
  • 4,6 In addition to these pathways, common among different cell types, ET-1 stimulation results in an increase in intracellular calcium levels. (ahajournals.org)
  • PERK phosphorylates the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 α (eIF2α) and itself at its cytoplasmic kinase domain, which leads to reduction of global protein biosynthesis, one of the feedback loops to reduce protein stress in the ER. (biologists.org)
  • T2DM involves a complex interaction between genetic variants and the environment, with obesity being a primary risk factor [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)