Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.
A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.
The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.
The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.
A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.
A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.
The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.
Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.
A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.
An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.
A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).
A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.
A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.
Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein oncogene protein v-ets of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
A general transcription factor that is involved in basal GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. It consists of nine subunits including ATP-DEPENDENT DNA HELICASES; CYCLIN H; and XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM GROUP D PROTEIN.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.
A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.
Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.
A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE III and aid in transcription. They include the assembly factors TFIIIA and TFIIIC and the initiation factor TFIIIB. All combine to form a preinitiation complex at the promotor that directs the binding of RNA POLYMERASE III.
A heterotetrameric transcription factor composed of two distinct proteins. Its name refers to the fact it binds to DNA sequences rich in GUANINE and ADENINE. GA-binding protein integrates a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and regulates expression of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE control, PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS, and cellular METABOLISM.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway. The activity of the protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN. Transcription factor 7-like 2 protein plays an important role in the embryogenesis of the PANCREAS and ISLET CELLS.
An ets proto-oncogene expressed primarily in adult LYMPHOID TISSUE; BRAIN; and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that was originally identified in DROSOPHILA as essential for proper gastrulation and MESODERM formation. It plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MUSCLE CELLS, and is found in a wide variety of organisms.
A tissue-specific subunit of NF-E2 transcription factor that interacts with small MAF PROTEINS to regulate gene expression. P45 NF-E2 protein is expressed primarily in MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; and MAST CELLS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. TFIIIB recruits and positions pol III over the initiation site and remains stably bound to the DNA through multiple rounds of re-initiation by RNA POLYMERASE III.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
One of the BASIC-LEUCINE ZIPPER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that is synthesized as a membrane-bound protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. In response to endoplasmic reticulum stress it translocates to the GOLGI APPARATUS. It is activated by PROTEASES and then moves to the CELL NUCLEUS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in the unfolded protein response.
A family of mammalian POU domain factors that are expressed predominately in NEURONS.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates GLOBIN gene expression and is related to TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1. NF-E2 consists of a small MAF protein subunit and a tissue-restricted 45 kDa subunit.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subfamily have been implicated in regulating the differentiation of OLIGODENDROCYTES during neural crest formation and in CHONDROGENESIS.
Ubiquitously expressed basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF transcription factors. They bind CANNTG sequences in the promoters of a variety of GENES involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Factors that form a preinitiation complex at promoters that are specifically transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE I.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in determining cell fate during embryogenesis. It forms a heterodimer with TWIST TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and ACHAETE-SCUTE GENE COMPLEX-related TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A POU domain factor that regulates expression of GROWTH HORMONE; PROLACTIN; and THYROTROPIN-BETA in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of the group have been found expressed in developing neuronal tissue, LYMPHOCYTES, and during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.

Transcriptional repression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene, mediated by CCAAT displacement protein/cut homolog, is associated with histone deacetylation. (1/213)

Human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR) transcription is tightly regulated by nucleotide sequences upstream of the initiator sequences. Our studies of human CFTR transcription focus on identifying transcription factors bound to an inverted CCAAT consensus or "Y-box element." The human homeodomain CCAAT displacement protein/cut homolog (CDP/cut) can bind to the Y-box element through a cut repeat and homeobox. Analysis of stably transfected cell lines with wild-type and mutant human CFTR-directed reporter genes demonstrates that human histone acetyltransferase GCN5 and transcription factor ATF-1 can potentiate CFTR transcription through the Y-box element. We have found 1) that human CDP/cut acts as a repressor of CFTR transcription through the Y-box element by competing for the sites of transactivators hGCN5 and ATF-1; 2) that the ability of CDP/cut to repress activities of hGCN5 and ATF-1 activity is contingent on the amount of CDP/cut expression; 3) that histone acetylation may have a role in the regulation of gene transcription by altering the accessibility of the CFTR Y-box for sequence-specific transcription factors; 4) that trichostatin A, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase activity, activates transcription of CFTR through the Y-box element; 5) that the inhibition of histone deacetylase activity leads to an alteration of local chromatin structure requiring an intact Y-box sequence in CFTR; 6) that immunocomplexes of CDP/cut possess an associated histone deacetylase activity; 7) that the carboxyl region of CDP/cut, responsible for the transcriptional repressor function, interacts with the histone deacetylase, HDAC1. We propose that CFTR transcription may be regulated through interactions with factors directing the modification of chromatin and requires the conservation of the inverted CCAAT (Y-box) element of the CFTR promoter.  (+info)

Bacterial peptidoglycan induces CD14-dependent activation of transcription factors CREB/ATF and AP-1. (2/213)

Peptidoglycan (PGN), the major cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria, induces secretion of cytokines in macrophages through CD14, the pattern recognition receptor that binds lipopolysaccharide and other microbial products. To begin to elucidate the mechanisms that regulate the transcription of cytokine genes, we wanted to determine which transcription factors are activated by PGN in mouse RAW264.7 and human THP-1 macrophage cells. Our results demonstrated that: (i) PGN induced phosphorylation of the transcription factors ATF-1 and CREB; (ii) ATF-1 and CREB bound DNA as a dimer and induced transcriptional activation of a CRE reporter plasmid, which was inhibited by dominant negative CREB and ATF-1; (iii) PGN induced phosphorylation of c-Jun, protein synthesis of JunB and c-Fos, and transcriptional activation of the AP-1 reporter plasmid, which was inhibited by dominant negative c-Fos; and (iv) PGN-induced activation of CREB/ATF and AP-1 was mediated through CD14. This is the first study to demonstrate activation of CREB/ATF and AP-1 transcription factors by PGN or by any other component of Gram-positive bacteria.  (+info)

Cyclic AMP- and differentiation-dependent regulation of the proximal alphaHCG gene promoter in term villous trophoblasts. (3/213)

Although the regulatory mechanisms controlling alpha and beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) expression have been investigated in choriocarcinoma cell model systems, little is known about the regulation of HCG subunit synthesis in non-tumourigenic trophoblasts. We therefore investigated alphaHCG mRNA transcription in villous cytotrophoblasts isolated from term placentae and have shown for the first time that the proximal alphaHCG gene promoter is functional in these cells. By establishing conditions which allow efficient transient transfection of immunopurified cells, we have demonstrated that a 363 bp sequence in the proximal 5' flanking region of the alphaHCG gene is sufficient to direct trophoblast-specific expression of a luciferase reporter. After 12-60 h cultivation, an increase in endogenous alphaHCG mRNA expression could be detected, indicating that aggregated villous trophoblasts undergo biochemical differentiation. Concomitantly, we observed induction of alphaHCG promoter-driven luciferase activity, suggesting that the 363 bp sequence of the proximal 5' flanking region is sufficient to direct differentiation-dependent increase of alphaHCG mRNA. Continuous luciferase expression required functional cAMP-response elements (CREs), since deletion of both recognition sequences eliminated differentiation-dependent transcription of the reporter. Elevation of cAMP values increased transcription of the wild-type construct; however, it did not affect promoter activity of the mutant plasmid. Moreover, we have demonstrated that during in-vitro differentiation, CREs interacted with increasing amounts of phosphorylated activating transcription factor/cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (ATF-1/CREB-1) suggesting that these cAMP-dependent DNA-binding factors are major determinants in regulating alphaHCG gene expression in villous trophoblasts.  (+info)

Definition of the transcription factors which bind the differentiation responsive element of the Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1 Z promoter in human epithelial cells. (4/213)

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus and an important human pathogen. Initiation of the EBV lytic cycle is dependent upon transcription of the EBV BZLF1 gene. Our previous studies of transcriptional regulation of the BZLF1 Z promoter (Zp) in human SCC12F epithelial cells identified a region within Zp that is responsive to epithelial cell differentiation. In the present study, we localize this differentiation responsive element to the CREB/AP-1-like binding site (TGACATCA) between -67 to -60 bp within Zp, previously designated ZII, and furthermore show that homodimers and heterodimers of CREB and ATF-1 specifically bind ZII. Consistent with a regulatory role for CREB and ATF-1 in differentiation dependent BZLF1 expression, ZII was able to bind approximately 3-fold more CREB and ATF-1 when incubated with nuclear extract obtained from populations of SCC12F cells enriched for the differentiated phenotype than when incubated with extract obtained from populations enriched for the undifferentiated phenotype. In addition, CREB and ATF-1 were found to increase in abundance during SCC12F differentiation. These results indicate a regulatory role for CREB and ATF-1 in differentiation-dependent expression of BZLF1 in human epithelial cells.  (+info)

Role of the ATFa/JNK2 complex in Jun activation. (5/213)

The ATFa proteins, which are members of the CREB/ATF family of transcription factors, display quite versatile properties. We have previously shown that they interact with the adenovirus E1a oncoprotein, mediating part of its transcriptional activity and heterodimerize with the Jun, Fos or related transcription factors, thereby modulating their DNA-binding specificity. In the present study, we report the sequence requirement of the N-terminal activation domain of ATFa and demonstrate the importance of specific threonine residues (Thr51 and Thr53) in addition to that of the metal-binding domain, in transcriptional activation processes. We also show that the N-terminal domain of ATFa which stably binds the Jun N-terminal kinase-2 (JNK2) (Bocco et al., 1996), is not a substrate for this kinase in vivo but, instead, serves as a JNK2-docking site for ATFa-associated partners like JunD, allowing them to be phosphorylated by the bound kinase.  (+info)

Stress-induced stimulation of early growth response gene-1 by p38/stress-activated protein kinase 2 is mediated by a cAMP-responsive promoter element in a MAPKAP kinase 2-independent manner. (6/213)

The p38/stress-activated protein kinase2 (p38/SAPK2) is activated by cellular stress and proinflammatory cytokines. Several transcription factors have been reported to be regulated by p38/SAPK2, and this kinase is involved in the control of expression of various genes. In human Jurkat T-cells, induction of the early growth response gene-1 (egr-1) by anisomycin is completely inhibited by SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38/SAPK2a and -b. Northern blot and reporter gene experiments indicate that this block is at the level of mRNA biosynthesis. Using mutants of the egr-1 promoter, we demonstrate that a distal cAMP-responsive element (CRE; nucleotides -134 to -126) is necessary to control egr-1 induction by p38/SAPK2. Pull-down assays indicate that phospho-CRE binding protein (CREB) and phospho-activating transcription factor-1 (ATF1) bind to this element in a p38/SAPK2-dependent manner. In response to anisomycin, two known CREB kinases downstream to p38/SAPK2, MAPKAP kinase 2 (MK2) and mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1), show increased activity. However, in MK2 -/- fibroblasts derived from mice carrying a disruption of the MK2 gene, the phosphorylation of CREB and ATF1 and the expression of egr-1 reach levels comparable with wild type cells. This finding excludes MK2 as an involved enzyme. We conclude that egr-1 induction by anisomycin is mediated by p38/SAPK2 and probably by MSK1. Phosphorylated CREB and ATF1 then bind to the CRE of the egr-1 promoter and cause a stress-dependent transcriptional activation of this gene.  (+info)

Identification of a novel transcriptional regulatory element within the promoter region of the keratinocyte growth factor gene that mediates inducibility to cyclic AMP. (7/213)

Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) plays a critical role for the normal development and morphogenesis of many different tissues and organs. Furthermore, its expression is induced during wound healing and in various chronic inflammatory diseases. To determine the molecular mechanisms which regulate KGF gene induction at the transcriptional level, we carried out in vitro studies using the human KGF promoter. We have identified a novel regulatory element, TGAGGTCAG, located between -39 and -46 bp (relative to the transcription start site) in the KGF basal promoter region, which binds to inducible transcription factors as determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. When cloned in front of a heterologous SV40 promoter this region conferred inducibility to forskolin, a stimulator of adenylate cyclase. In contrast, various mutated forms of this region were either partially or completely impaired in their ability to mediate induction to forskolin. The TGAGGTCAG sequence shared homology to both the cAMP responsive element (CRE) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) consensus binding sites. An oligonucleotide comprising a consensus CRE binding site partially competed for the nuclear protein binding to the TGAGGTCAG site. Gel mobility supershift assays indicated that two members of the activating transcription factor (ATF) family of CRE binding proteins, ATF1 and ATF2, were part of the nuclear protein complex bound to this regulatory region. Furthermore, purified recombinant ATF2 was able to directly recognize and bind the TGAGGTCAG sequence. In contrast, no evidence was obtained for C/EBP transcription factors being part of the complex. These results suggest that members of the ATF family are involved in mediating the transcriptional regulation of the KGF gene in response to extracellular stimuli via a novel CRE regulatory element.  (+info)

Sin1: an evolutionarily conserved component of the eukaryotic SAPK pathway. (8/213)

The fission yeast Sty1/Spc1 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase is a member of the eukaryotic stress-activated MAP kinase (SAPK) family. We have identified a protein, Sin1, that interacts with Sty1/Spc1 which is a member of a new evolutionarily conserved gene family. Cells lacking Sin1 display many, but not all, of the phenotypes of cells lacking the Sty1/Spc1 MAP kinase including sterility, multiple stress sensitivity and a cell-cycle delay. Sin1 is phosphorylated after stress but this is not Sty1/Spc1-dependent. Importantly, Sin1 is not required for activation of Sty1/Spc1 but is required for stress-dependent transcription via its substrate, Atf1. We find that in the absence of Sin1, Sty1/Spc1 appears to translocate to the nucleus but Atf1 is not fully phosphorylated and becomes unstable in response to environmental stress. Sin1 is also required for effective transcription via the AP-1 factor Pap1 but does not prevent its nuclear translocation. Remarkably chimaeric fusions of sin1 with chicken sin1 sequences rescue loss of sin1 function. We conclude that Sin1 is a novel component of the eukaryotic SAPK pathway.  (+info)

p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
ATF-4兔多克隆抗体(ab105383)可与小鼠样本反应并经WB, IHC实验严格验证,被2篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
ATF-4兔多克隆抗体(ab28830)可与人样本反应并经ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被2篇文献引用并得到1个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
The Quick Clip range of Grid from Contactum gives you reliability and depth of range. Whether its switching, dimming or general control you require for commercial and public buildings our Grid range has all the variations you are looking for.. ...
Looking for online definition of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 4 in the Medical Dictionary? cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 4 explanation free. What is cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 4? Meaning of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 4 medical term. What does cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 4 mean?
Looking for online definition of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 1 in the Medical Dictionary? cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 1 explanation free. What is cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 1? Meaning of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 1 medical term. What does cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 1 mean?
In type 2 diabetes, chronic hyperglycemia is detrimental to beta-cells, causing apoptosis and impaired insulin secretion. The transcription factor cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) is crucial for beta-cell survival and function. We inves
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Reagents, Tools and Custom Services for molecular biology, specializing in the fields of Nano-Antibody development (nAb), Cellular Reprogramming (iPSC), Genome Editing, Fluorescent Proteins, RNAi, Viral Packaging and Protein expression.
CREB Gel Shift Oligonucleotide contains a consensus binding site for cAMP response element (CRE) binding proteins of the CREB/ATF family
Mitochondrial dysfunction is pervasive in human pathologies such as neurodegeneration, diabetes, cancer, and pathogen infections as well as during normal aging. Cells sense and respond to mitochondrial dysfunction by activating a protective transcriptional program known as the mitochondrial unfolded …
I am reposting my first, most serious answer, since it seems to me that it didnt find its way into the list] I am the maintainer of lineno.sty! At 17:19 04.02.09, Joao.Santos at ny.frb.org wrote: ,I am trying to use lineno.sty with latex. , ,First, I went to CTAN, followed the instructions and downloaded the ,following files to my computer , , lineno.sty, edtable.sty, ednmath0.sty, ltabptch.sty and longtable.sty , ,Second, in a latex document I am trying to add line, I added at the to , ,\usepage{lineno} At 18:10 04.02.09, Joao.Santos at ny.frb.org wrote: ,Sorry, That is not the problem (that was a typo in my email) I am indeed ,using the command ,\usepackage{lineno} ,When I try to compile the document, I keep getting the following error , ,(c:/Program Files/PCTeX/PCTeXv6/texmf-dist/tex/latex/amsfonts/amssymb.sty) ,(c:/Program Files/PCTeX/PCTeXv6/texmf-dist/tex/latex/graphics/epsfig.sty) ,(./lineno.sty , ,! LaTeX Error: Missing \begin{document}. Please send me an exact copy of your document ...
Lovers of comedy and musical theater are sure to enjoy this troupes completely improvised musicals. - Jan 14, 2011 by Zachary Stewart in Reviews.
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
多种适用的ATF2ELISA试剂盒,如小鸡, 人, 小鼠等。在antibodies-online.cn对比ATF2ELISA试剂盒,以便找到您需要的产品。
GenDR A curated database of genes associated with dietary restriction in model organisms either from genetic manipulation experiments or gene expression profiling.. ...
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CRTC1; KIAA0616; MECT1; TORC1; WAMTP1; CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1; Mucoepidermoid carcinoma translocated protein 1; Transducer of regulated cAMP response element-binding protein 1; TORC-1; Transducer of CREB protein 1 ...
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Glial Cell Line-derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF) is a highly conserved neurotrophic factor. The recombinant form of this protein was shown to promote the survival and differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in culture, and was able to prevent apoptosis of motor neurons induced by axotomy.The protein is processed to a mature secreted form that exists as a homodimer. The mature form of the protein is a ligand for the product of the RET (rearranged during transfection) protooncogene. In addition to the transcript encoding GDNF, two additional alternative transcripts encoding distinct proteins, referred to as astrocyte-derived trophic factors, have also been described. Mutations in this gene may be associated with Hirschsprung disease.
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Transcriptional regulation in HCMV-infected cells relies on a complex interaction between cellular and viral transactivators (13, 23, 28, 37, 41, 43, 46). Several studies have implicated a role for the transcription factors ATF/CREB in early gene regulation (25, 30, 35, 37, 39). For example, several early promoters can be regulated by ATF/CREB sites in transient assays (30, 35, 37, 39). In addition, a role for ATF/CREB in the activation of the UL54 and UL112-113 promoters at early times in the context of the viral genome has been demonstrated (25,35). Our present analysis of the US11 promoter revealed that expression of this early gene is also regulated by two ATF/CREB sites within the promoter. The primary regulatory element of the US11 promoter, both in transient assays and in the context of the viral genome, is an ATF site located immediately upstream of the TATA element. In addition to the ATF site, the CREB site at −83 was also involved in US11 promoter activation. In the context of the ...
TransAM CREB and TransAM pCREB Kits are DNA-binding ELISAs that quanify the activated transcription factors using a method that is faster and more sensitive than gelshift, without radioactivity and gels.
HighRider-2 include one dip tube for ATF-2 connection. Flow via the aseptic connector over the HFF to the ATF-2 SUE. The dip tube is connected via a 9,5 x 14,3 mm hose to the aseptic connector. Photo 1: Seen from left on the left side of the blue tip pH SUS the broth dip tube. Further seen the VisiWell SUW with the orange O-ring. Photo 3: Dip tube hose aseptic connector to the left.. ...
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Mobil ATF™ 3309 is an exceptionally high performance lubricant that meets original equipment manufacturers specifications for use in certain slip-controlled lock-up automatic transmissions.
Read excerpts from SPC Demystified to understand how to apply and interpret control charts, overcome common errors in the use of SPC and learn limitations
"Activating Transcription Factor 7 Interacting Protein". Retrieved 23 April 2011. "AceView: Homo sapiens complex locus QRICH1, ... activating transcription factor 7-interacting protein 1. ATXN1 is involved in binding RNA in vitro and may be involved in RNA ... ATF7IP is a recruiter protein that couples transcriptional factors to the general transcription apparatus, thereby modulating ... transcription regulation and chromatin formation. QRICH1 is expressed at a high level, 3.3 times the average gene. It is ...
"Entrez Gene: ATF7 activating transcription factor 7". Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P, Mann M (2006 ... a novel variant of the ATF/CREB transcription factor family, forms a dominant transcription inhibitor in ATF-a heterodimers". J ... Cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ATF7 gene. In 2001, Peters et al ... "Sumoylation delays the ATF7 transcription factor subcellular localization and inhibits its transcriptional activity". Nucleic ...
"Entrez Gene: ATF1 activating transcription factor 1". Zucman J, Delattre O, Desmaze C, Epstein AL, Stenman G, Speleman F, ... 1993). "Activating transcription factor-1 can mediate Ca(2+)- and cAMP-inducible transcriptional activation". J. Biol. Chem. ... Sun P, Lou L, Maurer RA (1996). "Regulation of activating transcription factor-1 and the cAMP response element-binding protein ... This gene encodes an activating transcription factor, which belongs to the ATF subfamily and bZIP (basic-region leucine zipper ...
Syk activates transcription factor NFκB. This transcription factor is responsible for the production of numerous inflammatory ... Ahrén IL, Eriksson E, Egesten A, Riesbeck K (November 2003). "Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae activates human eosinophils ... C-type lectin domain family 7 member A or Dectin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLEC7A gene. CLEC7A is a ... 53 (1): 44-55. doi:10.1002/prot.10440. PMID 12945048. S2CID 30955198. Clark HF, Gurney AL, Abaya E, Baker K, Baldwin D, Brush J ...
March 1995). "Cdk-activating kinase complex is a component of human transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 283-7. ... March 1995). "Cdk-activating kinase complex is a component of human transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 283-7. ... "From androgen receptor to the general transcription factor TFIIH. Identification of cdk activating kinase (CAK) as an androgen ... "Association of Cdk-activating kinase subunits with transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 280-2. Bibcode:1995Natur. ...
"Cdk-activating kinase complex is a component of human transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 283-7. Bibcode:1995Natur ... "Cdk-activating kinase complex is a component of human transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 283-7. Bibcode:1995Natur ... General transcription factor IIH subunit 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GTF2H1 gene. GTF2H1 has been shown to ... Tong X, Drapkin R, Reinberg D, Kieff E (1995). "The 62- and 80-kDa subunits of transcription factor IIH mediate the interaction ...
Activating transcription factor 4 (tax-responsive enhancer element B67), also known as ATF4, is a protein that in humans is ... "Entrez Gene: ATF4 activating transcription factor 4 (tax-responsive enhancer element B67)". Franceschi RT, Ge C, Xiao G, Roca H ... He CH, Gong P, Hu B, Stewart D, Choi ME, Choi AM, Alam J (June 2001). "Identification of activating transcription factor 4 ( ... Activating transcription factor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000128272 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
"Cdk-activating kinase complex is a component of human transcription factor TFIIH". Nature. 374 (6519): 283-7. doi:10.1038/ ... and the CDK-activating kinase (CAK) assembly factor MAT1 (MNAT1) to chromosome bands 5q13.3-q14 and 14q23, respectively". ... the fifth subunit of the core of the transcription/DNA repair factor TFIIH". The EMBO Journal. 16 (5): 1093-102. doi:10.1093/ ... a subunit of the human general transcription/DNA repair factor TFIIH". Protein Expression and Purification. 9 (2): 153-8. doi: ...
"Entrez Gene: transcription factor AP-2 beta (activating enhancer binding protein 2 beta)". Tsukada S, Tanaka Y, Maegawa H, et ... 2006). "Transcription factor activating enhancer-binding protein-2beta. A negative regulator of adiponectin gene expression". J ... Transcription factor AP-2 beta also known as AP2-beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TFAP2B gene. AP-2 beta is a ... 2009). "The transcription factor TFAP2B is associated with insulin resistance and adiposity in healthy adolescents". Obesity ( ...
Activating transcription factor 3 is a member of the mammalian activation transcription factor/cAMP responsive element-binding ... ATF3 activating transcription factor 3". Chen BP, Wolfgang CD, Hai T (March 1996). "Analysis of ATF3, a transcription factor ... Activating transcription factor ATF3 has been shown to interact with: C-jun, DDIT3 JunD, P53, and SMAD3. GRCh38: Ensembl ... Chu HM, Tan Y, Kobierski LA, Balsam LB, Comb MJ (January 1994). "Activating transcription factor-3 stimulates 3',5'-cyclic ...
"Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors activate expression of the EGR gene family of transcription factors". The Journal of ... "Acetylcholine muscarinic m1 receptor regulation of cyclic AMP synthesis controls growth factor stimulation of Raf activity". ... ISBN 1-4160-2328-3. Scapecchi S, Matucci R, Bellucci C, Buccioni M, Dei S, Guandalini L, Martelli C, Manetti D, Martini E, ... 8 (1): 10-1. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4001095. PMID 12556901. S2CID 22314941. Dick DM, Aliev F, Kramer J, Wang JC, Hinrichs A, ...
"Menin interacts with the AP1 transcription factor JunD and represses JunD-activated transcription". Cell. 96 (1): 143-52. doi: ... "Menin interacts with the AP1 transcription factor JunD and represses JunD-activated transcription". Cell. 96 (1): 143-52. doi: ... Chu HM, Tan Y, Kobierski LA, Balsam LB, Comb MJ (January 1994). "Activating transcription factor-3 stimulates 3',5'-cyclic ... Chu HM, Tan Y, Kobierski LA, Balsam LB, Comb MJ (1994). "Activating transcription factor-3 stimulates 3',5'-cyclic adenosine ...
ETS1 activates MET transcription in vitro. MET transcription is activated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1), which is ... "Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor activates the ETS1 transcription factor by a RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway". ... MET activates the STAT3 transcription factor directly, through an SH2 domain. The beta-catenin pathway, a key component of the ... MET transcription is activated by HGF and several growth factors. MET promoter has four putative binding sites for Ets, a ...
1993). "Activating transcription factor-1 can mediate Ca(2+)- and cAMP-inducible transcriptional activation". J. Biol. Chem. ... McKinsey TA, Zhang CL, Olson EN (2001). "Activation of the myocyte enhancer factor-2 transcription factor by calcium/calmodulin ... Calcium/calmodulin directly activates calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by binding to the enzyme and indirectly ... 2003). "Synapsin I is phosphorylated at Ser603 by p21-activated kinases (PAKs) in vitro and in PC12 cells stimulated with ...
... a regulator of activating transcription factor 2 response to stress and DNA damage". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 21 (24): ... a regulator of activating transcription factor 2 response to stress and DNA damage". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 21 (24): ... "Control of nutrient-sensitive transcription programs by the unconventional prefoldin URI". Science. 302 (5648): 1208-12. doi: ... 3 (1): 89. doi:10.1038/msb4100134. PMC 1847948. PMID 17353931. Cho SG, Bhoumik A, Broday L, Ivanov V, Rosenstein B, Ronai Z ( ...
CREBBP: This gene's product is a transcriptional coactivator; it activates numerous transcription factors, some of which ... PAX5: this gene's product, Pax-5, is a transcription factor that controls the development, maturation, and survival of B-cells ... MYC: This protooncogene's product, Myc, encodes a transcription factor which regulates the expression of other genes whose ... DLBCL can arise in virtually any part of the body and, depending on various factors, is often a very aggressive malignancy. The ...
"Cell type-specific inhibition of the ETS transcription factor ER81 by mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase ... Yang SH, Galanis A, Sharrocks AD (Jun 1999). "Targeting of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases to MEF2 transcription factors ... activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1), serum response factor (SRF), and mRNA-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP) In ... Kyriakis JM, Avruch J (Apr 2001). "Mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathways activated by stress ...
The experience of psychological stress activates transcription factors that activate genes. In a study by Cole et al., it was ... This gene codes for a protein that activates the inflammatory response which directs an immune response to the site of the ... Journal of Endocrinology, 186, 1-20.] Nelson, D. L., Lehninger, A. L., and Cox, M. M. "Hormones are Chemically Diverse." ... concluded that GABA-1 transcription factor activates the interleukin-6-gene. ...
Goodall J, Wellbrock C, Dexter TJ, Roberts K, Marais R, Goding CR (April 2004). "The Brn-2 transcription factor links activated ... POU domain, class 3, transcription factor 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POU3F2 gene. N-Oct-3 is a protein ... It is likely that CNS-specific transcription factors such as these play an important role in mammalian neurogenesis by ... Eisen T, Easty DJ, Bennett DC, Goding CR (November 1995). "The POU domain transcription factor Brn-2: elevated expression in ...
2002). "Mitochondrial transcription factors B1 and B2 activate transcription of human mtDNA". Nat. Genet. 31 (3): 289-94. doi: ... McCulloch V, Shadel GS (2003). "Human mitochondrial transcription factor B1 interacts with the C-terminal activation region of ... Elongation requires the elongation factor TEFM. The exact termination process is less understood, but MTERF1 is thought to play ... Kravchenko JE, Rogozin IB, Koonin EV, Chumakov PM (2005). "Transcription of mammalian messenger RNAs by a nuclear RNA ...
Seeler JS, Muchardt C, Suessle A, Gaynor RB (1994). "Transcription factor PRDII-BF1 activates human immunodeficiency virus type ... 2006). "The high-mobility-group domain of Sox proteins interacts with DNA-binding domains of many transcription factors". ... 4 (1): 29-42. doi:10.1101/gad.4.1.29. PMID 2106471. Baldwin AS, LeClair KP, Singh H, Sharp PA (1990). "A large protein ... 66 (1): 244-50. doi:10.1128/JVI.66.1.244-250.1992. PMC 238281. PMID 1727488. Fan CM, Maniatis T (1990). "A DNA-binding protein ...
... a novel regulator for induction of activating transcription factor-2 and heme oxygenase-1". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. BVR acts as a means to regenerate bilirubin in a repeating redox ... by control of the upstream activator of insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) ... 235 (1-2): 372-81. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1996.00372.x. PMID 8631357. PDB: 1GCU​; Kikuchi A, Park SY, Miyatake H, Sun D, Sato ...
"Menin interacts with the AP1 transcription factor JunD and represses JunD-activated transcription". Cell. 96 (1): 143-52. doi: ... "Menin interacts with the AP1 transcription factor JunD and represses JunD-activated transcription". Cell. 96 (1): 143-52. doi: ... growth factors, oncogenes play a rule in tumorigenesis. Although the exact function of MEN1 is not known, the Knudson "two-hit ... These familial MEN-1 and sporadic tumors may arise either due to loss of heterozygosity or the chromosome region 11q13 where ...
Nabel G, Baltimore D (1987). "An inducible transcription factor activates expression of human immunodeficiency virus in T cells ... In the activated state, integrins bind tightly to complementary receptors expressed on endothelial cells, with high affinity. ... Activated endothelial cells initially express P-selectin molecules, but within two hours after activation E-selectin expression ... P-selectins: P-selectin is expressed on activated endothelial cells and platelets. Synthesis of P-selectin can be induced by ...
MvfR is a gene which produces a transcription factor which activates phnAB genes. These genes produce the molecule quinolone ... PKA II is activated by cAMP which is produced from ATP. Both these processes are impaired when ATP is depleted by pyocyanin. ... Pyocyanin inactivates catalase by reducing its gene's transcription as well as directly targeting the enzyme itself. ... 141 (1): 156-163. doi:10.1128/JB.141.1.156-163.1980. PMC 293551. PMID 6243619. Mavrodi D, Bonsall, R, Delaney, S, Soule, M, ...
"Cloning of the Ah-receptor cDNA reveals a distinctive ligand-activated transcription factor". Proceedings of the National ... The first is the basic-region (b), which is involved in the binding of the transcription factor to DNA. The second is the helix ... The bHLH motif is located in the N-terminal of the protein and is a common entity in a variety of transcription factors. ... Sequential recruitment of transcription factors and differential phosphorylation of C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II at ...
ATF4 and ATF5 are members of the leucine zipper activating transcription factor / CREB family. They are known to bind to and ... was shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assays to create or destroy a promoter transcription factor site. Five further non- ... Kal-7-dependent regulation of spine formation occurs through its activity as a GDP/GTP exchange factor for Rac1. Activation of ... Activation of NMDA receptors causes dissociation of DISC1 and kal-7, leaving kal-7 available to activate rac1. DISC1 shows ...
... activating transcription factor-1) proteins. CREB proteins are expressed in many animals, including humans. CREB has a well- ... A Stimulus-Induced Transcription Factor Activated by A Diverse Array of Extracellular Signals". Annual Review of Biochemistry. ... The phosphorylated CREB recognizes the cAMP Response Element and serves as a transcription factor for Per1 and Per2, two genes ... CREB-TF (CREB, cAMP response element-binding protein) is a cellular transcription factor. It binds to certain DNA sequences ...
TRAM-TRIF signals activate the transcription factor Interferon Regulatory Factor-3 (IRF3) via TRAF3. IRF3 activation induces ... Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) and IKK (IκB Kinase). IKKs' signaling pathway leads to the induction of the transcription ... factor NF-κB, while activation of MAPK cascades lead to the activation of another transcription factor AP-1. Both of them have ... Transforming growth factor-β-Activated Kinase 1) that leads to the activation of MAPK cascades ( ...
PLC activates 3 major transcription factors and their pathways: NFAT, NFkB and AP-1. After costimulation from CD28 the optimal ... It cooperates with other transcription factors including NFkB and Oct. NFkB is translocated to the nucleus after costimulation ... The major sources of IL-2 are activated CD4+ T cells and activated CD8+ T cells. IL-2 is a member of a cytokine family, each ... This phosphorylation recruits STAT transcription factors, predominantly STAT5, which dimerize and migrate to the cell nucleus ...
Differentiation of mature B cells into plasma cells is dependent upon the transcription factors Blimp-1/PRDM1 and IRF4. ... First, the B cells have to encounter a foreign antigen, and are then required to be activated by T helper cells before they ... This is a type of safeguard to the system, almost like a two-factor authentication method. ... ISBN 1-4292-0211-4.. *^ a b c Federico Caligaris-Cappio; Manlio Ferrarini (1997). Human B Cell Populations (Chemical Immunology ...
transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA ... The homeobox genes encode a highly conserved family of transcription factors that play an important role in morphogenesis in ... regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • positive ... "The thyroid transcription factor-1 gene is a candidate target for regulation by Hox proteins". EMBO J. 13 (14): 3339-47. PMC ...
... β-catenin becomes a coactivator for TCF and LEF to activate Wnt genes by displacing Groucho and HDAC transcription repressors. ... Yi ZY, Feng LJ, Xiang Z, Yao H (2011). "Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 activation mediates epithelial to ... On the other hand, a lack of α-catenin can promote aberrant transcription, which can lead to cancer. As a result, it can be ... Keratinocytes engineered to not express alpha-catenin have disrupted cell adhesion and activated NF-κB. A tumor cell line with ...
2D3-regulated transcription factor MN1 stimulates vitamin D receptor-mediated transcription and inhibits osteoblastic cell ... 2007). "The MN1 oncoprotein activates transcription of the IGFBP5 promoter through a CACCC-rich consensus sequence". J. Mol. ... MN1 is a transcription coregulator that enhances or represses RAR/RXR-mediated gene transcription through interaction with RAC3 ... "The MN1 oncoprotein synergizes with coactivators RAC3 and p300 in RAR-RXR-mediated transcription". Oncogene. 22 (5): 699-709. ...
... proteins including interferon regulatory factor 3 and interferon regulatory factor 7 trigger a signalling cascade that leads to ... the signalling proteins STAT1 and STAT2 are activated and move to the cell's nucleus.[51] This triggers the expression of ... whose concentration in the host cell determines when L switches from gene transcription to genome replication. Replication of ... Education of the general public about the risk factors for Ebola infection and of the protective measures individuals may take ...
"Metalloproteinases and transforming growth factor-alpha mediate substance P-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation ... Fiebich BL, Schleicher S, Butcher RD, Craig A, Lieb K (Nov 2000). "The neuropeptide substance P activates p38 mitogen-activated ... The molecule, which is rapidly inactivated (or at times further activated by peptidases) is rapidly released - repetitively and ... the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and substance P". The British Journal of Dermatology. 157 (5): 922-5. doi:10.1111 ...
"An essential transcription factor, SciP, enhances robustness of Caulobacter cell cycle regulation". Proceedings of the National ... Each process activated by the proteins of the cell cycle engine involve a cascade of many reactions. The longest subsystem ... in addition to many extracytoplasmic function sigma factors, providing the organism with the ability to respond to a wide range ... Fig#1 shows how TipN interact with two other polar proteins : the flagellar marker PodJ , and the stalk marker DivJ. [25] ...
The key events mediating rod versus S cone versus M cone differentiation are induced by several transcription factors, ... Each transducin then activates the enzyme cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE).. *PDE then catalyzes the hydrolysis of cGMP to ... When light activates the melanopsin signaling system, the melanopsin-containing ganglion cells discharge nerve impulses that ... This structural change causes it to activate a regulatory protein called transducin, which leads to the activation of cGMP ...
Paramutation & Pax Transcription Factors. 44: 97-106. doi:10.1016/j.semcdb.2015.09.016. PMID 26410163.. ... This gene is a member of the paired box (PAX) family of transcription factors. Members of this gene family typically encode ... transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II core ... RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcriptional activator activity, RNA ...
transcription factor complex. • cell-cell adherens junction. • Z disc. • stress fiber. • filamentous actin. ... "Ubiquitination-dependent cofactor exchange on LIM homeodomain transcription factors.". Nature. 416 (6876): 99-103. PMID ... transcription coactivator activity. • ربط أيون فلزي. • cadherin binding involved in cell-cell adhesion. • actin binding. • ... regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • response to oxidative stress. • cell-cell adhesion. • positive regulation of ...
... with beta-catenin and T-cell factor 4 may bypass canonical Wnt signaling to down-regulate adipogenic transcription factors". ... To further test the role of activated androgen receptors on AHN, flutamide, an antiandrogen drug that competes with ... Androgens bind to and activate androgen receptors (ARs) to mediate most of their biological effects. ... ISBN 1-85996-252-1.. [page needed]. *^ Singh R, Artaza JN, Taylor WE, Braga M, Yuan X, Gonzalez-Cadavid NF, Bhasin S (January ...
RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, ligand-activated sequence-specific DNA binding. • identical protein binding. • ... transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • ATPase binding. • zinc ion binding. • transcriptional activator ... RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcriptional activator activity, RNA ... regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • cell-cell signaling. • negative regulation of gene expression. • transcription, ...
Fluorescent signal strength depends on many factors such as probe labeling efficiency, the type of probe, and the type of dye. ... In-Solution Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization and Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting for Single Cell and Population Genome ... "The lncRNA Malat1 is Dispensable for Mouse Development but Its Transcription Plays a cis-Regulatory Role in the Adult". Cell ... 97 (1): 93-103. doi:10.1038/labinvest.2016.121. PMID 27892928.. *^ a b Sarrate, Z.; Vidal, F.; Blanco, J. (2010). "Role of ...
regulation of epidermal growth factor-activated receptor activity. • regulation of resting membrane potential. • regulation of ... negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • proteolysis. • regulation of synaptic plasticity. • ... negative regulation of epidermal growth factor-activated receptor activity. • cell adhesion. • hematopoietic progenitor cell ... positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • heart development. • negative regulation of axonogenesis. • embryonic ...
This gene is a transcription factor that regulates the cell cycle and hence functions as a tumor suppressor. By inducing G ( ... Moreover, BaP has been found to activate a transposon, LINE1, in humans.[31] ... This process increases transcription of certain genes, notably CYP1A1, followed by increased CYP1A1 protein production.[28] ... 40 (1): 133. doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(00)00158-7.. *^ Lee, BM; Shim, GA (Aug 2007). "Dietary exposure estimation of benzo[a] ...
Sigurdsson S, Van Komen S, Petukhova G, Sung P (Nov 2002). "Homologous DNA pairing by human recombination factors Rad51 and ... "The Rad51/RadA N-terminal domain activates nucleoprotein filament ATPase activity". Structure. 14 (6): 983-92. doi:10.1016/j. ... 59 (1): 68-83. doi:10.1002/jemt.10178. PMID 12242698.. *^ a b Pellegrini L, Yu DS, Lo T, Anand S, Lee M, Blundell TL, ... 59 (1): 1-9. PMID 15902993.. *^ Galkin VE, Wu Y, Zhang XP, Qian X, He Y, Yu X, Heyer WD, Luo Y, Egelman EH (Jun 2006). " ...
... high levels of calcium in mitochondria elevates activity of nuclear factor kappa B NF-κB and transcription of CACNA1c and ... 145 (1): 426-36. doi:10.1210/en.2003-0319. PMID 14525906.. *^ Cahalan MD (Oct 2010). "Cell biology. How to STIMulate calcium ... 22 (1): 77-87. doi:10.1006/geno.1994.1347. PMID 7959794.. *. Tang S, Mikala G, Bahinski A, Yatani A, Varadi G, Schwartz A (Jun ... Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective Wikipedia articles. [§ 1] ...
... the general transcription factors) directing the binding of the RNA polymerase to a gene's promoter.[144] However, other ... In the Halobacteria, light-activated ion pumps like bacteriorhodopsin and halorhodopsin generate ion gradients by pumping ions ... Transcription in archaea more closely resembles eukaryotic than bacterial transcription, with the archaeal RNA polymerase being ... Circular chromosomes, unique translation and transcription. Multiple, linear chromosomes, similar translation and transcription ...
... selectivity and Initiator-dependent bi-directionality of serum response factor-activated transcription". Biochimica et ... Transcription factors, TATA binding protein (TBP), and RNA polymerase II are all recruited to begin transcription. ... bind to the transcription factor II D (TFIID), initiating transcription in TATA-less promoters. The DPE has been identified in ... it only gives a low level of transcription. Other factors must stimulate the BTC to increase transcription levels.[2] One such ...
... is a transcription factor which activates histone gene transcription on chromosomes 1 and 6 of human cells. NPAT is also a ... SBF is a transcription factor that is activated in late G1 phase, when it dissociates from its repressor Whi5. This occurs when ... Histone gene transcription is controlled by multiple gene regulatory proteins such as transcription factors which bind to ... The serotonylation potentiates the binding of the general transcription factor TFIID to the TATA box.[49] ...
A scaffolding protein that tethers JNK/p38MAPK signaling modules and transcription factors". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ... 1998). "Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 by the activated MEKK1 --> SEK1/MKK4 --> p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway". J ... "Human mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase mediates the stress-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase ... Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP2K4 gene. This gene ...
The cleaved SREBP then migrates to the nucleus and acts as a transcription factor to bind to the SRE (sterol regulatory element ... SREBP-cleavage activating protein) and Insig1. When cholesterol levels fall, Insig-1 dissociates from the SREBP-SCAP complex, ... regulation of cholesterol metabolism by proteolysis of a membrane-bound transcription factor". Cell 89: 331. doi:10.1016/S0092- ... of a number of genes to stimulate their transcription. Among the genes transcribed are the LDL receptor and HMG-CoA reductase. ...
The N terminus interacts with other cellular transcription factors in a ligand-independent manner; and, depending on these ... Not every ligand that binds to a receptor also activates that receptor. The following classes of ligands exist: *(Full) ... The main receptors in the immune system are pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), toll-like receptors (TLRs), killer activated ... Antagonists bind to receptors but do not activate them. This results in a receptor blockade, inhibiting the binding of agonists ...
... granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) - granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) - granulocytopenia ... transcription - transfusion - translation - transmission - transplacental - treatment IND - triglycerides - tuberculin skin ... lymphokine-activated killer cells (LAK) - lymphokines - lymphoma - lymphopenia - lymphoproliferative response - lysis ... host factors - HPTN - HPV - HRSA - HTLV-I - HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) - HTLV-II - ...
转录激活因子(英语:Activating transcription factor)(AATF(英语:Apoptosis-antagonizing transcription factor)、1、2、3、4、5、6、7) · AP-1(c-Fos、 ... sequence-specific enhancer binding RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity. · transcription factor binding. · zinc ion ... Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor)(I、II)、Ear-2(英语:V-erbA-related gene)、HNF4(英语:Hepatocyte nuclear factor ... GATA(英语:GATA transcription factor)(1、2、3、4、5、6) · MTA(1、2、3) · TRPS1(英语:Tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome Type 1) ...
RNA polymerase II transcription coactivator activity. • transcription factor binding. • activating transcription factor binding ... positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • cell aging. • positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor ... transcription coactivator activity. • protein kinase inhibitor activity. • histone binding. • Tat protein binding. • NF-kappaB ... regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • cellular response to UV. • ribosomal large subunit export from ...
"Ca2+ influx regulates BDNF transcription by a CREB family transcription factor-dependent mechanism". Neuron. 20 (4): 709-26. ... Once activated, Fyn can bind to NR2B through its SH2 domain and mediate phosphorylation of its Tyr-1472 site.[49] Similar ... BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ANON2, BULN2, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, brain derived neurotrophic factor. ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or abrineurin,[5] is a protein[6] that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.[7][8] ...
U3 is a sequence between PPT and R, which serves as a signal that the provirus can use in transcription. R is the terminal ... Some provirus remains latent in the cell for a long period of time before it is activated by the change in cell environment. ... "Cell-to-cell transmission of retroviruses: Innate immunity and interferon-induced restriction factors". Virology. 411 (2): 251 ... While transcription was classically thought to occur only from DNA to RNA, reverse transcriptase transcribes RNA into DNA. The ...
... which are transcription factors (or are factors which activate or localize transcription factors), is transferred through the ... body pattern along the longitudinal axis of the Drosophila embryo is established by a cascade of specific transcription factor ... The initial long-range positional information of the maternal factors, ... ISBN 978-1-4557-2794-0. after the head of the sperm enters the cytoplasm of the egg... the chromatin begins to spread out ...
One approach used by tumors to upregulate growth and survival is through autocrine production of growth and survival factors. ... In colorectal cancer, for example, mutations in APC, axin, or β-catenin promote β-catenin stabilization and transcription of ... In addition, drugs may be developed that activate autocrine signaling in cancer cells that would not otherwise occur. For ... For example, despite widespread expression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) and EGF family ligands in non-small- ...
Expression of a dominant negative form of Nrf2, a cap n collar basic leucine zipper transcription factor, in the cells blocks ... implicating Nrf2 as the key transcription factor in the induction. Mechanistic analysis reveals that Cr (VI) increases the ... These results provide the first evidence that Cr (VI) induces antioxidant gene HO-1 important in ROS defense by activating Nrf2 ... Here, we report that Cr (VI) induces antioxidant gene HO-1 at both mRNA and protein levels in hepa1c1c7 cells. ...
May belong to a complex that represses transcription and couples DNA methylation and histone H3 Lys-9 trimethylation (H3K9me3 ... Recruiter that couples transcriptional factors to general transcription apparatus and thereby modulates transcription ... Activating transcription factor 7-interacting protein 1Add BLAST. 815. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). ... sp,A0JME2,MCAF1_DANRE Activating transcription factor 7-interacting protein 1 OS=Danio rerio OX=7955 GN=atf7ip PE=1 SV=2 ...
... a transcription factor that is required for metal-induced transcription of Mt1, but does not requ ... a transcription factor that is required for metal-induced transcription of Mt1, but does not require Nrf2, a tBHQ-activated CNC ... Induction of metallothionein I by phenolic antioxidants requires metal-activated transcription factor 1 (MTF-1) and zinc.. ... These findings establish that phenolic antioxidants activate Mt1 transcription by a zinc-dependent mechanism that involves MTF- ...
Reverse transcription-PCR and subcloning of transcription factors and cdk3. The cdk3 (pBIND-cdk3) and transcription factor ( ... Activating transcription factor-1 can mediate Ca(2+)- and cAMP-inducible transcriptional activation. J Biol Chem 1993; 268: ... The activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1) is a member of a well-known transcription factor family, the cyclic AMP (cAMP) ... Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 3-Mediated Activating Transcription Factor 1 Phosphorylation Enhances Cell Transformation. Duo Zheng, ...
Whether all inflammatory agents activate nuclear transcription factors NF-kappaB and activated protein-1 (AP-1) through the ... Wortmannin inhibits activation of nuclear transcription factors NF-kappaB and activated protein-1 induced by lipopolysaccharide ... okadaic acid and tumor necrosis factor. Inhibition of NF-kappaB correlated with abrogation of the degradation of IkappaBalpha ... Manna SK1, Aggarwal BB.. Author information. 1. Cytokine Research Laboratory, Department of Bioimmunotherapy, The University of ...
... ... Depp increased the level of phosphorylated Erk and activated the Elk-1 transcription factor in human embryonal kidney 293 cells ... Hirohiko Watanabe 1 , Kohsuke Nonoguchi, Toshiharu Sakurai, Tomoko Masuda, Katsuhiko Itoh, Jun Fujita ...
... and diminished MMP-2 transcription and protein levels in hypoxic conditions as compared to control. Taken together, hYSK1 ... Moreover, the interaction between hYSK1 and p21WAF1/Cip1 led to the inhibition of SP-1 transcriptional activity, as revealed by ... functions by direct interaction and inhibits the p16INK4a expression and induces MMP-2 expression by its regulations of SP-1 ... a significant down-regulation of SP-1-mediated transactivation of p16INK4a promoter, and accelerated MMP-2 expression. ...
... kinase signaling cascade and p38-kinase dependent activation of nuclear transcription factor activating transcription factor ( ... activating transcription factor (ATF)-2. The activated ATF-2 translocated to the nucleus where it attached to its binding motif ... activating transcription factor. IBD. inflammatory bowel disease. MDCK. Madin-Darby canine kidney. MLCK. myosin L chain kinase ... Nuclear transcription factor ATF-2 is a member of the leucine zipper family of DNA-binding proteins and binds to the cAMP ...
Role of SAPK/ERK kinase-1 in the stress-activated pathway regulating transcription factor c-Jun. Sanchez I, Hughes RT, Mayer BJ ...
... activated MAPKs, in turn, phosphorylate target transcription factors, and are deactivated by phosphatases. One mechanism for ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades control gene expression patterns in response to extracellular stimuli. MAPK/ ... Docking sites on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinases, MAPK phosphatases and the Elk-1 transcription factor compete ... ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) kinases (MEKs) activate MAPKs by phosphorylating them; ...
... mediated transcription of beta-galactosidase in J.NFATZ.1 cells. ... Inhibition of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) ...
HO-1)) Or Xenobiotic Detoxification (e.g. NAD(P)H:quinone Oxidoreductase, Glutathione S-transferase) Functions Via The Stress- ... Activating Transcription Factor 3, Activating Transcription Factor 4, Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Breast, Cadmium Chloride, ... Identification of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) as an Nrf2-interacting protein. Implication for heme oxygenase-1 ... By using the yeast two-hybrid assay, we identified activating transcription factor (ATF) 4 as a potential Nrf2-interacting ...
Calcium activates serum response factor-dependent transcription by a Ras- and Elk-1-independent mechanism that involves a Ca2+/ ... Calcium activates serum response factor-dependent transcription by a Ras- and Elk-1-independent mechanism that involves a Ca2+/ ... Calcium activates serum response factor-dependent transcription by a Ras- and Elk-1-independent mechanism that involves a Ca2+/ ... Calcium activates serum response factor-dependent transcription by a Ras- and Elk-1-independent mechanism that involves a Ca2+/ ...
Antioxidants inhibit ANG II from activating nuclear factor of activated T cells-3 (NFAT3) transcription factor in ... Activation of several transcription factors, including the nuclear factor of activated T cells-3 (NFAT3), contributes in part ... Activation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells-3 (NFAT3) transcription factor has been shown to result from endocrine ... EMSA was used to verify the activation of NFAT3 transcription factor. The binding of NFAT3 transcription factor to its cis- ...
... a glandular trichome-specific transcription factor from tomato that activates the terpene synthase 5 promoter, Plant Molecular ... The transcription factor EMISSION OF BENZENOIDS II activates the MYB ODORANT1 promoter at a MYB binding site specific for ... a glandular trichome-specific transcription factor from tomato that activates the terpene synthase 5 promoter. Spyropoulou, ... a glandular trichome-specific transcription factor from tomato that activates the terpene synthase 5 promoter. Expression of ...
Numbering refers to nucleotide position relative to transcription start. (B) Cytoplasmic RNA was isolated after metal induction ... The Drosophila homolog of mammalian zinc finger factor MTF-1 activates transcription in response to heavy metals. ... and was transfected into S2 cells with or without a dMTF-1 expression vector. a to d indicate four MRE-like sequence motifs. ... were found by EMSA to bind relatively poorly to MTF-1 under our standard experimental conditions. (A) To evaluate their ...
... sensor activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Repaglinide blocked this interaction and enhanced ATF6 processing and nuclear ... the factors that disrupt homeostasis are not fully understood. Here, we determined that expression of downstream regulatory ... Western blot analysis of DREAM protein levels in striatum from R6/1 (. A. ) and R6/2 mice (. B. ) and corresponding WT ... Significant differences compared with WT were calculated using 1-way ANOVA (Kruskal-Wallis), followed by Dunnetts multiple ...
HCA RNA Cell Line for Activating transcription factor 7-interacting protein 1. ... Recruiter that couples transcriptional factors to general transcription apparatus and thereby modulates transcription ... The complex formed with MBD1 and SETDB1 represses transcription and couples DNA methylation and histone H3 Lys-9 ...
Activating transcription factor 2, also known as ATF2, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ATF2 gene. This gene ... "Entrez Gene: ATF2 activating transcription factor 2". Ozawa K, Sudo T, Soeda E, Yoshida MC, Ishii S (1991). "Assignment of the ... Activating transcription factor 2 has been shown to interact with C-jun, Casein kinase 2, alpha 1, CREB binding protein, ... "Phosphorylation of two eukaryotic transcription factors, Jun dimerization protein 2 and activation transcription factor 2, in ...
Activating transcription factor, ATF, is a group of bZIP transcription factors, which act as homodimers or heterodimers with a ... biology and nomenclature of the activating transcription factor/cAMP responsive element binding family of transcription factors ... Activating+Transcription+Factors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e. ... activating transcription factor proteins and homeostasis". Gene. 273 (1): 1-11. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(01)00551-0. ISSN 0378- ...
Activating transcription factor 5 is a transcription factor of the ATF/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) family. It ... Potential Role of Activating Transcription Factor 5 during Osteogenesis. Luisa Vicari,1 Giovanna Calabrese,1 Stefano Forte,1 ... Activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) is a member of the ATF/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) family, which ... Z. Sheng, L. Ma, J. E. Sun, L. J. Zhu, and M. R. Green, "An activating transcription factor 5-mediated survival pathway as a ...
Decreased immediate inflammatory gene induction in activating transcription factor-2 mutant mice * * REIMOLD Andreas M. ... Identification of the cyclin D1 gene as a target of activating transcription factor 2 in chondrocytes BEIER F. ... Association of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme hUBC9 Implication of the ... A specific member of the ATF transcription factor family can mediate transcription activation by the adenovirus E1a protein LIU ...
Activating Transcription Factor 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - ... ATF1 (Activating Transcription Factor 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ATF1 include Melanoma Of Soft ... transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. IEA,TAS. 2196176. GO:0003705. transcription factor activity, RNA ... Nuclear Events (kinase and transcription factor activation). Nuclear Events (kinase and transcription factor activation) ...
activating transcription factor. eIF2α. eukaryotic initiation factor 2α. ER. endoplasmic reticulum. HA. hemagglutinin. ID. ... biology and nomenclature of the activating transcription factor/cAMP responsive element binding family of transcription factors ... Mitosin/CENP-F as a negative regulator of activating transcription factor-4. J. Biol. Chem. 280: 13973-13977. ... Activating transcription factor 4. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 40: 14-21. ...
The transcription of viral genes in HPV-16 is partially controlled by a number of cellular transcription factors. We have ... This factor has a molecular mass of about 110 kDa and binds to a GC-rich sequence in the section of the LCR responsible for ... The factor Sp1 has similar properties and also interacts with the HPV-16 LCR. We show that PEF-1 and Sp1 are distinct ... previously identified a novel cellular transcription factor, PEF-1, from its ability to interact with the long control region ( ...
Nerve growth factor activates Thy-1 and neurofilament gene transcription in rat PC12 cells. / Dickson, G; Prentice, H; Julien, ... Home , Biological Sciences home , Research , Profile , Publications , Nerve growth factor activates Thy-1 and neurofilament ... The effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) on the expression of neurofilament and Thy-1 genes in rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cells ... and the Thy-1 glycoprotein within 24 h, with maximal effects of some 90- and 45-fold stimulation (relative to beta-actin mRNA) ...
Anthocyanin-activating R2R3 MYB transcription factorImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database ... tr,W8EB73,W8EB73_ERYLE Anthocyanin-activating R2R3 MYB transcription factor OS=Erythranthe lewisii OX=69919 GN=NEGAN PE=4 SV=1 ... Transcription factor, Myb superfamily. Handroanthus impetiginosus. 249. Anthocyanin-activating R2R3 MYB transcription factor. ... 1 - 61. HTH myb-typeInterPro annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic annotation system, ...
... an Nrf2 activating agent, and a food according to the present invention comprise isohumulones or isomerized hop extract as an ... Agents for Activating the Transcription Factor Nrf2 and Foods Having Such Function ... A transcription factor Nrf2 activating agent, comprising isohumulones or isomerized hop extract as an active ingredient. 16. ... A method of activating the transcription factor Nrf2, comprising the step of administering an effective amount of isohumulones ...
ACE1, a copper-dependent transcription factor, activates expression of the yeast copper, zinc superoxide dismutase gene. E B ... ACE1, a copper-dependent transcription factor, activates expression of the yeast copper, zinc superoxide dismutase gene ... ACE1, a copper-dependent transcription factor, activates expression of the yeast copper, zinc superoxide dismutase gene ... ACE1, a copper-dependent transcription factor, activates expression of the yeast copper, zinc superoxide dismutase gene ...
A Basal Transcription Factor That Activates or Represses Transcription Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... A Basal Transcription Factor That Activates or Represses Transcription. By Patricia J. Willy, Ryuji Kobayashi, James T. ... A Basal Transcription Factor That Activates or Represses Transcription. By Patricia J. Willy, Ryuji Kobayashi, James T. ... is a bifunctional basal transcription factor that differentially regulates gene transcription through DPE or TATA box motifs. ...
  • Furthermore, we found that cdk3 phosphorylates activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1) at serine 63 and enhances the transactivation and transcriptional activities of ATF1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Importantly, we showed that cdk3 enhances epidermal growth factor-induced transformation of JB6 Cl41 cells and si-cdk3 suppresses Ras G12V /cdk3/ATF1-induced foci formation in NIH3T3 cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • ATF1 is a cyclic-AMPdependent transcription factor. (creativebiomart.net)
  • MSK1 and MSK2 protein kinasesare required for the stress-induced phosphorylation of transcription factorsCREB and ATF1 in primary embryonic fibroblasts. (creativebiomart.net)
  • ATF1 (Activating Transcription Factor 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • The ability of activating transcription factor-1 (ATF1) or the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) to enhance transcription can be stimulated by increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. (scripps.edu)
  • To identify protein kinases which may mediate the ability of Ca2+ to activate these transcription factors, we compared the ability of constitutively active forms of several Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaM kinases) to activate ATF1 or CREB. (scripps.edu)
  • We find that constitutively active CaM kinase I and IV can activate both ATF1 and CREB. (scripps.edu)
  • In addition, expression vectors for full-length CaM kinase I and IV were able to augment the ability of Ca2+ influx to activate ATF1 or CREB consistent with a role for these kinases in mediating transcriptional responses to Ca2+ signaling. (scripps.edu)
  • In contrast, CaM kinase II was unable to activate either ATF1 or CREB. (scripps.edu)
  • Transcriptional responses to increased cAMP occur through activation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), cAMP response element modulator (CREM), and activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1) ( 9 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • ATF1 encodes a member of the CREB/ATF basic leucine-zipper type transcription factor family and binds to cAMP inducible promotors. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) belongs to the ATF/cyclic AMP responsive element binding family of transcription factors and is often described as an adaptive response gene whose activity is usually regulated by stressful stimuli. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although expressed in a number of splice variants and generally recognized as a transcriptional repressor, ATF3 has the ability to interact with a number of other transcription factors including c-Jun to form complexes which not only repress, but can also activate various genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), also known as LRF-1, LRG-21, CRG-5, and TI-241, is also upregulated in most of the neurons (Figure 1 ) as well as in Schwann cells that express c-Jun. (frontiersin.org)
  • Kang Y, Chen CR, Massague J. A self-enabling TGFβ response coupled to stress signaling: Smad engages stress response factor ATF3 for Id1 repression in epithelial cells. (springer.com)
  • Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) represses the expression of CCL4 in murine macrophages. (springer.com)
  • Immunoblot assays of activating transcription factor (ATF) 3 immunoprecipitates with tyrosine specific antibodies revealed that IL-10 stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of ATF3 to activate binding to the CREB domain and suppress MMP-2 expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • ATF3-stabilized p53 was functional as evidenced by its ability to trans-activate p53 downstream targets including MDM2, p21, PIG3 and PUMA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • d) INS832/13 cells were treated with glucose or palmitate (0.4 mM coupled with 0.5% BSA) as indicated, and ATF3 mRNA was assayed by real-time PCR at 1 h after induction. (asm.org)
  • Inhibition of the NF-κB or JNK/SAPK pathway reduces the induction of ATF3 by IL-1β. (asm.org)
  • d) Primary islets from wild-type (WT) or ATF3 knockout (KO) mice were treated with IL-1β-IFN-γ at the concentrations detailed in the Materials and Methods for the indicated periods and assayed by immunoblot for ATF3 or actin. (asm.org)
  • MRBE treatment to SW480 cells activated ATF3 expression and down-regulated cyclin D1 level. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a member of the ATF/CREB subfamily of the basic-region leucine zipper (bZIP) family. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Docking sites on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinases, MAPK phosphatases and the Elk-1 transcription factor compete for MAPK binding and. (nih.gov)
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades control gene expression patterns in response to extracellular stimuli. (nih.gov)
  • Selective interaction of JNK protein kinase isoforms with transcription factors. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This protein is phosphorylated at serine 63 in its kinase-inducible domain by serine/threonine kinases, cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I/II, mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase and cyclin-dependent kinase 3 (cdk-3). (genecards.org)
  • The secreted IFNs bind to receptors, activate the JAK-STAT pathway, and ultimately induce expression of hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), including dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), RNase L, a subset of TLRs (TLR3, TLR7) and RLRs (RIG-I), and IRF7 ( 16 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • cAMP has three direct intracellular targets: protein kinase A (PKA), the exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac), and cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels (CNGCs). (sciencemag.org)
  • However, induction of these responses by β-CDODA-Me was PPARγ-independent and due to activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and jun N-terminal kinase pathways by this compound. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Therefore, MAP kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), a dual-specificity protein tyrosine phosphatase that exhibits catalytic activity toward both regulatory sites on MAP kinases, is suggested to be responsible for the downregulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK), and p38 MAP kinase. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 2 Binding of extracellular stimuli to their cell membrane receptors induces a sequence of protein kinase reaction, leading to phosphorylation and activation of MEK (MAP kinase/ERK kinase). (ahajournals.org)
  • In contrast to ERK, more recently described MAP kinases such as stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK), also referred to as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 MAP kinase are suggested to inhibit cellular proliferation and to induce apoptosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • The p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signalling pathway allows cells to interpret a wide range of external signals and respond appropriately by generating a plethora of different biological effects. (biochemj.org)
  • Chemotactic peptide N-formyl-met-leu-phe activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 in human neutrophils. (wikipathways.org)
  • pp90RSK- and protein kinase C-dependent pathway regulates p42/44MAPK-induced LDL receptor transcription in HepG2 cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • Involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in the rapid induction of the 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein in 9L rat brain tumor cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • Arachidonic acid activates mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-activated protein kinase 2 and mediates adhesion of a human breast carcinoma cell line to collagen type IV through a p38 MAP kinase-dependent pathway. (wikipathways.org)
  • Identification of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) as an Nrf2-interacting protein. (thebiogrid.org)
  • Furthermore, Nrf2.ATF4 dimers bound to an StRE sequence from the ho-1 gene. (thebiogrid.org)
  • CdCl(2), a potent inducer of HO-1, increased expression of ATF4 in mouse hepatoma cells, and detectable induction of ATF4 protein preceded that of HO-1 (30 min versus 2 h). (thebiogrid.org)
  • These results indicate that ATF4 regulates basal and CdCl(2)-induced expression of the ho-1 gene in a cell-specific manner and possibly in a complex with Nrf2. (thebiogrid.org)
  • ATF4 belongs to the ATF/CREB family of basic region/leucine zipper transcription factors. (jimmunol.org)
  • Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) plays important physiologic roles in the brain including regulation of learning and memory as well as neuronal survival and death. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we show that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes a rapid and sustained increase in neuronal ATF4 transcripts and protein levels. (frontiersin.org)
  • Transcriptome analysis revealed that ATF4 mediates BDNF-promoted induction of Sesn2 which encodes Sestrin2, a protector against oxidative and genotoxic stresses and a mTor complex 1 inhibitor. (frontiersin.org)
  • The capacity of BDNF to elevate neuronal ATF4 may thus represent a means to maintain this transcription factor at levels that provide neuroprotection and optimal brain function without risk of triggering neurodegeneration. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the nervous system, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity and memory formation. (nature.com)
  • ATF4 regulates transcription by forming dimers with partners via its basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain 2 . (nature.com)
  • Homo sapiens activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), transcript variant 1, mRNA. (ucsc.edu)
  • The activation of p38 kinase caused phosphorylation and activation of p38 kinase substrate, activating transcription factor (ATF)-2. (jimmunol.org)
  • In the present study, we show that peptides corresponding to the MAPK-docking sites of MEK1, MEK2, Ste7, Elk-1 and MAPK phosphatase (MKP)-2 potently inhibit MEK2 phosphorylation of ERK2, ERK2 phosphorylation of Elk-1, and MKP-1 dephosphorylation of ERK2. (nih.gov)
  • Recognition of viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as viral RNAs or DNAs by the pathogen recognition receptors triggers signaling cascades, ultimately leading to the activation of IRF3 and IRF7 that involves phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation of the two factors. (jimmunol.org)
  • Although phosphorylation of eIF2α results in global translational suppression, it specifically increases translation of activating transcription factor (ATF)4 through ribosomal leaky scanning of the mini open reading frames (ORFs) in the 5′-untranslated region (UTR) of the mRNA ( 19 , 22 , 23 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Phosphorylation of Elk-1 increases the likelihood of ternary complex formation and binding with the serum response factor and the serum response element in the c-fos promoter. (activemotif.com)
  • In general, MAP kinases are activated by phosphorylation on tyrosine and threonine residues and inactivated by dephosphorylation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Among eukaryotic cells, phosphorylation of intracellular factors followed by specific gene transcription is a universal outcome of such signal transduction pathways, and the major elements of such pathways are similar in species as different as humans, fungi, and plants. (bmj.com)
  • Indeed, disruption of crosstalk activated and saturated the adaptation arm of UPR signaling, including eIF2α phosphorylation, activating transcription factor 4 expression, and X-box-binding protein 1 splicing. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Transcriptional activation of egr-1 by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor but not interleukin 3 requires phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) on serine 133. (wikipathways.org)
  • Phosphorylation of hippocampal Erk-1/2, Elk-1, and p90-Rsk-1 during contextual fear conditioning: interactions between Erk-1/2 and Elk-1. (wikipathways.org)
  • Recruiter that couples transcriptional factors to general transcription apparatus and thereby modulates transcription regulation and chromatin formation. (uniprot.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk)-3, a member of the cdk family of kinases, plays a critical role in cell cycle regulation and is involved in G 0 -G 1 and G 1 -S cell cycle transitions. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, the interaction between hYSK1 and p21 WAF1/Cip1 led to the inhibition of SP-1 transcriptional activity, as revealed by a significant down-regulation of SP-1-mediated transactivation of p16 INK4a promoter, and accelerated MMP-2 expression. (mdpi.com)
  • In conclusion, these studies show that the IL-1β-induced increase in intestinal TJ permeability in vitro and in vivo was regulated by p38 kinase activation of ATF-2 and by ATF-2 regulation of MLCK gene activity. (jimmunol.org)
  • Implication for heme oxygenase-1 gene regulation. (thebiogrid.org)
  • Receptors coupled to a different G protein, G i , cause down-regulation of adenylyl cyclase activity and consequent lowering of cAMP concentrations ( Fig. 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Thioredoxin (TRX) is a cytoplasmic, redox-sensitive signaling factor believed to participate in the regulation of nuclear transcription factors mediating cellular responses to environmental stress. (wustl.edu)
  • These experiments suggest that a redox-sensitive signaling pathway leading from TRX to Ref-1 to the AP-1 complex participates in the up-regulation of DNA binding activity in response to ionizing radiation. (wustl.edu)
  • Gene reporter assays, RT-PCR and invasion assays were performed to assess the role of PKC in the regulation of activator protein-1 (AP-1), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and the invasion of H pylori -infected epithelial cells. (bmj.com)
  • The E2F transcription factors are primarily implicated in the regulation of entry and exit from the cell cycle. (mit.edu)
  • Sequestration of a transcription factor in a cellular membrane and releasing it on demand is an additional layer of gene regulation that is considered a rapid mode to reprogram a gene expression casca. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Die Zuckerkrankheit (Diabetes mellitus Typ 1) beruht auf einer hormonellen Storung der Regulation des Blutzuckerspiegels. (amazonaws.com)
  • 5. Dioxin response elements and regulation of gene transcription ( Hollie Swanson ). (wiley.com)
  • 10. The E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of transcription factor AHR permits non-genomic regulation of biological pathways ( Fumiaki Ohtake and Shigeaki Kato ). (wiley.com)
  • This is the first evidence for a dual regulation of calcium oscillation by physiological factors and for the control of calcium dynamics actually being used in physiological processes. (jneurosci.org)
  • Elk-1 , member of ETS oncogene family , is a transcription factor that is activated by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and whose main function is the regulation of growth-related proteins in response to extracellular stimuli. (activemotif.com)
  • Induction depends upon the presence of MTF-1, a transcription factor that is required for metal-induced transcription of Mt1, but does not require Nrf2, a tBHQ-activated CNC bZip protein that is responsible for regulating genes encoding phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes. (cdc.gov)
  • Nrf2 regulates expression of genes encoding enzymes with antioxidant (e.g. heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)) or xenobiotic detoxification (e.g. (thebiogrid.org)
  • The NFAT3 binding site in the promoters of most genes contains a weak activator protein-1 (AP-1) binding site adjacent to the core consensus NFAT binding sequence. (physiology.org)
  • SlEOT1 is a member of a conserved family of TFs that includes the Arabidopsis Stylish 1 (AtSTY1) and Short Internode (AtSHI) genes. (deepdyve.com)
  • The transcription of viral genes in HPV-16 is partially controlled by a number of cellular transcription factors. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) on the expression of neurofilament and Thy-1 genes in rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cells was examined at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. (royalholloway.ac.uk)
  • It is activated by PROTEASES and then moves to the CELL NUCLEUS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in the unfolded protein response. (harvard.edu)
  • As a consequence, target genes including p21, PIG3 or PUMA are transcriptionally activated, leading to cell growth arrest or programmed cell death. (aacrjournals.org)
  • MvfR is a gene which produces a transcription factor which activates phnAB genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These genes produce the molecule quinolone which then regulates operons 1 and 2 of phzRABCDEFG which are key to the synthesis of phenazine. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are transcription factors capable of activating or disabling comprehensive genetic programs with many target genes. (eurekalert.org)
  • The protein interacts with host cell factor C1, which also associates with the herpes simplex virus (HSV) protein VP16 that induces transcription of HSV immediate-early genes. (abcam.com)
  • Chromium (VI) induces antioxidant gene HO-1 by activating the CNC BZIP transcription factor NRF2. (cdc.gov)
  • Expression of a dominant negative form of Nrf2, a cap 'n' collar basic leucine zipper transcription factor, in the cells blocks the induction by Cr (VI), implicating Nrf2 as the key transcription factor in the induction. (cdc.gov)
  • These results provide the first evidence that Cr (VI) induces antioxidant gene HO-1 important in ROS defense by activating Nrf2. (cdc.gov)
  • By using the yeast two-hybrid assay, we identified activating transcription factor (ATF) 4 as a potential Nrf2-interacting protein. (thebiogrid.org)
  • A composition, an Nrf2 activating agent, and a food according to the present invention comprise isohumulones or isomerized hop extract as an active ingredient. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • They are useful in treating, preventing, or ameliorating a disease of condition which is treatable, preventable, or ameliorable by the activation of transcription factor Nrf2. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 1. A composition for use in the treatment, prevention or amelioration of a disease or condition which is treatable, preventable, or ameliorable by activation of transcription factor Nrf2 (NF-E2 related factor 2), comprising isohumulones or isomerized hop extract as an active ingredient. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 2. The composition according to claim 1, wherein the disease or condition which is treatable, preventable, or ameliorable by the activation of transcription factor Nrf2 is oxidative stress, detoxification of xenobiotic substances, chronic inflammation, or a disease or condition related thereto. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 15. A transcription factor Nrf2 activating agent, comprising isohumulones or isomerized hop extract as an active ingredient. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 8. Influence of HIF-1α and Nrf2 signaling on AHR-mediated gene expression, toxicity and biological functions ( Thomas Haarmann-Stemmann and Josef Abel ). (wiley.com)
  • Wortmannin blocked NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation by lipopolysaccharide and phorbol ester but had minimal effect on activation by hydrogen peroxide, ceramide, okadaic acid and tumor necrosis factor. (nih.gov)
  • These observations suggest that menin's tumor suppressor function involves direct binding to JunD and inhibition of JunD activated transcription. (nih.gov)
  • The MMP selective proteolytic activity implicates MMPs in pathologic processes such as tumor invasion and angiogenesis ( 1 , 4 , 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, MMPs are also involved in controlling the availability of active forms of cytokines and growth factors-pro-tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, insulin-like growth factor binding proteins, and FasL can be cleaved by MMPs ( 6 -9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Findings also showed that menin's tumor suppressor function correlates with a direct binding to JunD and inhibition of JunD activated transcription. (readabstracts.com)
  • A study shows that JunD, a member of the AP-1 family of transcription factors, reduces tumor angiogenesis by limiting Ras-mediated production of ROS (reactive oxygen species). (readabstracts.com)
  • The retinoblastoma gene, RB-1, was the first identified tumor suppressor. (mit.edu)
  • However, the overexpression of SERCA2a induced the further nuclear translocation of NF‑κB p65 and higher levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α transcripts in the NRCMs, indicating the occurrence of the ER overload response (EOR). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The induction of STAT1 gene by activating transcription factor 3 contributes to pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis and its dysfunction in streptozotocin-treated mice. (springer.com)
  • The results of electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed that overexpression of SERCA2a attenuated the upregulation of nuclear factor (NF)‑κB and activator protein‑1 (AP‑1) DNA‑binding activities induced by TM or H/R. Western blot analysis and semi‑quantitative RT‑PCR revealed that the overexpression of SERCA2a attenuated the activation of the inositol‑requiring 1α (IRE1α) signaling pathway and ERS‑associated apoptosis induced by TM. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Silymarin inhibits growth and causes regression of established skin tumors in SENCAR mice via modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and induction of apoptosis. (wikipathways.org)
  • In concert with DDIT3/CHOP, activates the transcription of TRIB3 and promotes ER stress-induced neuronal apoptosis by regulating the transcriptional induction of BBC3/PUMA. (ucsc.edu)
  • We expressed human and Caenorhabditis elegans AMPylation enzymes-huntingtin yeast-interacting protein E (HYPE) and filamentation-induced by cyclic AMP (FIC)-1, respectively-in Saccharomyces cerevisiae , a eukaryote that lacks endogenous protein AMPylation. (pnas.org)
  • Wortmannin inhibits activation of nuclear transcription factors NF-kappaB and activated protein-1 induced by lipopolysaccharide and phorbol ester. (nih.gov)
  • Whether all inflammatory agents activate nuclear transcription factors NF-kappaB and activated protein-1 (AP-1) through the same mechanism is not known. (nih.gov)
  • Activation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells-3 (NFAT3) transcription factor has been shown to result from endocrine inducers of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy such as angiotensin II (ANG II) and serves as an important molecular regulator of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. (physiology.org)
  • Activation of several transcription factors, including the nuclear factor of activated T cells-3 (NFAT3), contributes in part to the changes in gene expression associated with hypertrophy ( 28 , 29 ). (physiology.org)
  • Zinc and cadmium can promote rapid nuclear translocation of metal response element-binding transcription factor-1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Activation of the activator protein (AP)-1 transcription factor is thought to be mediated in part by redox-sensitive interactions between the nuclear signaling protein redox factor-1 (Ref-1) and TRX. (wustl.edu)
  • After exposure to IR, nuclear levels of immunoreactive TRX increased, accompanied by an increase in AP-1 DNA binding activity. (wustl.edu)
  • Furthermore, TRX immunoprecipitated from irradiated cells was capable of activating AP-1 DNA binding activity in nonirradiated nuclear extracts. (wustl.edu)
  • In addition, immunodepletion of Ref-1 from nuclear extracts demonstrated that the increase in AP-1 DNA binding activity after IR was also dependent upon the presence of Ref-1 from irradiated cells. (wustl.edu)
  • Finally, the ability of both TRX and Ref-1 from irradiated cells to stimulate AP-1 DNA binding in nonirradiated nuclear extracts was abolished by chemical oxidation and restored by chemical reduction. (wustl.edu)
  • NF-κB DNA binding activity in the nuclear extract was assayed by EMSA at 15 min after treatment or at the indicated time points (c). (d) INS832/13 cells were treated with IL-1β for 30 min, and JNK/SAPK was assayed by immunoprecipitation coupled with kinase (IP-kinase) assay using glutathione S -transferase-Jun as the substrate in the absence or presence of the indicated inhibitors. (asm.org)
  • i) NF-κB DNA binding activity in the nuclear extract was assayed by EMSA as described in panel c except JNKI-1 was used as the inhibitor. (asm.org)
  • When nuclear or whole-cell extract is added, activated transcription factor of interest binds the oligonucleotide at its consensus binding site and is quantified using the included antibody, which is specific for the bound, active form of the transcription factor being studied. (activemotif.com)
  • Elk-1 is also a nuclear target for the ras-raf-MAPK signaling cascade. (activemotif.com)
  • Different amounts of nuclear extracts from untreated U-937, untreated HeLa and HeLa (TPA, 10 min) cells are tested for Elk-1 activity using the TransAM Elk-1 Kit. (activemotif.com)
  • Activated nuclear extract is added to each well and the transcription factor of interest binds specifically to this bound oligonucleotide. (activemotif.com)
  • On the one hand, it attenuates ERS and the activation of the IRE1α signaling pathway induced by TM, resulting in the attenuation of the upregulation of NF‑κB and AP‑1 DNA‑binding activities in the nucleus, and on the other hand, it induces EOR, leading to the further nuclear translocation of NF‑κB and the transcription of TNF‑α. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Inhibition of the proteasome can also stabilize nuclear SREBP-1 and increase FASN expression ( 22 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Novel nuclear target for thrombin: activation of the Elk1 transcription factor leads to chemokine gene expression. (wikipathways.org)
  • Prolonged nuclear retention of activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 is required for hepatocyte growth factor-induced cell motility. (wikipathways.org)
  • Human zinc-fingers and homeoboxes (ZHX) 1, a transcriptional repressor, was originally cloned as an interacting protein with the activation domain of the A subunit of nuclear factor-Y (NF-YA). (biochemj.org)
  • Nuclear proteins such as ZHX1, transcriptional co-factors and DNA-binding proteins, zyxin, androgen-induced aldose reductase and eleven-nineteen lysine-rich leukaemia gene, as well as some unknown proteins, were cloned. (biochemj.org)
  • H pylori -induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression in stomach epithelium involves mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). (bmj.com)
  • Elk-1 can be stimulated by the ERK1/2, JNK and p38 MAPK pathways to regulate the activity of the c-fos proto-oncogene in response to extracellular stimuli. (activemotif.com)
  • Activating transcription factor 2, also known as ATF2, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the ATF2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we report that Cr (VI) induces antioxidant gene HO-1 at both mRNA and protein levels in hepa1c1c7 cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Small interfering RNA induced silencing of ATF-2, or mutation of the ATF-2 binding motif prevented the activation of MLCK promoter and MLCK mRNA transcription. (jimmunol.org)
  • Addition of NGF to cultured PC12 cells produced increases in mRNAs corresponding to the 68 kd neurofilament protein (NF68) and the Thy-1 glycoprotein within 24 h, with maximal effects of some 90- and 45-fold stimulation (relative to beta-actin mRNA) being observed after 12 and 4 days of treatment, respectively. (royalholloway.ac.uk)
  • Although the mechanisms regulating MMP-2 and MMP-9 gene expression are poorly understood, studies have indicated that MMP-2 activity is regulated by gene transcription, mRNA stability, proenzyme activation, and direct inhibition of enzyme activity ( 4 , 9 , 17 , 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We, therefore, assessed, in this study, the effects of PPARα deficiency on the expression of mRNA encoding for the insulin gene transcription factors in pancreatic β-cells along with those implicated in inflammation in adipose tissues. (ebscohost.com)
  • Serum insulin concentrations and its pancreatic mRNA transcripts were downregulated in PPARα-null mice, suggesting that PPARα gene deletion contributes to low insulin gene transcription. (ebscohost.com)
  • The PPARα gene deletion downregulates the mRNA expression of insulin gene transcription factors, i.e. (ebscohost.com)
  • PPARα gene deletion downregulates the adipocyte mRNA of certain pro-inflammatory agents, like MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and RANTES, though pro-inflammatory TLR-2 and TLR-4 mRNAs were upregulated in the adipose tissues. (ebscohost.com)
  • For real-time PCR, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA was used as an internal control, and the level from untreated cells was defined as 1. (asm.org)
  • β-CDODA-Me repressed AR mRNA transcription, whereas decreased PSA mRNA levels were dependent on protein synthesis and were reversed by cycloheximide. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Extracellular stimuli such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), and angiotensin II, which activated ERK but not SAPK/p38 MAP kinase, induced a transient induction of MKP-1 mRNA and its intracellular protein. (ahajournals.org)
  • Furthermore, anisomycin, a potent stimulus of SAPK and p38 MAP kinase, also induced MKP-1 mRNA expression. (ahajournals.org)
  • We found that IFN regulatory factor (IRF)7, the master regulator of type I IFN gene expression, interacts with activating transcription factor (ATF)4, a key component of the integrated stress responses whose translation is induced by viral infection and various stresses. (jimmunol.org)
  • The factor Sp1 has similar properties and also interacts with the HPV-16 LCR. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The metabotropic GABAB receptor directly interacts with the activating transcription factor 4. (semanticscholar.org)
  • First, they have been described as members of the CREB/ATF family, whereas it turned out later that some of them might be more similar to AP-1-like factors such as c-Jun or c-Fos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activating transcription factor 5 is a transcription factor of the ATF/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) family. (hindawi.com)
  • Activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) is a member of the ATF/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) family, which includes a large group of basic leucine zipper (bZIP) proteins with different transcriptional regulatory functions [ 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Hai T, Hartman MG. The molecular biology and nomenclature of the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors: ATF proteins and homeostasis. (springer.com)
  • The cAMP-induced activation of human CYP11A1 has been suggested to depend on the transcription factor cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB), but the CREB action cannot explain the chronic cAMP effect on CYP11A1 activation. (elsevier.com)
  • The EMSA assays showed that the binding activities of U with SF-1 as well as C1 or C2 with activating protein-1 (AP-1)/CREB-like proteins are induced by cAMP. (elsevier.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to a family of DNA-binding proteins that includes the AP-1 family of transcription factors, cAMP-response element binding proteins (CREBs) and CREB-like proteins. (ucsc.edu)
  • Moreover, tBHQ induces the expression of MRE-bGeo, a reporter gene driven by five metal regulator elements (MREs) that constitute an optimal MTF-1 binding site. (cdc.gov)
  • Depp increased the level of phosphorylated Erk and activated the Elk-1 transcription factor in human embryonal kidney 293 cells, suggesting that Depp modulates the effects of progesterone during decidualization and in the decidua by affecting gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • Conversely, the knock-down of hYSK1 enhanced the p16 INK4a promoter activity and protein expression, and diminished MMP-2 transcription and protein levels in hypoxic conditions as compared to control. (mdpi.com)
  • Taken together, hYSK1 blocks the p21 WAF1/Cip1 functions by direct interaction and inhibits the p16 INK4a expression and induces MMP-2 expression by its regulations of SP-1 transcriptional activity under the hypoxia conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • Yeast-one-hybrid screens with this fragment identified a glandular trichome-specific transcription factor, designated Expression of Terpenoids 1 (SlEOT1). (deepdyve.com)
  • Expression and characterization of SUMO-conjugated metal-responsive transcription factor 1: SIM-dependent cross-interaction and distinct DNA binding activity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A) To evaluate their potential, a minipromoter was assembled into a OVEC reporter construct as shown (for details, see Materials and Methods) and was transfected into S2 cells with or without a dMTF-1 expression vector. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Our data indicate that activating transcription factor 5 is differentially expressed reaching a peak of expression at the stage of bone mineralization. (hindawi.com)
  • Of the transcription factors that regulate these changes in gene expression, the function of c-Jun is the best understood. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ho HH, Antoniv TT, Ji JD, Ivashkiv LB. Lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinases in human monocytes is suppressed by IFN-gamma via superinduction of ATF-3 and suppression of AP-1. (springer.com)
  • Our results demonstrate that IL-10 significantly inhibited MMP-2 transcription and protein expression induced by a phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. (aacrjournals.org)
  • They reveal that organ-specific expression of vascular endothelial growth factor is sufficient to mobilize the recruit hematopoietic cells from the bone marrow to the blood, but retention of the proangiogenic subpopulation of hematopoietic cells in peripheral organs requires an additional factor, stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF-1). (readabstracts.com)
  • inhibition of PKC diminished AP-1 induction and, subsequently, MMP-1 expression. (bmj.com)
  • This study, for the first time, demonstrates that the TK target c-MYC plays a role in transcriptional activation and subsequent expression of LIG3 and PARP1 and contributes to the increased error-prone repair observed in TK-activated leukemias. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus, BCR-ABL1 or FLT3/ITD induces c-MYC expression, leading to genomic instability via augmented expression of ALT-NHEJ repair factors that generate repair errors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • β-CDODA-Me induced p21 and p27, down-regulated cyclin D1 protein expression, and induced two other proapoptotic proteins, namely nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene-1 and activating transcription factor-3. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In HD mouse models (R6/1 and R6/2), DREAM expression was reduced in the striatum and other brain regions, an effect that could be observed prior to or at the commencement of disease symptoms. (jci.org)
  • The transcription factor MTF-1 is essential for basal and heavy metal-induced metallothionein gene expression. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Activation of metallothionein gene expression by hypoxia involves metal response elements and metal transcription factor-1. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The internal reference markers with stable expression in early PMI were screened using geNorm software and the relationship between its expression level and some relevant factors such as age, gender and cause of death were analyzed. (bireme.br)
  • Hepatic oval cells can be redirected to the beta-cell linage by an appropriate combination of high extracellular glucose, specific extracellular matrix proteins (laminin and fibronectin), cytokines (activin A), and the expression of several differentiation-related transcription factors (Pdx-1, Ngn-3, MafA). (bioscience.org)
  • Subsequent studies determined that high glucose, the protein composition of the extracellular matrix, specific cytokines, and the expression of differentiation-related transcription factors influenced transdifferentiation. (bioscience.org)
  • In addition, PD 098059, an antagonist of MEK (MAP kinase/ERK kinase), the upstream kinase of ERK, significantly reduced the PDGF-induced activation of ERK and potently inhibited the expression of MKP-1 after stimulation with PDGF, thereby demonstrating the induction of MKP-1 in response to activation of the ERK signaling cascade. (ahajournals.org)
  • 15 16 Furthermore, the kinetics of gene expression and the cellular localization are consistent with a role for MKP-1 in the compensatory inactivation of stimulated MAP kinase-signaling pathways. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cell adhesion, mechanical stress and membrane receptor signalling activate RHO, which signals through effectors to promote changes in cell adhesion and contractility, gene expression, cell division and proliferation, and other effects. (nature.com)
  • G protein-coupled receptors regulate gene expression by cellular signaling cascades that target transcription factors and their recognition by specific DNA sequences. (semanticscholar.org)
  • cAMP response element-binding protein, activating transcription factor-4, and upstream stimulatory factor differentially control hippocampal GABABR1a and GABABR1b subunit gene expression through alternative promoters. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Expression of HYPE and FIC-1 in yeast induced a strong cytoplasmic Hsf1-mediated heat shock response, accompanied by attenuation of protein translation, massive protein aggregation, growth arrest, and lethality. (pnas.org)
  • Abstract -Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades are major signaling systems by which cells transduce extracellular cues into intracellular responses. (ahajournals.org)
  • Inhibition of NF-kappaB correlated with abrogation of the degradation of IkappaBalpha and of NF-kappaB-dependent reporter gene transcription. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibition of endogenous MTF-1 signaling in zebrafish embryos identifies novel roles for MTF-1 in development. (semanticscholar.org)
  • For example, the PKR phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), leading to global translation suppression and thus inhibition of viral replication ( 17 , 18 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Sp1 is O-glycosylated while PEF-1 appears to have a novel type of glycosylation, as shown by the interaction with pokeweed lectin and by the inhibition of this interaction by tunicamycin. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Thus, potent inhibition of LNCaP cell survival by β-CDODA-Me is due to PPARγ-independent activation of multiple pathways that selectively activate growth-inhibitory and proapoptotic responses. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Together, these results suggest that derepression of ATF6-dependent transcription, through DREAM downregulation or pharmacological inhibition, may be neuroprotective in HD. (jci.org)
  • Contains 1 bZIP (basic-leucine zipper) domain. (ucsc.edu)
  • Induction of metallothionein I by phenolic antioxidants requires metal-activated transcription factor 1 (MTF-1) and zinc. (cdc.gov)
  • however, reconstitution with only the DNA-binding domain of MTF-1 fused to VP16 activation domain allows in induction by zinc but not by tBHQ. (cdc.gov)
  • The cAMP induction on the U-CRS activity was mimicked and enhanced by the overexpressed c-Jun in the presence of SF-1, but was abolished by the overexpression of an AP-1 dominant-negative mutant, FosB2. (elsevier.com)
  • To clarify the transcription induction mechanism that operates in the brain in response to methylmercury exposure, we used a protein/DNA binding assay to identify transcription factors activated in the cerebella of mice administered methylmercury. (go.jp)
  • 15. Dioxin-activated AHR: toxic responses and the induction of oxidative stress ( Sidney J. Stohs and Ezdihar A. Hassoun ). (wiley.com)
  • In the present study, we examined the role of these MAP kinases in the induction of MKP-1 in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). (ahajournals.org)
  • These data suggest the induction of MKP-1, not only after stimulation of the cell growth-promoting ERK pathway but also in response to activation of stress-responsive MAP kinase signaling cascades. (ahajournals.org)
  • We suggest that this pattern of MKP-1 induction may be a negative feedback mechanism in the control of MAP kinase activity in VSMCs. (ahajournals.org)
  • these include cardioprotection and neuroprotection from prolonged ischemia, bronchoconstriction, mast cell and eosinophil activation, and induction of hypotension ( 1-3 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • ATF5 gene generates two transcripts, ATF5 isoform 1 (activating transcription factor 5, transcript variant 1: NM_012068.5) and ATF5 isoform 2 (activating transcription factor 5, transcript variant 2: NM_001193646.1). (hindawi.com)
  • Addgene: Role of SAPK/ERK kinase-1 in the stress-activated pathway regulating transcription factor c-Jun. (addgene.org)
  • Enhanced levels of cytoplasmic Ca2+ were found to trigger SRE-dependent transcription via a Ras-independent signaling pathway that appears to involve a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK). (asm.org)
  • The calcineurin/NFAT3 pathway can be activated by classical hypertrophy inducers, including ANG II, endothelin-1 (ET-1), and catecholamines ( 27 , 49 ). (physiology.org)
  • One of the best studied signalling routes is the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase signal transduction pathway which plays a crucial role in many aspects of immune mediated inflammatory responses. (bmj.com)
  • Oncogenic Ha-Ras transformation modulates the transcription of the CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase alpha gene via p42/44MAPK and transcription factor Sp3. (wikipathways.org)
  • 6 modulates IL-1, CD40, and LPS signaling. (cellsignal.com)
  • We have previously identified a novel cellular transcription factor, PEF-1, from its ability to interact with the long control region (LCR) of HPV-16. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Hai T. The ATF transcription factors in cellular adaptive responses. (springer.com)
  • they include actions on other protein kinases and signaling molecules and also on basic cellular functions, such as transcription. (sciencemag.org)
  • Epac is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small G protein Rap1 and has been implicated in a number of cellular processes such as insulin secretion, neurotransmitter release, and integrin-mediated cell adhesion ( 4 - 6 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Immunohistochemical detection of activating transcription factor 3, a hub of the cellular adaptive-response network. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Cellular protein homeostasis (proteostasis) is continuously challenged by a variety of stressors that trigger protein misfolding and aggregation ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Figure 5 from The Drosophila homolog of mammalian zinc finger factor MTF-1 activates transcription in response to heavy metals. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We have demonstrated previously that an exposure of mammalian cells to hypo-osmotic stress, either in growth medium (30% growth medium and 70% water) or in binary solution containing sorbitol and water, prominently induced the DNA-binding activity of the heat-shock transcription factor (HSF1) [Huang, Caruccio, Liu and Chen (1995) Biochem. (portlandpress.com)
  • TransAM ® Kits are DNA-binding ELISAs that facilitate the study of transcription factor activation in mammalian tissue and cell extracts. (activemotif.com)
  • 10 Recently, MAP kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), a mammalian VH-1-like dual-specificity PTPase, has been isolated. (ahajournals.org)
  • In mammalian species, these ancient regulatory circuits maintain the balanced gene transcription necessary for correct cell growth, differentiation, and death. (bmj.com)
  • Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is the central enzyme responsible for catalyzing the ultimate steps of fatty acid synthesis in mammalian cells ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This gene encodes a transcription factor that was originally identified as a widely expressed mammalian DNA binding protein that could bind a tax-responsive enhancer element in the LTR of HTLV-1. (ucsc.edu)
  • The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of highly conserved zinc-dependent endopeptidases that are involved in proteolytic modeling of the extracellular matrix ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this connection, there is a strong correlation between high levels of MMPs and diseases associated with proteolytic turnover of the extracellular matrix such as malignant tumors ( 1 , 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are important mediators involved in the intracellular network of interacting proteins that transduce extracellular cues to intracellular responses. (ahajournals.org)
  • The process of differentiation - in other words, the decision as to which type of cell will be produced - depends on a number of different external and internal factors. (eurekalert.org)
  • The α subunit can then interact with and activate adenylyl cyclases ( Fig. 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The activated ATF-2 translocated to the nucleus where it attached to its binding motif on the myosin L chain kinase (MLCK) promoter region, leading to the activation of MLCK promoter activity and gene transcription. (jimmunol.org)
  • In this study, we found that antioxidant enzyme catalase and antioxidants N -acetyl- l -cysteine, α-phenyl- N - tert -butylnitrone, and lipoic acid prevent ANG II from activating NFAT3 promoter-luciferase. (physiology.org)
  • A dominant negative form of NFAT3 transcription factor inhibited H 2 O 2 from activating NFAT3 promoter. (physiology.org)
  • Inactivation of AP-1 transcription factor by cotransfection of a dominant negative c-Jun, TAM67, prevented H 2 O 2 or ANG II from activating NFAT3 promoter. (physiology.org)
  • NFAT3 promoter containing the core NFAT cis -element without AP-1 binding site failed to show activation by H 2 O 2 treatment. (physiology.org)
  • The promoter of the embryonic MT gene (Mto) of Drosophila contains four MRE-like motifs (51), which, however, were found by EMSA to bind relatively poorly to MTF-1 under our standard experimental conditions. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We have identified an activity that is required for transcription of downstream promoter element (DPE)-containing core promoters in vitro. (sciencemag.org)
  • Taken together, these findings indicate that SRF is a versatile transcription factor that, when bound to the SRE, can function by distinct mechanisms and can mediate transcriptional responses to both CaMK- and Ras-dependent signaling pathways. (asm.org)
  • Leukemias expressing the constitutively activated tyrosine kinases (TK) BCR-ABL1 and FLT3/ITD activate signaling pathways that increase genomic instability through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), and error-prone repair. (aacrjournals.org)
  • NFAT3 belongs to the NFAT family of transcription factors, discovered as important regulators of immune responses in mammals ( 8 , 25 , 38 ). (physiology.org)
  • Central to the host innate antiviral responses is production of type I IFN, which is regulated by members of the IFN regulatory factor (IRF) family of transcription factors ( 1 - 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • However, transcription factors (TFs) that regulate TPSs have not yet been discovered from tomato. (deepdyve.com)
  • In the central nervous system, heteromeric metabotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA(B)) receptors through adenylyl cyclase regulate cAMP levels, which may control transcription factor binding to the cAMP response element. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Once activated, they divide rapidly and secrete small proteins called cytokines that regulate or assist in the active immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The E3 ubiquitin ligase neuregulin receptor degradation protein 1 (Nrdp1) promotes M2 macrophage polarization by ubiquitinating and activating transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding Protein β (C/EBPβ). (illumina.com)
  • β-CDODA-Me was a potent inhibitor of LNCaP prostate cancer cell growth (IC 50 ∼1 μM) and activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), whereas analogs without the cyano group were weakly cytotoxic and did not activate PPARγ. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Additionally, pharmacologic enhancement of intestinal TJ barrier with AT-1001 (a zonulin peptide inhibitor) prevented the development of intestinal inflammation in IL-10 −/− mice, suggesting that the defective intestinal TJ barrier was necessary for the development of intestinal inflammation ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • A and B ) Western blot analysis of DREAM protein levels in striatum from R6/1 ( A ) and R6/2 mice ( B ) and corresponding WT littermates at the indicated weeks after birth. (jci.org)
  • Our results suggest that PPARα deficiency, in mice, is implicated in the modulation of insulin gene transcription and inflammatory status in adipose tissues. (ebscohost.com)
  • Invasion assays confirmed PKC involvement in H pylori -induced MMP-1 secretion. (bmj.com)
  • Thus, the mechanism of NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation by lipopolysaccharide and phorbol ester involves PI-3K. (nih.gov)
  • Overexpression of a constitutively active form of CaMKIV stimulated SRF-dependent transcription. (asm.org)
  • It is commonly believed that these hypertrophy inducers activate phospholipase C (PLC) on binding to their G protein-coupled receptors, resulting in release of phosphoinositol from membrane phospholipids. (physiology.org)
  • Transcription factor 7-like 2 gene ( TCF7L2 ) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors- γ 2 ( PPAR- γ 2 ) have a profound effect on the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and had previously been found to be associated with T2DM risk in various ppopulations. (hindawi.com)
  • Various stimuli activate adenylyl cyclase, but the best studied is ligand occupation of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs) coupled to G s . (sciencemag.org)
  • This is reflected in notable pharmacological differences, in particular, a 100-1000-fold-lower affinity of the rat A 3 AR for certain xanthine compounds compared with the recombinant human and sheep receptors ( 1 , 5-7 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • receptors, IL-1/Toll receptors or through intermediate proteins such as the TRADDs. (cellsignal.com)
  • receptors by activating the NF- κB and AP-1 transcription factors. (cellsignal.com)
  • ATF-2 is normally activated in response to signals that converge on stress-activated protein kinases p38 and JNK. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4 Phosphorylated and activated ERK migrates to the nucleus, where it phosphorylates several transcription factors. (ahajournals.org)
  • These findings establish that phenolic antioxidants activate Mt1 transcription by a zinc-dependent mechanism that involves MTF-1 binding to MREs. (cdc.gov)
  • Calcium activates serum response factor-dependent transcription by a Ras- and Elk-1-independent mechanism that involves a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase. (asm.org)
  • T2DM involves a complex interaction between genetic variants and the environment, with obesity being a primary risk factor [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • These studies reveal that NC2 (Dr1-Drap1) is a bifunctional basal transcription factor that differentially regulates gene transcription through DPE or TATA box motifs. (sciencemag.org)
  • 33. The AHR regulates cell adhesion and migration by interacting with oncogene and growth factor-dependent signaling ( Angel Carlos Roman, Jose M. Carvajal-Gonzalez, Sonia Mulero-Navarro, Aurea Gomez-Duran, Eva M. Rico-Leo and Pedro M. Fernandez-Salguero ). (wiley.com)
  • In addition, transcriptional run-off analyses using isolated nuclei showed that NGF treatment resulted directly in 8- and 4-fold increases in the rate of NF68 and Thy-1 gene transcription. (royalholloway.ac.uk)
  • In molecular biology , Activating Transcription Factor , ATF , is a class of AP-1 transcription factor dimers. (wikidoc.org)
  • Our data indicated that the IL-1β increase in Caco-2 TJ permeability correlated with an activation of p38 kinase. (jimmunol.org)
  • Constitutively activated tyrosine kinases (TK) BCR-ABL1 and FLT3/ITD generate increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage including double-strand breaks (DSB), and abnormal repair that is highly error-prone. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Two molecular pathways linking ER to production of interleukin (IL)-1β, a major player in inflammation, have been recently identified. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • H 2 O 2 induces a time- and dose-dependent activation of NFAT3 transcription factor. (physiology.org)
  • An excess of ROS production can be hazardous for normal cell functioning, whereas at normal levels, ROS act as vital regulators of many signal transduction pathways and transcription factors. (mdpi.com)
  • HCC cells and ECs in the co-culture system were separated, but the cytokines and growth factors were able to communicate with each other. (deepdyve.com)
  • These cells can differentiate into one of several subtypes, including T H 1 , T H 2 , T H 3 , T H 17 , T H 9 , or T FH , which secrete different cytokines to facilitate different types of immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • A novel cysteine cluster in human metal-responsive transcription factor 1 is required for heavy metal-induced transcriptional activation in vivo. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • One billion years of bZIP transcription factor evolution: conservation and change in dimerization and DNA-binding site specificity. (springer.com)
  • h) JNK/SAPK was assayed by IP-kinase assay in the absence or presence of JNKI-1. (asm.org)
  • MKP-1 (the human homologue is called CL100 [97% identity]) was demonstrated to dephosphorylate and inactivate not only ERK 11 12 13 14 but also SAPK and p38 MAP kinase. (ahajournals.org)
  • This factor has a molecular mass of about 110 kDa and binds to a GC-rich sequence in the section of the LCR responsible for cell type-specific transcription from viral DNA. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • 1 Section of Molecular Biology and Center for Molecular Genetics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0347, USA. (sciencemag.org)
  • We examined the effect of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI-3K) inhibitor wortmannin on the activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1 by different inflammatory agents. (nih.gov)
  • ERK inhibitor PD98059 was found previously to inhibit AP-1 activation by H 2 O 2 . (physiology.org)
  • f and g) Same as panel a and b except JNKI-1 was used as the inhibitor. (asm.org)
  • j) p38 activation was assayed as in panel e except JNKI-1 was used as the inhibitor. (asm.org)
  • THP-1 cells were treated with LPS for 24 hours and treated with a TAK1 inhibitor. (biocompare.com)
  • Characterization of the MTF-1 transcription factor from zebrafish and trout cells. (semanticscholar.org)