Transcription Factor DP1: A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Transcription Initiation Site: The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.Transcription Factors, TFII: The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.Transcription Factor AP-2: A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Transcription Factor TFIID: The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors: A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.YY1 Transcription Factor: A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.GATA4 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Transcription Factor TFIIB: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.Sp3 Transcription Factor: A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.NFATC Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Activating Transcription Factor 3: An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Activating Transcription Factor 2: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.STAT1 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.MEF2 Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.TCF Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.GATA1 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.GATA3 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.GATA2 Transcription Factor: An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.GATA Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Activating Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Transcription Factor RelA: A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Reverse Transcription: The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs: Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Activating Transcription Factor 1: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.Activating Transcription Factor 4: An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Transcription Factor 7-Like 1 Protein: A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.NFI Transcription Factors: Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.GATA6 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Transcription Factor TFIIIA: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Transcription Factor TFIIH: A general transcription factor that is involved in basal GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. It consists of nine subunits including ATP-DEPENDENT DNA HELICASES; CYCLIN H; and XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM GROUP D PROTEIN.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.STAT5 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.Transcription Factor TFIIA: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Mice, Inbred C57BLCCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.TATA-Box Binding Protein: A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets: A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein oncogene protein v-ets of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Octamer Transcription Factor-1: A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.SOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Transcription Factors, TFIII: Factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE III and aid in transcription. They include the assembly factors TFIIIA and TFIIIC and the initiation factor TFIIIB. All combine to form a preinitiation complex at the promotor that directs the binding of RNA POLYMERASE III.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Regulatory Elements, Transcriptional: Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Leucine Zippers: DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.T-Box Domain Proteins: Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.GA-Binding Protein Transcription Factor: A heterotetrameric transcription factor composed of two distinct proteins. Its name refers to the fact it binds to DNA sequences rich in GUANINE and ADENINE. GA-binding protein integrates a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and regulates expression of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE control, PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS, and cellular METABOLISM.Erythroid-Specific DNA-Binding Factors: A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.Transcription Factor TFIIIB: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. TFIIIB recruits and positions pol III over the initiation site and remains stably bound to the DNA through multiple rounds of re-initiation by RNA POLYMERASE III.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.RNA Polymerase III: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)High Mobility Group Proteins: A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.Early Growth Response Protein 1: An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Pol1 Transcription Initiation Complex Proteins: Factors that form a preinitiation complex at promoters that are specifically transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE I.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Protein: A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway. The activity of the protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN. Transcription factor 7-like 2 protein plays an important role in the embryogenesis of the PANCREAS and ISLET CELLS.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-1: An ets proto-oncogene expressed primarily in adult LYMPHOID TISSUE; BRAIN; and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.RNA Polymerase I: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Nerve Tissue ProteinsTwist Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that was originally identified in DROSOPHILA as essential for proper gastrulation and MESODERM formation. It plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MUSCLE CELLS, and is found in a wide variety of organisms.NF-E2 Transcription Factor, p45 Subunit: A tissue-specific subunit of NF-E2 transcription factor that interacts with small MAF PROTEINS to regulate gene expression. P45 NF-E2 protein is expressed primarily in MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; and MAST CELLS.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.CCAAT-Binding Factor: A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Transcription Initiation, Genetic: The process that starts the transcription of an RNA molecule. It includes the assembly of the initiation complex and establishment of the start site.Activating Transcription Factor 6: One of the BASIC-LEUCINE ZIPPER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that is synthesized as a membrane-bound protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. In response to endoplasmic reticulum stress it translocates to the GOLGI APPARATUS. It is activated by PROTEASES and then moves to the CELL NUCLEUS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in the unfolded protein response.Upstream Stimulatory Factors: Ubiquitously expressed basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF transcription factors. They bind CANNTG sequences in the promoters of a variety of GENES involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.STAT6 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-4. Stat6 has been shown to partner with NF-KAPPA B and CCAAT-ENHANCER-BINDING PROTEINS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of interleukin-4 responsive GENES.Histone Deacetylases: Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.NF-E2 Transcription Factor: A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates GLOBIN gene expression and is related to TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1. NF-E2 consists of a small MAF protein subunit and a tissue-restricted 45 kDa subunit.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.

*Cyclopentenone prostaglandins

PGD2, PGJ2, Δ12-PGJ2, and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 activate the transcription factor, PPARγ, with 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 being the ... These PGJ2's also bind and activate a second G protein-coupled receptor, Prostaglandin DP1 receptor, but require high ... This PG directly binds with and activates PPARγ thereby inducing the transcription of genes containing the PPARγ response ... KEAP1: cytosolic KEAP1 serves to promote the degradation of Nrf2 by proteasomes thereby inhibiting this transcription factor ...

*Cell cycle

The expression profiles of these transcription factors are driven by the transcription factors that peak in the prior phase, ... them from transcription), activating E2F. Activation of E2F results in transcription of various genes like cyclin E, cyclin A, ... The hyperphosphorylated Rb dissociates from the E2F/DP1/Rb complex (which was bound to the E2F responsive genes, effectively " ... One screen of single-gene knockouts identified 48 transcription factors (about 20% of all non-essential transcription factors) ...

*Biochemical switches in the cell cycle

... the Rb-HDAC repressor complex binds to the E2F-DP1 transcription factors, therefore inhibiting the downstream transcription. ... TGFb inhibits the transcription of Cdc25A, a phosphatase that activates the cell cycle kinases, and growth factor withdrawal ... is required to maintain low Clb2-Cdk1 activity because Clb2 auto-activates its synthesis by activating transcriptional factors ... activate the regulon indicated that Cln1 and Cln2 might be able to engage positive feedback to activate their own transcription ...

*E2F

Drosophila E2F transcription factor - The Interactive Fly Drosophila E2F transcription factor 2 - The Interactive Fly. ... E2F1-6 have DP1,2 heterodimerization domain which allows them to bind to DP1 or DP2, proteins distantly related to E2F. Binding ... "Interplay between Arabidopsis Activating Factors E2Fb and E2Fa in Cell Cycle Progression and Development". Plant Physiology. ... binds to the E2F1 transcription factor preventing it from interacting with the cell's transcription machinery. In the absence ...

*Papillomaviridae

... a transcription activator-when interacting with the cellular transcription factor, E2F1/DP1. E6 can also bind to PDZ-domains, ... seem to activate the signal cascade initiated by epidermal growth factor upon ligand binding. HPV16 E5 and HPV2 E5 have also ... However, viral early transcription subjects to viral E2 regulation and high E2 levels repress the transcription. HPV genomes ... functions as an oncogene primarily by activating the cell growth-promoting signaling of platelet-derived growth factor ...

*E2F1

"Heterodimerization of the transcription factors E2F-1 and DP-1 leads to cooperative trans-activation". Genes Dev. 7 (10): 1850- ... "Interaction and functional cooperation of the cancer-amplified transcriptional coactivator activating signal cointegrator-2 and ... Transcription factor E2F1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the E2F1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member ... "Entrez Gene: E2F1 E2F transcription factor 1". Suzuki M, Okuyama S, Okamoto S, Shirasuna K, Nakajima T, Hachiya T, Nojima H, ...

*Cyclin A2

... transcription is mostly regulated by the transcription factor E2F and begins in G1, after the R point. Absence of ... Cyclin A2 is unique in that it can activate two different CDK kinases; it binds CDK2 during S phase, and CDK1 during the ... "Cyclin A/CDK2 binds directly to E2F-1 and inhibits the DNA-binding activity of E2F-1/DP-1 by phosphorylation". Mol. Cell. Biol ... "Cyclin A and the retinoblastoma gene product complex with a common transcription factor". Nature. 352 (6332): 249-51. doi: ...

*TP53

... which activates transcription factors. The N-terminus contains two complementary transcriptional activation domains, with a ... Sørensen TS, Girling R, Lee CW, Gannon J, Bandara LR, La Thangue NB (October 1996). "Functional interaction between DP-1 and ... Pastorcic M, Das HK (November 2000). "Regulation of transcription of the human presenilin-1 gene by ets transcription factors ... p53 also activates miR-34a and miR-145, which then repress the hESCs pluripotency factors, further instigating differentiation ...

*Cyclin A1

This cyclin was found to bind to important cell cycle regulators, such as Rb family proteins, transcription factor E2F1, and ... Cyclins function as activating subunits of enzymatic complex together with cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Different cyclins ... "Cyclin A/CDK2 binds directly to E2F-1 and inhibits the DNA-binding activity of E2F-1/DP-1 by phosphorylation". Mol. Cell. Biol ... "Functions of cyclin A1 in the cell cycle and its interactions with transcription factor E2F-1 and the Rb family of proteins". ...

*Eicosanoid

... or pathogens such as chemotactic factors, cytokines, growth factors, and even certain eicosanoids. The activated cells then ... directly activate gene transcription.[93] Of these, the action on eicosanoids is the best explored. ... Prostaglandin DP1 receptor 1, Prostaglandin DP2 receptor. allergy reactions; allodynia; hair growth. NSAIDs may target it to ... cPLA2 may also release the lysophospholipid that becomes platelet-activating factor.[28] ...
Looking for online definition of winged-helix transcription factor RFX4 in the Medical Dictionary? winged-helix transcription factor RFX4 explanation free. What is winged-helix transcription factor RFX4? Meaning of winged-helix transcription factor RFX4 medical term. What does winged-helix transcription factor RFX4 mean?
Looking for online definition of heat-shock transcription factor family member 5 in the Medical Dictionary? heat-shock transcription factor family member 5 explanation free. What is heat-shock transcription factor family member 5? Meaning of heat-shock transcription factor family member 5 medical term. What does heat-shock transcription factor family member 5 mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stimulation of human and rat islet β-cell proliferation with retention of function by the homeodomain transcription factor Nkx6.1. AU - Schisler, Jonathan C.. AU - Fueger, Patrick T.. AU - Babu, Daniella A.. AU - Hohmeier, Hans E.. AU - Tessem, Jeffery S.. AU - Lu, Danhong. AU - Becker, Thomas C.. AU - Naziruddin, Bashoo. AU - Levy, Marlon. AU - Mirmira, Raghu. AU - Newgard, Christopher B.. PY - 2008/5. Y1 - 2008/5. N2 - The homeodomain transcription factor Nkx6.1 plays an important role in pancreatic islet β-cell development, but its effects on adult β-cell function, survival, and proliferation are not well understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that treatment of primary rat pancreatic islets with a cytomegalovirus promoter-driven recombinant adenovirus containing the Nkx6.1 cDNA (AdCMV-Nkx6.1) causes dramatic increases in [methyl-3H] thymidine and 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) ...
Divergence of transcription factor binding sites is considered to be an important source of regulatory evolution. The associations between transcription factor binding sites and phenotypic diversity have been investigated in many model organisms. However, the understanding of other factors that contribute to it is still limited. Recent studies have elucidated the effect of chromatin structure on molecular evolution of genomic DNA. Though the profound impact of nucleosome positions on gene regulation has been reported, their influence on transcriptional evolution is still less explored. With the availability of genome-wide nucleosome map in yeast species, it is thus desirable to investigate their impact on transcription factor binding site evolution. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the role of ...
Didier Picard, January 2015 Current list of HBD fusion proteins_ Protein X a HBD b regulated as c Refs. transcription factor in Arabidopsis transcription factor Arabidopsis transcription factor in tobacco coactivator transcription factor 1 2 3 transcription factor transcription factor, differentiation factor transcription factor putative transcription factor in arabidposis transcription factor oncoprotein transcription factor transcription ...
The single spanning INM protein emerin is encoded by the EMD gene, which, when mutated, produces the X‐linked form of Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD; Gruenbaum et al, 2005). The lamin‐associated protein LAP2β was originally identified as a single spanning INM protein with a nucleoplasmic binding region for lamin B and chromatin (Foisner & Gerace, 1993). Both emerin and LAP2β associate with several transcriptional regulators, and this association invariably coincides with repression of the transcription factor target genes. In most instances, the mechanism of repression is not clear because it is uncertain whether the transcription factor acts as an activator or repressor of transcription-often transcription factors can do both. If the transcription ...
The chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factors (COUP-TFs) are members from the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor superfamily and function in transcriptional regulation of a multitude of genes. of the ovalbumin gene (Bagchi et al., 1987; Pastorcic et al., 1986; Wang et Procyanidin B3 inhibitor Mouse monoclonal to Human Albumin al., 1987). It was found to bind an element (COUP) between C90 and C70 within the ovalbumin promoter that is much like thyroid and estrogen response elements (Pastorcic et al., 1986). The COUP-TF has also been shown to bind cis-elements involved in positive transcription rules in the rat insulin II (Hwung et al., 1988; Hwung et al., 1988b), chicken VLDL II (Wijnholds et Procyanidin B3 inhibitor al., 1988), and human being apolipoprotein AI and CIII genes (Ladias and Karathanasis, 1991). It was also reported to bind to bad regulatory elements in the ...
GO Terms Descrition:, periodic partitioning by pair rule gene, central nervous system development, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding, positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, trunk segmentation, cell fate specification, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity involved in positive regulation of transcription, regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, blastoderm segmentation, negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, regulation of transcription, DNA-templated, sequence-specific ...
How is B Lymphocyte-Induced Maturation Protein abbreviated? BLIMP stands for B Lymphocyte-Induced Maturation Protein. BLIMP is defined as B Lymphocyte-Induced Maturation Protein somewhat frequently.
APECED gained a unique position among the autoimmune diseases, because it is the only known monogenetic autoimmune diseases with full gene penetration.. The AIRE gene (autoimmune regulator) is 13 kb long and has 14 exons. The main protein coded by this gene contains 545 amino acids and was named the AIRE protein. The AIRE protein seems to function predominantly as a transcriptional activator and it may control autoimmunity by promoting ectopic expression of peripheral tissue-restricted antigens in medullary epithelial cells of the thymus. Even though the relationship between AIRE gene and APECED is clear, other factors may play a role in a patients phenotype as well. HLA II class, CTLA-4 polymorphism, and APECED association were suggested by recent research, which has also found several examples of AIRE mutations behaving in a dominant fashion.. The following is the circumstantial and indirect evidence that APECED is an autoimmune disease:. Circumstantial ...
The gain and loss of functional transcription factor binding sites has been proposed as a major source of evolutionary change in cis-regulatory DNA and gene expression. We have developed an evolutionary model to study binding-site turnover that uses multiple sequence alignments to assess the evolutionary constraint on individual binding sites, and to map gain and loss events along a phylogenetic tree. We apply this model to study the evolutionary dynamics of binding sites of the Drosophila melanogaster transcription factor Zeste, using genome-wide in vivo (ChIP-chip) binding data to identify functional Zeste binding sites, and the genome sequences of D. melanogaster, D. simulans, D. erecta, and D. yakuba to study their evolution. We estimate that more than 5% of functional Zeste binding sites in D. melanogaster were gained along the D. melanogaster lineage or lost along one of the other lineages. We find ...
Since the successful isolation of mouse and human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in the past decades, massive investigations have been conducted to dissect the pluripotency network that governs the ability of these cells to differentiate into all cell types. Beside the core Oct4-Sox2-Nanog circuitry, accumulating regulators, including transcription factors, epigenetic modifiers, microRNA and signaling molecules have also been found to play important roles in preserving pluripotency. Among the various regulations that orchestrate the cellular pluripotency program, transcriptional regulation is situated in the central position and appears to be dominant over other regulatory controls. In this review, we would like to summarize the recent advancements in the accumulating findings of new transcription factors that play a critical role in controlling both pluripotency network and ...
GO Terms Descrition:, positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, anterior/posterior axis specification, cell fate specification, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity, transcription, DNA-templated, compound eye development, ligand-activated sequence-specific DNA binding RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, torso signaling pathway, terminal region determination, Bolwigs organ morphogenesis, DNA binding, sequence-specific DNA binding, sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity, zinc ion binding, nucleus, regulation of cell cycle, intracellular receptor signaling pathway, steroid hormone mediated signaling pathway, steroid hormone receptor activity, regulation of ...
Artificial transcription factors can be engineered to interact with specific DNA sequences to modulate endogenous gene expression within cells. A significant hurdle to implementation of this approach is the selection of the appropriate DNA sequence for targeting. We reasoned that a good target site should be located in chromatin, where it is accessible to DNA-binding proteins, and it should be, in the close vicinity of known transcriptional regulators of the gene. Here we have explored the efficacy of these criteria to guide our selection of potential regulators of gamma-globin expression. Several zinc finger-based transcriptional activators were designed to target the sites proximal to the -117-position of the gamma-globin promoter. This region is proximal to the binding sites of known and potential natural transcription factors. Design and ...
... is a protein database which contains information on transcription factors (TFs) of silkworm.
TY - GEN. T1 - Identification of over-represented combinations of transcription factor binding sites in sets of co-expressed genes. AU - Huang, Shao-Shan. AU - Fulton, Debra L.. AU - Arenillas, David J.. AU - Perco, Paul. AU - Ho Sui, Shannan J.. AU - Mortimer, James R.. AU - Wasserman, Wyeth W.. PY - 2006/12/1. Y1 - 2006/12/1. N2 - Transcription regulation is mediated by combinatorial interactions between diverse trans-acting proteins and arrays of cis-regulatory sequences. Revealing this complex interplay between transcription factors and binding sites remains a fundamental problem for understanding the flow of genetic information. The oPOSSUM analysis system facilitates the interpretation of gene expression data through the analysis of transcription factor binding sites shared by sets of co-expressed genes. The system is ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in RNA polymerase II transcription factor binding pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
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387448814 - EP 0851912 A4 2000-01-05 - NOVEL FACTORS WHICH MODIFY GENE TRANSCRIPTION AND METHODS OF USE THEREFOR - [origin: WO9708301A1] Eukaryotic RNA polymerase II holoenzymes that contain RNA polymerase II and one or more regulatory proteins are described. These holoenzymes selectively initiate transcription in vitro when supplemented with general transcription factors. The regulatory proteins act positively and negatively to regulate transcription initiation, at least in part, via functional interactions with RNA polymerase II.[origin: WO9708301A1] Eukaryotic RNA polymerase II holoenzymes that contain RNA polymerase II and one or more regulatory proteins are described. These holoenzymes selectively initiate transcription in vitro when supplemented with general ...
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are essential for the maintenance of the hematopoietic system. However, these cells cannot be maintained or created in vitro, and very little is known about their generation during embryogenesis. Many transcription factors and signaling pathways play essential roles at various stages of HSC development. Members of the ETS (E twenty-six) family of transcription factors are recognized as key regulators within the gene regulatory networks governing hematopoiesis, including the ontogeny of HSCs. Remarkably, although all ETS transcription factors bind the same DNA consensus sequence and overlapping tissue expression is observed, individual ETS transcription factors play unique roles in the development of HSCs. Also, these transcription ...
The Oxidative Stress Responsive Transcription Factor Pap1 Confers DNA Damage Resistance on Checkpoint-Deficient Fission Yeast Cells. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
This unit describes how to use the Transcription Element Search System (TESS). This Web site predicts transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) in DNA sequence using two different kinds of models of sites, strings and positional weight matrices. The binding of transcription factors to DNA is a major part of the control of gene expression. Transcription factors exhibit sequence-specific binding; they form stronger bonds to some DNA sequences than to others. Identification of a good binding site in the promoter for a gene suggests the possibility that the corresponding factor may play a role in the regulation of that gene. However, the sequences transcription factors recognize are typically short and allow for some amount of mismatch. Because of this, binding ...
The transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1beta (PGC-1beta) has been implicated in important metabolic processes. A mouse lacking PGC-1beta (PGC1betaKO) was generated and phenotyped using physiological, molecular, and bioinformatic approaches. PGC1betaKO mice are generally viable and metabolically healthy. Using systems biology, we identified a general defect in the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial function and, specifically, the electron transport chain. This defect correlated with reduced mitochondrial volume fraction in soleus muscle and heart, but not brown adipose tissue (BAT). Under ambient temperature conditions, PGC-1beta ablation was partially compensated by up-regulation of PGC-1alpha in BAT and white adipose tissue (WAT) that lead to increased thermogenesis, reduced body weight, and reduced fat mass. Despite their decreased fat mass, PGC1betaKO mice had hypertrophic adipocytes in WAT. The thermogenic ...
ABSTRACT: One goal of human genetics is to understand how the information for precise and dynamic gene expression programs is encoded in the genome. The interactions of transcription factors (TFs) with DNA regulatory elements clearly play an important role in determining gene expression outputs, yet the regulatory logic underlying functional transcription factor binding is poorly understood. Many studies have focused on characterizing the genomic locations of TF binding, yet it is unclear to what extent TF binding at any specific locus has functional consequences with respect to gene expression output. To evaluate the context of functional TF binding we knocked down 59 TFs and chromatin modifiers in one HapMap lymphoblastoid cell line. We then identified genes whose expression was affected by the knockdowns. We intersected the gene expression data with transcription ...
ABSTRACT: One goal of human genetics is to understand how the information for precise and dynamic gene expression programs is encoded in the genome. The interactions of transcription factors (TFs) with DNA regulatory elements clearly play an important role in determining gene expression outputs, yet the regulatory logic underlying functional transcription factor binding is poorly understood. Many studies have focused on characterizing the genomic locations of TF binding, yet it is unclear to what extent TF binding at any specific locus has functional consequences with respect to gene expression output. To evaluate the context of functional TF binding we knocked down 59 TFs and chromatin modifiers in one HapMap lymphoblastoid cell line. We then identified genes whose expression was affected by the knockdowns. We intersected the gene expression data with transcription ...
ABSTRACT: One goal of human genetics is to understand how the information for precise and dynamic gene expression programs is encoded in the genome. The interactions of transcription factors (TFs) with DNA regulatory elements clearly play an important role in determining gene expression outputs, yet the regulatory logic underlying functional transcription factor binding is poorly understood. Many studies have focused on characterizing the genomic locations of TF binding, yet it is unclear to what extent TF binding at any specific locus has functional consequences with respect to gene expression output. To evaluate the context of functional TF binding we knocked down 59 TFs and chromatin modifiers in one HapMap lymphoblastoid cell line. We then identified genes whose expression was affected by the knockdowns. We intersected the gene expression data with transcription ...
Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) is a mediator of the anti-inflammatory activities of glucocorticoids. However, GILZ deletion does not impair the anti-inflammatory activities of exogenous glucocorticoids in mice arthritis models and GILZ could also mediate some glucocorticoid-related adverse events. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a metabolic disorder that is partly attributed to adipokines such as leptin, and we previously observed that glucocorticoids induced leptin secretion in OA synovial fibroblasts. The purpose of this study was to position GILZ in OA through its involvement in the anti-inflammatory activities of glucocorticoids and/or in the metabolic pathway of leptin induction. The influences of mineralocorticoids on GILZ and leptin expression were also investigated. Human synovial fibroblasts were isolated from OA patients during knee replacement surgery. Then, the cells were treated with a glucocorticoid (prednisolone), a mineralocorticoid (aldosterone), a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)
Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) is a mediator of the anti-inflammatory activities of glucocorticoids. However, GILZ deletion does not impair the anti-inflammatory activities of exogenous glucocorticoids in mice arthritis models and GILZ could also mediate some glucocorticoid-related adverse events. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a metabolic disorder that is partly attributed to adipokines such as leptin, and we previously observed that glucocorticoids induced leptin secretion in OA synovial fibroblasts. The purpose of this study was to position GILZ in OA through its involvement in the anti-inflammatory activities of glucocorticoids and/or in the metabolic pathway of leptin induction. The influences of mineralocorticoids on GILZ and leptin expression were also investigated. Human synovial fibroblasts were isolated from OA patients during knee replacement surgery. Then, the cells were treated with a glucocorticoid (prednisolone), a mineralocorticoid (aldosterone), a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)
This proposed research project seeks to understand environmental stress-responsive gene expression mediated through Heat Shock Transcription Factor (HSF). This project will involve the following three components: 1) a study of the DNA-binding properties of HSF to different stress-responsive promoters using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay to determine the relative binding affinity, and chemical cross linking reagents to determine the multimerization state of HSF; 2) map the sites of phosphorylation on HCF in response to different cellular stress; 3) determine the importance of the phosphorylation of HCF in regulating stress-responsive gene expression in vivo by constructing site directed mutations in the HCF phosphorylation sites and replacing the endogenous copy of HCF with each mutated HCF. Cells expressing the mutationally altered HCF molecules will be tested for their ability to activate CUP transcription in ...
Shop Pheromone receptor transcription factor ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Pheromone receptor transcription factor Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Early Growth Response Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that are induced by GROWTH FACTORS and contain a highly conserved DNA-binding domain composed of three ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.
DNA-binding activity of a maize heat shock transcription factor (HSF) was induced by heat shock of a whole cell extract at 44°C. Addition of the calcium ion chelator EGTA reduced the binding of the HSF to heat shock element (HSE) in vitro. Re-addition of CaCl2 to the sample pretreated with EGTA restored the ability of the HSF to bind to DNA. DNA-binding activity of the HSF was also induced by directly adding CaCl2 to a whole cell extract at non-heat-shock temperature, but not by MgCl2. During HS at 44°C, calmodulin (CaM) antagonists chlorpromazine (CPZ) and N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide (W7) inhibited DNA-binding activity of the HSF in a concentration-dependent manner, but N-(6-aminohexyl)-1-naphthalenesulfonamide (W5), an inactive structural analogue of W7, did not. Addition of antiserum specific to CaM reduced the binding of the HSF to HSE. Re-addition of CaM to the sample pretreated with antiserum could restore the binding activity of ...
In this study, we have demonstrated that Aire-deficient mice represent a model for autoimmune dry eye and have further characterized the autoimmune response. Of note, previous work in the model has suggested that the Aire-deficient autoimmune response to the salivary and lacrimal glands is directed against the known autoantigen α-fodrin (7). To carefully assess the Ags potentially targeted in the model, we performed immunoblot analysis with sera from multiple NOD and BALB/c Aire-deficient mice on lacrimal gland extracts and identified a novel molecular target of 18 kDa that proved to be OBP1a. Interestingly, OBP1a is expressed in the thymus in an Aire-dependent fashion, suggesting that defective thymic expression of OBP1a may play a role in the spontaneous dacryoadenitis that develops in the Aire-deficient mouse model.. Previous work on the Aire-deficient model has suggested that α-fodrin is a likely prominent autoantigen associated with SS; however, our data provides evidence for other ...
Yeast RNA polymerase II initiation factor b copurifies with three polypeptides of 85, 73, and 50 kilodaltons and with a protein kinase that phosphorylates the carboxyl-terminal repeat domain (CTD) of the largest polymerase subunit. The gene that encodes the 73-kilodalton polypeptide, designated TFB1, was cloned and found to be essential for cell growth. The deduced protein sequence exhibits no similarity to those of protein kinases. However, the sequence is similar to that of the 62-kilodalton subunit of the HeLa transcription factor BFT2, suggesting that this factor is the human counterpart of yeast factor b. Immunoprecipitation experiments using antibodies to the TFB1 gene product demonstrate that the transcriptional and CTD kinase activities of factor b are closely associated with an oligomer of the three polypeptides. Photoaffinity labeling with ...
Members of the GATA transcription factor family have been used in many transfection studies to investigate their roles in the regulation of gene expression. To correct for variations in transfection efficiency, the Renilla luciferase encoding plasmids pRL-TK and pRL-SV40 are commonly used as normalization controls. We report here that plasmids expressing GATA-4 or GATA-6 transcription factor increased Renilla luciferase gene expression by 2 to 8 fold when co-transfected with pRL-TK or pRL-SV40. This alteration of the control reporter gene activity was shown to cause erroneous normalization of transfection efficiency and thus misinterpretation of results in a transactivation assay. To circumvent the problem, we generated two mutant control plasmids from which putative GATA response elements were deleted. These deletions rendered pRL-SV40 unresponsive to GATA transcription ...
Initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II requires the activities of more than 70 polypeptides. The protein that coordinates these activities is transcription factor IID (TFIID), which binds to the core promoter to position the polymerase properly, serves as the scaffold for assembly of the remainder of the transcription complex, and acts as a channel for regulatory signals. TFIID is composed of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and a group of evolutionarily conserved proteins known as TBP-associated factors or TAFs. TAFs may participate in basal transcription, serve as coactivators, function in promoter recognition or modify general transcription factors (GTFs) to facilitate complex assembly and transcription initiation. This gene encodes a protein that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential expression of exons 1a and 1c in mRNAs for sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 in human and mouse organs and cultured cells. AU - Shimomura, Iichiro. AU - Shimano, Hitoshi. AU - Horton, Jay D.. AU - Goldstein, Joseph L.. AU - Brown, Michael S.. PY - 1997/3/1. Y1 - 1997/3/1. N2 - The 5 end of the mRNA-encoding sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) exists in two forms, designated 1a and 1c. The divergence results from the use of two transcription start sites that produce two separate 5 exons, each of which is spliced to a common exon 2. Here we show that the ratio of SREBP-1c to 1a transcripts varies markedly among organs of the adult mouse. At one extreme is the liver, in which the 1c transcript predominates by a 9:1 ratio. High 1c:1a ratios are also found in mouse adrenal gland and adipose tissue and in human liver and adrenal gland. At the other extreme is the spleen, which shows a reversed 1c:1a ratio (1:10). In five ...
5-R(*UP*AP*GP*AP*UP)-3, 5-R(*UP*AP*GP*AP*UP)-3, 5-R(*UP*AP*GP*AP*UP)-3, 5-R(*UP*AP*GP*AP*UP)-3, 5-R(*UP*AP*GP*AP*UP)-3, 5-R(*UP*AP*GP*AP*UP)-3, 5-R(*UP*AP*GP*AP*UP)-3, 5-R(*UP*AP*GP*AP*UP)-3, 5-R(*UP*AP*GP*AP*UP)-3, 5-R(*UP*AP*GP*AP*UP)-3, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, ...
The microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF), a basic-helix-loop-helix zipper factor, regulates distinct target genes in several cell types. We hypothesized that interaction with the Ets family factor PU.1, whose expression is limited to hematopoietic cells, might be nec- essary for activation of target genes like tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) in osteoclasts. Several lines of evidence were consistent with this model. The combination of MITF and PU.1 synergistically activated the TRAP promoter in transient assays. This activation was dependent on intact binding sites for both factors in the TRAP promoter. MITF and PU.1 physically interacted when coexpressed in COS cells or in vitro when purified recombinant proteins were studied. The minimal regions of MITF and PU.1 required for the interaction were the basic-helix-loop-helix zipper domain and the Ets DNA binding domain, respectively. ...
Here, we report our effort in generating an ORFeome collection for the Arabidopsis transcription factor (TF) genes. In total, ORFeome clones representing 1,282 Arabidopsis TF genes have been obtained in the Gateway high throughput cloning pENTR vector, including 411 genes whose annotation lack cDNA support. All the ORFeome inserts have also been mobilized into a yeast expression destination vector, with an estimated 85% rate of expressing the respective proteins. Sequence analysis of these clones revealed that 34 of them did not match with either the reported cDNAs or current predicted open-reading-frame sequences. Among those, novel alternative splicing of TF gene transcripts is responsible for the observed differences in at least five genes. However, those alternative splicing events do not appear to be differentially regulated among distinct Arabidopsis tissues examined. Lastly, expression of those TF genes in 17 distinct Arabidopsis organ types and the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Association of class II histone deacetylases with heterochromatin protein 1. T2 - Potential role for histone methylation in control of muscle differentiation. AU - Zhang, Chun Li. AU - McKinsey, Timothy A.. AU - Olson, Eric N.. PY - 2002/10. Y1 - 2002/10. N2 - Class II histone deacetylases (HDACs) 4, 5, 7, and 9 repress muscle differentiation through associations with the myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) transcription factor. MEF2-interacting transcription repressor (MITR) is an amino-terminal splice variant of HDAC9 that also potently inhibits MEF2 transcriptional activity despite lacking a catalytic domain. Here we report that MITR, HDAC4, and HDAC5 associate with heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), an adaptor protein that recognizes methylated lysines within histone tails and mediates transcriptional repression by recruiting ...
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) triggers a wide range of effects on vertebrate development by regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. ATRA activates retinoic acid receptors (RARs) which heterodimerize with retinoid X receptors (RXRs). RAR/RXR heterodimers function as ATRA-dependent transcriptional regulators by binding to retinoic acid response elements (RAREs). To identify RAR/RXR heterodimer-binding sites in the human genome, we performed a modified yeast one-hybrid assays and identified 193 RAR/RXR heterodimer-binding fragments in the human genome. The putative target genes included genes involved in development process and cell differentiation. Gel mobility shift assays indicated that 160 putative RAREs could directly interact with the RAR/RXR heterodimer. Moreover, 19 functional regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (rSNPs) on the RAR/RXR-binding sequences were identified by analyzing the difference in the DNA-binding ...
Developmental and Growth Hormone Regulation of the Expression of Liver-Enriched Transcription Factors in the Bovine Liver Satyanarayana Eleswarapu ABSTRACT Liver gene expression changes during development and is affected by growth hormone (GH). These changes in gene expression may be due to the differential expression of the liver-enriched transcription factors (LETFs). To study the potential involvement of LETFs in the regulation of gene expression in the bovine liver, we cloned the cDNA fragments of nine bovine LETFs, including hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-1Æ Ã , 1Æ Ã , 3Æ Ã , 3Æ Ã , 3Æ Ã , 6, albumin D-element binding protein (DBP), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) -Æ Ã and Æ Ã , and compared the expression levels of them between adult and fetal bovine liver and between GH-treated and untreated adult bovine liver. The mRNA abundance of the LETFs was determined by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - FTF and LRH-1, two related but different transcription factors in human Caco-2 cells. T2 - Their different roles in the regulation of bile acid transport. AU - Pan, Debra H.. AU - Chen, Frank. AU - Neimark, Ezequiel. AU - Li, Xiaoping. AU - Shneider, Benjamin L.. PY - 2005/12/30. Y1 - 2005/12/30. N2 - The apical sodium dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) mediates ileal bile acid reabsorption. The transcription factors, liver receptor homologue-1 (LRH-1:mouse) and fetoprotein transcription factor (FTF:human), are presumably orthologues. Bile-acid induced negative feedback regulation of mouse (m) and human (h) ASBT occurs via LRH-1 and RAR/RXR, respectively. hASBT has a potential FTF cis-element, although its functional role is unknown. hASBT and mASBT promoter constructs and an FTF cis-element mutated hASBT (hASBT/FTFμ) were assessed in ...
A zinc finger motif is an element of proteins that can specifically recognize and bind to DNA. Because they contain multiple cysteine residues, zinc finger motifs possess redox properties. Ionizing radiation generates a variety of free radicals in organisms. Zinc finger motifs, therefore, may be a target of ionizing radiation. The effect of gamma radiation on the zinc finger motifs in transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA), a zinc finger protein, was investigated. TFIIIA was exposed to different gamma doses from 60Co sources. The dose rates were 0.20 Gy/min and 800 Gy/h, respectively. The binding capacity of zinc finger motifs in TFIIIA was determined using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. We found that 1000 Gy of gamma radiation impaired the function of the zinc finger... motifs in TFIIIA. The sites of radiation-induced damage in the zinc finger were the thiol groups of cysteine residues and zinc (II) ions. The thiol groups were oxidized to form ...
The TBP gene encodes TATA Box-Binding Protein, the DNA-binding subunit of the RNA polymerase II transcription factor D (TFIID). As the name suggests, the TBP subunit attaches to the DNA promoter at its TATA box, to initiate transcription. Binding of the TFIID complex at the promoter helps in positioning of RNA Polymerase II and serves as a scaffold for the assembly of other polypeptides to the transcription complex. It also acts as a channel for regulatory signals.. Mutations in the TBP gene have been associated with Spinocerebellar Ataxia 17 (SCA17), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterised by gait and limb ataxia, intention tremors, cerebellar atrophy and behavioural manifestations such as psychosis, disorientation and aggression. The gene has also been associated with an increased susceptibility to Late-Onset Parkinson Disease. ...
Component of the Mediator complex, a coactivator involved in the regulated transcription of nearly all RNA polymerase II-dependent genes. Mediator functions as a bridge to convey information from gene-specific regulatory proteins to the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. Mediator is recruited to promoters by direct interactions with regulatory proteins and serves as a scaffold for the assembly of a functional preinitiation complex with RNA polymerase II and the general transcription factors.
The autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by a mutation in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. Immune deficiency, hypoparathyroidism and Addisons disease due to autoimmune dysfunction are the major clinical signs of APECED. We report on a 21-year-old female APECED patient with two inactivating mutations in the AIRE gene. She presented with sudden onset of periodic nausea. Adrenal insufficiency was diagnosed by means of the ACTH stimulation test. Despite initiation of hormone replacement therapy with hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone, nausea persisted and the patient developed cognitive deficits and a loss of interest which led to the diagnosis of depression. She was admitted to the psychiatric department for further diagnostic assessment. An EEG showed a focal epileptic pattern. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies, which had been negative eight years earlier, were now elevated in serum and in the cerebrospinal ...
WRKY transcription factors are known to play important roles in plant responses to biotic stresses. We previously showed that the expression of the WRKY gene, VqWRKY52, from Chinese wild Vitis quinquangularis was strongly induced 24 h post inoculation with powdery mildew. In this study, we analyzed the expression levels of VqWRKY52 following treatment with the defense related hormones salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), revealing that VqWRKY52 was strongly induced by SA but not JA. We characterized the VqWRKY52 gene, which encodes a WRKY III gene family member, and found that ectopic expression in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced resistance to powdery mildew and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, but increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea, compared with wild type plants. The transgenic A. thaliana lines displayed strong cell death induced by the biotrophic powdery mildew pathogen, the hemibiotrophic Pseudomonas syringe pathogen and the ...
Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is a rare disorder of respiratory control characterized by ventilatory impairment that results in arterial hypoxemia. This condition worse during sleep and occurs in patients with normal mechanical properties of the lung. It is diagnosed in the absence of primary neuromuscular disease, identifiable brainstem lesions, and other sleep disturbances or substance use.. Amiel et al. (2003) identified a mutation in the Phox2B gene associated with CCHS, characterized by 5 to 9 alanine expansions within a 20-residue polyalanine region in exon 3 of the Phox2B gene. Several reports confirmed the findings of Amiel et al., supporting the view that this gene is a master switch for the development of the autonomic nervous system network linked to respiratory control. Transgenic animals carrying the human Phox2B mutation develop a similar phenotype and lack glutamatergic neurons located in the parafacial region in the brainstem, which are involved in breathing ...
Definition of octamer transcription factor-3 in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of octamer transcription factor-3. What does octamer transcription factor-3 mean? Information and translations of octamer transcription factor-3 in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
In vitro, the transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) mimics the positive effects of insulin on hepatic genes involved in glucose utilization, such as glucokinase (GK) and enzymes of the lipogenic pathway, suggesting that it is a key factor in the control of hepatic glucose metabolism. Decreased glucose utilization and increased glucose production by the liver play an important role in the development of the hyperglycemia in diabetic states. We thus reasoned that if SREBP-1c is indeed a mediator of hepatic insulin action, a hepatic targeted overexpression of SREBP-1c should greatly improve glucose homeostasis in diabetic mice. This was achieved by injecting streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice with a recombinant adenovirus containing the cDNA of the mature, transcriptionally active form of SREBP-1c. We show here that overexpressing SREBP-1c specifically in the liver of ...
casSAR Dugability of D3ZYB7 | Taf1b | TATA box-binding protein-associated factor RNA polymerase I subunit B - Also known as TAF1B_RAT, Taf1b. Component of RNA polymerase I core factor complex that acts as a GTF2B/TFIIB-like factor and plays a key role in multiple steps during transcription initiation such as pre-initiation complex (PIC) assembly and postpolymerase recruitment events in polymerase I (Pol I) transcription. Binds rDNA promoters and plays a role in Pol I recruitment as a component of the SL1/TIF-IB complex and, possibly, directly through its interaction with RRN3 (By similarity). Interacts with FLNA (via N-terminus) (By similarity). Component of the transcription factor SL1/TIF-IB complex, composed of TBP and at least TAF1A, TAF1B, TAF1C and TAF1D. In the complex interacts directly with TBP, TAF1A and TAF1C. Interaction of the ...
Mitochondria depend on a nucleus-encoded transcription machinery to express their genome. The present study examined the transcription of mitochondrial genes by two nucleus-encoded phage-type RNA polymerases, RpoTm and RpoTmp, in the plant Arabidopsis. For selected mitochondrial genes in Arabidopsis, transcription initiation sites were determined. Most genes were found to possess multiple promoters. The identified promoters displayed diverse sequence elements and mostly deviated from a nonanucleotide consensus derived previously for dicot mitochondrial promoters. Several promoters were detected that activate transcription of presumably non-functional sequences. Promoter architecture, distribution and utilization suggest a non-stringent control of transcription initiation in Arabidopsis mitochondria. An in vitro ...
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ or PPARG), also known as the glitazone receptor, or NR1C3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group C, member 3) is a type II nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the PPARG gene. PPARG is mainly present in adipose tissue, colon and macrophages. Two isoforms of PPARG are detected in the human and in the mouse: PPAR-γ1 (found in nearly all tissues except muscle) and PPAR-γ2 (mostly found in adipose tissue and the intestine). PPARG regulates fatty acid storage and glucose metabolism. The genes activated by PPARG stimulate lipid uptake and adipogenesis by fat cells. PPARG knockout mice fail to generate adipose tissue when fed a high-fat diet. This gene encodes a member of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) subfamily of nuclear receptors. PPARs form heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and these heterodimers regulate transcription of various genes. Four subtypes of PPARs are known: ...
Dietary nutrients interact with gene networks to orchestrate adaptive responses during metabolic stress. Here, we identify Baf60a as a diet-sensitive subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes in the mouse liver that links the consumption of fat- and cholesterol-rich diet to elevated plasma cholesterol levels. Baf60a expression was elevated in the liver following feeding with a western diet. Hepatocyte-specific inactivation of Baf60a reduced bile acid production and cholesterol absorption, and attenuated diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in mice. Baf60a stimulates expression of genes involved in bile acid synthesis, modification, and transport through a CAR/Baf60a feedforward regulatory loop. Baf60a is required for the recruitment of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes to facilitate an activating epigenetic switch on target genes. These studies elucidate a regulatory pathway that mediates the hyperlipidemic and atherogenic effects of western diet ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of a family of related cellular transcription factors which can modulate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcription in vitro. AU - Yoon, Jong-Bok. AU - Li, Gen. AU - Roeder, Robert G.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - LBP-1 is a cellular protein which binds strongly to sequences around the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) initiation site and weakly over the TATA box. We have previously shown that LBP-1 represses HIV-1 transcription by inhibiting the binding of TFIID to the TATA box. Four similar but distinct cDNAs encoding LBP-1 (LBP-1a, -b, -c, and -d) have been isolated. These are products of two related genes, and each gene encodes two alternatively spliced products. Comparison of the amino acid sequence of LBP- 1 with entries in the available protein data bases revealed the identity of LBP-1c to α-CP2, an α-globin ...
We have shown that LEF1 played critical and nonredundant roles in iNKT cell expansion and iNKT2 effector fate differentiation. We showed that in the absence of LEF1, iNKT cell expansion at ST0 and ST1 failed to occur and that LEF1 directly regulated expression of the CD127 component of the IL-7 receptor and the transcription factor c-myc, both of which are required for this phase of expansion (Dose et al., 2009; Mycko et al., 2009; Tani-ichi et al., 2013). LEF1 was also required for the development of iNKT2 cells, which include both IL-4 only and IL-4 plus IFNγ-producing iNKT cells, and LEF1 directly regulated the expression of the iNKT2 signature transcription factor GATA3. Our findings are particularly striking given that LEF1 deficiency has only subtle effects on conventional T cells during their differentiation and in the periphery during their activation and acquisition of the memory phenotype as the ...
Homeodomain transcription factors regulate development of embryos and cellular physiology in adult systems. Paired-type homeodomain genes constitute a subclass that has been particularly implicated in establishment of neuronal identity in the mammalian nervous system. We isolated fragments of eight homeodomain genes of this subclass expressed in the stellate ganglion of ... read more the North Atlantic long finned squid Loligo pealei (lp) [Note: Loligo pealei has been officially renamed Doryteuthis pealei. For reasons of uniformity and clarity Loligo pealei (lp) is used here]. Of the most abundant ones, we cloned a full length cDNA which encoded the squid ortholog of the paired-type homeodomain proteins Phox2a/b. The homology of lpPhox2 to invertebrate and mammalian Phox2 was limited to the homeodomain. In contrast to mouse Phox2b, lpPhox2 was unable to transactivate the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) promoter in a heterologous mammalian transfection ...
Trieu M., Ma A., Eng S.R., Fedtsova N., Turner E.E.. Brn3a is a POU-domain transcription factor expressed in peripheral sensory neurons and in specific interneurons of the caudal CNS. Sensory expression of Brn3a is regulated by a specific upstream enhancer, the activity of which is greatly increased in Brn3a knockout mice, implying that Brn3a negatively regulates its own expression. Brn3a binds to highly conserved sites within this enhancer, and alteration of these sites abolishes Brn3a regulation of reporter transgenes. Furthermore, endogenous Brn3a expression levels in the sensory ganglia of Brn3a(+/+) and Brn3a(+/-) mice are similar, demonstrating that autoregulation can compensate for the loss of one allele by increasing transcription of the remaining gene copy. Conversely, transgenic overexpression of Brn3a in the trigeminal ganglion suppresses the expression of the endogenous gene. These findings demonstrate that the ...
During exercise, children with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) demonstrate coupling of VE to exercise load, despite the absence of a VE response to changes in FICO2. To assess the effect of movement on VE, we studied six CCHS patie
Component of the general transcription and DNA repair factor IIH (TFIIH) core complex, which is involved in general and transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (NER) of damaged DNA and, when complexed to TFIIK, in RNA transcription by RNA polymerase II. In NER, TFIIH acts by opening DNA around the lesion to allow the excision of the damaged oligonucleotide and its replacement by a new DNA fragment. In transcription, TFIIH has an essential role in transcription initiation. When the pre-initiation complex (PIC) has been established, TFIIH is required for promoter opening and promoter escape. Phosphorylation of the C-terminal tail (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II by the kinase module TFIIK controls the initiation of transcription.
According to the prediction of the involvement of bZIP transcription factors in the ER stress response, AtbZIP60 was identified by genome-wide screening based on genomic information on Arabidopsis. Tunicamycin and other reagents activating the ER stress response induced transcripts of AtbZIP60. From these results, we predicted that AtbZIP60 plays a role in the ER stress response. Because the expression profile of AtbZIP60 was close to that of BiP, induction of AtbZIP60 transcript was not considered to be the first trigger of activation for BiP expression. Instead, it was assumed that a conformational change of AtbZIP60 activates the expression of chaperone genes, such as BiP. This prediction was based on the fact that AtbZIP60 contains a putative TMD like that of ATF6 in mammalian cells. Specifically, it was hypothesized that AtbZIP60 is converted to a soluble form by ER stress and becomes localized to the nucleus, resulting in the ...
In order to preserve a balance between the requirement for iron and its toxicity, plants likely maintain tight control over iron homeostasis. We are interested in identifying factors involved in the regulation of iron uptake and have examined this response in the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Work presented in this thesis examines the role of an essential transcription factor that controls iron uptake responses in the Arabidopsis root. Because iron is an essential nutrient for plant and human nutrition, improvements in our understanding of how plants assimilate iron from the soil will have implications for both agriculture and human health. We report the identification of the transcription factor FIT1 ( Fe-deficiency Induced Transcription factor 1 ), which is required for a proper iron deficiency response. fit1 loss of function ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Outfoxing FoxO transcription factors. T2 - HTLV-1 Tax oncoprotein inactivates FoxO4 via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. AU - Shembade, Noula. AU - Harhaj, Edward. PY - 2011/10/1. Y1 - 2011/10/1. N2 - Evaluation of: Oteiza A, Mechti N. The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 oncoprotein tax controls forkhead box O4 activity through degradation by the proteasome. J. Virol. 85(13), 6480-6491 (2011). This study examines downstream signaling events of PI3K/AKT in the context of human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection. The authors have demonstrated that the HTLV-1 Tax oncoprotein triggers the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of the FoxO4 transcription factor. Phosphorylation by AKT is requisite for Tax-induced FoxO4 degradation since mutation of the AKT phosphorylation sites abrogates FoxO4 degradation. Furthermore, Tax enhances the interaction between ...
In order for cells to proliferate, a certain size has to be reached, which depends primarily on the rate of translation. RNA polymerase (pol) III plays a key role in protein synthesis by catalysing the production of small, untranslated RNA molecules such as transfer (tRNA) and 5S ribosomal RNA (5S rRNA). Indeed, recent evidence suggests that tRNAiMet production is limiting for translation and proliferation in some cell types. Therefore, the rate of pol III transcription plays a fundamental role in cellular growth and proliferation. Regulation of pol III output is mediated via a number of different mechanisms that can alter the activities of the transcription factors which are responsible for directing pol III transcription. Work presented in this thesis aimed at investigating the mechanisms behind the regulation of pol III transcription by the protein kinase ...
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The transcription factor DRTF1/E2F is implicated in the control of cellular proliferation due to its interaction with key regulators of cell cycle progression, such as the retinoblastoma tumour suppressor gene product and related pocket proteins, cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases. DRTF1/E2F DNA binding activity arises when a member of two distinct ... read more families of proteins, DP and E2F, interact as DP/E2F heterodimers. Here, we report the isolation and characterisation of a new member of the E2F family of proteins, called E2F-5. E2F-5 was isolated through a yeast two hybrid assay in which a 14.5 d.p.c. mouse embryo library was screened for molecules capable of binding to murine DP-1, but also interacts with all known members of the DP family of proteins. E2F-5 exists as a physiological heterodimer with DP-1 in the generic DRTF1/E2F DNA binding activity present in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Retinoblastoma protein disrupts interactions required for RNA polymerase III transcription. AU - Sutcliffe, Josephine E.. AU - Brown, T. R P. AU - Allison, S. J.. AU - Scott, Pamela H.. AU - White, R. J.. PY - 2000/12. Y1 - 2000/12. N2 - The retinoblastoma protein (RB) has been shown to suppress RNA polymerase (Pol) III transcription in vivo (R. J. White, D. Trouche, K. Martin, S. P. Jackson, and T. Kouzarides, Nature 382:88-90, 1996). This regulation involves interaction with TFIIIB, a multisubunit factor that is required for the expression of all Pol III templates (C. G. C. Larminie, C. A. Cairns, R. Mital, K. Martin, T. Kouzarides, S. P. Jackson, and R. J. White, EMBO J. 16:2061-2071, 1997; W.-M. Chu, Z. Wang, R. G. Roeder, and C. W. Schmid, J. Biol. Chem. 272:14755-14761, 1997). However, it has not been established why RB binding to TFIIIB results in transcriptional ...
Giardia lamblia is an early branching eukaryote, and although distinctly eukaryotic in its cell and molecular biology, transcription and translation in G. lamblia demonstrate important differences from these processes in higher eukaryotes. The cyclic octapeptide amanitin is a relatively selective inhibitor of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) and is commonly used to study RNAP II transcription. Therefore, we measured the sensitivity of G. lamblia RNAP II transcription to alpha-amanitin and found that unlike most other eukaryotes, RNAP II transcription in Giardia is resistant to 1 mg/ml amanitin. In contrast, 50 microg/ml amanitin inhibits 85% of RNAP III transcription activity using leucyl-tRNA as a template. To better understand transcription in G. lamblia, we identified 10 of the 12 known eukaryotic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inositol polyphosphate multikinase is a coactivator of p53-mediated transcription and cell death. AU - Xu, Risheng. AU - Sen, Nilkantha. AU - Paul, Bindu D.. AU - Snowman, Adele M.. AU - Rao, Feng. AU - Vandiver, M. Scott. AU - Xu, Jing. AU - Snyder, Solomon H.. PY - 2013/4/2. Y1 - 2013/4/2. N2 - The tumor suppressor protein p53 is a critical stress response transcription factor that induces the expression of genes leading to cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and tumor suppression. We found that mammalian inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK) stimulated p53-mediated transcription by binding to p53 and enhancing its acetylation by the acetyltransferase p300 independently of its inositol phosphate and lipid kinase activities. Genetic or RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of IPMK resulted in decreased activation of p53, decreased recruitment of p53 and p300 to target ...
hypothetical protein, transcription factor protein, A306_09622, anon-WO03040301.171, avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog, avian myelocytomatosis viral (v-myc) oncogene homolog, bHLHe39, bHLHe57, cellular myelocytomatosis oncogene, CG10798 gene product from transcript CG10798-RB, CG10798-PA, CG10798-PB, class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 39, cmyc, c-MYC, c-myc20, c-Myc-a, c-Myc-b, c-myc-like protein, c-myc proto-oncogene, diminuitive, diminutive, DM, dm/dMyc, Dmel_CG10798, dm/myc, d-myc, dMYC, dmyc1, EG:BACN5I9.1, EGK_19271, lethal (1) G0354, lethal (1) G0359, MDA_GLEAN10014535, mMyc, MRTL, Myc2, myc-a, myc-b, MYCC, Myc-PA, Myc-PB, myc proto-oncogene protein, myc-related translation/localization regulatory factor, myelocytomatosis oncogene, myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog, N303_07797, N307_12984, N309_06569, Niard, Nird, oncoprotein myc, PAL_GLEAN10003365, Proto-oncogene c-Myc, RNCMYC, ...
Nuclear receptor coactivator that directly binds nuclear receptors and stimulates the transcriptional activities in a hormone-dependent fashion. Involved in the coactivation of different nuclear receptors, such as for steroids (PGR, GR and ER), retinoids (RXRs), thyroid hormone (TRs) and prostanoids (PPARs). Also involved in coactivation mediated by STAT3, STAT5A, STAT5B and STAT6 transcription factors. Displays histone acetyltransferase activity toward H3 and H4; the relevance of such activity remains however unclear. Plays a central role in creating multisubunit coactivator complexes that act via remodeling of chromatin, and possibly acts by participating in both chromatin remodeling and recruitment of general transcription factors. Required with NCOA2 to control energy balance between white and brown adipose tissues. Required for mediating steroid hormone response. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Components of the SMRT corepressor complex exhibit distinctive interactions with the POZ domain oncoproteins PLZF, PLZF-RAR∅, and BCL-6. AU - Wong, Chi Wai. AU - Privalsky, Martin L.. PY - 1998/10/16. Y1 - 1998/10/16. N2 - Many transcription factors function by repressing gene transcription. For a variety of these transcription factors the ability to physically recruit auxiliary proteins, denoted corepressors, is crucial for the ability to silence gene expression. We and others have previously implicated the SMRT corepressor in the actions of the PLZF transcription factor and in the function of its oncogenic derivative, PLZF-retinoic acid receptor (RARα), in promyelocytic leukemia. We report here that PLZF, and a structurally similar transcriptional repressor, BCL-6, can ...
Transcription Factor Brn-3C: A POU domain factor that activates neuronal cell GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES encoding NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS, alpha internexin, and SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25. Mutations in the Brn-3c gene have been associated with DEAFNESS.
Substance P is a member of the tachykinin family of neuropeptides that plays an important role in pain transmission, neurogenic inflammatory diseases and the adaptive response to stress. Substance P exerts its biological activities via binding to a G-protein coupled receptor of the neurokinin (NK) receptor family. Here, we show by Western blot experiments that substance P induced a transient synthesis of the zinc finger transcriptional regulator Egr-1 in human glioma cells. Substance P-induced stimulation of Egr-1 biosynthesis was completely inhibited by the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor PD98059 and by AG1487, an epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor. These results indicate that transactivation of the EGF receptor as well as stimulation of the mitogen activated/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) are essential for substance P/NK-1 receptor-induced activation of Egr-1 biosynthesis. ...
TBX3, a member of the T-box family of transcription factors, is essential in development and has emerged as an important player in the oncogenic process. TBX3 is overexpressed in several cancers and has been shown to contribute directly to tumour formation, migration and invasion. However, little is known about the molecular basis for its role in development and oncogenesis because there is a paucity of information regarding its target genes. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1 plays a pivotal role in a myriad of processes including cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis and here we provide a detailed mechanism to show that it is a direct and biologically relevant target of TBX3. Using a combination of luciferase reporter gene assays and in vitro and in vivo binding assays we show that TBX3 directly represses the p21WAF1 promoter by binding a T-element close to its initiator. Furthermore, we show that the TBX3 DNA binding domain is required ...
Background: ChREBP (carbohydrate response element binding protein) is a glucose-responsive transcription factor that is known to be an important regulator of glycolytic and lipogenic genes in response to glucose. We hypothesized that activation of ChREBP could be relevant to anoxia survival by the anoxia-tolerant turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans. Methods: Expression of ChREBP in response to 5 and 20 h of anoxia was examined using RT-PCR and Western immunoblotting. In addition, subcellular localization and DNA-binding activity of ChREBP protein were assessed and transcript levels of liver pyruvate kinase (LPK), a downstream gene under ChREBP control were quantified using RT-PCR. Results: ChREBP was anoxia-responsive in kidney and liver, with transcript levels increasing by 1.2-1.8 fold in response to anoxia and protein levels increasing by 1.8-1.9 fold. Enhanced nuclear presence under anoxia was also observed in both tissues by 22-2.8 fold. A 4.2 fold ...
Chronic alcohol consumption induces multi-organ damage, including alcoholic liver disease (ALD), pancreatitis and hypertension. Ethanol and ethanol metabolic products play a significant role in the manifestation of its toxicity. Ethanol metabolizes to acetaldehyde and produces reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) by cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase. Ethanol metabolism mediated by cytochrome-P450 2E1 causes oxidative stress due to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Acetaldehyde, increased redox cellular state and ROS activate transcription factors, which in turn activate genes for lipid biosynthesis and offer protection of hepatocytes from alcohol toxicity. Sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) and peroxisome proliferator activated-receptors (PPARs) are two key lipogenic transcription factors implicated in the development of fatty liver in alcoholic and ...
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... , Authors: Roderick AF MacLeod, Stefan Nagel. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
I gave up on the DP site long ago when I tried mercilessly to post on there and my comments never got approved for whatever reason. This was around the time she announced she was pregnant for Anthony-Michael. So, I gave up. Ive had some success on the FB for DP after the episodes air. BUT there is a FB page totally devoted to the DP Family. Its a fan site and NOT run by the show at all. Of course there are always a few idiots that manage to find it, LIKE it and post on there thinking theyre actually talking to DP or the shows staff even though it CLEARLY states the page is NOT RUN OR MANAGED by anyone at from the show. I check it out from time to time, of course Ive found more info on here, but youre all welcomed to check it out. You can at least post on there and not worry about it getting deleted ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Cooperative activation of tissue-specific genes by pRB and E2F1.: The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein pRB is conventionally regarded as an inhibitor of
p53 and the Retinoblastoma protein (pRb) are two oncosuppressive proteins whose loss of function is linked to the development of many cancers. Both of them play a central role in the regulation of both cell cycle and apoptosis. Different observations have led to a paradigm in which p53 and pRb can regulate each other, pRb playing an important role in the outcome-growth arrest versus apoptosis-of p53 activation.
Researchers have found a non-invasive way to biopsy retinoblastoma tumors, which could enable precision therapies for children with the rare cancer.
Plasmid pGL3-Control-E2F-3UTR-WT from Dr. Joshua Mendells lab contains the insert E2F transcription factor 1 and is published in Nature. 2005 Jun 9. 435(7043):839-43. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
E2F8 antibody [N3C3] (E2F transcription factor 8) for WB. Anti-E2F8 pAb (GTX112299) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Complete information for E2F5 gene (Protein Coding), E2F Transcription Factor 5, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
miR-145 inhibits cell proliferation through E2F3 dependent cell cycle regulation(A) qRT-PCR were performed to determine the expression level of E2F3 after tra
Latest Exam Dumps Veritas DP-022W Demo, Latest Exam Dumps DP-022W Pdf With Accurate Answers Data Protection Implementation for Windows using NetBackup 5.0 Test Answer | Plaza de la Exam
Dear Valued Visitor,. We have noticed that you are using an ad blocker software. Although advertisements on the web pages may degrade your experience, our business certainly depends on them and we can only keep providing you high-quality research based articles as long as we can display ads on our pages.. To view this article, you can disable your ad blocker and refresh this page or simply login.. We only allow registered users to use ad blockers. You can sign up for free by clicking here or you can login if you are already a member.. ...
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Chao, P-Z., Hsieh, M-S., Cheng, C-W., Hsu, T. J., Lin, Y. T., Lai, C. H., Liao, C. C., Chen, W-Y., Leung, T-K., Lee, F-P., Lin, Y-F. & Chen, C-H., 2015, 於 : Oncotarget. 6, 1, p. 159-170 12 p.. 研究成果: 雜誌貢獻 › 文章 ...
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Adipose Tissue MicroRNAs as Regulators of CCL2 Production in Human Obesity | DiabetesAdipose Tissue MicroRNAs as Regulators of CCL2 Production in Human Obesity | Diabetes

SP1, Sp1 transcription factor; NFATC3, nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 3; BHLH, basic ... transcription factor Dp-1. (A high-quality color representation of this figure is available in the online issue.) ... MicroRNA 155 modulates megakaryopoiesis at progenitor and precursor level by targeting Ets-1 and Meis1 transcription factors. ... The miRNAs may act directly on the target genes or indirectly by first regulating transcription factors (TFs), which, in turn, ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/61/8/1986.full

An Introduction to Molecular Biology/Cell Cycle - Wikibooks, open books for an open worldAn Introduction to Molecular Biology/Cell Cycle - Wikibooks, open books for an open world

... the Rb-HDAC repressor complex binds to the E2F-DP1 transcription factors, therefore inhibiting the downstream transcription. ... TGFb inhibits the transcription of Cdc25A, a phosphatase that activates the cell cycle kinases, and growth factor withdrawal ... them from transcription), activating E2F. Activation of E2F results in transcription of various genes like cyclin E, cyclin A, ... In order to proceed past prophase, the cyclin B-Cdk1 complex (first discovered as MPF or M-phase promoting factor) is activated ...
more infohttps://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/An_Introduction_to_Molecular_Biology/Cell_Cycle

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Furthermore, phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (Rb) was activated which released the transcription factor E2F and DP-1 ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/68/9_Supplement/2238

DiVA - Search resultDiVA - Search result

... of the ISGF3 transcription factor. Significantly, none of these ISGs was activated in Ad2 infected IMR90 cells. Thus, the ... In agreement with this, we find that E4-ORF4 inhibits E2F-1/DP-1-mediated transactivation. We also show that E4-ORF4 inhibits ... suggesting that E4-ORF4 represses E2 transcription by inducing transcription factor dephosphorylation. Interestingly, E4-ORF4 ... Previous studies have shown that the cell cycle-regulated E2F transcription factor is subjected to both positive and negative ...
more infohttp://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/resultList.jsf?af=%5B%5D&aq=%5B%5B%7B%22journalId%22%3A%221955%22%7D%5D%5D&aqe=%5B%5D&aq2=%5B%5B%5D%5D&language=en&query=

G2 checkpoint abrogators as anticancer drugs | Molecular Cancer TherapeuticsG2 checkpoint abrogators as anticancer drugs | Molecular Cancer Therapeutics

Phosphorylated RB releases E2F/DP-1 transcription enhancer complexes to activate the transcription of the downstream genes that ... Mutations which activate oncogenes (such as Ras, Cyclin D, erbB, epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR], etc.) increase the ... which induces p53 to activate the transcription of GADD45, p21, and 14-3-3 sigma, all of which can suppress G2-M transition. ... The G2 checkpoint of many cancer cells is activated by the increased DNA damage that results from a defective G1 checkpoint; ...
more infohttp://mct.aacrjournals.org/content/3/4/513.full

Differential Expression and Function of Caveolin-1 in Human Gastric Cancer Progression | Cancer ResearchDifferential Expression and Function of Caveolin-1 in Human Gastric Cancer Progression | Cancer Research

The transcription factors p53, E2F/DP-1, SP1, and sterol-regulatory element binding protein also inhibit the caveolin-1 ... Invasion activating caveolin-1 mutation in human scirrhous breast cancers. Cancer Res 2001; 61: 2361-4. ... Chronic infection of the gastric mucosa with H. pylori is a major risk factor for the pathogenesis of GC in humans ( 3, 14). ... Reverse transcription and cDNA amplification were done using the LightCycler FastStart DNA Master SYBR green kit, device, and ...
more infohttps://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/67/18/8519?ijkey=14e513331f15c2a1d9c01f99229b3ba9c0fd263e&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Cyclopentenone prostaglandins - WikipediaCyclopentenone prostaglandins - Wikipedia

PGD2, PGJ2, Δ12-PGJ2, and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 activate the transcription factor, PPARγ, with 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 being the ... These PGJ2s also bind and activate a second G protein-coupled receptor, Prostaglandin DP1 receptor, but require high ... This PG directly binds with and activates PPARγ thereby inducing the transcription of genes containing the PPARγ response ... KEAP1: cytosolic KEAP1 serves to promote the degradation of Nrf2 by proteasomes thereby inhibiting this transcription factor ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclopentenone_prostaglandins

Interacting domains of E2F1, DP1, and the adenovirus E4 protein. | Journal of VirologyInteracting domains of E2F1, DP1, and the adenovirus E4 protein. | Journal of Virology

Recent experiments demonstrate that a family of related proteins constitute the E2F transcription factor activity and that the ... generates a heterodimer with DNA binding and transcriptional activating capacity. Previous experiments have shown that the ... we conclude that the E4 protein likely interacts with the E2F1-DP1 heterodimer by directly binding to the DP1 product. As a ... Interacting domains of E2F1, DP1, and the adenovirus E4 protein. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/68/7/4213?ijkey=bc307b6b17967c0aa9baf33fd5728014a0bd317d&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Cell cycle - WikipediaCell cycle - Wikipedia

The expression profiles of these transcription factors are driven by the transcription factors that peak in the prior phase, ... them from transcription), activating E2F. Activation of E2F results in transcription of various genes like cyclin E, cyclin A, ... The hyperphosphorylated Rb dissociates from the E2F/DP1/Rb complex (which was bound to the E2F responsive genes, effectively " ... One screen of single-gene knockouts identified 48 transcription factors (about 20% of all non-essential transcription factors) ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_cycle

Cell cycle - Start of DNA replication in early S phase Pathway Map - PrimePCR | Life Science | Bio-RadCell cycle - Start of DNA replication in early S phase Pathway Map - PrimePCR | Life Science | Bio-Rad

Transcription of many eukaryotic DNA replication machinery genes is activated by E2F transcriptional factors (e.g. E2F1/DP1 ... Serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activates by dephosphorylation DNA polymerase alpha/primase in late G1 phase. ...
more infohttp://www.bio-rad.com/en-us/prime-pcr-assays/pathway/cell-cycle-start-dna-replication-early-s-phase

Gendoo - Relevant featuresGendoo - Relevant features

Transcription Factor DP1 DP1転写因子 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8 マイトジェン活性化プロテインキナーゼ8 ... Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Peptides and Proteins 腫瘍壊死因子受容体関連ペプチドと蛋白質 ... TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 2 腫瘍壊死因
more infohttp://gendoo.dbcls.jp/cgi-bin/gendoo.cgi?omimid=601895&taxonomy=human

Search Ageing-Associated Genes in HumansSearch Ageing-Associated Genes in Humans

transcription factor AP-2 alpha (activating enhancer binding protein 2 alpha). TFAP2A. ... transcription factor Dp-1. TFDP1. 91. TGFB1. transforming growth factor, beta 1. TGFB1. ... hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor). HIF1A. ... nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2. NFE2L2. 82. NFKB1. nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1. ...
more infohttp://genomics.senescence.info/genes/query.php?show=4&sort=2

SMART: Secondary literature for UBCc domainSMART: Secondary literature for UBCc domain

Gel-shift assays and coimmunoprecipitation show that both DP-1 and DP-2 dimerize to chE2F-1 and activate transcription ... Erythroid Kruppel like factor (EKLF) is the founding member of a family of transcription factors which are defined by the ... Auxin response factors (ARFs) are transcription factors that bind with specificity to TGTCTC auxin response elements (AuxREs) ... There has been growing interest in the role of the IRF (interferon regulatory factor) family of transcription factors in the ...
more infohttp://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/show_secondary.cgi?domain=UBCc

Retinoblastoma-associated protein (IPR033057) | InterPro | EMBL-EBIRetinoblastoma-associated protein (IPR033057) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

This interaction can be impeded by Cyclin-Cdk phosphorylation leading to activated transcription [PMID: 26319102]. Eliminating ... It interacts with the E2F1/DP1 complex and represses E2F/DP-mediated transcriptional activation. ... GO:0045892 negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated Molecular Function. GO:0008134 transcription factor binding ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR033057

Cell cycle Start of DNA replication in early S phaseCell cycle Start of DNA replication in early S phase

Transcription of m any eukaryotic DNA replication machinery genes is activated by E2F transcriptional factors (e.g. E2F1/DP1 ... E2F1, Histone H1, ORC5L, RPA2, DNA polymerase alpha/primase, PP2A catalytic, RPA3, DP1, CDC45L, E2F1/DP1 complex, CDC7, MCM4, ... Serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A ( PP2A ) activates by dephosphorylation DNA polymerase alpha/primase in late G1 phase. ...
more infohttp://pathwaymaps.com/maps/705/

OCT4 increases BIRC5 and CCND1 expression and promotes cancer progression in hepatocellular carcinoma | BMC Cancer | Full TextOCT4 increases BIRC5 and CCND1 expression and promotes cancer progression in hepatocellular carcinoma | BMC Cancer | Full Text

These factors collusively promotes HCC cell proliferation, and co-suppression of OCT4 and BIRC5 is potentially beneficial for ... β-catenin-activated T-cell factor (TCF) transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) and Sp1 transcription ... E2F-DP1, CCND1, Stat3, Rb and p21 can activate the SP1 promoter [42], which then indirectly leads to an increase in BIRC5 ... Functional binding sites for the transcription factors SP1, KLF5, HIF-1α, Rb/E2F, TCF4 and Egr1 have been found in the BIRC5 ...
more infohttps://bmccancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2407-13-82

Large-scale RNAi screens identify novel genes that interact with the C. elegans retinoblastoma pathway as well as splicing...Large-scale RNAi screens identify novel genes that interact with the C. elegans retinoblastoma pathway as well as splicing...

... family members inhibit transcription of S phase promoting genes by binding and blocking activating E2F transcription factors ( ... in mammals: E2F-1, E2F-2 or E2F-3 in association with DP-1 or DP-2). Another group of E2F transcription factors acts together ... The zfp-2 gene encodes a zinc-finger transcription factor with six C2H2 zinc finger domains and a KRAB A domain, which is ... we favor the model that ZFP-2 acts as a zinc-finger transcription factor in transcriptional suppression. ...
more infohttps://bmcdevbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-213X-7-30

Involvement of Retinoblastoma Family Members and E2F/DP Complexes in the Death of Neurons Evoked by DNA Damage | Journal of...Involvement of Retinoblastoma Family Members and E2F/DP Complexes in the Death of Neurons Evoked by DNA Damage | Journal of...

1993) Functional synergy between DP-1 and E2F-1 in the cell cycle-regulating transcription factor DRTF1/E2F. EMBO J 12:4317- ... The only presently known in vivo substrates of activated Cdk4/6 are the tumor suppresser pRb and its related family member p107 ... DN DP1 virus + UV (C), (Δ1-126) DN DP1 control virus + UV (D), or (Δ1-126) DN DP1 virus alone (E). The photos were taken 2 d ... survival with DN DP1 expression vs 50% without). Expression of a mutant of DP1 [(Δ233-272) DP1] bearing the E2F-binding domain ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/20/9/3104?ijkey=6f6be308824c5b391489fcba8818355da294edc5&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

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... have laid the foundation for understanding how Atoh1 can activate specific targets relative to other bHLH transcription factors ... dP1/dI1) populations located adjacent to the roof plate in the developing neural tube. The dP1 domain begins expressing Atoh1 ... Kruppel-like factor 7 (Klf7), a transcription factor implicated in nociceptive neuron development in the dorsal root ganglion ( ... indicate that these transcription factors can turn on genes with a wide array of functions including transcription factors, ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/31/30/10859

Protein quality control-linking the unfolded protein response to disease | EMBO ReportsProtein quality control-linking the unfolded protein response to disease | EMBO Reports

activating transcription factor 4. CFTR. cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. CHIP. carboxyl terminus of Hsc70‐ ... DP1. deleted in polyposis locus protein 1. E3. enzyme 3, ubiquitin ligase. EDEM. ER degradation‐enhancing α‐mannosidase‐like. ... ATF4/6, activating transcription factor 4/6; BiP, immunoglobulin heavy‐chain‐binding protein; CHOP, CCAAT/enhancer‐binding ... CHOP is a transcription factor that is induced through PERK signalling and induces apoptotic cell death in response to chronic ...
more infohttp://embor.embopress.org/content/10/11/1206

Transcription Factors Synergistically Activated at the Crossing of the Restriction Point between G1 and S Cell Cycle Phases....Transcription Factors Synergistically Activated at the Crossing of the Restriction Point between G1 and S Cell Cycle Phases....

An example of a negative feedback loop is the transcription of E2F6-8 downstream of E2F1-3:DP1 transcription factors. This ... 2. Transcription Factors. Transcription factors (TFs) are present in all organisms and their number increases with genome size ... releases the inhibition of pocket proteins from transcription factors (E2F1-3/DP1-2 for instance). Some of the E2 Transcription ... Transcription Factors Synergistically Activated at the Crossing of the Restriction Point between G1 and S Cell Cycle Phases. ...
more infohttps://www.kenzpub.com/journals/nurr/2016/101201/

Cyclin D1 Is Required for Transformation by Activated Neu and Is Induced through an E2F-Dependent Signaling Pathway | Molecular...Cyclin D1 Is Required for Transformation by Activated Neu and Is Induced through an E2F-Dependent Signaling Pathway | Molecular...

1999) Neu differentiation factor stimulates phosphorylation and activation of the Sp1 transcription factor. Mol. Cell. Biol. 19 ... The vectors pCMV-E2F-1, pCMV-DC-E2F-1 E132, pCMV-E2F-1-Y411C, pCMV-HA-DP-1, and pCMV-HA-DP-1Δ103-126 were previously described ... 1996) Interaction of D-type cyclins with a novel Myb-like transcription factor, DMP1. Mol. Cell. Biol. 16:6457-6467. ... 1995) Multiple members of the E2F transcription factor family are the products of oncogenes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92:1357 ...
more infohttps://mcb.asm.org/content/20/2/672?ijkey=e038635a1e7038198250a91bc15dc643afd24752&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

A Gender-Specific Retinoblastoma-Related Protein in Volvox carteri Implies a Role for the Retinoblastoma Protein Family in...A Gender-Specific Retinoblastoma-Related Protein in Volvox carteri Implies a Role for the Retinoblastoma Protein Family in...

Heterodimerization of the transcription factors E2F-1 and DP-1 leads to cooperative trans-activation. Genes Dev. 7: 1850-1861. ... AMP-activated protein kinase; 5, N-myristoyl transferase; 6, splicing factor 3a, subunit 2; 7, vacuolar ATP synthase, subunit C ... putative transcription factor with RWP-RK motif), and ID 94393 (putative forkhead transcription factor). ... Chellappan, S.P., Hiebert, S., Mudryj, M., Horowitz, J.M., and Nevins, J.R. (1991). The E2F transcription factor is a cellular ...
more infohttp://www.plantcell.org/content/20/9/2399.full

Dp1 Is Largely Dispensable for Embryonic Development | Molecular and Cellular BiologyDp1 Is Largely Dispensable for Embryonic Development | Molecular and Cellular Biology

The E2F/DP transcription factor family is composed of seven E2F members (E2F1 to -7) and two DP family members (DP1 and -2). ... activates transcription and a single E2F/DP complex (dE2F2/dDP) represses transcription. Although loss of dE2F1 results in ... DP1 protein is not detectable in the three Dp1-deficient lines, whereas there is abundant DP1 expression in the Dp1+/+ lines ( ... Generation of Dp1-deficient;ROSA26-LacZ ES cells. Dp1 +/− mice were mated to ROSA26 mice in which a LacZ gene is integrated at ...
more infohttps://mcb.asm.org/content/24/16/7197

Action of the SV40 T Antigen Chaperone Machine on Tumor Suppressors - James PipasAction of the SV40 T Antigen Chaperone Machine on Tumor Suppressors - James Pipas

Like many regulatory proteins pRb and E2F transcription factors do not exist in isolation. Rather they function as part of ... the J domain is required for T antigen to block the function of Rb proteins and thus to activate E2F-dependent transcription. ... E2F4-DP1, and pRb-E2F1-DP1 complexes. Second, the role of J domain orientation and flexibility will be examined using a ... by regulating the activity of the E2F family of transcription factors. Many viruses, including Simian virus 40 (SV40) encode ...
more infohttp://grantome.com/grant/NIH/R01-CA120997-05
  • Phosphorylation of Rb by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) counteracts its inhibitory function, resulting in the release of transcriptionally active E2F-DP and consequential onset of DNA replication. (biologists.org)
  • Before the introduction of the highly active antiviral therapy (HAART) in 1995, most of the infected population developed HAD at the late stage of the disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lei, Velez, Kazlauskas: Pathological signaling via platelet-derived growth factor receptor {alpha} involves chronic activation of Akt and suppression of p53. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Pubmed ID: 11884600 Biallelic expression of Igf2 is frequently seen in cancers because Igf2 functions as a survival factor. (jove.com)
  • To permit biochemical analysis of the arrest, we generated U2-OS osteogenic sarcoma cell clones in which p16 transcription could be induced. (asm.org)
  • These targets, Klf7 , Rab15 , Rassf4 , Selm , and Smad7 , have diverse functions that range from transcription factors to regulators of endocytosis and signaling pathways. (jneurosci.org)
  • To address this question, we focused on Atoh1 (Math1), a bHLH transcription factor that specifies distinct neuronal subtypes of the proprioceptive pathway in mammals including the dI1 (dorsal interneuron 1) population of the developing spinal cord. (jneurosci.org)