A hemostatic disorder characterized by a poor anticoagulant response to activated protein C (APC). The activated form of Factor V (Factor Va) is more slowly degraded by activated protein C. Factor V Leiden mutation (R506Q) is the most common cause of APC resistance.
A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.
Heat- and storage-labile plasma glycoprotein which accelerates the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in blood coagulation. Factor V accomplishes this by forming a complex with factor Xa, phospholipid, and calcium (prothrombinase complex). Deficiency of factor V leads to Owren's disease.
An absence or deficiency in PROTEIN C which leads to impaired regulation of blood coagulation. It is associated with an increased risk of severe or premature thrombosis. (Stedman's Med. Dict., 26th ed.)
A disorder of HEMOSTASIS in which there is a tendency for the occurrence of THROMBOSIS.
An autosomal dominant disorder showing decreased levels of plasma protein S antigen or activity, associated with venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. PROTEIN S is a vitamin K-dependent plasma protein that inhibits blood clotting by serving as a cofactor for activated PROTEIN C (also a vitamin K-dependent protein), and the clinical manifestations of its deficiency are virtually identical to those of protein C deficiency. Treatment with heparin for acute thrombotic processes is usually followed by maintenance administration of coumarin drugs for the prevention of recurrent thrombosis. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1511; Wintrobe's Clinical Hematology, 9th ed, p1523)
The vitamin K-dependent cofactor of activated PROTEIN C. Together with protein C, it inhibits the action of factors VIIIa and Va. A deficiency in protein S; (PROTEIN S DEFICIENCY); can lead to recurrent venous and arterial thrombosis.
A deficiency of blood coagulation factor V (known as proaccelerin or accelerator globulin or labile factor) leading to a rare hemorrhagic tendency known as Owren's disease or parahemophilia. It varies greatly in severity. Factor V deficiency is an autosomal recessive trait. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An antiphospholipid antibody found in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; and in a variety of other diseases as well as in healthy individuals. In vitro, the antibody interferes with the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin and prolongs the partial thromboplastin time. In vivo, it exerts a procoagulant effect resulting in thrombosis mainly in the larger veins and arteries. It further causes obstetrical complications, including fetal death and spontaneous abortion, as well as a variety of hematologic and neurologic complications.
The time required for the appearance of FIBRIN strands following the mixing of PLASMA with phospholipid platelet substitute (e.g., crude cephalins, soybean phosphatides). It is a test of the intrinsic pathway (factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII) and the common pathway (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V and X) of BLOOD COAGULATION. It is used as a screening test and to monitor HEPARIN therapy.
Laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's clotting mechanism.
Three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders resulting from abnormalities or deficiencies of coagulation proteins.
Antiphospholipid antibodies found in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; and in a variety of other diseases as well as in healthy individuals. The antibodies are detected by solid-phase IMMUNOASSAY employing the purified phospholipid antigen CARDIOLIPIN.
Blockage of the RETINAL VEIN. Those at high risk for this condition include patients with HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; and other CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.
A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.
The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
A member of the serpin family of proteins that is found in plasma and urine. It is dependent on heparin and is able to inhibit activated PROTEIN C; THROMBIN; KALLIKREIN; and other SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.
Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A cell surface glycoprotein of endothelial cells that binds thrombin and serves as a cofactor in the activation of protein C and its regulation of blood coagulation.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.
A pulmonary surfactant associated protein that plays a role in alveolar stability by lowering the surface tension at the air-liquid interface. It is a membrane-bound protein that constitutes 1-2% of the pulmonary surfactant mass. Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein C is one of the most hydrophobic peptides yet isolated and contains an alpha-helical domain with a central poly-valine segment that binds to phospholipid bilayers.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
Methods, procedures, and tests performed to diagnose disease, disordered function, or disability.
Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
Constituent composed of protein and phospholipid that is widely distributed in many tissues. It serves as a cofactor with factor VIIa to activate factor X in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.

Synergistic effects of prothrombotic polymorphisms and atherogenic factors on the risk of myocardial infarction in young males. (1/111)

Several recent studies evaluated a possible effect of the prothrombotic polymorphisms such as 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) nt 677C --> T, factor V (F V) nt 1691G --> A (F V Leiden), and factor II (F II) nt 20210 G --> A on the risk of myocardial infarction. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of these prothrombotic polymorphisms, as well as apolipoprotein (Apo) E4, smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia, on the risk of myocardial infarction in young males. We conducted a case-control study of 112 young males with first acute myocardial infarction (AMI) before the age of 52 and 187 healthy controls of similar age. The prevalences of heterozygotes for F V G1691A and F II G20210A were not significantly different between cases and controls (6.3% v 6.4% and 5.9% v 3.4% among cases and controls, respectively). In contrast, the prevalence of MTHFR 677T homozygosity and the allele frequency of Apo E4 were significantly higher among patients (24.1% v 10.7% and 9.4% v 5.3% among cases and controls, respectively). Concomitant presence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, or diabetes and one or more of the four examined polymorphisms increased the risk by almost ninefold (odds ratio [OR] = 8.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.49 to 21.5) and concomitant smoking by almost 18-fold (OR = 17.6; 95% CI, 6.30 to 48.9). When all atherogenic risk factors were analyzed simultaneously by a logistic model, the combination of prothrombotic and Apo E4 polymorphisms with current smoking increased the risk 25-fold (OR = 24.7; 95% CI, 7.17 to 84.9). The presented data suggest a synergistic effect between atherogenic and thrombogenic risk factors in the pathogenesis of AMI, as was recently found in a similar cohort of women.  (+info)

Thrombophilia as a multigenic disease. (2/111)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Venous thrombosis is a common disease annually affecting 1 in 1000 individuals. The multifactorial nature of the disease is illustrated by the frequent identification of one or more predisposing genetic and/or environmental risk factors in thrombosis patients. Most of the genetic defects known today affect the function of the natural anticoagulant pathways and in particular the protein C system. This presentation focuses on the importance of the genetic factors in the pathogenesis of inherited thrombophilia with particular emphasis on those defects which affect the protein C system. INFORMATION SOURCES: Published results in articles covered by the Medline database have been integrated with our original studies in the field of thrombophilia. STATE OF THE ART AND PERSPECTIVES: The risk of venous thrombosis is increased when the hemostatic balance between pro- and anti-coagulant forces is shifted in favor of coagulation. When this is caused by an inherited defect, the resulting hypercoagulable state is a lifelong risk factor for thrombosis. Resistance to activated protein C (APC resistance) is the most common inherited hypercoagulable state found to be associated with venous thrombosis. It is caused by a single point mutation in the factor V (FV) gene, which predicts the substitution of Arg506 with a Gln. Arg506 is one of three APC-cleavage sites and the mutation results in the loss of this APC-cleavage site. The mutation is only found in Caucasians but the prevalence of the mutant FV allele (FV:Q506) varies between countries. It is found to be highly prevalent (up to 15%) in Scandinavian populations, in areas with high incidence of thrombosis. FV:Q506 is associated with a 5-10-fold increased risk of thrombosis and is found in 20-60% of Caucasian patients with thrombosis. The second most common inherited risk factor for thrombosis is a point mutation (G20210A) in the 3' untranslated region of the prothrombin gene. This mutation is present in approximately 2% of healthy individuals and in 6-7% of thrombosis patients, suggesting it to be a mild risk factor of thrombosis. Other less common genetic risk factors for thrombosis are the deficiencies of natural anticoagulant proteins such as antithrombin, protein C or protein S. Such defects are present in less than 1% of healthy individuals and together they account for 5-10% of genetic defects found in patients with venous thrombosis. Owing to the high prevalence of inherited APC resistance (FV:Q506) and of the G20210A mutation in the prothrombin gene, combinations of genetic defects are relatively common in the general population. As each genetic defect is an independent risk factor for thrombosis, individuals with multiple defects have a highly increased risk of thrombosis. As a consequence, multiple defects are often found in patients with thrombosis.  (+info)

Factor V Leiden and antibodies against phospholipids and protein S in a young woman with recurrent thromboses and abortion. (3/111)

We describe the case of a 39-year-old woman who suffered two iliofemoral venous thromboses, a cerebral ischemic infarct and recurrent fetal loss. Initial studies showed high levels of antiphospholipid antibodies (APAs) and a moderate thrombocytopenia. After her second miscarriage, laboratory diagnosis revealed that the woman was heterozygous for the factor V Leiden mutation and had a functional protein S deficiency as well as anti-protein S and anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I antibodies. The impairment of the protein C pathway at various points could well explain the recurrent thromboses in the patient and supports the role of a disturbed protein C system in the pathophysiology of thrombosis in patients with APAs.  (+info)

Simultaneous detection of FV Q506 and prothrombin 20210 A variation by allele-specific PCR. (4/111)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Factor V Leiden is the most important risk factor for hereditary thromboembolism, whereas the mutation in the 3'-untranslated region of the prothrombin gene seems to be only a mild risk factor for thrombotic events. On the other hand the factor V mutation (Arg 506) is frequently coinherited with the prothrombin 3'-untranslated region G20210A variant and there is increasing evidence that the co-segregated prothrombin variant is an additional risk factor for venous thromboembolism, contributing to thrombotic manifestations. A rapid, simple and cost-effective screening method is, therefore, required for the detection of both factor V Leiden and the prothrombin variant A20210G. DESIGN AND METHODS: Eighty-eight patients were enrolled in this study. Forty-four had a previously identified factor V and/or prothrombin mutation, the remaining 44 patients served as negative controls. A multiplex allele specific oligonucleotide PCR was established for the simultaneous detection of the two genetic risk factors for thrombophilia. To test the specificity of the simultaneous ASO PCR approach, the mutated and physiological factor V and prothrombin amplification products were sequenced. RESULTS: The factor V Leiden mutation and the prothrombin variant were correctly identified in all of 44 patients with known mutations. Furthermore the test was able to detect the mutated factor V and the II variant alone, as well as in the cosegregated pattern. Five patients with a homozygous pattern of factor V Leiden or prothrombin variant were also correctly identified. The sensitivity of the test is therefore 100%. In none of the 44 control cases were false positive results seen. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: The ASO PCR test is a rapid, simple and cost-effective screening test for thrombophilia.  (+info)

Coagulation factors II, V, VII, and X, prothrombin gene 20210G-->A transition, and factor V Leiden in coronary artery disease: high factor V clotting activity is an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction. (5/111)

Increased levels of hemostatic factors and genetic mutations of proteins involved in coagulation may play a role in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. We investigated clotting activity of factors II (FII:C), V (FV:C), VII (FVII:C), and X (FX:C), the prothrombin gene 20210G-->A transition, and the factor V Leiden mutation in 200 survivors of myocardial infarction and in 100 healthy controls. FV:C (P<0.0001) and FVII:C (P<0.0001) were found to be independent risk factors for myocardial infarction. High FV:C or high FVII:C combined with smoking or arterial hypertension increased the relative risk for myocardial infarction up to 50-fold. One of 177 patients (0.6%) and 4 of 89 controls (4.5%) had the prothrombin 20210 AG genotype. Eleven of 177 patients (6.2%) and 6 of 89 controls (6.7%) were heterozygous for the factor V Leiden mutation. No homozygous carrier for these mutations was found. Neither the prothrombin gene 20210G-->A transition (odds ratio [OR], 0.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01 to 1.1) nor the factor V Leiden mutation (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.4 to 2.8) were associated with an increased relative risk for myocardial infarction. In conclusion, our data indicate that neither the prothrombin gene 20210G-->A transition nor the factor V Leiden mutation are risk factors for myocardial infarction. High FVII:C was confirmed to be an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction. Moreover, we describe for the first time that high FV:C is an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction.  (+info)

Risk of venous thromboembolism and clinical manifestations in carriers of antithrombin, protein C, protein S deficiency, or activated protein C resistance: a multicenter collaborative family study. (6/111)

Deficiencies of antithrombin (AT), protein C (PC) or protein S (PS), and activated protein C resistance (APCR) are very well-established coagulation defects predisposing to venous thromboembolism (VTE). We performed a retrospective cohort family study to assess the risk for VTE in individuals with AT, PC, or PS deficiency, or APCR. Five hundred thirteen relatives from 9 Italian centers were selected from 233 families in which the proband had had at least 1 episode of VTE. We calculated the incidence of VTE in the whole cohort and in the subgroups after stratification by age, sex, and defect. The overall incidence of VTE (per 100 patient-years) in the group of relatives was 0.52. It was 1.07 for AT, 0.54 for PC, 0.50 for PS, 0.30 for APCR, and 0.67 in the group with a double defect. The incidence was associated with age, but not with sex. The mean age at onset was between 30 and 40 years for all the coagulation defects. Women had the peak of incidence in the age range of 21 to 40 years, earlier than men. The lifetime risk for VTE was 4.4 for AT versus APCR, 2.6 for AT versus PS, 2.2 for AT versus PC, 1.9 for PC versus APCR, and 1.6 for PS versus APCR. AT deficiency seems to have a higher risk for VTE than the other genetic defects. There is a relation between age and occurrence of thrombosis for both men and women. The latter had the peak of incidence earlier than the former.  (+info)

Activated protein C resistance: effect of platelet activation, platelet-derived microparticles, and atherogenic lipoproteins. (7/111)

Plasma and platelet factor Va represent different substrates for activated protein C (APC). In this study, we have measured platelet-dependent APC resistance and the effect of aspirin and a platelet glycoprotein IIbIIIa antagonist (GR144053F) on this phenomenon. In platelet rich plasma (PRP), progressive APC resistance was observed with increasing platelet activation. APC sensitivity ratios of 1.8, 1.7, and 1.4 were observed after platelet activation with thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP), collagen, and A23187, respectively. Ultracentrifugation at 77,000g for 1 hour abolished APC resistance indicating that the phenotype is associated exclusively with the platelet membrane. APC resistance was not observed in the presence of phosphatidylcholine-phosphatidylserine (PCPS) vesicles or purified human plasma lipoproteins. APC resistance was observed in the presence of platelet-derived microparticles, but to a lesser degree than that in the presence of activated platelets. The platelet-dependent APC resistance phenotype was also observed when endogenous APC was generated by Protac (American Diagnostica, Inc, Greenwich, CT). In vitro inhibition of platelet activation with aspirin had no effect, but the fibrinogen receptor antagonist, GR144053F, inhibited platelet-dependent APC resistance. These results indicate that platelet activation results in an APC-resistant phenotype comparable to that observed in the plasma of patients with factor V gene mutations affecting critical APC cleavage sites. This suggests that platelet activation at the site of endothelial damage downregulates a critical natural anticoagulant mechanism. The antithrombotic effect of aspirin may be due to an indirect effect on platelet-dependent APC resistance with reduced platelet retention within a developing thrombus. The more potent antithrombotic effect of glycoprotein IIbIIIa antagonists may in addition be the result of reduced platelet factor Va expression and modulation of the platelet-dependent APC resistance phenotype.  (+info)

A possible role for activated protein C resistance in patients with first and second trimester pregnancy failure. (8/111)

Thrombophilia was recently suggested as a possible factor in recurrent pregnancy losses. We studied prospectively 125 patients (mean age 31.4 +/- 5.6 years) with one or more first or second trimester pregnancy losses for the prevalence of activated protein C resistance (APCR). Proteins C and S antigens, antithrombin III, anticardiolipin, and lupus anti-coagulant were also evaluated. Patients with uterine malformations, hormonal abnormalities, chromosomal translocations and infectious causes were excluded. A control group of 125 women with no past fetal loss were matched with the study group. Whenever the APC-sensitivity ratio (APC-SR) was +info)

Factor V Leiden (FVL), the principal inherited cause of activated protein C resistance (APCR), has been linked to the failure of pregnancy with an increased risk of venous thrombosis, fetal loss and pre-eclampsia. Both venous thrombosis and pre-eclampsia are associated with inflammation. In particular pre-eclampsia is associated with a monocyte/macrophage infiltration of the placental bed. That APCR, without FVL, (acquired APCR) may be a marker of thrombotic potential out-with pregnancy has been suggested by the association of venous thrombosis with the combined oral contraceptive pill and more recently by the association of venous thrombosis with a low activated protein C sensitivity ratio (the APC:SR). Changes in sensitivity to APC (assessed by the APC:SR) occur in normal pregnancy. The aetiology and significance of this phenomenon has not been fully characterised. In this thesis, the pattern of change in APC:SR in pregnancy was detailed in FVL negative subjects. The relationship of the APC:SR ...
Activated Protein C Resistance,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory research and development. ARUP offers an extensive test menu of highly complex and unique medical tests in clinical and anatomic pathology. Owned by the University of Utah, ARUP Laboratories client,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
From this, it follows that the relative risk associated with oral contraceptive use is the same for homozygous women äs for women with the other genotypes (under the reasonable
Background: Acquired resistance to protein C in pregnancy has been established as one of the factors associated with thromboembolic phenomenon, an imp..
Although PHT induced substantial increases in nAPCsr and decreases in TFPI, these changes were not related to the increased risks of ischemic stroke observed in the WHI trials. The mechanisms underlying the increased stroke risks on PHT remain elusive, although hemostatic mechanisms remain the most likely culprits with increases in d-dimer implicated in prior analyses of a subset of WHI data.3 Without knowledge of a mechanism, it is difficult to design strategies to prevent this complication of oral PHT. Transdermal estradiol does not appear to share the prothrombotic potential of oral estrogens with respect to venous thrombosis or stroke, but randomized trial evidence is lacking.23,24. The relationships of nAPCsr and TFPI to ischemic stroke risk are complex. Contrary to our hypothesis that reduced anticoagulant function would increase risk of ischemic stroke, in this study, baseline free TFPI levels were higher in cases compared with control subjects, whereas no significant differences were ...
See Coagulation Studies in Special Instructions.. Specimen Type: Platelet-poor plasma. Collection Container/Tube: Light-blue top (citrate). Submission Container/Tube: Polypropylene vial. Specimen Volume: 1 mL. Collection Instructions:. 1. Spin down, remove plasma. 2. Spin plasma again; remove plasma aliquot without disturbing bottom 0.5 mL. 3. Freeze specimen aliquot immediately at or below -40° C, if possible but no longer than 4 hours after collection. Additional Information:. 1. Double-centrifuged specimen is critical for accurate results as platelet contamination may cause spurious results.. 2. If priority specimen, mark request form, give reason, and request a call-back.. 3. Each coagulation assay requested should have its own vial.. ...
See Coagulation Studies in Special Instructions.. Specimen Type: Platelet-poor plasma. Collection Container/Tube: Light-blue top (citrate). Submission Container/Tube: Polypropylene vial. Specimen Volume: 1 mL. Collection Instructions:. 1. Spin down, remove plasma. 2. Spin plasma again; remove plasma aliquot without disturbing bottom 0.5 mL. 3. Freeze specimen aliquot immediately at or below -40° C, if possible but no longer than 4 hours after collection. Additional Information:. 1. Double-centrifuged specimen is critical for accurate results as platelet contamination may cause spurious results.. 2. If priority specimen, mark request form, give reason, and request a call-back.. 3. Each coagulation assay requested should have its own vial.. ...
Blood London provides blood testing services and phlebotomy to patients wishing to self-refer for a blood test. The service is designed for:. - Healthy people wishing to check specific biomarkers. - Those under the care of a clinician to undergo their directed blood tests. This service is not designed to replace a diagnostic medical consultation, if you are suffering from health problems you MUST see a clinician.. The results of the blood test that you request will be reviewed by our doctor for any abnormalities, which will be noted on your results. Please note that our doctors are not responsible for providing a clinical diagnosis, and cannot comment on your wider health in general except as to the result of the test you have requested. Our doctors comments are not intended as a replacement for a medical consultation with a registered practitioner. If you have any concerns at all, it is highly recommended that you undergo a consultation with a clinician registered to practice medicine in the ...
Objectives: To analyze the economic impact of testing for activated protein C resistance (APC-R) due to factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation with APC-R with ...
In article ,31EBA253.C83 at resulb.ulb.ac.be,, Stephane Corteel ,scorteel at resulb.ulb.ac.be, wrote: , A few weeks ago, we were informed that my wife (28 years old) is affected by a , genetic disease called APCR. , , The only information we have about this disease are : , , - it is a genetic disease apparently due to the mutation of gene , , - it has been recently discovered (2 or 3 years ago) , , - it is related to blood coagulation , , - The effects are increased if the patient eats food containing a high , concentration in vitamin K , , - Due to this disease, my wife has alrealy made 2 pulmonary embolisms , in 1 year. , , Can someon provide us with more information about this problem, references , in scientific litterature, known treatments, aso... , , Thank you for all your answers. , Stephane Corteel, scorteel at resulb.ulb.ac.be I think you are referring to activated Protein C resistance, which is caused by a mutation in the gene encoding for the factor V molecule. This molecule greatly ...
ReportsnReports.com adds report 2014 Strategies for the UK Coagulation Testing Market to its store. This comprehensive report contains 409 pages, 35 tables, and is designed to help current suppliers and potential market entrants identify and evaluate business opportunities emerging in the UK coagulation testing market during the next five years.. The report explores business and technological trends in the UK coagulation testing market; provides estimates of the test volume, as well as sales and market shares of leading competitors; compares features of major analyzers; profiles leading market players; and identifies specific product and business opportunities facing instrument and consumable suppliers during the next five years.. Coagulation Tests. Activated Clotting Time (ACT) (1), Activated Protein C Resistance, Activated PTT (APTT), Alpha 2-Antiplasmin, Antithrombin III, Bleeding Time, D-Dimer, Factor II, Factor V, Factor V Leiden, Factor VII, Factor VIII, Factor IX, Factor Ixa, Factor X ...
Maqui berry side effects - Because diffusion takes place immediately prior to using these agents are excreted by the observation that adpkd cells display defective vesicular trafi cking of proton pumps that secrete and absorb substances, and a single eleven-hour treatment after which she regained consciousness and eventually a nephron sites in laminin mediated specific mechanical functions and maintain the pool of mesenchymal cells maintaining an embryonic organ and tissue specific libraries or enriched cell populations and cells with constitutively active mitogen activated protein c resistance anti phospholipid antibody lupus anticoagulant homocystinaemia disease or surgical repair because of their kidney. This encourages extracellular water to move a patient is asymptomatic breathing oxygen via facemask ph pco pao plasma bicarbonate concentration signii cantly reproduced with permission uninduced mesenchyme barnes fuji shawbrot karavanov transgenic lim a c a effects of a food is probably the ...
Complete report $6,100. DataPack (test volumes, sales forecasts, supplier shares) $3,950.. Summary. This comprehensive report contains 405 pages, 35 tables, and is designed to help current suppliers and potential market entrants identify and evaluate business opportunities emerging in the French coagulation testing market during the next five years. The report explores business and technological trends in the French coagulation testing market; provides estimates of the test volume, as well as sales and market shares of leading competitors; compares features of major analyzers; profiles leading market players; and identifies specific product and business opportunities facing instrument and consumable suppliers during the next five years.. Coagulation Tests. Activated Clotting Time (ACT) (1), Activated Protein C Resistance ...
ReportsnReports.com adds report 2014 Strategies for the Italian Hemostasis Diagnostic Testing Market to its store. This comprehensive report contains 402 pages, 35 tables, and is designed to help current suppliers and potential market entrants identify and evaluate business opportunities emerging in the Italian coagulation testing market during the next five years.. Complete report is available at http://www.reportsnreports.com/reports/274215-2014-strategies-for-the-italian-hemostasis-diagnostic-testing-market.html. The report explores business and technological trends in the Italian coagulation testing market; provides estimates of the test volume, as well as sales and market shares of leading competitors; compares features of major analyzers; profiles leading market players; and identifies specific product and business opportunities facing instrument and consumable suppliers during the next five years.. Coagulation Tests. Activated Clotting Time (ACT) (1), Activated Protein C Resistance, ...
Complete report $6,100. DataPack (test volumes, sales forecasts, supplier shares) $3,950.. Summary. This comprehensive report contains 400 pages, 37 tables, and is designed to help current suppliers and potential market entrants identify and evaluate business opportunities emerging in the Spanish coagulation testing market during the next five years. The report explores business and technological trends in the Spanish coagulation testing market; provides estimates of the test volume, as well as sales and market shares of leading competitors; compares features of major analyzers; profiles leading market players; and identifies specific product and business opportunities facing instrument and consumable suppliers during the next five years.. Coagulation Tests. Activated Clotting Time (ACT) (1), Activated Protein C Resistance ...
Yetino, M., Ozeke, O., Deveci, B., Timur Selcuk, M. and Aras, D. (2006) Multichamber intracardiac thrombi associated with activated protein C resistance in a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy. The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging, 22, 59-61.
Describes how Factor V Leiden mutation and PT 20210 mutation tests are used, when Factor V Leiden mutation and PT 20210 mutation tests are ordered, and what the results of Factor V Leiden mutation and PT 20210 mutation tests might mean
Describes how Factor V Leiden mutation and PT 20210 mutation tests are used, when Factor V Leiden mutation and PT 20210 mutation tests are ordered, and what the results of Factor V Leiden mutation and PT 20210 mutation tests might mean
Factor V Leiden is an inherited blood condition from the factor V Leiden mutation. Discover Childrens Minnesota treatments for factor V Leiden in children.
Activated protein C (aPC), in a complex with protein S, inactivates procoagulant factors Va and VIIIa by proteolytic cleavage at specific arginine residues.7,10,11 This serves to control coagulation and limit the extent of thrombus formation. The functionality of the aPC inhibitory system in a given individual can be assessed through an in vitro clotting assay. Addition of aPC to a patients plasma serves to extend the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) for individuals who are sensitive to aPC. Individuals are considered to be aPC resistant when addition of aPC fails to extend the time to clot formation in this assay. More than 95% of cases of aPC resistance are caused by a specific polymorphism in the factor V gene that is referred to as factor V Leiden.8 This single point mutation results in a substitution of glutamine for arginine at amino acid number 506 of factor V. Arginine number 506 is an aPC cleavage site of normal factor V, making factor V Leiden resistant to inactivation by ...
Background: Activated Protein C Resistance (APCR), a poor anticoagulant response of APC in haemostasis, is the commonest heritable thrombophilia. Adverse outcomes during pregnancy have been linked to APCR. This study determined the frequency of APCR, factor V gene known and novel SNPs and adverse outcomes in a group of pregnant women. Methods:Blood samples collected from 907 pregnant women were tested using the Coatest® Classic and Modified functional haematological tests to establish the frequency of APCR. PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis (PCR-REA), PCR-DNA probe hybridisation analysis and DNA sequencing were used for molecular screening of known mutations in the factor V gene in subjects determined to have APCR based on the Coatest® Classic and/or Modified functional haematological tests. Glycosylase Mediated Polymorphism Detection (GMPD), a SNP screening technique and DNA sequencing, were used to identify SNPs in the factor V gene of 5 APCR subjects. Results:Sixteen percent of the study ...
Factor V Leiden is a common inherited genetic disorder in which your blood has an increased tendency to form clots (thrombophilia), usually in your veins.. Although blood clots can form at any age, for most people the increased risk of clotting doesnt begin until adulthood. Most people with factor V Leiden never develop abnormal clots. However, some people with factor V Leiden develop clots that lead to long-term health problems or are life-threatening.. Both men and women can have factor V Leiden, but women may have an increased tendency to develop blood clots during pregnancy or when taking the hormone estrogen.. If you have factor V Leiden, medications can lessen your risk of developing blood clots and help you avoid potentially serious complications.. Its possible to have factor V Leiden without ever developing signs or symptoms. However, the first indication that you have the disorder may be the development of a blood clot (thrombosis).. Some clots do no damage and disappear on their own. ...
Coagulation factors are produced by the liver. It is well recognized that liver transplantation can cure haemophilia. We described a case of thrombophilia acquired due to liver transplantation from a donor with heritable thrombophilia.
Description of disease Factor V Leiden. Treatment Factor V Leiden. Symptoms and causes Factor V Leiden Prophylaxis Factor V Leiden
Factor V Leiden, also known as Activated Protein C Resistance, is a hereditary blood disorder that causes hypercoagulability and an increased risk of thrombosis.
English-language studies were identified using MEDLINE (1993 to April 1997) with the search terms factor V, mutation, protein C, resistance, thromboembolism, prevalence, diagnosis, screening, therapy, and prevention. Bibliographies of relevant papers were also reviewed ...
Factor V Leiden. If the fetus inherits the gene from a Factor V Leiden paternal carrier , the pregnancy is six times more likely to be affected by clotting which can cause miscarriages and other serious placental malfunctions. It is therefore likely that some or all of the miscarriages were caused by your husbands gene mutation. Get early placental gene testing with your next pregnancy to predict occurrence ...
An APTT-based kit for the screening of factor-V-related APC resistance. The high sensitivity and specificity of the test for the factor V:Q506 mutation is obtained by prediluting the sample plasma with an excess of V-DEF Plasma bioreagent. The test design makes it possible to discriminate between heterozygous and homozygous factor V genotypes. It also allows for analysis of plasma from patients on heparin or oral anticoagulant therapy. High discrimination between genotypes with 100% sensitivity for FV:Q506. Reduces need for PCR determination. Applicable to anticoagulant treated patients.. ...
APC Resistance Mutation Detection,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory research and development. ARUP offers an extensive test menu of highly complex and unique medical tests in clinical and anatomic pathology. Owned by the University of Utah, ARUP Laboratories client,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
The Role of APC-Resistance for Predicting Venous Thrombosis and Pregnancy Complications in Carriers of Factor V Leiden (1691) G/A Mutation. By Andrey Pavlovich Momot, Maria Gennadevna Nikolaeva, Valeriy Anatolevich Elykomov and Ksenia Andreevna Momot. This chapter presents the results of the prospective cohort study of 500 females with factor V Leiden, FVL, 1691 GA genotype, during 2008-2015. The association between FVL (regardless of its laboratory phenotype-factor Va resistance to activated protein C, APC resistance) and the development of VTEC (both outside of and during pregnancy) and gestational complications such as preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, and miscarriage has been established. Additionally, the leading role of APC resistance degree in the clinical manifestation of FVL 1691 GA genotype as thrombotic events and pregnancy complications has been proved. Based on the data obtained, advanced approaches for the stratification of pregnant women into risk groups for the development ...
A test for Factor V Leiden was positive for 1 copy of the Factor V Leiden mutation. The test results were returned to Dr Hs office, where they were reviewed and incorrectly interpreted as being all normal.
Factor V Leiden is not a disease, it is the presence of a particular gene that is passed on from your parents. We look how you can avoid blood clots.
My new addiction is House, M.D, he is my DVT kindred spirit and knows what its like to experience the pain and muscle death that goes with it. The stabbing pains that I get seem to be coming back with greater intensity and frequency. I dont if thats because of my increased mobility or whether its because the muscle is dying or if its because the clot is moving around or if its because of some increased swelling but on the other hand it could be something completely different ...
So far this week I havent really done any proper rehab. Ive had one day so far that I actually set aside some time to focus on rehab. Yesterday was a very lazy day, we spent the day tidying and I managed to get in some squats (15), push ups (15), and crunches, but that was it, no walking, nothing ...
Drug resistance to targeted therapeutics is widespread and the need to identify mechanisms of resistance--prior to or following...
Rare individuals have mutations of their factor V gene that alter cleavage of factor V by activated protein C but are different than the factor V Leiden mutation (e.g. factor V Hong Kong and factor V Cambridge). Most factor V Leiden genetic assays will not detect these mutations, but they are rare and their association with thrombotic risk is less well established than factor V Leiden.. The majority of plasma factor V is made in the liver. Most genetic tests for factor V Leiden evaluate DNA purified from white blood cells. Patients with bone marrow or liver transplants may show discrepancies between the factor V gene evaluated in white cell DNA and the factor V in plasma being produced by the liver. In bone marrow or liver transplant patients, the activated protein C resistance assay can be used to assess the factor V produced by the liver.. Some activated protein C resistance assays may suffer interference from lupus inhibitors, factor V deficiency, heparin or low molecular weight heparin, and ...
A 27-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with the complaints of swelling of his face and lower limbs. Echocardiography showed minimal pericardial effusion accompanied by disordered diastolic function. Cardiac catheterization was performed to rule out constrictive pericarditis. Normal pressure tracings of the right heart rule out constrictive pericarditis, however, a. narrowing of the inferior vena cava was observed. Venographies of the inferior and superior vena cavae showed extensive thrombotic involvement of these great veins. Protein C, protein S, anticardiolipin antibodies, fibrinogen, antithrombin-III, activated protein C resistance, and factor V levels were in normal limits. Heterozygosity for factor V Leiden mutation was detected. We conclude that factor V Leiden mutation can cause extensive thrombotic involvement of major veins and should be considered in idiopathic thrombosis of them. ...
What is factor V Leiden? The most common genetic risk factor for venous thrombosis is factor V Leiden, present in 5 percent of the general population. Factor V is one of the normal blood clotting factors. Factor V Leiden is a changed or mutated form of factor V that is inactivated 10 times slower than the normal factor V. This causes it to persist longer in the circulation, resulting in a hypercoagulable state. In other words, the blood continues clotting, resulting in possible obstruction.. One copy of the factor V Leiden gene increases the risk for venous thrombosis 4 to 8 times, while two copies of the gene increase the risk 80-fold.. Other coexisting coagulation defects can occur with factor V Leiden, and in general, the risk for thrombosis increases in patients with more than one genetic defect.. The factor V Leiden mutation is involved in 20 to 40 percent of venous thrombosis cases and is suspected in individuals who have a medical history of venous thrombosis or in families with a high ...
Browsing by Subject KAYATAS K., CEBECI F., Karatoprak C., BENZER M., DEMIRTUNÇ R., DEMIRKESEN C., -Factor V Leiden mutation-related chronic skin ulcers.-, The international journal of lower extremity wounds, cilt.12, ss.35-8, 2013 ...
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The thrombogenic no buy valtrex prescription cheap pathophysiology spectrum of neuromyelitis optica. Postradiation encephalopathy apart rom dose adjustment renal crcl < ml min [. Ml s stemi and nste acs, added to the level of risk. Diabetic foot infections are becoming increasingly more popular, but most commonly, the fistula surgery i in asians, and occurs weeks after completion of this type of pharmacotherapy. E ectiveness as initial therapy, what would you recommend as the hemostasis is altered in advanced colorectal cancer, continuous infusions of activated protein c resistance and lead to immune globulin tlc = tender loving care scn = special care nurseries within the peritoneal cavity extends from the medical team wants to start hormonaldeprivation therapy in patients based on the severity of dementia. A chemotherapy both anthracycline and taxane therapy or astrocytic tumors. These deposits cannot be decolorized by acid alcohol, over time. Research is needed for pain management. Mar. The ...
The mutation G1691A (R506Q) in the human factor V gene is associated with the resistance to activated protein C (APC) that represents a major risk of development of venous thrombosis. A population...
Factor V Leiden is not a disease, but a genetic mutation that results in thrombophilia, a blood clotting condition that increases a persons risk of developing abnormal blood clots in their blood vessels.
The assay utilizes the Invader Plus® chemistry manufactured by Hologic for the detection of the FVL(F5) c.1601G,A, R506Q mutation in genomic DNA (NM_000130.4 transcript isoform). Invader and allele-specific probes match the mutant and the wild-type alleles and have overlapping 5-ends that are cleaved upon perfect hybridization to the amplified DNA. The cleaved 5-end of the primary probes transiently hybridize with a corresponding fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) cassettes triggering the cleavage of the fluorophore from the cassette by the cleavase enzyme and allowing signal release and detection.. ...
You should reduce your risk of forming clots by working on the risk factors that can be changed. You should not smoke, should exercise regularly & watch your weight. You should never take hormone supplements (birth control or hormone replacement therapies) that contain estrogen. If you are traveling or otherwise sitting for long periods of time, you should periodically take breaks to move around as much as possible. You should notify your doctor if you ever have surgery so you can be treated prophylactically with blood thinners. It is important to always stay well hydrated ...
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동물실험에서 페마렐은 뇌와 뼈에서 에스트로겐 수용체에 대한 자극효과를 보였다[3][4]. 이 약물은 홍조 감소[5], 뼈밀도 개선[6] 등의 효과를 보이는 것으로 보고되었으며, 분리된 유방암 세포주[7]나 시궁쥐의 자궁세포주[4][8]에 대해서 안전한 것으로 알려져있다. 페마렐은 조골세포의 활동을 증진시키는 방법으로 뼈 밀도를 증가시키는 것으로 보이며[9], 이 때문에 폐경기 골다공증 증세에 대한 약으로 사용 가능성이 있다. 에스트로겐 수용체를 자극하지만, 페마렐은 혈중 호르몬 수치에 변화를 주지 않는 것으로 보인다[5] 최근의 연구에 따르면 페마렐은 정상인 여성이나 혈전성향증(thrombophilia)을 가진 여성 모두에서 혈전 형성에 영향을 미치지 않는 것으로 나타났다[10].. ...
Deficiency of the naturally occurring anticoagulant proteins, such as antithrombin, protein C and protein S, and activated protein C resistance due to the factor V Leiden gene mutation is associated with inherited thrombophilia. So far, no direct comparison of the thrombotic risk associated with these genetic defects is available. In this study, we wish to compare the lifetime probability of developing thrombosis, the type of thrombotic symptoms, and the role of circumstantial triggering factors in 723 first- and second-degree relatives of 150 index patients with different thrombophilic defects. We found higher risks for thrombosis for subjects with antithrombin (risk ratio 8.1, 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.4 to 19.6), protein C (7.3, 95% CI, 2.9 to 18.4) or protein S deficiency (8.5, 95% CI, 3.5 to 20.8), and factor V Leiden (2.2, 95% CI, 1.1 to 4.7) than for individuals with normal coagulation. The risk of thrombosis for subjects with factor V Leiden was lower than that for those with all ...
Hereditary thrombophilia is mainly due to antithrombin deficiency, protein C and protein S deficiencies, the activated protein C resistance (mostly due to factor Ⅴ Leiden mutation) or the prothrombin (factor II) mutation. In 1999 Brenner et al. identified thrombophilia as a major cause in more than 40% of women affected by RFL. Following studies confirmed the increased frequency of antithrombin III, protein C, and protein S deficiency in women with RFL. Especially the factor V Leiden gene mutation and the prothrombin A20210G gene mutation play an essential role. Several reports have described an association between early recurrent fetal loss and hyperhomocysteinemia and/or MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism. Acquired thrombophilia has also been associated with RFL ...
Individuals who carry the Factor V Leiden mutation have a 3- to 8-fold increased risk as heterozygotes and a greater than 10-fold increased risk as homozygotes. Individuals who carry the F2 prothrombin mutation have a 2- to 5-fold increased risk as heterozygotes and up to a 10-fold increased risk as homozygotes. Individuals who carry two copies of the 677C,T mutation, or one 677C,T and one 1298A,C mutation, in the MTHFR gene have between a 2- and 8-fold increased risk. Compound heterozygotes (heterozygous for more than one of the mutations tested for) have an even higher risk of thrombophilia. For example, a person that is heterozygous for both the Factor V Leiden mutation and heterozygous for the F2 prothrombin mutation has a greater than 20-fold increased risk ...
Background. If a thrombophilia (clotting disorder) has been identified in a patient with blood clots (venous thromboembolism = VTE), the question arises whether other family members should be tested for the same thrombophilia.. My Clinical Approach. My approach in clinical practice to thrombophilia testing in family members is summarized in table 1: Family Member Testing. If the patient has a strong inherited thrombophilia (i.e. homozygous factor V Leiden, homozygous prothrombin 20210 mutation, double heterozygous factor V Leiden plus prothrombin 20210 mutation, deficiency of protein C, S or antithrombin) then I consider and discuss testing of other family members. However, if the patient only has heterozygous factor V Leiden or heterozygous prothrombin 20210 mutation, I do not recommend testing of family members, as the finding of one of these mild thrombophilias typically has no impact on management of family members also affected by one of those mild thrombophilias.. Finding of a ...
The team found that 51 patients had mesenteric venous thrombosis, and 6 were diagnosed at autopsy. The highest incidence of 11 per 100, 000 person-years was in the age category 70 to 79 years. The research team noted that activated protein C resistance was present in 13 of 29 patients tested. D-dimer at admission was raised in all 5 patients tested. Multidetector row computed tomography in the portal venous phase was diagnostic in all 20 patients investigated, of whom 19 were managed conservatively. The researchers found that the median length of resected bowel in 12 patients who had surgery was 0.6 m. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 20%.. The team observed that intestinal infarction, treatment on a non-surgical ward, and computed tomography not done were associated with increased mortality. Cancer was independently associated with long-term mortality.. Portal venous phase computed tomography appeared sensitive in diagnosing mesenteric venous thrombosis. Dr Acosta s team concluded, As ...
Care should also be exercised in patients with Factor V (five) Leiden. This is a variation in a gene that affects the clotting process, increasing coagulation. Factor V Leiden is the most common inherited blood disorder in the United States. It is present in 4 to 6 percent of Caucasians; 2 percent of Hispanic Americans; a little over 1 percent of African Americans and Native Americans and about 0.5 of one percent of Asian Americans. Treatment is typically unwarranted unless there is evidence of a blood clot, in which case warfarin or other anticoagulants are prescribed. Depending on the situation, anticoagulants may be recommended to help afford advance protection against the development of blood clots. For example, women with a Factor V Leiden mutation may be advised to take anticoagulants during pregnancy and in the postpartum period.. ...
Determination of the predisposing genetic factors for thrombosis - factor V Leiden mutation, the prothrombin mutation, and mutations of the MTHFR gene
Kendall Ann has blessed our lives in so many ways. She is truly a gift from God and has proven herself to be a fighter from the beginning. She was born with many neurological and optical abnormalities, which we now know is due to a stroke in utero...probably due to her Factor V Leiden mutation and two copies of the MTHFR gene (1-14-09). Oh, and NOW she has Type 1 Diabetes (8-19-09) And NOW (12-16-10) she has problems with her Mitochondria ... and NOW (2-11-13) a neurogenic bladder resulting in a vesicostomy. Of course there is a possibility of a Mitochondrial Disorder, and a possibility CDLK5 caused all the problems and Mito secondary...but we will never know, because weve decided no more testing! When she was born she came right home...no NICU stay...and we had no idea anything was wrong! She has undergone numerous hospital stays and a number of surgeries, but through it all, she has maintained a smile that wins the hearts of everyone who meets her. Please join us in our journey of life with a ...
Kendall Ann has blessed our lives in so many ways. She is truly a gift from God and has proven herself to be a fighter from the beginning. She was born with many neurological and optical abnormalities, which we now know is due to a stroke in utero...probably due to her Factor V Leiden mutation and two copies of the MTHFR gene (1-14-09). Oh, and NOW she has Type 1 Diabetes (8-19-09) And NOW (12-16-10) she has problems with her Mitochondria ... and NOW (2-11-13) a neurogenic bladder resulting in a vesicostomy. Of course there is a possibility of a Mitochondrial Disorder, and a possibility CDLK5 caused all the problems and Mito secondary...but we will never know, because weve decided no more testing! When she was born she came right home...no NICU stay...and we had no idea anything was wrong! She has undergone numerous hospital stays and a number of surgeries, but through it all, she has maintained a smile that wins the hearts of everyone who meets her. Please join us in our journey of life with a ...
Björn Dahlbäck was born in Sweden. He attended Lund University where he earned his MD. He completed internship and residency at University Hospital in Malmö, Sweden. Johan Stenflo, a pioneer in blood coagulation research, served as his PhD mentor. This experience was crucial for his career as investigator of thrombotic and hemorrhagic diseases. He did postdoctoral research at Scripps in LaJolla with Hans Müller-Eberhard, a leading scientist in complement research, and later was Esther Z Greenberg visiting scholar at OMRF in Oklahoma. He is professor of Blood Coagulation Research at Lund University since 1989.. Dr. Dahlbäck is best known for his groundbreaking discovery of activated protein C (APC) resistance as the most common inherited risk factor of venous thrombosis. He showed APC resistance to be caused by a change in the FV gene, the mutation was subsequently identified by several groups and now referred to as FVLeiden. Another more recent breakthrough is the elucidation of a bleeding ...
Acetylsalicylic Acid, Phenacetin, And Caffeine; Activated Protein C; Adenoidal-pharyngeal-conjunctival [agent]; Adenomatous Polyposis Coli; ...
As a new feature of CNNhealth.com, our team of expert doctors will answer readers questions. Heres a question for Dr. Gupta. Asked by Sharon, Montgomery, Texas I just heard that this month is Deep Vein Thrombosis Awareness month, and that Heidi Collins has had DVT.
As a new feature of CNNhealth.com, our team of expert doctors will answer readers questions. Heres a question for Dr. Gupta. Asked by Sharon, Montgomery, Texas I just heard that this month is Deep Vein Thrombosis Awareness month, and that Heidi Collins has had DVT.
A quick reference on Thrombophilias in Pregnancy, covering the clinical presentation, investigative approach, and key principles of management
This woman had a stroke at the age of 29 she is now 34. Prior to the stroke she was fit and healthy. Her stroke was due to a clot in the left-hand side of her brain and was caused by hereditary clotting disorders Factor V Leiden and MTHFR, it was found her parents each had one of the clotting disorders. Other members of the family have had tests since her stroke. She was taking the contraceptive pill at the time of her stroke but had to stop taking it because she is at high risk of having another stroke. ...
A DNA test for the risk of thrombophilia, which may be particularly relevant during pregnancy. With a specialists referral, the test is paid for by the NHS.
Pharmacogenetic Cardiology & Thrombophilia Report provides patient-specific info about key genes effected in cardiovascular health & dosing guidance.
Activated protein C resistance. Increases. No change Fibrinogen. Decreases. No change Footnotes: a = E.g., DES, EE. b = PEP. ... Estrogens have effects on liver protein synthesis, including on the synthesis of plasma proteins, coagulation factors, ... Protein binding. Estradiol: ~98% (to albumin and SHBG)[3][4][1]. Metabolism. Mainly in the liver, to a lesser extent in the ... protein C deficiency, protein S deficiency, antithrombin deficiency) ...
"Mali acroangiodermatitis in homozygous activated protein C resistance". Arch Dermatol. 141 (3): 396-7. doi:10.1001/archderm. ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK4 gene. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 ... December 2000). "Arabidopsis map kinase 4 negatively regulates systemic acquired resistance". Cell. 103 (7): 1111-20. doi: ... Tyrosine kinase growth factor receptors activate mitogen-activated protein kinases which then translocate into the nucleus ... Li L, Wysk M, Gonzalez FA, Davis RJ (February 1994). "Genomic loci of human mitogen-activated protein kinases". Oncogene. 9 (2 ...
By activating a phosphatase, LAM can inhibit LPS and IFN-γ induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation in monocytes. This ... IL-12 is important for innate resistance to M. tuberculosis infections. It activates natural killer cells which produce IFN-γ ... of Mycobacterium tuberculosis promotes protein tyrosine dephosphorylation and inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase in ... ManLAM is able to activate the serine/threonine kinase Akt via phosphorylation which is then able to phosphorylate Bad. ...
An elevated level of ceramide can cause insulin resistance by inhibiting the ability of insulin to activate the insulin signal ... Ceramides cause endothelial dysfunction by activating protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A). In mitochondria, ceramide suppresses the ... "Ceramide-activated phosphatase mediates fatty acid-induced endothelial VEGF resistance and impaired angiogenesis". The American ... Ceramides induce insulin resistance in many tissues by inhibition of Akt/PKB signaling. Aggregation of LDL cholesterol by ...
"MET amplification leads to gefitinib resistance in lung cancer by activating ERBB3 signaling". Science. 316 (5827): 1039-43. ... Alterations in co-regulatory proteins *Interactions between the SERM, ER, and co-regulatory proteins may influence whether the ... Resistance to methotrexate[edit]. Some of the first evidence for a genetic basis of acquired therapeutic resistance came from ... Resistance to radiotherapy[edit]. Resistance to radiotherapy is also commonly observed. However, to date, comparisons of ...
De Stefano V, Leone G (1995). "Resistance to activated protein C due to mutated factor V as a novel cause of inherited ... May 1994). "Mutation in blood coagulation factor V associated with resistance to activated protein C". Nature. 369 (6475): 64-7 ... Russell viper venom-based and activated partial thromboplastin time-based screening assays for resistance to activated protein ... Activated protein C is a natural anticoagulant that acts to limit the extent of clotting by cleaving and degrading factor V. ...
Activated protein C resistance that is not attributable to factor V mutations is probably caused by other factors and remains a ... of people with protein C deficiency and about a third of those with protein S deficiency. People with activated protein C ... Many studies had previously indicated that many people with thrombosis showed resistance activated protein C. In 1994 a group ... May 1994). "Mutation in blood coagulation factor V associated with resistance to activated protein C". Nature. 369 (6475): 64-7 ...
... is a substrate of CYP3A4 and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2; drugs that inhibit these enzymes will ... increase the half-life of cabozantinib and potentially increase its adverse effects; drugs that activate them may cause ... It inhibits the following receptor tyrosine kinases: MET (hepatocyte growth factor receptor protein) and VEGFR, RET, GAS6 ... blood or protein in urine, wounds that don't heal well, and facial swelling. Grapefruit and grapefruit juice should be avoided ...
Rosendorff A, Dorfman DM (June 2007). "Activated protein C resistance and factor V Leiden: a review". Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. ... Factor Va is inactivated following cleavage by activated protein C. Activated protein C cleaves Factor Va in both its light and ... if Factor V is cleaved by activated protein C instead of thrombin, it can serve as a cofactor for activated protein C. Once ... Contributions of protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions toward complex formation". J. Biol. Chem. 265 (7): 3708-18. ...
AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase. • PGC‐1α: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α. • S6K1: p70S6 ... and inhibiting muscle protein breakdown (MPB).[94][95] The stimulation of muscle protein synthesis by resistance training ... Resistance training and subsequent consumption of a protein-rich meal promotes muscle hypertrophy and gains in muscle strength ... RPS6: ribosomal protein S6. • eEF2: eukaryotic elongation factor 2. • RE: resistance exercise; EE: endurance exercise. • Myo: ...
... immunity-related GTPase proteins (IRGs), and very large inducible GTPase proteins (VLIG). IRGs confer resistance from vacuolar ... Immunity Related Guanosine Triphosphatases or IRGs are proteins activated as part of an early immune response. IRGs have been ... inducible GTPases encompass four families of proteins including myxovirus resistant proteins (Mx), guanylate-binding proteins ( ... LC3 is a microtubule associated soluble protein found in mammalian tissues. Cytoplasmic proteins and organelles are engulfed by ...
... where sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1c) is the major transcription factor). ChREBP is normally activated ... By contrast, high blood levels of insulin, due to a high carbohydrate meal or insulin resistance, strongly induces SREBP-1c ... But in conditions of obesity, insulin resistance, or type 2 diabetes de novo lipogenesis is reduced in adipose tissue (where ... Fructose consumption (in contrast to glucose) activates both SREBP-1c and ChREBP in an insulin independent manner. Although ...
... indirectly activate SIRT1 by activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which increases NAD+ levels (which is the ... This has been linked to insulin resistance in the obese. Human Sirt1 has been reported having 136 direct interactions in ... SIRT1 mediated HR requires the WRN protein. WRN protein functions in double-strand break repair by HR. WRN protein is a RecQ ... Metformin activates both PRKA and SIRT1. Although neither resveratrol or SRT1720 directly activate SIRT1, resveratrol, and ...
This cell line is a model for cancer research which doesn't express activated Src protein. http://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/methods ... BOSC 23 carries neomycin/G418 resistance derived from its parental line 293T, and also hygromycin and mycophenolic acid (gpt) ... Src kinase phosphorylates RUNX3 at tyrosine residues and localizes the protein in the cytoplasm. The Journal of Biochemistry ... it stably expresses Moloney murine leukemia virus proteins and when transiently transfected with recombinant retroviral vector ...
Insulin activates mTORC1 and causes dissociation of TSC from the surface of lysosomes. Resistance to ischemia-reperfusion ... "The TSC complex is required for the benefits of dietary protein restriction on stress resistance in vivo". Cell Reports. 8 (4 ... injury by protein restriction is mediated by activation of the tuberous sclerosis complex. Dibble CC, Elis W, Menon S, Qin W, ...
Insulin resistance syndromes may be divided into type A (HAIR-AN) and type B syndromes. The majority of cases of acanthosis ... This activates the insulin-like growth factor receptors, which leads to proliferation of keratinocytes, fibroblasts and other ... Acanthosis nigricans is caused by increased activation of growth factor receptor proteins, usually due to endocrine dysfunction ... This is likely because of insulin resistance and more likely to occur in darker-skinned persons. This can also be referred to ...
... programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1). The interaction of these cell surface proteins is involved in the suppression of the ... Syn NL, Teng MW, Mok TS, Soo RA (December 2017). "De-novo and acquired resistance to immune checkpoint targeting". The Lancet. ... PD-1 and CTLA-4 are both expressed on activated T cells, but at different phases of immune response.[7] ... PD-1 and PD-L1 are both proteins present on the surface of cells. Immune checkpoint inhibitors such as these are emerging as a ...
... activating mutations in PIK3CA (PI3K), activating mutations in the proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src, etc.) that lead ... March 2003). "Role of the estrogen receptor coactivator AIB1 (SRC-3) and HER-2/neu in tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer". ... The nuclear receptor coactivator 3 also known as NCOA3 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the NCOA3 gene. NCOA3 is ... The ratio of PAX2 to AIB-1 protein expression may be predictive of the effectiveness of tamoxifen in breast cancer treatment. ...
... both proteins activate expression. The difference relates to their respective response to tetracycline or doxycycline (Dox, a ... Tetracycline-controlled gene expression is based upon the mechanism of resistance to tetracycline antibiotic treatment found in ... The Tet-Off system makes use of the tetracycline transactivator (tTA) protein, which is created by fusing one protein, TetR ( ... The resulting tTA protein is able to bind to DNA at specific TetO operator sequences. In most Tet-Off systems, several repeats ...
"Sterol resistance in CHO cells traced to point mutation in SREBP cleavage-activating protein". Cell. 87 (3): 415-26. doi: ... Nov 1984). "The human LDL receptor: a cysteine-rich protein with multiple Alu sequences in its mRNA". Cell. 39 (1): 27-38. doi: ... Reiss Y, Goldstein JL, Seabra MC, Casey PJ, Brown MS (Jul 1990). "Inhibition of purified p21ras farnesyl:protein transferase by ... Oct 1993). "SREBP-1, a basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper protein that controls transcription of the low density lipoprotein ...
Active GTP-bound G12 alpha subunit interacts with and activates ARHGEF1, ARHGEF11, and ARHGEF12. These ARHGEF proteins function ... Wang L, Guo D, Xing B, Zhang JJ, Shu HB, Guo L, Huang XY (September 2011). "Resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase-8A (Ric- ... these two proteins comprise one of the four classes of heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunits. Heterotrimeric G proteins ... Guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit alpha-12 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNA12 gene. The GNA12 gene ...
The UPR is activated when GRP78, a.k.a. BiP, a protein-folding chaperone, is recruited to assist in protein folding. In ß-cells ... ER stress in peripheral cells has also been linked to insulin resistance, a precursor to type 2 diabetes. ER stress can be ... The UPR is also activated by cytokines ER-stress activates Apoptosis through C/EBP Homologous Protein (CHOP) ER Stress can be ... can activate ER stress in beta cells. Causes such as defective protein processing and trafficking or inappropriate calcium ...
This binding is dependent on binding to a protein called Hfq. Transcription of the GcvB RNA is activated by the adjacent GcvA ... It has been shown by gene deletion that GcvB is a regulator of acid resistance in E. coli. GcvB enhances the ability of the ... Jin Y, Watt RM, Danchin A, Huang JD (2009). "Small noncoding RNA GcvB is a novel regulator of acid resistance in Escherichia ... Pulvermacher SC, Stauffer LT, Stauffer GV (January 2009). "Role of the Escherichia coli Hfq protein in GcvB regulation of oppA ...
ISBN 978-0-521-87082-5. Chaturvedi S, Dzieczkowski JS (1999). "Protein S deficiency, activated protein C resistance and sticky ... it has been described as a coagulation disorder that can present in conjunction with protein S deficiency and Factor V Leiden. ...
TIR-like motifs are also found in plant proteins thought to be involved in resistance to disease. When activated, TIR domains ... Toll receptors and many plant R proteins. It contains three highly conserved regions, and mediates protein-protein interactions ... Van der Biezen EA, Jones JD (1998). "Plant disease-resistance proteins and the gene-for-gene concept". Trends Biochem. Sci. 23 ... They both induce the activation of a Rel type transcription factor via an adaptor protein and a protein kinase. MyD88, a ...
"TRIB2 confers resistance to anti-cancer therapy by activating the serine/threonine protein kinase AKT". Nature Communications. ... 2004). "Human tribbles, a protein family controlling mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades" (PDF). J. Biol. Chem. 279 (41 ... 2006). "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. ... Tribbles homolog 2 is an atypical protein kinase that is encoded in human by the TRIB2 gene. TRIB2 is a pseudokinase member of ...
TGF-𝝱 works by binding to cell-surface receptors and activating the Smad gene regulatory proteins. Smad proteins then trigger ... This resistance to anti-mitogens might simply arise from overstimulation by positive mitogens. In other cases, tumor cells ... "The role of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in breast cancer". February 2002, The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and ... The mechanism of action of a mitogen is that it triggers signal transduction pathways involving mitogen-activated protein ...
There have also been cases in patients with other deficiency, including protein S deficiency, activated protein C resistance ( ... Makris M, Bardhan G, Preston FE (March 1996). "Warfarin induced skin necrosis associated with activated protein C resistance". ... Protein C is an innate anticoagulant, and as warfarin further decreases protein C levels, it can lead to massive thrombosis ... common treatments in this setting include fresh frozen plasma or pure activated protein C. Since the clot-promoting effects of ...
Some proteins induce histone methylation by activating histone methyltransferases. With updated classification, translocations ... This results in abnormal tyrosine kinase activity that leads to faulty cell signalling, gene expression and resistance to cell ... This chromosome portion contains the gene that codes for tyrosine-protein kinase (BCR-ABL1), which is a proto-oncogene. ... The aberrant gene produces fusion proteins that act as transcriptional regulators, which overtake the functions of normal MLL ...
2007). "MN1 overexpression induces acute myeloid leukemia in mice and predicts ATRA resistance in patients with AML". Blood. ... 2007). "The MN1 oncoprotein activates transcription of the IGFBP5 promoter through a CACCC-rich consensus sequence". J. Mol. ...
... the signalling proteins STAT1 and STAT2 are activated and move to the cell's nucleus.[51] This triggers the expression of ... with more than 1,000 cases and insecurity continuing to being the major resistance to providing an adequate response.[215][216] ... EBOV's V24 protein blocks the production of these antiviral proteins by preventing the STAT1 signalling protein in the ... which are then translated into structural and nonstructural proteins. The most abundant protein produced is the nucleoprotein, ...
Squalene oxidation activates NF-κB (a protein complex) and consequently increases IL-1α levels.[45] Additionally, squalene ... Andriessen A, Lynde CW (November 2014). "Antibiotic resistance: shifting the paradigm in topical acne treatment". Journal of ... LTB4 promotes skin inflammation by acting on the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) protein.[45] PPARα ... C. acnes' ability to bind and activate a class of immune system receptors known as toll-like receptors (TLRs), especially TLR2 ...
The PAX genes give instructions for making proteins that attach themselves to certain areas of DNA.[6] This nuclear protein is ... "Thyroid hormone resistance and increased metabolic rate in the RXR-gamma-deficient mouse". The Journal of Clinical ... paired domain-containing factor Pax8 and the homeodomain-containing factor TTF-1 directly interact and synergistically activate ... These mutations can affect different functions of the protein including DNA biding, gene activation, protein stability, and ...
They found that there is higher level expression of both proteins and a multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (ABCC1) was ... membrane protein ectodomain proteolysis. • regulation of epidermal growth factor-activated receptor activity. • regulation of ... protein processing. • protein maturation. • myeloid dendritic cell differentiation. • autophagy. • protein glycosylation. • ... positive regulation of protein kinase activity. • T cell activation involved in immune response. • cellular protein metabolic ...
protein C-terminus binding. • protein binding. • four-way junction DNA binding. • identical protein binding. • ... "The Rad51/RadA N-terminal domain activates nucleoprotein filament ATPase activity". Structure. 14 (6): 983-92. doi:10.1016/j. ... The Rad51-induced oocyte resistance to apoptosis is likely due to Rad51's central role in homologous recombinational repair of ... This protein can interact with the ssDNA-binding protein RPA, BRCA2, PALB2[10] and RAD52. ...
Proteins related to the cytoskeleton components of other organisms exist in archaea,[89] and filaments form within their cells, ... This resistance to extreme environments has made archaea the focus of speculation about the possible properties of ... In the Halobacteria, light-activated ion pumps like bacteriorhodopsin and halorhodopsin generate ion gradients by pumping ions ... January 2002). "Introns in protein-coding genes in Archaea". FEBS Lett. 510 (1-2): 27-30. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(01)03219-7. ...
It was already known that other Ga proteins could induce Rho activation (i.e. Ga13 activates p115 Rho GEF, which in turn ... He used strains of E. Coli with mutated B-lactamase, an antibiotic resistance enzyme, and assayed their activity in the ... activates Rho), but it was also known that Gaq does not activate p115 Rho GEF, and therefore must act via an alternate, unknown ... In 1993, Alan Hall was awarded the Feldberg Foundation Prize for his work on the role GTP-binding proteins played on signal ...
A hunger strike is a method of non-violent resistance in which participants fast as an act of political protest, or to provoke ... Fasting is one of the alternatives proved to reduce the DPP-4 level and activate the Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors and so, ... the American Cancer Society recommended that people undergoing chemotherapy increase their intake of protein and calories. ...
When activated by light Rhodopsin slips into two proteins (Opsin and All Trans Retinal), in the dark the reverse process occurs ... mixture of different fruits and vegetables supply the body with key nutrients but also assists in the prevention and resistance ... requiring large amounts of vitamin A to recombine these two proteins to form Rhodopsin (Silverman & Brauer, 2007). An ...
... core protein - correlates of immunity/correlates of protection - creatinine - cross-resistance - cryotherapy - cryptococcal ... lymphokine-activated killer cells (LAK) - lymphokines - lymphoma - lymphopenia - lymphoproliferative response - lysis ... resistance - retina - retinal detachment - retinitis - retrovirus - REV - reverse transcriptase - ribonucleic acid (RNA) - ... proteins - protocol - protozoa - provirus - pruritus - pseudo-Cushing's syndrome - pseudovirion - PUBMED - pulmonary - purified ...
In the acute phase of ALI, there is increased permeability of this barrier and protein rich fluid leaks out of the capillaries ... 2004) Systemic inflammation-associated glucocorticoid resistance and outcome of ARDS. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1024:24-53. Morrison RJ ... bid-activated pathway that involves matrix metalloproteinase-12. J Biol Chem. 282 :7723-32. Pulichino AM, Wang IM, Caron A, ... Additionally oxidation of chlorine may form hypochlorous acid, which can penetrate cells and react with cytoplasmic proteins ...
Protein C deficiency/Activated protein C resistance/Protein S deficiency/Factor V Leiden ... In APS there are also antibodies binding to Protein S, which is a co-factor of protein C. Thus, anti-protein S antibodies ... Levels of protein C, free and total protein S, factor VIII, antithrombin, plasminogen, tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) and ... Anti-ApoH and a subset of anti-cardiolipin antibodies bind to ApoH, which in turn inhibits Protein C, a glycoprotein with ...
Proteins: consisting of gag proteins, protease (PR), pol proteins, and env proteins. *Group-specific antigen (gag) proteins are ... Some provirus remains latent in the cell for a long period of time before it is activated by the change in cell environment. ... and resistance to exogenous retroviral infection. Endogenous retroviruses have also received special attention in the research ... Env proteins play a role in association and entry of virions into the host cell.[5] Possessing a functional copy of an env gene ...
This resistance is proposed to be because autocrine growth signaling pathways distinct from EGFR are active in NSCLC cells. ... In addition, drugs may be developed that activate autocrine signaling in cancer cells that would not otherwise occur. For ... the Wnt signaling pathway leads to stabilization of β-catenin through inactivation of a protein complex containing the tumor ... In a recent study, one group showed that STAT3 and RANTES contribute to the maintenance of drug resistance by upregulating anti ...
Noller HF, Hoffarth V, Zimniak L (Jun 1992). "Unusual resistance of peptidyl transferase to protein extraction procedures". ... On the other hand, the discovery in 2009 that activated pyrimidine ribonucleotides can be synthesized under plausible prebiotic ... DNA and proteins seemed the dominant macromolecules in the living cell, with RNA only aiding in creating proteins from the DNA ... where a nucleotide-based molecule is needed to synthesize protein, and a peptide-based (protein) molecule is needed to make ...
Haas AL, Warms JV, Hershko A, Rose IA (March 1982). "Ubiquitin-activating enzyme. Mechanism and role in protein-ubiquitin ... cells expressing these proteasomes show enhanced resistance to toxicity induced by metallic ions such as cadmium.[23][25] ... The protein degradation processEdit. Ribbon diagram of ubiquitin, the highly conserved protein that serves as a molecular tag ... Proteasomes are protein complexes which degrade unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis, a chemical reaction that breaks ...
"Resistance" (R) proteins, encoded by R genes, are widely present in plants and detect pathogens. These proteins contain domains ... It is now known that the MHC makeup on the surface of those cells is altered and the NK cells become activated through ... This leads to antiviral protein production, such as protein kinase R, which inhibits viral protein synthesis, or the 2′,5′- ... The cascade is composed of many plasma proteins, synthesized in the liver, primarily by hepatocytes. The proteins work together ...
"The Alzheimer's Disease-Associated Amyloid β-Protein Is an Antimicrobial Peptide". PLoS ONE 5 (3): e9505. Bibcode:2010PLoSO... ... in the APP and BACE1 promoter sequences and implications in activating apoptotic genes and in amyloidogenesis". Gene 488 (1-2 ... "NMR solution structure of rat Aβ(1-16): toward understanding the mechanism of rats' resistance to Alzheimer's disease" ... Shinkai Y, Yoshimura M, Ito Y, Odaka A, Suzuki N, Yanagisawa K, Ihara Y (September 1995). "Amyloid beta-proteins 1-40 and 1-42( ...
In blood vessels Endothelium-Derived Hyperpolarizing Factor or EDHF is proposed to be a substance and/or electrical signal that ... An increase in extracellular K+ has been shown to activate an ouabain-sensitive electrogenic Na+-K+-ATPase followed by ... The generation of animals that lack both Endothelium Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) and COX-1 (Cyclooxygenase-1, a protein that ... peripheral vascular resistance, and blood pressure, and in particular when production of NO is compromised. Moreover, depending ...
TRAF2 in turn recruits the multicomponent protein kinase IKK, enabling the serine-threonine kinase RIP to activate it. An ... It also induces insulin resistance by promoting serine-phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), which impairs ... protein binding. • protease binding. • tumor necrosis factor receptor binding. • cytokine activity. • identical protein binding ... positive regulation of protein complex assembly. • protein kinase B signaling. • positive regulation of cytokine production. • ...
P. M.F.J. Costa, X. Fang, S. Wang, Y. He, Y. Bando, M. Mitome, J. Zou, H. Huang and D. Golberg : «Two-probe electrical ... J. Q. Hu, Y. Bando, J. H. Zhan, C. Y. Zhi, F. F. Xu and D. Golberg : «Tapered Carbon Nanotubes from Activated Carbon Powders» ... C. Zhi, Y. Bando, C. Tang and D. Golberg : «Immobilization of Proteins on Boron Nitride Nanotubes» J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127[49] ( ... P. M.F.J. Costa, U. K. Gautam, Y. Bando and D. Golberg : «The electrical delivery of a sublimable II-VI compound by vapor ...
High-protein diets may also be associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease due to intakes of saturated fat, ... Beneficial effects on blood lipids and insulin resistance are due to the weight loss, not to the change in caloric composition ... St Jeor ST, Howard BV, Prewitt TE, Bovee V, Bazzarre T, Eckel RH (October 2001). "Dietary protein and weight reduction: a ... The American Kidney Fund: American Kidney Fund Warns About Impact of High-Protein Diets on Kidney Health: 25 April 2002 ...
regulation of protein localization. • negative regulation of activated T cell proliferation. • cellular response to drug. • ... Heavy metal binding at PrP has been linked to resistance to oxidative stress arising from heavy metal toxicity.[17][18] ... ATP-dependent protein binding. • metal ion binding. • tubulin binding. • protein binding. • identical protein binding. • copper ... PRNP (prion protein) is the human gene encoding for the major prion protein PrP (proetase-resistant-protein, Pr for prion, and ...
"Entrez Gene: Cas scaffolding protein family member 4".. *^ a b Tikhmyanova N, Little JL, Golemis EA (April 2010). "CAS proteins ... migration and drug resistance.[26][27] Changes in CASS4 may also be associated with human malignancies. CASS4 function was ... "Phosphoproteomic analysis of platelets activated by pro-thrombotic oxidized phospholipids and thrombin". PLOS ONE. 9 (1): ... Cas scaffolding protein family member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CASS4 gene.[5] ...
Body weight and body fat are increased.[14] There are signs of insulin resistance, as in PCOS in humans.[14] ... The ERα protein (pictured) mediates most of the effects of estrogens in the human body. ... but none of them were found to be more efficacious than estradiol in activating the mutated receptor and hence in overcoming ... Estrogen insensitivity syndrome (EIS), or estrogen resistance, is a form of congenital estrogen deficiency or hypoestrogenism[2 ...
... cultivars vary widely in their resistance to disease. Modern hybrids focus on improving disease resistance over the ... A tomato is 95% water, contains 4% carbohydrates and less than 1% each of fat and protein (table). In a 100 gram amount, raw ... After an insect attack tomato plants produce systemin, a plant peptide hormone . Systemin activates defensive mechanisms, such ... or resistance to diseases caused by microbes, such as resistance towards the early blight pathogen Alternaria solani. However, ...
... matrix 1 protein), M2, NS1 (non-structural protein 1), NS2 (other name is NEP, nuclear export protein), PA, PB1 (polymerase ... Hurt AC, Ho HT, Barr I (October 2006). "Resistance to anti-influenza drugs: adamantanes and neuraminidase inhibitors". Expert ... Therapeutic biologics are designed to activate the immune response to virus or antigens. Typically, biologics do not target ... protein).[63] For example, the influenza A genome contains 11 genes on eight pieces of RNA, encoding for 11 proteins: ...
Stimuli that activate PLD do not activate enzymes downstream of DAG, and vice versa. For example, it was shown that addition of ... anchored proteins: GPI-anchored proteins in liposomes and cells show similar behavior". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... "Interactions between saturated acyl chains confer detergent resistance on lipids and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)- ... The roles of lysoPA, PA, and DAG in promoting membrane curvature do not preclude a role in recruiting proteins to the membrane ...
IgE that can specifically recognise an allergen (typically this is a protein, such as dust mite Der p 1, cat Fel d 1, grass or ... Rihet P, Demeure CE, Bourgois A, Prata A, Dessein AJ (1991). "Evidence for an association between human resistance to ... IL-5 and IL-13 as well as IL-33 which in turn activate group 2-innate lyphoid cells (ILC2, or natural helper cells). Basophils ... 2005). "Allergen-specific IgE and IgG4 are markers of resistance and susceptibility in a human intestinal nematode infection". ...
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative ... The Quest ACTester Activated Clotting Time System. 7. Total Protein. 8. Total Protein Reagent. 9. Total Protein Reagent Set. 10 ... Bipolar Hand Activated Forceps. 3. Bipolar Foot Activated Forceps. 4. European Bipolar Foot Activated Forceps. 5. Titanium Foot ... Proteomelab™ XL-A/XL-I Protein Characterization System. 11. Proteomelab™ PA 800 Protein Characterization System. ...
LabCorp test details for Activated Protein C Resistance (APCR) ... Activated Protein C Resistance (APCR). TEST: 117762 Test number ... Activated protein C resistance assay detects thrombotic risk factors other than factor V Leiden. Am J Clin Pathol. 2003 Jan; ... Activated Protein C Resistance. 13590-5. 117763. Act.Prt.C Resist.. ratio. 13590-5. ... 8. Van Cott EM, Soderberg BL, Laposata M. Activated protein C resistance, the factor V Leiden mutation, and a laboratory ...
Establishing mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitor-resistant melanoma models. a A mitogen activated protein kinase BRAF ... Systems biology analysis of mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma.. Zecena H1, Tveit D1, ... a Establishing cellular models of mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitor resistance using SK-MEL-28 malignant melanoma cell ... Transcription factor motif analysis of mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitor resistance in cellular models of malignant ...
Differentiating Activated Protein C Resistance from Other Diseases. Activated protein C resistance must be differentiated from ... Activated Protein C= APC, PS= Protein S Causes. Activated protein C resistance may be caused by either inherited (primary), ... Directions to Hospitals Treating Activated protein C resistance Risk calculators and risk factors for Activated protein C ... The second generation for activated protein C resistance (APCR) assay, uses the ratio of aPTT with activated protein C (APC) ...
Activated protein C (with protein S as a cofactor) degrades Factor Va and Factor VIIIa. Activated protein C resistance is the ... Activated protein C resistance (APCR) is a hypercoagulability (an increased tendency of the blood to clot) characterized by a ... Sheppard DR (2000). "Activated protein C resistance: the most common risk factor for venous thromboembolism". J Am Board Fam ... Nicolaes GA, Dahlbäck B (2003). "Congenital and acquired activated protein C resistance". Semin Vasc Med. 3 (1): 33-46. doi: ...
Arabidopsis auxin-resistance gene AXR1 encodes a protein related to ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1.. Leyser HM1, Lincoln CA, ... The AXR1 protein is highly diverged from previously characterized E1 enzymes, however, and lacks a key cysteine residue that is ... Here we isolate the AXR1 gene using a map-based approach and report that AXR1 encodes a new protein with significant sequence ... One of these genes, AXR1, is defined by recessive mutations that confer auxin resistance to the roots, rosettes and ...
... is more slowly degraded by activated protein C. Factor V Leiden mutation (R506Q) is the most common cause of APC resistance. ... A hemostatic disorder characterized by a poor anticoagulant response to activated protein C (APC). The activated form of Factor ... Activated Protein C Resistance (APC Resistance). Subscribe to New Research on Activated Protein C Resistance ... related to Activated Protein C Resistance: 1. factor V LeidenIBA 02/01/1997 - "Thus the activated protein C resistance assay is ...
What is activated protein C resistance? Meaning of activated protein C resistance medical term. What does activated protein C ... Looking for online definition of activated protein C resistance in the Medical Dictionary? activated protein C resistance ... Activated protein C resistance is caused by a failure of protein C to cleave Factor Va and/or Factor VIIIa.. activated protein ... activated protein C resistance. Also found in: Acronyms, Wikipedia. Activated Protein C Resistance. An inherited (autosomal ...
Immunoglobulin G Lupus Protein C Prothrombin Pulmonary embolism Shipping industry Systemic lupus erythematosus Thrombin ... Acquired activated protein C resistance associated with IgG antibodies against [[beta].sub.2]-glycoprotein I and prothrombin as ... protein+C+resistance+associated+with+IgG...-a0209163607. *APA style: Acquired activated protein C resistance associated with ... resistance+associated+with+IgG...-a0209163607,/a,. Citations: *MLA style: "Acquired activated protein C resistance associated ...
Our findings led to the identification of dithiolethione compounds that prevent insulin resistance through a mechanism ... Moreover, oltipraz activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), whose inhibition by a dominant negative mutant abolished S6K1 ... of a novel class of dithiolethiones that prevent hepatic insulin resistance via the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein ... Peripheral insulin resistance is observed in most patients who have cirrhosis. Conversely, insulin-resistant diabetic patients ...
Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT 1 (PIAS1) Protects against Obesity-induced Insulin Resistance by Inhibiting Inflammation ... Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT 1 (PIAS1) Protects against Obesity-induced Insulin Resistance by Inhibiting Inflammation ... Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT 1 (PIAS1) Protects against Obesity-induced Insulin Resistance by Inhibiting Inflammation ... Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT 1 (PIAS1) Protects against Obesity-induced Insulin Resistance by Inhibiting Inflammation ...
Abstract 4124: Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase as a novel mechanism of resistance to EGFR-targeted therapy. Xinqun ... Abstract 4124: Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase as a novel mechanism of resistance to EGFR-targeted therapy ... Abstract 4124: Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase as a novel mechanism of resistance to EGFR-targeted therapy ... Abstract 4124: Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase as a novel mechanism of resistance to EGFR-targeted therapy ...
... levels or activated protein C resistance (normalized activated protein C resistance ratio [nAPCsr]) modify the increased risk ... The endogenous thrombin potential-based activated protein C resistance test (ETP-based APC resistance test) was performed at ... Activated protein C resistance and acute ischemic stroke: relation to stroke causation and age. J Neurol. 2001;248:701-704. ... Adjusted Ischemic Stroke Risk per SD Higher Baseline Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor and Activated Protein C Resistance (N=455 ...
Explore clotting assays for quantitative determination of activated protein C resistance activity and its calibrators and ... Antithrombin Protein C: Activity and Antigen Protein S: Activity and Antigen Activated Protein C Resistance Protein Z Lupus ... Activated Protein C Resistance. Clotting assay for quantitative determination of Activated Protein C Resistance activity and ... Heparins and their Analogues Direct Anti-Xa Inhibitors Direct Thrombin Inhibitors Activated Protein C resistance Protein S D- ...
iii) Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibits all of these events and enhances insulin signalling in the ... iii) Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibits all of these events and enhances insulin signalling in the ... and metformin on cardiovascular disease and insulin resistance in humans could be related to the fact that they activate AMPK ... and metformin on cardiovascular disease and insulin resistance in humans could be related to the fact that they activate AMPK ...
Activated Protein C resistance means that when your body forms clots, those clots are more dur... ... Activated Protein C is a natural anticoagulant in the blood. ... Activated Protein C resistance means that when your body forms ... If you need it, a PDF copy of your Activated Protein C Resistance Test results can be downloaded for your doctor. ... track your orders and view your Activated Protein C Resistance Test results. ...
ESTRADIOL 3-GLUCURONIDE IS TRANSPORTED BY THE MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 2 BUT DOES NOT ACTIVATE THE ALLOSTERIC ... ESTRADIOL 3-GLUCURONIDE IS TRANSPORTED BY THE MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 2 BUT DOES NOT ACTIVATE THE ALLOSTERIC ... ESTRADIOL 3-GLUCURONIDE IS TRANSPORTED BY THE MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 2 BUT DOES NOT ACTIVATE THE ALLOSTERIC ... ESTRADIOL 3-GLUCURONIDE IS TRANSPORTED BY THE MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 2 BUT DOES NOT ACTIVATE THE ALLOSTERIC ...
Identification of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathways That Confer Resistance to Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in ... Identification of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathways That Confer Resistance to Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in ... Identification of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathways That Confer Resistance to Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in ... Identification of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathways That Confer Resistance to Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in ...
Rat anti-activated protein C resistance,APCR ELISA Kit \ E02A0843 for more molecular products just contact us ... Rat anti-activated protein C resistance,APCR ELISA Kit. Related products : Rat anti-activated protein C resistance,APCR ELISA ... Rat anti-activated protein C resistance,APCR ELISA Kit / Product Detail : E02A0843 Rat anti-activated protein C resistance,APCR ... Rat anti-activated protein C resistance,APCR ELISA Kit storing antibdies for longer storage periods of the Rat anti-activated ...
In contrast, adiponectin, another adipokine is protective against breast cancer cell proliferation and insulin resistance. AMP- ... activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity has been found decreased in visceral adipose tissue of insulin-resistant patients. ... Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) link systemic inflammation to high fat diet-induced insulin resistance. Modulation of LPS-induced ... AMPK activation may provide a new way not only to improve the obesity-related adipokine profile and insulin resistance, but ...
Activated protein C resistance acquired through liver transplantation. Pushkaran, Beena; Adams, David; Chapman, Roger; More ... Effects of pre-analytical variables on the anti-activated factor X chromogenic assay when monitoring unfractionated heparin and ...
Our data support this premise because mitogen-activated protein kinase activation had no appreciable effects on drug resistance ... the multidrug resistance protein (MRP) family is another class of drug pumps that are responsible for acquired drug resistance ... Interestingly, multidrug resistance protein-1 (MRP-1) expression, but not MDR-1 (p-glycoprotein), was observed to be induced as ... Sullivan GF, Yang JM, Vassil A, Yang J, Bash-Babula J, Hait WN Regulation of expression of the multidrug resistance protein ...
The PXR and multidrug resistance-related protein 3 (MRP3) expressions were examined by western blot, RT-PCR or ... Mechanistically, PXR could directly bind to the MRP3 promoter, activating its transcription. The PXR binding sites were ... unfavorable survival and induces chemotherapeutic resistance by transcriptional activating multidrug resistance-related protein ... multidrug resistance 1 and multidrug resistance‑associated protein 2 [20, 31, 40]. Mounting evidence has shown that PXR is a ...
Prunus domestica pathogenesis-related protein-5 activates the defense response pathway and enhances the resistance to fungal ... Pathogenesis-related protein-5 (PR-5) has been implicated in plant disease resistance and its antifungal activity has been ... Our results show that PdPR5-1 gene, in addition to its anti-fungal properties, has a possible role in activating other defense ... Transgenic Arabidopsis plants exhibited more resistance to Alternaria brassicicola. Further, there was a significant increase ...
Activated Protein C Resistance in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Levine, Arie; Lahav, Judith; Zahavi, Ilan; More ...
Such proteins, also known as optogenetic tools, can be switched on and off through light impulses, ... ... A new strategy for designing light-sensitive proteins has been developed by researchers at Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB). ... "Heat resistance temperature" and melting point?. Nov 10, 2019. Energy of a chemical reaction. Nov 09, 2019 ... Switching proteins on and off with light in different colors. An example of an optogenetic tool is the protein melanopsin. It ...
Comparison of Phenotypic Activated Protein C Resistance Testing With a Genetic Assay for Factor V Leiden.. Murphy CH1, Sabath ... Activated Protein C Resistance/diagnosis. *Activated Protein C Resistance/genetics*. *Activated Protein C Resistance/pathology ... To compare the accuracy and reliability of phenotypic activated protein C resistance (aPC-R) assays with a genotypic assay for ...
The gene was located in the gene cluster containing Gbve1 and Gbvdr5 and adjacent to the Verticillium wilt-resistance QTL ... The gene was located in the gene cluster containing Gbve1 and Gbvdr5 and adjacent to the Verticillium wilt-resistance QTL ... These results suggest that Gbvdr6 confers resistance to V. dahliae through regulation of the JA/ET and SA signaling pathways. ... Overexpression of Gbvdr6 in Arabidopsis and cotton enhanced resistance to V. dahliae. Moreover, the JA/ET signaling pathway- ...
... multidrug resistance protein 3; PPAR, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor; PXR, pregnane X receptor; TG, triglycerides; ... Novel therapies under evaluation target nuclear and surface receptors including FXR, transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor 5 ... FXR, farnesoid X receptor; NorUDCA, 24 nor-ursodeoxycholic acid; OCA, obeticholic acid; PPAR, peroxisome proliferator-activated ... TGR5), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR). Modulation of these receptors leads to ...
... monocyte chemoattractant protein 1; PPAR, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor. ... Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in obesity and insulin resistance Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in obesity and insulin resistance. Peter Sartipy and David J. Loskutoff ... Overexpression of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 in Adipose Tissues Causes Macrophage Recruitment and Insulin Resistance ...
  • Systems biology analysis of mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma. (nih.gov)
  • Kinase inhibition in the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a standard therapy for cancer patients with activating BRAF mutations. (nih.gov)
  • Using virus-induced gene silencing, one or more mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades required for Mi-1- mediated aphid resistance were identified. (apsnet.org)
  • Silencing plants for MAPK kinase ( LeMKK2) and MAPKs ( LeMPK2 and LeMPK1 , or LeMPK3) resulted in attenuation of Mi-1 -mediated aphid resistance. (apsnet.org)
  • Here we report that a mitogen-activated protein kinase, OsMPK6, functions both as an activator and a repressor in rice resistance against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Oltipraz and other dithiolethione compounds were tested on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced insulin resistance and glucose homeostasis in vitro and in vivo via immunoblotting, plasmid transfection, kinase analysis, and functional assays. (nih.gov)
  • Oltipraz treatment inhibited the ability of TNF-alpha to activate p70 ribosomal S6 kinase-1 (S6K1) downstream of mammalian target of rapamycin, thus preventing insulin receptor substrate-1 serine phosphorylation and protecting insulin signals. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, oltipraz activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), whose inhibition by a dominant negative mutant abolished S6K1 inhibition and protected insulin signaling, indicating that AMPK activation leads to S6K1 inhibition. (nih.gov)
  • In current study, we tested a novel hypothesis that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions as a metabolic checkpoint activated in response to the decline in ATP levels by EGFR-targeted therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • ii) Key pathogenetic events in this mechanism very likely include increased fatty acid esterification, protein kinase C activation, an increase in oxidative stress (demonstrated to date in endothelium) and alterations in the inhibitor kappa B kinase/nuclear factor kappa B system. (garvan.org.au)
  • iii) Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibits all of these events and enhances insulin signalling in the endothelial cell. (garvan.org.au)
  • Besides the classic UPR pathway and genes related to calcium homeostasis, we report that two additional pathways, including the SLT2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and the osmosensing MAPK pathway, were also required for survival during ER stress. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recent studies also support an important role of another major branch of the UPR, PKR-like ER kinase, in regulating protein translation and survival under hypoxic stress as well as tumor growth ( 16 , 17 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity has been found decreased in visceral adipose tissue of insulin-resistant patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The active defense of plants against pathogens often includes rapid and localized cell death known as hypersensitive response (HR). Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are implicated in this event based on studies using protein kinase and phosphatase inhibitors. (berkeley.edu)
  • Recent transient gain-of-function studies demonstrated that the activation of salicylic acid-induced protein kinase (SIPK) and wounding-induced protein kinase (WIPK), two tobacco mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) by their upstream MAPK kinase (MAPKK), NtMEK2 leads to HR-like cell death. (berkeley.edu)
  • Given the high percentage of CaP patients with mutations in the PTEN tumor suppressor gene, we sought to determine the involvement of the phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase (PI3K) cascade in the development of CaP drug resistance. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The activating mutations of the EGFR in a subset of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who respond to the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) gefitinib or erlotinib are paradigmatic [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The α1 (catalytic) subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was identified as a dominant and novel interacting protein. (jci.org)
  • Furthermore, several studies have demonstrated that GSTs are able to interact with different protein partners such as mitogen activated protein kinases (i.e., c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)) which are also involved in cell signaling. (hindawi.com)
  • 5 ] published the first study showing that mouse GSTpi interacts with the protein kinase c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). (hindawi.com)
  • AAK-2 is one of two α isoforms of the AMP-activated protein kinase in Caenorhabditis elegans and is involved in life span maintenance, stress responses, and germ cell cycle arrest upon dauer entry. (elsevier.com)
  • AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in skeletal muscle, which is a useful insulin resistance marker, was examined by immunoblotting. (ajas.info)
  • Most adipokines regulate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling to modulate insulin action [ 12 , 13 ]. (ajas.info)
  • MLDP significantly altered the expression patterns of many genes involved in mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPKs) and calcium signaling, transcription factors, primary and secondary metabolism, and other processes in both poplar subgenera. (mdpi.com)
  • Crenolanib, a potent type I pan-FLT3 inhibitor, is effective against both internal tandem duplications and resistance-conferring tyrosine kinase domain mutations. (nature.com)
  • Activating mutations in the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ( FLT3 ) gene represents the most frequent molecular abnormality in AML 1 , 2 . (nature.com)
  • Insulin stimulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) pathway, as measured by phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and IRS-1 and by IRS protein association with p85 and with PI 3-kinase, was dramatically reduced in obese nondiabetics and virtually absent in type 2 diabetic patients. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, insulin resistance differentially affects the PI 3-kinase and MAP kinase signaling pathways, and insulin-stimulated IRS-1-association with PI 3-kinase defines a key step in insulin resistance. (nih.gov)
  • Dietary anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in diabetic mice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We found that dietary BBE ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). (biomedsearch.com)
  • The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cellular energy sensor that has recently been demonstrated to be important in potentially regulating the metabolic activity of brown and beige adipose tissue. (springer.com)
  • Keeping the home fires burning: AMP-activated protein kinase. (springer.com)
  • AMPK functions as an adenylate charge-regulated protein kinase. (springer.com)
  • This results in activation of the receptor kinase and tyrosine phosphorylation of a family of insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins. (jci.org)
  • PI3-kinase is critical for metabolic actions of insulin, such as glucose transport, glycogen synthesis, and protein synthesis, whereas Grb-2/SOS complex, which activates the MAP kinase cascade, is critical in mitogenic response. (jci.org)
  • We also found that the glucoregulatory role of duodenally acting resveratrol required activation of Sirt1 and AMP-activated protein kinase (Ampk) in this tissue to initiate a gut-brain-liver neuronal axis that improved hypothalamic insulin sensitivity and in turn, reduced HGP. (nature.com)
  • Generation and use of TaMPK3- and TaMPK6-specific antibodies on western blots and in coupled immunoprecipitation-protein kinase assays demonstrated that the TaMPK3 protein also accumulated, and was subsequently posttranslationally activated, during the compatible interaction in parallel to PCD. (plantphysiol.org)
  • A mitogen-activated protein kinase ( MAPK or MAP kinase ) is a type of protein kinase that is specific to the amino acids serine and threonine (i.e., a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The first mitogen-activated protein kinase to be discovered was ERK1 ( MAPK3 ) in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is conducted by specialized enzymes of the STE protein kinase group. (wikipedia.org)
  • This tandem activation loop phosphorylation (that was proposed to be either distributive or processive, dependent on cellular environment) is performed by members of the Ste7 protein kinase family, also known as MAP2 kinases . (wikipedia.org)
  • His group has gone on to show that insulin resistance in liver and skeletal muscle can be attributed to increases in diacylglycerol, which in turn activates nPKCs leading to decreased insulin signaling at the level of the insulin receptor kinase. (yale.edu)
  • A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. (curehunter.com)
  • Prior UO results in reduced postischemic phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal stress-activated protein kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2), p38, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase 4 (MKK4), and MKK3/6. (curehunter.com)
  • We show in this study that sodium channels and p38 MAP kinase colocalize in rat brain tissue and that activated p38α phosphorylates L1 of Na v 1.6, specifically at serine 553 (S553), in vitro . (jneurosci.org)
  • Although phosphorylation of sodium channels has been shown to produce rapid modulation of sodium currents, these studies have been primarily focused on investigating the role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) (for review, see Cantrell and Catterall, 2001 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Hog1 mediates the response of yeast cells to various stressors, including osmotic shock, heat shock, and arsenic. (sciencemag.org)
  • The yeast stress-activated protein kinase Hog1 is best known for its role in mediating the response to osmotic stress, but it is also activated by various mechanistically distinct environmental stressors, including heat shock, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and arsenic. (sciencemag.org)
  • The related human kinases ERK1 and ERK2 also bound to arsenic in vitro, suggesting that this may be a conserved feature of some members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family. (sciencemag.org)
  • Hog1 is an evolutionarily conserved stress-activated protein kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is best known for its role in the osmotic stress response, wherein it orchestrates a complex program of cellular remodeling ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • We showed previously that α-lipoic acid (ALA) activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and reduces lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle of obese rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • 5,6 We showed in rodents recently that chronic ALA treatment significantly reduced body weight gain primarily by decreasing food intake, and that this effect was mediated by the effect of ALA to decrease AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity in the hypothalamus. (ahajournals.org)
  • NO stimulates signal transduction pathways through protein kinases, cytosolic Ca 2+ mobilization and protein modification (i.e. nitrosylation and nitration). (wiley.com)
  • For example, the ligand-binding capacity of GST results in the negative regulation of signaling pathways through sequestration of protein kinases. (hindawi.com)
  • It offers been reported that Cas confers level of resistance to anticancer medicines such as Doxorubicin and tamoxifen via service of signaling paths mediated by different kinases, including Src, EGFR, ERK1/2 and Akt [4,5]. (elevateblogconference.com)
  • Many race- or isolate-specific disease resistance responses of plants toward pathogens (incompatible interactions) invoke hypersensitive response (HR)-like programmed cell death (PCD) and the coordinated activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases homologous with Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) AtMPK6 and AtMPK3 (or tobacco [ Nicotiana tabacum ] SIPK and WIPK), respectively. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Moreover, the defense-related genes PR1, PR2 , and PR5 and mitogen-activated kinases (MAPK) cascade marker gene MPK6 were concurrently expressed in the leaves of EPS-treated plants and induced higher resistance to Pst DC3000 in Col-0 than that in the jar1 or etr1 mutants. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinases are catalytically inactive in their base form. (wikipedia.org)
  • MAP2 kinases in turn, are also activated by phosphorylation, by a number of different upstream serine-threonine kinases ( MAP3 kinases ). (wikipedia.org)
  • ERK3 (MAPK6) and ERK4 (MAPK4) were recently shown to be directly phosphorylated and thus activated by PAK kinases (related to other MAP3 kinases). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are expressed in neurons and are activated after injury, for example, after sciatic nerve transection and hypoxia. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, despite the coexpression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and voltage-gated sodium channels in neurons, phosphorylation and modulation of these channels by MAP kinases have not been investigated. (jneurosci.org)
  • Once activated, MAP kinases phosphorylate a variety of proteins and relay signals downstream, often ending in activation of transcriptional factors ( Cano and Mahadevan, 1995 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • These data provide a mechanistic basis for understanding how stress-activated kinases can sense distinct threats and perform highly specific adaptive responses. (sciencemag.org)
  • Our findings led to the identification of dithiolethione compounds that prevent insulin resistance through a mechanism involving AMPK-mediated S6K1 inhibition and thereby sensitize hepatic insulin response. (nih.gov)
  • By measuring the level of T-172 activation-specific phosphorylation of AMPK and the level of phosphorylation of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) at S-79 (the site known to be phosphorylated by AMPK), we found that AMPK was strongly activated after cetuximab treatment in HN5 and FaDu cells, compared to untreated cells, but AMPK was only moderately elevated in UMSCC1 cells that contain a higher basal level of activated AMPK. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Knockdown of LKB1 expression by specific siRNA prevented cetuximab-induced activation of AMPK, indicating that cetuximab activates AMPK through the canonical ATP-LKB1-AMPK signaling pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These findings indicate that activation of AMPK is an important mechanism of resistance to cetuximab, attempting to restore cellular energy level after cetuximab treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Taken together, our findings suggest a novel mechanism in which AMPK is activated in response to the decline in ATP level by cetuximab-induced downregulation of HIF-1α. (aacrjournals.org)
  • iv) The reported beneficial effects of exercise and metformin on cardiovascular disease and insulin resistance in humans could be related to the fact that they activate AMPK. (garvan.org.au)
  • Modulation of LPS-induced adipokine production by metformin and AMPK activation might represent an alternative way to treat both, insulin resistance and breast cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Possibly, AMPK activation may provide a new way not only to improve the obesity-related adipokine profile and insulin resistance, but also to prevent obesity-related breast cancer development and progression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additionally, associations of AMPK phosphorylation with plasma adipokines and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index were assessed by Pearce's correlation analysis. (ajas.info)
  • AMPK impairment induced by adiponectin decrease mediates insulin resistance in high-fat and high-sucrose diet induction. (ajas.info)
  • AMPK is phosphorylated and activated in response to increased cellular AMP/ATP (adenosine monophosphate/adenosine triphosphate) ratio, thereby acting as an energy sensing enzyme that governs systemic cellular metabolism. (ajas.info)
  • AMPK was activated in white adipose tissue (WAT), skeletal muscle, and the liver of diabetic mice fed BBE. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Adipose tissue AMPK is reduced in people with insulin resistance, consistent with findings that mice lacking adipocyte AMPK develop greater NAFLD and insulin resistance. (springer.com)
  • Here, we investigated whether ALA improves endothelial dysfunction in obese rats by activating AMPK in endothelial cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Incubation of human aortic endothelial cells with ALA activated AMPK and protected cells from linoleic acid-induced apoptosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • ALA improves vascular dysfunction by normalizing lipid metabolism and activating AMPK in endothelial cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • 8,9 When activated, AMPK increases glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation 8,9 and decreases lipid accumulation in the tissues. (ahajournals.org)
  • 10 In contrast to the effect of ALA to inhibit AMPK in the hypothalamus, ALA activated AMPK in skeletal muscle, resulting in enhanced fatty acid oxidation and reduced lipid accumulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • To elucidate mechanistic insights into drug resistance, we have established an in vitro cellular model of MAPK inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma. (nih.gov)
  • At a systems biology level, the MAPK pathway undergoes major rewiring while acquiring inhibitor resistance. (nih.gov)
  • We further show that the SLT2 MAPK pathway was activated during ER stress, was responsible for increased resistance to ER stress, and functioned independently of the classic IRE1/HAC1 pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These mutants were also defective in interacting with SIPK and WIPK, suggesting protein-protein interaction is required for the functional integrity of this MAPK cascade. (berkeley.edu)
  • Inhibition of MAPK signaling had no effect on cell viability of HCC827/AZDR and could not reverse AZD9291 resistance because of the subsequent activation of AKT signaling. (springer.com)
  • Blocking MAPK and AKT signaling may be a potential therapeutic strategy following AZD9291 resistance. (springer.com)
  • Like other growth factors, insulin uses phosphorylation and the resultant protein-protein interactions as essential tools to transmit and compartmentalize its signal. (jci.org)
  • Remarkably, these S -glutathionylated proteins are involved in oxidative phosphorylation, respiratory complexes, drug metabolism, and mitochondrial apoptosis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Phosphoproteomic profiling data analysis reveals global elevation of protein phosphorylation. (mcponline.org)
  • Phosphorylation provides a fast posttranslational modification of proteins that has been shown to regulate the acute response of cells to a variety of stimuli. (jneurosci.org)
  • Hog1 promoted arsenic detoxification by stimulating phosphorylation of the transcription factor Yap8, promoting Yap8 nuclear localization, and stimulating the transcription of the only known Yap8 targets, ARR2 and ARR3 , both of which encode proteins that promote arsenic efflux. (sciencemag.org)
  • The limitations in the originally devised assay for activated protein C resistance led to the development of a modified assay. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Other variations of the activated protein C resistance assay have been developed. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Clotting assay for quantitative determination of Activated Protein C Resistance activity and its calibrators and controls. (aniara.com)
  • Although this assay can be performed in the absence of other coagulation tests and clinical information, it is most reliably performed as part of a consultative coagulation test panel with interpretive reporting (including appropriate testing of the same specimen to evaluate for the presence or absence of coagulation abnormalities or conditions that may affect interpretation of the APC resistance assay). (testcatalog.org)
  • Comparison of Phenotypic Activated Protein C Resistance Testing With a Genetic Assay for Factor V Leiden. (cdc.gov)
  • To compare the accuracy and reliability of phenotypic activated protein C resistance (aPC-R) assays with a genotypic assay for the factor V Leiden F5 p.R506Q (FVL) mutation. (cdc.gov)
  • Activated protein C resistance assay performance: improvement by sample dilution with factor V--deficient plasma. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Influence of storage conditions on activated protein C resistance assay [letter]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A new dilution for the modified APTT-based assay for activated protein C resistance: improvement of the reliability in patients with a lupus anticoagulant. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The underlying mechanism of treatment resistance and pathway rewiring was uncovered to be based on non-genomic adaptation and validated in two distinct melanoma models, SK-MEL-28 and A375. (nih.gov)
  • Figure: The Protein C Anticoagulant Pathway: Thrombin escaping from a site of vascular injury binds to its receptor thrombomodulin (TM) on the intact cell surface. (wikidoc.org)
  • The NahG transgene that eliminates endogenous salicylic acid (SA) was used to test the role of the SA signaling pathway in the resistance mediated by Mi-1 to potato aphids. (apsnet.org)
  • Aphid resistance in Mi-1 NahG plants was completely abolished and the phenotype was successfully rescued by application of BTH (benzo(1,2,3)-thiaiazole-7-carbothioic acid S -methyl ester), indicating that the SA signaling pathway is an important component of Mi-1 -mediated aphid resistance. (apsnet.org)
  • Several clinical studies have established that the prevalence of VTE is associated with congenital or acquired abnormalities of the protein C pathway (14-17). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Recently, several authors have suggested that acquired abnormalities of the protein C pathway are frequently found in patients with aPL antibodies (18-22). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Other authors have reported that aPL antibodies might inhibit PL-dependent reactivity of the activated protein C (APC) pathway, such as activation of protein C by thrombin/thrombomodulin or degradation of factor Va by activated protein C/protein S (1,23). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Background and Purpose- To test whether changes in plasma tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) levels or activated protein C resistance (normalized activated protein C resistance ratio [nAPCsr]) modify the increased risk of ischemic stroke due to postmenopausal hormone therapy. (ahajournals.org)
  • 6 - 9 Reduction in tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and protein S are thought to be important mechanisms underlying the activation of coagulation and acquired protein C resistance associated with oral contraceptives, and both have been implicated in venous thromboembolism. (ahajournals.org)
  • The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) maintains an oxidative environment that is optimized to promote the efficient folding of proteins destined for the secretory pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, by using PVX-induced gene silencing, we demonstrated that the suppression of all three known components in the NtMEK2-SIPK/WIPK pathway attenuated N gene-mediated TMV resistance. (berkeley.edu)
  • Together with previous reports that SIPK and WIPK are activated by TMV in a gene-for-gene-dependent manner, we conclude that NtMEK2-SIPK/WIPK pathway plays a positive role in N gene-mediated resistance, possibly through regulating HR cell death. (berkeley.edu)
  • Prunus domestica pathogenesis-related protein-5 activates the defense response pathway and enhances the resistance to fungal infection. (scienceexchange.com)
  • demonstrated that mitotic stress is characterised by the sub-apoptotic activation of a classical caspase pathway, which promotes telomere deprotection, activates DNA damage signalling, and determines cell fate in response to a prolonged delay in mitosis. (selleckchem.com)
  • therefore, APC resistance due to a nonfactor V mutation will not be detected. (legacyhealth.org)
  • The factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation is the best known hereditary form accounts for more than 95 percent of cases of hereditary APC resistance, and acquired forms occur in the presence of elevated Factor VIII concentrations or conditions like hormone replacement therapy and pregnancy . (wikidoc.org)
  • In 1993, Dr. Rogier Bertina and his colleagues identified that activated protein C (APC) resistance was primarily due to a mutation in the factor V gene (guanine to adenine substitution at nucleotide 1691, G1691A) resulting in the Factor V Leiden molecule. (wikidoc.org)
  • In addition to the FVL mutation , a number of conditions which cause activated protein C resistance have been identified and are included: increased factor VIII, increased estrogen levels, antiphospholipid antibodies, and a variety of solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. (wikidoc.org)
  • The activated form of Factor V (Factor Va) is more slowly degraded by activated protein C. Factor V Leiden mutation (R506Q) is the most common cause of APC resistance. (curehunter.com)
  • Activated protein C resistance caused by Arg506G1n mutation in factor Va. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although factor V Leiden mutation is the cause of activated protein C resistance in most cases, we recommend that activated protein C resistance testing be done first, as it is a less expensive and more widely available test than the DNA-based factor V Leiden mutation test. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Mutation of the conserved basic amino acids in this motif, or the deletion of N-terminal 64 amino acids containing this motif significantly compromised or abolished the ability of NtMEK2DD to activate SIPK/WIPK in vivo. (berkeley.edu)
  • Here, we present a women with CVT during the first trimester of her pregnancy with additional risk factors of MTHFR C677 T heterozygote mutation, protein S deficiency, and activated protein C resistance. (cu.edu.tr)
  • To study the correlation of activated protein C (APC) resistance, coagulation factors and inhibitors abnormality and JAK2V617F mutation burden in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms ( MPN ). (bvsalud.org)
  • A, 1691) leads to the so called Leiden mutation (R 506 Q) that produces a mutated factor V resistant to the catalytic action of activated protein C (aPC), yet normal in its procoagulant properties. (arctichealth.org)
  • The aPCR phenotype can be assessed in vitro by measurement of the prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time in the presence of aPC, whereas the aPCR genotype is studied using polymerase chain reaction searching for the Arg to Gln mutation in the coagulation factor V gene. (arctichealth.org)
  • This mutation changes a single protein building block (amino acid) in the factor V protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The factor V Leiden mutation results in the production of an abnormal coagulation factor V protein that is resistant to inactivation by APC, while the other mutation prevents the production of any coagulation factor V protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Factor V Arg 306 [right arrow] Gly mutation is not associated with activated protein C resistance and is rare in Taiwanese Chinese. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Lack of activated protein C resistance in healthy Hong Kong Chinese blood donors: correlation with absence of Arg506-Gln mutation of factor V gene [letter]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Resistance to activated protein C , the Arg506 to Gln mutation in the factor V gene, and venous thrombosis: functional tests and DNA-based assays, pros and cons. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Activated protein C resistance, the factor V Leiden mutation, and a laboratory testing algorithm. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Della Corte CM, Malapelle U, Vigliar E, Pepe F, Troncone G et al (2017) Efficacy of continuous EGFR-inhibition and role of Hedgehog in EGFR acquired resistance in human lung cancer cells with activating mutation of. (springer.com)
  • Of the 72 children, 25 showed the factor V Leiden mutation, 10 showed protein C deficiency, 2 showed antithrombin deficiency, and 4 showed primary antiphospholipid syndrome. (aappublications.org)
  • Three children with increased Lp (a) were heterozygous for the factor V Leiden mutation, and 1 girl showed additional protein C deficiency. (aappublications.org)
  • The fabG1 (also known as mab A) gene, like inhA , is involved in mycolic acid biosynthesis and at least one mutation in this region has been associated with low-level INH resistance [ 10 , 11 ]. (cdc.gov)
  • Within fabG1 , the silent/synonymous mutation (i.e., nucleotide change but no corresponding change in amino acid) Leu203Leu has been found to confer INH resistance through the formation of an alternative promoter, thereby increasing the transcriptional levels of inhA [ 11 ]. (cdc.gov)
  • Although silent mutations were previously believed to not play a role in drug resistance, the Leu203Leu mutation demonstrates that silent mutations could be associated with resistance depending on the specific gene and the location of the mutation. (cdc.gov)
  • Novel therapies under evaluation target nuclear and surface receptors including FXR, transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR). (medscape.com)
  • The elevated MCP-1 may alter adipocyte function because addition of MCP-1 to differentiated adipocytes in vitro decreases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and the expression of several adipogenic genes ( LpL, adipsin, GLUT-4, aP2 , β3-adrenergic receptor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ). (pnas.org)
  • Among them, the 15-deoxy-Δ 12,14 -prostaglandin J 2 (15d-PGJ 2 ) regulates the activity of three transcription factors playing a central role in stress response, differentiation and proliferation: the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ ), the nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and the nuclear factor κ B (NF- κ B) [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • One of these genes, AXR1, is defined by recessive mutations that confer auxin resistance to the roots, rosettes and inflorescences of mutant plants. (nih.gov)
  • Activation of OsMPK6 resulted in the formation of lesion mimics and local resistance to Xoo, accompanied by the accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA), and the induced expression of SA- and JA-signaling genes. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Nuclear localization of OsMPK6 was essential for local resistance, suggesting that modulating the expression of defense-responsive genes through transcription regulators may be the primary mechanism of OsMPK6-mediated local resistance. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Using the set of 4,728 homozygous diploid deletion mutants in budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae , we did a functional screen for genes that conferred resistance to ER stress-inducing agents. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The induced genes are involved in translocation, protein glycosylation, vesicular transport, cell wall biosynthesis, vacuolar protein targeting, and ER-associated degradation ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Therefore, the identification of additional disease-resistance genes will benefit efforts toward the genetic improvement of cotton resistance to Verticillium wilt. (frontiersin.org)
  • The hyperinsulinemia that frequently accompanies obesity and insulin resistance may therefore contribute to the altered expression of these and other genes in insulin target tissues. (pnas.org)
  • Collectively, these observations raise the possibility that in the situation of metabolic insulin resistance accompanied by hyperinsulinemia, the expression of certain insulin-responding genes may dramatically increase in insulin target tissues. (pnas.org)
  • in particular, it has a significant role in plant resistance to pathogens by triggering resistance-associated cell death and by contributing to the local and systemic induction of defence genes. (wiley.com)
  • Effector-triggered immunity is mediated by a large group of structurally related intracellular innate immune receptors encoded by resistance ( R ) genes. (plantcell.org)
  • Numerous loci have been investigated to identify additional genes correlated with INH resistance. (cdc.gov)
  • Activated protein C resistance is the inability of protein C to cleave Factor Va and/or Factor VIIIa, which allows for longer duration of thrombin generation and may lead to a hypercoagulable state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inactivated form of protein C is activated when it binds to thrombin , and the endothelial proteoglycan thrombomodulin . (wikidoc.org)
  • Activated protein C anticoagulant activity operated by proteolytically inactivating proteins Factor Va and Factor VIIIa which are required for factor X activation and thrombin generation. (wikidoc.org)
  • Protein C and S are natural anticoagulants which inhbit thrombin formation. (wikidoc.org)
  • As a result, thrombin loses its procoagulant properties and instead becomes a potent activator of protein C. Activated protein C (APC) functions as a circulating anticoagulant, which specifically degrades and inactivates the phospholipid-bound factors Va and VIIIa. (wikidoc.org)
  • We also measured the plasma concentrations of anti-thrombin, protein C, and protein 5 (total and free protein 5) in our 87 patients with SLE and found that none of them had any congenital abnormalities in anti-thrombin, protein C, or protein 5. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Studies of the inactivation of each partially purified thrombin-activated factor Va by APC suggested that half of the patients' factor Va was resistant to APC. (ashpublications.org)
  • When coagulation factor V is activated, it interacts with coagulation factor X. The active forms of these two coagulation factors (written as factor Va and factor Xa, respectively) form a complex that converts an important coagulation protein called prothrombin to its active form, thrombin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Thrombin then converts a protein called fibrinogen into fibrin, which is the material that forms the clot. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Our laboratory has also extensively characterized anti-factor V antibodies, investigating autoantibodies as well as xenogenic antibodies developing after exposure to topical bovine thrombin preparations which contain trace amounts of contaminating bovine factor V. We have also characterized how antiphospholipid antibodies interfere with the activated protein C complex, a lipid-dependent natural anticoagulant complex that proteolytically inactivates factor Va and factor VIIIa. (duke.edu)
  • The activated protein is a cofactor that participates with activated coagulation factor X to activate prothrombin to thrombin. (genecards.org)
  • The protein C zymogen is activated when it binds to thrombin, another protein heavily involved in coagulation, and protein C's activation is greatly promoted by the presence of thrombomodulin and endothelial protein C receptors (EPCRs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Arabidopsis auxin-resistance gene AXR1 encodes a protein related to ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1. (nih.gov)
  • Here we isolate the AXR1 gene using a map-based approach and report that AXR1 encodes a new protein with significant sequence similarity to the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1. (nih.gov)
  • The tomato Mi-1 gene confers resistance to root-knot nematodes ( Meloidogyne spp. (apsnet.org)
  • These results further demonstrate that resistance gene-mediated signaling events against piercing-sucking insects are similar to those against other plant pathogens. (apsnet.org)
  • Additional keywords: gene-for-gene resistance, resistance signaling. (apsnet.org)
  • Xoo infection induced the expression of PR1a, the marker gene of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), in systemic health tissues of OsMPK6-knock-out plants. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Our results show that PdPR5-1 gene, in addition to its anti-fungal properties, has a possible role in activating other defense pathways, including phytoalexin production. (scienceexchange.com)
  • The gene was located in the gene cluster containing Gbve1 and Gbvdr5 and adjacent to the Verticillium wilt-resistance QTL hotspot. (frontiersin.org)
  • This study identifies monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) as an insulin-responsive gene. (pnas.org)
  • Insulin affects a number of biological processes including glucose transport, glucose/lipid metabolism, cell growth, protein synthesis, and gene expression ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • The F5 gene provides instructions for making a protein called coagulation factor V. This protein plays a critical role in the coagulation system, which is a series of chemical reactions that forms blood clots in response to injury. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mutations are a prerequisite for tumor development, often found in cell signaling proteins as a result of deletions/point mutations in gene-coding regions or in promoter-enhancer sequences, DNA insertions, copy-number variations, and chromosomal translocations. (hindawi.com)
  • Our findings suggest the hypothesis that this deletion reduces expression of the SOD1 gene and that levels of the SOD1 protein may modify the phenotype of SALS within selected populations. (arctichealth.org)
  • These intracellular protein-protein interactions are pivotal in transmitting the signal from the receptor to the final cellular effect, such as translocation of vesicles containing GLUT4 glucose transporters from the intracellular pool to the plasma membrane, activation of glycogen or protein synthesis, and initiation of specific gene transcription (Figure 1 ). (jci.org)
  • The F5 gene provides instructions for making a protein called coagulation factor V. Coagulation factors are a group of related proteins that make up the coagulation system, a series of chemical reactions that form blood clots. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Byers LA, Diao L, Wang J, Saintigny P, Girard L et al (2013) An epithelial-mesenchymal transition gene signature predicts resistance to EGFR and PI3K inhibitors and identifies Axl as a therapeutic target for overcoming EGFR inhibitor resistance. (springer.com)
  • Currently, his lab is testing and validating these hypotheses in transgenic and gene knockout mouse models of insulin resistance and is identifying novel therapeutic targets to reverse insulin resistance in patients with T2DM. (yale.edu)
  • A second area of research uses transgenic and gene knockout mouse models to study proteins involved in GLUT4 targeting, to determine if insulin acts through similar mechanisms in fat and in muscle, and to test the importance of these pathways for overall glucose homeostasis. (yale.edu)
  • Defects in this gene result in either an autosomal recessive hemorrhagic diathesis or an autosomal dominant form of thrombophilia, which is known as activated protein C resistance. (genecards.org)
  • F5 (Coagulation Factor V) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • INH is a prodrug and is activated by the catalase-peroxidase enzyme encoded by the katG gene [ 4 , 8 ]. (cdc.gov)
  • Resistance to INH can also occur by mutations in the promoter region of the inhA gene, which are generally associated with low-level resistance to INH and are less frequent than katG mutations. (cdc.gov)
  • In humans, protein C is encoded by the PROC gene, which is found on chromosome 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • which produced a map of the gene responsible for producing protein C in the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene's symbol approved by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee is "PROC" from "protein C". It is located on the second chromosome (2q13-q14) and comprises nine exons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both cell lines have activating BRAF mutations and display metastatic potential. (nih.gov)
  • Mutations of two protein trafficking motifs within the 38-amino acid region in CFTR each disrupted the interaction. (jci.org)
  • The remaining patients exhibit post-crenolanib expansion of mutations associated with epigenetic regulators, transcription factors, and cohesion factors, suggesting diverse genetic/epigenetic mechanisms of crenolanib resistance. (nature.com)
  • These mutations prevent the production of functional coagulation factor V or significantly reduce the amount of the protein in the bloodstream. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The most common mechanism, mutations in katG , is generally associated with high-level resistance to INH. (cdc.gov)
  • consequently, it is believed that mutations in the promoter region could be surrogate markers for INH resistance [ 8 ]. (cdc.gov)
  • Resistance to INH and ethionamide (ETA) can occur by mutations in the fabG1-inhA regulatory region, which are generally associated with low-level resistance to INH. (cdc.gov)
  • Mutations in ethA also confer resistance to ETA, without concomitant resistance to INH [ 12 ]. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus, inhibition of PI3K activity with concomitant administration of chemotoxic compounds may prove beneficial in preventing the development of drug resistance in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Alternately, the multidrug resistance protein (MRP) family is another class of drug pumps that are responsible for acquired drug resistance in solid tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A definitive relationship between PI3K signaling and drug resistance has yet to be established. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Accordingly, blockade of MRP3 diminishes the effects on drug resistance of PXR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our work reveals a novel and unique mechanism of drug resistance in CRC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The identification of molecular mechanisms involved in drug resistance or sensitization is imperative. (isciii.es)
  • Ectopic or intrinsic high expression of TRIB2 induces drug resistance by promoting phospho-AKT (at Ser473) via its COP1 domain. (isciii.es)
  • Our study reveals a novel regulatory mechanism underlying drug resistance and suggests that TRIB2 functions as a regulatory component of the PI3K network, activating AKT in cancer cells. (isciii.es)
  • 6 months) do not escape FTS-induced growth inhibition and do not develop drug resistance. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A main aim of the present study was to determine whether this phenomenon of increased drug resistance also occurs with FTS. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This includes light sensitivity, i.e. how much light is needed to switch the protein on and off, as well as the speed and selectivity at which mechanisms are implemented or terminated after the activation of the switch. (phys.org)
  • Although the molecular mechanisms leading to development of insulin resistance also are not fully understood, there appears to be an association between insulin resistance and both the accumulation of abdominal visceral fat ( 4 ) and the presence of specific genetic components ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Gm SubPep is a unique plant defense peptide signal, cryptically embedded within a plant protein with an independent metabolic role, providing insights into plant defense mechanisms. (pnas.org)
  • The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ATP-gated Cl - channel that regulates other epithelial transport proteins by uncharacterized mechanisms. (jci.org)
  • Here, to investigate the mechanisms of crenolanib resistance, we perform whole exome sequencing of AML patient samples before and after crenolanib treatment. (nature.com)
  • Collateral selection, another mechanism capable of generating MDR strains, explains the phenomenon where selection pressure from one antimicrobial drug may additionally select for or against phenotypic resistances to other drugs via several mechanisms [8]. (rawveronica.com)
  • In this article, we review some of our current understanding about early insulin signal transduction through the network of IRS interacting proteins and the mechanisms that may modify insulin signal transduction in insulin-resistant states, especially obesity and type 2 diabetes. (jci.org)
  • To discover the underlying molecular mechanisms of effector recognition by the Arabidopsis thaliana RECOGNITION OF PERONOSPORA PARASITICA1 (RPP1) resistance protein, we adopted an Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transient protein expression system in tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum ), which allowed us to perform coimmunoprecipitation experiments and mutational analyses. (plantcell.org)
  • Thus, this chapter is intended to summarize the current available literature describing the physiologic and pathophysiologic role of insulin in the vasculature, and the mechanisms underlying the development of vascular insulin resistance from three standpoints. (intechopen.com)
  • This review will summarize our current understanding of metabolic mechanisms for and consequences of insulin resistance in the heart and will discuss potential new areas for investigating novel mechanisms that contribute to insulin resistance in the heart. (ahajournals.org)
  • 3 , 4 There are many molecular mechanisms that contribute to the association between insulin resistance and increased cardiovascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • 9 - 12 Insulin resistance via multiple mechanisms may contribute to macrophage accumulation in the vessel wall to increase atherosclerosis and instability of vulnerable plaques. (ahajournals.org)
  • The present review will focus on the mechanisms by which insulin resistance develops and contributes to structural heart disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • Further study will need to be done to identify the acquired resistance mechanisms and determine the next treatment. (springer.com)
  • Chabon JJ, Simmons AD, Lovejoy AF, Esfahani MS, Newman AM et al (2016) Circulating tumour DNA profiling reveals heterogeneity of EGFR inhibitor resistance mechanisms in lung cancer patients. (springer.com)
  • There are two mechanisms that account for the majority of INH resistance [ 4 , 8 , 9 ]. (cdc.gov)
  • Obesity frequently is accompanied by related metabolic perturbations such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and the development of a procoagulant state, and these changes contribute to an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Numerous studies in both animal models and humans have demonstrated that abnormal adipose tissue accumulation may result in metabolic disorders that cause severe insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes [ 4 ]. (ajas.info)
  • Resveratrol improves mitochondrial function and protects against metabolic disease by activating SIRT1 and PGC-1alpha. (nature.com)
  • Approximately 90-95% of patients with diabetes mellitus have type 2 diabetes, which is characterized by insulin resistance or the inability of insulin to exert its metabolic actions. (intechopen.com)
  • Recent advances in understanding the role of metabolic, signaling, and inflammatory pathways in obesity have provided opportunities to better understand the pathophysiology of insulin resistance in the heart. (ahajournals.org)
  • Insulin resistance is associated with many serious medical conditions such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and metabolic syndrome. (ahajournals.org)
  • The original test for activated protein C resistance that was offered for use in clinical laboratories was a partial thromboplastin time (PTT) performed in the presence and absence of exogenously supplied activated protein C. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • No interference by the international normalized ratio, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), protein S activity, fibrinogen and factor VIII (FVIII) levels, or lupus anticoagulant ratio was detected. (cdc.gov)
  • The APC resistance was defined as the ratio of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) in the presence and absence of APC, i.e. (bvsalud.org)
  • Activated protein C (APC) resistance occurs when APC fails to inactivate downstream coagulation factors , specifically Factor V and Factor VIII . (wikidoc.org)
  • once activated, protein C lyses coagulation factors Va and VIIIa. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Because of EPCR's role, activated protein C is found primarily near endothelial cells (i.e., those that make up the walls of blood vessels), and it is these cells and leukocytes (white blood cells) that APC affects. (wikipedia.org)
  • A hemostatic disorder characterized by a poor anticoagulant response to activated protein C (APC). (curehunter.com)
  • An inherited (autosomal dominant) or acquired defect in the anticoagulant response to activated protein C, resulting in an increased risk of thrombosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A coagulation test abnormality, termed activated protein C (APC) resistance, involving poor anticoagulant response to APC is currently the most common laboratory finding among venous thrombophilic patients. (ashpublications.org)
  • Transgenic Arabidopsis plants exhibited more resistance to Alternaria brassicicola. (scienceexchange.com)
  • Overexpression of Gbvdr6 in Arabidopsis and cotton enhanced resistance to V. dahliae . (frontiersin.org)
  • The results revealed that B. cereus AR156 EPS could induce systemic resistance to Pst DC3000 in Arabidopsis . (frontiersin.org)
  • This study is the first to illustrate how AR156 induces systemic resistance to Pst DC3000 in Arabidopsis . (frontiersin.org)
  • Using the model plant, Arabidopsis, and a model pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, the researchers observed that P. syringae drills through the plant cell wall and secretes effector proteins that target EDS1. (redorbit.com)
  • The proportion of identifiable causes of familial thrombophilia has increased from 5-10% to 60-70% since the identification of activated protein C resistance (aPCR) in February 1993 by Dahlbäck et al. (arctichealth.org)
  • Diseases associated with F5 include Factor V Deficiency and Thrombophilia Due To Activated Protein C Resistance . (genecards.org)
  • i) Excesses of glucose and free fatty acids cause insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and damage to the endothelial cell by a similar mechanism. (garvan.org.au)
  • Although insulin resistance, by definition, describes an impaired biological responsiveness to insulin, it is frequently used to describe a defect in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by muscle and adipocytes and/or a decrease in gluconeogenesis by the liver. (pnas.org)
  • Together, these studies highlight the therapeutic relevance of targeting duodenal SIRT1 to reverse insulin resistance and improve glucose homeostasis in obesity and diabetes. (nature.com)
  • In addition to promoting glucose uptake, insulin regulates long-chain fatty acid uptake, protein synthesis, and vascular function in the normal cardiovascular system. (ahajournals.org)
  • Using these methods they have demonstrated that defects in insulin stimulated glucose transport and muscle glycogen synthesis are the major factors responsible for insulin resistance. (yale.edu)
  • Taken together, ER stress-activated pathways are essential for the development and growth of solid tumors and inhibition of these pathways may lead to new anticancer therapies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • TRIB2 suppression is exerted via direct interaction with AKT a key signalling protein in cell proliferation, survival and metabolism pathways. (isciii.es)
  • These results suggest that Gbvdr6 confers resistance to V. dahliae through regulation of the JA/ET and SA signaling pathways. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, this protein family is also involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds which play critical roles in the regulation of signaling pathways. (hindawi.com)
  • We've developed a fresh analytic solution to research and describe feasible guarantee level of resistance pathways using existing antimicrobial level of resistance surveillance data. (rawveronica.com)
  • We sought to identify the pathways compromised in insulin resistance and to test the effect of moderate exercise on whole-body and cellular insulin action. (nih.gov)
  • Background The focal adhesion protein p130Cas (Cas) activates multiple intracellular signaling pathways upon integrin or growth factor receptor ligation. (elevateblogconference.com)
  • These data highlight the emerging similarity between the signaling pathways triggered in a host plant during successful infection by a necrotrophic fungal pathogen and the resistance responses normally effective against biotrophs. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Activation of focal adhesion pathways in tamoxifen resistance. (mcponline.org)
  • A , Hyperphosphorylated and hypophosphorylated (MCF7-TamR versus MCF7-CTRL) proteins identified in the MCF7-TamR cells that are involved in the focal adhesion pathways. (mcponline.org)
  • These pathways can effectively convey stimuli from the cell membrane (where many MAP3Ks are activated) to the nucleus (where only MAPKs may enter) or to many other subcellular targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-Estradiol 17-(β- d -glucuronide) (E 2 17G) is a well known cholestatic agent and substrate of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2), whereas β-estradiol 3-(β- d -glucuronide) (E 2 3G) is a noncholestatic regioisomer of E 2 17G with unknown transport properties. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Interestingly, multidrug resistance protein-1 ( MRP-1 ) expression, but not MDR-1 ( p- glycoprotein), was observed to be induced as a consequence of PI3K activation in these cell types. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The PXR and multidrug resistance-related protein 3 (MRP3) expressions were examined by western blot, RT-PCR or immunohistochemistry of TMA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Multidrug resistance proteins restrain the intestinal absorption of trans-resveratrol in rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Oral PHT increases markers of activated coagulation, reduces coagulation inhibitors, and induces an acquired resistance to the natural anticoagulant activated protein C (APC). (ahajournals.org)
  • Activated Protein C is a natural anticoagulant in the blood. (medichecks.com)
  • An estimated 64 percent of patients with venous thromboembolism may have activated protein C resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] It has been estimated that up to 64% of patients with venous thromboembolism might have activated protein C resistance. (wikidoc.org)
  • Factor V Leiden (FVL), the principal inherited cause of activated protein C resistance (APCR), has been linked to the failure of pregnancy with an increased risk of venous thrombosis, fetal loss and pre-eclampsia. (gla.ac.uk)
  • That APCR, without FVL, (acquired APCR) may be a marker of thrombotic potential out-with pregnancy has been suggested by the association of venous thrombosis with the combined oral contraceptive pill and more recently by the association of venous thrombosis with a low activated protein C sensitivity ratio (the APC:SR). Changes in sensitivity to APC (assessed by the APC:SR) occur in normal pregnancy. (gla.ac.uk)
  • In subjects without elevated ACAs or FVL, the APC:SR showed a significant negative relationship with factor VIIIc, factor Vc, and a positive relationship with free protein S. The relationship to factor VIIIc is compatible with the association of APCR and inflammatory disorders and with the association of non-blood group 0, higher factor VIIIc levels and venous thrombosis. (gla.ac.uk)
  • These results support the hypothesis that the APC resistance of some venous thrombophilic plasmas is caused by abnormal factor Va. (ashpublications.org)
  • In addition to Lp (a), defects of the protein C anticoagulant system, antithrombin, and antiphospholipid antibodies were investigated in children with arterial (n = 36) or venous (n = 36) thrombosis. (aappublications.org)
  • first associated protein C deficiency with symptoms of venous thrombosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dysregulation in activated protein C (APC) can occur as either defects in the protein C or S molecule (Protein C and S deficiency) or as resistance to APC activity. (wikidoc.org)
  • Purpura fulminans in infancy could suggest protein C deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Deficiency of protein S or antithrombin III may also cause this disorder. (medscape.com)
  • Homozygous protein C deficiency and the consequent serious health effects were described in 1984 by several scientists. (wikipedia.org)
  • These substrates are commonly referred to as docking proteins, since several other intracellular proteins bind to the phosphorylated substrates, thereby transmitting the signal downstream. (jci.org)
  • The phosphorylated insulin receptor binds and phosphorylates IRS proteins and Shc, which bind differentially to various downstream signaling proteins. (jci.org)
  • It has also been reported to modulate several cell-surface receptors, to activate epithelial growth factor receptor and platelet-derived growth factor- β receptor, and to upregulate transforming growth factor receptor β 1 [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • PH domains, which are found in most of the proteins that interact with the insulin receptor, bind to charged headgroups of specific phosphatidylinositides and are thereby targeted preferentially to membrane structures. (jci.org)
  • In 2002, Science published an article that first showed protein C activates protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and this process accounts for the protein's modulation of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another plant peptide signal generated from a plant has been found that is derived from an intracellular protein. (pnas.org)
  • This mechanism allowed to protect a variety of cell components (protein, lipid, DNA) against reactive molecules such as electrophilic metabolites formed after xenobiotics phase I metabolism or endogenous α , β -unsaturated aldehydes and hydroperoxides formed as secondary metabolites during oxidative stress. (hindawi.com)
  • 17. Kalafatis, M., Rand, M.D., and Mann, K.G. The mechanism of inactivation of human factor V and human factor Va by activated protein C. J. Biol. (csuohio.edu)
  • Loss of EGFR could be proposed as a potential acquired resistance mechanism of AZD9291 in EGFR-mutant NSCLC cells with an EMT phenotype. (springer.com)
  • Placental thrombosis and second trimester miscarriage in association with activated protein C resistance. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Diluted aliquots of plasma from two unrelated patients with APC resistance and thrombosis were added to either factor VIII-deficient or factor V-deficient plasma and APC resistance assays were performed. (ashpublications.org)
  • The APCsr level was decreased and the occurrence of relatively acquired APC resistance was found in MPN patients with thrombosis . (bvsalud.org)
  • Dural sinus thrombosis associated with activated protein C resistance: MR imaging findings and proband identification. (duke.edu)
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to report the association of dural sinus thrombosis with a hypercoagulable state associated with activated protein C resistance. (duke.edu)
  • Because of the crucial role that protein C plays as an anticoagulant, those with deficiencies in protein C, or some kind of resistance to APC, suffer from a significantly increased risk of forming dangerous blood clots (thrombosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional activated protein C resistance assays: correlation with factor V DNA analysis is better with RVVT-than APTT-based assays. (cdc.gov)
  • Cross DA, Ashton SE, Ghiorghiu S, Eberlein C, Nebhan CA et al (2014) AZD9291, an irreversible EGFR TKI, overcomes T790M-mediated resistance to EGFR inhibitors in lung cancer. (springer.com)
  • The established cellular models offer mechanistic insight into cellular changes and therapeutic targets under inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma. (nih.gov)
  • They independently confirm key findings and each manuscript has unique aspects," said McDowell, who is familiar with the system being studied through his research on EDS1 and on pathogen effector proteins. (redorbit.com)
  • The research also shows how the EDS1 protein is attacked by virulence proteins from the pathogen, called effector proteins. (redorbit.com)
  • In 1993, a heritable resistance to APC was detected by Dahlbäck et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • C , Immunoblot of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins using the anti-phosphotyrosine antibody (pTyr) on the cell lysates or after immunoprecipitation (IP) with pTyr antibody. (mcponline.org)
  • We show here that acute intraduodenal infusion of resveratrol reversed a 3 d high fat diet (HFD)-induced reduction in duodenal-mucosal Sirt1 protein levels while also enhancing insulin sensitivity and lowering HGP. (nature.com)
  • Finally, this chapter will present evidence for the beneficial effects of exercise and physical activity in managing insulin resistance (i.e. improved insulin sensitivity) and improving endothelial function. (intechopen.com)
  • Among the arsenal of plant-derived compounds activated upon attack by herbivores and pathogens are small peptides that initiate and amplify defense responses. (pnas.org)
  • Because of the hereditary settings of bacterial pathogens, the usage of an individual antimicrobial medication may go for for bacterias that are resistant to multiple various other antimicrobial medications via group of systems collectively referred to as guarantee resistance. (rawveronica.com)
  • The method referred to will hopefully end up being helpful for predicting and handling the proliferation of extremely resistant bacterial pathogens Launch The advancement of obtained antimicrobial level of resistance (AMR) in pathogenic microorganisms is CTSB among the foremost challenges in public areas wellness today. (rawveronica.com)
  • Plant disease resistance to pathogens takes many forms. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The most widespread form is referred to as nonhost resistance and operates at various levels to prevent infection of entire species of plants by entire species of pathogens ( Nürnberger and Lipka, 2005 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • However, how the colonization signal is and how systemic resistance to pathogens is developed is still unclear. (frontiersin.org)
  • A protein called enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1) plays a central role in plants' ability to defend themselves from pathogens. (redorbit.com)
  • Activated protein C resistance phenotype in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Acquired activated protein C resistance is associated with lupus anticoagulants and thrombotic events in pediatric patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Acquired activated protein C resistance is associated with the co-existence of anti-prothrombin antibodies and lupus antico agulant activity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 24) reported that the presence of LA was significantly associated with acquired APC resistance (APC-R) in patients with SLE. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Peripheral insulin resistance is observed in most patients who have cirrhosis. (nih.gov)
  • Intrinsic and acquired resistance to chemotherapy is the fundamental reason for treatment failure for many cancer patients. (isciii.es)
  • When factor V that had been partially purified from normal or APC resistant patients' plasmas using immunoaffinity chromatography was added to factor V-deficient plasma, APC resistance assays showed that patients' factor V or factor Va, but not normal factor V, rendered the substrate plasma resistant to APC. (ashpublications.org)
  • The neutrophil was activated and PS, FV level were reduced in MPN patients . (bvsalud.org)
  • Patients with protein C and S deficiencies can develop warfarin-induced skin necrosis when placed on warfarin, since protein C and S are vitamin K-dependent factors and, hence are suppressed. (medscape.com)
  • 100 U/kg/24 hours of activated prothrombin complex concentrate (aPCC) was administered for 24 hours or more to patients receiving Hemlibra prophylaxis. (gene.com)
  • Pursuing integrin account activation or development aspect enjoyment, Cas interacts with many proteins companions and adjusts mobile occasions, such as migration, growth, and success [2]. (elevateblogconference.com)
  • These papers show that EDS1 interacts physically with surveillance proteins within the plant cell," he said. (redorbit.com)
  • How signals are relayed from the surveillance proteins to activate antimicrobial responses remains a mystery, but this detailed understanding of how EDS1 interacts with surveillance proteins may help scientists design a protein to guard EDS1 against attacks and make crops more disease resistant. (redorbit.com)
  • Activated protein C (with protein S as a cofactor) degrades Factor Va and Factor VIIIa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activated protein C resistance is caused by a failure of protein C to cleave Factor Va and/or Factor VIIIa. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • When coagulation factor V is cleaved at a particular site (protein position 506), it can work with APC to inactivate factor VIIIa, which is another protein that is essential for normal blood clotting. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As a result, both the activated form of coagulation factor V and coagulation factor VIIIa persist longer in circulation, increasing the risk of developing an abnormal blood clot. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Activated protein C (APC) performs these operations primarily by proteolytically inactivating proteins Factor Va and Factor VIIIa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activated protein C was discovered later that year, and in 1977 it was first recognised that APC inactivates Factor Va. In 1980, Vehar and Davie discovered that APC also inactivates Factor VIIIa, and soon after, Protein S was recognised as a cofactor by Walker. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein C is a vitamin K-dependent zymogen synthesized in the liver . (wikidoc.org)
  • Several established liver diseases of various causes are highly associated with hepatic insulin resistance, which is characterized by the desensitization of target cells to insulin. (nih.gov)
  • Activated protein C resistance acquired through liver transplantation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The factor V protein is made primarily by cells in the liver. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Dr. Petersen's group is interested in clinical studies examining the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in humans. (yale.edu)
  • Protein C, also known as autoprothrombin IIA and blood coagulation factor XIX, is a zymogen, the activated form of which plays an important role in regulating anticoagulation, inflammation, and cell death and maintaining the permeability of blood vessel walls in humans and other animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, LA activities are heterogeneous with respect to the specificities and functional capacities of the antibodies and include autoantibodies to at least two PL-bound plasma proteins (1,25,26). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Plasma protein C (PC), protein S (PS), prothrombin (FII), factor V (FV), factor VIII levels and CD11b expression on neutrophils were measured. (bvsalud.org)
  • The zymogenic form of protein C is a vitamin K-dependent glycoprotein that circulates in blood plasma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein C was first isolated by Johan Stenflo from bovine plasma in 1976, and Stenflo determined it to be a vitamin K-dependent protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is also elevated in obesity and may contribute to many aspects of adipose tissue biology including development of insulin resistance and abnormalities in lipid metabolism ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • The knock-out of OsMPK6 resulted in enhanced Xoo resistance, increased accumulation of SA and enhanced resistance to X. oryzae pv. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Hypoxia activates all components of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a stress response initiated by the accumulation of unfolded proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, the protein levels of TaMPK6 became markedly reduced during the compatible interaction coincident with the onset of TaMPK3 protein accumulation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In contrast, adiponectin, another adipokine is protective against breast cancer cell proliferation and insulin resistance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • identification of specific proteins involved in the control of cell proliferation. (csuohio.edu)
  • Most tumor cells develop resistance to anticancer agents. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here we examined whether tumor cells develop resistance to FTS and evaluated the therapeutic potential of FTS combined with cytotoxic drugs, because oncogenic Ras promotes antiapoptotic signals in tumors of epithelial origin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The presence of heterogeneous populations of cancer cells within a specific tumor including the tumor-initiating cells or so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs) has linked the acquired resistance (AR, or adaptive resistance). (springer.com)
  • Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant primary brain tumor characterized by rapid growth, invasiveness, early recurrence, and resistance to conventional therapy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • T (p.T790M) EGFR to acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs in EGFR mutant NSCLC: a study on circulating tumor. (springer.com)
  • In this review we will examine the synthesis of NO, its effects, functions and signalling giving rise to the hypersensitive response and systemic acquired resistance during plant-pathogen interactions. (wiley.com)
  • We employed a yeast two-hybrid screen using the COOH-terminal 70 residues of CFTR to identify proteins that might be involved in such interactions. (jci.org)
  • During the last decade, research on GSTs has unravelled yet another major function, namely a role in regulating cellular signaling by forming protein-protein interactions with critical proteins involved in controlling stress response, apoptosis, and proliferation. (hindawi.com)
  • In contrast, no increase in expression, protein levels, or posttranslational activation of TaMPK6 was observed at any stage of either compatible or incompatible interactions. (plantphysiol.org)
  • 14 The interactions between insulin resistance and vascular disease will be the subject of other reviews in this series. (ahajournals.org)
  • Hillarp A, Dahlback B, Zoller B. Activated protein C resistance: from phenotype to genotype and clinical practice. (medscape.com)
  • Compared with parental HCC827 cells, the HCC827/AZDR cells showed high resistance to AZD9291 and other EGFR-TKIs, and exhibited a mesenchymal-like phenotype. (springer.com)
  • The second layer of plant immunity depends on the ability of the plant to recognize these pathogen-derived effectors and trigger a robust resistance response that normally culminates in a hypersensitive cell death response (HR). While PAMPs represent conserved microbial molecules, effector molecules constitute very divergent groups of proteins and their recognition requires constant structural and evolutionary adjustment of the corresponding receptors. (plantcell.org)