Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Mice, Inbred C57BLCytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Mice, Inbred BALB CSpleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Immune Evasion: Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.Adaptive Immunity: Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Immune System Diseases: Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Toll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Immune Complex Diseases: Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Immune System Processes: Mechanisms of action and interactions of the components of the IMMUNE SYSTEM.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Immunomodulation: Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating: Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.Tumor Escape: The ability of tumors to evade destruction by the IMMUNE SYSTEM. Theories concerning possible mechanisms by which this takes place involve both cellular immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and humoral immunity (ANTIBODY FORMATION), and also costimulatory pathways related to CD28 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD28) and CD80 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD80).Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Myeloid Cells: The classes of BONE MARROW-derived blood cells in the monocytic series (MONOCYTES and their precursors) and granulocytic series (GRANULOCYTES and their precursors).Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Tumor Microenvironment: The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Immunity, Active: Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Toll-Like Receptor 9: A pattern recognition receptor that binds unmethylated CPG CLUSTERS. It mediates cellular responses to bacterial pathogens by distinguishing between self and bacterial DNA.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Toll-Like Receptor 2: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Mice, Inbred C3HCell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Hemocytes: Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Immunologic Surveillance: The theory that T-cells monitor cell surfaces and detect structural changes in the plasma membrane and/or surface antigens of virally or neoplastically transformed cells.Neuroimmunomodulation: The biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the NERVOUS SYSTEM and IMMUNE SYSTEM.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88: An intracellular signaling adaptor protein that plays a role in TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR and INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTORS signal transduction. It forms a signaling complex with the activated cell surface receptors and members of the IRAK KINASES.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Macrophages, Peritoneal: Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Monitoring, Immunologic: Testing of immune status in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer, immunoproliferative and immunodeficiency disorders, and autoimmune abnormalities. Changes in immune parameters are of special significance before, during and following organ transplantation. Strategies include measurement of tumor antigen and other markers (often by RADIOIMMUNOASSAY), studies of cellular or humoral immunity in cancer etiology, IMMUNOTHERAPY trials, etc.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental: An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Receptors, Pattern Recognition: A large family of cell surface receptors that bind conserved molecular structures (PAMPS) present in pathogens. They play important roles in host defense by mediating cellular responses to pathogens.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Toll-Like Receptor 7: A pattern recognition receptor that binds several forms of imidazo-quinoline including the antiviral compound Imiquimod.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Interferon Type I: Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Phagocytes: Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Sialic Acid Binding Immunoglobulin-like Lectins: A family of SIALIC ACID binding proteins found in vertebrate species. They are transmembrane proteins which act as cell surface receptors for a variety of sialylated GLYCOCONJUGATES. While a subset of siglec protein subtypes are evolutionarily conserved between mammalian species, there are many others that are species specific.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cell SeparationColitis: Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome: Exuberant inflammatory response towards previously undiagnosed or incubating opportunistic pathogens. It is frequently seen in AIDS patients following HAART.Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.Mice, Inbred CBAHistocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Immunotherapy, Adoptive: Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Immunological Synapses: The interfaces between T-CELLS and ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS. Supramolecular organization of proteins takes place at these synapses involving various types of immune cells. Immunological synapses can have several functions including LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION; enhancing, balancing, or terminating signaling; or directing cytokine secretion.Multiple Sclerosis: An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
It inhibits the release of proinflammatory cytokines from activated immune cells. It has been shown that sertaconazole ... If the cell membrane is made sufficiently leaky by these pores the fungal cell will die from loss of ATP and other effects ... Ergosterol is a critical component of the fungal cell membrane. Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis prevents fungal cells from ... One hour following topical application, approximately 90% of fungal cells die from lack of energy (due to ATP loss) and general ...
Microglia, the brain and spinal cord resident immune cells, respond to extrinsic cues. The source of these cues may include ... Broadly speaking in neuropathic pain, neurons are hypersensitized, glia become activated and there is a loss of inhibitory tone ... The inciting cause of neuropathy has important consequences for its mechanistic basis as different tissues and cells are ... NMDA activation also triggers a change in the post synapse, it activates receptor kinases that increase receptor trafficking ...
TI-2 antigens can activate only mature B lymphocytes. Immature B cells are anergized, so they do not elicit any immune response ... TI-1 antigens activate B-cells via Toll like receptors, which are, in human, expressed on the surface of B lymphocytes after ... They do not have an intrinsic B-cell activating activity. The activation of B lymphocytes is caused by cross-linking of a ... TI-1 antigen, which has an activity that can directly activate B cells and TI-2 antigen, which has highly repetitive structure ...
Bone tumors are composed of a conglomeration of cell types including cancer and immune system cells. Often tumor cells secrete ... Nociceptors responsible for bone pain can be activated via several mechanisms including deterioration of surrounding tissue, ... Metastatic cancer cells often establish themselves within the skeleton. When the cancer cells have metastasized, the mechanical ... Radiotherapy utilizes radioactive isotopes and other atomic particles to damage the DNA in cells, thus leading to cell death. ...
Immune cells and damaged endothelial cells release matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), cytokines, and nitric oxide. MMPs and NO ... After pathogen invasion, the immune system is activated. An infectious agent can enter the central nervous system and cause ... CSF findings that suggest a viral cause of meningitis include an elevated white blood cell count (usually 10-100 cells/µL) with ... In certain cases, a CT scan of the head should be done before a lumbar puncture such as in those with poor immune function or ...
Mahboubi K, Biedermann BC, Carroll JM, Pober JS (2000). "IL-11 activates human endothelial cells to resist immune-mediated ... IL-11 is a multifunctional cytokine first isolated in 1990 from bone marrow-derived stromal cells. It is a key regulator of ... Many IL-11 functions associated with cell growth and differentiation suggest a role for this cytokine in cancer. A number of ... 2002). "Interleukin-11 induces proliferation of human T-cells and its activity is associated with downregulation of p27(kip1 ...
... autocrine and paracrine agents that bind receptors on the cell or its neighbors to alert the immune system of the cell damage. ... They activate phospholipidase to release AA from neuron cell membranes as a free fatty acid. During its short lifespan, free AA ... Many immune-system cells express multiple receptors that couple these apparently opposing pathways. Presumably, EPA-derived ... EPA inhibits phospholipase A2's release of AA from cell membrane. Other mechanisms involving the transport of EFAs may also ...
PD-1 and CTLA-4 are both expressed on activated T cells, but at different phases of immune response.[7] ... tumor cells with PD-1 on a T-cell reduces T-cell function signals to prevent the immune system from attacking the tumor cells.[ ... PD-1 and PD-L1 are both proteins present on the surface of cells. Immune checkpoint inhibitors such as these are emerging as a ... It was later approved for metastatic non-small cell lung cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In 2017, it became ...
B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T cells. *T cells: *CD4+ Th (T helper) cells: activate and regulate T ... CD8+ cytotoxic T cells: virus-infected and tumor cells.. *γδ T cells: bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses; ... T cells: *CD4+ helper T cells: T cells displaying co-receptor CD4 are known as CD4+ T cells. These cells have T-cell receptors ... Natural killer cells: virus-infected and tumor cells.. Deeply staining, eccentric. NK-cells and cytotoxic (CD8+) T-cells. Years ...
Upon detection of microbial antigens, the host systemic immune system is activated. Immune cells not only recognize PAMP, but ... Uncontrolled immune response was then activated because leukocytes are not recruited to the specific site of infection, but ... Cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1, and interleukin 6 may activate procoagulation factors in the cells ... when scientists published a review of the mouse immune system compared to the human immune system, and showed that on a systems ...
... is secreted by immune cells (like macrophages, monocytes and dendritic cells) through leaderless secretory pathway. ... HMGB1 can interact with TLR ligands and cytokines, and activates cells through the multiple surface receptors including TLR2, ... in which case cell membranes are permeabilized and intracellular constituents may diffuse out of the cell; and some form of ... Cell. Biol. 18 (8): 4471-87. doi:10.1128/mcb.18.8.4471. PMC 109033 . PMID 9671457. Wu H, Wu T, Han X, Wan J, et al. (2016). " ...
... cDNA from PHA-activated immune cells". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 242 (3): 648-52. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1997.8033. PMID 9464271. ... Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (January 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. ... "Proteomic analysis of ubiquitinated proteins in normal hepatocyte cell line Chang liver cells". Proteomics. 8 (14): 2885-96. ... Cell. 12 (3): 723-34. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2003.08.008. PMID 14527417. Yoon HG, Chan DW, Huang ZQ, Li J, Fondell JD, Qin J, ...
The circulating MIF binds to CD74 on other immune cells to trigger an acute immune response. Hence, MIF is classified as an ... Finally trauma activates the anterior pituitary gland to release MIF. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor assembles into a ... revealed by the cloning of its cell surface receptor". Cell Research. 16 (2): 162-8. doi:10.1038/sj.cr.7310022. PMID 16474429. ... blood cells to release MIF and hence MIF partially counteracts the inhibitory effects that glucocorticoids have on the immune ...
... B is also involved in dopaminergic signalling and is induced in several types of activated immune cells. PDE1B mRNA is ... In intact cells, PDE1 is almost exclusively activated by Ca2+ entering the cell from the extracellular space. The regulation of ... The localization of PDE1 isoforms in different tissues/cells and their location within the cells is as follows: Table 1. ... Mutations in the N-terminal lobe of CaM affect its ability to activate PDE1 so it is believed that the C-terminal lobe of CaM ...
... is a immune stimulant drug. It has a molecular weight of 64.9 KDa that activated dendritic cells of the human immune ...
... which subsequently migrate to local lymph nodes to activate the adaptive immune system. Other cell types activated by imiquimod ... "Small anti-viral compounds activate immune cells via the TLR7 MyD88-dependent signaling pathway". Nature Immunology. 3 (2): 196 ... Cells activated by imiquimod via TLR-7 secrete cytokines (primarily interferon-α (IFN-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor ... "Aldara activates TLR7-independent immune defence". Nature Communications. 4: 1560. Bibcode:2013NatCo...4E1560W. doi:10.1038/ ...
"Small Anti-Viral Compounds Activate Immune Cells Via the TLR7 MyD88-Dependent Signaling Pathway". Nature Immunology. 3 (2): 196 ...
... attacks tumour cells, while the vaccine is thought to activate the immune system. It was developed by ImClone and ... Mitumomab (BEC-2) is a mouse anti-BEC-2 monoclonal antibody investigated for the treatment of small cell lung carcinoma in ... Small Cell Lung Cancer Vaccinated With Adjuvant BEC2 and BCG" at ClinicalTrials.gov Clinical trial number NCT00006352 for " ... "Monoclonal Antibody Therapy Plus BCG in Treating Patients With Limited-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer" at ClinicalTrials.gov [1] ...
"Small anti-viral compounds activate immune cells via the TLR7 MyD88-dependent signaling pathway". Nat. Immunol. 3 (2): 196-200 ... "HCV RNA Activates APCs via TLR7/TLR8 While Virus Selectively Stimulates Macrophages Without Inducing Antiviral Responses". ... which is a common feature of viral genomes which are internalised by macrophages and dendritic cells. TLR7 recognizes single- ... fail to produce type I interferons due to impaired phosphorylation of the transcription factor STAT1 by the mitogen-activated ...
LAIR1(Leukocyte-associated IG-like receptor) works as inhibition signal for different immune cells. Lair-1 consists of Ig ... This interaction activates signalling cascades leading to coagulation factors release. Mainly fibrillar collagens type I and ... It is expressed mainly in epithelial cells and leukocytes and expression rate changes due to cell cycle phase.Functions include ... Functions include: Chondrocyte proliferation and bone growth; regulation of cell proliferation, cell adhesion and induction of ...
... -1 is key in activating pro-inflammatory cytokines; these act as signals to immune cells and make the environment ... These are signalling molecules that allow recruitment of immune cells to an infected cell or tissue. There are other identified ... as an appropriate immune response may not be activated.[5] The integral role caspases play in cell death and disease has led to ... to minimize its effect on surrounding cells to avoid inducing an immune response. The cell shrinks and condenses - the ...
JCV is activated in the glial cells by certain states of immune system suppression, including HIV-1 infection. There is a ... In the brain Pur-alpha plays a role in diseases involving glial cells, cells that support nerve cells, as well as diseases ... These cell cycle effects are consistent with an interaction between Pur-alpha and CDK, cell cycle-dependent protein kinases. ... Although HIV-1 is not usually found in these glial cells, HIV-1 proteins can pass through cell membranes to enter them. JCV is ...
Immune cells involved in intravascular surveillance are neutrophils, monocytes, invariant natural killer T cells, kupffer cells ... Activated platelets produce fibrin in the blood vessel which seal leaky vessels and are important in blood coagulation. Fibrin ... Inflammation is an immune response in the body tissue due to stimulation of immune cells by pathogens, DAMPs, or stress. The ... Circulating immune cells behave differently in the presence and absence of an infection. For example, in the absence of an ...
It activates the T cells of the immune system and can be blocked by drugs. Calcineurin activates nuclear factor of activated T ... Shibasaki F, McKeon F (1995). "Calcineurin functions in Ca(2+)-activated cell death in mammalian cells". J. Cell Biol. 131 (3 ... When an antigen-presenting cell interacts with a T cell receptor on T cells, there is an increase in the cytoplasmic level of ... The amount of IL-2 being produced by the T-helper cells is believed to influence the extent of the immune response ...
Cytokines play key roles in controlling cell growth and the immune response. Many cytokines function by binding to and ... More specifically, Janus kinases phosphorylate activated cytokine receptors. These phosphorylated receptors in turn recruit ... Hence Th2 cell differentiation is blocked and therefore tofacitinib is effective in treating allergic diseases. Tofacitinib to ... Furumoto Y, Gadina M (October 2013). "The arrival of JAK inhibitors: advancing the treatment of immune and hematologic ...
... the activated B cell begins to differentiate into more specialized cells. Germinal center B cells may differentiate into memory ... This prolific production of antibodies is an integral part of the humoral immune response. ... Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete ... In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are CD27-, memory B-cells are CD27+ and plasma cells are ...
Activation of microglia, infiltration of peripheral T lymphocytes, and T-cell interaction with microglia may s ... an interaction between neurodegenerative processes and the innate and adaptive immune responses has been increasingly ... This review should help increase our understanding of the effects of innate and adaptive immune cells in the pathogenesis of PD ... In addition, we also focus on the influence of several peripheral T-cell subsets on PD progression as well as on possible ...
Scientists report in PNAS Early Edition discovery of an experimental treatment that targets an Achilles heel of activated ... "We found that when T cells activate and go through extraordinarily rapid cell division during initial immune responses, it ... Activated T Cells. This image shows activated mouse T cells with markers indicating DNA damage repair signaling (shown in pink ... Experimental Therapy for Immune Diseases Hits Achilles Heel of Activated T Cells. Study Shows PPCA Treatment Tempers HLH, MS ...
... report in PNAS Early Edition discovery of an experimental treatment that targets an Achilles heel of activated immune cells -- ... Immune diseases like multiple sclerosis and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis unleash destructive waves of inflammation on the ... "We found that when T cells activate and go through extraordinarily rapid cell division during initial immune responses, it ... Experimental therapy for immune diseases hits Achilles heel of activated T cells Study shows PPCA treatment tempers HLH, MS ...
Scientists have identified how the immune cells are triggered for inflammatory responses, in a discovery that may pave the way ... The findings showed that immune cells get activated by eating a dying neighbouring cell before they are able to respond to ... Immune cells play an essential role in the maintenance and repair of our bodies. When human body gets injured, the immune cells ... How immune cells activate inflammation?. May 21, 2016, 15:08 IST , IANS ...
Stress-induced neurogenic inflammation in murine skin skews dendritic cells towards maturation and migration: key role of ICAM1 ... Stress Activates Immune Cells in Skin. Study Abstract. The skin continuously serves as a biosensor of multiple exogenous ... Current research suggests that stress may activate immune cells in your skin, resulting in inflammatory skin disease. Skin ... Taken together, these data suggest that stress activates immune cells, which in turn are central in initiating and perpetuating ...
Lipid asymmetry plays key role in activating immune cells. 20.02.2018. Regulating the lipid and physical asymmetry of a cells ... Further reports about: , Biophysical Society , Lipid , activities , asymmetry , bilayer , immune , immune cells ... "In the long run, by knowing how lipid asymmetry is involved in cell signaling, we might be able to tune certain immune ... Dying cells, which permanently lose their lipid asymmetry, are targeted by the immune system for elimination. ...
Scientists discover that antibodies against protein on macrophages activates these cells to engulf cancer cells, providing a ... In cancer, the new cells start forming but the old cells do not die; the additional cells grow into a mass of cells known as ... Since the cancer cells are the bodys own cells, they are not recognized by the bodys immune system as foreign and fail to ... The current study focuses on activating macrophages, which are a type of white blood cells capable of destroying cancer cells. ...
... and clinical studies in all areas of stem cell biology and applications. The journal will consider basic, translational, and ... Stem Cells International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, ... and parietalis MAIT cells showed a more activated phenotype. Conventional T cells, NK cells, and MAIT cells from both ... Differences in B Cell and NK Cell Subsets and T Regulatory Cells in Decidua Parietalis and Basalis. B cells can be divided into ...
Recently, researchers from Kumamoto University in Japan found that stimulating immune cells with nsPEFs can cause them to ... Nanosecond pulsed electric fields activate immune cells. by Kumamoto University Cells were treated with nsPEFs as indicated on ... the HL-60 cell line, to test the effects of nsPEFs on immune cells. First, they differentiated the cells into neutrophils, the ... Cell cycle proteins help immune cells trap microbes with nets made of DNA. Nov 20, 2017 ...
... naive cells (CD45RO−CD27+), central memory cells (CD45RO+CD27+), effector memory cells (CD45RO+CD27−), and effector cells ( ... Elevated frequencies of highly activated CD4+ T cells in HIV+ patients developing immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. ... Elevated frequencies of highly activated CD4+ T cells in HIV+ patients developing immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. ... Elevated frequencies of highly activated CD4+ T cells in HIV+ patients developing immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome ...
... they produce TNF alpha that helps mediate immune responses. Scientists have now linked rising levels of TNF alpha in ... Activated immune cells indicate a favorable prognosis in colorectal cancer. Share this content: *facebook ... When cytotoxic T cells are activated, they produce TNF alpha that helps mediate immune responses. Scientists have now linked ... Whether the presence of T cells in tumor tissue is just a matter of chance in more benign tumors or the immune cells are ...
... immune pathology, immunodeficiency, autoimmune diseases, immune disorders, and immunotherapy. ... Immune Regulation of RAW264.7 Cells In Vitro by Flavonoids from Astragalus complanatus via Activating the NF-κB Signalling ... "Immune Regulation of RAW264.7 Cells In Vitro by Flavonoids from Astragalus complanatus via Activating the NF-κB Signalling ...
The Initial Phase of an Immune Response Functions to Activate Regulatory T Cells. William E. OGorman, Hans Dooms, Steve H. ... To define the cells that respond to IL-2 during an immune response, we used single cell biochemical analysis of distinct ... One interesting candidate to deliver a signal from Ag-activated T cells to Tregs is IL-2, which is produced early after T cell ... Regulatory Roles of IL-2 and IL-4 in H4/Inducible Costimulator Expression on Activated CD4+ T Cells During Th Cell Development ...
Integration of Activating and Inhibitory Receptor Signaling by Regulated Phosphorylation of Vav1 in Immune Cells ... Integration of Activating and Inhibitory Receptor Signaling by Regulated Phosphorylation of Vav1 in Immune Cells ... Integration of Activating and Inhibitory Receptor Signaling by Regulated Phosphorylation of Vav1 in Immune Cells ... Integration of Activating and Inhibitory Receptor Signaling by Regulated Phosphorylation of Vav1 in Immune Cells ...
"Apoptosis is one way cells die in which all the contents stay in the cell, the cell just keeps shrinking onto itself and the ... They were surprised, however, to find that nanoparticles activated a special inflammatory process and killed cells in a way ... The surprising results came when the team discovered that these nanoparticles killed macrophages - immune cells in the lungs ... A different process called pyroptosis was occurring, causing the cells to burst and spill their contents." That, she said, can ...
Monocytic CCR2+ Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Promote Immune Escape by Limiting Activated CD8 T-cell Infiltration into the ... Monocytic CCR2+ Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Promote Immune Escape by Limiting Activated CD8 T-cell Infiltration into the ... Monocytic CCR2+ Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Promote Immune Escape by Limiting Activated CD8 T-cell Infiltration into the ... Monocytic CCR2+ Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Promote Immune Escape by Limiting Activated CD8 T-cell Infiltration into the ...
Obesity is associated with activated and insulin resistant immune cells. Abstract. BACKGROUND: Obesity and type 2 diabetes ... this study comprehensively characterized circulating immune cells in different grades of obesity. METHODS: Immune cell ... CONCLUSIONS: These results show that morbid obesity is characterized by circulating immune cells that are activated and insulin ... The loss of insulin-induced suppression of inflammatory phenotypes in circulating immune cells could contribute to the systemic ...
1⇓, A and B). Cells present were negative for CD3, CD14, CD19, and CD56, excluding the presence of T cells, B cells, NK cells, ... Consequences of cell death: exposure to necrotic tumor cells, but not primary tissue cells or apoptotic cells, induces the ... Human Papillomavirus Virus-Like Particles Do Not Activate Langerhans Cells: A Possible Immune Escape Mechanism Used by Human ... Human Papillomavirus Virus-Like Particles Do Not Activate Langerhans Cells: A Possible Immune Escape Mechanism Used by Human ...
... Obtain CpG ODN 1826, CpG ODN 2006, and ... However, they strongly activate B cells [4]. Class C oligos combine the properties of Class A and B, and are characterized by ... These signaling events ultimately trigger the cascade of immune responses against cancer cells [7]. ... can serve as an adjuvant to enhance the immune response of vaccines by mimicking the immune-stimulatory effects of unmethylated ...
3B). This pattern of cytokine production is typical for activated T cells without preferential shift towards Th1 or Th2 cells. ... increased production of immature myeloid cells. Immature myeloid cells suppress antigen-specific T cells via direct cell-cell ... Generation of dendritic cells and isolation of cells. Bone marrow cells were obtained from the femurs and tibias of mice, and ... B, after a 48-hour incubation of T cells with dendritic cells at 50:1 ratio, cells were fixed, permeabilized, and stained with ...
Allelic-Dependent Expression of an Activating Fc Receptor on B Cells Enhances Humoral Immune Responses ... Allelic-Dependent Expression of an Activating Fc Receptor on B Cells Enhances Humoral Immune Responses ... Allelic-Dependent Expression of an Activating Fc Receptor on B Cells Enhances Humoral Immune Responses ... Allelic-Dependent Expression of an Activating Fc Receptor on B Cells Enhances Humoral Immune Responses ...
Immunoglobulin D enhances immune surveillance by activating antimicrobial, proinflammatory and B cell-stimulating programs in ... Here we report active T cell-dependent and T cell-independent IgM-to-IgD class switching in B cells of the human upper ... Here we report active T cell-dependent and T cell-independent IgM-to-IgD class switching in B cells of the human upper ... Here we report active T cell-dependent and T cell-independent IgM-to-IgD class switching in B cells of the human upper ...
Jurkat T-cells (human acute T-cell leukaemia cells) in logarithmic growth phase were transfected (1.2×107 cells in 400 µl ... 2011). Translocation dynamics of sorting nexin 27 in activated T cells. J. Cell Sci. 124, 776-788. doi:10.1242/jcs.072447. ... Phosphoinositide binding by the SNX27 FERM domain regulates its localization at the immune synapse of activated T-cells ... Phosphoinositide binding by the SNX27 FERM domain regulates its localization at the immune synapse of activated T-cells ...
Phosphoinositide binding by the SNX27 FERM domain regulates localisation at the immune synapse of activated T-cells ... Phosphoinositide binding by the SNX27 FERM domain regulates localisation at the immune synapse of activated T-cells ... Phosphoinositide binding by the SNX27 FERM domain regulates localisation at the immune synapse of activated T-cells ... Phosphoinositide binding by the SNX27 FERM domain regulates localisation at the immune synapse of activated T-cells ...
Your Name) has sent you a message from Plant Cell Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Plant Cell web ... Changes in PUB22 Ubiquitination Modes Triggered by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE3 Dampen the Immune Response. Giulia Furlan ... Changes in PUB22 Ubiquitination Modes Triggered by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE3 Dampen the Immune Response ... Changes in PUB22 Ubiquitination Modes Triggered by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE3 Dampen the Immune Response ...
  • In addition, we also focus on the influence of several peripheral T-cell subsets on PD progression as well as on possible pathways by which they might act. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor-Mobilized Allografts Contain Activated Immune Cell Subsets Associated with Risk of Acute and Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease. (osu.edu)
  • We defined associations among immune cell subsets in granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized allografts and clinical outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT). (osu.edu)
  • Integrating autoimmune risk loci with gene-expression data identifies specific pathogenic immune cell subsets. (nature.com)
  • T cells can be divided into two major subsets characterized by the surface expression of a TCR α and β chain (αβ T cell) or γ and δ chain (γδ T cell). (springer.com)
  • The researchers saw the greatest activation in the central memory and 'term diff' subsets of T-cells. (aidsmap.com)
  • Understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie the presence or absence of a spontaneous anti-tumour T-cell response in subsets of cases, therefore, should enable the development of therapeutic solutions for patients lacking a T-cell infiltrate. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers report in PNAS Early Edition they were able to selectively inhibit DNA damage repair in activated T cells as part of an experimental combination treatment for immune diseases in mouse models. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Researchers hypothesized that along with the highly adaptable and proliferative abilities of T cells came an abundance of genomic stress. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • In selective instances of rapid T cell expansion in mouse models of HLH and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (experimental mouse MS), the researchers used a small molecule called Nutlin to alter the activities of p53. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Researchers lead by Dr. Petra Arck of Charité, University of Medicine Berlin and McMaster University in Canada, hypothesized that stress could exacerbate skin disease by increasing the number of immune cells in the skin. (wellnessresources.com)
  • Recently, researchers from Kumamoto University in Japan found that stimulating immune cells with nsPEFs can cause them to respond as if they were being stimulated by bacteria. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Researchers from the Institute of Pulsed Power Science (IPPS) selected a human leukemia cell line that is frequently used to study blood cell differentiation , the HL-60 cell line, to test the effects of nsPEFs on immune cells . (medicalxpress.com)
  • First Person is a series of interviews with the first authors of a selection of papers published in Journal of Cell Science, helping early-career researchers promote themselves alongside their papers. (biologists.org)
  • The researchers further discovered that when the progenitor cells did not receive the required signal, the fly would not make the mature cells required to fight infection. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Researchers have discovered that, though a tattoo may be forever, the skin cells that carry the tattoo pigment are not. (technologynetworks.com)
  • In the study, the researchers combined a type of graphene oxide with calcium phosphate, a substance capable of activating this regeneration. (thegraphenecouncil.org)
  • The HDAC inhibitor romidepsin was able to awaken latent HIV in resting T-cells, causing it to start producing new virus, but this was not associated with a decrease in the size of the viral reservoir on T-cells, researchers reported on Tuesday at the 20th International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2014) in Melbourne. (aidsmap.com)
  • The type of cell the researchers targeted in their study is called an antigen-presenting cell, or APC. (medicalnewser.com)
  • A molecular pathway that's frequently mutated in many different forms of cancer becomes active when cells push parts of their membranes outward into bulging protrusions, Johns Hopkins researchers report in a new study. (news-medical.net)
  • It's what's missing in the tumor genome, not what's mutated, that thwarts treatment of metastatic melanoma with immune checkpoint blockade drugs, researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center report in Science Translational Medicine . (medindia.net)
  • Changes in T-cell behavior quickly occur in space, allowing researchers to more effectively study genetic and molecular changes associated with aging-related immune suppression. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Stanford researchers show skeletal stem cells can move backward developmentally when major repairs are needed. (stanford.edu)
  • Stanford researchers have learned that cancer cells can batter their way into new territory, rather than relying on dissolving chemicals. (stanford.edu)
  • Without these immune cells as partners, the researchers found, the stem cells cannot regenerate hair follicles, leading to baldness. (ucsf.edu)
  • By using single cell RNA Seq, an emerging technique that combines microfluidic nanoliter droplet reactors with single cell barcoding and next generation sequencing, the researchers were able to examine expression. (eurekalert.org)
  • To answer this, researchers looked deep inside thousands of individual cardiac immune cells and mapped their individual transcriptomes using a method called single cell RNA-Seq. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers named these "interferon inducible cells (IFNICs). (eurekalert.org)
  • By using single cell RNA Seq, an emerging technique that combines microfluidic nanoliter droplet reactors with single cell barcoding and next generation sequencing, the researchers were able to examine expression of every gene in over 4,000 cardiac immune cells and found the specialized IFNIC population of responsible cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • Researchers say the findings could explain the link between fast food and the hardening of arteries, since the typical deposits largely consists of lipids and immune cells. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Furthermore, we show that besides the formation of cellular contact, the tumor necrosis factor-α produced by activated neutrophils is essential for inducing DC maturation. (rupress.org)
  • Pathogenic structures such as lipopolysaccharide, lipoteichoic acid, and peptidoglycans, but also endogenous signals like CD40-CD40L ligation by T cells ( 1 ) and TNF-α production by NK cells ( 2 ), trigger DC maturation. (rupress.org)
  • Because T cells are always in a race with different viruses and bacteria, they have learned how to adapt and divide rapidly to respond, but this stress on their DNA means they also are living right on the edge of death," Jordan says. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Skin provides the first level of defense to infection, serving not only as a physical barrier, but also as a site for white blood cells to attack invading bacteria and viruses. (wellnessresources.com)
  • Cross‐talk between infection and dissemination requires sustained activation by the bacteria of the Imd-dTab2-dTak1 innate immune pathway, which converges with Ras1 V12 signalling on JNK pathway activation, culminating in extracellular matrix degradation. (embopress.org)
  • Oncogenes can divert this process to stimulate tumour formation and growth [[ 8 ]], but the impact of intestinal bacteria on subsequent steps of cancer (that is, cancer cell dissemination and metastasis) remains unclear. (embopress.org)
  • How do cells move in a certain direction in the body-go to a wound site and repair it, for example, or hunt down infectious bacteria and kill it? (phys.org)
  • Bacteria and viruses that are inside host cells and are inaccessible to antibodies. (scribd.com)
  • The chemicals produced when the dye is activated harm the bacteria in such a wide variety of ways that it is unlikely bacteria could ever develop resistance to the treatment," said Dr Omar. (medicalxpress.com)
  • SUMMARY Some bacteria in your gut contain cell wall components called lipopolysaccharides (LPS), or endotoxins. (healthline.com)
  • These data may define an intriguing immune escape mechanism used by human papillomavirus and form the basis for designing optimal vaccination strategies. (jimmunol.org)
  • PCR array were used to evaluate the contribution of this mechanism in specific cell populations from patients with different clinical forms of human Chagas disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using autochthonous mouse melanoma models we identified the mechanism by which tumour-intrinsic active β-catenin signalling results in T-cell exclusion and resistance to anti-PD-L1/anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody therapy. (nih.gov)
  • A cell's membrane is its natural barrier between the inside of a cell and the outside world -- composed of a double layer (bilayer) of lipids (such as fats, waxes, sterols, or fat-soluble vitamins). (innovations-report.com)
  • This allows us to visualize specifically half of the membrane facing the [inside of the cell]. (innovations-report.com)
  • The team found that adjusting the lipid asymmetry of the membrane was important to the immune cells functioning. (innovations-report.com)
  • The fetus, umbilical cord (UC), and placenta are encased by the decidua, a maternal membrane originating from differentiated endometrial cells in early pregnancy [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • At the immunological synapse of activated T-cells, cell signaling regulates phosphoinositide dynamics, and we find that perturbing phosphoinositide binding by the SNX27 FERM domain alters the SNX27 distribution in both endosomal recycling compartments and PtdIns(3,4,5) P 3 -enriched domains of the plasma membrane during synapse formation. (biologists.org)
  • As my colleague Taylor Kubota elegantly explained in earlier news coverage, mRNAs are negatively charged, while the cell membrane is positively charged. (medicalnewser.com)
  • If you want to understand how the cell membrane works, Adam Cohen says, look no further than your kitchen. (news-medical.net)
  • Like the outer layer of the skin but much softer, the mucous membrane linings of the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts provide a mechanical barrier of cells that are constantly being renewed. (britannica.com)
  • Hiding mRNA messages in CARTs - positively charged degradable vehicles -smuggles them across the cell membrane and can 'vaccinate' against cancer in mice. (stanford.edu)
  • Ergosterol is a critical component of the fungal cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The benzothiophene ring in sertaconazole mimics tryptophan and increases the drugs ability to form pores in the fungal cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the cell membrane is made sufficiently leaky by these pores the fungal cell will die from loss of ATP and other effects which can include calcium disregulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finding high quantities of cytotoxic T cells, or "killer cells," means that there is a good chance that the disease will take a favorable course and that the risk of metastasis is comparatively low. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • The scientists studied cytotoxic T cells that had been isolated from patient blood or tumor tissue. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • The TNF level in tumor tissue corresponds to the anticancer activity of the cytotoxic T cells," Beckhove said. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Checkpoint inhibitors, such as anti-CTLA-4, sustain cytotoxic T cells in their anticancer activity. (pnas.org)
  • This is an exciting advance in our understanding of immune cell behaviour, and takes us a step closer to designing novel therapeutic ways to influence immune cell behaviour within patients in the clinic,' said Will Wood, professor and senior research fellow at Wellcome Trust in Britain. (mid-day.com)
  • Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a considerable problem in the treatment of HIV-infected patients. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Furthermore, IRIS patients displayed higher serum interferon-γ, compared with non-IRIS patients, near the time of their IRIS events and higher serum interleukin-7 levels, suggesting that the T-cell populations are also exposed to augmented homeostatic signals. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Phenotypic studies examining Treg frequency in peripheral blood have showed similar proportions of these cells in patients who developed TB-IRIS and those who did not. (bloodjournal.org)
  • NKT cells and early activated T cells are associated with lower relapse risk in AML and MDS patients. (osu.edu)
  • The FDA has allowed for clinical trials of COVID-19 patients using an NK cell-based drug termed CYNK-001 . (advfn.com)
  • Immune therapy of COVID-19 patients has been considered by some as a double-edged sword. (advfn.com)
  • It seems reasonable to conclude that activated immune cells may improve the chronic vegetative state in some patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • At the Institute of Immunology of the University of Munich, we have successfully treated several patients with psychiatric diseases with autologous activated immune cells (ACT). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The percentage of αβ T cells in AMI patients were significantly restricted than those in healthy controls, while the highly activated αβ T cells along with distinguishing usage of variable (V), diversity (D) and joining (J) gene segments were also found in AMI patients. (springer.com)
  • But it hasn't been an option for patients with a particularly aggressive form of the disease, small cell lung cancer (SCLC), until today. (xconomy.com)
  • In the trial, patients were treated first with the immune checkpoint inhibitor ipilimumab, which blocks a brake called CTLA4 on T cells, the immune system's specialized warriors, freeing them to attack. (medindia.net)
  • Patients whose melanoma did not react then went on to anti-PD1 treatment (nivolumab), which blocks a second checkpoint on T cells. (medindia.net)
  • Among eight patients with longitudinal samples taken before treatment with both checkpoint types, all three who responded to anti-PD1 therapy had shown signs of T cell activation after anti-CTLA treatment. (medindia.net)
  • Moreover, a retrospective multivariate analysis of 102 patients with CRC, which had multiple immune parameters evaluated, revealed that increased TNF-α concentration was an independent prognostic factor. (jci.org)
  • Significance of B cell activating factor of TNF family promoter polymorphisms in patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura]. (cdc.gov)
  • The study was aimed to examine the B cell activating factor promoter polymorphism of the TNF family (BAFF)-871 C/T in patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and to explore its correlation with ITP and the relationship between the blood platelet count of newly diagnosed patients with ITP and genotypes of BAFF-871 C/T polymorphisms. (cdc.gov)
  • Initially , LDL-containing immune complexes (LDL-IC) were chosen , since increased plasma levels of these IC have been reported in patients with coronary heart disease . (musc.edu)
  • We have confirmed the effectiveness of a mast cell inhibitory strategy in patients with peripheral spondyloarthritis. (uva.nl)
  • In this study, bone marrow samples from patients with immune thrombocytopenia were divided into two groups based on whether or not complement components were deposited on the surfaces of their mesenchymal stem cells. (haematologica.org)
  • However, there is no available data on the ability of TLR agonists to activate cells from patients with infectious pneumopathies. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Scientists have now linked rising levels of TNF alpha in tumor tissue to increasing numbers of activated killer cells that specifically recognize the tumor and are capable of fighting it. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • In recent years, a standard follow-up to colorectal cancer surgery has been to analyze the tumor tissue for the presence of immune cells. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Whether the presence of T cells in tumor tissue is just a matter of chance in more benign tumors or the immune cells are specifically and actively responding to the cancer and thus contribute to a more favorable prognosis has been unclear. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • What it means is that TNF alpha levels provide a more accurate method of predicting the course of the disease, compared to simply counting the T cells in tumor tissue. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Although the Treg population as a whole appears chronically activated, expressing activation markers such as CD25 and CTLA-4 ( 1 ), a fraction can be identified that is in a more proliferative state, presumably responding to tissue self-Ags ( 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Their study, published this year in Nanoscale, shows how the immune properties of graphene allow bone tissue to regenerate in mice. (thegraphenecouncil.org)
  • Immunosuppressive regulatory T-cells play an important role in the functioning of adipose tissue. (eurekalert.org)
  • All these stimuli supported those immunosuppressive cells directly in the adipose tissue", says Becker. (eurekalert.org)
  • A material based on a natural product of bones and citrus fruit, called citrate, provides the extra energy that stem cells need to form new bone tissue, according to a team of Penn State bioengineers. (news-medical.net)
  • New research into why the overweight are prone to heart attacks, diabetes, and other inflammatory diseases, suggest it could be some fat cells grow so rapidly that blood vessel growth can't keep up, and that leads to pockets of oxygen-starved fatty tissue, Kayser said. (wired.com)
  • During this process, heart cells die, prompting immune cells to enter the dead tissue, clear debris and orchestrate stabilization of the heart wall. (eurekalert.org)
  • Here we collected assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq) and RNA sequencing data under resting and stimulated conditions for up to 32 immune cell populations. (nature.com)
  • Immature DC found in peripheral nonlymphoid organs are able to acquire and process Ag, thereby becoming activated, which results in a dramatic change in their cell surface and functional phenotypes ( 16 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Fresh peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) aliquots from 238 G-CSF-mobilized allografts were extensively characterized by immunophenotype. (osu.edu)
  • With safe and effective treatments in short supply, scientists report in PNAS Early Edition (Proceeding of the National Academy of Science) discovery of an experimental treatment that targets an Achilles heel of activated immune cells - killing them off and stopping autoimmune damage. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • In EAE mouse models of MS, PPCA treatment killed off aggressively expanding T cells, tempered autoimmune processes and either reversed or prevented paralysis in the animals, authors report in their study. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Limited statistical evidence for shared genetic effects of eQTLs and autoimmune-disease-associated loci in three major immune-cell types. (nature.com)
  • The new study - published online May 26 in Cell - suggests that defects in Tregs could be responsible for alopecia areata, a common autoimmune disorder that causes hair loss, and could potentially play a role in other forms of baldness, including male pattern baldness, Rosenblum said. (ucsf.edu)
  • Within hours of T cell priming, IL-2-dependent STAT5 phosphorylation occurred primarily in Foxp3 + regulatory T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Regulatory T cells receiving IL-2 signals proliferated and developed enhanced suppressive activity. (jimmunol.org)
  • Previous studies have indicated that immunosuppressive regulatory T-cells - or Tregs for short - play an important role in these processes", explains the leader of the study Dr. Carolin Daniel, group leader at the Institute for Diabetes Research (IDF) of the Helmholtz Zentrum München and a scientist in the German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD). (eurekalert.org)
  • Foxp3 programs the development and function of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. (naver.com)
  • Mouse hair follicles and regulatory T cells, which are shown as red dots. (ucsf.edu)
  • The maternal part of the placenta, the decidua, consists of maternal immune cells, decidual stromal cells, and extravillous fetal trophoblasts. (hindawi.com)
  • Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are a readily accessible cell source in which interest has expanded hugely in the last two decades ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Human umbilical vein endothelial cells cultured in the presence of the complexes become activated, as shown by increased phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and Akt, and augmented nuclear translocation of NF-κB. (unthsc.edu)
  • Furthermore, we detected increased levels of ICAM-1 on lung endothelial cells from mice in which lung injury was induced by generating immune complexes in alveolar spaces. (unthsc.edu)
  • Furthermore, FcRn also serves to rescue IgG and albumin in capillary endothelial and hematopoietic cells from degradation, prolonging their half-lives ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Specific oncogenic signals, therefore, can mediate cancer immune evasion and resistance to immunotherapies, pointing to new candidate targets for immune potentiation. (nih.gov)