A genus of SQUID in the family Loliginidae, superorder DECAPODIFORMES, with a spindle-shaped body. They are well-studied, common inshore squids of the Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans, but their various species are taxonomically unresolved.
A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
A class of marine annelids including sandworms, tube worms, clamworms, and fire worms. It includes also the genus Myxicola infundibulum.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the three ester bonds in a phosphotriester-containing compound.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A superorder in the class CEPHALOPODA, consisting of the orders Octopoda (octopus) with over 200 species and Vampyromorpha with a single species. The latter is a phylogenetic relic but holds the key to the origins of Octopoda.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates which actively disperse and aggregate their pigment granules. These cells include MELANOPHORES, erythrophores, xanthophores, leucophores and iridiophores. (In algae, chromatophores refer to CHLOROPLASTS. In phototrophic bacteria chromatophores refer to membranous organelles (BACTERIAL CHROMATOPHORES).)
A paravertebral sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A superfamily of various freshwater CRUSTACEA, in the infraorder Astacidea, comprising the crayfish. Common genera include Astacus and Procambarus. Crayfish resemble lobsters, but are usually much smaller.
A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).
The outermost cytoplasmic layer of the SCHWANN CELLS covering NERVE FIBERS.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES. The ring structure is basically a cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene nucleus attached to a lactone ring at the C-17 position.
A systemic autoimmune disorder that typically affects medium and large ARTERIES, usually leading to occlusive granulomatous vasculitis with transmural infiltrate containing multinucleated GIANT CELLS. The TEMPORAL ARTERY is commonly involved. This disorder appears primarily in people over the age of 50. Symptoms include FEVER; FATIGUE; HEADACHE; visual impairment; pain in the jaw and tongue; and aggravation of pain by cold temperatures. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed)
A bone tumor composed of cellular spindle-cell stroma containing scattered multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts. The tumors range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. The tumor occurs most frequently in an end of a long tubular bone in young adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
Tumors of bone tissue or synovial or other soft tissue characterized by the presence of giant cells. The most common are giant cell tumor of tendon sheath and GIANT CELL TUMOR OF BONE.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
A disorder caused by hemizygous microdeletion of about 28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, including the ELASTIN gene. Clinical manifestations include SUPRAVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS; MENTAL RETARDATION; elfin facies; impaired visuospatial constructive abilities; and transient HYPERCALCEMIA in infancy. The condition affects both sexes, with onset at birth or in early infancy.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.
Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
This mechanism of action was discovered in squid giant axons. Lowering intracellular Ca2+ ions provides a direct inhibitory ... "The dual effect of membrane potential on sodium conductance in the giant axon of Loligo" (PDF). The Journal of Physiology. 116 ... These can be observed throughout the nervous system in neurons. The first ion channels to be characterized were the sodium and ... Huxley in the 1950s upon studying the giant axon of the squid genus Loligo. Their research demonstrated the selective ...
The first problem was solved by studying the giant axons found in the neurons of the squid (Loligo forbesii and Doryteuthis ... The axon is insulated by a myelin sheath. Myelin is composed of either Schwann cells (in the peripheral nervous system) or ... in a myelinated frog axon and an unmyelinated squid giant axon, but the frog axon has a roughly 30-fold smaller diameter and ... Hodgkin AL, Huxley AF (April 1952). "The dual effect of membrane potential on sodium conductance in the giant axon of Loligo". ...
Detection by metallochromic indicator dyes in squid giant axon. Biophys. J., 15, 1155-1160 (1975) Salzberg, B.M., A. Grinvald, ... This achievement paved the way for much of the functional imaging of the nervous system that has followed. Salzberg and Cohen ... Optical Recording of Action Potentials from Vertebrate Nerve Terminals Using Potentiometric Probes Provides Evidence for Sodium ... An Optical Determination of the Series Resistance in Loligo. J. Gen. Physiol. 82, 807 - 818 (1983) Salzberg, B.M. A.L. Obaid, ...
This contraction is initiated by action potentials in the giant axon. Action potentials travel faster in a larger axon than a ... axon that controls part of the water jet propulsion system in squid. It was first described by L. W. Williams in 1909, but this ... Williams, Leonard Worcester (1909). Anatomy of the Common Squid: Loligo pealii, Lesueur. Leiden, Holland: Library and Printing- ... During a typical action potential in the cuttlefish Sepia giant axon, an influx of 3.7 pmol/cm2 (picomoles per centimeter2) of ...
... the squid giant axon, a nerve fiber that is 20 times larger in diameter than the largest human axon. Young brought this locally ... formerly Loligo) pealeii, continues today, with studies on axonal transport, the squid giant synapse, squid genomics, and the ... By comparing diverse genomes, scientists at the center are elucidating the evolutionary relationships of biological systems, ... who in 1938 used it to record the resistance changes underlying the action potential, which provided evidence that ions flowing ...
ISBN 978-0-12-664661-0. Hodgkin AL, Keynes RD (1955). "Active transport of cations in giant axons from Sepia and Loligo". J. ... The chloride anion (Cl−) plays a major role in the action potentials of some algae, but plays a negligible role in the action ... Sanes, Dan H.; Reh, Thomas A (2012-01-01). Development of the nervous system (Third ed.). Elsevier Academic Press. pp. 211-214 ... "The effects of injecting energy-rich phosphate compounds on the active transport of ions in the giant axons of Loligo". J. ...
The first problem was solved by studying the giant axons found in the neurons of the squid (Loligo forbesii and Doryteuthis ... Cardiac action potentialsEdit. Main articles: Cardiac action potential, Electrical conduction system of the heart, Cardiac ... Giant axons of the longfin inshore squid (Doryteuthis pealeii) were crucial for scientists to understand the action potential.[ ... in a myelinated frog axon and an unmyelinated squid giant axon, but the frog axon has a roughly 30-fold smaller diameter and ...
There, he and Huxley managed to insert a fine cannula into the giant axon of squids and record action potentials from inside ... Hodgkin, A. L.; Huxley, A. F. (1952). "The dual effect of membrane potential on sodium conductance in the giant axon of loligo ... In March 1941, Hodgkin flew on the test flight of a Bristol Blenheim fitted with the first airborne centimetric radar system. ... Hodgkin, A. L.; Huxley, A. F. (1952). "The components of membrane conductance in the giant axon of Loligo". The Journal of ...
"The components of membrane conductance in the giant axon of Loligo". The Journal of Physiology. 116 (4): 473-496. doi:10.1113/ ... Fig 1. A neuronal action potential ("spike"). Note that the amplitude and the exact shape of the action potential can vary ... It is worth noting that not all the cells of the nervous system produce the type of spike that define the scope of the spiking ... "Currents carried by sodium and potassium ions through the membrane of the giant axon of Loligo". The Journal of Physiology. 116 ...
Their experiments involved intracellular recordings from the giant axon of Atlantic squid (Loligo pealei), and were among the ... The action potentials recorded are very much like the action potentials that are recorded intracellularly, but the signals are ... The system is accessible for optical or scanning probe techniques. Perfusion of the intracellular side can be performed. ... U.S. Patent 4425922A Movie featuring Alan Hodgkin recording action potentials from a squid axon https://www.youtube.com/watch?v ...
"Active transport of cations in giant axons from Sepia and Loligo". J. Physiol. 128 (1): 28-60. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1955. ... the axon can still fire hundreds of thousands of action potentials before their amplitudes begin to decay significantly.[9] In ... Sanes, Dan H.; Reh, Thomas A (2012-01-01). Development of the nervous system (Third Edition). Elsevier Academic Press. pp. 211- ... "The effects of injecting energy-rich phosphate compounds on the active transport of ions in the giant axons of Loligo". J. ...
... subject of studies of nerve function because of its giant axon (nearly 1 mm diameter, roughly a thousand times larger than ... used in the study of the song system of songbirds and the study of non-mammalian auditory systems. Zebrafish (Danio rerio, a ... Because it can be grown in pure culture, microbial action can be excluded. Lemna is being used as a recombinant expression ... as well as the evolution of bilaterian body plans Loligo pealei, a squid, ...
Hodgkin AL, Huxley AF (April 1952). "The dual effect of membrane potential on sodium conductance in the giant axon of Loligo". ... in 1952 to explain the ionic mechanisms underlying the initiation and propagation of action potentials in the squid giant axon ... The system is difficult to study because it is a nonlinear system and cannot be solved analytically. However, there are many ... Hodgkin AL, Huxley AF (April 1952). "The components of membrane conductance in the giant axon of Loligo". The Journal of ...
"Electrical changes in the pre and postsynaptic axons of the giant synapse of Loligo". Journal of General Physiology. 45 (6): ... It serves as a central integrating manifold that receives all sensory systems and consists of two symmetrical neurons (I). They ... in the absence of action potentials, transmission could occur (Bloedel et al. 1966, Katz & Miledi 1967, Kusano, Livengood & ... Squid giant axon Young, John Z. (25 May 1939). "Fused neurons and synaptic contacts in the giant nerve fibers of cephalopods". ...
Hodgkin, A. L.; Huxley, A. F. (1952-04-28). "The components of membrane conductance in the giant axon of Loligo". The Journal ... an action potential is generated by the cell body or soma and propagated along the axon. The axon may have one or more ... "Currents carried by sodium and potassium ions through the membrane of the giant axon of Loligo". The Journal of Physiology. ... "The dual effect of membrane potential on sodium conductance in the giant axon of Loligo". The Journal of Physiology. Wiley. 116 ...
They made their discovery from the giant axon of the Atlantic squid. Soon after the outbreak of the Second World War, Huxley ... The solution was that nerve impulses, or action potentials, do not travel down the core of the fiber, but rather along the ... Hellier, Jennifer L. (2014). The Brain, the Nervous System, and Their Diseases. ABC-Clio. p. 532. ISBN 9781610693387. Hodgkin, ... formerly Loligo) pealeii), which have the largest neurons known. The experiments were still extremely challenging as the nerve ...
Tasaki, I.; Takenaka, T. (1963). "Resting and action potential of squid giant axons intracellularly perfused with sodium-rich ... the common squid or calamary (Loligo vulgaris). It is sometimes called the pen-and-ink fish, on account of its ink bag, and the ... However, octopus arms use a family of cephalopod-specific chemotactile receptors (CRs) to be their "taste by touch" system. The ... In giant Pacific octopus, large eggs are laid in a den; it will often take several days to lay all of them. Once the eggs are ...
Hodgkin AL, Huxley AF (1952). "The dual effect of membrane potential on sodium conductance in the giant axon of Loligo". J ... "Penetration of Action Potentials During Collision in the Median and Lateral Giant Axons of Invertebrates". Physical Review X. 4 ... time-course of the response to voltage changes on the basis of their affect on the macroscopic susceptibilities of the system. ... Hodgkin AL, Huxley AF (1952). "The components of membrane conductance in the giant axon of Loligo". J Physiol. 116 (4): 473-496 ...
Nervous system and behavior[edit]. See also: Cephalopod intelligence, squid giant axon, squid giant synapse, and cephalopod ... "Resting and action potential of squid giant axons intracellularly perfused with sodium-rich solutions" (PDF). Proceedings of ... Iwata, Y.; Ito, K.; Sakurai, Y. (2008). "Effect of low temperature on mating behavior of squid Loligo bleekeri". Fisheries ... Circulatory system[edit]. Cephalopods are the only mollusks with a closed circulatory system. Coleoids have two gill hearts ( ...
Squid giant axons can exceed 1 mm (0.039 in) in diameter: 100 to 1000 times the thickness of mammalian axons. The axons of the ... Xavier, J.C., P.G. Rodhouse, P.N. Trathan & A.G. Wood (1999). A Geographical Information System (GIS) Atlas of cephalopod ... and those of Loligo forbesii can also exceed 1 mm (Adelman & Gilbert, 1990:102). Such was the importance of Humboldt squid to ... Cephalopods in Action. Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Vecchione, M., R.E. Young & K. Tsuchiya (2011). Onykia ( ...
This mechanism of action was discovered in squid giant axons. Lowering intracellular Ca2+ ions provides a direct inhibitory ... "The dual effect of membrane potential on sodium conductance in the giant axon of Loligo" (PDF). The Journal of Physiology. 116 ... These can be observed throughout the nervous system in neurons. The first ion channels to be characterized were the sodium and ... Huxley in the 1950s upon studying the giant axon of the squid genus Loligo. Their research demonstrated the selective ...
The first problem was solved by studying the giant axons found in the neurons of the squid (Loligo forbesii and Doryteuthis ... The axon is insulated by a myelin sheath. Myelin is composed of either Schwann cells (in the peripheral nervous system) or ... in a myelinated frog axon and an unmyelinated squid giant axon, but the frog axon has a roughly 30-fold smaller diameter and ... Hodgkin AL, Huxley AF (April 1952). "The dual effect of membrane potential on sodium conductance in the giant axon of Loligo". ...
Giant axons from squid (Loligo ssp) were ideal for studies designed to elucidate the bases of neural activity because of their ... This pioneering work in giant squid axons led to the fundamental understanding of the ionic bases for resting and action ... Kroghs principle also has been applied in research aimed at understanding the nervous system by using animal models with ... Cardiac action and pacemaker potentials based on the hodgkin-huxley equations. Nature. 1960; 188: 495-497. ...
... but we have recently succeeded in inserting micro-electrodes into the giant axons of squids (Loligo forbesi). ... Science quotes on: , Action (328) , Activation (6) , All (4107) , Asymmetry (6) , Become (815) , Call (769) , Channel (21) , ... The true-spinal system consists of a series of nerves passing principally from the cutaneous surface, and the surface of the ... Science quotes on: , Action (328) , Arise (158) , Author (168) , British (41) , Change (595) , Electrical (57) , Fluid (52) , ...
... but we have recently succeeded in inserting micro-electrodes into the giant axons of squids (Loligo forbesi). ... Science quotes on: , Action (328) , Arise (158) , Author (168) , British (41) , Change (595) , Electrical (57) , Giant (68) , ... Solar System (78) , Species (402) , Success (303) , Sufficient (128) , Supernatural (25) , Surely (101) , System (537) , Theory ... A New System of Chemical Philosophy (1808), Vol. 1, 141. Science quotes on: , All (4107) , Atom (358) , Atomic Theory (15) , ...
The generation and propagation of the action potential require sodium influx via voltage‐dependent sodium channels that drive ... Hodgkin AL, Huxley AF and Katz B (1952) Measurement of current-voltage relations in the membrane of the giant axon of Loligo. ... Maljevic S, Wuttke TV and Lerche H (2008) Nervous system Kv7 disorders: breakdown of a subthreshold break. Journal of ... Hodgkin AL and Huxley AF (1952a) Currents carried by sodium and potassium ions through the membrane of the giant axon of Loligo ...
Oikawa, T., Spyropoulos, C.S., Tasaki, I., and Teorell, T. Methods for perfusing the giant axon of loligo pealii. Acta Physiol ... Tasaki, I. Demonstration of abolition of action potentials and subthreshold responses in the cobalt electrode system. Am J ... Watanabe, A., Tasaki, I., and Lerman, L. Bi-ionic action potentials in squid giant axons internally perfused with sodium salts ... Invention of the double-cannulation method of internal perfusion of the squid giant axon and analyses of the bi-ionic action ...
... develop deficits in coordinating activity in the giant axon system with that of a parallel set of non-giant motor axons during ... JET-PROPELLED ESCAPE IN THE SQUID LOLIGO-OPALESCENS - CONCERTED CONTROL BY GIANT AND NON-GIANT MOTOR AXON PATHWAYS PROCEEDINGS ... Based on homology of leader sequence and mode of action, these toxins are related to the O-superfamily, but differ ... When they are utilized, the giant axons are not activated until well after the non-giant system initiates the escape response, ...
giant axon of Loligo," JPhysiol, vol. 116, pp. 473-496, 1952.. [48] A. L. Hodgkin and A. F. Huxley, "The dual effect of ... stimuli is called an "action potential." From the soma, action potentials travel down the axon to. the synapse. This triggers ... system. In all such organisms, the nervous system is crucial in controlling basic processes such. as breathing and hunger, as ... membrane of the giant axon of Loligo," JPhysiol, vol. 1 16, pp. 424-448, 1952.. [46] A. L. Hodgkin and A. F. Huxley, "A ...
The dual effect of membrane potential on sodium conductance in the giant axon ofLoligo.J. Physiol. (London) 116:497-506Google ... The action potential inChara corallina. IV. Activation enthalpies of the Hodgkin-Huxley gates.Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 6:355-365 ... A computer based, four-terminal impedance measuring system for low frequencies.J. Phys. E:8:66-70Google Scholar ... The action potential inChara corallina. III. The Hodgkin-Huxley parameters for the plasmalemma.Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 6:337- ...
The first problem was solved by studying the giant axons found in the neurons of the squid (Loligo forbesii and Doryteuthis ... Cardiac action potentialsEdit. Main articles: Cardiac action potential, Electrical conduction system of the heart, Cardiac ... Giant axons of the longfin inshore squid (Doryteuthis pealeii) were crucial for scientists to understand the action potential.[ ... in a myelinated frog axon and an unmyelinated squid giant axon, but the frog axon has a roughly 30-fold smaller diameter and ...
Nervous systems are formidably complex networks of nonlinear interacting components that self organise and continually adapt to ... Hodgkin, A. L., & Huxley, A. F. (1952a). The components of membrane conductance in the giant axon of Loligo. The Journal of ... Actions. .buybox { margin: 16px 0 0; position: relative; } .buybox { font-family: Source Sans Pro, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif ... Currents carried by sodium and potassium ions through the membrane of the giant axon of Loligo. The Journal of Physiology, 116 ...
Currents carried by sodium and potassium ions through the membrane of the giant axon of Loligo. J. Physiol. 116: 449. ... like electrotonic decrease in dendrite or lossless propagation of action potentials in axons were explained in terms of cable ... An example of the latter are motor neurons that convey control signals from the central nervous system to distal muscles. The ... The dual effect of membrane potential on sodium conductance in the giant axon of Loligo. J. Physiol. 116: 497. ...
"The components of membrane conductance in the giant axon of Loligo". The Journal of Physiology. 116 (4): 473-496. doi:10.1113/ ... Fig 1. A neuronal action potential ("spike"). Note that the amplitude and the exact shape of the action potential can vary ... It is worth noting that not all the cells of the nervous system produce the type of spike that define the scope of the spiking ... "Currents carried by sodium and potassium ions through the membrane of the giant axon of Loligo". The Journal of Physiology. 116 ...
... much like an action potential in an axon.. Positive and negative feedback produce Ca2+ waves and oscillations. This diagram ... However, thanks to pioneering studies using giant nerve cells, such as those from the squid Loligo forbesi, Curtis and Cole at ... Specific Ca2+ homeostatic system appeared very early in the history of the cell, as a survival system preventing Ca2+-mediated ... Figure 2. Overview of Ca2+ Transport Systems in an Arabidopsis Cell.. Shown are Ca2+ influx/efflux pathways that have been ...
The components of membrane conductance in the giant axon of Loligo. Hodgkin, AL; Huxley, AF ... System error. Please try again!. Thanks for helping us catch any problems with articles on DeepDyve. Well do our best to fix ... Spontaneous action potentials due to channel fluctuations. Chow, CC; White, JA. * Ion channel selectivity through stepwise ... Submitting a report will send us an email through our customer support system. ...
Several simulation examples were presented in this paper to reproduce action potentials, sensory adaptation, frequency ... Several simulation examples were presented in this paper to reproduce action potentials, sensory adaptation, frequency ... and a spike synthesizer was designed to recreate the action potentials evoked in afferents. The parameters of this model were ... and a spike synthesizer was designed to recreate the action potentials evoked in afferents. The parameters of this model were ...
is expected for axons exhibiting a tapered radius over their length, as is the case for the giant axon in M. infundibulum (24 ... 1948) The giant nerve-fibres in the central nervous system of Myxicola (Polychaeta, Sabellidae). Q J Microsc Sci 89(Pt 1):1-45. ... the marine fanworm Myxicola infundibulum and the North Atlantic longfin inshore squid Loligo pealeii-a model organism for ... infundibulum giant axon with Navg = 600. (D) Measured time trace of AP magnetic field Bmeas(t) for L. pealeii (squid) giant ...
... develop deficits in coordinating activity in the giant axon system with that of a parallel set of non-giant motor axons during ... JET-PROPELLED ESCAPE IN THE SQUID LOLIGO-OPALESCENS - CONCERTED CONTROL BY GIANT AND NON-GIANT MOTOR AXON PATHWAYS PROCEEDINGS ... IONIC BASIS OF ACTION-POTENTIAL PROPAGATION ALONG 2 CLASSES OF GIANT-AXONS IN THE OPHIUROID, OPHIOPTERIS-PAPILLOSA JOURNAL OF ... When they are utilized, the giant axons are not activated until well after the non-giant system initiates the escape response, ...
Measurement of current-voltage relations in the membrane of the giant axon of Loligo, The Journal of physiology, 116, 424. ... Lou, C.H. and Rudy, Y. (1994) A dynamic model of the cardiac ventricular action potential I. Circulation Research, 74, 1071- ... Besancon, G., Zhang, Q. and Hammouri, H., (2002) High-Gain observer based state and parameter estimation in nonlinear systems. ... Nagumo, J., Arimoto, S. and Yoshizawa, S. (1962) An active pulse transmission line simulating nerve axon. Proceedings of the ...
Studies of voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels in squid giant axons have founded our understanding of action potential ... 3) Simultaneous current and flux measurements in squid ( Loligo peali ) giant axons were performed to determine the ... The cell-attached patch clamp technique with a pipette perfusion system was used to observe ouabain-sensitive single channel ... In situ hybridization was used to localize GFLN1 mRNA to neurons with large or long axons. GFLN1-specific cRNA probes labeled ...
Squid (Loligo pealei) giant fiber system: a model for studying neurodegeneration and dementia? ... where the axon disintegrates by proteolytic action of enzymes present in the axoplasm. Macropages participate phagocytosing ... the stellate ganglion of the squid giant fiber system, which shares many neuronal properties with mammalian systems, including ... Anterograde transport of peptide-conjugated fluorescent beads in the squid giant axon identifies a zip-code for the synapse ...
Hodgkin AL, Huxley AF (1952) Currents carried by sodium and potassium ions through the membrane of the giant axon of Loligo. J ... Through making the derivation of the closed curve in the phase plane of a dynamic system equal to zero, the closed curve is ... Actions. .buybox { margin: 16px 0 0; position: relative; } .buybox { font-family: Source Sans Pro, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif ... 1.Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems of the Ministry of Education of ChinaChongqing UniversityChongqing ...
We have evaluated the effects of human tau protein injected directly into the presynaptic terminal axon of the squid giant ... and biochemical analysis of its action on the synaptic release process. Indeed, we have found that at physiological ... Analysis of synaptic noise at the post-synaptic axon following pre-synaptic h-tau42 microinjection revealed an initial phase of ... Analysis of synaptic noise at the post-synaptic axon following pre-synaptic h-tau42 microinjection revealed an initial phase of ...
Ionic currents from Schwann cells isolated enzymatically from the giant axons of the squids Loligo forbesi, Loligo vulgaris and ... poor penetration of the drug into the central nervous system (CNS). The latter is due to the action of multiple drug resistance ... A Multi-system Approach Assessing the Interaction of Anticonvulsants with P-gp PloS One. 2013 , Pubmed ID: 23741405 30% of ... Tissue culture systems have been developed to reproduce key properties of the intact blood-brain barrier and to allow for ...
Carbone, E., Testa, P. L. and Wanke, E. (1981). Intracellular pH and ionic channels in the Loligo vulgaris giant axon. ... Signal transduction systems andpHt Components of the second messenger system that are classically been linked to p-adrenergic ... Given the complex actions of both norepinephrine and pH, on the excitability of hippocampal neurons, the ability of ... Boron, W. F. and De Weer, P. (1976). Intracellular pH transients in squid giant axons caused by CO2, N H 3 and metabolic ...
The giant axon system is onesolution for escape response and, probably, prey capture." He pausesand arches his eyebrows. "I ... an expert on the wiring of the nervous system.Ordinarily the test subject for his research is the 8-inch-long squid Loligo ... Using frog eggs to take up the squid genes and make the channels, they were able to measure action potentials and nerve ... often wish that I had a giant axon system to help me escape from certain people and situations - but also for jetting over and ...
2. a particular part of this system. Cf. autonomic nervous system, central nervous system, peripheral nervous… ... 1. the system of nerves and nerve centers in an animal or human, including the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and ganglia. ... Once an action potential has been generated at the axon hillock, it is conducted along the length of the axon until it reaches ... One is the vertebrate neuromuscular junction, and the other is the giant synapse of the squid Loligo. These sites have the ...
Nervous system and behavior[edit]. See also: Cephalopod intelligence, squid giant axon, squid giant synapse, and cephalopod ... "Resting and action potential of squid giant axons intracellularly perfused with sodium-rich solutions" (PDF). Proceedings of ... Iwata, Y.; Ito, K.; Sakurai, Y. (2008). "Effect of low temperature on mating behavior of squid Loligo bleekeri". Fisheries ... Circulatory system[edit]. Cephalopods are the only mollusks with a closed circulatory system. Coleoids have two gill hearts ( ...
Their experiments involved intracellular recordings from the giant axon of Atlantic squid Loligo pealeiand were among the first ... University of Pennsylvania Health System 4. Must possess active Pennsylvania RN License, at time of hire. The staff of the EPS ... If the tip is small enough, such a configuration may allow indirect observation and recording of action potentials from a ... External link Explores the bottom-up logic of citiesGoogleand the human brains as models for leaderless systems. External link ...
  • These can be observed throughout the nervous system in neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Action potentials occur in several types of animal cells, called excitable cells, which include neurons, muscle cells, endocrine cells and in some plant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • a) A subthreshold current injection does not induce the neurons to discharge an action potential. (els.net)
  • b) A larger current injection depolarises the neurons beyond threshold to discharge a single action potential. (els.net)
  • The impulse travels down the axon in one direction only, to the axon terminal where it signals other neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of the latter are motor neurons that convey control signals from the central nervous system to distal muscles. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Spiking neurons are known to be a major signaling unit of the nervous system , and for this reason characterizing their operation is of great importance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, many cells in the nervous system are not classified as neurons but instead are classified as glia . (wikipedia.org)
  • In whole-cell voltage-clamped squid giant fiber lobe neurons, bath-applied SNDTT causes reversible time-dependent block of delayed-rectifier K + channels, but not Na + or Ca 2+ channels. (tonmo.com)
  • The ability of norepinephrine to alter pH, via modulation of the activity of the dominant acid extrusion mechanism present in rat hippocampal CA1 neurons may constitute a mechanism to dissipate rapidly intracellular acid loads produced by the actions of other neurotransmitters such as glutamate and may subserve some of the reported P-adrenergic receptor-mediated effects of norepinephrine in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. (ubc.ca)
  • System of specialized cells (neurons, or nerve cells) that conduct stimuli from a sensory receptor through a neuron network to the site (e.g., a gland or muscle) where the response occurs. (academic.ru)
  • That system was the nervous system, which is based upon the almost instantaneous transmission of electrical impulses from one region of the body to another along specialized cells called neurons ( neuron ). (academic.ru)
  • In the diffuse type of system, found in lower invertebrates ( invertebrate ), there is no brain , and neurons are distributed throughout the organism in a netlike pattern. (academic.ru)
  • This method has facilitated studies of the mechanisms underlying the generation and propagation of the main output signal, the action potential, and led to the finding that cortical neurons communicate not only in action potential-mediated digital mode but also in membrane potential-dependent analog mode. (meta.org)
  • Voltage gated sodium channels (VGSC) contribute to the excitability of sensory neurons and are essential for the upstroke of action potentials. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Previous studies suggest Navβ4 subunit mediates INaR in central nervous system neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using a reduced expression system in DRG neurons, we isolated recombinant human Nav1.6 sodium currents in rat DRG neurons and found that overexpression of Navβ4 enhanced Nav1.6 INaR generation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In neuroscience , it includes measurements of the electrical activity of neurons , and particularly action potential activity. (wikia.org)
  • However, our understanding of the biophysical and pharmacological properties of the channels in sensory neurons is largely based on the study of heterologous systems or rodent tissue, despite evidence that both expression systems and species differences influence these properties. (elifesciences.org)
  • Nevertheless, virtually all that is known about the biophysical and pharmacological properties of VGSCs comes from the study of these channels in heterologous expression systems and in isolated rodent sensory neurons. (elifesciences.org)
  • They overcame this by working at the Marine Biological Association laboratory in Plymouth using the giant axon of the Atlantic squid ( Loligo pealei ), which have the largest neurons known. (netlibrary.net)
  • Excitability of neurons indeed relies on inward sodium and outward potassium fluxes during action potential firing. (operamedphys.org)
  • Recently, we have developed a tri-compartment model based on mass-action kinetics equations that account for potassium dynamics between neurons, astrocytes and the extracellular space. (operamedphys.org)
  • In physiology, an action potential (AP) occurs when the membrane potential of a specific cell location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarization then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarize. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hodgkin, A. L., Huxley, A. F. and Katz, B. (1952) Measurement of current-voltage relations in the membrane of the giant axon of Loligo, The Journal of physiology, 116, 424. (scirp.org)
  • thus studies of axon physiology have long been hampered by the lack of axon recording methods. (meta.org)
  • Their eventual discovery of the basis propagation of nerve impulses (called action potential) earned them the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1963. (netlibrary.net)
  • Cephalopod biological research has a long history involving a wide range of experimental paradigms, the best known of which is the work on squid giant axon physiology that led to Nobel Prize awards for Alan Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The first ion channels to be characterized were the sodium and potassium ion channels by A.L. Hodgkin and A.F. Huxley in the 1950s upon studying the giant axon of the squid genus Loligo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the Hodgkin-Huxley membrane capacitance model , the speed of transmission of an action potential was undefined and it was assumed that adjacent areas became depolarised due to released ion interference with neighbouring channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interactions among the many different ion channels expressed by a single cell can lead to extraordinarily complex dynamics, whose dissection necessitates computational modeling, as first demonstrated by Hodgkin and Huxley (1952a) for action potential generation. (elifesciences.org)
  • It has long been appreciated that voltage-gated Na + channels (VGSCs) underlie the upstroke of the action potential, and therefore play an essential role in the propagation of action potentials along axons ( Hodgkin and Huxley, 1952a , 1952b ). (elifesciences.org)
  • We have evaluated the effects of human tau protein injected directly into the presynaptic terminal axon of the squid giant synapse, which affords functional, structural, and biochemical analysis of its action on the synaptic release process. (frontiersin.org)
  • Analysis of synaptic noise at the post-synaptic axon following presynaptic h-tau42 microinjection revealed an initial phase of increase spontaneous transmitter release followed by a marked reduction in noise. (frontiersin.org)
  • Giant synaptic potentials in immature rat CA3 hippocampal neurones. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Astrocytes, the main glial cell type of the central nervous system, form tripartite synapses by enwraping more than half of the synaptic elements with their peripheral processes in the hippocampal CA1 region (Bushong et al. (operamedphys.org)
  • This chapter discusses some recent experiments suggesting that l -glutamate is very probably an endogenous transmitter at the synapse, including the first demonstration that glutamate, when abruptly released in the synaptic cleft, can elicit action potentials in the third-order giant axon. (universitypressscholarship.com)
  • Squid (Loligo pealei) giant fiber system: a model for studying neurodegeneration and dementia? (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The reduced sodium influx along with increased potassium efflux permits rapid action potential repolarisation. (els.net)
  • The reduction of sodium influx resulting from inactivation combined with potassium efflux from the cell via voltage‐dependent and/or voltage‐independent potassium channels drive the repolarisation phase of the action potential. (els.net)
  • Action potential threshold is determined by the relative activity of sodium vs. potassium channels with an action potential being generated if the sodium influx is larger than the potassium efflux. (els.net)
  • Comparison of the effects of potassium and membrane potential on the calcium-dependent sodium efflux in squid axons. (cf.ac.uk)
  • Influence of membrane potential on calcium efflux from giant axons of Loligo. (cf.ac.uk)
  • Sodium channels allow an influx of Na+ ions into a neuron, resulting in a depolarization from the resting membrane potential of a neuron to lead to a graded potential or action potential, depending on the degree of depolarization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activation of potassium ion channels themselves are dependent on the depolarization resulting from Na+ influx during an action potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • Na + channels open at the beginning of the action potential, and Na + moves into the axon, causing depolarization . (wikipedia.org)
  • In excitable cells, a sufficiently large depolarization can evoke an action potential , in which the membrane potential changes rapidly and significantly for a short time (on the order of 1 to 100 milliseconds), often reversing its polarity. (jakearchibald.com)
  • The generation and propagation of the action potential require sodium influx via voltage‐dependent sodium channels that drive the upstroke of the action potential. (els.net)
  • Insulating the axon with myelin increases the speed of action potential propagation by limiting action potential generation to small unmyelinated gaps called nodes of Ranvier. (els.net)
  • Optical magnetic detection with quantum defects also provides information about action potential propagation that is not easily available with existing methods. (pnas.org)
  • This uniform potential throughout the length of axon surrounding the wire eliminated longitudinal voltage gradients and thus eliminated propagation. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Calcium channels are important for certain cell-signaling cascades as well as neurotransmitter release at axon terminals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Magnetic fields from neuronal action potentials (APs) pass largely unperturbed through biological tissue, allowing magnetic measurements of AP dynamics to be performed extracellularly or even outside intact organisms. (pnas.org)
  • Sodium channels are known for working in concert with potassium channels during the development of graded potentials and action potentials. (wikipedia.org)
  • As with sodium channels, the potassium channels have their own toxins that block channel protein action. (wikipedia.org)
  • The recovery of sodium channels from inactivation and the closing of potassium channels following the action potential determine the refractory period, which is a period of increased action potential threshold. (els.net)
  • Sodium influx via voltage‐dependent sodium channels depolarises the membrane to activate more sodium channels in a positive feedback mechanism that generates the ballistic rising phase of the action potential. (els.net)
  • High‐density clustering of sodium channels at the nodes of Ranvier ensures sufficient current is generated to exceed threshold at the next node so that the action potential is faithfully propagated along the axon. (els.net)
  • Voltage gated sodium channels (VGSC) selectively mediate the inward flow of sodium ions in response to changes in transmembrane voltage potential and generate the rapid upstroke of action potentials [ 2 - 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The dual effect of membrane potential on sodium conductance in the giant axon of Loligo . (springer.com)
  • The components of membrane conductance in the giant axon of Loligo. (springer.com)
  • Electric conductance of biological systems. (unam.mx)
  • Practically, it was developed by measuring the membrane conductance of sodium and potassium ions in the giant axon of the squid Loligo , from which the governing differential equations are deduced. (wolfram.com)
  • b) A diagram of the positive feedback cycle that drives the depolarisation phase of the action potential. (els.net)
  • Figure 1: Marmont's space clamp with lateral guard electrodes: Diagram of squid axon and electrode arrangement for membrane controls. (scholarpedia.org)
  • 1. A voltage and current electrode, wrapped in a glass capillary, are inserted in the giant axon (0.1 to 1 mm diameter) as shown in the diagram. (wolfram.com)
  • Fortunately, the stellate ganglion of the squid giant fiber system, which shares many neuronal properties with mammalian systems, including a robust NF metabolism, is readily separated into giant cell bodies and pure axoplasm in quantities sufficient for diverse biochemical studies. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The main purpose of cable theory is to understand this process, i.e. how electrical signals from different synapses are combined in the system of branching tubes of different diameters and membrane properties that forms the dendritic tree of a cell. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Recordings of large-scale electric signals from the nervous system , such as electroencephalography , may also be referred to as electrophysiological recordings. (cfapps.io)
  • A nerve pulse is actually an action potential which is transmitted down the axoplasm core of a nerve fibre. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1939. Electrolytes in the axoplasm of the giant nerve fibres of squid. (unam.mx)
  • First, in a technological breakthrough, Marmont achieved isopotentiality over a region of axon by threading a wire along its interior to short-circuit the longitudinal resistance of the axoplasm. (scholarpedia.org)
  • The AHP can speed sodium channel recovery from inactivation, which is faster at more hyperpolarised voltages, so that the channels are more rapidly reset to participate in generating the next action potential. (els.net)
  • The inactivation-removed Shaker B (ShBΔ) Kv1 channel expressed in HEK 293 cells is blocked in a similar manner and was used to further characterize the action of SNDTT. (tonmo.com)
  • In muscle cells, for example, an action potential is the first step in the chain of events leading to contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • After an action potential has occurred, there is a transient negative shift, called the afterhyperpolarization. (wikipedia.org)
  • In muscle cells, a typical action potential lasts about a fifth of a second. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some other types of cells and plants, an action potential may last three seconds or more. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the kinetics of sodium and potassium channel gating determine not only the action potential shape and duration but also the threshold for action potential generation. (els.net)
  • The voltage‐dependent potassium channels often remain active following the action potential (slow to close) to generate an afterhyperpolarization (AHP). (els.net)
  • a) An action potential recorded from a rat sympathetic neuron during a 400‐ms current injection. (els.net)
  • The different phases of the action potential are labelled, together with the equilibrium potentials for sodium ( E Na ) and potassium ( E K ). The threshold voltage is also marked. (els.net)
  • The sodium and potassium currents that underlie the action potential. (els.net)
  • The effect of increasing stimulus strength on action potential generation. (els.net)
  • Invention of the double-cannulation method of internal perfusion of the squid giant axon and analyses of the bi-ionic action potential. (nih.gov)
  • The action potential in Chara corallina . (springer.com)
  • 2-4 Spontaneous action potential recorded from abdominal ganglion cell. (ufl.edu)
  • As an action potential (nerve impulse) travels down an axon there is a change in polarity across the membrane of the axon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shape of a typical action potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that the amplitude and the exact shape of the action potential can vary according to the exact experimental technique used for acquiring the signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some models in this category are black box models and distinguish only between two measured voltage levels: the presence of a spike (also known as "action potential") or a quiescent state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beeler, G.W. and Reuter, H. (1977) Reconstruction of the action potential of ventricular myocardial fibres. (scirp.org)
  • Lou, C.H. and Rudy, Y. (1994) A dynamic model of the cardiac ventricular action potential I. Circulation Research, 74, 1071-1096. (scirp.org)
  • The voltage clamp provided a solution to the following problem: How do you understand the mechanisms involved in an action potential that is changing with voltage and time as it travels down an axon? (scholarpedia.org)
  • The data obtained from these experiments were validated by mathematical reconstruction of an action potential. (scholarpedia.org)
  • In the 1930s, the huge axon of the squid became the favorite experimental preparation for exploring the basis of the action potential. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Secondly, Marmont was able to restrict current measurement to a short central segment of the axon membrane (now with uniform potential). (scholarpedia.org)
  • Using state of the art electronic circuits to force the membrane potential in neighboring "guard" regions to track the central voltage, he was able to prevent flow into the central compartment of any possible longitudinal currents from action potentials in the axon outside the guards. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Effect of nerve impulses on the membrane potential of glial cells in the central nervous system of amphibia. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The potential problem with this situation is highlighted by evidence that both the biophysical and pharmacological properties of channels are influenced by the expression system and species differences. (elifesciences.org)
  • Here, we begin by introducing the perspective of neuromechanics, which emphasizes that real-world behavior emerges from the intimate interactions among the physical structure of the system, the mechanical requirements of a task, the feasible neural control actions to produce it, and the ability of the neuromuscular system to adapt through interactions with the environment. (springermedizin.de)
  • Behaviors can be passed though a population by an individual observing the actions of another then imitating the aforementioned behavior. (gatech.edu)
  • A biological neuron model , also known as a spiking neuron model , is a mathematical description of the properties of certain cells in the nervous system that generate sharp electrical potentials across their cell membrane , roughly one millisecond in duration, as shown in Fig. 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally a model of simulating cutaneous afferent response should at least consist of the receptor model to emulate the selectivity of each afferent type, and the spiking neuron model to generate action potentials in afferents. (frontiersin.org)
  • Currents carried by sodium and potassium ions through the membrane of the giant axon of Loligo. (springer.com)
  • 1922. A study of the action currents of nerve with the cathode ray oscillograph. (unam.mx)
  • Action potentials are generated by special types of voltage-gated ion channels embedded in a cell's plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • c) A suprathreshold current injection sufficiently depolarises the neuron that multiple action potentials are generated during the 400‐ms injection. (els.net)
  • In 1947, George Marmont (1949) invented a chamber for this axon that effectively turned a portion of the axon into a patch. (scholarpedia.org)
  • The scope of this subject covers topics such as molecular neuroanatomy, mechanisms of molecular signaling in the nervous system, the effects of genetics and epigenetics on neuronal development, and the molecular basis for neuroplasticity and neurodegenerative diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ultimately, biological neuron models aim to explain the mechanisms underlying the operation of the nervous system for the purpose of restoring lost control capabilities such as perception (e.g. deafness or blindness), motor movement decision making , and continuous limb control . (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue culture systems have been developed to reproduce key properties of the intact blood-brain barrier and to allow for testing of mechanisms of transendothelial drug permeation. (jove.com)
  • Structure, mechanisms of action and substrate profiles are described for both enzymes. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • As with sodium ions, graded potentials and action potentials are also dependent on potassium channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of such a toxin is the large cation, tetraethylammonium (TEA), but it is notable that the toxin does not have the same mechanism of action on all potassium channels, given the variety of channel types across species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their research demonstrated the selective permeability of cellular membranes, dependent on physiological conditions, and the electrical effects that result from these permeabilities to produce action potentials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Repolarization occurs when the K + channels open and K + moves out of the axon, creating a change in polarity between the outside of the cell and the inside. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whole cell" measurement technique, which captures the spiking activity of a single neuron and produces full amplitude action potentials. (wikipedia.org)
  • We demonstrate noninvasive detection of action potentials with single-neuron sensitivity, including in whole organisms. (pnas.org)
  • Impulses are carried to and from the brain and spinal cord by nerve fibres that make up the peripheral nervous system. (academic.ru)
  • Molecular neuroscience is a branch of neuroscience that observes concepts in molecular biology applied to the nervous systems of animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nervous systems are formidably complex networks of nonlinear interacting components that self organise and continually adapt to enable flexible behaviour. (springer.com)
  • In humans, it consists of the central and peripheral nervous systems, the former consisting of the brain and spinal cord and the latter of the nerves, which carry impulses to and from the central nervous system. (academic.ru)
  • Nervous systems are of two general types, diffuse and centralized. (academic.ru)
  • This article begins with a discussion of the general features of nervous systems-that is, their function of responding to stimuli and the rather uniform electrochemical processes by which they generate a response. (academic.ru)
  • Following that is a discussion of the various types of nervous systems, from the simplest to the most complex. (academic.ru)
  • Krabbe patients also show progressive and severe neurological deficiencies in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. (jneurosci.org)
  • Degeneracy and complexity in biological systems. (springer.com)
  • Even our approach to each is diametrically opposite: inductive science for the study of biological systems vs. engineering synthesis for the design and construction of robotic systems. (springermedizin.de)
  • One of the most promising enzymes cleaving organophosphorus compounds is the enzyme with enzyme commission number (EC): 3.1.8.2, called diisopropyl fluorophosphatase (DFPase) or organophosphorus acid anhydrolase from Loligo Vulgaris or Alteromonas sp. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Cf. autonomic nervous system , central nervous system , peripheral nervous system . (academic.ru)
  • Administration of GSK3β inhibitors significantly ameliorated transport defects in vitro and in vivo in peripheral axons of the mutant mouse. (jneurosci.org)
  • From a therapeutic perspective, what has been particularly exciting about the evidence implicating VGSCs in inflammatory and neuropathic pain, is that several of the VGSC alpha subunits shown to contribute to the injury-induced increases in afferent excitability are preferentially expressed in the peripheral nervous system in general, and nociceptive afferents in particular ( Gold and Gebhart, 2010 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • These recordings are performed at the enlarged structure (axonal bleb) formed at the cut end of an axon after slicing procedures. (meta.org)
  • Myelin-free in vitro analyses showed that psychosine inhibited fast axonal transport through the activation of axonal PP1 and GSK3β in the axon. (jneurosci.org)
  • The selectivity (i.e., the disparity in which neuronal and axonal populations are affected), the dying-back pattern affecting axons, and the characteristic appearance of axonal swellings point to defects in fast axonal transport (FAT). (jneurosci.org)
  • [7] The nervous system of cephalopods is the most complex of the invertebrates [8] and their brain-to-body-mass ratio falls between that of endothermic and ectothermic vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cephalopods range in size from the pygmy squids (thumbnail-sized adults) to the colossal and giant squids (18 meters in total length), which are the largest known invertebrates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One of the first model systems for molecular biology was the bacterium Escherichia coli , a common constituent of the human digestive system. (thefullwiki.org)
  • A major hypothesis guiding the work is that a "horizontal" pathway for communication between chromatophores exists in the plane of the skin, and that this network can mediate chromogenic behaviors in the absence of descending motor control by the central nervous system. (stanford.edu)
  • Pubmed ID: 11390805 Endothelial cells exposed to inductive central nervous system factors differentiate into a blood-brain barrier phenotype. (jove.com)
  • Another project examines the role of the giant axon system in controlling escape responses in both Dosidicus and Doryteuthis, with a focus on sensitivity of the system to temperature and hypoxia. (stanford.edu)
  • To simulate the spike responses of all the major types of cutaneous tactile afferents, we proposed an electromechanical circuit model, in which a two-channel filter was developed to characterize the mechanical selectivity of tactile receptors, and a spike synthesizer was designed to recreate the action potentials evoked in afferents. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the centralized systems of higher invertebrates and vertebrates ( vertebrate ), a portion of the nervous system has a dominant role in coordinating information and directing responses. (academic.ru)
  • Several simulation examples were presented in this paper to reproduce action potentials, sensory adaptation, frequency characteristics and spiking timing for each afferent type. (frontiersin.org)
  • Dynamic electric characteristics of the squid axon mem rane. (unam.mx)
  • The giant axon system is onesolution for escape response and, probably, prey capture. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Tactile receptors are sensory receptors that respond to mechanical pressure or distortion by producing action potentials (spikes) in their associated afferents ( Zhu and Rozell, 2015 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Neuronal electrophysiology is the study of electrical properties of biological cells and tissues within the nervous system. (cfapps.io)
  • This paper contains a further account of the electrical properties of the giant axon of Loligo. (semanticscholar.org)