Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Khellin: A vasodilator that also has bronchodilatory action. It has been employed in the treatment of angina pectoris, in the treatment of asthma, and in conjunction with ultraviolet light A, has been tried in the treatment of vitiligo. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1024)Bucrylate: Cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive also used to occlude blood vessels supplying neoplastic or other diseased tissue.Nocardia: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria whose species are widely distributed and are abundant in soil. Some strains are pathogenic opportunists for humans and animals.Micromonospora: A genus of gram-positive bacteria that forms a branched mycelium. It commonly occurs as a saprophytic form in soil and aquatic environments.Actinobacteria: Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Actinomyces: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Corynebacterium: A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Actinomycetales Infections: Infections with bacteria of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
(1/1707) Application of temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis in taxonomy of coryneform bacteria.

Strains belonging to the Gram-positive coryneform soil bacteria were screened genotypically by temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE). This method allows the sequence-specific separation of amplified fragments of 16S rRNA genes. A total of 115 reference strains representing the majority of the species of the genera Aeromicrobium, Agromyces, Arthrobacter, Aureobacterium, Cellulomonas, Curtobacterium, Nocardioides and Terrabacter were characterized. Depending on the genus investigated, the resolution limit of the technique appeared to be at the species or genus level or intermediate between the two. Aberrant TGGE profiles of strains within particular taxa revealed genomic heterogeneity and generic misclassification of nine strains studied. Beyond that, indications of 16S rRNA gene heterogeneity were found within the genomes of three Curtobacterium strains. The misclassifications revealed by TGGE were confirmed using whole-cell fatty acid methyl ester analysis and subsequent comparison with a database. TGGE has been demonstrated to be a useful tool in bacterial taxonomy.  (+info)

(2/1707) New genus-specific primers for the PCR identification of members of the genera Pseudonocardia and Saccharopolyspora.

Members of the family Pseudonocardiaceae are difficult to identify on the basis of their micromorphology only. The biochemical characterization of each new isolate is a painstaking and time-consuming task which cannot always be undertaken when handling large numbers of strains as is the case in natural product screening programmes. In this study, two sets of genus-specific oligonucleotides were designed which allow rapid detection of members of the genera Pseudonocardia and Saccharopolyspora by means of PCR-specific amplification. The genus specificity of these primers was validated on a wide range of collection strains and the primers were subsequently used to study a group of 106 wild-type isolates that possessed morphological characteristics of the family. Out of this group, 51 strains could be identified as members of the genus Pseudonocardia and only nine isolates could be assigned to the genus Saccharopolyspora. The diversity indicated by whole-cell fatty acid profiles of both wild-type and reference strains was compared with that identified using the oligonucleotide primers. The partial 16S rDNA sequencing of representative wild-type strains was used to validate their genus assignment by PCR-specific amplification. This study shows the industrial usefulness of the application of these direct identification tools as well as the complementary use of two sources of data, PCR-specific amplification results and fatty acid composition, to assess the diversity of a microbial population.  (+info)

(3/1707) Reclassification of Brevibacterium oxydans (Chatelain and Second 1966) as Microbacterium oxydans comb. nov.

Phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic analyses indicate that Brevibacterium oxydans is closely related to species of the genus Microbacterium, namely Microbacterium liquefaciens, Microbacterium luteolum and Microbacterium saperdae. DNA-DNA reassociation values of less than 60% between Brevibacterium oxydans and these three Microbacterium species support the distinctness of this misclassified Brevibacterium species, which is reclassified as Microbacterium oxydans comb. nov.  (+info)

(4/1707) Structure of actinotetraose hexatiglate, a unique glucotetraose from an actinomycete bacterium.

An Actinomycete strain A499 belonging to the genera Amycolatopsis or Amycolata isolated from a Western Australian soil sample produced the cyclic decapeptide antibiotic quinaldopeptin (1), together with the actinotetraose hexatiglate (2), the hexa-ester of a novel non-reducing glucotetraose.  (+info)

(5/1707) IC202A, a new siderophore with immunosuppressive activity produced by Streptoalloteichus sp. 1454-19. I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and biological activity.

IC202A, a new immunosuppressive compound, was isolated from the culture filtrate of Streptoalloteichus sp. 1454-19. It showed a suppressive effect on mixed lymphocyte culture reaction with an IC50 value of 3.6 microg/ml and mitogen induced lymphocyte blastogenesis in vitro.  (+info)

(6/1707) IC202A, a new siderophore with immunosuppressive activity produced by Streptoalloteichus sp. 1454-19. II. Physico-chemical properties and structure elucidation.

IC202A (1) was isolated from the culture filtrate of Streptoalloteichus sp. 1454-19. The structure of 1 was determined by spectral analysis including a variety of two-dimentional NMR and FAB-MS experiments. IC202A is a ferrioxamine-related compound containing a butylidene N-oxide function.  (+info)

(7/1707) Growth and production kinetics of a teicoplanin producing strain of Actinoplanes teichomyceticus.

The growth and production kinetics of a teicoplanin producing strain of Actinoplanes teichomyceticus (ATCC 31121) was investigated during batch cultivations on defined media. The growth was characterised by two exponential growth phases (EGPs), with a higher specific growth rate in the first than in the second phase. Also the specific rate of formation of teicoplanin was significantly lower in the second phase than in the first phase. This two-phased growth pattern was suggested to be caused by inhibition of growth by teicoplanin accumulated. Furthermore high concentrations of ammonia or phosphate reduced both the specific growth rate in the first EGP and the total production of teicoplanin.  (+info)

(8/1707) Formation of hydride-Meisenheimer complexes of picric acid (2,4, 6-trinitrophenol) and 2,4-dinitrophenol during mineralization of picric acid by Nocardioides sp. strain CB 22-2.

There are only a few examples of microbial conversion of picric acid (2,4,6-trinitrophenol). None of the organisms that have been described previously is able to use this compound as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy at high rates. In this study we isolated and characterized a strain, strain CB 22-2, that was able to use picric acid as a sole source of carbon and energy at concentrations up to 40 mM and at rates of 1.6 mmol. h(-1). g (dry weight) of cells(-1) in continuous cultures and 920 micromol. h(-1). g (dry weight) of cells(-1) in flasks. In addition, this strain was able to use picric acid as a sole source of nitrogen at comparable rates in a nitrogen-free medium. Biochemical characterization and 16S ribosomal DNA analysis revealed that strain CB 22-2 is a Nocardioides sp. strain. High-pressure liquid chromatography and UV-visible light data, the low residual chemical oxygen demand, and the stoichiometric release of 2.9 +/- 0.1 mol of nitrite per mol of picric acid provided strong evidence that complete mineralization of picric acid occurred. During transformation, the metabolites detected in the culture supernatant were the [H-]-Meisenheimer complexes of picric acid and 2,4-dinitrophenol (H--DNP), as well as 2,4-dinitrophenol. Experiments performed with crude extracts revealed that H--DNP formation indeed is a physiologically relevant step in picric acid metabolism.  (+info)

*  Actinomycetales
... bacteria can be infected by bacteriophages, which are called actinophages. Actinomycetales are Gram-positive, ... The Actinomycetales are an order of Actinobacteria. A member of the order is often called an actinomycete. The actinomycetes ... "Actinomycetales - List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature". Retrieved 2016-10-04. Labeda; et al. (2011). " ... Actinobacteria#Phylogeny, shows about 20 species See the NCBI webpage on Actinomycetales Data extracted from the "NCBI Taxonomy ...
*  Actinobacteria
Of those Actinobacteria not in the Actinomycetales, Gardnerella is one of the most researched. Classification of Gardnerella is ... 2009; Actinomycetales Buchanan 1917 emend. Zhi et al. 2009] Family Intrasporangiaceae Family Microbacteriaceae Family ... Actinomycetales (the actinomycetes), reflects that they were long believed to be fungi. Some soil actinobacteria (such as ... and belong to the order Actinomycetales. While many of these cause disease in humans, Streptomyces is notable as a source of ...
*  Actinospica
In the order Actinomycetales". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 56 (8): 1747-1753. doi: ...
*  M. J. Thirumalachar
CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Thirumalachar, M.J. (1955). "Chainia, a New Genus of the Actinomycetales". ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) M. J. Thirumalachar (1955). "Chainia, a New Genus of the Actinomycetales". ...
*  Streptomyces hygroscopicus
"Contributions to our knowledge of the Actinomycetales. II. The definition and subdivision of the genus Actinomyces, with a ...
*  Actinosynnema
Hasegawa, T.; Lechevalier, M. P.; Lechevalier, H. A. (1978). "New Genus of the Actinomycetales: Actinosynnema gen. Nov". ...
*  Promicromonospora sukumoe
nov., a new species of the Actinomycetales". The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology. 33 (6): 507-519. doi:10.2323/jgam ...
*  Actinokineospora
Hasegawa, T. (1988). "Actinokineospora: A new genus of the Actinomycetales". Actinomycetologica. 2: 31-45. doi:10.3209/saj.2_31 ...
*  List of bacterial orders
2014 Kineosporiales Kampfer 2015 Micrococcales Prevot 1940 [Actinomycetales; Bifidobacteriales; Arthrobacteria] ...
*  Virginia Livingston
... attributing characteristics to Actinomycetales (the order Livingston believed P. cryptocides belonged to) shared by no other ... The microbe was classified under the order Actinomycetales. Livingston described Progenitor as an intermittently acid-fast ...
*  Actinocorallia
Nov., a New Genus of the Order Actinomycetales". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 44 (2): 230. doi:10.1099/ ...
*  Ergothioneine
Genghof DS (1 August 1970). "Biosynthesis of Ergothioneine and Hercynine by Fungi and Actinomycetales". J. Bacteriol. 103 (2): ...
*  Frankineae
The Frankineae are a suborder of the Actinomycetales order. Like all Actinobacteria, the species are Gram-positive with high G+ ...
*  Curtobacterium
... is a genus of bacteria of the order Actinomycetales. They are Gram-positive soil organisms. Guido Funke; Max ...
*  Brevibacterium
... is a genus of bacteria of the order Actinomycetales. Actino means radial and mycet means fungus. Radial fungus. ...
*  Lentzea
nov., a New Genus of the Order Actinomycetales". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 45 (2): 357-363. doi:10.1099 ...
*  Streptoalloteichus
Tomita, K.; Nakakita, Y.; Hoshino, Y.; Numata, K.; Kawaguchi, H. (1 July 1987). "New Genus of the Actinomycetales: ...
*  Streptosporangineae
... is a suborder of bacteria in the order Actinomycetales. The phylogeny is based on 16S rRNA-based LTP ...
*  Tuberculostearic acid
... is a saturated fatty acid produced by Actinomycetales bacteria. The name 'Tuberculostearic acid' was ...
*  Catenulisporineae
The Catenulisporineae comprise a suborder of Actinomycetales with two monotypic families. The currently accepted taxonomy is ...
*  Micrococcineae
The Micrococcineae are a suborder of bacteria of the order Actinomycetales. They are Gram-positive soil organisms, and are also ...
*  Microbacteriaceae
The Microbacteriaceae are a family of bacteria of the order Actinomycetales. They are Gram-positive soil organisms. The ...
*  Gordoniaceae
The Gordoniaceae are a family of bacteria in the order of Actinomycetales. Parte, A.C. "Gordoniaceae". www.bacterio.net. " ...
*  Bacterial taxonomy
Actinomycetales, Streptomycetales, and Flexibacteriales. Migula, which was the most widely accepted system of its time and ... several orders such as Bacillales and Actinomycetales (now in the phylum Actinobacteria) Mollicutes (gram variable, e.g. ... classes Actinomycetales, Myxobacteriales, and Azotobacteriales) Algobacteriales (classes Siderobacteriales and Thiobacteriales ...
*  Monera
... several orders such as Bacillales and Actinomycetales (now in the phylum Actinobacteria) Mollicutes (gram variable, e.g. ... Actinomycetales, Streptomycetales, and Flexibacteriales; Orla-Jensen (1909, Die Hauptlinien des naturalischen Bakteriensystems ...
Taxonomy of the species Streptomyces bambergiensis Wallhäusser et al. 1966 (Approved Lists 1980) pro synon. Streptomyces...  Taxonomy of the species Streptomyces bambergiensis Wallhäusser et al. 1966 (Approved Lists 1980) pro synon. Streptomyces...
Actinomycetales Buchanan 1917 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Zhi et al. 2009. suborder Streptomycineae Stackebrandt et al. 1997 ...
more infohttp://doi.namesforlife.com/10.1601/tx.6885
Actinomycetales - Wikipedia  Actinomycetales - Wikipedia
Actinomycetales bacteria can be infected by bacteriophages, which are called actinophages. Actinomycetales can range from ... The Actinomycetales are an order of Actinobacteria. A member of the order is often called an actinomycete. The actinomycetes ... Actinomycetales can be found in the human urogenital tract as well as in the digestive system including the mouth, throat, and ... Actinomycetales are Gram-positive, but several species have complex cell wall structures that make the Gram staining unsuitable ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actinomycete
actinomycetales: Topics by WorldWideScience.org  actinomycetales: Topics by WorldWideScience.org
DISTRIBUTION OF ACTINOMYCETALES IN SEWAGE OUTLETS ALONG COAST IN NINGBO%宁波沿海陆源排污口放线菌(Actinomycetales sp.)的分布特点 ... as well as in five other Actinomycetales genera. Some of the Actinomycetales mce operons include an mkl gene, which encodes an ... Of all Actinomycetales isolated, only three were not streptomycetes--two from brewer's grits and one from break flour. ... The order Actinomycetales comprises a large group of bacteria that are often exploited for their diverse metabolic capabilities ...
more infohttps://worldwidescience.org/topicpages/a/actinomycetales.html
Actinomycetales - Wikipedia  Actinomycetales - Wikipedia
Actinomycetales bacteria can be infected by bacteriophages, which are called actinophages. Actinomycetales are Gram-positive, ... The Actinomycetales are an order of Actinobacteria. A member of the order is often called an actinomycete. The actinomycetes ... "Actinomycetales - List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature". Retrieved 2016-10-04. Labeda; et al. (2011). " ... Actinobacteria#Phylogeny, shows about 20 species See the NCBI webpage on Actinomycetales Data extracted from the "NCBI Taxonomy ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actinomycetales
Actinomycetales - oi  Actinomycetales - oi
Chromosome diversity and similarity within the Actinomycetales Transfer of plasmid pTO1 from Escherichia coli to various ...
more infohttp://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803095348438
Actinomycetales synonyms, Actinomycetales antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com  Actinomycetales synonyms, Actinomycetales antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com
Antonyms for Actinomycetales. 1 synonym for Actinomycetales: order Actinomycetales. What are synonyms for Actinomycetales? ... Actinomycetales. Also found in: Dictionary, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to Actinomycetales: Actinomycetes, order ... Actinomycetales synonyms, Actinomycetales antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com https://www.freethesaurus.com/Actinomycetales. Printer ... Actinomycetales','type':0,'children':[{'name':'order Actinomycetales','type':2},{'name':'division Eubacteria','type':4},{'name ...
more infohttps://www.freethesaurus.com/Actinomycetales
Bacteria or actinomycetales  patent application class  Bacteria or actinomycetales patent application class
Bacteria or actinomycetales Subclass of:. 435 - Chemistry: molecular biology and microbiology. 435004000 - MEASURING OR TESTING ...
more infohttp://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/class/000526716
Novel Chromosome Organization Pattern in Actinomycetales-Overlapping Replication Cycles Combined with Diploidy  Novel Chromosome Organization Pattern in Actinomycetales-Overlapping Replication Cycles Combined with Diploidy
... Boehm K, Meyer ... Boehm K, Meyer F, Rhomberg A, Kalinowski J, Donovan C, Bramkamp M. Novel Chromosome Organization Pattern in Actinomycetales- ... Novel Chromosome Organization Pattern in Actinomycetales-Overlapping Replication Cycles Combined with Diploidy. MBIO, 8(3): ... K. Boehm, et al., "Novel Chromosome Organization Pattern in Actinomycetales-Overlapping Replication Cycles Combined with ...
more infohttps://pub.uni-bielefeld.de/publication/2912983
Streptomycineae  Streptomycineae
Containing group: Actinomycetales. References. Garrity, G. M., J. A. Bell, and T. G. Lilburn. 2004. Taxonomic Outline of the ...
more infohttp://tolweb.org/Streptomycineae/60070
Micromonosporineae  Micromonosporineae
Containing group: Actinomycetales. References. Garrity, G. M., J. A. Bell, and T. G. Lilburn. 2004. Taxonomic Outline of the ...
more infohttp://tolweb.org/Micromonospora
103  103
In: The Actinomycetales. The Jena Intern, Symp. on Taxonomy. Jena, 1970, p. 79.. Shirling E. ., Gottlieb D. Cooperative ...
more infohttp://ximicat.com/ebook.php?file=vetlugina_bio.djv&page=103
Mycobacterium bovis - Wikipedia  Mycobacterium bovis - Wikipedia
Actinomycetales. Suborder:. Corynebacterineae. Family:. Mycobacteriaceae. Genus:. Mycobacterium. Species:. M. bovis. Binomial ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bovine_TB
Bio::Community::Tools::RepresentativeIdConverter - search.cpan.org  Bio::Community::Tools::RepresentativeIdConverter - search.cpan.org
For example: 345 k__Bacteria; p__Actinobacteria; c__Actinobacteria; o__Actinomycetales; f__Propionibacteriaceae; g__ ...
more infohttp://search.cpan.org/~fangly/Bio-Community-0.001000/lib/Bio/Community/Tools/RepresentativeIdConverter.pm
EARNEST Rifabutin Pharmacokinetics (PK) Substudy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov  EARNEST Rifabutin Pharmacokinetics (PK) Substudy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Actinomycetales Infections. Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections. Bacterial Infections. Ritonavir. Lopinavir. Rifabutin. HIV ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01663168?order=209
TBTC Study 23A: Pharmacokinetics of Intermittent Isoniazid and Rifabutin in HIV-TB - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov  TBTC Study 23A: Pharmacokinetics of Intermittent Isoniazid and Rifabutin in HIV-TB - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Actinomycetales Infections. Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections. Bacterial Infections. Isoniazid. Rifabutin. Antitubercular ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00023348?order=30
The Safety and Effectiveness of Rifabutin, Combined With Clarithromycin or Azithromycin, in HIV-Infected Patients - Full Text...  The Safety and Effectiveness of Rifabutin, Combined With Clarithromycin or Azithromycin, in HIV-Infected Patients - Full Text...
Actinomycetales Infections. Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections. Bacterial Infections. Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00001023
Simple colony PCR procedure for the filamentous actinobacteria Frankia | SpringerLink  Simple colony PCR procedure for the filamentous actinobacteria Frankia | SpringerLink
EuI1 (Actinomycetales). Can J Microbiol 26:1072-1089CrossRefGoogle Scholar. *. Bassi CA, Benson DR (2007) Growth ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10482-018-1155-0
HOGENOM: PROAS 1 PE1015  HOGENOM: PROAS 1 PE1015
OC Bacteria; Actinobacteria; Actinobacteridae; Actinomycetales; OC Propionibacterineae; Propionibacteriaceae; Propionibacterium ...
more infohttp://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/cgi-bin/acnuc-search-id?query=PROAS_1_PE1015&db=HOGENOM&ident=ACNUC6774
  • More recently, the peptidoglycan of several members of the order Actinomycetales was shown to be cross-linked by l,d-transpeptidases that use tetrapeptide acyl donors devoid of the target of glycopeptides. (worldwidescience.org)