A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.
A species of ACTINOMYCES found in the oral cavity of man and hamsters. It has been isolated from actinomycotic lesions in swine, cats, and dogs and has been identified as a causative agent of animal diseases.
Infections with bacteria of the genus ACTINOMYCES.
A gram-positive organism found in dental plaque, in blood, on heart valves in subacute endocarditis, and infrequently in saliva and throat specimens. L-forms are associated with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
A family of bacteria including numerous parasitic and pathogenic forms.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
Protein domains that are enriched in PROLINE. The cyclical nature of proline causes the peptide bonds it forms to have a limited degree of conformational mobility. Therefore the presence of multiple prolines in close proximity to each other can convey a distinct conformational arrangement to a peptide chain.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic cocci parasitic in the mouth and in the intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals.
Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
A thin protein film on the surface of DENTAL ENAMEL. It is widely believed to result from the selective adsorption of precursor proteins present in SALIVA onto tooth surfaces, and to reduce microbial adherence to the TEETH.
Dextranase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of dextran, a glucose polymer, into smaller oligosaccharides or simple sugars, primarily used in clinical settings to prevent or treat dextran-induced complications such as anaphylaxis and renal dysfunction.
A family of proline-rich proteins that constitute the majority of the protein component of SALIVA. Salivary proline-rich proteins occur as acidic, basic and glycosylated basic proteins. They perform a variety of functions such as adhering to the acquired ENAMEL PELLICLE, acting as lubricants and precipitating TANNINS.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
A rod-shaped bacterium isolated from milk and cheese, dairy products and dairy environments, sour dough, cow dung, silage, and human mouth, human intestinal contents and stools, and the human vagina.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A species of CORYNEBACTERIUM isolated from abscesses of warm-blooded animals.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria that is numerous in the mouth and throat. It is a common cause of endocarditis and is also implicated in dental plaque formation.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.

Addition of antibacterial agents to MMA-TBB dentin bonding systems--influence on tensile bond strength and antibacterial effect. (1/19)

To produce a bonding system which has both high bond strength and antibacterial properties, an antibacterial agent (vancomycin: VCM or metronidazol: MN) was added to the PMMA powder of 4-META/MMA-TBB resin (CB). The influence of the addition of an antibacterial agent on tensile bond strength to dentin and the antibacterial effect were investigated in this study. Forty-seven freshly extracted bovine first or second incisors were used to measure the tensile bond strength to dentin. The bond strengths to bovine dentin were not significantly decreased by addition of VCM (1%, 2%, 5%), or MN (1%) to CB (p < 0.05). The antibacterial effect of CB containing antibacterial agent on six strains of bacteria was investigated by the agar plate diffusion method, analyzing the appearance of the inhibition zone around a resin disk following anaerobic culturing. The resin disks containing VCM showed antibacterial effects on all of the strains examined; the widths of the inhibition zones were 4-15 mm. The resin disks containing MN showed antibacterial effects on three strains; the widths of the inhibition zones were 0-4 mm. It was thus possible to produce a bonding system with both antibacterial effect and high tensile bond strength by addition of VCM to PMMA powder.  (+info)

Different type 1 fimbrial genes and tropisms of commensal and potentially pathogenic Actinomyces spp. with different salivary acidic proline-rich protein and statherin ligand specificities. (2/19)

Actinomyces spp. exhibit type 1 fimbria-mediated adhesion to salivary acidic proline-rich proteins (PRPs) and statherin ligands. Actinomyces spp. with different animal and tissue origins belong to three major adhesion types as relates to ligand specificity and type 1 fimbria genes. (i) In preferential acidic-PRP binding, strains of Actinomyces naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2 from human and monkey mouths displayed at least three ligand specificities characterized by preferential acidic-PRP binding. Slot blot DNA hybridization showed seven highly conserved type 1 fimbria genes (orf1- to -6 and fimP) in genospecies 1 and 2 strains, except that orf5 and orf3 were divergent in genospecies 1. (ii) In preferential statherin binding, oral Actinomyces viscosus strains of rat and hamster origin (and strain 19246 from a human case of actinomycosis) bound statherin preferentially. DNA hybridization and characterization of the type 1 fimbria genes from strain 19246 revealed a homologous gene cluster of four open reading frames (orfA to -C and fimP). Bioinformatics suggested sortase (orfB, orf4, and part of orf5), prepilin peptidase (orfC and orf6), fimbria subunit (fimP), and usher- and autotransporter-like (orfA and orf1 to -3) functions. Those gene regions corresponding to orf3 and orf5 were divergent, those corresponding to orf2, orf1, and fimP were moderately conserved, and those corresponding to orf4 and orf6 were highly conserved. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses using a fimP probe separated human and monkey and rat and hamster strains into phylogenetically different groups. (iii) In statherin-specific binding, strains of A. naeslundii genospecies 1 from septic and other human infections displayed a low-avidity binding to statherin. Only the orf4 and orf6 gene regions were highly conserved. Finally, rat saliva devoid of statherin bound bacterial strains avidly irrespective of ligand specificity, and specific antisera detected either type 1, type 2, or both types of fimbria on the investigated Actinomyces strains.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of Actinomyces viscosus mutants defective in binding salivary proline-rich proteins. (3/19)

Recent studies have provided evidence for human salivary proline-rich proteins (PRPs) serving as potential receptors in the acquired pellicle for Actinomyces viscosus type 1 fimbriae. We report here the isolation of mutants derived from A. viscosus T14V-J1 which are defective in binding to PRPs partially purified from parotid gland saliva. Mutagenesis with ethyl methanesulfonate preceded enrichment for cells nonreactive with PRPs by successive adsorptions with PRP-treated latex beads. Screening was accomplished by random selection of 250 isolated colonies from each of four enrichment cycles and reaction with PRP-treated latex beads in microtiter plates. Two mutants of independent origin were examined for adherence to hydroxyapatite treated with either PRPs, proline-rich glycoproteins, deglycosylated proline-rich glycoproteins, or whole saliva. Additional surface properties that were examined included agglutination with polyclonal antisera to type 1 and type 2 fimbriae, agglutination by a monoclonal antibody to type 1 fimbriae that inhibits adherence of the parent strain to saliva-treated hydroxyapatite, the ability to bind monoclonal antibody to the type 1 fimbrial subunit, and lactose-reversible coaggregation with Streptococcus sanguis 34. Both mutants exhibited reduced binding to hydroxyapatite treated with whole saliva or salivary protein preparations but were still capable of reaction with antiserum to type 1 and type 2 fimbriae. In addition, these mutants possessed the ability to bind monoclonal antibody to the type 1 fimbrial subunit in amounts comparable to the amount bound by the parent strain but were not agglutinated by the adherence-inhibiting monoclonal antibody. When considered with previously published data, these results suggest that an adhesive molecule is probably associated with type 1 fimbriae and allows for the interaction of A. viscosus with constituents in the salivary pellicle.  (+info)

Effects of cecropin-XJ on growth and adherence of oral cariogenic bacteria in vitro. (4/19)

BACKGROUND: Cecropin-XJ belongs to cecropin-B, which is the most potent antibacterial peptide found naturally. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cecropin-XJ on growth and adherence of oral cariogenic bacteria. METHODS: Four oral cariogenic bacteria (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Actinomyces viscosus and Actinomyces naeslundii) were chosen for this experiment. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and reductive percent of bacterial growth were used to assay the antibacterial activity of cecropin-XJ. Mammalian cytotoxicity of cecropin-XJ was tested with human periodontal membrane fibroblasts by tetrazolium (MTT) colorimetric assay. The bacterial morphological changes induced by cecropin-XJ were examined on scanning electron microscope (SEM). The influence of cecropin-XJ on bacterial adhesion to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (S-HA) was measured by scintillation counting. RESULTS: The MICs of cecropin-XJ for inhibition of the growth of four bacteria ranged from 4.0 to 42.8 micromol/L with the highest susceptible to A. naeslundii and the lowest susceptible to L. acidophilus. At pH 6.8, 5.5 and 8.2, 1/2 MIC of cecropin-XJ reduced the number of viable bacteria by 40.9%, 67.8% and 32.8% for S. mutans and by 28.1%, 57.2% and 37.9% for L. acidophilus. The activities against S. mutans and L. acidophilus increased at pH 5.5 compared with pH 6.8 (P < 0.01, respectively). In present of 50% saliva, 1/2 MIC of the peptide decreased the direct count of viable cells by 29.2% and 14.4% for S. mutans and L. acidophilus, respectively (P < 0.01 and P > 0.05, respectively), whereas almost no reduction counts were detected in the presence of 20% serum for both bacteria (P > 0.05, respectively). Mammalian cytotoxicity of cecropin-XJ from 1.0 to 100 micromol/L exhibited no cytotoxicity against human periodontal membrane fibroblasts (P > 0.05). Bacterial morphological changes induced by MIC of cecropin-XJ examined on SEM showed cell surface disruption. Furthermore, the ability of A. naeslundii adhesion to S-HA decreased significantly with MIC of cecropin-XJ for 10 and 20 minutes (P = 0.001 and 0.000, respectively), and S. mutans, A. viscosus to S-HA decreased significantly with MIC of cecropin-XJ for 20 minutes (P = 0.000, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Cecropin-XJ exhibited bactericidal action against cariogenic pathogens, and the antibacterial activity enhanced in the acid environment. The results also demonstrate that cecropin-XJ prevents S. mutans and actinomyces adsorption to S-HA. These findings suggest that Cecropin-XJ may have potential to prevent caries.  (+info)

Immunochemical and functional studies of Actinomyces viscosus T14V type 1 fimbriae with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies directed against the fimbrial subunit. (5/19)

Each of five monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) prepared against the type 1 fimbriae of Actinomyces viscosus T14V reacted with a 54 kDa cloned protein previously identified as a fimbrial subunit. This purified protein completely inhibited the reaction of a specific anti-type-1-fimbria rabbit antibody with A. viscosus whole cells. Maximum values for the number of antibody molecules bound per bacterial cell ranged from 7 x 10(3) to 1.2 x 10(4) for the different 125I-labelled mAbs and was approximately 7 x 10(4) for 125I-labelled rabbit IgG or Fab against either type 1 fimbriae or the 54 kDa cloned protein. Although the different mAbs, either individually or as a mixture, failed to inhibit the type-1-fimbria-mediated adherence of A. viscosus T14V to saliva-treated hydroxyapatite, each rabbit antibody gave 50% inhibition of adherence when approximately 5 x 10(4) molecules of IgG were bound per cell. However, binding of each corresponding rabbit Fab had no significant effect on bacterial attachment unless much higher concentrations were used. These findings suggest that antibodies directed solely against the 54 kDa fimbrial subunit do not react with the putative receptor binding sites of A. viscosus T14V type 1 fimbriae. Instead, inhibition of attachment by the polyclonal antibodies may depend on an indirect effect of antibody binding that prevents the fimbria-receptor interaction.  (+info)

Tyrosine sulfation of statherin. (6/19)

Tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase (TPST), responsible for the sulfation of a variety of secretory and membrane proteins, has been identified and characterized in submandibular salivary glands (William et al. Arch Biochem Biophys 1997; 338: 90-96). In the present study we demonstrate the sulfation of a salivary secretory protein, statherin, by the tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase present in human saliva. Optimum statherin sulfation was observed at pH 6.5 and at 20 mm MnCl(2). Increase in the level of total sulfation was observed with increasing statherin concentration. The K(m)value of tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase for statherin was 40 microM. Analysis of the sulfated statherin product on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by autoradiography revealed (35)S-labelling of a 5 kDa statherin. Further analysis of the sulfated statherin revealed the sulfation on tyrosyl residue. This study is the first report demonstrating tyrosine sulfation of a salivary secretory protein. The implications of this sulfation of statherin in hydroxyapatite binding and Actinomyces viscosus interactions are discussed.  (+info)

Activity of an antimicrobial peptide mimetic against planktonic and biofilm cultures of oral pathogens. (7/19)

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are naturally occurring, broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents that have recently been examined for their utility as therapeutic antibiotics. Unfortunately, they are expensive to produce and are often sensitive to protease digestion. To address this problem, we have examined the activity of a peptide mimetic whose design was based on the structure of magainin, exhibiting its amphiphilic structure. We demonstrate that this compound, meta-phenylene ethynylene (mPE), exhibits antimicrobial activity at nanomolar concentrations against a variety of bacterial and Candida species found in oral infections. Since Streptococcus mutans, an etiological agent of dental caries, colonizes the tooth surface and forms a biofilm, we quantified the activity of this compound against S. mutans growing under conditions that favor biofilm formation. Our results indicate that mPE can prevent the formation of a biofilm at nanomolar concentrations. Incubation with 5 nM mPE prevents further growth of the biofilm, and 100 nM mPE reduces viable bacteria in the biofilm by 3 logs. Structure-function analyses suggest that mPE inhibits the bioactivity of lipopolysaccharide and binds DNA at equimolar ratios, suggesting that it may act both as a membrane-active molecule, similar to magainin, and as an intracellular antibiotic, similar to other AMPs. We conclude that mPE and similar molecules display great potential for development as therapeutic antimicrobials.  (+info)

Isolation of a neuraminidase gene from Actinomyces viscosus T14V. (8/19)

A genomic library of Actinomyces viscosus T14V DNA in lambda gt11 was screened for expression of neuraminidase activities. Four recombinant clones were detected that gave blue fluorescence upon incubation with a fluorogenic substrate, 2'-(4-methylumbelliferyl)-alpha-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid. Of these, two were identical, and all of the neuraminidase-positive clones shared a common 3.4-kbp DNA region. Expression of the enzyme activities in Escherichia coli carrying the cloned DNA was independent of the lacZ promoter of the vector. Maxicell analysis revealed that the 3.4-kbp DNA insert directed synthesis of a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 100,000 Da. The protein from cell extracts of E. coli clones migrated as a single band that stained for enzyme activity after electrophoresis in a nondissociating polyacrylamide gel. Moreover, human erythrocytes incubated previously with cell lysates from neuraminidase-positive E. coli were hemagglutinated by Actinomyces spp. The enzyme expressed by E. coli was active on substrates containing alpha-2,3 and alpha-2,6 ketosidic linked sialyl residues. Similar substrate specificities were obtained for both the extracellular and cell-associated neuraminidases from A. viscosus T14V. The 3.4-kbp insert hybridized to DNA fragments in a Southern blot containing A. viscosus T14V chromosomal DNA that had been digested with various restriction endonucleases. Data from hybridization studies show that A. viscosus T14V contains a single copy of the neuraminidase gene.  (+info)

Actinomyces is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are normal inhabitants of the human mouth, colon, and urogenital tract. Under certain conditions, such as poor oral hygiene or tissue trauma, these bacteria can cause infections known as actinomycosis. These infections often involve the formation of abscesses or granulomas and can affect various tissues, including the lungs, mouth, and female reproductive organs. Actinomyces species are also known to form complex communities called biofilms, which can contribute to their ability to cause infection.

Actinomyces viscosus is a gram-positive, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a normal resident of the human microbiota but can cause infections in immunocompromised individuals or when it gains access to deeper tissues, such as the pulp of teeth or the soft tissues of the head and neck.

Actinomyces viscosus has been associated with dental caries, periodontal disease, and endodontic infections. It can also cause actinomycosis, a chronic suppurative and granulomatous infection that typically affects the cervicofacial region, thorax, or abdomen.

The name "viscosus" refers to the sticky, mucoid appearance of the bacterial colonies when grown in culture. Actinomyces viscosus is closely related to other species of Actinomyces, such as A. israelii and A. gerencseriae, which can also cause actinomycosis.

Actinomycosis is a type of infection caused by bacteria that are normally found in the mouth, intestines, and female genital tract. These bacteria can cause abscesses or chronic inflammation if they infect body tissues, often after trauma or surgery. The infection typically affects the face, neck, or chest, and can spread to other parts of the body over time. Symptoms may include swelling, redness, pain, and the formation of pus-filled abscesses that may discharge a characteristic yellowish granular material called "sulfur granules." Treatment typically involves long-term antibiotic therapy, often requiring high doses and intravenous administration. Surgical drainage or removal of infected tissue may also be necessary in some cases.

Streptococcus sanguis is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, beta-hemolytic bacterium that belongs to the Streptococcaceae family. It's part of the viridans group streptococci (VGS) and is commonly found in the oral cavity of humans, residing on the surface of teeth and mucous membranes.

S. sanguis is generally considered a commensal organism; however, it can contribute to dental plaque formation and cause endocarditis, particularly in people with pre-existing heart conditions. It's important to note that there are several subspecies of S. sanguis, including S. sanguis I, II, III, and IV, which may have different characteristics and clinical implications.

Medical Definition: Streptococcus sanguis is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, beta-hemolytic bacterium that belongs to the viridans group streptococci (VGS). It is commonly found in the oral cavity and can cause endocarditis in susceptible individuals.

Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that accumulates on the surface of the teeth, restorative materials, and prosthetic devices such as dentures. It is initiated when bacterial colonizers attach to the smooth surfaces of teeth through van der Waals forces and specific molecular adhesion mechanisms.

The microorganisms within the dental plaque produce extracellular polysaccharides that help to stabilize and strengthen the biofilm, making it resistant to removal by simple brushing or rinsing. Over time, if not regularly removed through oral hygiene practices such as brushing and flossing, dental plaque can mineralize and harden into tartar or calculus.

The bacteria in dental plaque can cause tooth decay (dental caries) by metabolizing sugars and producing acid that demineralizes the tooth enamel. Additionally, certain types of bacteria in dental plaque can cause periodontal disease, an inflammation of the gums that can lead to tissue damage and bone loss around the teeth. Regular professional dental cleanings and good oral hygiene practices are essential for preventing the buildup of dental plaque and maintaining good oral health.

Hydroxyapatite is a calcium phosphate mineral that makes up about 70% of the inorganic component of bone and teeth in humans and other animals. It has the chemical formula Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. Hydroxyapatite is a naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite, with the idealized crystal structure consisting of alternating calcium and phosphate layers.

In addition to its natural occurrence in bone and teeth, hydroxyapatite has various medical applications due to its biocompatibility and osteoconductive properties. It is used as a coating on orthopedic implants to promote bone growth and integration with the implant, and it is also used in dental and oral healthcare products for remineralization of tooth enamel. Furthermore, hydroxyapatite has been studied for its potential use in drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, and other biomedical applications.

In medical terms, the mouth is officially referred to as the oral cavity. It is the first part of the digestive tract and includes several structures: the lips, vestibule (the space enclosed by the lips and teeth), teeth, gingiva (gums), hard and soft palate, tongue, floor of the mouth, and salivary glands. The mouth is responsible for several functions including speaking, swallowing, breathing, and eating, as it is the initial point of ingestion where food is broken down through mechanical and chemical processes, beginning the digestive process.

Actinomycetaceae is a family of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are characterized by their filamentous growth and the production of branching hyphae. These bacteria are often found in soil and water, and some species can cause disease in humans and animals. They are classified as aerobic or facultatively anaerobic organisms, meaning they can grow with or without oxygen.

The name "Actinomycetaceae" comes from the Greek words "aktis," meaning "ray" or "beam," and "mykes," meaning "fungus." This reflects the filamentous, fungus-like growth of these bacteria.

Some species of Actinomycetaceae are known to produce various antibiotics, including streptomycin, neomycin, and tetracycline. These antibiotics have been widely used in medicine to treat a variety of bacterial infections.

In humans, some species of Actinomycetaceae can cause actinomycosis, a chronic infection that typically affects the face, neck, and mouth. Symptoms of actinomycosis include swelling, pain, and the formation of abscesses or fistulas. Treatment usually involves long-term antibiotic therapy and sometimes surgical drainage of any abscesses.

Overall, Actinomycetaceae is an important family of bacteria with both beneficial and harmful effects on humans and other organisms.

Streptococcus mutans is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, beta-hemolytic species of bacteria that's part of the normal microbiota of the oral cavity in humans. It's one of the primary etiological agents associated with dental caries, or tooth decay, due to its ability to produce large amounts of acid as a byproduct of sugar metabolism, which can lead to demineralization of tooth enamel and dentin. The bacterium can also adhere to tooth surfaces and form biofilms, further contributing to the development of dental caries.

Saliva is a complex mixture of primarily water, but also electrolytes, enzymes, antibacterial compounds, and various other substances. It is produced by the salivary glands located in the mouth. Saliva plays an essential role in maintaining oral health by moistening the mouth, helping to digest food, and protecting the teeth from decay by neutralizing acids produced by bacteria.

The medical definition of saliva can be stated as:

"A clear, watery, slightly alkaline fluid secreted by the salivary glands, consisting mainly of water, with small amounts of electrolytes, enzymes (such as amylase), mucus, and antibacterial compounds. Saliva aids in digestion, lubrication of oral tissues, and provides an oral barrier against microorganisms."

Bacterial fimbriae are thin, hair-like protein appendages that extend from the surface of many types of bacteria. They are involved in the attachment of bacteria to surfaces, other cells, or extracellular structures. Fimbriae enable bacteria to adhere to host tissues and form biofilms, which contribute to bacterial pathogenicity and survival in various environments. These protein structures are composed of several thousand subunits of a specific protein called pilin. Some fimbriae can recognize and bind to specific receptors on host cells, initiating the process of infection and colonization.

Streptococcus is a genus of Gram-positive, spherical bacteria that typically form pairs or chains when clustered together. These bacteria are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. They are non-motile and do not produce spores.

Streptococcus species are commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals. Some strains are part of the normal flora of the body, while others can cause a variety of infections, ranging from mild skin infections to severe and life-threatening diseases such as sepsis, meningitis, and toxic shock syndrome.

The pathogenicity of Streptococcus species depends on various virulence factors, including the production of enzymes and toxins that damage tissues and evade the host's immune response. One of the most well-known Streptococcus species is Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A streptococcus (GAS), which is responsible for a wide range of clinical manifestations, including pharyngitis (strep throat), impetigo, cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, and rheumatic fever.

It's important to note that the classification of Streptococcus species has evolved over time, with many former members now classified as different genera within the family Streptococcaceae. The current classification system is based on a combination of phenotypic characteristics (such as hemolysis patterns and sugar fermentation) and genotypic methods (such as 16S rRNA sequencing and multilocus sequence typing).

Proline-rich protein domains are segments within proteins that contain an unusually high concentration of the amino acid proline. These domains are often involved in mediating protein-protein interactions and can play a role in various cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene regulation, and protein folding. They are also commonly found in extracellular matrix proteins and may be involved in cell adhesion and migration. The unique chemical properties of proline, including its ability to form rigid structures and disrupt alpha-helices, contribute to the functional specificity of these domains.

Veillonella is a genus of Gram-negative, anaerobic, non-spore-forming, coccoid or rod-shaped bacteria. These bacteria are commonly found as normal flora in the human mouth, intestines, and female genital tract. They are known to be obligate parasites, meaning they rely on other organisms for nutrients and energy. Veillonella species are often associated with dental caries and have been implicated in various infections such as bacteremia, endocarditis, pneumonia, and wound infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals or those with underlying medical conditions. Proper identification of Veillonella species is important for the diagnosis and treatment of these infections.

Salivary proteins and peptides refer to the diverse group of molecules that are present in saliva, which is the clear, slightly alkaline fluid produced by the salivary glands in the mouth. These proteins and peptides play a crucial role in maintaining oral health and contributing to various physiological functions.

Some common types of salivary proteins and peptides include:

1. **Mucins**: These are large, heavily glycosylated proteins that give saliva its viscous quality. They help to lubricate the oral cavity, protect the mucosal surfaces, and aid in food bolus formation.
2. **Amylases**: These enzymes break down carbohydrates into simpler sugars, initiating the digestive process even before food reaches the stomach.
3. **Proline-rich proteins (PRPs)**: PRPs contribute to the buffering capacity of saliva and help protect against tooth erosion by forming a protective layer on tooth enamel.
4. **Histatins**: These are small cationic peptides with antimicrobial properties, playing a significant role in maintaining oral microbial homeostasis and preventing dental caries.
5. **Lactoferrin**: An iron-binding protein that exhibits antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory activities, contributing to the overall oral health.
6. **Statherin and Cystatins**: These proteins regulate calcium phosphate precipitation, preventing dental calculus formation and maintaining tooth mineral homeostasis.

Salivary proteins and peptides have attracted significant interest in recent years due to their potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Alterations in the composition of these molecules can provide valuable insights into various oral and systemic diseases, making them promising biomarkers for disease detection and monitoring.

The dental pellicle is a thin, acid-resistant salivary film that naturally forms on the surface of teeth. It begins to form within minutes after cleaning and is fully formed in about 2 hours. The pellicle is composed mainly of glycoproteins and helps protect the tooth enamel by acting as a barrier against acids and enzymes found in saliva and food, reducing the risk of dental erosion and caries. It also serves as a conditioning film that facilitates bacterial adhesion, which can lead to plaque formation if not regularly removed through oral hygiene practices like brushing and flossing.

Dextranase is an enzyme that breaks down dextran, a type of complex sugar (polysaccharide) consisting of many glucose molecules linked together in a chain. Dextran is produced by certain bacteria and can be found in some foods, as well as in the body during infections or after surgery. Dextranase is used medically to help prevent or treat complications associated with dextran, such as blockages in blood vessels caused by the accumulation of dextran molecules. It may also be used in research and industry for various purposes, including the production of clarified fruit juices and wine.

Salivary Proline-Rich Proteins (PRPs) are a group of proteins that are abundantly found in human saliva. They are produced by the parotid and submandibular glands, and to a lesser extent, by the sublingual glands and minor salivary glands. PRPs are characterized by the presence of proline-rich peptide motifs in their structures. These proteins play crucial roles in maintaining oral health and homeostasis. They contribute to the formation and stability of the oral pellicle, a protein film that coats the surface of teeth and helps protect them from acidic and erosive challenges. PRPs also have antibacterial properties, inhibiting the growth of certain cariogenic bacteria, and promoting remineralization of tooth enamel. Additionally, they participate in the buffering capacity of saliva, helping to neutralize acids produced by oral bacteria and protecting the mouth from acidic challenges that can lead to dental erosion.

'Adhesiveness' is a term used in medicine and biology to describe the ability of two surfaces to stick or adhere to each other. In medical terms, it often refers to the property of tissues or cells to adhere to one another, as in the case of scar tissue formation where healing tissue adheres to adjacent structures.

In the context of microbiology, adhesiveness can refer to the ability of bacteria or other microorganisms to attach themselves to surfaces, such as medical devices or human tissues, which can lead to infection and other health problems. Adhesives used in medical devices, such as bandages or wound dressings, also have adhesiveness properties that allow them to stick to the skin or other surfaces.

Overall, adhesiveness is an important property in many areas of medicine and biology, with implications for wound healing, infection control, and the design and function of medical devices.

A tooth is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (upper and lower) of many vertebrates and used for biting and chewing food. In humans, a typical tooth has a crown, one or more roots, and three layers: the enamel (the outermost layer, hardest substance in the body), the dentin (the layer beneath the enamel), and the pulp (the innermost layer, containing nerves and blood vessels). Teeth are essential for proper nutrition, speech, and aesthetics. There are different types of teeth, including incisors, canines, premolars, and molars, each designed for specific functions in the mouth.

Lactobacillus casei is a species of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that belongs to the genus Lactobacillus. These bacteria are commonly found in various environments, including the human gastrointestinal tract, and are often used in food production, such as in the fermentation of dairy products like cheese and yogurt.

Lactobacillus casei is known for its ability to produce lactic acid, which gives it the name "lactic acid bacterium." This characteristic makes it an important player in maintaining a healthy gut microbiome, as it helps to lower the pH of the gut and inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria.

In addition to its role in food production and gut health, Lactobacillus casei has been studied for its potential probiotic benefits. Probiotics are live bacteria and yeasts that are beneficial to human health, particularly the digestive system. Some research suggests that Lactobacillus casei may help support the immune system, improve digestion, and alleviate symptoms of certain gastrointestinal disorders like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, more research is needed to fully understand its potential health benefits and applications.

Lactose is a disaccharide, a type of sugar, that is naturally found in milk and dairy products. It is made up of two simple sugars, glucose and galactose, linked together. In order for the body to absorb and use lactose, it must be broken down into these simpler sugars by an enzyme called lactase, which is produced in the lining of the small intestine.

People who have a deficiency of lactase are unable to fully digest lactose, leading to symptoms such as bloating, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps, a condition known as lactose intolerance.

Bacterial adhesion is the initial and crucial step in the process of bacterial colonization, where bacteria attach themselves to a surface or tissue. This process involves specific interactions between bacterial adhesins (proteins, fimbriae, or pili) and host receptors (glycoproteins, glycolipids, or extracellular matrix components). The attachment can be either reversible or irreversible, depending on the strength of interaction. Bacterial adhesion is a significant factor in initiating biofilm formation, which can lead to various infectious diseases and medical device-associated infections.

Agglutination is a medical term that refers to the clumping together of particles, such as cells, bacteria, or precipitates, in a liquid medium. It most commonly occurs due to the presence of antibodies in the fluid that bind to specific antigens on the surface of the particles, causing them to adhere to one another and form visible clumps.

In clinical laboratory testing, agglutination is often used as a diagnostic tool to identify the presence of certain antibodies or antigens in a patient's sample. For example, a common application of agglutination is in blood typing, where the presence of specific antigens on the surface of red blood cells causes them to clump together when mixed with corresponding antibodies.

Agglutination can also occur in response to certain infectious agents, such as bacteria or viruses, that display antigens on their surface. In these cases, the agglutination reaction can help diagnose an infection and guide appropriate treatment.

Hemagglutination is a medical term that refers to the agglutination or clumping together of red blood cells (RBCs) in the presence of an agglutinin, which is typically a protein or a polysaccharide found on the surface of certain viruses, bacteria, or incompatible blood types.

In simpler terms, hemagglutination occurs when the agglutinin binds to specific antigens on the surface of RBCs, causing them to clump together and form visible clumps or aggregates. This reaction is often used in diagnostic tests to identify the presence of certain viruses or bacteria, such as influenza or HIV, by mixing a sample of blood or other bodily fluid with a known agglutinin and observing whether hemagglutination occurs.

Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays are also commonly used to measure the titer or concentration of antibodies in a serum sample, by adding serial dilutions of the serum to a fixed amount of agglutinin and observing the highest dilution that still prevents hemagglutination. This can help determine whether a person has been previously exposed to a particular pathogen and has developed immunity to it.

Bacteroides are a genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are normally present in the human gastrointestinal tract. They are part of the normal gut microbiota and play an important role in breaking down complex carbohydrates and other substances in the gut. However, some species of Bacteroides can cause opportunistic infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or when they spread to other parts of the body. They are resistant to many commonly used antibiotics, making infections caused by these bacteria difficult to treat.

Adsorption is a process in which atoms, ions, or molecules from a gas, liquid, or dissolved solid accumulate on the surface of a material. This occurs because the particles in the adsorbate (the substance being adsorbed) have forces that attract them to the surface of the adsorbent (the material that the adsorbate is adhering to).

In medical terms, adsorption can refer to the use of materials with adsorptive properties to remove harmful substances from the body. For example, activated charcoal is sometimes used in the treatment of poisoning because it can adsorb a variety of toxic substances and prevent them from being absorbed into the bloodstream.

It's important to note that adsorption is different from absorption, which refers to the process by which a substance is taken up and distributed throughout a material or tissue.

Dura Mater: The tough, outer membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord.

Hydroxyapatite: A naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite, also known as dahllite, with the formula Ca5(PO4)3(OH), is the primary mineral component of biological apatites found in bones and teeth.

Therefore, "Durapatite" isn't a recognized medical term, but it seems like it might be a combination of "dura mater" and "hydroxyapatite." If you meant to ask about a material used in medical or dental applications that combines properties of both dura mater and hydroxyapatite, please provide more context.

Carbohydrates are a major nutrient class consisting of organic compounds that primarily contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. They are classified as saccharides, which include monosaccharides (simple sugars), disaccharides (double sugars), oligosaccharides (short-chain sugars), and polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates).

Monosaccharides, such as glucose, fructose, and galactose, are the simplest form of carbohydrates. They consist of a single sugar molecule that cannot be broken down further by hydrolysis. Disaccharides, like sucrose (table sugar), lactose (milk sugar), and maltose (malt sugar), are formed from two monosaccharide units joined together.

Oligosaccharides contain a small number of monosaccharide units, typically less than 20, while polysaccharides consist of long chains of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharide units. Polysaccharides can be further classified into starch (found in plants), glycogen (found in animals), and non-starchy polysaccharides like cellulose, chitin, and pectin.

Carbohydrates play a crucial role in providing energy to the body, with glucose being the primary source of energy for most cells. They also serve as structural components in plants (cellulose) and animals (chitin), participate in various metabolic processes, and contribute to the taste, texture, and preservation of foods.

Sucrose is a type of simple sugar, also known as a carbohydrate. It is a disaccharide, which means that it is made up of two monosaccharides: glucose and fructose. Sucrose occurs naturally in many fruits and vegetables and is often extracted and refined for use as a sweetener in food and beverages.

The chemical formula for sucrose is C12H22O11, and it has a molecular weight of 342.3 g/mol. In its pure form, sucrose is a white, odorless, crystalline solid that is highly soluble in water. It is commonly used as a reference compound for determining the sweetness of other substances, with a standard sucrose solution having a sweetness value of 1.0.

Sucrose is absorbed by the body through the small intestine and metabolized into glucose and fructose, which are then used for energy or stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles. While moderate consumption of sucrose is generally considered safe, excessive intake can contribute to weight gain, tooth decay, and other health problems.

According to the American Academy of Periodontology, periodontal diseases are chronic inflammatory conditions that affect the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth. These tissues include the gums, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. The primary cause of periodontal disease is bacterial plaque, a sticky film that constantly forms on our teeth.

There are two major stages of periodontal disease:

1. Gingivitis: This is the milder form of periodontal disease, characterized by inflammation of the gums (gingiva) without loss of attachment to the teeth. The gums may appear red, swollen, and bleed easily during brushing or flossing. At this stage, the damage can be reversed with proper dental care and improved oral hygiene.
2. Periodontitis: If left untreated, gingivitis can progress to periodontitis, a more severe form of periodontal disease. In periodontitis, the inflammation extends beyond the gums and affects the deeper periodontal tissues, leading to loss of bone support around the teeth. Pockets filled with infection-causing bacteria form between the teeth and gums, causing further damage and potential tooth loss if not treated promptly.

Risk factors for developing periodontal disease include poor oral hygiene, smoking or using smokeless tobacco, genetic predisposition, diabetes, hormonal changes (such as pregnancy or menopause), certain medications, and systemic diseases like AIDS or cancer. Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices are crucial for preventing periodontal disease and maintaining overall oral health.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

A cell wall is a rigid layer found surrounding the plasma membrane of plant cells, fungi, and many types of bacteria. It provides structural support and protection to the cell, maintains cell shape, and acts as a barrier against external factors such as chemicals and mechanical stress. The composition of the cell wall varies among different species; for example, in plants, it is primarily made up of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin, while in bacteria, it is composed of peptidoglycan.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

Lectins are a type of proteins that bind specifically to carbohydrates and have been found in various plant and animal sources. They play important roles in biological recognition events, such as cell-cell adhesion, and can also be involved in the immune response. Some lectins can agglutinate certain types of cells or precipitate glycoproteins, while others may have a more direct effect on cellular processes. In some cases, lectins from plants can cause adverse effects in humans if ingested, such as digestive discomfort or allergic reactions.

Bacterial polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that consist of long chains of sugar molecules (monosaccharides) linked together by glycosidic bonds. They are produced and used by bacteria for various purposes such as:

1. Structural components: Bacterial polysaccharides, such as peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity of bacterial cells. Peptidoglycan is a major component of the bacterial cell wall, while LPS forms the outer layer of the outer membrane in gram-negative bacteria.
2. Nutrient storage: Some bacteria synthesize and store polysaccharides as an energy reserve, similar to how plants store starch. These polysaccharides can be broken down and utilized by the bacterium when needed.
3. Virulence factors: Bacterial polysaccharides can also function as virulence factors, contributing to the pathogenesis of bacterial infections. For example, certain bacteria produce capsular polysaccharides (CPS) that surround and protect the bacterial cells from host immune defenses, allowing them to evade phagocytosis and persist within the host.
4. Adhesins: Some polysaccharides act as adhesins, facilitating the attachment of bacteria to surfaces or host cells. This is important for biofilm formation, which helps bacteria resist environmental stresses and antibiotic treatments.
5. Antigenic properties: Bacterial polysaccharides can be highly antigenic, eliciting an immune response in the host. The antigenicity of these molecules can vary between different bacterial species or even strains within a species, making them useful as targets for vaccines and diagnostic tests.

In summary, bacterial polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that serve various functions in bacteria, including structural support, nutrient storage, virulence factor production, adhesion, and antigenicity.

Corynebacterium pyogenes is a gram-positive, catalase-positive, non-motile, and non-spore-forming rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the respiratory tract and on the skin of animals. It can cause purulent infections such as abscesses, mastitis, pneumonia, and septicemia in various animal species, including cattle, sheep, goats, and swine.

In humans, Corynebacterium pyogenes is considered a rare cause of infection, and it has been isolated from cases of endocarditis, meningitis, and soft tissue infections. However, its clinical significance in human infections remains unclear, and further studies are needed to establish its role as a human pathogen.

It's important to note that Corynebacterium pyogenes is different from Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A streptococcus), which is a major human pathogen causing various infections such as pharyngitis, impetigo, and necrotizing fasciitis.

Neuraminidase is an enzyme that occurs on the surface of influenza viruses. It plays a crucial role in the life cycle of the virus by helping it to infect host cells and to spread from cell to cell within the body. Neuraminidase works by cleaving sialic acid residues from glycoproteins, allowing the virus to detach from infected cells and to move through mucus and other bodily fluids. This enzyme is a major target of antiviral drugs used to treat influenza, such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza). Inhibiting the activity of neuraminidase can help to prevent the spread of the virus within the body and reduce the severity of symptoms.

Streptococcus oralis is a type of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic coccus (round-shaped bacterium) that belongs to the viridans group of streptococci. It is commonly found in the human oral cavity, particularly on the surface of the teeth and gums.

S. oralis is generally considered to be a commensal organism, meaning that it can exist harmlessly in the mouth without causing any negative effects. However, under certain circumstances, such as when the immune system is weakened or when there is damage to the oral tissues, S. oralis can cause infections. These infections may include dental caries (cavities), periodontal disease, and endocarditis (inflammation of the inner lining of the heart).

Like other streptococci, S. oralis is able to form biofilms, which are complex communities of bacteria that adhere to surfaces and can be difficult to remove. This ability to form biofilms may contribute to its ability to cause infections.

It's important to note that while S. oralis is a normal part of the oral microbiome, good oral hygiene practices such as brushing and flossing regularly can help prevent an overgrowth of this bacterium and reduce the risk of infection.

In a medical context, "hot temperature" is not a standard medical term with a specific definition. However, it is often used in relation to fever, which is a common symptom of illness. A fever is typically defined as a body temperature that is higher than normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F) for adults and above 37.5-38°C (99.5-101.3°F) for children, depending on the source.

Therefore, when a medical professional talks about "hot temperature," they may be referring to a body temperature that is higher than normal due to fever or other causes. It's important to note that a high environmental temperature can also contribute to an elevated body temperature, so it's essential to consider both the body temperature and the environmental temperature when assessing a patient's condition.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

"Oral bacterium - Actinomyces viscosus". Dennis Kunkel Microscopy, Inc. Retrieved 19 December 2015. "Actinomyces viscosus. (n.d ... Actinomyces viscosus is a human and animal pathogen/pathobiont which colonises the mouths of 70% of adult humans. A. viscosus ... A. viscosus infection symptoms are indistinguishable from Actinomyces israelii infection symptoms or Actinomyces bovis ... Type strain of Actinomyces viscosus at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Portal: Biology (Articles with short ...
2000 A. viscosus (Howell et al. 1965) Georg et al. 1969 (Approved Lists 1980) A. vulturis Meng et al. 2017 A. weissii Hijazin ... 1877-1878). "Actinomyces bovis, ein neuer Schimmel in den Geweben des Rindes" [Actinomyces bovis, a new mold from the tissues ... Actinomyces is a genus of the Actinomycetia class of bacteria. They all are gram-positive. Actinomyces species are ... Actinomyces species may form endospores, and while individual bacteria are rod-shaped, Actinomyces colonies form fungus-like ...
"Sialidase-Enhanced Lectin-Like Mechanism for Actinomyces viscosus and Actinomyces naeslundii Hemagglutination". Infection and ...
... naeslundii serotypes II and III and Actinomyces viscosus serotype II in A. naeslundii Genospecies 2". International Journal of ... nov., Actinomyces gerencseriae sp. nov., Designation of Two Genospecies of Actinomyces naeslundii, and Inclusion of A. ... "Schaalia georgiae" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Actinomyces georgiae at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... Johnson, J. L.; Moore, L. V. H.; Kaneko, B.; Moore, W. E. C. (1990). "Actinomyces georgiae sp. ...
... naes.undii serotypes II and III and Actinomyces viscosus serotype II and A. naeslundii Genospecies 2". International Journal of ... Actinomyces gerencseriae is a species in the genus Actinomyces once known as Actinomyces israelii serovar II. A. gerencseriae ... Johnson, J L; Moore, Lillian H; Kaneko, Beverly; Moore, W E C (July 1990). "Actinomyces georgiae sp.no., Actinomyces ... Type strain of Actinomyces gerencseriae at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Portal: Biology v t e (Articles with ...
... such as Actinomyces viscosus and A. naeslundii, live in the mouth, where they are part of a sticky substance called plaque. If ... Anaerobic bacteria in the oral cavity include: Actinomyces, Arachnia, Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium, Fusobacterium ...
Actinomyces MeSH B03.510. - Actinomyces viscosus MeSH B03.510. - Mobiluncus MeSH B03.510. ... Actinomyces MeSH B03.510.460.400.400. - Actinomyces viscosus MeSH B03.510.460.400.400.049.049.589 - Mobiluncus ...
None displayed activity against A. actinomycetemcomitans, while four of the others were active against A. viscosus and three ... Four of these compounds (Sagittine A-D) exhibited antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces ...
Actinomyces species are one of the early microbial colonizers in the oral cavity and the relationship between XH001 with TM7x ... When TM7x cells are co-cultured with other micro-organisms, related to its specific host, such as A. naeslundii, A. viscosus, A ... The TM7x cells are host specific, and are physically bound to their host, Actinomyces odontolyticus strain XH001 which are rod ... It is an obligate epibiont parasite, or an "epiparasite", growing on the surface of its host bacterial species Actinomyces ...
"Oral bacterium - Actinomyces viscosus". Dennis Kunkel Microscopy, Inc. Retrieved 19 December 2015. "Actinomyces viscosus. (n.d ... Actinomyces viscosus is a human and animal pathogen/pathobiont which colonises the mouths of 70% of adult humans. A. viscosus ... A. viscosus infection symptoms are indistinguishable from Actinomyces israelii infection symptoms or Actinomyces bovis ... Type strain of Actinomyces viscosus at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Portal: Biology (Articles with short ...
Cárie Dentária Cárie Radicular Actinomyces viscosus Idoso Animais Arginina Biofilmes Candida albicans Humanos Ratos ... The cross-kingdom interactions between Candida albicans and Actinomyces viscosus play critical roles in root caries. However, ... The Arginine Biosynthesis Pathway of Candida albicans Regulates Its Cross-Kingdom Interaction with Actinomyces viscosus to ... viscosus in root caries for the first time and indicated that targeting this pathway was a practical way to treat root caries ...
Actinomyces viscosus (1656). Bacteroides fragilis (817). Eubacterium infirmum (56774). Streptococcus oralis (1303). ...
The authors used the following bacteria: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Actinomyces viscosus. Sterile discs ...
The genus Actinomyces, a member of the family Actinomycetaceae, grows as a fragile branching filament that tends to fragment ... Endophthalmitis, attributable to Actinomyces viscosus, developed in a 78-year-old man after cataract surgery. Postoperative ... Scarano FJ, Ruddat MS, Robinson A. Actinomyces viscosus postoperative endophthalmitis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1999 Jun. 34 ... Identification of Actinomyces israelii and Actinomyces naeslundii by fluorescent-antibody and agar-gel diffusion techniques. J ...
Actinomyces viscosus, Kluyveromyces fragilis, Chrysosporium pannorum, Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus niger have been known to ...
Campylobacter rectus and Actinomyces viscosus in human periodontal pockets. J. Periodont. Res. 32, 598-607. doi: 10.1111/j.1600 ...
Infections caused by Actinomyces viscosus. Am J Clin Pathol. 1981 Jan. 75(1):113-6. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Differences in MICs among Actinomyces species are known, with Actinomyces europaeus and Actinomyces turicensis being the most ... Actinomyces. Kliegman RM, St Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 21st ed. ... Actinomyces species are in general susceptible to penicillin and other beta-lactam antibiotics, as well as to most agents used ...
... and Actinomyces viscosus. Essential oil-derived compounds, namely eugenol, C-10 massoia lactone, thymol, cinnamaldehyde, and ...
Since then, studies have identified A. naeslundii, A. viscosus, A. pyogenes, A denticolens, A. howellii, A. hordeovulneris, and ... Actinomyces odontolyticus isolated from the female genital tract. J Clin Pathol. 1984;37:1379-83. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Actinomyces odontolyticus infections: review of six patients. J Infect. 1985;11:125-9. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Actinomyces odontolyticus as a cause of brain abscess. J Infect. 1979;1:195-7. DOIGoogle Scholar ...
While other taxa such as Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces viscosus, Capnocytophaga sputigena, and Neisseria sicca also had ...
Lactobacillus species and Actinomyces viscosus: An in vitro study. Panjanathan Mahalakshmi, Annasamy Rameshkumar, Gunasekaran ...
dash; Actinomyces urogenitalis *‐ Actinomyces viscosus *‐ Alloprevotella tannerae *‐ Leptotrichia sp. oral clone ... https://www.metabiom.org/microbiota/801/actinomyces-massiliensis. Keywords: Microbiome, Dysbiosis, Microbiota, Organism, ...
Actinomyces viscosus. *Lactobacillus acidophilus ✔️. *Streptococcus mutans. *Veilonella parvula. *About Psedomonas. All are ...
Actinomyces viscosus. 120. 3 133 750. AJ234053. 2023-03-02. Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. hydrophila. 86. 4 744 448. X87271. 10. ...
Actinomyces viscosus C505. s. 5. 1. Rothia mucilaginosa M508. s. 5. 1. ...
A. caused by Actinomyces viscosus. B. secondary to gingival recession. C. remineralization is difficult. D. slow progress. # ... A. Actinomyces actinomycetemcomitans. B. Capnocytophaga. C. Porphyromonas gingivalis. D. Mycoplasma. # How many number of ...
Associated bacteria: Actino-myces, Rothia dentoc-ariosa, S. mutans, lactob-acilli. Deeper caries: Propio-nib-act-erium, Bifido- ... Several species implicated but mostly: A.naes-lundi, A viscosus. Insoluble Glucans. Gram positive Cocci ...
Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, Actinomyces viscosus. Tongue. Streptococcus salivarius, Rothia mucilaginosa. ... Actinomyces: These are rod-shaped (bacilli) bacteria that are branched, obligate anaerobic or facultatively anaerobic, and ... The most abundant bacterial groups in the mouth are Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Veillonella, Fusobacterium, Prevotella, ... Actinomyces, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Helicobacter, Fusobacterium, Propionibacterium, Campylobacter, Rothia, Actinobacillus ...
Actinomyces oris is an early colonizer and has two types of fimbriae on its cell surface, type 1 fimbriae (FimP and FimQ) and ... Mutants of Actinomyces viscosus T14V lacking type 1, type 2, or both types of fimbriae. Infect Immun. 1988;56:2984-9. ... Adsorbed salivary proline-rich protein 1 and statherin: receptors for type 1 fimbriae of Actinomyces viscosus T14V-J1 on ... Actinomyces oris is an early colonizer and has two types of fimbriae on its cell surface, type 1 fimbriae (FimP and FimQ) and ...
Scarano FJ, Ruddat MS, Robinson A. Actinomyces viscosus postoperative endophthalmitis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1999 Jun. 34 ... Disseminated Actinomyces meyeri infection resembling lung cancer with brain metastases. Am J Med Sci. 2003 Sep. 326(3):152-5. [ ... Hall V. Actinomyces--gathering evidence of human colonization and infection. Anaerobe. 2008 Feb. 14(1):1-7. [QxMD MEDLINE Link ... Occurrence of Actinomyces in infections of endodontic origin. J Endod. 2003 Sep. 29(9):549-52. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
mitior ef 186, actinomyces viscosus wvu 627, lactobacillus casei ac 413, neisseria sp. a1078, veillonella alkalescens atcc ... sanguis biotype ii for the presence of surface structures and for their ability to coaggregate with actinomyces viscosus, ... actinomyces naeslundii, and fusobacterium nucleatum. negative staining under an electron microscope revealed detectable surface ...
Streptococcus sanguinis, mutans, mitis, Actinomyces viscosus have been found to colonize surface of dentition. ...
... the effect of human neutrophil myeloperoxidase on the attachment of Actinomyces viscosus and Actinomyces naeslundii to saliva- ... A study of in vitro attachment of Streptococcus sanguis and Actinomyces viscosus to saliva-treated titanium. International ... A study of in vitro attachment of Streptococcus sanguis and Actinomyces viscosus to saliva-treated titanium. International ...
... we report a case who presented with symptomatic pleural effusion due to opportunistic infection caused by Actinomyces viscosus. ... Most people have Actinomyces bacteria in the lining of the mouth, throat, digestive tract, and urinary tract, and it is present ... Members of the Actinomyces genus are non-spore-forming, anaerobic, and aerotolerant Gram-positive bacteria that are abundantly ... Actinomyces infections (actinomycoses) are considered to be rare, however, due to the slow-growing and fastidious nature of ...
abstract::Streptococcus mutans GS5, Lactobacillus casei DSM20011 and Actinomyces viscosus T14 produce artificial caries in the ...
Characterization of the binding of Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) and Actinomyces viscosus (ATCC 19246) to ... Binding of Actinomyces naeslundii to glycosphingolipids. 1987. Brennan et al.. 3804448. Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoenzyme S Is ... Actinomyces naeslundii Displays Variant fimP and fimA Fimbrial Subunit Genes Corresponding to Different Types of Acidic Proline ... Identification of polymorphonuclear leukocyte and HL-60 cell receptors for adhesins of Streptococcus gordonii and Actinomyces ...
... a z pałeczek gatunki Actinomyces viscosus i Bifidobacterium breve (MIC 0,12-≤ 0,06 mg/ml).. Wnioski. Wyniki badań wskazują, że ... and from rods Gram-positive rods genus of Actinomyces viscosus and Bifidobacterium breve (MIC 0.12-≤ 0.06 mg/ml).. Conclusions ...
... and Actinomyces viscosus​ compared to the healthy population.. On the other hand, good bacteria such as Fecalibacterium ...
Effect of sustained-release chlorhexidin digluconate varnish on Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces viscosus in orthodontic ...
  • Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Actinomyces viscosus . (positivehealth.com)
  • Streptococcus sanguinis, mutans, mitis, Actinomyces viscosus have been found to colonize surface of dentition. (drtbalu.co)
  • Since then, studies have identified A. naeslundii, A. viscosus, A. pyogenes, A denticolens, A. howellii, A. hordeovulneris, and A. meyeri in humans as well as in dogs and cats. (cdc.gov)
  • A. viscosus infection symptoms are indistinguishable from Actinomyces israelii infection symptoms or Actinomyces bovis infection symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • A. israelii and A. bovis infections usually cause actinomycotic infections, but sometimes and very rarely will the pathogen be A. viscosus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Actinomyces israelii. (medscape.com)
  • Actinomyces israelii species is a gram-positive, cast-forming, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming anaerobic bacillus that is difficult to isolate and identify. (medscape.com)
  • Actinomyces israelii (non-spore-forming, gram-positive bacilli). (medscape.com)
  • Most reported cases of Actinomyces keratitis (keratoactinomycosis) are caused by A israelii . (medscape.com)
  • Die Gattung Actinomyces umfasst derzeit 49 Arten, von denen 26 Arten bei klinischen Infektionen des Menschen eine Rolle spielen und 4 Arten von besonderer klinischer Bedeutung sind: A. israelii, A. gerencseriae, A. meyeri und A. odontolyticus [1]. (meintrup-dws.de)
  • Wenn Sie mehr über Actinomyces israelii und andere klinisch relevante grampositive Anaerobier erfahren möchten, klicken Sie hier, um unseren Leitfaden "Einführung in die klinische anaerobe Bakteriologie" zu lesen. (meintrup-dws.de)
  • Cone LA, Leung MM, Hirschberg J. Actinomyces odontolyticus bacteremia. (medscape.com)
  • We describe two immunosuppressed female patients with fever and Actinomyces odontolyticus bacteremia, a combination documented once previously in an immunocompetent male patient. (cdc.gov)
  • Our results identified the critical roles of the C. albicans arginine biosynthesis pathway in its cross-kingdom interactions with A. viscosus for the first time and indicated that targeting this pathway was a practical way to treat root caries caused by multiple species. (bvsalud.org)
  • A primary corneal ulcer attributable to Actinomyces species is rare and usually follows corneal trauma. (medscape.com)
  • Inflammation was characterized by anterior segment and vitreous cellular debris in cases of chronic postoperative endophthalmitis associated with Actinomyces species. (medscape.com)
  • Actinomyces species are in general susceptible to penicillin and other beta-lactam antibiotics, as well as to most agents used to treat infections by gram-positive anaerobic rods. (medscape.com)
  • Differences in MICs among Actinomyces species are known, with Actinomyces europaeus and Actinomyces turicensis being the most resistant. (medscape.com)
  • In 1877, Bollinger and Harz ( 3 ) named the genus Actinomyces when they described the etiologic agent of bovine actinomycosis ("lumpy jaw") and called it Actinomyces bovis . (cdc.gov)
  • ACTI1 Actinomyces urogenitalis Auro Actinomyces viscosus Avis Actinoplanes auranticolor Aaur2 Actinoplanes brasiliensis Abra Actinoplanes capillaceus Acap2 Actinoplanes cyaneus Acya1 Actinoplanes deccanensis Adec Actinoplanes garbadinensis Agar Actinoplanes humidus Ahum1 Actinoplanes ianthinogenes Aian Actinoplanes kinshanensis Akin Actinoplanes liguriensis Alig1 Actinoplanes missouriensis 431 Amis_0E Actinoplanes missouriensis Amis Actinoplanes pallidoaurantiacus Apal Actinoplanes penicillatus Apen Actinoplanes philippinensis Aphi Actinoplanes purpeobrunneus Apur Actinoplanes pyriformis Apyr Actinoplanes regularis Areg Actinoplanes roseosporangius Aros Actinoplanes sp. (uni-freiburg.de)
  • A. viscosus has also been known to cause lung infections, but only in very few cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple-week antibiotic therapies have cured actinomycotic infections caused by A. viscosus in every recorded case. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although A. viscosus is difficult to distinguish from other closely related actinomycetes, the general determination of being an actinomycete is sufficient for treatment of infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Actinomyces and related organisms in human infections. (medscape.com)
  • Microbiological and Clinical Aspects of Cervicofacial Actinomyces Infections: An Overview. (meintrup-dws.de)
  • Actinomyces oris is an early colonizer and has two types of fimbriae on its cell surface, type 1 fimbriae (FimP and FimQ) and type 2 fimbriae (FimA and FimB), which contribute to the attachment and coaggregation with other bacteria and the formation of biofilm on the tooth surface, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most people have Actinomyces bacteria in the lining of the mouth, throat, digestive tract, and urinary tract, and it is present in the female genital tract. (symptoma.com)
  • Hall V. Actinomyces--gathering evidence of human colonization and infection. (medscape.com)
  • Westhoff C. IUDs and colonization or infection with Actinomyces. (medscape.com)
  • citation needed] A. viscosus causes periodontal disease in animals and has been isolated from human dental calculus and root surface caries, as well as the oral cavity of hamsters and actinomycotic lesions in swine, cats, and dogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus Actinomyces , a member of the family Actinomycetaceae, grows as a fragile branching filament that tends to fragment into bacillary and coccoid forms producing chains of either conidia or arthrospores. (medscape.com)
  • Here we report a case who presented with symptomatic pleural effusion due to opportunistic infection caused by Actinomyces viscosus. (symptoma.com)
  • There may be: a hard, painful swelling in the soft tissue of the mouth, known as a "woody" fibrosis an abscess This is the most common form of infection caused by Actinomyces. (symptoma.com)
  • The Arginine Biosynthesis Pathway of Candida albicans Regulates Its Cross-Kingdom Interaction with Actinomyces viscosus to Promote Root Caries. (bvsalud.org)
  • The cross-kingdom interactions between Candida albicans and Actinomyces viscosus play critical roles in root caries . (bvsalud.org)
  • Here, we first employed 39 volunteers with root caries and 37 caries-free volunteers , and found that the abundances of C. albicans and A. viscosus were significantly increased in the individuals with root caries and showed a strong positive correlation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Identification of Human Strains of Actinomyces viscosus" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparison of phenotypic methods and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the identification of aero-tolerant Actinomyces spp. (medscape.com)
  • Published in the Gastroenterology ​ journal, researchers said patients had higher levels of Clostridium hathewayi, Bacteroides nordii, ​ and Actinomyces viscosus ​ compared to the healthy population. (nutraingredients-asia.com)
  • Actinomyces viscosus is a human and animal pathogen/pathobiont which colonises the mouths of 70% of adult humans. (wikipedia.org)