A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.
Infections with bacteria of the genus ACTINOMYCES.
A species of ACTINOMYCES found in the oral cavity of man and hamsters. It has been isolated from actinomycotic lesions in swine, cats, and dogs and has been identified as a causative agent of animal diseases.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
A family of bacteria including numerous parasitic and pathogenic forms.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
A gram-positive organism found in dental plaque, in blood, on heart valves in subacute endocarditis, and infrequently in saliva and throat specimens. L-forms are associated with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.
A species of CORYNEBACTERIUM isolated from abscesses of warm-blooded animals.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria that is numerous in the mouth and throat. It is a common cause of endocarditis and is also implicated in dental plaque formation.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic cocci parasitic in the mouth and in the intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals.
Protein domains that are enriched in PROLINE. The cyclical nature of proline causes the peptide bonds it forms to have a limited degree of conformational mobility. Therefore the presence of multiple prolines in close proximity to each other can convey a distinct conformational arrangement to a peptide chain.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.
A form of ACTINOMYCOSIS characterized by slow-growing inflammatory lesions of the lymph nodes that drain the mouth (lumpy jaw), reddening of the overlying skin, and intraperitoneal abscesses.
Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the lung parenchyma as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Infections with bacteria of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.

Interaction of inflammatory cells and oral microorganisms. III. Modulation of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocyte hydrolase release response to Actinomyces viscosus and Streptococcus mutans by immunoglobulins and complement. (1/562)

In the absence of antiserum, rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) released lysosomal enzymes in response to Actinomyces viscosus (19246) but not to Streptococcus mutans (6715). Antibodies had a marked modulating influence on these reactions. PMN hydrolase release was significantly enhanced to both organisms when specific rabbit antiserum and isolated immunoglobulin G (IgG) were included in the incubations. Immune complex F(ab')2 fragments of IgG directed against S. mutans agglutinated bacteria. Immune complexes consisting of S. mutans and F(ab')2 fragments of IgG directed against this organism were not effective as bacteria-IgG complexes in stimulating PMN release. The intensity of the release response to bacteria-IgG complexes was also diminished when PMNs were preincubated with isolated Fc fragments derived from IgG. Fresh serum as a source of complement components had no demonstrable effect on PMN release either alone or in conjuction with antiserum in these experiments. These data may be relevant to the mechanisms and consequences of the interaction of PMNs and plaque bacteria in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.  (+info)

Pathogenesis of cancrum oris (noma): confounding interactions of malnutrition with infection. (2/562)

This study showed that impoverished Nigerian children at risk for cancrum oris (noma) had significantly reduced plasma concentrations of zinc (< 10.8 micromol/L), retinol (< 1.05 micromol/L), ascorbate (< 11 micromol/L), and the essential amino acids, with prominently increased plasma and saliva levels of free cortisol, compared with their healthy counterparts. The nutrient deficiencies, in concert with previously reported widespread viral infections (measles, herpesviruses) in the children, would impair oral mucosal immunity. We postulate, subject to additional studies, that evolution of the oral mucosal ulcers including acute necrotizing gingivitis to noma is triggered by a consortium of microorganisms of which Fusobacterium necrophorum is a key component. Fusobacterium necrophorum elaborates several dermonecrotic toxic metabolites and is acquired by the impoverished children via fecal contamination resulting from shared residential facilities with animals and very poor environmental sanitation.  (+info)

An Arcanobacterium (Actinomyces) pyogenes mutant deficient in production of the pore-forming cytolysin pyolysin has reduced virulence. (3/562)

Pyolysin (PLO), the hemolytic exotoxin expressed by Arcanobacterium (Actinomyces) pyogenes, is a member of the thiol-activated cytolysin family of bacterial toxins. Insertional inactivation of the plo gene results in loss of expression of PLO with a concomitant loss in hemolytic activity. The plo mutant, PLO-1, has an approximately 1. 8-log10 reduction in the 50% infectious dose compared to that for wild-type A. pyogenes in a mouse intraperitoneal infection model. Studies involving cochallenge of wild-type and PLO-1 bacteria resulted in recovery of similar numbers of both strains, suggesting that PLO production is required for survival in vivo. Recombinant, His-tagged PLO (His-PLO) is cytotoxic for mouse peritoneal macrophages and J774 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Protection against challenge with A. pyogenes could be afforded by vaccination with formalin-inactivated His-PLO, suggesting that PLO is a host-protective antigen, as well as a virulence determinant.  (+info)

Childhood actinomycosis. Report of 3 recent cases. (4/562)

Three cases of childhood actinomycosis are reported, 2 with the commonest presentation of cervicofacial abscess and the third with a rarely reported superficial chest wall abscess. The importance of prompt bacteriological diagnosis and adequate treatment with surgical drainage and chemotherapy is stressed. Though in adults males are affected more frequently than females, the sexes are probably equally affected in childhood.  (+info)

Strains of Actinomyces naeslundii and Actinomyces viscosus exhibit structurally variant fimbrial subunit proteins and bind to different peptide motifs in salivary proteins. (5/562)

Oral strains of Actinomyces spp. express type 1 fimbriae, which are composed of major FimP subunits, and bind preferentially to salivary acidic proline-rich proteins (APRPs) or to statherin. We have mapped genetic differences in the fimP subunit genes and the peptide recognition motifs within the host proteins associated with these differential binding specificities. The fimP genes were amplified by PCR from Actinomyces viscosus ATCC 19246, with preferential binding to statherin, and from Actinomyces naeslundii LY7, P-1-K, and B-1-K, with preferential binding to APRPs. The fimP gene from the statherin-binding strain 19246 is novel and has about 80% nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity to the highly conserved fimP genes of the APRP-binding strains (about 98 to 99% sequence identity). The novel FimP protein contains an amino-terminal signal peptide, randomly distributed single-amino-acid substitutions, and structurally different segments and ends with a cell wall-anchoring and a membrane-spanning region. When agarose beads with CNBr-linked host determinant-specific decapeptides were used, A. viscosus 19246 bound to the Thr42Phe43 terminus of statherin and A. naeslundii LY7 bound to the Pro149Gln150 termini of APRPs. Furthermore, while the APRP-binding A. naeslundii strains originate from the human mouth, A. viscosus strains isolated from the oral cavity of rat and hamster hosts showed preferential binding to statherin and contained the novel fimP gene. Thus, A. viscosus and A. naeslundii display structurally variant fimP genes whose protein products are likely to interact with different peptide motifs and to determine animal host tropism.  (+info)

Blastogenic response of human lymphocytes to oral bacterial antigens: comparison of individuals with periodontal disease to normal and edentulous subjects. (6/562)

Cell-mediated immunity in humans to antigens derived from oral plaque bacteria was investigated by using the lymphocyte blastogenesis assay. Subjects with varying severities of periodontal disease including normal, gingivitis, periodontitis, and edentulous were compared. Mononuclear leukocytes were separated from peripheral blood and cultured with antigens prepared by sonication of Actinomyces viscosus (AV), Actinomyces naeslundii (AN), Veillonella alcalescens (VA), Leptotrichia buccalis (LB), Bacteroides melaninogenicus (BM), and homologous dental plaque (DP). The lymphocyte response of subjects with gingivitis or periodontitis was significantly greater than that of normal subjects to antigens of AV, AN, and DP, but did not differ from the response of edentulous subjects. Periodontitis subjects were significantly more reactive than edentulous and normal subjects in response to VA, LB, and BM. These findings suggest that the tested gram-negative bacteria and the host response they evoke are associated with advanced periodontal destruction.  (+info)

Cell wall-anchored CshA polypeptide (259 kilodaltons) in Streptococcus gordonii forms surface fibrils that confer hydrophobic and adhesive properties. (7/562)

It has been shown previously that inactivation of the cshA gene, encoding a major cell surface polypeptide (259 kDa) in the oral bacterium Streptococcus gordonii, generates mutants that are markedly reduced in hydrophobicity, deficient in binding to oral Actinomyces species and to human fibronectin, and unable to colonize the oral cavities of mice. We now show further that surface fibrils 60.7 +/- 14.5 nm long, which are present on wild-type S. gordonii DL1 (Challis) cells, bind CshA-specific antibodies and are absent from the cell surfaces of cshA mutants. To more precisely determine the structural and functional properties of CshA, already inferred from insertional-mutagenesis experiments, we have cloned the entire cshA gene into the replicative plasmid pAM401 and expressed full-length CshA polypeptide on the cell surface of heterologous Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2. Enterococci expressing CshA exhibited a 30-fold increase in cell surface hydrophobicity over E. faecalis JH2-2 carrying the pAM401 vector alone and 2.4-fold-increased adhesion to human fibronectin. CshA expression in E. faecalis also promoted cell-cell aggregation and increased the ability of enterococci to bind Actinomyces naeslundii cells. Electron micrographs of negatively stained E. faecalis cells expressing CshA showed peritrichous surface fibrils 70.3 +/- 9.1 nm long that were absent from control E. faecalis JH2-2(pAM401) cells. The fibrils bound CshA-specific antibodies, as detected by immunoelectron microscopy, and the antibodies inhibited the adhesion of E. faecalis cells to fibronectin. The results demonstrate that the CshA polypeptide is the structural and functional component of S. gordonii adhesive fibrils, and they provide a molecular basis for past correlations of surface fibril production, cell surface hydrophobicity, and adhesion in species of oral "sanguis-like" streptococci.  (+info)

Bacterial flora of liver abscesses in feedlot cattle fed tylosin or no tylosin. (8/562)

Bacterial flora of liver abscesses from cattle fed tylosin or no tylosin and susceptibilities of the predominant bacterial isolates to tylosin and other antimicrobial compounds were determined. Abscessed livers were collected at slaughter from cattle originating from feedlots that had fed tylosin (n = 36) or no tylosin (n = 41) for at least 2 yr, and segments of livers with one or two intact abscesses were transported to the laboratory. Abscesses were cultured for anaerobic and facultative bacteria. Fusobacterium necrophorum, either as single culture or mixed with other bacteria, was isolated from all abscesses. The incidence of subsp. necrophorum, as part of the mixed infection, was lower (P < .05) in the tylosin group than in the no-tylosin group (33 vs 61%). However, the incidence of Actinomyces pyogenes was higher (P < .01) in the tylosin group than in the no-tylosin group (53 vs 10%). Totals of 119 F. necrophorum and 21 A. pyogenes isolates were used for determinations of susceptibilities to bacitracin, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, lasalocid, monensin, tylosin, tilmicosin, and virginiamycin. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of antibiotics were determined with a broth microdilution method. The mean MIC of tylosin for F. necrophorum and A. pyogenes were not different between isolates from tylosin and no-tylosin groups. We concluded that continuous feeding of tylosin did not induce resistance in F. necrophorum or A. pyogenes. Also, the higher incidence of mixed infection of F. necrophorum and A. pyogenes in liver abscesses of tylosin-fed cattle suggests a potential synergistic interaction between the two organisms in causing liver abscesses.  (+info)

Actinomyces is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are normal inhabitants of the human mouth, colon, and urogenital tract. Under certain conditions, such as poor oral hygiene or tissue trauma, these bacteria can cause infections known as actinomycosis. These infections often involve the formation of abscesses or granulomas and can affect various tissues, including the lungs, mouth, and female reproductive organs. Actinomyces species are also known to form complex communities called biofilms, which can contribute to their ability to cause infection.

Actinomycosis is a type of infection caused by bacteria that are normally found in the mouth, intestines, and female genital tract. These bacteria can cause abscesses or chronic inflammation if they infect body tissues, often after trauma or surgery. The infection typically affects the face, neck, or chest, and can spread to other parts of the body over time. Symptoms may include swelling, redness, pain, and the formation of pus-filled abscesses that may discharge a characteristic yellowish granular material called "sulfur granules." Treatment typically involves long-term antibiotic therapy, often requiring high doses and intravenous administration. Surgical drainage or removal of infected tissue may also be necessary in some cases.

Actinomyces viscosus is a gram-positive, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a normal resident of the human microbiota but can cause infections in immunocompromised individuals or when it gains access to deeper tissues, such as the pulp of teeth or the soft tissues of the head and neck.

Actinomyces viscosus has been associated with dental caries, periodontal disease, and endodontic infections. It can also cause actinomycosis, a chronic suppurative and granulomatous infection that typically affects the cervicofacial region, thorax, or abdomen.

The name "viscosus" refers to the sticky, mucoid appearance of the bacterial colonies when grown in culture. Actinomyces viscosus is closely related to other species of Actinomyces, such as A. israelii and A. gerencseriae, which can also cause actinomycosis.

Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that accumulates on the surface of the teeth, restorative materials, and prosthetic devices such as dentures. It is initiated when bacterial colonizers attach to the smooth surfaces of teeth through van der Waals forces and specific molecular adhesion mechanisms.

The microorganisms within the dental plaque produce extracellular polysaccharides that help to stabilize and strengthen the biofilm, making it resistant to removal by simple brushing or rinsing. Over time, if not regularly removed through oral hygiene practices such as brushing and flossing, dental plaque can mineralize and harden into tartar or calculus.

The bacteria in dental plaque can cause tooth decay (dental caries) by metabolizing sugars and producing acid that demineralizes the tooth enamel. Additionally, certain types of bacteria in dental plaque can cause periodontal disease, an inflammation of the gums that can lead to tissue damage and bone loss around the teeth. Regular professional dental cleanings and good oral hygiene practices are essential for preventing the buildup of dental plaque and maintaining good oral health.

Actinomycetaceae is a family of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are characterized by their filamentous growth and the production of branching hyphae. These bacteria are often found in soil and water, and some species can cause disease in humans and animals. They are classified as aerobic or facultatively anaerobic organisms, meaning they can grow with or without oxygen.

The name "Actinomycetaceae" comes from the Greek words "aktis," meaning "ray" or "beam," and "mykes," meaning "fungus." This reflects the filamentous, fungus-like growth of these bacteria.

Some species of Actinomycetaceae are known to produce various antibiotics, including streptomycin, neomycin, and tetracycline. These antibiotics have been widely used in medicine to treat a variety of bacterial infections.

In humans, some species of Actinomycetaceae can cause actinomycosis, a chronic infection that typically affects the face, neck, and mouth. Symptoms of actinomycosis include swelling, pain, and the formation of abscesses or fistulas. Treatment usually involves long-term antibiotic therapy and sometimes surgical drainage of any abscesses.

Overall, Actinomycetaceae is an important family of bacteria with both beneficial and harmful effects on humans and other organisms.

In medical terms, the mouth is officially referred to as the oral cavity. It is the first part of the digestive tract and includes several structures: the lips, vestibule (the space enclosed by the lips and teeth), teeth, gingiva (gums), hard and soft palate, tongue, floor of the mouth, and salivary glands. The mouth is responsible for several functions including speaking, swallowing, breathing, and eating, as it is the initial point of ingestion where food is broken down through mechanical and chemical processes, beginning the digestive process.

Streptococcus sanguis is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, beta-hemolytic bacterium that belongs to the Streptococcaceae family. It's part of the viridans group streptococci (VGS) and is commonly found in the oral cavity of humans, residing on the surface of teeth and mucous membranes.

S. sanguis is generally considered a commensal organism; however, it can contribute to dental plaque formation and cause endocarditis, particularly in people with pre-existing heart conditions. It's important to note that there are several subspecies of S. sanguis, including S. sanguis I, II, III, and IV, which may have different characteristics and clinical implications.

Medical Definition: Streptococcus sanguis is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, beta-hemolytic bacterium that belongs to the viridans group streptococci (VGS). It is commonly found in the oral cavity and can cause endocarditis in susceptible individuals.

Corynebacterium pyogenes is a gram-positive, catalase-positive, non-motile, and non-spore-forming rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the respiratory tract and on the skin of animals. It can cause purulent infections such as abscesses, mastitis, pneumonia, and septicemia in various animal species, including cattle, sheep, goats, and swine.

In humans, Corynebacterium pyogenes is considered a rare cause of infection, and it has been isolated from cases of endocarditis, meningitis, and soft tissue infections. However, its clinical significance in human infections remains unclear, and further studies are needed to establish its role as a human pathogen.

It's important to note that Corynebacterium pyogenes is different from Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A streptococcus), which is a major human pathogen causing various infections such as pharyngitis, impetigo, and necrotizing fasciitis.

Streptococcus oralis is a type of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic coccus (round-shaped bacterium) that belongs to the viridans group of streptococci. It is commonly found in the human oral cavity, particularly on the surface of the teeth and gums.

S. oralis is generally considered to be a commensal organism, meaning that it can exist harmlessly in the mouth without causing any negative effects. However, under certain circumstances, such as when the immune system is weakened or when there is damage to the oral tissues, S. oralis can cause infections. These infections may include dental caries (cavities), periodontal disease, and endocarditis (inflammation of the inner lining of the heart).

Like other streptococci, S. oralis is able to form biofilms, which are complex communities of bacteria that adhere to surfaces and can be difficult to remove. This ability to form biofilms may contribute to its ability to cause infections.

It's important to note that while S. oralis is a normal part of the oral microbiome, good oral hygiene practices such as brushing and flossing regularly can help prevent an overgrowth of this bacterium and reduce the risk of infection.

Streptococcus is a genus of Gram-positive, spherical bacteria that typically form pairs or chains when clustered together. These bacteria are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. They are non-motile and do not produce spores.

Streptococcus species are commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals. Some strains are part of the normal flora of the body, while others can cause a variety of infections, ranging from mild skin infections to severe and life-threatening diseases such as sepsis, meningitis, and toxic shock syndrome.

The pathogenicity of Streptococcus species depends on various virulence factors, including the production of enzymes and toxins that damage tissues and evade the host's immune response. One of the most well-known Streptococcus species is Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A streptococcus (GAS), which is responsible for a wide range of clinical manifestations, including pharyngitis (strep throat), impetigo, cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, and rheumatic fever.

It's important to note that the classification of Streptococcus species has evolved over time, with many former members now classified as different genera within the family Streptococcaceae. The current classification system is based on a combination of phenotypic characteristics (such as hemolysis patterns and sugar fermentation) and genotypic methods (such as 16S rRNA sequencing and multilocus sequence typing).

Hydroxyapatite is a calcium phosphate mineral that makes up about 70% of the inorganic component of bone and teeth in humans and other animals. It has the chemical formula Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. Hydroxyapatite is a naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite, with the idealized crystal structure consisting of alternating calcium and phosphate layers.

In addition to its natural occurrence in bone and teeth, hydroxyapatite has various medical applications due to its biocompatibility and osteoconductive properties. It is used as a coating on orthopedic implants to promote bone growth and integration with the implant, and it is also used in dental and oral healthcare products for remineralization of tooth enamel. Furthermore, hydroxyapatite has been studied for its potential use in drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, and other biomedical applications.

Bacterial fimbriae are thin, hair-like protein appendages that extend from the surface of many types of bacteria. They are involved in the attachment of bacteria to surfaces, other cells, or extracellular structures. Fimbriae enable bacteria to adhere to host tissues and form biofilms, which contribute to bacterial pathogenicity and survival in various environments. These protein structures are composed of several thousand subunits of a specific protein called pilin. Some fimbriae can recognize and bind to specific receptors on host cells, initiating the process of infection and colonization.

Saliva is a complex mixture of primarily water, but also electrolytes, enzymes, antibacterial compounds, and various other substances. It is produced by the salivary glands located in the mouth. Saliva plays an essential role in maintaining oral health by moistening the mouth, helping to digest food, and protecting the teeth from decay by neutralizing acids produced by bacteria.

The medical definition of saliva can be stated as:

"A clear, watery, slightly alkaline fluid secreted by the salivary glands, consisting mainly of water, with small amounts of electrolytes, enzymes (such as amylase), mucus, and antibacterial compounds. Saliva aids in digestion, lubrication of oral tissues, and provides an oral barrier against microorganisms."

Veillonella is a genus of Gram-negative, anaerobic, non-spore-forming, coccoid or rod-shaped bacteria. These bacteria are commonly found as normal flora in the human mouth, intestines, and female genital tract. They are known to be obligate parasites, meaning they rely on other organisms for nutrients and energy. Veillonella species are often associated with dental caries and have been implicated in various infections such as bacteremia, endocarditis, pneumonia, and wound infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals or those with underlying medical conditions. Proper identification of Veillonella species is important for the diagnosis and treatment of these infections.

Proline-rich protein domains are segments within proteins that contain an unusually high concentration of the amino acid proline. These domains are often involved in mediating protein-protein interactions and can play a role in various cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene regulation, and protein folding. They are also commonly found in extracellular matrix proteins and may be involved in cell adhesion and migration. The unique chemical properties of proline, including its ability to form rigid structures and disrupt alpha-helices, contribute to the functional specificity of these domains.

Bacterial adhesion is the initial and crucial step in the process of bacterial colonization, where bacteria attach themselves to a surface or tissue. This process involves specific interactions between bacterial adhesins (proteins, fimbriae, or pili) and host receptors (glycoproteins, glycolipids, or extracellular matrix components). The attachment can be either reversible or irreversible, depending on the strength of interaction. Bacterial adhesion is a significant factor in initiating biofilm formation, which can lead to various infectious diseases and medical device-associated infections.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

Streptococcus mutans is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, beta-hemolytic species of bacteria that's part of the normal microbiota of the oral cavity in humans. It's one of the primary etiological agents associated with dental caries, or tooth decay, due to its ability to produce large amounts of acid as a byproduct of sugar metabolism, which can lead to demineralization of tooth enamel and dentin. The bacterium can also adhere to tooth surfaces and form biofilms, further contributing to the development of dental caries.

An Intrauterine Device (IUD) is a long-acting, reversible contraceptive device that is inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. It is a small T-shaped piece of flexible plastic with strings attached to it for removal. There are two types of IUDs available: hormonal and copper. Hormonal IUDs release progestin, which thickens cervical mucus and thins the lining of the uterus, preventing sperm from reaching and fertilizing an egg. Copper IUDs, on the other hand, produce an inflammatory reaction in the uterus that is toxic to sperm and eggs, preventing fertilization.

IUDs are more than 99% effective at preventing pregnancy and can remain in place for several years, depending on the type. They are easily removable by a healthcare provider if a woman wants to become pregnant or choose another form of contraception. IUDs do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), so it is important to use condoms in addition to an IUD for protection against STIs.

In summary, Intrauterine Devices are small, T-shaped plastic devices that are inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. They come in two types: hormonal and copper, both of which work by preventing fertilization. IUDs are highly effective, long-acting, and reversible forms of contraception.

Cervicofacial actinomycosis is a form of actinomycosis, which is a type of infection caused by the Actinomyces species of bacteria. These bacteria are normally found in the mouth, throat, and digestive system and are usually harmless. However, they can cause an infection if they are able to penetrate the mucosal lining of these areas, such as through trauma or injury.

Cervicofacial actinomycosis specifically affects the head and neck region. It often presents as a slowly progressive, painful, indurated (hardened) mass in the cervicofacial area, which can be accompanied by symptoms such as fever, weight loss, and fatigue. The infection can spread to surrounding tissues, including bone and muscle, and can form abscesses or fistulas that drain pus.

Cervicofacial actinomycosis is typically treated with high-dose antibiotics for an extended period of time, often several months. Surgical intervention may also be necessary to remove any areas of necrotic (dead) tissue or to drain abscesses. The prognosis for cervicofacial actinomycosis is generally good with appropriate treatment, although the infection can recur if not fully treated.

Gingivitis is a mild form of gum disease (periodontal disease) that causes irritation, redness, swelling and bleeding of the gingiva, or gums. It's important to note that it is reversible with good oral hygiene and professional dental treatment. If left untreated, however, gingivitis can progress to a more severe form of gum disease known as periodontitis, which can result in tissue damage and eventual tooth loss.

Gingivitis is most commonly caused by the buildup of plaque, a sticky film of bacteria that constantly forms on our teeth. When not removed regularly through brushing and flossing, this plaque can harden into tartar, which is more difficult to remove and contributes to gum inflammation. Other factors like hormonal changes, poor nutrition, certain medications, smoking or a weakened immune system may also increase the risk of developing gingivitis.

A tooth is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (upper and lower) of many vertebrates and used for biting and chewing food. In humans, a typical tooth has a crown, one or more roots, and three layers: the enamel (the outermost layer, hardest substance in the body), the dentin (the layer beneath the enamel), and the pulp (the innermost layer, containing nerves and blood vessels). Teeth are essential for proper nutrition, speech, and aesthetics. There are different types of teeth, including incisors, canines, premolars, and molars, each designed for specific functions in the mouth.

A lung abscess is a localized collection of pus in the lung parenchyma caused by an infectious process, often due to bacterial infection. It's characterized by necrosis and liquefaction of pulmonary tissue, resulting in a cavity filled with purulent material. The condition can develop as a complication of community-acquired or nosocomial pneumonia, aspiration of oral secretions containing anaerobic bacteria, septic embolism, or contiguous spread from a nearby infected site.

Symptoms may include cough with foul-smelling sputum, chest pain, fever, weight loss, and fatigue. Diagnosis typically involves imaging techniques such as chest X-ray or CT scan, along with microbiological examination of the sputum to identify the causative organism(s). Treatment often includes antibiotic therapy tailored to the identified pathogen(s), as well as supportive care such as bronchoscopy, drainage, or surgery in severe cases.

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) refers to the specific regions of DNA in a cell that contain the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Ribosomes are complex structures composed of proteins and rRNA, which play a crucial role in protein synthesis by translating messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins.

In humans, there are four types of rRNA molecules: 18S, 5.8S, 28S, and 5S. These rRNAs are encoded by multiple copies of rDNA genes that are organized in clusters on specific chromosomes. In humans, the majority of rDNA genes are located on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22.

Each cluster of rDNA genes contains both transcribed and non-transcribed spacer regions. The transcribed regions contain the genes for the four types of rRNA, while the non-transcribed spacers contain regulatory elements that control the transcription of the rRNA genes.

The number of rDNA copies varies between species and even within individuals of the same species. The copy number can also change during development and in response to environmental factors. Variations in rDNA copy number have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Actinomycetales are a group of gram-positive bacteria that can cause various types of infections in humans. The term "Actinomycetales infections" is used to describe a range of diseases caused by these organisms, which are characterized by the formation of characteristic granules or "actinomycetes" composed of bacterial cells and inflammatory tissue.

Some common examples of Actinomycetales infections include:

1. Actinomycosis: A chronic infection that typically affects the face, neck, and mouth, but can also occur in other parts of the body such as the lungs or abdomen. It is caused by various species of Actinomyces, which are normal inhabitants of the mouth and gastrointestinal tract.
2. Nocardiosis: A rare but serious infection that can affect the lungs, brain, or skin. It is caused by the bacterium Nocardia, which is found in soil and water.
3. Mycetoma: A chronic infection that affects the skin and underlying tissues, causing the formation of nodules and sinuses that discharge pus containing grains composed of fungal or bacterial elements. It is caused by various species of Actinomyces, Nocardia, and other related bacteria.
4. Streptomyces infections: While Streptomyces species are best known for their role in producing antibiotics, they can also cause infections in humans, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. These infections can affect various organs, including the lungs, skin, and soft tissues.

Treatment of Actinomycetales infections typically involves the use of antibiotics, often for prolonged periods of time. The specific antibiotic regimen will depend on the type of infection and the susceptibility of the causative organism to various antimicrobial agents. Surgical intervention may also be necessary in some cases to drain abscesses or remove infected tissue.

1877-1878). "Actinomyces bovis, ein neuer Schimmel in den Geweben des Rindes" [Actinomyces bovis, a new mold from the tissues ... Actinomyces is a genus of the Actinomycetia class of bacteria. They all are gram-positive. Actinomyces species are ... Actinomyces species may form endospores, and while individual bacteria are rod-shaped, Actinomyces colonies form fungus-like ... Actinomyces naeslundii MG1 Genome Page Actinomyces at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Portal: Biology (Articles ...
Actinomyces odontolyticus isolated from the female genital tract. J Clin Pathol. 1984;37:1379-83. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Actinomyces odontolyticus infections: review of six patients. J Infect. 1985;11:125-9. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Actinomyces odontolyticus as a cause of brain abscess. J Infect. 1979;1:195-7. DOIGoogle Scholar ... Ueber Reincultur des Actinomyces und seine Uebertragbarkeit auf Thiere. Archiv Pathologische Anatomie. 1891;126:11-28. DOI ...
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Meng X, Lu S, Wang Y, Lai X-H, Wen Y, Jin D, Yang J, Bai X, Zhang G, Pu J, Lan R, Xu J. Actinomyces vulturis sp. nov., isolated ... The species Actinomyces vulturis was originally described and validly published by Meng et al. 2017. ... Name Abstract for Actinomyces vulturis Meng et al. 2017. NamesforLife, LLC. Retrieved August 18, 2022. . https://doi.org/ ... Nomenclature of Actinomyces vulturis Meng et al. 2017 ...
Cutaneous and muscular abscesses secondary to Actinomyces meyeri pneumonia ...
... is a microbe belonging to the kingdom bacteria. 38% of Healthy Europeans have it, 0.07% is the highest ... Actinomyces graevenitzii is one of 4,565 microbes we look for in our microbiome test. If you would like to find out whether ...
Parent taxon: Actinomyces Harz 1877 (Approved Lists 1980) Assigned by: Duché J. Les Actinomyces du groupe albus. Encyclopédie ... "Actinomyces gibsonii" Erikson 1935 heterotypic synonym, not validly published, basonym of name in Approved Lists. ... "Actinomyces almquisti" Duché 1934 heterotypic synonym, not validly published, basonym of name in Approved Lists. ... "Actinomyces rangoon" Erikson 1935 heterotypic synonym, not validly published, basonym of name in Approved Lists. ...
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Actinomyces israelii is a species of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria within the genus Actinomyces. Known to live commensally ... "Actinomyces israelii". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Archived from the original on May 22, ... Olender, Alina (2013). "The cause of Actinomyces canalictulis". Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine. 20: 742-744. ... Type strain of Actinomyces israelii at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Archived 2016-05-30 at the Wayback ...
Actinomyces. Treatment recommendations are listed below:. * Penicillin G potassium 100,000-400,000 U/kg/day IV divided q6h, not ... Actinomyces oricola sp. nov., from a human dental abscess. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2003 Sep. 53:1515-8. [QxMD MEDLINE Link] ...
Full Lineage: Bacteria; Actinobacteria; Actinomycetia; Actinomycetales; Actinomycetaceae; Actinomyces; Actinomyces naeslundii ...
Home , Actinomyces Canaliculotomy for canaliculitis. 컷위자드 다운로드 This narrated video demonstrates a canaliculotomy for ...
https://www.metabiom.org/microbiota/801/actinomyces-massiliensis. Keywords: Microbiome, Dysbiosis, Microbiota, Organism, ...
Actinomyces gerencseriae. RANK: Species TAXONOMY: Terrabacteria group -> Actinobacteria -> Actinobacteria -> Actinomycetales ... Actinomycetaceae -> Actinomyces -> Actinomyces gerencseriae. OVERVIEW: Identified as a constituent of the oral microbiome by ...
Actinomyces odontolyticus bacteremia.. Lawrence A Cone, Millie M Leung, Joel Hirschberg. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2003 ... We describe two immunosuppressed female patients with fever and Actinomyces odontolyticus bacteremia, a combination documented ...
Learn and reinforce your understanding of Actinomyces israelii. ... Actinomyces israelii, or just A. israelii, is a gram-positive ... Actinomyces israelii Videos, Flashcards, High Yield Notes, & Practice Questions. ... Actinomyces israelii is a type of bacteria that typically inhabits the mouth, skin, and gastrointestinal tract. However, they ... Calling this bug actinomyces implies that its morphologically similar to fungus, because both form microscopic branching ...
... 點擊查查權威綫上辭典詳細解釋actinomyces baudetii的中 ... actinomyces baudetii中文中文意思:包代放線菌..., ... actinomyces acidoflavus: 酸黃放線菌. *actinomyces actinoides: 類放線菌, ... actinomyces
Actinomyces naeslundii are bacterium found in human mouths, which has been implicated in periodontal disease, and cavities. ... Actinomyces naeslundii are bacterium found in human mouths, which has been implicated in periodontal disease, and cavities. ... Actinomyces naeslundii are bacterium found in human mouths, which has been implicated in periodontal disease, and cavities. ...
Actinomyces pyogenes CAUSANTE DE ABORTO EN BOVINOS. Translated title of the contribution. : Actinomyces pyogenes as cause of ... title = "Actinomyces pyogenes CAUSANTE DE ABORTO EN BOVINOS",. abstract = "A case of bovine fetal abortion due to Actinomyces ... Actinomyces pyogenes CAUSANTE DE ABORTO EN BOVINOS. / Mariluz Araínga, R.; Sandoval Chaupe, Nieves Nancy; Erik Zacarías, R. et ... Actinomyces pyogenes CAUSANTE DE ABORTO EN BOVINOS. In: Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Peru. 2003 ; Vol. 14, No. 1 ...
Actinomyces sp. (one), Clostridium sp. (one), Candida parapsilosis (one), Cutibacterium acnes (one), Haemophilus influenzae ( ...
Actinomyces. Treatment recommendations are listed below:. * Penicillin G potassium 100,000-400,000 U/kg/day IV divided q6h, not ... Actinomyces oricola sp. nov., from a human dental abscess. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2003 Sep. 53:1515-8. [QxMD MEDLINE Link] ...
Differences in MICs among Actinomyces species are known, with Actinomyces europaeus and Actinomyces turicensis being the most ... Actinomyces. Kliegman RM, St Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 21st ed. ... Actinomyces species are in general susceptible to penicillin and other beta-lactam antibiotics, as well as to most agents used ... Actinomyces and related organisms in human infections. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2015 Apr. 28 (2):419-42. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
Characterization of **Actinomyces turicensis** and **Actinomyces radingae** strains from human clinical samples ...
Actinomyces neuii. 1. 1. 0. Dermabacter hominis. 1. 0. 1. Kocuria rhizophila. 1. 1. 0. ...
keywords = "16S rDNA, Actinomyces, Oral, PCR-RFLP",. author = "Takuichi Sato and Junko Matsuyama and Nobuhiro Takahashi and ... Sato, T, Matsuyama, J, Takahashi, N, Sato, M, Johnson, J, Schachtele, C & Hoshino, E 1998, Differentiation of oral Actinomyces ... Differentiation of oral Actinomyces species by 16S ribosomal DNA polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length ... Thus, 16S rDNA PCR-RFLP, using MnlI, is a rapid and reliable method for the differentiation of oral Actinomyces spp. ...
Other bacteria/actinomyces. Microbacterium spp. Tsukamurella spp. Rhodococcus equi, Rhodococcus spp. Gordonae spp ...
Actinomyces israelii. Botulism (adjunctive therapy to antitoxin), gas gangrene, and tetanus (adjunctive therapy to human ... Actinomyces species, Spirillum minus , Streptobacillus moniliformis, Listeria monocytogenes and Leptospira spp.; Treponema ...
  • Die Gattung Actinomyces umfasst derzeit 49 Arten, von denen 26 Arten bei klinischen Infektionen des Menschen eine Rolle spielen und 4 Arten von besonderer klinischer Bedeutung sind: A. israelii, A. gerencseriae, A. meyeri und A. odontolyticus [1]. (meintrup-dws.de)
  • Wenn Sie mehr über Actinomyces israelii und andere klinisch relevante grampositive Anaerobier erfahren möchten, klicken Sie hier, um unseren Leitfaden "Einführung in die klinische anaerobe Bakteriologie" zu lesen. (meintrup-dws.de)
  • Actinomyces israelii is a species of Gram-positive , rod-shaped bacteria within the genus Actinomyces . (mdwiki.org)
  • Actinomyces israelii , or just A. israelii, is a gram-positive rod-shaped bacteria that causes a human infection called actinomycosis. (osmosis.org)
  • Calling this bug actinomyces implies that it's morphologically similar to fungus, because both form microscopic branching filaments (or mycelium), while the word Israelii comes from James Adolf Israel, the German surgeon who first described it. (osmosis.org)
  • Actinomyces israelii is a type of bacteria that typically inhabits the mouth, skin, and gastrointestinal tract . (osmosis.org)
  • A. israelii, A. gerencseriae, A. naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2, A. odontolyticus, A. meyeri and A. georgiae, and 23 Actinomyces strains isolated from human dental plaque. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Actinomycosis is usually caused by the bacterium called Actinomyces israelii . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Актиномікоз Actinomycosis is a chronic localized or hematogenous anaerobic infection caused by Actinomyces israelii and other species of Actinomyces . (msdmanuals.com)
  • [ 2 ] The most frequently encountered species is Actinomyces israelii . (medscape.com)
  • Actinomyces species are facultatively anaerobic and they grow best under anaerobic conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Actinomyces species may form endospores, and while individual bacteria are rod-shaped, Actinomyces colonies form fungus-like branched networks of hyphae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Actinomyces species are ubiquitous, occurring in soil and in the microbiota of animals, including the human microbiota. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like various other anaerobes, Actinomyces species are fastidious, thus not easy to culture and isolate. (wikipedia.org)
  • This clade is also strongly supported by a conserved signature indel consisting of a three-amino-acid insertion in isoleucine tRNA synthetase found only in the species of the genera Actinomyces and Mobiluncus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many Actinomyces species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and other mammals, particularly in the oral cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Actinomyces species have also been shown to infect the central nervous system in a dog "without history or evidence of previous trauma or other organ involvement. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus Actinomyces comprises the following species: "A. actinomycetemcomitans" Iinuma et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Actinomyces species are in general susceptible to penicillin and other beta-lactam antibiotics, as well as to most agents used to treat infections by gram-positive anaerobic rods. (medscape.com)
  • Differences in MICs among Actinomyces species are known, with Actinomyces europaeus and Actinomyces turicensis being the most resistant. (medscape.com)
  • Actinomyces naeslundii are bacterium found in human mouths, which has been implicated in periodontal disease, and cavities. (ergopathics.ca)
  • and Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC#49340. (cdc.gov)
  • In 1877, Bollinger and Harz ( 3 ) named the genus Actinomyces when they described the etiologic agent of bovine actinomycosis ("lumpy jaw") and called it Actinomyces bovis . (cdc.gov)
  • We describe two immunosuppressed female patients with fever and Actinomyces odontolyticus bacteremia, a combination documented once previously in an immunocompetent male patient. (cdc.gov)
  • Cone LA, Leung MM, Hirschberg J. Actinomyces odontolyticus bacteremia. (medscape.com)
  • Actinomyces is a genus of the Actinomycetia class of bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogenetic trees based on 16S ribosomal RNA (16SrRNA) sequences have shown that the genus Actinomyces is quite diverse, exhibiting polyphyletic branching into several clusters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Actinomyces are a genus of anaerobic bacteria that inhabit the oral cavity and cause infections in humans. (relationshipbetween.com)
  • Actinomyces are a genus of bacteria that are anaerobic, Gram-positive and form branching filaments. (relationshipbetween.com)
  • Actinomyces are a genus of actinomycetes, while actinomycetes are a larger group of bacteria. (relationshipbetween.com)
  • Actynomycosis is an uncommon infection caused by oral bacteria of the genus Actinomyces. (bvsalud.org)
  • Organism-specific therapeutic regimens for dental abscess are provided below, including those for Fusobacterium , Bacteroides , Prevotella , Peptostreptococcus , Streptococcus , and Actinomyces . (medscape.com)
  • Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Actinomyces viscosus . (positivehealth.com)
  • The main difference between actinomyces and actinomycetes is that actinomyces are pathogenic bacteria and actinomycetes are not. (relationshipbetween.com)
  • Actinomyces and actinomycetes are both bacteria, but there is an important difference between them. (relationshipbetween.com)
  • Actinomyces are unicellular, rod-shaped bacteria, while actinomycetes are filamentous bacteria that form a complex network of cells. (relationshipbetween.com)
  • Actinomycetes are a group of bacteria that includes actinomyces. (relationshipbetween.com)
  • Eine andere Forschungsgruppe untersuchte kürzlich die Zytotoxizität von Silbernanopartikeln (AgNPs) gegen Actinomyces viscosus, indem sie ein Experiment zur minimalen Hemmkonzentration (MHK) unter Verwendung der Brühe-Mikrodilutionsmethode durchführte [6]. (meintrup-dws.de)
  • Actinomyces europaeus (Gleimia europaea) associated with brain abscess: A report of three cases]. (bvsalud.org)
  • Actinomyces europaeus (Gleimia europaea) asociado con absceso cerebral: comunicación de tres casos. (bvsalud.org)
  • We report here three cases of patients with otogenic brain abscesses of polymicrobial origin that had in common the isolation of Actinomyces europaeus, which has not been previously described in this location . (bvsalud.org)
  • En annan Gram-positiv bakterie som är en av de första kolonisatörerna av tandytan är Actinomyces oris. (umu.se)
  • A. oris är dessutom en flitig användare av disulfidbindingar, vilket streptokocker inte är. (umu.se)
  • A case of bovine fetal abortion due to Actinomyces pyogenes in a dairy herd of Cieneguilla valley of Lima, Peru is reported. (edu.pe)
  • Lämmler C, Hartwigk H (1995) Actinomyces pyogenes und Arcanobacterium haemolyticum . (springer.com)
  • Therefore, the main difference between actinomyces and actinomycetes is their aerobic or anaerobic nature, Gram-positive or Gram-negative characteristics, and filament or branching filament formation. (relationshipbetween.com)
  • The filamentous bacterium actinomyces can cause serious gynaecological tract infections, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and tubo-ovarian abscess. (bmj.com)
  • They stain negatively with a modified acid fast bacillus (AFB) stain, aiding in the distinction of actinomyces from nocardia. (bmj.com)
  • Actinomyces graevenitzii is one of 4,565 microbes we look for in our microbiome test. (unseenbio.com)
  • The aspect of these colonies initially led to the incorrect assumption that the organism was a fungus and to the name Actinomyces, "ray fungus" (from Greek actis, ray or beam, and mykes, fungus). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Actinomyces is an element of normal oral flora, infections of the facial skin are very rare because of the entirely endogenous habitation of the organism. (medscape.com)
  • Microbiological and Clinical Aspects of Cervicofacial Actinomyces Infections: An Overview. (meintrup-dws.de)
  • Actinomyces are known to be involved in numerous human health problems, from skin infections to dental diseases. (relationshipbetween.com)
  • 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to generate restriction profiles of the reference strains, including the American Type Culture Collection type strains, of oral Actinomyces spp. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Additionally, actinomyces have a greater ability to produce antibiotics than other actinomycetes. (relationshipbetween.com)
  • Actinomyces are mainly associated with negative health conditions, while actinomycetes are beneficial in their production of antibiotics and their role in nutrient cycling. (relationshipbetween.com)
  • Thus, 16S rDNA PCR-RFLP, using MnlI, is a rapid and reliable method for the differentiation of oral Actinomyces spp. (elsevierpure.com)
  • 2022) durchgeführten Studie wurde festgestellt, dass Actinomyces spp. (meintrup-dws.de)
  • Actinomycetes are beneficial to the environment, whereas actinomyces can cause infection in humans. (relationshipbetween.com)
  • Actinomyces, on the other hand, are a specific type of actinomycete that are usually found in the mouth, throat, and other mucous membranes. (relationshipbetween.com)
  • In conclusion, while both actinomyces and actinomycetes play an important role in human health, their roles are distinct. (relationshipbetween.com)
  • The genera Actinomyces and Mobiluncus form a monophyletic clade in a phylogenetic tree constructed using RpoB, RpoC, and DNA gyrase B protein sequences. (wikipedia.org)